Gefvert, Ola; Eriksson, Bo; Persson, Per; Helldin, Lars; Björner, Annika; Mannaert, Erik; Remmerie, Bart; Eerdekens, Mariëlle; Nyberg, Svante
Thirteen patients with schizophrenia received injections of 25, 50, or 75 mg of long-acting risperidone every 2 wk. Brain D2 receptor occupancy was assessed with [11C]raclopride 2 wk after the last (fifth) injection (day 71) in seven subjects and 2 wk after the third injection (day 44) in one subject. Stable plasma concentrations were reached after the third injection and steady-state concentrations of the active moiety (risperidone + 9-hydroxyrisperidone) after the fourth injection. Steady-state plasma concentrations were maintained for 4-5 wk after the last injection and then declined rapidly. After injections of 25, 50 and 75 mg on day 44 or day 71, D2 receptor occupancy ranged from 25-48%, 59-83% and 62-72% respectively, while plasma active-moiety levels ranged from 4.4-8.8, 15.0-31.1 and 22.5-26.3 ng/ml respectively. The results indicate that brain D2 receptor occupancy at steady state after injections of long-acting risperidone was in the range found in patients effectively treated with 2-6 mg of oral risperidone.
Bobo, William V; Shelton, Richard C
Poor adherence to pharmacotherapy during maintenance-phase treatment of bipolar disorder is a common occurrence, exposing patients to a high risk of illness relapses, rehospitalization and other negative outcomes. In view of this, there has been a reawakening of interest in the potential of long-acting injectable antipsychotic medications to improve treatment outcome during bipolar maintenance therapy. Indeed, long-acting injectable medications have practical advantages of assuring delivery of medication at a prescribed dose, and perhaps also making it easier to monitor adherence, at least to the long-acting drug. However, there are important limitations to the long-term use of depot typical neuroleptics in patients with bipolar disorder, including risk of extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia, which may exceed that of patients with schizophrenia, and the potential for treatment-emergent exacerbation of depressive symptoms. Long-acting injectable risperidone (RLAI) has recently been approved for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar I disorder. Evidence supporting the use of RLAI for this indication consists of several nonrandomized, open-label studies; one randomized, open-label trial; and two adequately powered randomized, double-blind trials. In general, these studies have shown RLAI to be effective for the prevention of relapse or hospitalization during bipolar maintenance treatment. In the double-blind studies, RLAI was associated with reduced relapse rates, increased time to relapse and greater control of clinical symptoms during maintenance treatment following initial stabilization, compared with oral medication treatment or placebo injection. RLAI appeared to be more effective for preventing manic/mixed episodes than depressive episodes. RLAI showed good tolerability across studies; however, dose-related extrapyramidal effects, sedation, weight gain and prolactin elevation may occur during long-term treatment. Responder
Eerdekens, Mariëlle; Van Hove, Ilse; Remmerie, Bart; Mannaert, Erik
The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta) were evaluated in a multicenter, prospective, open-label, 15-week study of 86 patients with schizophrenia. Subjects stabilized on 2, 4 or 6 mg of oral risperidone once daily for at least 4 weeks were assigned to receive i.m. injections of 25, 50 or 75 mg of risperidone, respectively, every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. The 90% confidence intervals for the i.m./oral ratios of the mean steady-state plasma-AUC, corrected for dosing interval, and of the average plasma concentration of the active moiety (risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were within the range of 80-125%, indicating bioequivalence of the i.m. and oral formulations. However, mean steady-state peak concentrations of the active moiety were 25-32% lower with i.m. than oral dosing (P < 0.05) and fluctuations in plasma active-moiety levels were 32-42% lower with the i.m. than oral regimen. Symptoms of schizophrenia continued to improve after switching from oral to i.m. dosing. Long-acting risperidone was well tolerated locally and systematically. Although overall bioequivalence of the two formulations was established, the differences in pharmacokinetic profiles between the two formulations indicate potential benefits for long-acting risperidone.
Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Jarboe, Kathleen; Bossie, Cynthia A; Zhu, Young; Mehnert, Angelika; Lasser, Robert
Long-acting injectable antipsychotic formulations of conventional antipsychotics were developed to address the problem of partial adherence among patients with schizophrenia. Injection site pain, other skin reactions and patient satisfaction with treatment were assessed in two large, multicentre studies of long-acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal CONSTA, Janssen Pharmaceutica Products, Titusville, New Jersey, USA), the first available long-acting atypical antipsychotic agent. Patients rated injection site pain using a 100-mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and investigators rated injection site pain, redness, swelling and induration. Patient satisfaction with treatment was assessed with the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI). VAS pain ratings were low at all visits across all doses in both studies, and decreased from first to final injection. In the 12-week, double-blind study, mean +/- SD VAS scores at the first and final injections were 15.6 +/- 20.7 and 12.5 +/- 18.3 for placebo-treated patients, and 11.8 +/- 14.4 (first) and 10.0 +/- 12.4 (final) for 25 mg; 16.3+/-21.9 (first) and 13.6 +/- 21.7 (final) for 50 mg; and 16.0 +/- 17.9 (first) and 9.6 +/- 16.0 (final, P<0.01) for 75 mg of long-acting risperidone. Mean VAS scores in the 50-week, open-label study at the first and final injection were: 17.9 +/- 22.2 (first) and 9.5 +/- 16.7 (final, P<0.0001) for 25 mg; 18.1 +/- 19.7 (first) and 10.4 +/- 14.8 (final, P<0.0001) for 50 mg; and 18.5 +/- 21.6 (first) and 13.6 +/- 19.9 (final, P = 0.0001) for 75 mg of long-acting risperidone. Overall, there was no or minimal injection site pain and skin reactions were rare. Mean DAI ratings were available for the 50-week study and indicated high patient satisfaction throughout the trial (baseline = 7.30; endpoint = 7.70; P<0.0001 versus baseline). These findings may positively affect patient and clinician attitudes towards long-term therapy with long-acting injectable risperidone.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder, usually necessitating lifelong treatment. Although atypical antipsychotic agents have improved outcomes in schizophrenia, their clinical potential remains limited by patients' nonadherence to medication. Long-acting antipsychotics were developed in the 1960s to enhance treatment adherence and simplify the medication process. However, although conventional long-acting agents assure medication delivery, they are associated with similar side effects to their oral equivalents. The need for an agent combining the advantages of a long-acting formulation with those of an atypical antipsychotic was highlighted in 1997 by the American Psychiatric Association's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia. The first long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta, Johnson & Johnson), has since been developed. This article discusses the efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, and suggests possibilities for how its role in clinical practice may change over the next 5 years.
Wu, Chi-Shin; Hsieh, Ming H; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Chang, Ching-Jui
The aim of this study was to compare the treatment effectiveness between long-acting injectable risperidone and long-acting injectable first-generation antipsychotics among patients with bipolar disorder. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with bipolar disorder aged 15 years or higher, who were newly administered long-acting injectable antipsychotics between June 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011 were included. The clinical outcome indexes were hospitalization for any mood, manic/mixed, or depressive episodes. In addition, the all-cause discontinuation of long-acting injectable antipsychotic treatment was also assessed. A total of 3916 patients with bipolar disorder were extracted. Compared with risperidone, the use of first-generation antipsychotics was associated with a higher rate of hospitalization for any mood episode and major depressive episode. However, there was no statistically significant difference in treatment discontinuation rate between risperidone and first-generation antipsychotics. Information for the severity of mood symptoms, social support, life style, neurological and metabolic adverse effect was not available in this database. In addition, we only measured severe mood episodes with hospitalization as our outcome index. It may not be possible to generalize our findings to mild mood episodes. Our findings suggested that patients treated with long-acting injectable risperidone might be superior to first-generation antipsychotics in the rate of psychiatric hospitalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Docherty, John P; Jones, Robert; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Lasser, Robert A; Kujawa, Mary
We evaluated the usefulness of a treatment manual to facilitate the use of long-acting injectable risperidone in community mental health centers (CMHCs) during an open-label observational study. Perceived clinical utility and clinician adherence to the manual were evaluated. Patient adherence to treatment satisfaction, Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) and the Schizophrenia Quality-of-Life Scale (SQLS) were assessed. Mean score for overall utility of the guidebook was 4.2 +/- .6 (scale ratings ranged from 1 = not at all to 5 = extremely). Most clinicians (89-100%) found the guidebook useful, and were adherent to key aspects of appropriate treatment use including concomitant oral risperidone use and injection and dosing parameters for long-acting risperidone. Most patients were adherent to treatment (86.7%), preferred long-acting risperidone over oral risperidone (72.6%) or other oral antipsychotics (78.4%) and were satisfied with long-acting risperidone (90.1%). The open-label observational design limits interpretation of these data. However, in this study manual-supported use of long-acting risperidone was associated with successful implementation of this pharmacologic treatment in the CMHC setting.
Schoretsanitis, Georgios; Spina, Edoardo; Hiemke, Christoph; de Leon, Jose
This systematic review of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) identifies three long-acting injectable (LAI) risperidone formulations. Areas covered: Limited data is available on two formulations (RBP-7000 and in Situ Microparticle), but 20 TDM articles on the microsphere formulation were found. Risperidone TDM includes the serum concentrations of risperidone and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, used for calculating: 1) the risperidone/9-hydroxyrisperidone (R/9-OH-R) ratio (a measure of CYP2D6; values >1 are indicative of a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer) and 2) the total risperidone concentration-to-dose (C/D) ratio (a measure of risperidone clearance with a normal value around 7 in oral risperidone). The weighted mean R/9-OH-R ratio was 0.48 (approximately twice that of oral risperidone TDM) in a combined analysis from 329 patients in 6 risperidone LAI studies without major confounders. The total C/D ratios from 297 patients in 6 risperidone LAI studies ranged from 7.4 to 9.7 ng/ml/mg/day with a weighted mean of 8.8 ng/ml/mg/day. Expert commentary: Clinicians using TDM for risperidone LAI microsphere formulation need to: 1) consider steady state to be reached ≥ 6 weeks after the first injection, 2) pay attention to a) co-medications with inducers/inhibitors, b) severe inflammations/infections, and c) hepatic/renal impairment, and 3) use Castberg's recommendation to calculate risperidone dosing.
Turner, Martin; Eerdekens, Els; Jacko, Mary; Eerdekens, Mariëlle
Long-acting injectable risperidone was assessed in schizophrenia patients who were symptomatically stable on conventional depot antipsychotics and who were then switched to long-acting risperidone. Participants in this open-label, multicentre, 12-week trial had received flupenthixol decanoate, fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, or zuclopenthixol decanoate for 4 months or longer. Each was considered symptomatically stable by investigators. After receiving two cycles of their conventional depot antipsychotic during the run-in period, patients were switched to receive long-acting risperidone every 2 weeks for 12 weeks at an initial dose of 25 mg. This dose could be increased in 12.5-mg increments at 4-week intervals. Ninety-two percent of the patients received all six injections; 62% received the 25-mg dose throughout the treatment period. Adverse events related to movement disorders were reported in 3%. Severity of movement disorders decreased during long-acting risperidone treatment. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and factor scores and scores on the Clinical Global Impressions severity scale were significantly reduced during treatment; 48% of these stable patients showed further symptom improvement (> or =20% decrease in PANSS score at endpoint). The results indicate that patients with schizophrenia who are symptomatically stable during treatment with a conventional depot antipsychotic can be safely and effectively switched to long-acting injectable risperidone without a prior transition to oral risperidone.
Louzã, Mário Rodrigues; Elkis, Helio; Ruschel, Sandra; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Grabowski, Hamilton; Appolinário, José Carlos
Background: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics may improve medication adherence, thereby improving overall treatment effectiveness. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of risperidone long-acting injection in schizophrenic patients switched from oral antipsychotic medication. Methods: In a 12-month, multicenter, open-label, noncomparative study, symptomatically stable patients on oral antipsychotic medication with poor treatment adherence during the previous 12 months received intramuscular injections of risperidone long-acting injection (25 mg starting dose) every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. Results: Of the 60 patients who were screened, 53 received at least one injection (safety population), and 51 provided at least one postbaseline assessment. Mean PANSS total scores improved significantly throughout the study and at endpoint. Significant improvements were also observed in Clinical Global Impression of Severity, Personal and Social Performance, and Drug Attitude Inventory scales. Risperidone long-acting injection was safe and well-tolerated. Severity of movement disorders on the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale was reduced significantly. The most frequently reported adverse events were insomnia (22.6%), increased prolactin (17.0%), and weight gain (13.2%). Conclusion: Risperidone long-acting injection was associated with significant symptomatic improvements in stable patients with schizophrenia following a switch from previous antipsychotic medications. PMID:21822391
Meltzer, H Y; Lindenmayer, J-P; Kwentus, J; Share, D B; Johnson, R; Jayathilake, K
It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotic drugs (A-APDs) other than clozapine may be effective to improve positive symptoms in some patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), if both the dose is higher, and the duration of the trial longer, than those which have been ineffective in non-TRS (NTRS) patients. This hypothesis was tested with long acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta®, RLAI). One hundred sixty TRS patients selected for persistent moderate-severe delusions or hallucinations, or both, were randomized to RLAI, 50 or 100mg biweekly, in a six month, outpatient, double-blind, multicenter trial. We hypothesized that RLAI, 100mg, would be more effective than RLAI, 50mg. However, both doses produced clinically significant and equivalent improvement in PANSS Total, Positive, and Negative subscale scores, as well as key cognitive, global and functional measures, with increasing response during the course of the study, confirming the value of longer clinical trial duration for patients with TRS, but not superiority of the higher dose. The overall response rate was comparable to that previously reported for clozapine and high dose olanzapine, another A-APD, in TRS. Both doses of RLAI were equally well tolerated, producing minimal extrapyramidal side effects and few drop outs. Plasma levels of the active moiety, risperidone+9-hydroxyrisperidone, during treatment with RLAI 100mg, were comparable to those for 6-8 mg/day oral risperidone, which have not been effective in TRS. Further study of RLAI, ≥ 50-100mg biweekly, should compare it with clozapine and oral risperidone in TRS, with duration of treatment ≥ six months.
Quiroz, Jorge A.; Rusch, Sarah; Thyssen, An; Kushner, Stuart
Background Risperidone long-acting injectable was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as biweekly injections in the gluteal muscle only. We present data on local injection-site tolerability and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable and comparability of systemic exposure of deltoid versus gluteal injections. Methods Risperidone long-acting injectable was administered in an open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study, with patients randomized to receive either 25mg gluteal/37.5mg deltoid crossover in two treatment periods or 50mg gluteal/50mg deltoid injections crossover; each treatment period was separated by an 85-day observation period (Study 1) and an open-label, multiple-dose study (4 sequential 37.5mg or 50mg deltoid injections every 2 weeks) (Study 2). The pharmacokinetic results from both the studies have already been published. Results In Study 1 (n=170), the majority of patients had no local injection-site findings, based on investigator and patient-rated evaluations. In Study 2 (n=53), seven of the 51 patients who received at least two deltoid injections discontinued (primary endpoint). However, none of the discontinuations were due to injection-site related reasons. The 90-percent upper confidence limit of the true proportion of injection-site issue withdrawals was 5.7 percent. No moderate or severe injection-site reactions were reported. Conclusion Intramuscular injections via the deltoid and gluteal sites are equivalent routes of administration of risperidone long-acting injectable with respect to local injection-site tolerability. The overall safety and tolerability profile of risperidone long-acting injectable was comparable when administered as an intramuscular injection in the deltoid (37.5mg and 50mg) and gluteal (25mg and 50mg) sites. PMID:21779538
Quiroz, Jorge A; Rusch, Sarah; Thyssen, An; Palumbo, Joseph M; Kushner, Stuart
Risperidone long-acting injectable was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as biweekly injections in the gluteal muscle only. We present data on local injection-site tolerability and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable and comparability of systemic exposure of deltoid versus gluteal injections. Risperidone long-acting injectable was administered in an open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study, with patients randomized to receive either 25mg gluteal/37.5mg deltoid crossover in two treatment periods or 50mg gluteal/50mg deltoid injections crossover; each treatment period was separated by an 85-day observation period (Study 1) and an open-label, multiple-dose study (4 sequential 37.5mg or 50mg deltoid injections every 2 weeks) (Study 2). The pharmacokinetic results from both the studies have already been published. In Study 1 (n=170), the majority of patients had no local injection-site findings, based on investigator and patient-rated evaluations. In Study 2 (n=53), seven of the 51 patients who received at least two deltoid injections discontinued (primary endpoint). However, none of the discontinuations were due to injection-site related reasons. The 90-percent upper confidence limit of the true proportion of injection-site issue withdrawals was 5.7 percent. No moderate or severe injection-site reactions were reported. Intramuscular injections via the deltoid and gluteal sites are equivalent routes of administration of risperidone long-acting injectable with respect to local injection-site tolerability. The overall safety and tolerability profile of risperidone long-acting injectable was comparable when administered as an intramuscular injection in the deltoid (37.5mg and 50mg) and gluteal (25mg and 50mg) sites.
Quiroz, Jorge A; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Palumbo, Joseph M; Karcher, Keith; Kushner, Stuart; Kusumakar, Vivek
Treatment adherence is a significant problem in patients with bipolar disorder. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of risperidone long-acting injectable (LAI) in the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. Eligible patients with current or recent manic or mixed episodes (n = 559, aged 18-65 years) were treated with open-label oral risperidone for 3 weeks (period II) and open-label risperidone LAI for 26 weeks (n = 501; period III). Patients who maintained response (n = 303) were randomly allocated 1:1 to placebo injections (n = 149) or to continue risperidone LAI (n = 154) for up to 24 months (period IV). Most (77%) patients on risperidone LAI received a dose of 25 mg every 2 weeks during period IV. Time to recurrence for any mood episode (primary outcome variable) was significantly longer in the risperidone LAI group versus placebo (p < .001); the difference was significant for time to recurrence of elevated-mood episode (p < .001) but not time to recurrence of depressive episode (p = .805). Weight gains > or = 7% (compared with the period's baseline) occurred in 15% of patients in period III; in 12% of patients on risperidone LAI and 3% of patients on placebo in period IV. Risperidone LAI monotherapy significantly delayed the time to recurrence of mood episodes, versus placebo, in this controlled, randomized study in patients with bipolar I disorder. Risperidone LAI was tolerable and no new safety concerns emerged compared with previous studies of risperidone LAI. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Yueren; Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao; Ikeda, Manabu
A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set), an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy). Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8%) were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4%) relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031), BPRS positive (P = 0.0451), BRPS negative (P < 0.0001), and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031), and GAF (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients.
Zhao, Yueren; Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao; Ikeda, Manabu
A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set), an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy). Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8%) were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4%) relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031), BPRS positive (P = 0.0451), BRPS negative (P < 0.0001), and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031), and GAF (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients. PMID:24194642
Background Risperidone long-acting injection (LAI) is mostly administered twice weekly to people with schizophrenia by nurses at community mental health centres (CMHC) or through mobile outreach visits. This study estimates the cost of resource utilisation associated with the administration of risperidone LAI and the potential savings from substituting two-weekly injections with a longer interval product of therapeutic equivalence. Methods A survey of mental health staff overseeing the administration of risperidone LAI at 253 distinct Australian CMHCs was undertaken in November 2009. For the two-week period prior to the survey, respondents were asked questions on injection time (and related tasks) and, for mobile outreach visits, distance and time travelled as well as reduction in visits. Results were stratified by Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) region. Resource use was quantified and valued in Australian dollars. Results Results are derived from 74 CMHCs, representing approximately 26% of the national average risperidone LAI unit two-week sales. Stratified average injection time (including related tasks) for risperidone LAI ranged from 18-29 minutes, with a national average of 20.12 minutes. For mobile outreach visits, average distance per patient ranged from 19.4 to 55.5 km for One Staff Visits and 15.2 to 218.1 km for More Than One Staff Visits, and average time travelled ranged from 34.1 to 54.5 minutes for One Staff Visits and 29.2 to 136.3 minutes for More Than One Staff visits. The upper range consistently reflected greater resource utilisation in rural areas compared to urban areas. If administration of risperidone LAI had not been required, 20% fewer mobile outreach visits would have occurred. Conclusions The national average saving per two-weekly risperidone long-acting injection avoided is $75.14. In 2009 in Australia, this would have saved ~$11 million for injection administration costs alone if all patients taking two
Tutkunkardaş, Mustafa Deniz; Abali, Osman
Adolescent conduct disorder (CD) is generally hard to manage clinically, as this population often refuses to take oral medications. Families and acquaintances of these adolescents usually suffer from extreme psychological, financial and social difficulties. Oral antipsychotics are the primary drugs of choice clinically, after behavioral treatments. Here we report a case with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder who refuses to take any medications, was not eligible for behavioral treatments and was treated successfully with long acting risperidone.
Serata, Daniele; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios Demetrios; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Janiri, Delfina; Massolo, Anna Claudia; Ferri, Vittoria Rachele; Criscuolo, Silvia; Callovini, Gemma; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo; Del Casale, Antonio
A patient with comorbid intellectual disability, catatonic schizophrenia, and recurrent oneiroid state of consciousness improved on long-acting risperidone and remains well at the three-year follow-up. We report a case treated with 50 mg long-acting risperidone administered every 14 days, who has been followed-up for three years. We studied his regional cerebral blood flow through technetium-99 m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography after two years of treatment. Symptoms of catatonic schizophrenia improved after two months of treatment, followed suit by oneiroid syndrome remission. Two years later, his brain perfusion was normal. No side effect has occurred since the patient was started on long-acting risperidone. Long-acting risperidone proved to be safe and effective in treating symptoms of catatonia and oneiroid syndrome. © The Author(s) 2015.
Watanabe, Takafumi; Yamada, Atsurou
Background Risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) is increasingly being switched to paliperidone palmitate (PP) because of several benefits. However, this switching is not always successful. Methods We examined patient profiles following discontinuation of PP after switching from RLAI. We collected the electronic records of 24 patients with schizophrenia who had switched from RLAI to PP treatment at our hospital between November 2013 and March 2014. Twelve patients continued PP injection for over 1 year (PP-continuers), the other 12 patients discontinued within 1 year (PP-discontinuers), and both groups were followed up until December 31, 2014. Results PP-discontinuers had significantly shorter RLAI-administration period (mean 73.1 ± 59.0 weeks versus 148.5 ± 75.0 weeks), and lower chlorpromazine (CP) equivalent mean doses (mean 553.5 ± 251.0 mg versus 1002.5 ± 529.3 mg) compared with PP-continuers. The CP equivalent mean dose of PP-discontinuers had increased at the time of discontinuation and their social status became significantly worse. Six PP-discontinuers (50%) re-switched to RLAI, and their social status was not significantly worse at the end of the observation period. Conclusions On switching from RLAI to PP, we need to consider that some patients have had a shorter RLAI-administration period and may require lower amounts of antipsychotics. PMID:27738379
KARAKOÇ DEMİRKAYA, Sevcan; ZOROĞLU, Süleyman Salih
Early-onset bipolar disorder is difficult for child psychiatrists in terms of both diagnosis and treatment. The proper diagnostic evaluation is negatively impacted by the atypical clinical manifestation and rapid cycling pattern of the disease, together with common comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder. In addition to poor insight, nonadherence to treatment, poor family coping skills, and insufficient child psychiatric inpatient units make clinicians unsuccessful in following up and treating such patients. Risperidone is a commonly used atypical antipsychotic it has been approved for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder even in 10–17-year-old patients, and it is commonly used. It has a long-acting injectable formulation. Studies on its long-acting form in younger children are limited. In this case presentation, the diagnostic procedure in an 11-year old child with bipolar disorder will be presented. Long-acting injectable risperidone use in the case of nonadherence to treatment and observed side effects will be discussed. PMID:28360814
Karakoç Demirkaya, Sevcan; Zoroğlu, Süleyman Salih
Early-onset bipolar disorder is difficult for child psychiatrists in terms of both diagnosis and treatment. The proper diagnostic evaluation is negatively impacted by the atypical clinical manifestation and rapid cycling pattern of the disease, together with common comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder. In addition to poor insight, nonadherence to treatment, poor family coping skills, and insufficient child psychiatric inpatient units make clinicians unsuccessful in following up and treating such patients. Risperidone is a commonly used atypical antipsychotic it has been approved for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder even in 10-17-year-old patients, and it is commonly used. It has a long-acting injectable formulation. Studies on its long-acting form in younger children are limited. In this case presentation, the diagnostic procedure in an 11-year old child with bipolar disorder will be presented. Long-acting injectable risperidone use in the case of nonadherence to treatment and observed side effects will be discussed.
El-Hage, Wissam; Surguladze, Simon A
Bipolar disorder is a life-long psychiatric illness characterized by a high frequency of relapses and substantial societal costs. Almost half of the patients are prescribed second generation antipsychotics for treatment of manic states, or as the maintenance therapy. Risperidone long acting injection (RLAI) as a monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder was approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in United States in May 2009. In this review we will consider the aspects of pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, safety and tolerability, and clinical trials focusing on the efficacy of RLAI in bipolar disorder. The patients’ perspective and attitudes to long-acting injections will also be discussed. PMID:20856609
Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Casaus, Laurie R.; Ventura, Joseph; Luo, John S.; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Marder, Stephen; Nuechterlein, Keith H.
IMPORTANCE Long-acting, injectable, second-generation antipsychotic medication has tremendous potential to bring clinical stability to persons with schizophrenia. However, long-acting medications are rarely used following a first episode of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE To compare the clinical efficacy of the long-acting injectable formulation of risperidone with the oral formulation in the early course of schizophrenia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial performed at a university-based research clinic, between 2005 and 2012. Eighty-six patients with recent onset of schizophrenia were randomized to receive long-acting injectable risperidone or oral risperidone. Half of each group was simultaneously randomized to receive cognitive remediation to improve cognitive functioning or healthy-behaviors training to improve lifestyle habits and well-being. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed between October 4, 2012, and November 12, 2014. INTERVENTIONS A 12-month trial comparing the long-acting injectable vs oral risperidone and cognitive remediation vs healthy-behaviors training. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Psychotic relapse and control of breakthrough psychotic symptoms. RESULTS Of the 86 patients randomized, 3 refused treatment in the long-acting injectable risperidone group. The psychotic exacerbation and/or relapse rate was lower for the long-acting risperidone group compared with the oral group (5% vs 33%; χ21 = 11.1; P < .001; relative risk reduction, 84.7%). Long-acting injectable risperidone better controlled mean levels of hallucinations and delusions throughout follow-up (β = −0.30; t68 = −2.6, P = .01). The cognitive remediation and healthy-behaviors training groups did not differ significantly regarding psychotic relapse, psychotic symptom control, or hospitalization rates, and there were no significant interactions between the 2 medications and the 2 psychosocial treatments. Discontinuations owing to inadequate clinical response
Pandina, Gahan; Lane, Rosanne; Nuamah, Isaac; Remmerie, Bart; Coppola, Danielle; Hough, David
Objective: First-month data of a 13-week acute schizophrenia study were used to compare paliperidone palmitate to oral risperidone during initiation of long-acting injectable risperidone. Design: Double-blind, randomized study. Setting: Outpatient or inpatient. Participants: Adults with established (≥1 year) schizophrenia. Those assigned to risperidone long-acting injectable (n=460) received 25mg on Days 8 and 22 with oral risperidone (l–6mg) supplementation for the first 28 days. The paliperidone palmitate group (n=453) received 150mg eq. on Day 1, l00mg eq. on Day 8, and oral placebo supplementation for the first 28 days. Measurements: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Personal and Social Performance Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity score, and responder rate (percentage of patients with ≥30% reduction in PANSS total score). An analysis of covariance model estimated least-square mean differences between treatment groups. A post-hoc analysis of efficacy data for the period of interest, i.e., at the time points before and after the first 28 days, was conducted. Results: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Personal and Social Performance Scale, Clinical global Impression-Severity scores showed similar efficacy between the treatment groups during the first weeks of treatment, corresponding to the risperidone long-acting injection initiation period. Mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score at baseline was 84.7 for paliperidone palmitate and 84.4 for oral risperidone, on Day 22 was 73.6 and 74.1, respectively, and on Day 36 was 71.8 and 72.8, respectively. Overall incidence of adverse events in the first 28 days was generally similar (45% for paliperidone palmitate vs. 35% for oral risperidone), except for injection site pain (4.6% vs. 0.7%). Similar active moiety plasma concentrations were obtained during this period. Conclusion: During the first month, paliperidone palmitate without oral supplementation has similar efficacy and
Chen, Wen-Yin; Lin, Shih-Ku
We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the subjective experiences and clinical effects of first-generation long-acting injectable (FGA-LAI) antipsychotics with those of risperidone long-acting injectables (RIS-LAIs) in 434 schizophrenia patients. Compared with the RIS-LAI group, the patients treated with FGA-LAIs had a significantly longer duration of illness and LAI treatment and were older. Our results suggest that patients treated with FGA-LAI have more satisfactory subjective experiences compared with patients treated with RIS-LAI and that both FGA-LAI and RIS-LAI treatments can prevent relapses and hospitalization. Additional longitudinal studies determining the long-term benefits of RIS-LAI are warranted.
Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Montgomery, William S; McDonnell, David P; Coleman, Kristina A; Feldman, Peter D
Background Little is known about the comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in long-acting injection formulation. Due to the absence of head-to-head studies comparing olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection, this study was intended to make exploratory, indirect, cross-study comparisons between the long-acting formulations of these two atypical antipsychotics in their effectiveness in treating patients with schizophrenia. Methods Indirect, cross-study comparisons between olanzapine long-acting injection and risperidone long-acting injection used 12-month treatment-completion rates, because discontinuation of an antipsychotic for any cause is a recognized proxy measure of the medication’s effectiveness in treating schizophrenia. Following a systematic review of the literature, two indirect comparisons were conducted using open-label, single-cohort studies in which subjects were stabilized on an antipsychotic medication before depot initiation. The first analysis compared olanzapine long-acting injection (one study) with pooled data from nine identified risperidone long-acting injection studies. The second analysis was a “sensitivity analysis,” using only the most similar studies, one for olanzapine long-acting injection and one for risperidone long-acting injection, which shared near-identical study designs and involved study cohorts with near-identical patient characteristics. Pearson Chi-square tests assessed group differences on treatment-completion rates. Results Comparison of olanzapine long-acting injection data (931 patients) with the pooled data from the nine risperidone long-acting injection studies (3950 patients) provided almost identical 12-month treatment-completion rates (72.7% versus 72.4%; P = 0.87). When the two most similar studies were compared, the 12-month completion rate for olanzapine long-acting injection was significantly higher than for risperidone long-acting injection (81.3% versus 47
Paton, Carol; Adebowale, Olubunmi; Okocha, Chike I
Objective. It takes 6 weeks for plasma levels of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) to reach steady state, and randomised controlled trials demonstrate a flat dose-response curve. In clinical practice, the dose of RLAI is often increased rapidly at the start of treatment and many patients receive a dose above 25 mg/2 weeks. We sought to understand why and to use academic detailing as a catalyst for change. Method. (1) Semi-structured interview of and academic detailing visit to psychiatrists. (2) Number of pharmacy issues or each strength of RLAI issues before and after the academic detailing visit. Results. Understanding of the pharmacokinetics of RLAI and the flat dose-response curve were poor. After a single visit from an academic detailer, the proportion of 50-mg doses issued decreased from 44 to 31%. Conclusion. Academic detailing was effective in changing prescribing practice; patients are likely to benefit through receiving treatment that has a better risk-benefit ratio, and the healthcare organization is likely to benefit, in terms of more cost-effective prescribing.
Subotnik, Kenneth L; Casaus, Laurie R; Ventura, Joseph; Luo, John S; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Marder, Stephen; Nuechterlein, Keith H
Long-acting, injectable, second-generation antipsychotic medication has tremendous potential to bring clinical stability to persons with schizophrenia. However, long-acting medications are rarely used following a first episode of schizophrenia. To compare the clinical efficacy of the long-acting injectable formulation of risperidone with the oral formulation in the early course of schizophrenia. A randomized clinical trial performed at a university-based research clinic, between 2005 and 2012. Eighty-six patients with recent onset of schizophrenia were randomized to receive long-acting injectable risperidone or oral risperidone. Half of each group was simultaneously randomized to receive cognitive remediation to improve cognitive functioning or healthy-behaviors training to improve lifestyle habits and well-being. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed between October 4, 2012, and November 12, 2014. A 12-month trial comparing the long-acting injectable vs oral risperidone and cognitive remediation vs healthy-behaviors training. Psychotic relapse and control of breakthrough psychotic symptoms. Of the 86 patients randomized, 3 refused treatment in the long-acting injectable risperidone group. The psychotic exacerbation and/or relapse rate was lower for the long-acting risperidone group compared with the oral group (5% vs 33%; χ21 = 11.1; P < .001; relative risk reduction, 84.7%). Long-acting injectable risperidone better controlled mean levels of hallucinations and delusions throughout follow-up (β = -0.30; t68 = -2.6, P = .01). The cognitive remediation and healthy-behaviors training groups did not differ significantly regarding psychotic relapse, psychotic symptom control, or hospitalization rates, and there were no significant interactions between the 2 medications and the 2 psychosocial treatments. Discontinuations owing to inadequate clinical response were more common in the oral group than in the long-acting risperidone group (χ21 = 6.1; P = .01
Ersland, Kari M; Skrede, Silje; Røst, Therese H; Berge, Rolf K; Steen, Vidar M
Several antipsychotics have well-known adverse metabolic effects. Studies uncovering molecular mechanisms of such drugs in patients are challenging due to high dropout rates, previous use of antipsychotics and restricted availability of biological samples. Rat experiments, where previously unexposed animals are treated with antipsychotics, allow for direct comparison of different drugs, but have been hampered by the short half-life of antipsychotics in rodents. The use of long-acting formulations of antipsychotics could significantly increase the value of rodent models in the molecular characterization of therapeutic and adverse effects of these agents. However, as long-acting formulations have rarely been used in rodents, there is a need to characterize the basic metabolic phenotype of different antipsychotics. Using long-acting olanzapine injections as a positive control, the metabolic effects of intramuscular long-acting risperidone in female rats were investigated for the first time. Like olanzapine, risperidone induced rapid, significant hyperphagia and weight gain, with concomitant increase in several plasma lipid species. Both drugs also induced weight-independent upregulation of several genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis, but this activation was not confirmed at the protein level. Our findings shed light on the role of drug administration, drug dose and nutritional status in the development of rodent models for adverse metabolic effects of antipsychotic agents. © The Author(s) 2015.
Voss, Erica A; Ryan, Patrick B; Stang, Paul E; Hough, David; Alphs, Larry
This report examines relapse risk following a switch from risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) to another long-acting injectable antipsychotic [paliperidone palmitate (PP)] versus a switch to oral antipsychotics (APs). Truven Health's MarketScan Multistate Medicaid Database compared relapses following switches from RLAI. New user cohorts for these two groups were created on the basis of first incidence of exposure to the 'switched to' drug. Groups were balanced using 1:1 propensity score matching. Time-to-event analysis assessed schizophrenia-related hospital/emergency department visits. A total of 188 patients switched from RLAI to PP, and 131 patients switched from RLAI to oral AP. Propensity score-matched cohort included 109 patients who switched to PP and 109 patients who switched to an oral AP. Patients who switched from RLAI to PP had fewer events (26 vs. 32), longer time to an event (mean 70 vs. 47 days), and lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.92; P=0.024) compared with those who switched from RLAI to oral AP. Switching from RLAI to PP may be associated with a lower risk for relapse and longer duration of therapy compared with switching to oral AP. Given the limitations of observational studies, these results should be confirmed by other prospective evaluations.
Green, Alan I; Brunette, Mary F; Dawson, Ree; Buckley, Peter; Wallace, Amy E; Hafez, Hisham; Herz, Marvin; Narasimhan, Meera; Noordsy, Douglas L; O'Keefe, Christopher; Sommi, Roger W; Steinbook, Richard M; Weeks, Marjorie
Alcohol use disorders worsen the course of schizophrenia. Although the atypical antipsychotic clozapine appears to decrease alcohol use in schizophrenia, risperidone does not. We have proposed that risperidone's relatively potent dopamine D2 receptor blockade may partly underlie its lack of effect on alcohol use. Since long-acting injectable (LAI) risperidone both results in lower average steady-state plasma concentrations than oral risperidone (with lower D2 receptor occupancy) and encourages adherence, it may be more likely to decrease heavy alcohol use (days per week of drinking 5 or more drinks per day) than oral risperidone. Ninety-five patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of schizophrenia and alcohol use disorder were randomized to 6 months of oral or LAI risperidone between 2005 and 2008. Explanatory (efficacy) analyses were carried out to evaluate the potential benefits of LAI under suitably controlled conditions (in contrast to real-world settings), with intent-to-treat analyses being secondary. Explanatory analyses showed that heavy drinking in the oral group worsened over time (P = .024) and that there was a statistical trend toward significance in the difference between the changes in heavy drinking days in the oral and LAI groups (P = .054). Furthermore, the 2 groups differed in the mean number of drinking days per week (P = .035). The intent-to-treat analyses showed no difference in heavy drinking but did show a difference in average drinking days per week similar to that obtained from the explanatory analyses (P = .018). Neither explanatory nor intent-to-treat analyses showed any between-group differences in alcohol use as measured by intensity or the Alcohol Use Scale. The plasma concentrations of the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone were significantly lower in patients taking LAI (P < .05), despite their significantly (overall) better treatment adherence (P < .005). For the population considered here, schizophrenia patients with alcohol use
Chan, Hsue-Wei; Huang, Chin-Yu; Feng, Wen-Jui; Yen, Yung-Chieh
We wanted to present a picture of patients with schizophrenia receiving risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) treatment in a real-world setting. This was a retrospective cohort study; 379 patients with schizophrenia were enrolled and treated with different kinds of antipsychotic agents at E-Da Hospital, and received a 12-month follow up. The patients were distributed into three groups: the all-oral antipsychotic, oral risperidone and RLAI groups. The antipsychotic agents and dosages they used were recorded. The rate of rehospitalization, length of hospital stay, emergency room visits and medical expenditures were assessed. The RLAI group had a significantly higher rate of hospitalization before enrolment (the all-oral antipsychotic group was 32.1%, the oral risperidone group, 35.9%, and the RLAI group, 88.4%, P < 0.0001). After a 1-year follow up, all three groups were similar in rehospitalization rates (the all-oral antipsychotic group was 28.9%, the oral risperidone group, 30.1%, and the RLAI group, 30.2%, P > 0.999), length of hospital stay and number of emergency room visits during follow up. The most commonly used oral antipsychotics were risperidone (0.5-7 mg/day), quetiapine (65-1200 mg/day), and olanzapine (2-25 mg/day). Using RLAI reduces the severity of disease in more difficult patients. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Cordiner, Matthew; Shajahan, Polash; McAvoy, Sarah; Bashir, Muhammad; Taylor, Mark
Objectives: Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is common clinical practice. Theoretically, APP runs the risk of additional side effects, drug interactions, adherence and cost. A limited evidence base is emerging to support the effectiveness of APP in clinical practice. Our companion paper highlighted the extent of APP alongside commonly prescribed long-acting antipsychotic injections (LAIs). We aimed to examine the effects of APP on discontinuation rates and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) outcomes in patients commenced on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) and zuclopenthixol decanoate. Method: LAI-naïve patients commenced on RLAI (n = 102) and zuclopenthixol decanoate(n = 105) were identified using our electronic patient record (running from 2002) within NHS Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK. This was a retrospective, electronic case note review with an 18-month follow up. Patient groups were divided into those receiving the LAI as the sole antipsychotic and those who were receiving additional oral antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) for at least 50% of the duration of the treatment with their LAI. Kaplan–Meier statistics were calculated for discontinuation rates. CGI severity and improvement scores were retrospectively assigned by the investigating team. Results: Antipsychotic polypharmacy occurred with RLAI (37%) and zuclopenthixol decanoate (46%) and was associated with lower discontinuation rates (statistical significant with zuclopenthixol for any cause and adverse effects discontinuation). APP had no adverse outcomes on hospital admissions or CGI ratings. Patients on APP did not have more severe, chronic or treatment resistant illnesses. Conclusions: For RLAI and zuclopenthixol decanoate, APP had some favourable outcomes when examining discontinuation rates for any cause, and adverse effects. This was unexpected as we had considered APP would signal illness chronicity and severity and be associated with increased adverse effects resulting in early
Al-Hashel, Jasem Y; Ismail, Ismail Ibrahim; John, John K; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Ali, Mahmoud
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease characterized by muscle weakness due to autoantibodies affecting the neuromuscular junction. Co-occurrence of myasthenia gravis and schizophrenia is very rare and raises a challenge in management of both diseases. Antipsychotic drugs exhibit anticholinergic side effects and have the potentials of worsening myasthenia. Long-acting risperidone is an injectable atypical antipsychotic drug that has not been previously reported to worsen myasthenia gravis in literature. We report the first case report of worsening of myasthenia after receiving long-acting risperidone injection for schizophrenia in a 29-year-old female with both diseases. She started to have worsening 2 weeks following the first injection and her symptoms persisted despite receiving plasma exchange. This could be explained by the pharmacokinetics of the drug. We recommend that long-acting risperidone should be used with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis, and clinicians must be aware of the potential risks of this therapy.
Singh, Sourabh Moti; Haddad, Peter M.; Husain, Nusrat; Heaney, Eamonn; Tomenson, Barbara; Chaudhry, Imran B.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare patients’ attitudes and satisfaction with medication and patient-rated tolerability between those prescribed a first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injection (FGA-LAI) and those prescribed risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI). Method: A cross-sectional study of a representative sample of outpatients prescribed an FGA-LAI or RLAI for a minimum of 6 months and attending a depot clinic. Attitudes to medication were assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30), tolerability was measured by the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) and satisfaction with antipsychotic medication was assessed by the Satisfaction with Antipsychotic Medication (SWAM) scale. Results: The RLAI (n = 28) and FGA-LAI (n = 39) groups did not differ in terms of mean age, sex, diagnosis and ethnicity. All individual LAIs were prescribed within British National Formulary limits. The most commonly prescribed FGA-LAI was flupentixol decanoate (n = 22). There was no significant difference between the RLAI and FGA-LAI groups in terms of mean total scores on the DAI-30, LUNSERS and SWAM or the tolerability subscales of the LUNSERS or the two subscales (treatment acceptability and medication insight) of the SWAM. In both LAI groups there was a low level of side effects (LUNSERS) and a generally positive attitude (DAI-30) and reasonable satisfaction (SWAM) with medication. Conclusions: Patients treated with FGA-LAI and RLAI for at least 6 months did not differ in terms of patient-rated tolerability, attitudes and satisfaction with medication. The current design cannot determine whether differences would have been evident earlier on during treatment. These results should be regarded as preliminary and are subject to prescribing bias. Randomized studies avoid prescribing bias and are a superior way to compare specific LAIs. Ideally randomized studies should include patient-rated outcome measures including
Emsley, Robin; Medori, Rossella; Koen, Liezl; Oosthuizen, Petrus Paulus; Niehaus, Dana J H; Rabinowitz, Jonathan
Using a long-acting antipsychotic to improve adherence early in the illness may reduce relapse rates and promote sustained remission, thereby improving the long-term outcome of schizophrenia. We assessed whether risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) could be used safely and effectively in the treatment of recent-onset psychosis. Fifty patients aged 15 to 43 years with newly diagnosed schizophreniform disorder or schizophrenia were treated with RLAI 25 to 50 mg every 2 weeks for 2 years. Thirty-six patients (72%) completed the trial. Of 39 (78%) who showed a clinical response of 50%, 4 relapsed. Thirty-two patients (64%) achieved remission. Mean maximum increase in Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale total score was 1.4 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-2.10; n = 50); 10 patients required anticholinergic medication, and 1 subject developed persistent dyskinesia. Prolactin levels were elevated in 18 patients, 4 of whom reported possible prolactin-related adverse events. Mean increase in body mass index to last visit for all patients was 4.8 kg/m (SD, 3.8 kg/m). The final RLAI dose was 25 mg for 54% of patients, 37.5 mg for 30%, and 50 mg for 16%. This preliminary study suggests that RLAI was overall well tolerated and appears to be effective in recent-onset psychosis. Further investigation is warranted.
Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H.; Amar, Chetan P.; Raven, Erika P.; Detore, Nicole R.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Mintz, Jim; Ventura, Joseph; Casaus, Laurie R.; Luo, John S.; Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.
Context Imaging and post-mortem studies provide converging evidence that subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) have a dysregulated trajectory of frontal lobe myelination. Prior MRI studies suggested that early in treatment of SZ, antipsychotic medications initially increase frontal lobe white matter (WM) volume, which subsequently declines prematurely in chronic stages of the disease. Insofar as the trajectory of WM decline associated with chronic disease may be due to medication non-adherence, it may be modifiable by long acting injection (LAI) formulations. Objectives Examine the impact of antipsychotic formulation on the myelination trajectory during a randomized six-month trial of LAI risperidone (RLAI) versus oral risperidone (RisO) in first-episode SZ subjects. Design Two groups of SZ subjects (RLAI, N=11; and RisO, N=13) that were matched in pre-randomization oral medication exposure and 14 healthy controls (HCs) were prospectively examined. Frontal lobe WM volume was estimated using inversion recovery (IR) MRI images. A brief neuropsychological battery that focused on reaction times was performed at the end of the study. Main outcome measure WM volume change scores. Results WM volume remained stable in the RLAI and decreased significantly in the RisO groups resulting in a significant differential treatment effect, while the HC had a WM change intermediate and not significantly different from the two SZ groups. WM increase was associated with faster reaction times in tests involving frontal lobe function. Conclusions The results suggest that RLAI may improve the trajectory of myelination in first-episode patients and have a beneficial impact on cognitive performance. Better adherence provided by LAI may underlie the modified trajectory of myelin development. In vivo MRI biomarkers of myelination can help clarify mechanisms of action of treatment interventions. PMID:21767934
Carswell, Christopher; Wheeler, Amanda; Vanderpyl, Jane; Robinson, Elizabeth
Schizophrenia affects approximately 1% of the population and is associated with a considerable economic burden to society. The healthcare costs of the disorder are high and are compounded by substantial productivity losses. Failure to adhere to medication regimens, with subsequent relapse and hospitalization, is a key driver of these costs. A long-acting injectable formulation of the second generation antipsychotic risperidone (risperidone long-acting injection [risperidone LAI]) was licensed in New Zealand and received full government funding in October 2005. Second generation antipsychotics may have some efficacy advantages, be associated with fewer adverse effects and could improve adherence. However, the acquisition cost of risperidone LAI is higher than that of first generation antipsychotics and healthcare decision makers need information that allows them to determine whether risperidone LAI represents a cost-effective investment in terms of improved outcomes. To explore real-world outcomes and costs of patients treated with risperidone LAI within New Zealand. A mirror-image retrospective study was conducted comparing outcomes and costs 12 months post- versus 12 months pre-initiation of risperidone LAI in all adults receiving approval for risperidone LAI between 1 October 2005 and 31 October 2006 in five health services. Continuation rates, compulsory treatment status, psychiatric hospitalization (admission number, bed-stay and cost) and treatment data were collected from clinical files and patient information systems for the 12 months on either side of the first risperidone LAI prescription. Hospitalization costs were valued using estimates for cost per admission and cost per hospital day ($NZ, year 2009 values). 58.3% of patients remained on risperidone LAI 12 months after initiation. Compared with the pre-risperidone LAI treatment period the mean number of admissions for the total study population was significantly lower in the post-risperidone LAI
Kimura, Hiroshi; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Komatsu, Naoya; Ishige, Minoru; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Yoshimura, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Komatsu, Hideki; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Shiina, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Masatomo; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Shiraishi, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Eiji; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi
Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is considered to be one cause of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). The authors investigated the efficacy of risperidone long-acting injections (RLAI) in patients with TRS and DSP. This is a multicenter, prospective, 12-month follow-up, observational study that included unstable and severe TRS patients with and without DSP. 115 patients with TRS were recruited and divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of DSP which was judged on the basis of the clinical courses and neurological examinations. RLAI was administered adjunctively once every 2weeks along with oral antipsychotics. We observed changes in scores for the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales (BPRS), Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-S), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS) during the study. Of the assessed 94 patients, 61 and 33 were categorized into the DSP and NonDSP groups, respectively. While baseline BPRS total scores, CGI-S scores and GAF scores did not differ, the ESRS score was significantly higher in the DSP group compared with the NonDSP group. Treatment significantly reduced BPRS total scores and CGI-S scores, and increased GAF scores in both groups, but the magnitudes of change were significantly greater in the DSP group relative to the NonDSP group. ESRS scores were also reduced in the DSP group. Responder rates (≥20% reduction in BPRS total score) were 62.3% in the DSP group and 21.2% in the NonDSP group. It is suggested that DSP contributes to the etiology of TRS. Atypical antipsychotic drugs in long-acting forms, such as RLAI, can provide beneficial effects for patients with DSP. UMIN (UMIN000008487). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Napryeyenko, Oleksandr; Burba, Benjaminas; Martinez, Guadalupe; Neznanov, Nikolay G; Fischel, Tsvi; Baylé, Franck J; Cavallaro, Roberto; Smeraldi, Enrico; Schreiner, Andreas
Premorbid functioning may be associated with treatment response, but this is confounded by a lack of prospective longitudinal data and controls for medication compliance. This study tested the hypothesis that good premorbid functioning will be associated with better antipsychotic treatment response after controlling for drug adherence by using a long-acting injectable antipsychotic. This was a 6-month, open label, multicenter, phase IV trial in recent-onset schizophrenia treated with flexible doses of risperidone long-acting injectable (25-50 mg every 14 days). Premorbid functioning was assessed with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS)-Structured Interview; efficacy was evaluated with clinician-rated Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression scale of Severity of Illness, Clinical Global Impression scale of Change, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and trial participant completed SF-36. Analyses controlled for baseline scores and demographics. With the use of a priori PAS scoring criteria, the participants' premorbid functioning was categorized as stable-good (n = 142), stable-poor (n = 116), and deteriorating (n = 36). At baseline, the stable-good group had the best functioning on most efficacy measures. All groups showed significant improvement on efficacy measures with treatment. Improvement was significantly higher for the stable-good group. The PAS global assessment of highest level of functioning scale (excellent, n = 75; good, n = 117; fair, n = 78; and poor, n = 31) showed a strong association with baseline functioning and improvement and had a significant linear association with meeting Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group symptom criteria at baseline (P = 0.003) and attained and sustained remission for 3 months during study (47.7%, 49.3%, 29.6%, and 22.2%; P = 0.006). Good premorbid functioning corresponds with better treatment response in recent-onset psychosis as captured on both clinician and patient-reported measures.
Asseburg, Christian; Willis, Michael; Löthgren, Mickael; Seppälä, Niko; Hakala, Mika; Persson, Ulf
Objectives. Quantify changes in hospital resource use in Finland following initiation of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI). Materials and Methods. A retrospective multi-center chart review (naturalistic setting) was used to compare annual hospital bed-days and hospital episodes for 177 schizophrenia patients (mean age 47.1 years, 52% female, 72% hospitalized) before and after initiation of RLAI (between January 2004 and June 2005) using the within-patient “mirror-image” study design. The base case analytical approach allocated hospital episodes overlapping the start date entirely to the preinitiation period. In order to investigate the impact of inpatient care ongoing at baseline, the change in bed-days was also estimated using an alternative analytical approached related to economic modelling. Results. In the conventional analysis, the mean annual hospitalisation costs declined by €11,900 and the number of bed-days was reduced by 40%, corresponding to 0.19 fewer hospital episodes per year. The reductions in bed-days per patient-year were similar for patients switched to RLAI as inpatients and as outpatients. In the modelling-based analysis, an 8% reduction in bed-days per year was observed. Conclusion. Despite uncertainty in the choice of analytic approach for allocating inpatient episodes that overlapping this initiation, consistent reductions in resource use are associated with the initiation of RLAI in Finland. PMID:22966445
Background To evaluate effectiveness outcomes in a real-world setting in patients with schizophrenia initiating risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT). Methods This was a 24-month, multicenter, prospective, longitudinal, observational study in patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAT. Physicians could change treatment during the study as clinically warranted. Data were collected at baseline and subsequently every 3 months up to 24 months. Effectiveness outcomes included changes in illness severity as measured by Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale; functional scores as measured by Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), and Strauss-Carpenter Levels of Functioning (LOF); and health status (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 [SF-36]). Life-table methodology was used to estimate the cumulative probability of relapse over time. Adverse events were evaluated for safety. Results 532 patients were enrolled in the study; 209 (39.3%) completed the 24-month study and 305 (57.3%) had at least 12 months of follow-up data. The mean (SD) age of patients was 42.3 (12.8) years. Most patients were male (66.4%) and either Caucasian (60.3%) or African American (23.7%). All changes in CGI-S from baseline at each subsequent 3-month follow-up visit were statistically significant (p < .0001), indicating improvement in disease severity. Improvements were also noted for the PSP, GAF, and total LOF, indicating improvement in daily functioning and health outcome. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on RLAT demonstrated improvements in measures of effectiveness within 3 months, which persisted over 24 months. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00246194 PMID:21999346
Background This observational study was designed to collect treatment outcomes data in patients using the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR). Methods Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in Australia who were prescribed risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) between 2003 and 2007 were assessed 12-months retrospectively, at baseline and 24-months prospectively at 3-monthly intervals. The intent-to-treat population, defined as all patients who received at least one dose of RLAI at baseline, was used for the efficacy and safety analyses. Results At total of 784 patients (74% with schizophrenia, 69.8% male) with a mean age of 37.1 ± 12.5 years and 10.6 ± 9.5 years since diagnosis were included in this Australian cohort. A significant improvement in mean Clinical Global Impression - severity score was observed at 24-months (4.52 ± 1.04 at baseline, 3.56 ± 1.10 at 24-months). Most of this improvement was seen by 3-months and was also reflected in mean Global Assessment of Functioning score, which improved significantly at 24-months (42.9 ± 14.5 at baseline, 59 ± 15.4 at 24-months). For patients still receiving RLAI at 24-months there was an increase from a mean baseline RLAI dose of 26.4 ± 5 mg to 43.4 ± 15.7 mg. Sixty-six percent of patients discontinued RLAI before the 24-month period--this decreased to 46% once patients lost to follow-up were excluded. Conclusion Over the 24-month period, initiation of RLAI was associated with improved patient functioning and illness severity in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Improved outcomes were observed early and sustained throughout the study. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registration Number, NCT00283517. PMID:22448928
Boarati, Miguel A; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Ferreira-Maia, Ana Paula; Cavalcanti, Ana Rosa S; Fu-I, Lee
Recent studies suggest that risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) may be considered for controlling mood episodes in bipolar disorder patients who have relapsed due to medication nonadherence or failure to respond to standard therapies. Currently, no study has reported the usefulness of RLAI in youths with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term effects of RLAI in the naturalistic treatment of early-onset bipolar disorder and its role in symptomatic remission and adherence to treatment. Nineteen early-onset bipolar disorder outpatients receiving RLAI were observed in a 6-month naturalistic study at the outpatient clinic of the Child and Adolescent Affective Disorders Program at the Institute of Psychiatry of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder. Clinical response to RLAI was evaluated using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI) across 3 time periods: index time (T0), 8 weeks after (T1), and 24 weeks after (T2). These subjects were recruited from May 2008 to December 2009. Patients receiving RLAI presented considerable improvement in global functioning (CGAS: T0 = 20.6; T1 = 42.9; and T2 = 49.2) and clinical severity (CGI: T0 = 5.9; T1 = 3.9; and T2 = 3.4). Global CGI mean scores of clinical improvement were 2.2 at T1 and 2.4 at T2. There were no significant changes in laboratory measurements and weight throughout follow-up. RLAI was shown to be an alternative treatment for youths with bipolar disorder failing to respond to prior medication trials or with adherence problems. Further blind, randomized controlled studies are necessary to confirm these initial findings. Sistema Nacional de Informaçōes Sobre Ética em Pesquisa Envolvendo Seres Humanos-Commisão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa identifier: CAAE 0709.0.015.000-06.
Wang, Yuan-Pang; Ferreira-Maia, Ana Paula; Cavalcanti, Ana Rosa S.; Fu-I, Lee
Background: Recent studies suggest that risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) may be considered for controlling mood episodes in bipolar disorder patients who have relapsed due to medication nonadherence or failure to respond to standard therapies. Currently, no study has reported the usefulness of RLAI in youths with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term effects of RLAI in the naturalistic treatment of early-onset bipolar disorder and its role in symptomatic remission and adherence to treatment. Method: Nineteen early-onset bipolar disorder outpatients receiving RLAI were observed in a 6-month naturalistic study at the outpatient clinic of the Child and Adolescent Affective Disorders Program at the Institute of Psychiatry of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder. Clinical response to RLAI was evaluated using the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI) across 3 time periods: index time (T0), 8 weeks after (T1), and 24 weeks after (T2). These subjects were recruited from May 2008 to December 2009. Results: Patients receiving RLAI presented considerable improvement in global functioning (CGAS: T0 = 20.6; T1 = 42.9; and T2 = 49.2) and clinical severity (CGI: T0 = 5.9; T1 = 3.9; and T2 = 3.4). Global CGI mean scores of clinical improvement were 2.2 at T1 and 2.4 at T2. There were no significant changes in laboratory measurements and weight throughout follow-up. Conclusions: RLAI was shown to be an alternative treatment for youths with bipolar disorder failing to respond to prior medication trials or with adherence problems. Further blind, randomized controlled studies are necessary to confirm these initial findings. Trial registration: Sistema Nacional de Informaçōes Sobre Ética em Pesquisa Envolvendo Seres Humanos-Commisão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa identifier: CAAE 0709.0.015.000-06 PMID:24171144
Effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics in clinical practice : 1. A retrospective, 18-month follow up and comparison between paliperidone palmitate, risperidone long-acting injection and zuclopenthixol decanoate
Cordiner, Matthew; Shajahan, Polash; McAvoy, Sarah; Bashir, Muhammad; Taylor, Mark
Objectives: In the UK, nine different compounds are available as long-acting antipsychotic injections (LAIs). There are few clinical guidelines for determining which LAIs are most effective in specific patient groups. To measure the clinical effectiveness of LAIs we aimed to determine the now-established concept of antipsychotic discontinuation rates and measure Clinical Global Impression (CGI) outcomes. Method: The population (n was approximately 560,000) was a secondary care NHS adult mental health service in Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK. This was a retrospective, electronic case note search of LAI-naïve patients commenced on paliperidone palmitate (n = 31), risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) (n = 102) or zuclopenthixol decanoate (n = 105), with an 18-month follow up. Kaplan–Meier survival statistics for discontinuation rates and hospital admission were calculated. CGI severity and improvement scores were retrospectively assigned by the investigating team. Results: Paliperidone palmitate performed less favourably than risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) or zuclopenthixol decanoate. Paliperidone palmitate had higher discontinuation rates due to any cause, inefficacy and increased hospitalization risk. Paliperidone palmitate had the smallest proportion of patients assigned a clinically desirable CGI-I score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved). Conclusions: Paliperidone palmitate had less favourable discontinuation and CGI outcomes compared with RLAI and zuclopenthixol decanoate. This could not be adequately explained by patients in the paliperidone group being more chronically or severely unwell, nor by the presence of comorbidities such as alcohol or substance misuse, or by the use of lower mean dosages compared with RLAI or zuclopenthixol decanoate. We considered that prescribers are familiarizing themselves with paliperidone and outcomes may improve over time. PMID:26913175
Macfadden, Wayne; Ma, Yi-Wen; Thomas Haskins, J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.
Objective: To test the hypothesis that long-term maintenance with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy is superior to oral daily aripiprazole in stable patients with schizophrenia. Design: This two-year, rater-blinded, open-label, multicenter study (NCT00299702) randomized subjects to injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (25–50mg, injected every 2 weeks) or oral aripiprazole (5–30mg/day), with study visits every two weeks. Subjects who met relapse criteria or discontinued study drug could remain in the study. Setting: Clinical trial. Participants: Stable subjects with schizophrenia not adequately benefiting from current treatment who experienced two or more relapses in the past two years. If recently relapsed, subjects were stabilized (per clinician judgment) for two or more months before entry. Measurements: Primary endpoints: time to relapse and time in remission. Safety assessments included adverse event reporting. Results: Of 355 subjects randomized, 349 were in the intent-to-treat analysis set. Data inspection revealed that 53 (14.9%) randomized subjects deviated from inclusion/exclusion criteria, most commonly not meeting stability requirements. At baseline, mean (standard deviation [SD]) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score was 68.9 (14.6); 115 (33.0%) intent-to-treat subjects met remission criteria. Approximately 29 percent in each group discontinued the study before completing two years. No significant between-group differences were noted in time to relapse or time in remission. No new tolerability issues were identified. Conclusion: Results failed to demonstrate superiority with injectable risperidone long-acting therapy versus oral aripiprazole. The study design did not allow for valid conclusions of equivalence or noninferiority. Although this study attempted to mimic a real-world treatment setting for stable patients, the broad study population, the lack of patient selection for nonadherence, biweekly visits, regular
Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A; Kern Sliwa, Jennifer; Ma, Yi-Wen; Alphs, Larry
To examine onset of efficacy of two long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics in markedly-to-severely ill schizophrenia subjects. This subgroup analysis included 292 subjects with baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scores of markedly ill or worse from a 13-week, randomized, double-dummy noninferiority study (NCT00589914). Subjects received either: 1) paliperidone palmitate (PP; 234 mg day 1 and 156 mg day 8 [corresponding to 150 and 100 milligram equivalents of paliperidone, respectively], both administered in deltoid muscle, followed by once-monthly flexible dosing in deltoid or gluteal muscle) and risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI)-matched placebo injections; or, 2) RLAI (25 mg, days 8 and 22; followed by biweekly flexible dosing) and PP-matched placebo injections. RLAI subjects received oral risperidone days 1-28; PP subjects received oral placebo. Because of RLAI's release profile, data through day 22 correspond to oral risperidone. Assessments included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and adverse event (AE) reports. Paired t-tests assessed within-group changes. LS mean (SE) PANSS total scores improved significantly (both p<.001) with PP and oral risperidone by day 4 (-5.0 [0.6] and -3.4 [0.6], respectively) through day 22; and with PP and RLAI through end point (-21.5 [1.9] and -18.6 [1.9], respectively). The between-group difference was significant only at day 4 (p=.006). Proportion of subjects with a .30% reduction in PANSS total score was not significantly different between the two groups at day 4 and was significantly greater with paliperidone palmitate than oral risperidone at days 15 and 22 (26.1% versus 12.7%, p=.013; 41.6% versus 32.0%, p=.048, respectively). Most common AEs (.5% in either treatment group): headache (PP 6.3% and RLAI 14.0%), insomnia (10.6% and 10.7%), somnolence (7.8% and 1.3%), akathisia (7.0% and 5.3%), schizophrenia (8.5% and 5.3%), agitation (5.6% and 2.0%), and injection site pain (5.6% and 1
Niolu, Cinzia; Bianciardi, Emanuela; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Marchetta, Claudia; Barone, Ylenia; Sterbini, Nicoletta; Ribolsi, Michele; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Siracusano, Alberto
Aim: This study evaluated adherence to treatment, quality of life and subjective well-being in patients with psychosis treated with long-acting injectable risperidone. Subjects enrolled were part of a larger study where patients were observed in an adherence to treatment program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata. Materials and methods: A total of 27 nonadherent patients (21 men, six women; mean age: 36.1 years; range: 23–63 years) were enrolled. Maximum observational period was 30 months. Results: A total of 12 patients were under treatment for 30 months (44.44%) but only nine had a valid 30-month follow up, while the remaining three patients initially treated at our unit continued long-acting risperidone at their local centre. Reductions of monthly mean values of Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) [repeated measures analysis of variance (rm-ANOVA): p < 0.0001] and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) (p < 0.0001), increase of monthly mean values of Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN) (p < 0.0001) and Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (S-QoL) (p < 0.01) were observed. Significant differences with respect to SAPS baseline values from the sixth month, SANS baseline values from the seventh month, SWN baseline values from the eighth month, S-QoL baseline values from the eighteenth month were shown in post hoc tests. Reduction of SAPS mean values was associated with increase of SWN (p < 0.0001) and S-QoL (p < 0.0001) mean values as demonstrated by correlation analysis. The same inverse correlation was found between reduction of SANS mean values and increases of SWN (p < 0.0001) and S-QoL (p = 0.0001) mean values. Conclusions: Long-term treatment with long-acting risperidone may be associated with improvement to adherence to therapy and quality of life. Patients may show improvement in psychopathological symptoms, subjective well-being and quality of life. PMID:26557984
Mehnert, Angelika; Nicholl, Deborah; Pudas, Hanna; Martin, Monique; McGuire, Alistair
To model the cost effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate (paliperidone long-acting injectable; PLAI), a new once-monthly long-acting antipsychotic therapy, compared with risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) and olanzapine pamoate (OLAI), in multi-episode patients (two or more relapses) with schizophrenia in Sweden. A Markov decision analytic model was developed to simulate the history of a cohort of multi-episode patients transitioning through different health states on a monthly basis over a 5-year time horizon from the perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. Therapeutic strategies consisted of starting treatment with RLAI (mean dose 37.5 mg every 2 weeks), PLAI (mean dose 75 mg equivalent (eq.) every month) or OLAI (150 mg every 2 weeks or 300 mg every 4 weeks). Probability of relapse, level of adherence, side-effects (extrapyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, weight gain and diabetes) and treatment discontinuation (switch) were derived from long-term observational data when feasible. Incremental cost-effectiveness outcomes, discounted at 3% annually, included cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and cost per relapse avoided (expressed in 2009 Swedish Krona SEK). Relative to RLAI and OLAI, PLAI is economically dominant: more effective (additional QALYs, less relapses) and less costly treatment option over a 5-year time horizon. The results were robust when tested in sensitivity analysis. The impact of once-monthly treatment on adherence levels is not yet known, and not all variables that could impact on real-world outcomes and costs were included in this model. PLAI was cost saving from a Swedish payer perspective compared with RLAI and OLAI in the long-term treatment of multi-episode (two or more relapses) schizophrenia patients.
Stein-Reisner, Orit; Preisman, Olga; Alfici, Susana; Melamed, Yuval; Bleich, Avi
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease characterized by psychotic symptoms as well as negative symptoms such as affective flattening, social withdrawal and occupational dysfunction. Anti-psychotic medications reduce the risk of psychotic exacerbations and hospitalization. Poor compliance is common among patients with schizophrenia. Long-acting medications have such advantages as stabilizing drug levels and improving compliance. Second generation anti-psychotic medications were found to be more effective and tolerable compared to first generation drugs. These medications cause less extra-pyramidal symptoms, and compliance with them was shown to be better. Until recently there were only first generation long-acting anti-psychotics in use. Recently a new second generation long-acting anti-psychotic drug was introduced in Israel. We present our experience with a first schizophrenic patient treated with long-acting Risperidone (Risperdal Consta). The patient was treated in the past with several first generation anti-psychotics and suffered severe extra-pyramidal symptoms. His compliance with treatment was poor. Under treatment with oral Risperidone a considerable improvement was recorded, however compliance remained poor. Under treatment with long-acting Risperidone, Intramuscularly 25 Mg every two week, both positive and negative symptoms improved substantially, as well as compliance with treatment. The results of this case study encourage us to believe that many more patients will benefit from the advantages of both a second-generation anti-psychotic and a long-acting preparation.
Wu, David Bin-Chia; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chung, Wai Sau; Chow, Danielle Pui Yu; Lee, Vivian Wing Yan; Wong, Ming Cheuk; Lee, Kenneth Kwing Chin
Schizophrenia is one of the most expensive psychiatric illnesses. This study compared retrospectively health-care resources consumed 12 months before and 24 months after risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) treatment in Hong Kong. A mirror-image analysis was conducted using data (N=191) from three public hospitals in Hong Kong from 2003 to 2007. The main outcome measure was hospitalisation cost. Other secondary outcomes such as hospitalisation episodes, outpatient visits and adverse events were also compared. A predictive model was established using linear regression based on generalised estimating equations. Analysis showed that RLAI was associated with a reduction in hospitalisation cost by HK$10,001,390 (24.7%) (HK$40,418,694 vs. HK$30,417,303; P-value <0.05). Days of hospitalisation were reduced by 1538 days (10.1%) (15,271 vs. 13,733; P-value <0.05). The predictive model estimated that the hospitalisation cost of patients using RLAI was only 11.1% (3.1-3.93%, 95% confidence interval (CI)) compared to those receiving conventional antipsychotics combined with oral risperidone. Cost of hospitalisation was significantly reduced after RLAI therapy. However, results should be considered as indicative or suggestive only, due to potential channelling bias where certain drug regimens are preferentially prescribed to patients with particular conditions. The findings from our study may be useful in health-care decision making considering treatment options for schizophrenia in resource-limited settings. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gaebel, Wolfgang; Schreiner, Andreas; Bergmans, Paul; de Arce, Rosario; Rouillon, Frédéric; Cordes, Joachim; Eriksson, Lars; Smeraldi, Enrico
Chronic management of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders is frequently complicated by symptomatic relapse. An open-label, randomized, active-controlled, 2-year trial evaluated 710 patients with schizophrenia or related disorders who were switched from stable treatment with oral risperidone, olanzapine, or conventional neuroleptics to risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) or oral quetiapine. Primary effectiveness evaluation was time-to-relapse. Safety evaluations included adverse events (AEs) reported for the duration of the study, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), clinical laboratory tests, and vital signs. A total of 666 patients (n=329 RLAI, n=337 quetiapine) were evaluable for effectiveness measures. Baseline demographics were similar between treatment groups. Kaplan–Meier estimate of time-to-relapse was significantly longer with RLAI (p<0.0001). Relapse occurred in 16.5% of patients with RLAI and 31.3% with quetiapine. RLAI and quetiapine were both safe and well tolerated. Weight gain affected 7% of patients with RLAI and 6% with quetiapine, with mean end point increases of 1.25±6.61 and 0±6.55 kg, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in weight gain. ESRS total scores decreased similarly after randomization to either RLAI or quetiapine. Extrapyramidal AEs occurred in 10% of patients with RLAI and 6% with quetiapine. Treatment-emergent potentially prolactin-related AEs were reported in 15 (5%) patients with RLAI and 5 (2%) patients with quetiapine; hyperprolactinemia was reported in 43 (13.1%) patients with RLAI and 5 (1.5%) patients with quetiapine. Somnolence occurred in 2% of patients with RLAI and 11% with quetiapine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a randomized clinical trial directly comparing relapse prevention with a second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotic and oral therapy. Time-to-relapse in stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was
Choong, Eva; Polari, Andrea; Kamdem, Rigobert Hervais; Gervasoni, Nicola; Spisla, Caesar; Jaquenoud Sirot, Eveline; Bickel, Graziella Giacometti; Bondolfi, Guido; Conus, Philippe; Eap, Chin B
Risperidone is metabolized by polymorphic enzymes, and a large variability in plasma concentration and therapeutic response is observed. Risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) avoids the first-pass effect, and little is known about the influence of gene polymorphisms involved in its pharmacokinetics. The influence on plasma concentrations of risperidone (RIS), its metabolite 9-hydroxy-risperidone, and on adverse effects were investigated for polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) (*3, *4, *5, *6), CYP3A (CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4 rs4646437, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A7*1C), ABCB1 (1236C>T, 2677G>T, 3435C>T), NR1/2 coding for pregnane X receptor (rs1523130, rs2472677, rs7643645), and for CYP3A activity measured by a phenotyping test. Forty-two patients with at least 4 consecutive unchanged doses of RLAI were included in a multicenter cross-sectional study. A 55% lower dose-adjusted plasma levels of RIS were observed for CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers (n = 5) as compared with CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers (P < 0.007). NR1/2 polymorphism (rs7643645A>G) influenced RIS exposure with a 2.8-fold lower active moiety (P = 0.031) in GG compared with the AA genotype. This was confirmed in a second independent cohort (n = 16). Furthermore, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was positively correlated with CYP3A activity (P = 0.01), and the NR1/2 (rs2472677) polymorphism was associated with different adverse effects including prolactin plasma levels adjusted for age and sex. In conclusion, our results confirmed the influence of CYP2D6 genotype on plasma levels of RIS. This is the first report on the influence of NR1/2 polymorphisms on RLAI exposure and on drug-induced adverse effects. These results should be validated in larger cohorts.
Bergmans, P; Cherubin, P; Keim, S; Llorca, P-M; Cosar, B; Petralia, A; Corrivetti, G; Hargarter, L
PALMFlexS, a prospective multicentre, open-label, 6-month, phase IIIb interventional study, explored tolerability, safety and treatment response in adults (n = 231) with non-acute but symptomatic schizophrenia switching to flexibly dosed paliperidone palmitate (PP) after unsuccessful treatment with risperidone long-acting injectable therapy (RLAT) or conventional depot antipsychotics (APs). Treatment response was measured by change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score from baseline (BL) to last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) endpoint (EP). Safety and tolerability assessments included Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS) total score and treatment-emergent adverse events. Significant reductions in mean PANSS total score were observed for all groups (−7.5 to −10.6; p ⩽ 0.01 [BL to LOCF EP]). After switching to PP, more than 50% of all patients achieved ⩾20% and one-third of RLAT-treated patients even achieved ⩾50% improvement in PANSS total score. Across groups, there were significant improvements (p < 0.05) in symptom severity as measured by Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S; trend for improvement with RLAT; p = 0.0568), subjective well-being, medication satisfaction, and patient functioning with PP. PP was generally well tolerated. Clinically relevant benefits were observed in non-acute patients with schizophrenia switched from RLAT or conventional depot APs to PP. PMID:25999398
Baylé, Franck Jean; Tessier, Arnaud; Bouju, Sophie; Misdrahi, David
Background Maintaining antipsychotic therapy in psychosis is important in preventing relapse. Long-acting depot preparations can prevent covert non-adherence and thus potentially contribute to better patient outcomes. In this observational survey the main objective is to evaluate medication adherence and its determinants for oral treatment in a large sample of patients with psychosis. Methods In this cross-sectional survey medication adherence for oral treatment was assessed by patients using the patient-rated Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ). Data were collected by physicians on patients with a recent acute psychotic episode before switching to long-acting injectable risperidone. Other evaluations included disease severity (Clinical Global Impression – Severity), patients’ insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale item G12), treatment acceptance (clinician-rated Compliance Rating Scale), and therapeutic alliance (patient-rated 4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale). Results A total of 399 psychiatrists enrolled 1,887 patients (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; 61.6% had schizophrenia). Adherence to oral medication was “low” in 53.2% of patients, “medium” in 29.5%, and “high” in 17.3%. Of patients with psychiatrist-rated active acceptance of treatment, 70% had “medium” or “high” MAQ scores (P<0.0001). Medication adherence was significantly associated with therapeutic alliance (4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale score; P<0.0001). Patient age was significantly associated with adherence: mean age increased with greater adherence (35.6, 36.7, and 38.6 years for patients with “low”, “medium”, and “high” levels of adherence, respectively; P=0.0007), while age <40 years was associated with “low” MAQ classification (P=0.0003). Poor adherence was also associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (P=0.0083), more severe disease (Clinical Global Impression – Severity ≥4; P<0.0001), and lower insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
Baylé, Franck Jean; Tessier, Arnaud; Bouju, Sophie; Misdrahi, David
Maintaining antipsychotic therapy in psychosis is important in preventing relapse. Long-acting depot preparations can prevent covert non-adherence and thus potentially contribute to better patient outcomes. In this observational survey the main objective is to evaluate medication adherence and its determinants for oral treatment in a large sample of patients with psychosis. In this cross-sectional survey medication adherence for oral treatment was assessed by patients using the patient-rated Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ). Data were collected by physicians on patients with a recent acute psychotic episode before switching to long-acting injectable risperidone. Other evaluations included disease severity (Clinical Global Impression - Severity), patients' insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale item G12), treatment acceptance (clinician-rated Compliance Rating Scale), and therapeutic alliance (patient-rated 4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale). A total of 399 psychiatrists enrolled 1,887 patients (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; 61.6% had schizophrenia). Adherence to oral medication was "low" in 53.2% of patients, "medium" in 29.5%, and "high" in 17.3%. Of patients with psychiatrist-rated active acceptance of treatment, 70% had "medium" or "high" MAQ scores (P<0.0001). Medication adherence was significantly associated with therapeutic alliance (4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale score; P<0.0001). Patient age was significantly associated with adherence: mean age increased with greater adherence (35.6, 36.7, and 38.6 years for patients with "low", "medium", and "high" levels of adherence, respectively; P=0.0007), while age <40 years was associated with "low" MAQ classification (P=0.0003). Poor adherence was also associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (P=0.0083), more severe disease (Clinical Global Impression - Severity ≥4; P<0.0001), and lower insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-G12 ≥4; P<0.0001). Self-reported adherence was low in most patients
Barrio, Pablo; Batalla, Albert; Castellví, Pere; Hidalgo, Diego; García, Marta; Ortiz, Ana; Grande, Iria; Pons, Alexandre; Parellada, Eduard
Long-acting injectable antipsychotics may offer a relevant improvement in treatment adherence in recent-onset psychosis, leading to a decreased rate of hospital readmission, a better rate of clinical remission and improved psychosocial adjustment. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical remission rates, number of hospital readmissions and personal and social functioning after 2 years between patients with recent-onset schizophrenia (<2 years) in treatment with risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) and patients with recent-onset schizophrenia receiving oral antipsychotics. This is a case-control study comparing patients with recent-onset schizophrenia who initiated RLAI treatment between 2004 and 2008 (n=26) with a control group matched for age and sex, diagnosed with recent-onset schizophrenia and treated with oral antipsychotics (n=26). Study assessments included sociodemographic variables, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Personal and Social Functioning Scale, the number of hospital readmissions and the Andreasen remission criteria. To assess the effect of treatment on each dependent variable, separate generalized estimating equations models were constructed. After 2 years of treatment, and adjusting for educational level, the RLAI group showed a greater reduction in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scale [mean (SD)=47.7 (12.0) vs. 66.2 (18.5); mean difference =-17.56; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-27.11 to -8.00; P<0.001], as well as in the negative [mean (SD) 14.3 (6.1) vs. 19.4 (6.4); mean difference=-5.02; 95% CI=-8.28 to -1.77; P=0.002] and general psychopathology [mean (SD)=23.4 (6.3) vs. 32.7 (8.1); mean difference=-9.16; 95% CI=-13.3 to -5.03; P<0.001] subscales compared with the oral antipsychotic group. Personal and Social Functioning Scale scores were also higher in the RLAI group [mean (SD)=72.4 (14.8) vs. 59.7 (13.5); mean difference=13.41; 95% CI=5.65-21.18; P<0.001]. Although not statistically significant
Background Schizophrenia is a chronic mental health disorder associated with increased hospital admissions and excessive utilization of outpatient services and long-term care. This analysis examined health care resource utilization from a 24-month observational study of patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT). Methods Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation (SOURCE) was a 24-month observational study designed to examine real-world treatment outcomes by prospectively following patients with schizophrenia initiated on RLAT. At baseline visit, prior hospitalization and ER visit dates were obtained for the previous 12 months and subsequent hospitalization visit dates were obtained at 3-month visits, if available. The health care resource utilization outcomes measures observed in this analysis were hospitalizations for any reason, psychiatric-related hospitalizations, and emergency room (ER) visits. Incidence density analysis was used to assess pre-event and postevent rates per person-year (PY). Results The primary medical resource utilization analysis included 435 patients who had a baseline visit, ≥1 postbaseline visits after RLAT initiation, and valid hospitalization dates. The number of hospitalizations and ER visits per PY declined significantly (p < .0001) after initiation with RLAT. A 41% decrease (difference of -0.29 hospitalizations per PY [95% CI: -0.39 to -0.18] from baseline) in hospitalizations for any reason, a 56% decrease (a difference of -0.35 hospitalizations per PY [95% CI: -0.44 to -0.26] from baseline) in psychiatric-related hospitalizations, and a 40% decrease (-0.26 hospitalizations per PY [95% CI: -0.44 to -0.10] from baseline) in ER visits were observed after the baseline period. The percentage of psychiatric-related hospitalizations decreased significantly after RLAT initiation, and patients had fewer inpatient hospitalizations and ER visits (all p < .0001). Conclusion The
Malla, Ashok; Chue, Pierre; Jordan, Gerald; Stip, Emmanuel; Koczerginski, David; Milliken, Heather; Joseph, Anil; Williams, Richard; Adams, Beverly; Manchanda, Rahul; Oyewumi, Kola; Roy, Marc-André
Few studies have examined effectiveness and tolerability of risperidone long-acting injections (RLAI) in the early phase of a schizophrenia spectrum (SS) disorder using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design. Eighty-five patients in early phase of an SS disorder were randomized to receive either oral second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs; n=41) or RLAI (n=44) over two years. Analyses were conducted on eligible participants (n=77) for the stabilization (maximum 18 weeks) and maintenance phases (up to Week 104) on primary outcome measures of time to stabilization and relapse, change in symptoms and safety, and comparisons made across the two groups. Both groups showed improvement on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores. There were no time X group interactions on any of the primary outcome measures. Post hoc examination revealed that the RLAI group showed greater change on CGI-S and PANSS negative symptom scores during the stabilization phase, while the oral group reached the same level of improvement during the maintenance phase. The current exploratory study suggests that-within an RCT design-RLAI and oral SGAs are equally effective and have similar safety profiles in patients in the early phase of SS disorders. Thus, RLAI offers no advantage to patients in early phase of SS disorders, but is likely to be effective and safe for those who may have problems with adherence and may either choose to take it or be prescribed under conditions of external control such as community treatment orders.
Schizophrenia-spectrum patients treated with long-acting injectable risperidone in real-life clinical settings: functional recovery in remitted versus stable, non-remitted patients (the EVeREST prospective observational cohort study).
Giraud-Baro, Elisabeth; Dassa, Daniel; De Vathaire, Florent; Garay, Ricardo P; Obeid, Joelle
Previous studies showed functional improvement in stable patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone long-acting injection (LAI). We therefore re-investigated functional improvement with risperidone LAI in remitted patients, in comparison with stable patients. The study was conducted in real-life conditions because of the high heterogeneity of the patients' situations. This was a multi-centre, prospective observational cohort study involving adult schizophrenia-spectrum chronic patients who were previously treated with risperidone LAI for 6 months. Remission was evaluated using the consensus criteria proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG). The primary endpoint was global functioning (assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, GAF) after one year of treatment. Social functioning was a secondary outcome. The analysis included 1490 patients. Attrition rate was 9.1 % at the end of the study. 27.7 % of patients were in remission after one year of risperidone LAI treatment. The mean GAF rating score (62.5 ± 1.5) was higher than the cut-off previously used to identify patients with satisfactory functioning (60) and significantly higher than the mean GAF score in stable, non-remitted patients (48.3, p < 0.001). Social functioning was also high in remitted patients (21.0 ± 3.6 vs. 17.2 ± 3.7 in non-remitted patients, p < 0.001). The results clearly show that after one year of treatment with risperidone LAI, RSWG-remitted patients have a high level of global functioning, which is significantly higher than in stable, non-remitted patients. Social functioning was also higher in remitted patients as compared with stable, non-remitted patients.
Long-term outcomes in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone long-acting injection or oral antipsychotics in Spain: results from the electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR).
Olivares, J M; Rodriguez-Morales, A; Diels, J; Povey, M; Jacobs, A; Zhao, Z; Lam, A; Villalobos Vega, J C; Cuéllar, J Alonso; de Castro, F J Alberca; Quintero, C Morillo-Velarde; Martíin, J F Román; Domínguez, P Tabares; Ojeda, J L Prados; Cortés, S Sanz; Cala, F I Mata; Marín, C Gutiérrez; Castro, L Moyano; Duaso, M A Haza; Albarracín, J Requena; Vergara, G Narbona; Benítez, A Fernández; Cleries, F Mayoral; Pérez-Brian, J M García-Herrera; Aragón, A Bordallo; Navarro, J C Rodríguez; Biedma, J A Algarra; de Pedro, R Bravo; González, J F Delgado; López, M E Jaén; Moreno, H Díaz; López, J A Soto; Rodríguez, E Ojeda; de Hoyos, C Martínez; Sacristán, M Pardilla; Martín, M D Molina; Ballesteros, E Martín; Rodríguez, P A Sopelana; Menéndez, L Fernández; Rivas, R Santos; del Pino Cuadrado, P; Lauffer, J Correas; Solano, J J Rodríguez; Martínez, J M Fernández; Solano, F García; Rodríguez, P García-Lamberde; Rodríguez, J A Romero; Cano, T Rodríguez; Fortacin, M Ducaju; Lobeiras, J M Blanco; Sampedro, J M Piñeiro; Bravo, A Pérez; Pellicer, A Fernández; López, M D Alonso; Liste, J Fraga; Fernández, M Riobo; Losada, A Casas; Mendez, R Vazquez-Noguerol; Romero, S Agra; Blanco, J J Blanco; Bonaselt, I Tortajada; Mahia, M C García; del Valle, E Ferrer Gómez; Yañez, P Quiroga; Camarasa, M Gelabert; Alonso, J A Barbado; Mendez, G Florez; Feliz, F Doce; Lamela, M A López; Piñero, M Vega; Alvarado, P Fuentes; Gómez, I López; Martín, P Fadon; Gómez, J L Santos; López, A García; Jiménez, A Rodríguez; Nafs, A Escudero; Barquero, N Casas; Ortiz, R Fernández-Villamor; Noguera, J L Velez; Carrasco, P Ruiz; Muñoz, J Martín; Palma, M Masegoza; Hortelano, C Marín; Bonome, L Sánchez; Sevilla, J Sánchez; Juan, J M Mongil San; Ramos, J M García; Muñoz, J L Vallejo; Guisasola, J Elorza; Vazquez, L Santamaria; Guerras, F Campo; Nebot, F J Arrufat; Fernández, F J Baron; Nicolau, A L Palomo; Subirats, R Catala; Kidias, M Messays; Navarro, V Fabregat; García, B Frades; del Rosal, F Mejias; de Vicente Muñoz, T; Ballester, J Año; Lieb, P Malabia; Martel, A Delgado; Bea, E Roca; Joaquim, I Grau; Enjuanes, F Boatas; Piñol, M Bañuelos; Carbonell, E Fontova I; Muñoz, R Martín; Giribets, C Argila; Sans, L Albages; Blanco, A Serrano; Felipe, M Arcega; Muñoz, P González; Villanueva, A Pons; Arroyo, M Bernardo; Borri, R Coronas; Fallada, S Miret; Merola, M Celma; Rodon, E Parellada; Palmes, J R Pigem; Martínez, E Pérez; Catala, J Matarredona; Coca, A Sandoval; Ferrandiz, F Pascual; Paya, E Ferrandiz; Caballero, G Iturri; Bonet, A Franco; Figueras, J Fluvia; Pagador, P Moreno; Garibo, M Medina; Camo, V Pérez; Carrillo, C Sanz; Valero, C Pelegrin; Rebollo, F J Caro; García Campayo, J; Sala Ayma, J M Sala; Roig, M Martínez; de Uña Mateos, M A; Bertolin, R García; García, A Martín; Mazo, F Jiménez; Velasco, J L Galvez; Pérez, L Santa Maria; Casado, C Jiménez; Barba, J J Mancheño; Diaz, M Conde; Rubio, J P Alcon; Mandoli, A Soler; Herrero, A Uson; Martínez, A Rodríguez; Serrano, P Salgado; Rodríguez, E Nieto; Montesinos, J Segui; Macia, J Ferragud; Mateos Marcos, A Mateos; Soto, J V Pérez-Fuster; Dumont, M Verdaguer; Pagan, J Parra; Martínez, V Balanza; Santiuste de Pablos, M; Delgado, C Espinosa; Quiles, M D Martínez; López, F J Manzanera; Navarro, P Pozo; Torres, A Micol; Ingles, F J Martínez; Arias-Camison, J M Salmeron; Manzano, J C López; Peña, R Villanueva; Guitarte, G Petersen; Fontecilla, H Blasco; Romero, J Barjau; Gil, R Sanz; Lozano, J Marín; Adanez, L Donaire; Zarranz Herrera-Oria, I; Jiménez, J Pérez; Vaz, F Carrato; García, O Sanz; Anton, C Contreras; Casula, R Reixach; Hernandez, M C Natividad; Escabias, F Teba; Torresano, J Rodríguez; Pérez-Villamil, A Huidobro; Estevez, L; Figuero, M Aragües; Muñoz de Morales, A; Calvin, J L Rodríguez; Criado, M Delgado; Rodríguez, V Molina; Ambrosolio, E Balbo; Madera, P M Holgado; Alfaro, G Ponce; Vidal, M M Rojas; Valtuille, A García; Ruiz, O; Cabornero, G Lucas; Echevarria Martínez de Bujo, M; Mallen, M J Maicas; Puigros, J Santandreu; Martorell, A Liñana; Forteza, A Clar; Arrebola, E Rodríguez; Rodríguez de la Torre, M; Saiz, C G Anton; Bardolet I Casas, C; Linde, E Rodríguez; De Arce Cordon, R; Molina, E M Padial; Carazo, F J Ruiz; Romero, J J Muro; Cano, D Vico; Dorado, M Soria; Velazquez, S Campos; Sánchez, A J Rodríguez; Leon, S Ocio; Sánchez, K Pachas; Benitez, M Henry; Zugarramurai, A Intxausti; Contreras, M A; De la Varga González, M; Marín, P Barreiro; Robina, F Gómez; García, M Sánchez; Pérez, F J Otero; Bros, P Cubero; Gómez, A Carrillo; de Dios Molina Martín, J; Perera, J L Carrasco; Averbach, M C; Perera, J L Carrasco; Palancares, E Goenaga; Gallego de Dios, M T; Rojo, C Fernández; Iglesias, S Sánchez; Merino, M I Rubio; Mestre, N Prieto; Urdaniz, A Pérez; Sánchez, J M Martínez; Seco, R Gordo; Muñoz, J Franco; Agut, M Mateos; Lozano, M L Blanco; Herguedas, F Martín; Pena, A Torcal; García, J Vicente; Martínez, A Varona; Sanz Granado, O Sanz; Fernández, M A Medina; Canseco, J M Moran; López, P A Megia; Martín, M A Franco; Barrio, J A Espina; Ubago, J Giner; Bennassar, M Roca; Díez, J M Olivares; Fleta, J L Hernandez; Fortes, F Porras; López, C Arango; Medina, O; Alvarez, D Figuera; Roca, J M Peña; Valladolid, G Rubio; Tavera, J A Furquet; García-Castrillon Sales, J A; Llordes, I Batalla; Melgarejo, C Anchuistegui; Cañas de la Paz, F; Callol, V Vallés; García, M Bousoño; García, J Bobes; Leal, F J Vaz; Corrales, E Cáceres; Iglesias, E Sánchez; Gómez, M A Carreiras; Serrano, G García; Chillarón, E G Román; Aguado, F J Samino; Castillo, J J Molina; González, A González; Vázquez, J Gallardo; Peralvarez, M Bolivar; Diaz, M Rios; Mesa, M Ybarzabal; Artiles, F J Acosta; Chao, M Ajoy; Mesa, M Ybarzabal; del Rosario Santana, P; Escudero, M A García; Berenguer, M Molla; Llacer, J M Bonete; Berna, J A Juan; Ortiz, J Barragán; Pardell, L Tost; Hernández-Alvarez de Sotomayor, C; Méndez, M R Cejas; Garate, R Cabrera; Múgica, B Díaz; González, M Caballero; Domingo, J Pujol; Navarro, C Sáez; Vera, G Selva; Cuquerella, M A; Monzo, J Lonjedo; Boada, P Cervera; Pérez, M F Martín; Parrado, E Carrasco; Sánchez, J J Yañez; Fernández, J Calvo
The electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR) is a prospective, observational study of patients with schizophrenia designed to evaluate long-term treatment outcomes in routine clinical practice. Parameters were assessed at baseline and at 3 month intervals for 2 years in patients initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) (n=1345) or a new oral antipsychotic (AP) (n=277; 35.7% and 36.5% on risperidone and olanzapine, respectively) in Spain. Hospitalization prior to therapy was assessed by a retrospective chart review. At 24 months, treatment retention (81.8% for RLAI versus 63.4% for oral APs, p<0.0001) and reduction in Clinical Global Impression Severity scores (-1.14 for RLAI versus -0.94 for APs, p=0.0165) were significantly higher with RLAI. Compared to the pre-switch period, RLAI patients had greater reductions in the number (reduction of 0.37 stays per patient versus 0.2, p<0.05) and days (18.74 versus 13.02, p<0.01) of hospitalizations at 24 months than oral AP patients. This 2 year, prospective, observational study showed that, compared to oral antipsychotics, RLAI was associated with better treatment retention, greater improvement in clinical symptoms and functioning, and greater reduction in hospital stays and days in hospital in patients with schizophrenia. Improved treatment adherence, increased efficacy and reduced hospitalization with RLAI offer the opportunity of substantial therapeutic improvement in schizophrenia.
de Waal, Eric J; Roosen, Wendy; Vinken, Petra; Vandenberghe, John; Sterkens, Patrick; Lammens, Lieve
RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®) is a long-acting, intramuscular formulation of risperidone microspheres for the biweekly treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In a 24-month carcinogenicity study male and female Wistar Hannover rats received RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®) by intramuscular injection at dosages of 5 or 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. Bone changes described as "osteodystrophy" were observed by routine microscopic examination at 40 mg/kg in the sternum of female rats after 12 months, and in the sternum and stifle joint of both male and female rats after 24 months of treatment, respectively. To investigate the etiology of these bone changes, a 12-month mechanistic study was conducted in female Wistar Hannover rats at dosages of 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In addition to routine parameters, this study included bone markers, hormone measurements, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone density measurements. It revealed a treatment-related reduction in metaphyseal trabecular bone density of the femur and tibia at 20 and 40 mg/kg, which was evident in the tibia from Week 13 of treatment onwards. There was no convincing evidence for any of the modes of action known to underlie trabecular bone loss in rats including renal, nutritional, or hepatic osteodystrophy, estrogen deficiency, hyperthyroidism or glucocorticoid excess. It is hypothetized that prolonged hyperprolactinemia accompanied by an increase in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels and a slight hypoestrogenic state could have caused the reduced trabecular bone density in RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®)-treated rats. The relevance of this finding in terms of human risk is unknown.
Laffont, Celine M; Gomeni, Roberto; Zheng, Bo; Heidbreder, Christian; Fudala, Paul J; Nasser, Azmi F
RBP-7000 is a long-acting formulation of risperidone designed for once-monthly subcutaneous injection for the treatment of schizophrenia. The objective was to estimate clinically effective doses of RBP-7000 based on model simulations and on the comparison with other long-acting injectable antipsychotics. A population pharmacokinetic model of RBP-7000 was developed in 90 clinically stable schizophrenic patients having received single/repeated doses of 60, 90, or 120 mg. Model simulations were conducted to compare active moiety plasma exposure after repeated RBP-7000 administrations to the published data of long-acting risperidone injection (Risperdal® Consta®) at 25 and 50 mg, and of paliperidone palmitate (Invega® Sustenna®) at 50 and 100 mg equivalent paliperidone. Predictions of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy were derived from the simulated active moiety concentrations. Simulations showed similar active moiety plasma exposure at steady-state for 90 mg of RBP-7000 and 25 mg of long-acting risperidone. In comparison to risperidone, RBP-7000 reached effective concentrations immediately after the first administration. RBP-7000 at the doses of 60 and 90 mg provided similar active moiety plasma concentrations at steady-state compared to 50 and 100 mg equivalent paliperidone, respectively. These findings provide guidance for dose selection in Phase III clinical trials and suggest potential benefits for RBP-7000 over competitors.
Risperidone long-acting injectable in the treatment of treatment-resistant schizophrenia with dopamine supersensitivity psychosis: Results of a 2-year prospective study, including an additional 1-year follow-up.
Kimura, Hiroshi; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Naoya; Ishige, Minoru; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Ino, Hidetoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Yamanaka, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Komatsu, Hideki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Eiji; Iyo, Masaomi
Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) resulting from antipsychotic treatment is related to treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), and its treatment has not been established to date. Maintaining thoroughly stable occupancy of the dopamine D2 receptor by risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) is one strategy for treatment. In this study, RLAI was given as an adjunctive medication to oral antipsychotic(s), which were switched partially and gradually to RLAI in 108 treatment-resistant patients for an additional 1-year follow-up in a 2-year study, and to compare the effects in 72 patients with a DSP history (DSP group) and 36 patients without this history (NonDSP group). Although both groups showed significant improvements in the total Brief Psychotic Rating Scale (BPRS) score during the follow-up period, greater improvement was observed for the DSP group than the NonDSP group. High doses (> 850 mg chlorpromazine-dose combined of oral antipsychotics and RLAI) did not significantly change in both groups throughout the study period; however, extrapyramidal symptoms, including tardive dyskinesia, were significantly improved only in the patients with DSP. This study strongly suggested that the RLAI treatment, even with only partial switching, provides relief from refractory symptoms, particularly for patients with a history of DSP. http://www.umin.ac.jp/:UMIN000008487. © The Author(s) 2016.
Fernández-Miranda, Juan J; Caramés-García, Victoria; Sánchez-García, Arantxa
Tolerability and effectiveness of antipsychotics are important to increase treatment compliance in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate effectiveness, tolerability, and adherence to treatment with high doses of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) in patients with severe schizophrenia.It is a 3-year prospective, observational study of patients with severe (Clinical Global Impression Severity scale [CGI-S] score of ≥5) schizophrenia according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. Subjects were the consecutive 60 who first underwent treatment with RLAI with doses of 75 mg or higher every 14 days to get clinical stabilization.Assessment included the following: CGI-S, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN), Medication Adherence Rating Scale, laboratory tests, weight, and hospital admissions.The mean (SD) dose of RLAI was 111.2 (9.1) mg per 14 days. Tolerability was good and there were almost no interruptions due to adverse effects or to relevant biological parameters alterations. Also, weight gain was not significant.Retention rate in treatment after 3 years was 95%. Clinical Global Impression Severity (P < 0.01) and Camberwell Assessment of Need (P < 0.01) decreased and also Disability Assessment Schedule in the 4 areas (P < 0.01). Medication Adherence Rating Scale score increased from 3.6 (0.7) to 8.9 (0.9) (P < 0.001). There were significantly few hospital admissions than during the previous 36 months (1.9 [1.3] vs 0.31 [0.2], P < 0.001).As a conclusion, we highlight that the effectiveness and tolerability of 75 mg or higher every 14 days of RLAI were high, being useful in improving treatment adherence in patients with severe schizophrenia, getting good clinical and functional outcomes.
For over 40 years, antipsychotic drugs have been used as long-term maintenance treatment to control symptoms and reduce relapse rates in patients with schizophrenia. 'First-generation' oral agents such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine are associated with high levels of unwanted neurological effects and poor rates of patient adherence.1,2 Long-acting ('depot') injections of antipsychotics were developed to try to improve adherence. 'Second-generation' antipsychotic agents (also known as atypical antipsychotics) were introduced into clinical practice over 16 years ago. Although these agents have a lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal side effects, they are associated with a range of other unwanted effects (e.g. weight gain and its sequelae).1,3,4 Initially, second-generation agents were only available as orally administered medicines. Three long-acting injectable formulations of second-generation antipsychotics are now available in the UK: olanzapine embonate injection (ZypAdhera), paliperidone injection (Xeplion) and risperidone injection (Risperdal Consta). In this article we review the evidence for these agents and discuss the practical implications of their use.
Wehring, Heidi J.; Thedford, Sheryl; Koola, Maju; Kelly, Deanna L.
Olanzapine long acting injection has joined risperidone and paliperidone as the second generation long acting antipsychotic injection options for treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Long acting injections are important alternatives to oral medications for patients who have difficulty adhering to daily or multiple daily medication administrations, yet may be underutilized or not well understood. Patient perceptions, adherence, and preferences are important issues for health care providers to address when discussing treatment options with their patients. Reviewed here are overall patient and health care provider attitudes and perceptions regarding long acting injections and the details of olanzapine long acting injectable, the newest agent, and how it will fit in the marketplace. In addition, efficacy, safety, dosing and use data regarding this newest long acting agent are reviewed and compared to other available long acting agents. PMID:23293546
Sampson, Stephanie; Hosalli, Prakash; Furtado, Vivek A; Davis, John M
Risperidone is the first new generation antipsychotic drug made available in a long-acting injection formulation. To examine the effects of depot risperidone for treatment of schizophrenia or related psychoses in comparison with placebo, no treatment or other antipsychotic medication.To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, cost and cost-effectiveness of risperidone (depot) for schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (December 2002, 2012, and October 28, 2015). We also checked the references of all included studies, and contacted industry and authors of included studies. Randomised clinical trials comparing depot risperidone with other treatments for people with schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. Twelve studies, with a total of 5723 participants were randomised to the following comparison treatments: Risperidone depot versus placebo Outcomes of relapse and improvement in mental state were neither measured or reported. In terms of other primary outcomes, more people receiving placebo left the study early by 12 weeks (1 RCT, n=400, RR 0.74 95% CI 0.63 to 0.88, very low quality evidence), experienced severe adverse events in short term (1 RCT, n=400, RR 0.59 95% CI 0.38 to 0.93, very low quality evidence). There was however, no difference in levels of weight gain between groups (1 RCT, n=400, RR 2.11 95% CI 0.48 to 9.18, very low quality evidence). Risperidone depot versus general oral antipsychotics The outcome of improvement in mental state was not presented due to high levels of attrition, nor were levels of severe adverse events explicitly reported
Steroids can be administered in at least five different ways: injectables; hormone-releasing intra-uterine devices (IUDs); implants; vaginal rings; and pills. Progestogens which are synthetic steroids, are used as the main bioactive substances. Different progestogens are effective for different periods of time. Progestins in daily oral pills are effective for 24 hours. The effectiveness of a progestogen can be prolonged by incorporating it in a sustained-release system that gradually releases the hormone; therefore they can be effective up to 5 years or more. Two progestogen-only injectables are widely available in the family planning programmes, (DMPA and NET-EN) and two combined injectables, Cyclofem (DMPA + EC), and Mesigyna (NET-EN + EV). The ring is placed by the woman in her vagina, where it gradually releases hormone. Implantable contraceptives are placed just under the skin on the inside of the woman's arm. Implant capsules release the progestogen at a slow, steady rate. There are three implantables available in the market: Implanon; Norplant; and Jadelle. They are effective for 1-5 years, but then must be replaced. Natural and synthetic progestogens were first added to IUDs in the early 1970s. The main problem of long-acting progestogens is the disruption of the menstrual cycle.
Rawat, Archana; Stippler, Erika; Shah, Vinod P; Burgess, Diane J
The current manuscript addresses the need for a validated in vitro release testing method for controlled release parenteral microspheres. A USP apparatus 4 method was validated with the objective of possible compendial adaptation for microsphere in vitro release testing. Commercial microspheres (Risperdal Consta) were used for method validation. Accelerated and real-time release tests were conducted. The accelerated method had significantly reduced test duration and showed a good correlation with the real-time release profile (with limited number of sample analysis). Accelerated conditions were used for method validation (robustness and reproducibility). The robustness testing results revealed that release from the microspheres was not flow rate dependent and was not affected by minor variations in the method (such as cell preparation technique, amount of microspheres, flow-through cell size and size of glass beads). The significant difference in the release profile with small variations (± 0.5°C) in temperature was shown to be due to a change in risperidone catalyzed PLGA degradation in response to temperature. The accelerated method was reproducible as changing the system/equipment or the analyst did not affect the release profile. This work establishes the suitability of the modified USP apparatus 4 for possible compendial adaptation for drug release testing of microspheres.
Park, Eun Ji; Amatya, Sarmila; Kim, Myung Sun; Park, Jong Hoon; Seol, Eunyoung; Lee, Heeyong; Shin, Young-Hee; Na, Dong Hee
Antipsychotic drugs have been used to treat patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs are useful for improving medication compliance with a better therapeutic option to treat patients who lack insight or adhere poorly to oral medication. Several long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs are clinically available. Haloperidol decanoate and fluphenazine decanoate are first-generation depot drugs, but the use of these medicines has declined since the advent of second-generation depot agents, such as long-acting risperidone, paliperidone palmitate, and olanzapine pamoate. The second-generation depot drugs are better tolerated and have fewer adverse neurological side effects. Long-acting injectable risperidone, the first depot formulation of an atypical antipsychotic drug, was prepared by encapsulating risperidone into biodegradable microspheres. Paliperidone palmitate is an aqueous suspension of nanocrystal molecules, and olanzapine pamoate is a microcrystalline salt of olanzapine and pamoic acid suspended in aqueous solution. This review summarizes the characteristics and recent research of formulations of each long-acting injectable antipsychotic drug.
Melani, Andrea S
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of COPD pharmacological treatment. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are a major class of inhaled bronchodilators. Some LAMA/device systems with different characteristics and dosing schedules are currently approved for maintenance therapy of COPD and a range of other products are being developed. They improve lung function and patient-reported outcomes and reduce acute bronchial exacerbations with good safety. LAMAs are used either alone or associated with long-acting β₂-agonists, eventually in fixed dose combinations. Long-acting β₂-agonist/LAMA combinations assure additional benefits over the individual components alone. The reader will obtain a view of the safety and efficacy of the different LAMA/device systems in COPD patients.
Long-acting injectable (depot) antipsychotics are one approach in the management of individuals with schizophrenia. Since the introduction of risperidone long-acting injection in 2003, three additional second-generation antipsychotics have become available in a long-acting injectable formulation: paliperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole. Although these different depot options can help with adherence and thus encourage better treatment outcomes, they differ in terms of specific indications, approved injection sites, needle gauge, injection volume, injection interval, requirements for oral supplementation, availability of prefilled syringes, storage needs and postinjection observation period, as well as potential drug-drug interactions and commonly encountered adverse reactions. After a review of the evidence base, guidance is offered on the appropriate selection among the long-acting injectable formulations of both first and second-generation antipsychotics.
Peck, Susan A
Although short-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives, such as oral contraceptives and the contraceptive patch and vaginal ring, remain the most commonly used contraceptive methods in the United States, they are also associated with the highest failure rates. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods, such as intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants, offer high continuation rates and very low failure rates, and are safe for use in most women. The provision of LARC methods to adolescent, young adult and nulliparous women is a relatively new concept that offers an innovative option for these populations.
Kaunitz, A M
Long-acting contraceptive methods are appropriate choices for women who prefer the convenience and high contraceptive efficacy of methods not requiring frequent compliance, and women for whom contraceptive doses of estrogen are either medically contraindicated or associated with persistent intolerable side effects. Annual pregnancy rates for the three methods described below are less than 1 per 100 woman-years. As currently formulated, levonorgestrel implants (Norplant) consist of six 34 x 2.4 mm soft plastic implants, each filled with 36 mg of crystalline levonorgestrel. Irregular and often persistent menstrual bleeding and spotting constitute the most important side effects experienced by and leading to method discontinuation in implant users. Implant removal is technically more difficult and time-consuming than insertion. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA or Depo-Provera) is injected as an aqueous suspension of microcrystals. Intramuscular injection of 150 mg of DMPA results in more than 3 months of contraception. Irregular bleeding and spotting followed by amenorrhea, constitute the most importance side effects experienced by DMPA users. Because DMPA use can result in prolonged (but not permanent) infertility, DMPA is not an optimum contraceptive choice for women who may want to conceive in the next one or two years. The Copper T380A intrauterine device (IUD) provides reversible contraception for up to 10 years. IUDs act as contraceptives, not early abortafacients. Recent epidemiologic data indicate that long-term IUD use does not increase the occurrence of pelvic inflammatory disease. Heavier menstrual flow and cramps constitute the main side effects experienced by women using the copper IUD. Intrauterine device insertion and removal are accomplished during brief office-based procedures.
Oya, Kazuto; Iwata, Nakao
Background: This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials aimed to examine the advantages of long-acting injectable antipsychotics over placebo or oral medications regarding efficacy and safety for patients with bipolar disorder. Methods: Two categorical meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials were performed to compare study-defined relapse rate (primary), discontinuation rates, and individual adverse events: (1) risperidone-long-acting injectable vs placebo, and (2) long-acting injectable antipsychotics vs oral medications. Results: We identified 7 randomized controlled trials (n=1016; long-acting injectable antipsychotics [flupenthixol (1 randomized controlled trial) and risperidone (6 randomized controlled trials)=449]; oral medications [mood stabilizers, antidepressants, antipsychotic, or any combination of these agents=283]; and placebo=284). Risperidone-long-acting injectable antipsychotic was superior to placebo for study-defined relapse rate (risk ratio=0.63, P<.0001), relapse of manic symptoms (risk ratio=0.42, P<.00001), and all-cause discontinuation (risk ratio=0.75, P=.007). Risperidone-long-acting injectable was associated with higher incidence of prolactin-related adverse events (risk ratio=4.82, P=.001) and weight gain (risk ratio=3.80, P<.0001) than placebo. The pooled long-acting injectable antipsychotics did not outperform oral medications regarding primary outcome but with significant heterogeneity (I2=74%). Sensitivity analysis, including only studies with rapid cycling or high frequency of relapse patients, revealed that long-acting injectable antipsychotics were superior compared to oral medications (I2=0%, RR=0.58, P=.0004). However, the comparators in this sensitivity analysis did not include second-generation antipsychotic monotherapy. In sensitivity analysis, including only studies with second-generation antipsychotic monotherapy as the comparator, long-acting injectable antipsychotics did not outperform second
Alphs, Larry; Nasrallah, Henry A; Bossie, Cynthia A; Fu, Dong-Jing; Gopal, Srihari; Hough, David; Turkoz, Ibrahim
Many patients with schizophrenia will relapse despite uninterrupted antipsychotic (AP) long-acting therapy (LAT). This exploratory analysis examined variables associated with relapse despite ensured adherence to LAT. This was a post-hoc exploratory analysis of a 1-year study of risperidone long-acting injection in patients with stable schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (NCT00297388; N=323). Patients were discontinued from previous oral APs and randomly assigned to biweekly intramuscular injections of risperidone long-acting injectable 50 (n=163) or 25 mg (n=161) for 52 weeks. Cox proportional hazards regression models examined variables putatively associated with relapse. A total of 59/323 (18.3%) patients relapsed over 12 months despite continuous AP LAT. Variables associated with the risk of relapse included illness duration (6.0% increase each year; P=0.0003) and country (Canada vs. USA, 4.7-fold risk increase; P=0.0008). When illness duration was further categorized as ≤5, 6-10, and >10 years, patients with an illness duration of >10 versus ≤5 years were at greatest risk of relapse (>10 vs. ≤5 years associated with a 4.4-fold increase in the risk of relapse; P=0.0181). Findings suggest that patients with more chronic illness have a greater risk of relapse despite ensured treatment adherence, supporting the need for early intervention to prevent the deleterious effects of chronicity.
Sisk, A. L.
Long-acting local anesthetics have proved to be effective for the suppression of both intraoperative and postoperative pain. They are useful for lengthy dental treatments and for prevention of severe pain following many types of surgical procedures. Although the currently available long-acting local anesthetics for dentistry have minimal side effects in the doses usually employed, there are potential problems. Bupivacaine, for example, can cause significant cardiac depressant and dysrhythmogenic responses. Etidocaine has less pronounced effects on the cardiovascular system, but its use may be associated with inadequate control of intraoperative bleeding. A new long-acting local anesthetic, ropivacaine, appears to offer advantages over either of the currently used long-acting agents. PMID:1308373
Sisk, A L
Long-acting local anesthetics have proved to be effective for the suppression of both intraoperative and postoperative pain. They are useful for lengthy dental treatments and for prevention of severe pain following many types of surgical procedures. Although the currently available long-acting local anesthetics for dentistry have minimal side effects in the doses usually employed, there are potential problems. Bupivacaine, for example, can cause significant cardiac depressant and dysrhythmogenic responses. Etidocaine has less pronounced effects on the cardiovascular system, but its use may be associated with inadequate control of intraoperative bleeding. A new long-acting local anesthetic, ropivacaine, appears to offer advantages over either of the currently used long-acting agents.
Boerth, Joel M; Caley, Charles F; Goethe, John W
Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic commonly used for treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Although therapeutic drug monitoring is not routine for any of the atypical antipsychotics, serum antipsychotic concentrations are measured routinely to assess treatment nonadherence. In humans, risperidone is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 to 9-hydroxyrisperidone; together these constitute the active moiety. Dose-proportional increases in serum concentrations have not been reported for the parent drug, but have been reported for 9-hydroxyrisperidone and the active moiety (i.e., the combined concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone). We describe a 34-year-old Caucasian man of Sicilian descent with a history of schizophrenia, disorganized type. He was suspected to be noncompliant with his risperidone therapy. Initially, active moiety risperidone concentrations increased linearly with prescribed dosage increases. However, with continued increases, active moiety concentrations adjusted downward and remained 17-36% below anticipated levels. We propose a method for estimating target active moiety concentrations of risperidone based on dosage-a method that may be used to guide clinicians in assessing nonadherence to risperidone treatment.
Wu, Chi-Shin; Cheng, I-Chih; Feng, Jung; Chen, Chun-Lin
To assess the comparative effectiveness and medical costs of five long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, flupentixol, fluphenazine, haloperidol, risperidone, and clopentixol/zuclopentixol, in patients with schizophrenia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with schizophrenia using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients aged 15years or older who began treatment with LAI antipsychotics between June 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008 were enrolled and followed for 1year. We evaluated the medical costs and treatment effectiveness, which was assessed using the rates of treatment discontinuation, psychiatric hospitalization, and emergency department visits. Risperidone was used as a reference group. Compared to risperidone, flupentixol was associated with higher hazard ratios of treatment discontinuation and psychiatric hospitalization, fluphenazine was associated with higher hazard ratios of treatment discontinuation, and haloperidol was associated with higher rates of psychiatric hospitalization and emergence department visits. However, fluphenazine, flupentixol, and haloperidol were associated with lower medical costs compared to risperidone. Clopentixol/zuclopentixol was inferior to risperidone in treatment effectiveness and medical cost. Our findings suggest that patients taking the LAI risperidone may be more effective in some but not all outcome measures; however, risperidone was also associated with higher medical costs in the Taiwanese healthcare setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Molina-Andreu, Oriol; Penadés, Rafael; Bernardo, Miquel; Catalán, Rosa
The presence of nonprominent hallucinations in delusional disorder (DD) has been accepted by the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. A recent meta-analysis revealed that patients with schizophrenia treated with long-acting atypical antipsychotics showed a significant improvement in psychotic symptoms. However, little research has been conducted on DD. Our goal was to investigate demographic and clinical differences between two subgroups of DD patients, those with nonprominent hallucinations and those without hallucinations, and to determine treatment effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics in these patients. We conducted a longitudinal observational study with a 6-month follow-up period in a clinical group of 45 DD outpatients. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Personal and Social Performance Scale, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HRSD-17) were used for assessment. Age at onset of DD, scores in baseline assessment scales, and drug compliance were included in the analysis as potential confounders. When uncorrected for influencing factors, patients treated with long-acting antipsychotics showed lower scores in PANSS positive and negative subscales. There were no statistically significant clinical subgroup×treatment group interactions for any of the scores in assessment scales at 6 months. After adjustment, patients treated with long-acting antipsychotics showed lower scores in the PANSS negative subscale and a tendency toward improvement in scores in the PANSS positive subscale. Our study suggests that risperidone long-acting injection and paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection may be useful in the treatment of DD patients, specifically those with nonprominent hallucinations.
Shen, Jie; Choi, Stephanie; Qu, Wen; Wang, Yan; Burgess, Diane J
The objective of the present study was to determine whether an in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) can be established for polymeric microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but prepared with different manufacturing processes. Risperidone was chosen as a model therapeutic and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with similar molecular weight as that used in the commercial product Risperdal® Consta® was used to prepare risperidone microspheres. Various manufacturing processes were investigated to produce the risperidone microspheres with similar drug loading (approx. 37%) but distinctly different physicochemical properties (e.g. porosity, particle size and particle size distribution). In vitro release of the risperidone microspheres was investigated using different release testing methods (such as sample-and-separate and USP apparatus 4). In vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of the risperidone microsphere formulations following intramuscular administration were determined using a rabbit model. Furthermore, the obtained pharmacokinetic profiles were deconvoluted using the Loo-Riegelman method and the calculated in vivo release was compared with the in vitro release of these microspheres. Level A IVIVCs were established and validated for the compositionally equivalent risperidone microspheres based on the in vitro release data obtained using USP apparatus 4. The developed IVIVCs demonstrated good predictability and were robust. These results showed that the developed USP apparatus 4 method was capable of discriminating PLGA microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but with manufacturing differences and predicting their in vivo performance in the investigated animal model.
Montemagni, Cristiana; Frieri, Tiziana; Rocca, Paola
Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) were developed to make treatment easier, improve adherence, and/or signal the clinician when nonadherence occurs. Second-generation antipsychotic LAIs (SGA-LAIs) combine the advantages of SGA with a long-acting formulation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the available literature concerning the impact of SGA-LAIs on patient functioning and quality of life (QOL). Although several studies regarding schizophrenia patients’ functioning and QOL have been performed, the quantity of available data still varies greatly depending on the SGA-LAI under investigation. After reviewing the literature, it seems that SGA-LAIs are effective in ameliorating patient functioning and/or QOL of patients with schizophrenia, as compared with placebo. However, while methodological design controversy exists regarding the superiority of risperidone LAI versus oral antipsychotics, the significant amount of evidence in recently published research demonstrates the beneficial influence of risperidone LAI on patient functioning and QOL in stable patients and no benefit over oral treatment in unstable patients. However, the status of the research on SGA-LAIs is lacking in several aspects that may help physicians in choosing the correct drug therapy. Meaningful differences have been observed between SGA-LAIs in the onset of their clinical efficacy and in the relationships between symptoms and functioning scores. Moreover, head-to-head studies comparing the effects of SGA-LAIs on classical measures of psychopathology and functioning are available mainly on risperidone LAI, while those comparing olanzapine LAI with other SGA-LAIs are still lacking. Lastly, some data on their use, especially in first-episode or recent-onset schizophrenia and in refractory or treatment-resistant schizophrenia, is available. PMID:27143893
Medication non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia continues to be a significant problem and threatens successful treatment outcomes. Medication non-adherence is often associated with negative consequences, including symptom exacerbation, more frequent emergency room visits, re-hospitalizations and relapse. Long-acting injectable (LAI) forms of antipsychotics allow for rapid identification of non-adherence, obviate the need for the patient to take the medication on a daily basis and increase adherence to some significant degree. Eli Lilly has developed a long-acting depot formulation of olanzapine, olanzapine pamoate, which has recently been approved by the FDA for the US market, and which will be reviewed here. Olanzapine LAI appears to be an effective antipsychotic at dosages of 210 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks and 405 mg every 4 weeks in patients with acute schizophrenia, and at 150 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks and at 405 mg every 4 weeks for the maintenance treatment of stable patients. Oral supplementation appears not to be needed, particularly not at the onset of treatment with the LAI as is necessary with risperidone LAI. Its efficacy is in general comparable to the efficacy seen with oral olanzapine at a corresponding dose. The side effect profile is also comparable to the side effects observed with oral olanzapine, including lower rates of extrapyramidal symptoms, prolactin elevation and cardiovascular side effects, but significant metabolic effects. The latter include significant weight gain, lipid abnormalities and glucose dysregulation. While the injection site adverse events are overall mild, the most significant serious adverse event is the post-injection delirium sedation syndrome (PDSS). While rare, this syndrome results from inadvertent intravascular injection of olanzapine LAI and can cause a range of olanzapine overdose-type of symptoms. Olanzapine LAI needs therefore to be administered by trained personnel in settings
Achilla, Evanthia; McCrone, Paul
Antipsychotic medication is the mainstay of treatment in schizophrenia. Long-acting medication has potential advantages over daily medication in improving compliance and thus reducing hospitalization and relapse rates. The high acquisition and administration costs of such formulations raise the need for pharmacoeconomic evaluation. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the available evidence on the cost effectiveness of long-acting/extended-release antipsychotic medication and critically appraise the strength of evidence reported in the studies from a methodological viewpoint. Relevant studies were identified by searching five electronic databases: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database and the Health Technology Assessment database (HTA). Search terms included, but were not limited to, 'long-acting injection', 'economic evaluation', 'cost-effectiveness' and 'cost-utility'. No limits were applied for publication dates and language. Full economic evaluations on long-acting/extended-release antipsychotics were eligible for inclusion. Observational studies and clinical trials were also checked for cost-effectiveness information. Conference abstracts and poster presentations on the cost effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics were excluded. Thirty-two percent of identified studies met the selection criteria. Pertinent abstracts were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevant studies underwent data extraction by one reviewer and were checked by a second, with any discrepancies being clarified during consensus meetings. Eligible studies were assessed for methodological quality using the quality checklist for economic studies recommended by the NICE guideline on interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia. After applying the selection criteria, the final sample consisted of 28 studies. The majority of studies demonstrated that risperidone long-acting injection, relative to oral or other long-acting
Fontenot, Holly B; Fantasia, Heidi Collins
In 2013 and 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publicized its recommendations for the use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) (including intrauterine devices and implants) as first-line, highly effective options for pregnancy prevention. The use of LARC by adolescents has had growing support by national health and women's health organizations. Ongoing research is beginning to uncover facilitators and barriers to LARC use in adolescents. The purpose of this column is to highlight two recent U.S.-based studies in which researchers examined perspectives related to and factors associated with LARC use in adolescent and young adult women.
Long-acting steroid contraceptive technologies that have either been recently approved or are currently under study are reviewed and the status of contraceptive research in the US is noted. The benefits and drawbacks, as well as the duration and possible cost, of each method are discussed. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration on December 10, 1990, Norplant is reportedly the first new contraceptive technology available to women in the US since the 1960s. This implant delivery system, which lasts up to 5 years, is cheaper than the pill and nearly as effective as sterilization. Study is currently under way on other multiyear, nonbiodegradable and biodegradable implants. Although already used by 4 million women worldwide, the long-acting injectable Depo-Provera has yet to be approved for use in the US. 5 new types of injectables are being developed. Steroid-containing IUDs have been in the market for some time, and current research is attempting to increase their contraceptive life beyond 1 year. Contraceptive developers are also exploring transdermal delivery systems, vaginal rings, and buccal and sublingual delivery. It is considered misleading to call Norplant the first new contraceptive introduced since the pill. Over the past 20 years, virtually every contraceptive has been significantly improved, developments that have enhanced the contraceptive options of couples. Because new contraceptive technologies are increasingly complex, their development is much slower. Consequently, it is concluded that in the foreseeable future, the demand for more acceptable contraceptives will be met through improvements of currently available technologies.
f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ184 CONTRACEPTION Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC): IUD and Implant • What are long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods? • How effective are LARC methods? • How ...
Rawat, Archana; Bhardwaj, Upkar; Burgess, Diane J
The objective was to investigate the relationship between in vitro and in vivo release of commercial Risperdal(®) Consta(®) microspheres. A modified USP apparatus 4 method was used for accelerated and real-time in vitro release testing. The in vivo plasma profile (clinical data) reported for the product was deconvoluted for comparison with the in vitro release profiles. The in vivo profile differed from the real-time in vitro profile and was faster initially and then slower after approximately 30 days. This effect is considered to be due to differences in the in vivo conditions such as small interstitial volume, low pH and immune response. Accelerated in vitro release profiles obtained at temperatures (50°C and 54.5°C) above the microsphere glass transition temperature (Tg∼48°C) overlapped with the in vivo profile after time scaling. A linear in vitro-in vivo relationship was observed with correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.99 at 50°C and 54.5°C, respectively. The accelerated test performed below the Tg had a similar release profile to that of the real-time in vitro test. The accelerated tests performed above the Tg of the microspheres showed the potential to be used for in vivo performance prediction as well as for quality control purposes.
Bardin, C W
Long-acting, injectable contraceptives first became available in the 1960s. It is currently estimated that almost 3.5 million women are now using depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA); 800,000 are using norethindrone enanthate (NET-EN), and another few hundred thousand are using a variety of once-a-month injectables comprised of progestin plus estrogen. The advantages of injectable contraceptives are that they are highly effective, independent of coitus, easily administered, and they ensure regular contact with health services personnel. The last factor may be considered a disadvantage by some, since contact is more frequent than would be required for routine health services. The major disadvantage of the progestin-only formulations is disruption of normal menses, giving rise to unpredicted episodes of bleeding and spotting. With the once-a-month formulation, on the other hand, there are few discontinuations due to disruption of menses. For a long-acting method to be used longer than 6 months, it is desirable to choose an implant, since the method can be discontinued at will. The first implant system to be developed was Norplant, a set of six rubber capsules filled with levonorgestrel and implanted under the skin. The implant releases sufficient levels of medication to protect against pregnancy. For the first 5 years, the average failure rate was four or five per thousand users per year. The failure rate for women using standard oral contraceptives is approximately 20 to 50 per thousand. The most common side effect of the implant method is the disruption of the menstrual cycle, an effect that is particularly marked in the first month of use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Risperidone is a relatively new antipsychotic available world-wide since the early 1990s. It has been characterised as atypical, but shares some of the extrapyramidal side-effect profile of the earlier antipsychotics, when used at doses higher than those recommended by the manufacturer (4-6 mg/day). There is now adequate comparison with conventional antipsychotics to suggest its superiority, but a depot formulation is needed to complete the picture.
D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar; DeLuca, Patrick
attaining steady state with Risperdal Consta® was attributed to the 3 week latency in drug release from the microspheres and was in accordance with previous studies indicating a good corroboration with clinical findings. Calculated cumulative AUC (area under the curve) levels for Formulation C were similar to the Risperdal Consta®, though there were marked differences in AUC levels at the early time points. Comparison of Risperidal Consta® and Formulation C by multiple dosing in vivo experiments revealed that the marketed preparation demonstrated a substantial delay in providing an initial loading dose, continuous circulating levels, and attainment of steady state; all of which were observed rapidly with Formulation C. Findings from the current study strongly suggest that a microsphere dosage form of Risperidone can be formulated with an optimum particle size and drug loading to provide an initial bolus followed by maintenance levels, thereby eliminating combination therapy and improving patient compliance.
Chou, Yuan Hwa; Chu, Po-Chung; Wu, Szu-Wei; Lee, Jen-Chin; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Sun, I-Wen; Chang, Chen-Lin; Huang, Chien-Liang; Liu, I-Chao; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Yen, Yung-Chieh
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric disorder that is easily misdiagnosed. Patient adherence to a treatment regimen is of utmost importance for successful outcomes in BD. Several trials of antipsychotics suggested that depot antipsychotics, including long-acting first- and second-generation agents, are effective in preventing non-adherence, partial adherence, and in reducing relapse in BD. Various long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are available, including fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, olanzapine pamoate, risperidone microspheres, paliperidone palmitate, and aripiprazole monohydrate. Due to the increasing number of BD patients receiving LAI antipsychotics, treatment guidelines have been developed. However, the clinical applicability of LAI antipsychotics remains a global cause for concern, particularly in Asian countries. Expert physicians from Taiwan participated in a consensus meeting, which was held to review key areas based on both current literature and clinical practice. The purpose of this meeting was to generate a practical and implementable set of recommendations for LAI antipsychotic use to treat BD; target patient groups, dosage, administration, and adverse effects were considered. Experts recommended using LAI antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia, rapid cycling BD, BD I, and bipolar-type schizoaffective disorder. LAI antipsychotic use was recommended in BD patients with the following characteristics: multiple episodes and low adherence; seldom yet serious episodes; low adherence potential per a physician’s clinical judgment; preference for injectable agents over oral agents; and multiple oral agent users still experiencing residual symptoms. PMID:26243837
Rauch, Anna-Sophia; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang
Antipsychotics are the mainstay of the long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia. In this context, the evidence also supports the effectiveness of long-acting injections (LAIs) or depots of antipsychotics regarding their relapse-preventing properties. When a LAI formulation of risperidone was launched as the first second-generation depot, there was a renaissance of interest in these formulations. In the meantime, olanzapine, paliperidone, and aripiprazole have been approved by regulatory authorities as LAIs in various countries. All studies using the new-generation depots have shown a clear advantage over placebo regarding relapse prevention and symptom reduction. Safety profiles of the long-acting compounds are comparable to their oral formulations with the exception of olanzapine pamoate injections, which can sometimes lead to a post-injection delirium. Despite the fact that many treatment guidelines recommend LAI antipsychotics as an important treatment option for the long-term management of schizophrenia, they are still most frequently used in chronically ill patients with considerable compliance problems. It is imperative to overcome this indication bias in order to be able to utilize all available treatment options in the long-term management of schizophrenia. There is little evidence on comparisons between LAIs and their oral mother compounds, and even less concerning effectiveness comparisons between different depots. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the recent clinical evidence on new-generation depot antipsychotics.
Chou, Yuan Hwa; Chu, Po-Chung; Wu, Szu-Wei; Lee, Jen-Chin; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Sun, I-Wen; Chang, Chen-Lin; Huang, Chien-Liang; Liu, I-Chao; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Yen, Yung-Chieh
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric disorder that is easily misdiagnosed. Patient adherence to a treatment regimen is of utmost importance for successful outcomes in BD. Several trials of antipsychotics suggested that depot antipsychotics, including long-acting first- and second-generation agents, are effective in preventing non-adherence, partial adherence, and in reducing relapse in BD. Various long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are available, including fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, olanzapine pamoate, risperidone microspheres, paliperidone palmitate, and aripiprazole monohydrate. Due to the increasing number of BD patients receiving LAI antipsychotics, treatment guidelines have been developed. However, the clinical applicability of LAI antipsychotics remains a global cause for concern, particularly in Asian countries. Expert physicians from Taiwan participated in a consensus meeting, which was held to review key areas based on both current literature and clinical practice. The purpose of this meeting was to generate a practical and implementable set of recommendations for LAI antipsychotic use to treat BD; target patient groups, dosage, administration, and adverse effects were considered. Experts recommended using LAI antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia, rapid cycling BD, BD I, and bipolar-type schizoaffective disorder. LAI antipsychotic use was recommended in BD patients with the following characteristics: multiple episodes and low adherence; seldom yet serious episodes; low adherence potential per a physician's clinical judgment; preference for injectable agents over oral agents; and multiple oral agent users still experiencing residual symptoms.
Gopalakrishna, Ganesh; Aggarwal, Arpit; Lauriello, John
Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of approximately one percent worldwide. Maintenance antipsychotic treatment has been effective in preventing relapses in long-term follow-up studies. Logically it can be proposed that long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) might reduce both unintentional and intentional nonadherence. Long-acting injectable aripiprazole was approved for the treatment of schizophrenia by the U.S. FDA on 28th February 2013 and will be marketed under the name Abilify Maintena. Aripiprazole LAI (ALAI) is a lyophilized powder that needs to be reconstituted with sterile water to form an injectable suspension without affecting the original molecule. The monthly injection interval is very attractive since patients prefer fewer injections. From a tolerability perspective, ALAI appears to be both weight neutral and lacking metabolic side effects. This can confer an advantage over the other currently available second-generation antipsychotic LAIs. Simple constitution with sterile water and no requirement to refrigerate make storage and administration easier. Like all medications, there are always potential disadvantages to ALAI. There is a period of oral coverage, while not as long as for long-acting risperidone microspheres (RLAI), that is required. Care must be taken to review concomitant medications for the presence of metabolic inducers and inhibitors. One would also expect some patients to be sensitive to extrapyramidal symptoms, especially akathisia which is well documented in the oral preparation. All things considered, we welcome our new tool, ALAI, to our work-place and predict both clinical practice and post marketing analysis and studies will discover its true value.
Zhang, J; Ye, L; Wang, W; Du, G; Yu, X; Zhu, X; Dong, Q; Cen, X; Guan, X; Fu, F; Tian, J
Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotics have been an important treatment option to increase the compliance of the patient with schizophrenia by monitoring drug administration and identifying medication noncompliance and to improve the long-term management of schizophrenia. Risperidone, a serotoninergic 5-HT2 and dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist, was developed to be a long-acting sustained-release formulation for the treatment of schizophrenia. In this study, 12-week subchronic toxicity study of risperidone-loaded microspheres (RMs) in rats by intramuscular injection with an 8-week recovery phase was carried out to investigate the potential subchronic toxicity of a novel long-acting sustained-release formulation. The results indicated that the dosage of 10-90 mg/kg of RM for 2 weeks did not cause treatment-related mortality. The main drug-related findings were contributed to the dopamine D2 receptor and α1-adrenoceptor antagonism of risperidone such as elevation of serum and pituitary prolactin levels and ptosis and changes in reproductive system (uterus, ovary, vagina, mammary gland, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and prostate). In addition, foreign body granuloma in muscle at injection sites caused by poly-lactide-co-glycolide was observed. At the end of the recovery phase, these changes mostly returned to normal. The results indicated that RM had a good safety profile in rats. © The Author(s) 2015.
Krebs, S; Dormann, H; Muth-Selbach, U; Hahn, E G; Brune, K; Schneider, H T
Risperidone, a widely used atypical and potent neuroleptic drug, is assumed to induce fewer hepatic side-effects than phenothiazine anti-psychotics. Recently, we observed a case of risperidone-induced cholestatic hepatotoxicity. A 37-year-old male developed a rapid increase in liver enzymes and cholestatic parameters after starting treatment with risperidone for paranoid psychosis. Work-up for other potential aetiologies was negative. The results of a percutaneous liver biopsy were consistent with drug-induced liver injury and cholestasis. Over the course of one month after the discontinuance of all anti-psychotic agents, the liver function test results returned to near-normal values. This observation supports the need to monitor cholestatic parameters in addition to liver function enzymes during initiation and the first weeks of risperidone intake.
Novakovic, Vladan; Adel, Tymaz; Peselow, Eric; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre
Five long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are currently available in the United States for the treatment of schizophrenia: fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, risperidone microspheres, paliperidone palmitate, and olanzapine pamoate. Additionally, aripiprazole LAI is currently under FDA review. However, research into the safety and tolerability of these LAIs, with particular regard to the development of postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS), is limited and has been focused mainly on olanzapine pamoate. This proposal seeks to review data regarding all currently available LAI antipsychotics to determine if a significant association exists between these depot formulations and the development of PDSS. A review of all published literature from 2005 to the present was obtained via a PubMed search for current data regarding the topic of LAIs and the development of PDSS. Keywords used for the search were "long-acting injectable antipsychotics" in association with one of the following: "post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome," "PDSS, " "side effects, " and "tolerability." References to key articles were further explored for relevancy to this proposal. A case analysis based on all 8 olanzapine LAI clinical trials conducted between August 2000 and October 2008 showed an occurrence of PDSS in approximately 0.07% of injections or 1.4% of patients (30 cases in 29 patients). A second case analysis reviewing the clinical trial databases for 15 completed studies and the postmarketing safety database for risperidone LAI versus 10 completed clinical trials of paliperidone palmitate failed to demonstrate an occurrence of PDSS events in patients receiving either LAI treatment. However, one case of PDSS was identified in a placebo group. In 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, treatment-emergent adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation were similar for paliperidone palmitate and placebo; however, among the most frequently
Wan, A S; Ngiam, T L; Leung, S L; Go, M L; Francisco, C G; Freire, R; Hernandez, R; Salazar, J A; Suarez, E; García, G A
Esters of levonorgestrel (13 beta-ethyl-17 beta-ethynyl-17 beta-hydroxygon-4-en-3-one) with a variety of unsaturated carboxylic acids have been synthesized for evaluation as potential long-acting, injectable contraceptive agents.
Francisco, C G; Freire, R; Gawronski, J; Hernández, R; Kielczewski, M; Salazar, J A; Savabi, F; Shafiee, A; Strekowski, L; Suárez, E
The synthesis of 13 new esters of testosterone is described, with the esterifying acids bearing acetylenic, olefinic, or polyunsaturated functions in the chain, for evaluation as long-acting androgens.
McAinsh, J.; Baber, N. S.; Smith, R.; Young, J.
1 The whole blood concentrations of propranolol have been compared, over a 48 h period, in twelve healthy male volunteers dosed with a 160 mg long-acting capsule formulation (LA, United Kingdom patent application No. 23114/77) and three standard tablet regimens; 160 mg once a day (CP160), 80 mg twice a day (CP80) and 40 mg four times a day (CP40). 2 The mean peak blood level for the long-acting formulation was significantly lower than that obtained with the 160 mg standard tablet. However, from 12 h on the mean levels for the long-acting formulation were higher. 3 The mean peak blood level for the long-acting formulation was significantly lower than that obtained with the 80 mg twice a day regimen and this difference was maintained up to 24 h. Thereafter, however, the situation was reversed. 4 The mean blood levels between 12 and 15 h were lower for the long-acting formulation when compared with the 40 mg four times a day regimen. At all other times, however, the observed levels were very similar. 5 The profiles achieved with the long-acting formulation in two separate studies were almost identical over a 48 h period. 6 The percentage reductions in exercise heart rate over the 3-24 h post dosing period were similar for the long-acting formulation and the two standard regimens studied (i.e. CP40 and CP80) when compared with placebo. 7 In the 2 h post dosing period the 80 mg twice a day regimen produced a significant reduction in the post-exercise systolic blood pressure when compared with the long-acting formulation. PMID:678387
Spreen, William R.; Margolis, David A.; Pottage, John C.
Purpose of review Long-acting antiretroviral (ARV) drugs may improve adherence to therapy and extend opportunities for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention to underserved patient populations. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of small molecule long-acting injectable ARV agents. Recent findings The need for combination ART and physicochemical and dosing limitations of current ARV drugs impede attempts to redevelop them as long-acting injectable formulations. However, the intrinsic properties of rilpivirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and GSK1265744, an HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor, have enabled crystalline nanoparticle formulations to progress to clinical trials. Summary Investigational long-acting injectable nanoformulations of rilpivirine and GSK1265744 are clinical-stage development candidates. Complementary pharmacologic properties of both agents – different mechanisms of action, resistance profiles, metabolic pathways, lack of drug interactions and low daily oral doses – offer the potential for combination use. Phase I studies of the pharmacokinetics and safety of each long-acting formulation alone and in combination indicate that a monthly dosing regimen is possible for HIV treatment. An ongoing phase IIb trial of oral GSK1265744 and oral rilpivirine is evaluating this two-drug regimen for maintenance of virologic suppression; results will inform future studies using the injectable formulations. Additional preclinical and clinical studies indicate a potential use of each agent for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:24100877
Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett
In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…
Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett
In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…
Wu, Linfeng; Janagam, Dileep R; Mandrell, Timothy D; Johnson, James R; Lowe, Tao L
Although great efforts have been made to develop long-acting injectable hormonal contraceptives for more than four decades, few long-acting injectable contraceptives have reached the pharmaceutical market or even entered clinical trials. On the other hand, in clinical practice there is an urgent need for injectable long-acting reversible contraceptives which can provide contraceptive protection for more than 3 months after one single injection. Availability of such products will offer great flexibility to women and resolve certain continuation issues currently occurring in clinics. Herein, we reviewed the strategies exploited in the past to develop injectable hormonal contraceptive dosages including drug microcrystal suspensions, drug-loaded microsphere suspensions and in situ forming depot systems for long-term contraception and discussed the potential solutions for remaining issues met in the previous development.
Karpilow, Quentin C; Thomas, Adam T
Several recent studies have highlighted the need for greater use of long-acting contraception. The most influential of these studies is the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, which was credited with substantially reducing participants' pregnancy risk by increasing their use of long-acting methods such as intrauterine devices and subdermal implants. However, because participants' rates of nonuse and condom use fell to zero at the outset of the intervention, it is possible that sizable pregnancy reductions could still have been achieved if enrollees had chosen shorter-acting, female-controlled methods such as oral contraception. The objective of the study was to estimate the proportion of the CHOICE Project's fertility impacts that could have been achieved without any increase in long-acting method use. The FamilyScape 3.0 microsimulation model was used to estimate CHOICE's impact on pregnancy risk and to simulate the counterfactual effect of moving all nonusers and condom users onto shorter-acting, female-controlled methods. FamilyScape models the sexual and contraceptive behaviors of women in the United States between 2006 and 2010, which is the period when CHOICE was implemented. Nearly three quarters of the CHOICE intervention's effects on pregnancy risk could have been achieved if participants had chosen shorter-acting, female-controlled methods over long-acting methods. Prioritizing the adoption of long-acting contraception may not be the most advisable strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy. The most impactful interventions will likely be those that increase the use of female-controlled methods, long-acting or otherwise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schneider, S J; Kirby, E J; Itil, T M
Fifty-nine chronic schizophrenic patients received one year of treatment with either fluphenazine enanthate or pipothiazine palmitate IM. Both long acting neuroleptics significantly decreased serum albumin, total protein and creatinine values. Triglycerides were decreased only early in treatment. Pretreatment findings from therapy responders, as compared with those who failed to respond to treatment, included higher albumin values and to a lesser extent, lower lactic dehydrogenase values and greater height. These results were discussed with an eye toward the hepatocellular effects of long acting phenothiazines and the effect of liver function on the pharmacokinetics of these medications.
Zhornitsky, Simon; Stip, Emmanuel
Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) should offer better efficacy and tolerability, compared to oral antipsychotics due to improved adherence and more stable pharmacokinetics. However, data on LAIs has been mixed, with some studies finding that they are more effective and tolerable than oral antipsychotics, and others finding the contrary. One possibility for the disparate results may be that some studies administered different antipsychotics in the oral and injectable form. The present systematic review examined the efficacy and tolerability of LAIs versus their oral equivalents in randomized and naturalistic studies. In addition, it examined the impact of LAIs on special populations such as patients with first-episode psychosis, substance use disorders, and a history of violence or on involuntary outpatient commitment. Randomized studies suggest that not all LAIs are the same; for example, long-acting risperidone may be associated with equal or less side effects than oral risperidone, whereas fluphenazine decanoate and enanthate may be associated with equal or more side effects than oral fluphenazine. They also suggest that LAIs reduce risk of relapse versus oral antipsychotics in schizophrenia outpatients when combined with quality psychosocial interventions. For their part, naturalistic studies point to a larger magnitude of benefit for LAIs, relative to their oral equivalents particularly among first-episode patients. PMID:22966436
Rattehalli, Ranganath D; Zhao, Sai; Li, Bao Guo; Jayaram, Mahesh B; Xia, Jun; Sampson, Stephanie
Risperidone is the first new-generation antipsychotic drug made available in the market in its generic form. To determine the clinical effects, safety and cost-effectiveness of risperidone compared with placebo for treating schizophrenia. On 19th October 2015, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register, which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We checked the references of all included studies and contacted industry and authors of included studies for relevant studies and data. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing oral risperidone with placebo treatments for people with schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Two review authors independently screened studies, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR), and the 95% confidence interval (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and the 95% CI. We created a 'Summary of findings table' using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). The review includes 15 studies (N = 2428). Risk of selection bias is unclear in most of the studies, especially concerning allocation concealment. Other areas of risk such as missing data and selective reporting also caused some concern, although not affected on the direction of effect of our primary outcome, as demonstrated by sensitivity analysis. Many of the included trials have industry sponsorship of involvement. Nonetheless, generally people in the risperidone group are more likely to achieve a significant clinical improvement in mental state (6 RCTs, N = 864, RR 0.64, CI 0.52 to 0.78, very low-quality evidence). The effect withstood, even when three studies with >50% attrition rate were removed from the analysis (3 RCTs, N = 589, RR 0.77, CI 0.67 to 0.88). Participants receiving placebo were less
Samalin, L; Charpeaud, T; Llorca, P-M
Antipsychotics are the cornerstone for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia patients. Their long-acting formulations are helpful for preventing relapses through improvement of adherence to medication and a better pharmacokinetic coverage. However, their use is often reserved for refractory or non-observant clinical forms because of limitations among both clinicians and patients. The development of a new formulation of long-acting injectable aripiprazole administered every 4 weeks is a new option. Two randomized controlled trials vs. placebo and vs. oral aripiprazole respectively show a superiority and non-inferiority in terms of relapse prevention. Meanwhile, a mirror-image study demonstrates fewer hospitalizations. The safety profile is comparable to the oral formulation, particularly in terms of metabolic and neurological side-effects. As mentioned in various professional recommendations, long-acting injectable antipsychotics, so long-acting injectable aripiprazole, are one of the major strategies of the maintenance treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Francisco, C G; Freire, R; Hernandez, R; Salazar, J A; Suarez, E; Vlahov, R; Tarpanov, V; Boshkova-Ljapova, M; Milenkov, B; Stoilova, V
Some new derivatives of norethisterone (17 alpha-ethynyl-17 beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one) are described in which the 17 beta-hydroxyl group of the steroid is esterified with polyunsaturated aliphatic acids. The potential of these compounds as long-acting contraceptive agents has been evaluated.
Dooley, Roisin; Dooley, Joe; Antone, Irwin; Guilfoyle, John; Gerber-Finn, Lianne; Kakekagumick, Kara; Cromarty, Helen; Hopman, Wilma; Muileboom, Jill; Brunton, Nicole; Kelly, Len
Abstract Objective To document the management of and outcomes for patients receiving narcotic replacement and tapering with long-acting morphine preparations during pregnancy. Design A prospective cohort study over 18 months. Setting Northwestern Ontario. Participants All 600 births at Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Sioux Lookout, Ont, from January 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013, including 166 narcotic-exposed pregnancies. Intervention Narcotic replacement and tapering of narcotic use with long-acting morphine preparations. Main outcome measures Prenatal management of maternal narcotic use, incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome, and other neonatal outcomes. Results The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome fell significantly to 18.1% of pregnancies exposed to narcotics (from 29.5% in a previous 2010 study, P = .003) among patients using narcotic replacement and tapering with long-acting morphine preparations. Neonatal outcomes were otherwise equivalent to those of the nonexposed pregnancies. Conclusion In many patients, long-acting morphine preparations can be safely used and tapered in pregnancy, with a subsequent decrease in observed neonatal withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25821873
Atkin, Kathryn; Beal, Margaret W; Long-Middleton, Ellen; Roncari, Danielle
Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are underutilized in the adolescent population despite their superior efficacy over non-LARC methods. The purpose of this article is to discuss the barriers that lead to underutilization of these methods and present an evidence-based approach for the use of LARC methods among adolescents in the primary care setting.
Sheehan, John J.; Reilly, Kristin R.; Fu, Dong-Jing
Background: Small peak-to-trough drug levels have been suggested to be related to improved tolerability. The aim of this study is to review the steady-state, peak-to-trough, plasma-concentration fluctuation of long-acting injectable antipsychotics and equivalent oral formulations. Methods: A review of published literature and clinical study reports identified references that reported, depicted, or permitted derivation of the steady-state, peak-to-trough, plasma-concentration fluctuation of antipsychotics (the ratio of maximum concentration to minimum concentration following administration according to the recommended dosing interval) over the dosing interval. Suitable references were identified for haloperidol decanoate, olanzapine pamoate, paliperidone palmitate, risperidone long-acting injectable, and zuclopenthixol decanoate and their oral equivalents except zuclopenthixol. The single-dose time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) and half-life (t1/2) were also identified. Results: The steady-state, peak-to-trough, plasma-concentration ratios of oral antipsychotics varied from 1.47 (paliperidone extended-release, once daily) to 3.30 (active-moiety risperidone, once daily). Among long-acting injectable antipsychotics, the ratios varied from 1.56 (paliperidone palmitate, once monthly) to approximately 4 (olanzapine pamoate, once every four weeks). Among drugs with similar dosing intervals, longer Tmax and/or t1/2 generally correlated with less peak-to-trough fluctuation. Conclusion: Peak-to-trough fluctuations in plasma concentrations vary widely and may be affected by differences in dosing, pharmacokinetic sampling, subjects’ phenotypes, concomitant medications, comorbid diseases, and formulation. These fluctuations may affect clinical response and tolerability. Along with other patient-specific and drug-specific factors, these fluctuations warrant consideration when selecting an antipsychotic and antipsychotic formulation. Further study is needed with more
Buckley, Peter F; Schooler, Nina R; Goff, Donald C; Hsiao, John; Kopelowicz, Alexander; Lauriello, John; Manschreck, Theo; Mendelowitz, Alan J; Miller, Del D; Severe, Joanne B; Wilson, Daniel R; Ames, Donna; Bustillo, Juan; Mintz, Jim; Kane, John M
Until relatively recently, long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations were only available for first-generation antipsychotics and their utilization decreased as use of oral second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) increased. Although registry-based naturalistic studies show LAIs reduce rehospitalization more than oral medications in clinical practice, this is not seen in recent randomized clinical trials. PROACTIVE (Preventing Relapse Oral Antipsychotics Compared to Injectables Evaluating Efficacy) relapse prevention study incorporated efficacy and effectiveness features. At 8 US academic centers, 305 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to LAI risperidone (LAI-R) or physician's choice oral SGAs. Patients were evaluated during the 30-month study by masked, centralized assessors using 2-way video, and monitored biweekly by on-site clinicians and assessors who knew treatment assignment. Relapse was evaluated by a masked Relapse Monitoring Board. Differences between LAI-R and oral SGA treatment in time to first relapse and hospitalization were not significant. Psychotic symptoms and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score improved more in the LAI-R group. In contrast, the LAI group had higher Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms Alogia scale scores. There were no other between-group differences in symptoms or functional improvement. Despite the advantage for psychotic symptoms, LAI-R did not confer an advantage over oral SGAs for relapse or rehospitalization. Biweekly monitoring, not focusing specifically on patients with demonstrated nonadherence to treatment and greater flexibility in changing medication in the oral treatment arm, may contribute to the inability to detect differences between LAI and oral SGA treatment in clinical trials.
Høybye, Charlotte; Cohen, Pinchas; Hoffman, Andrew R; Ross, Richard; Biller, Beverly M K; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl
Growth hormone (GH) treatment has been an established therapy for GH deficiency (GHD) in children and adults for more than three decades. Numerous studies have shown that GH treatment improves height, body composition, bone density, cardiovascular risk factors, physical fitness and quality of life and that the treatment has few side effects. Initially GH was given as intramuscular injections three times per week, but daily subcutaneous injections were shown to be more effective and less inconvenient and the daily administration has been used since its introduction in the 1980s. However, despite ongoing improvements in injection device design, daily subcutaneous injections remain inconvenient, painful and distressing for many patients, leading to noncompliance, reduced efficacy and increased health care costs. To address these issues a variety of long-acting formulations of GH have been developed. In this review we present the current status of long-acting GH preparations and discuss the specific issues related to their development.
Fàbrega, Marina; Sugranyes, Gisela; Baeza, Inmaculada
Paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection (PPLAI) is an atypical antipsychotic agent currently approved by the European Medicine Agency for the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adults. However, there is no information so far on safety and effectiveness in patients under 18 years of age. We report on two clinical cases of adolescents with a psychotic spectrum disorder treated with PPLAI in an inpatient setting. The cases illustrate that PPLAI may hold potential as an effective and acceptably tolerated antipsychotic drug in adolescents with psychotic spectrum disorders. Given the lack of approved long acting injectable antipsychotics in patients under 18 years of age, reports on the effectiveness and safety of such medications in children and adolescent patients are of importance. PMID:26557986
Vazquez-Alcantara, M A; Menjivar, M; Garcia, G A; Díaz-Zagoya, J C; Garza-Flores, J
Estradiol esters at C-17 and C-3 with palmitic, stearic and oleic acids were chemically synthesized and then evaluated for their long-acting estrogenic responses in ovariectomized rats. The duration of the biological effects was measured after a single subcutaneous dose of 0.1 mumol of each ester and compared with those observed with 17 beta-estradiol, estradiol 3-benzoate and estradiol 17-enanthate. Vaginal citology, uterophyc action, serum gonadotropins inhibition and 17 beta-estradiol levels were measured 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 days after injection. The results disclosed that most of the estradiol derivatives evaluated exhibited a long-acting estrogenic action. However, the monoesters at C-17 showed longer effects that monoesters at C-3, while the estradiol diesters exhibited the shortest effects. In addition as shown by its low serum levels, all estradiol esters with unsaturated fatty acids show a decreased E2 absorption. The overall results indicated that esterification of E2 with long chain fatty acids provided long-acting properties to it, being higher with C-17 esters. Whether some of these compounds could be employed in substitutive endocrine therapy remains to be established.
Smith, Paul; Grewal, Manpreet; Kumaraswami, Tara; Cowett, Allison; Harwood, Bryna
Abstract Objectives: Unplanned pregnancy is a public health problem in the United States, including in rural areas. Primary care physicians are the main providers of health care to women in rural areas and are uniquely positioned to help reduce unplanned pregnancy in rural women. This study documents provision of contraception by rural primary care physicians, focusing on the most effective, long acting methods, intrauterine devices (IUDs) and contraceptive implants. Methods: We surveyed all primary care physicians practicing in rural areas of Illinois and Wisconsin. Bivariate analysis was performed using chi squared and Fisher's exact test, and multivariable analysis was performed with logistic regression to determine factors associated with provision. Results: The response rate was 862 out of 2312 physicians (37%). Nine percent of respondents place implants and 35% place IUDs. Eighty-seven percent of physicians had not had training in implant placement, and 41% had not had training in IUD placement. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with placement of long acting contraception include provision of maternity care, and female gender of the physician. The most common reasons for not providing the methods were lack of training and perceived low demand from patients. Conclusions: Many rural primary care providers do not place long acting contraceptive devices due to lack of training. Female physicians and those providing maternity care are the most likely to place these devices. Increased training for primary care physicians both during and after residency would help increase access to these options for women in rural areas. PMID:24443930
Cazzola, M; Matera, M G
An important step in simplifying asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management and improving adherence with prescribed therapy is to reduce the dose frequency to the minimum necessary to maintain disease control. Therefore, the incorporation of once-daily dose administration is an important strategy to improve adherence and is a regimen preferred by most patients, which may also lead to enhancement of compliance, and may have advantages leading to improved overall clinical outcomes. Once-daily β2-agonists or ultra long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) such as carmoterol, indacaterol, GSK-159797, GSK-597901, GSK-159802, GSK-642444 and GSK-678007 are under development for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Also some new long-acting antimuscarinic agents (LAMAs) such as aclidinium, LAS-35201, GSK656398, GSK233705, NVA-237 (glycopyrrolate) and OrM3 are under development. In any case, the current opinion is that it will be advantageous to develop inhalers containing combination of several classes of long-acting bronchodilator drugs in an attempt to simplify treatment regimens as much as possible. Consequently, several options for once-daily dual-action ultra LABA+LAMA combination products are currently being evaluated. A different approach is to have a dimer molecule in which both pharmacologies are present (these molecules are known as M3 antagonist-β2 agonist (MABA) bronchodilators). The advent of a successful MABA product will revolutionize the field and open the door for a new range of combination products. PMID:18604231
Blake, Kathryn; Lima, John
Long-acting β2-agonists are an effective class of drugs, when combined with inhaled corticosteroids, for reducing symptoms and exacerbations in patients with asthma that is not adequately controlled by inhaled corticosteroids alone. However, because this class of drugs has been associated with severe adverse events, including hospitalization and death in small numbers of patients, efforts to identify a pharmacogenetic profile for patients at risk has been diligently investigated. The PubMed search engine of the National Library of Medicine was used to identify English-language and non-English language articles published from 1947 to March 2015 pertinent to asthma, pharmacogenomics, and long-acting β2-agonists. Keywords and topics included: asthma, asthma control, long-acting β2-agonists, salmeterol, formoterol, pharmacogenetics, and pharmacogenomics. This strategy was also used for the Cochrane Library Database and CINAHL. Reference types were randomized controlled trials, reviews, and editorials. Additional publications were culled from reference lists. The publications were reviewed by the authors and those most relevant were used to support the topics covered in this review. Children, who carry the ADRB2 Arg16Arg genotype, may be at greater risk than adults for severe adverse events. Rare ADRB2 variants appear to provide better clues for identifying the at-risk population of asthmatics.
Doshi, Jalpa A; Pettit, Amy R; Stoddard, Jeffrey J; Zummo, Jacqueline; Marcus, Steven C
Pharmacological treatment is central to effective management of schizophrenia. Prescribing clinicians have an increasing array of options from which to choose, and oral antipsychotic polypharmacy is common in routine clinical practice. Practice guidelines recommend long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations, typically viewed as monotherapeutic alternatives, for patients with established nonadherence. Yet there are limited data on the prevalence and nature of concurrent oral antipsychotic prescriptions in patients receiving LAIs. Our observational, claims-based study examined the frequency and duration of concurrent oral prescriptions in 340 Medicaid patients receiving LAI therapy. Specifically, we examined patients with a recent history of nonadherence and hospitalization for schizophrenia and included both first-generation antipsychotic depot medications (fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate) and more recently available second-generation injectables (LAI risperidone, paliperidone palmitate). Of all patients initiated on LAIs, 75.9% had a concurrent oral antipsychotic prescription in the 6 months post-hospital discharge. Patients receiving concurrent prescriptions were frequently prescribed an oral formulation of their LAI agent, but many first-generation LAI users received a concurrent second-generation oral medication. The lowest rate of concurrent prescribing (58.8%) was found with paliperidone palmitate, whereas the highest rate was with LAI risperidone (88.9%). Overlap in oral and LAI prescriptions typically occurred for a substantial period of time (ie, >30 days) and for a notable percentage of the days covered by LAIs (often 50% or more). Our findings highlight the need to further examine such prescribing patterns, to probe the reasons for them, and to clarify the optimal roles of different antipsychotic treatments in clinical practice.
Turgeon, J; Gröning, R; Sathyan, G; Thipphawong, J; Richarz, U
New formulations of opiods can provide round-the-clock pain relief to improve pain management and quality of life for patients with chronic pain. Information and comments on the pharmacokinetic processes associated with a new once-daily formulation of the potent opiod hydromorphone. This review presents an overview of data from several small pharmacokinetic studies to gain a better perspective on the pharmacokinetic properties of a new long-acting formulation of hydromorphone. The development of advanced oral formulation that deliver analgesic drugs over an extended period provides new solutions to improve pain management and quality of life for patients with chronic pain.
Pipe, Steven W
Recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering are creating hope that we can address ongoing challenges in hemophilia care such as reducing the costs of therapy, increasing the availability to the developing world, and improving the functional properties of these proteins. Technological advances to improve the half-life of recombinant clotting factors have brought long-acting clotting factors for hemophilia replacement therapy closer to reality. Preclinical and clinical trial results are reviewed as well as the potential benefits and risks of these novel therapies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Antipsychotics, risperidone, and risperidone's active metabolite, paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone), are related molecules used for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. Differences in receptor binding, 5-HT2A/D2 (serotonin/dopamine) binding ratios, and mitochondrial proteomics suggest that the effects of risperidone and paliperidone on neuronal firing, regulation of mitochondrial function, and movement are different. This review seeks to explore the most significant differences at the molecular level between risperidone and paliperidone, as reported in preclinical studies. Although risperidone shows higher affinity for 5-HT receptors, paliperidone does not fit this profile. Thus, the risperidone 5-HT2A/D2 binding ratio is significantly lower than the paliperidone 5-HT2A/D2 binding ratio. Paliperidone, similar to lithium and valproate, affects expression levels and phosphorylation of complex I and V proteins in synaptoneurosomal preparations of rat prefrontal cortex, suggesting that paliperidone behaves as a mood stabilizer. It is apparent that the presence of a hydroxyl group in the paliperidone molecule confers increased hydrophilicity to this drug compared with its parent, risperidone; thus, this contributes to differential effects on mitochondrial movement, protein expression, and phosphorylation. These differences are reflected in synaptic plasticity and neuronal firing and have only recently been implicated in the mechanisms of mitochondrial function and movement.
D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar A.; Giovagnoli, Stefano; DeLuca, Patrick P.
The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50 : 50 and 75 : 25) were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40 mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50 : 50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75 : 25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug. PMID:24616812
Chue, Pierre; Chue, James
To review the published literature on aripiprazole once monthly, a second generation antipsychotic (SGA) recently developed as a long-acting injection (LAI), in the form of a suspension of lyophilized aripiprazole reconstituted with an aqueous diluent, for intramuscular administration. An electronic database search was conducted using the key words; relevant articles were then hand searched and websites (FDA, EMA, Otsuka, Lundbeck, NIH) reviewed. Efficacy has been demonstrated in preventing relapse in a 52 week study versus placebo, and non-inferiority to oral aripiprazole in a 38 week study, as well as in the treatment of hospitalized adult patients with acutely relapsed schizophrenia. Aripiprazole LAI appears cost-effective versus other SGA-LAIs, with improved health-related quality of life and functioning in a head-to-head study with paliperidone LAI. A 6 month (pre and post), mirror-image switch study demonstrated a reduction in hospitalization and associated costs compared with previous antipsychotic treatment. Safety and tolerability are comparable to oral aripiprazole with no new safety signals. Experience with oral aripiprazole and the current availability of the long-acting formulation suggest a potential benefit in a variety of clinical scenarios and therefore consideration as a treatment option in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Antipsychotic medications are important for the successful management of schizophrenia. Continuous treatment with medication is superior in relapse prevention and non-adherence to antipsychotic medication is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) that can guarantee adherence to a treatment regimen could be a useful treatment option. With the introduction of second-generation atypical antipsychotics-long acting injection (SGA-LAI), the risks for extrapyramidal adverse events are decreased. The indications for SGA-LAI have been extended from chronic, stabilized patients to acute psychotic patients. Some studies investigated the use of LAI in first-episode schizophrenia patients and raised the possibility of prescribing LAI as a treatment option. However, there is still limited research using LAI in first-episode schizophrenia. More well-designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials using SGA-LAIs in first episode schizophrenia are needed. Additionally, studies on side effects of SGA-LAI in long-term use are required prior to recommending LAI for patients with first episode schizophrenia. PMID:23678347
Sundstrom, Beth; Baker-Whitcomb, Annalise; DeMaria, Andrea L
Increasing access to long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), including the intrauterine device and the implant is a public health and clinical imperative to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy. In 2012, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended these methods for all women, including adolescents. Little research explores why young women reject these safe, effective contraceptive methods. A total of 53 women aged 18-24 years completed in-depth interviews. Analytical techniques from the grounded theory approach were used to identify patterns and themes across the data. Participants initiated hormonal contraception for "the pill's" beneficial side effects and believed a myth of perfect use, which constructed a false choice of LARC methods. Barriers to LARC options included access, medical resistance, and cost. Participants described a sense of unease about methods perceived as "alien." These women underestimated the risks of oral contraceptive pills and overestimated the risks of long-acting reversible contraception, including infertility. The myth of perfect use emerged as participants wanted to be in control by taking "the pill" every day; however, many described imperfect adherence. Findings include strategies for public health professionals and health care providers to distribute satisfactory and effective contraception for young women. Effective health communication campaigns will emphasize the desirable side effects, safety and increased effectiveness of LARC methods.
Vázquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Parrondo, Carmen Durán; López-Pardo Pardo, Estrella; Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo
In the healthcare area of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), the therapeutic subgroup "other antipsychotics" represented the fifth largest outpatient expenditure in 2013. More than half of this expenditure corresponded to long-acting parenteral forms of paliperidone and risperidone. Over a 12-month period, the implementation of a pharmaceutical care program based on process management and coordination of actions between health professionals in both levels of care represented savings of € 636,391.01 for the organization and a direct saving of € 16,767.36 and 9,008 trips to the pharmacy for patients. This study shows the efficiency of the program, which was facilitated by its situation in an area of integrated management and the use the unified medical records and electronic prescription, elements that will enable the future implementation of similar programmes. The new registries and healthcare interventions will allow reliable evaluation of their effectiveness in terms of treatment adherence, relapses and hospitalisations. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa; Penadés, Rafael; Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Bioque, Miquel; Parellada, Eduard; Bernardo, Miquel
Background and objectives Short-term studies focused on once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP) at doses of 25 mg eq, 50 mg eq, 75 mg eq, 100 mg eq, or 150 mg eq have shown its efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of schizophrenia patients. However, few open-label and long-term studies are available regarding this new pharmacological formulation. Thus, our main aim was to review the scientific evidence on efficacy, safety, tolerability, and preference of PP in these populations. Method Electronic searches were conducted by using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. All relevant studies published from 2009 until January 2015 were included without any language restriction if patients met diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, and adequate information on efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-monthly PP was available. Results Nineteen studies were identified irrespective of the study design and duration of the follow-up period. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials found that schizophrenia patients receiving PP showed a significant improvement in psychotic symptoms and similar adverse events compared to placebo and suggested that all doses of PP were efficacious and well tolerated. Other studies demonstrated noninferiority of PP compared to risperidone long-acting injectable in recently diagnosed schizophrenia patients, chronically ill patients, as well as in acute and nonacute symptomatic schizophrenia patients, and a similar proportion of treatment-emergent adverse events between both groups were also noted. Conclusion Several studies have demonstrated that schizophrenia patients treated with PP show higher rates of improvement of psychotic symptoms compared to placebo, and similar efficacy and tolerability outcomes were noted when comparing PP to risperidone long-acting injectable or oral, paliperidone extended release. PMID:26082620
Clarke, W P; Chavera, T A; Silva, M; Sullivan, L C; Berg, K A
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Paliperidone is an active metabolite of the second-generation atypical antipsychotic, risperidone recently approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Because paliperidone differs from risperidone by only a single hydroxyl group, questions have been raised as to whether there are significant differences in the effects elicited between these two drugs. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We compared the relative efficacies of paliperidone versus risperidone to regulate several cellular signalling pathways coupled to four selected GPCR targets that are important for either therapeutic or adverse effects: human dopamine D2, human serotonin 2A receptor subtype (5-HT2A), human serotonin 2C receptor subtype and human histamine H1 receptors. KEY RESULTS Whereas the relative efficacies of paliperidone and risperidone were the same for some responses, significant differences were found for several receptor-signalling systems, with paliperidone having greater or less relative efficacy than risperidone depending upon the receptor–response pair. Interestingly, for 5-HT2A-mediated recruitment of β-arrestin, 5-HT2A-mediated sensitization of ERK, and dopamine D2-mediated sensitization of adenylyl cyclase signalling, both paliperidone and risperidone behaved as agonists. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that the single hydroxyl group of paliperidone promotes receptor conformations that can differ from those of risperidone leading to differences in the spectrum of regulation of cellular signal transduction cascades. Such differences in signalling at the cellular level could lead to differences between paliperidone and risperidone in therapeutic efficacy or in the generation of adverse effects. PMID:23826915
Goldthwaite, Lisa M; Shaw, Kate A
The objective of this review is to describe current literature regarding the role and characteristics of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) used immediately postpartum. Copper and levonorgestrel intrauterine devices (IUDs) inserted immediately postpartum at the time of both vaginal and cesarean deliveries are associated with higher rates of continuation at 6-12 months when compared with IUDs placed at the postpartum visit (4-8 weeks after delivery), despite higher rates of expulsion. IUDs and contraceptive implants are cost-effective when used immediately postpartum, and they are associated with longer interpregnancy intervals. There is limited evidence regarding the effects of immediate postpartum LARC on breastfeeding. Use of LARC methods in the immediate postpartum period is both effective and safe, and could reduce unmet need for contraception during this time. More research is needed to explore various immediate postpartum IUD insertion methods and the effects of immediate postpartum progestin-containing LARC on breastfeeding.
Kwon, Min Jung; Bae, Jun Ho; Kim, Jung Ju; Na, Kun; Lee, Eun Seong
This study investigated the porous-microparticle (PM) with low mass density and large size for pulmonary drug delivery. PM was prepared by the water-in-oil-in-water (W(1)/O/W(2)) multi-emulsion method with cyclodextrin derivative as a porogen and a stabilizer of peptide drugs. Herein, sucrose ethyl acetate (SAIB) was incorporated in PM for long acting protein release. In vitro release studies, the rapid release rate of proteins from PM was reduced due to the high viscosity of the added SAIB. As a result, BSA release from PM continued up to 7 days. This result suggests that PM having sustained release characteristics may be successfully applied for long-term pulmonary administration of protein or peptide drug. In addition, it is expected that these particles arrive at a deep lung epithelium due to low density (high porosity) and limit macrophage recognition because of big particle size (more than 5 microm).
... used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... high blood pressure, or seizures; other medications for mental illness; paroxetine (Paxil); phenobarbital (Luminal, Solfoton); phenytoin (Dilantin); quinidine ( ...
Trivedi, Mohit; Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A.T.
Risperidone has been found to be useful in the treatment of acute bipolar disorders. This is a case report where risperidone mono therapy has been found to be effective in prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder. The pharmacological and clinical implications of risperidone in the management of BPAD are discussed PMID:21224912
Knight, John M; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A; Milner, Joshua D; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; McMurray, John S; Corry, David B
Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6.
Knight, John M.; Mak, Garbo; Shaw, Joanne; Porter, Paul; McDermott, Catherine; Roberts, Luz; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Millien, Valentine O.; Qian, Yuping; Song, Li-Zhen; Frazier, Vincent; Kim, Choel; Kim, Jeong Joo; Bond, Richard A.; Milner, Joshua D.; Zhang, Yuan; Mandal, Pijus K.; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah
Asthma is one of the most common of medical illnesses and is treated in part by drugs that activate the beta-2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) to dilate obstructed airways. Such drugs include long acting beta agonists (LABAs) that are paradoxically linked to excess asthma-related mortality. Here we show that LABAs such as salmeterol and structurally related β2-AR drugs such as formoterol and carvedilol, but not short-acting agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol, promote exaggerated asthma-like allergic airway disease and enhanced airway constriction in mice. We demonstrate that salmeterol aberrantly promotes activation of the allergic disease-related transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in multiple mouse and human cells. A novel inhibitor of STAT6, PM-242H, inhibited initiation of allergic disease induced by airway fungal challenge, reversed established allergic airway disease in mice, and blocked salmeterol-dependent enhanced allergic airway disease. Thus, structurally related β2-AR ligands aberrantly activate STAT6 and promote allergic airway disease. This untoward pharmacological property likely explains adverse outcomes observed with LABAs, which may be overcome by agents that antagonize STAT6. PMID:26605551
McNicholas, Colleen; Peipert, Jeffrey F
Purpose of review Teen pregnancy continues to plague the United States. This review will discuss long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method use in teens. It will specifically address the myths about appropriate candidates as well as continuation and satisfaction among teen users. Recent findings The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology along with the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Centers for Disease Control, and the World health Organization have recognized the potential impact of LARC (comprising intrauterine contraception and subdermal implants) to reduce unintended pregnancies. They have affirmed the safety of such devices, and no effects on long-term fertility have been identified. Teen users of these methods have been shown to have high continuation and satisfaction rates. On the other hand, oral contraceptive pills, the patch, and the contraceptive vaginal ring have significantly higher contraceptive failure rates, and these rates are magnified in young women. Summary LARC methods should be considered first-line options for teens seeking contraception. PMID:22781078
Lertxundi, Unax; Hernandez, Rafael; Albeniz, Juan Medrano; Echaburu, Saioa Domingo; Ruiz, Borja; García, Montserrat García; Aguirre, Carmelo
Mrs A, a 68-year-old woman with paranoid schizophrenia, was on long-term psychiatric treatment with long-acting intramuscular zuclopenthixol, quetiapine and alprazolam when, in April 2012, she was diagnosed with right breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma. After starting treatment with letrozole on 4 July, Mrs A progressively developed extrapyramidal symptoms and these were particularly evident after each zuclopenthixol administration. On 9 January, both quetiapine and alprazolam were stopped due to excessive lethargy. After the administration of the last dose of zuclopenthixol on 26 January, she presented with sedation, sialorrhea, festinant gait, axial dystonia and dysphagia, all of which were severe. The introduction of letrozole was the only change that had been made to her pharmacotherapeutic regimen in that period. The rest of the findings on neurological examination were normal. Renal function was adequate. Slow symptom onset and progressive worsening until full-blown clinical presentation after 6 months, and the dramatic improvement in the clinical picture achieved 2 days after treatment with biperiden, suggests a long-term insidious interaction leading to zuclopenthixol accumulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible interaction between letrozole and zuclopenthixol. We consider that it warrants further investigation. In the meanwhile, physicians should be aware of the occurrence of this potentially serious drug-drug interaction.
Stoddard, Amy; McNicholas, Colleen; Peipert, Jeffrey F.
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) includes intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the subdermal implant. These methods are the most effective reversible methods of contraception, and have the additional advantages of being long-lasting, convenient, well liked by users and cost effective. Compared with other user-dependent methods that increase the risk of noncompliance-related method failure, LARC methods can bring ‘typical use’ failure rates more in line with ‘perfect use’ failure rates. LARC methods are ‘forgettable’; they are not dependent on compliance with a pill-taking regimen, remembering to change a patch or ring, or coming back to the clinician for an injection. LARC method failure rates rival that of tubal sterilization at <1% for IUDs and the subdermal implant. For these reasons, we believe that IUDs and implants should be offered as first-line contraception for most women. This article provides a review of the LARC methods that are currently available in the US, including their effectiveness, advantages, disadvantages and contraindications. Additionally, we dispel myths and misconceptions regarding IUDs, and address the barriers to LARC use. PMID:21668037
Malla, Ashok; Tibbo, Phil; Chue, Pierre; Levy, Emmanuelle; Manchanda, Rahul; Teehan, Michael; Williams, Richard; Iyer, Srividya; Roy, Marc-André
A major source of limitation to the real effectiveness of antipsychotics is the high rate of patient nonadherence or, more frequently, partial adherence. Using long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations is likely to reduce the impact of such adherence problems. Conversely, the use of LAIs in Canada remains low relative to many other jurisdictions. Based on effectiveness data from randomized control trials and other, less rigorous, studies, as well as our 2 qualitative studies exploring numerous issues around the use of LAIs, including their low use, we put forward 10 different recommendations for consideration by clinicians. These are also based on the experience of many clinicians and clinician scientists. These recommendations address mostly clinical challenges associated with the use of LAIs. Their application in clinical settings is illustrated in our report through several case examples highlighting the large variation across patients and different phases of illness. It is recommended that LAIs should be considered as a treatment option for psychotic disorders across all phases, including the first 2 to 5 critical years.
Agarwal, A.K.; Bashyam, V.S.P; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Dhavale, H.S.; Khan, M.A.M.; Khanna, Sumant; Pradhan, P.V.; Katiyar, M.; Rajkumar, R.; Niazi, Faiz R.; Jalali, R.K.; Gowrishankar, R.; Mishra, S.K.; Sood, O.P.
Conventional antipsychotic agents are not effective against negative symptoms of schizophrenia and are also noted for their extrapyramidal side effects. Risperidone is a noval antipsychotic agent whose dual antagonism of dopamine and serotonin receptors is believed to underlie its efficacy against negative symptoms and the low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. An open, non-comparative study of seven weeks duration was performed to evaluate risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Indian patients. Previous antipsychotic therapy was discontinued for a week before risperidone therapy was initiated. At the end of six weeks of risperidone therapy, clinical improvement (≥ 20% reduction in total score on positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS;; was shown by 128 (87.7%) of the 146 evaluable patients. Statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) occurred in the total score of this scale and in the subscale scores for positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms and in the clinical global impression severity score. The number of patients with adverse experiences were 108 (65.5%) at baseline and 120 (72.7%) at the end of risperidone therapy. Extrapyramidal symptoms, seen in 65 (39.4%) patients compared to 22 (13.3%) patients at baseline, were largely mild to moderate in intensity. PMID:21494480
Kishi, Taro; Matsunaga, Shinji; Iwata, Nakao
Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics (LAI-APs) have several advantages over oral medications, but deaths reported in Japan during the early post-marketing phase vigilance period have raised safety concerns. We conducted a series of meta-analyses to assess whether LAI-APs affect the mortality of patients with schizophrenia. Three categorical meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed to compare all-cause death (primary outcome) and death due to suicide: individual and pooled LAI-APs vs placebo, individual and pooled LAI-APs vs oral antipsychotics (OAPs), and head-to-head comparisons of LAI-APs. The risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated. We identified 52 RCTs (53 comparisons; total participants = 17 416, LAI-APs = 11 360, OAP = 3910, and placebo = 2146; mean study duration [wk]: LAI-APs vs placebo = 28.9, LAI-APs vs OAPs = 64.5). Neither pooled nor individual LAI-APs (aripiprazole, fluphenazine, olanzapine, paliperidone, and risperidone) differed from the placebo regarding the incidences of all-cause death (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.64, P = .37) and death due to suicide (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.98, P = .98). However, in a subgroup meta-analysis of only short-duration RCTs (≤13wk), pooled LAI-APs exhibited a trend toward lower incidence of all-cause death than placebo (RR = 0.29, P = .08). Pooled LAI-APs (aripiprazole, fluphenazine, haloperidol, olanzapine, paliperidone, risperidone, and zuclopenthixol) did not differ from pooled OAPs regarding all-cause death (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.71, P = .30) and death due to suicide (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.94, P = .91). Individual LAI-APs and OAPs were associated with similar risks of death. Data for head-to-head comparisons of individual LAI-APs were insufficient. In conclusion, there was no significant difference between LAI-APs and placebo or OAPs regarding all-cause death and death due to suicide.
Aggarwal, Arpit; Gopalakrishna, Ganesh; Lauriello, John
Antipsychotics have long been the mainstay for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Long-acting injectables (LAI) of antipsychotics-provided once every two weeks to once every three months-promise to reduce the incidence of nonadherence. ARISTADA(™) (aripiprazole lauroxil; ALLAI) extended-release injectable suspension was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 2015 for the treatment of schizophrenia, and is the newest entrant in the LAI market. ALLAI is available as a single-use, pre-filled syringe, can be started in three different dosages, and also has the option of every six-week dosing. Treatment with oral aripiprazole is recommended for the first twenty-one days after the first ALLAI injection, which is a potential disadvantage. Adverse effects include sensitivity to extrapyramidal symptoms, especially akathisia, which is well documented in other aripiprazole preparations. There is no available data comparing ALLAI to other antipsychotics, and more head-to-head trials comparing different LAI formulations are needed. Based on the available data, ALLAI is an effective and safe option for treatment of schizophrenia. Further studies and post-marketing data will provide better understanding of this formulation.
Kraemer, Susanne; Bergstrom, Richard F.; Detke, Holland C.
Olanzapine long-acting injection (OLAI) is a sustained-release depot antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Our objective was to explain the pharmacokinetics of OLAI to provide clinical insight. Simulation models and data from clinical trials are presented. Olanzapine concentrations were observed immediately upon injection. Half-life was ∼30 days, controlled by the slow rate of intramuscular absorption rather than the 30-h elimination rate-based half-life of oral olanzapine. As each injection builds on the drug still being released from previous injections, concentrations increase gradually until a steady state is reached after ∼3 months. Concentrations were similar to oral olanzapine and proportional to the dose; the average steady-state concentrations (10th–90th percentile) for the 150, 210, and 300 mg/2-week doses were 16–32, 15–55, and 20–67 ng/ml, respectively, and those for the 300 and 405 mg/4-week doses were 19–48 and 19–62 ng/ml, respectively. Peak concentrations most often occurred at 2–4 days after injection. Peak-to-trough fluctuation was greater for the 4-week dosing interval than the 2-week one, with no apparent clinical ramifications for these differences. Trough concentrations were above the lower end of the therapeutic range, even at the first injection. Long-term use up to 6 years indicated no additional accumulation. The impact of smoking and sex was similar, but less pronounced than for oral olanzapine. PMID:24815672
Hofler, Lisa G; Cordes, Sarah; Cwiak, Carrie A; Goedken, Peggy; Jamieson, Denise J; Kottke, Melissa
To understand the most important steps required to implement immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) programs in different Georgia hospitals and the barriers to implementing such a program. This was a qualitative study. We interviewed 32 key personnel from 10 Georgia hospitals working to establish immediate postpartum LARC programs. Data were analyzed using directed qualitative content analysis principles. We used the Stages of Implementation to organize participant-identified key steps for immediate postpartum LARC into an implementation guide. We compared this guide to hospitals' implementation experiences. At the completion of the study, LARC was available for immediate postpartum placement at 7 of 10 study hospitals. Participants identified common themes for the implementation experience: team member identification and ongoing communication, payer preparedness challenges, interdependent department-specific tasks, and piloting with continuing improvements. Participants expressed a need for anticipatory guidance throughout the process. Key first steps to immediate postpartum LARC program implementation were identifying project champions, creating an implementation team that included all relevant departments, obtaining financial reassurance, and ensuring hospital administration awareness of the project. Potential barriers included lack of knowledge about immediate postpartum LARC, financial concerns, and competing clinical and administrative priorities. Hospitals that were successful at implementing immediate postpartum LARC programs did so by prioritizing clear communication and multidisciplinary teamwork. Although the implementation guide reflects a comprehensive assessment of the steps to implementing immediate postpartum LARC programs, not all hospitals required every step to succeed. Hospital teams report that implementing immediate postpartum LARC programs involves multiple departments and a number of important steps to consider. A
Prescott, Gina M; Matthews, Christina M
Almost half of the pregnancies in the United States are unintended. Currently available contraceptive methods are highly efficacious, but the most commonly used methods rely on patients for appropriate use. There has been a push to advocate for long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) as first-line methods because they are placed by medical professionals and are the most effective form of reversible contraception available. There are four LARCs currently available in the United States: the Copper T intrauterine device, two forms of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, and the etonogestrel subdermal implant. Once inserted, they can be left in place for 3-10 years, depending on the device. Some of these devices have been available for a number of years, but their use is limited in the United States due to controversies and misconceptions. A MEDLINE search from 1990-2012 was conducted to identify articles describing the use of LARCs in populations with limited data, including postpartum women, adolescents and nulliparous women, and women with sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Health care provider safety concerns surrounding intrauterine device (IUD) expulsions and infection are issues for use in adolescents and nulliparous women. Concern regarding IUD expulsion in the postpartum population questions the benefit of immediate versus delayed insertion, and the progestin effect in the levonorgestrel IUD and etonogestrel implant is of theoretic concern for breastfeeding women. In women with HIV, concerns have been raised about increased viral shedding with the IUD and drug interactions with the progestin methods. Many misconceptions surrounding LARCs are unfounded, but individual risk factors may leave LARC users at risk of unintended pregnancy if not addressed properly.
Idalencio, Renan; Kalichak, Fabiana; Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Oliveira, Tiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Gusso, Darlan; Abreu, Murilo Sander de; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcântara; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil
The presence of drugs and their metabolites in surface waters and municipal effluents has been reported in several studies, but its impacts on aquatic organisms are not yet well understood. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to the antipsychotic risperidone on the stress and behavioral responses in zebrafish. It became clear that intermediate concentration of risperidone inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and displayed anxiolytic-like effects in zebrafish. The data presented here suggest that the presence of this antipsychotic in aquatic environments can alter neuroendocrine and behavior profiles in zebrafish.
Kalichak, Fabiana; Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Oliveira, Tiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Gusso, Darlan; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcântara
The presence of drugs and their metabolites in surface waters and municipal effluents has been reported in several studies, but its impacts on aquatic organisms are not yet well understood. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to the antipsychotic risperidone on the stress and behavioral responses in zebrafish. It became clear that intermediate concentration of risperidone inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and displayed anxiolytic-like effects in zebrafish. The data presented here suggest that the presence of this antipsychotic in aquatic environments can alter neuroendocrine and behavior profiles in zebrafish. PMID:26473477
Fear, Christopher F; Libretto, Susan E
The overlap between diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and delusional disorder (DD) may cause diagnostic confusion. This is important if response to treatment differs. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, is established in the treatment of schizophrenia, although less so in other psychotic conditions. We report the case of a woman who developed DD, persecutory type, at the age of 50 years. Treatment with sulpiride 200-800 mg daily caused side-effects of drowsiness and 'hangover' and, consequently, non-compliance. Written informed consent was gained for a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of risperidone, initiated at 1 mg daily and increasing to 2 mg daily. Significant improvement was found, as assessed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Schedule and Maudsley Assessment of Delusions Schedule. We believe that this is the first case study reporting the resolution of persecutory DD with risperidone. A controlled clinical trial of risperidone in the treatment of patients with DD is warranted. (Int J Psych Clin Pract 2002; 6: 113-116).
... on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Risperidone Injection; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... availability of a revised draft guidance for industry entitled ``Draft Guidance on Risperidone.'' The guidance... drug applications (ANDAs) for risperidone injection. DATES: Although you can comment on any guidance...
Karki, Shyam D; Masood, Gule-Rana
To report 2 cases of serotonin syndrome associated with combined therapy of risperidone and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in elderly patients. An 86-year-old white man was admitted to the emergency department because of increased confusion and generalized weakness over the past several days. His medication history indicated paroxetine 10 mg/d and risperidone 0.25 mg/d. The patient's confusion worsened and underwent acute changes that resembled delirium. He was placed in a geri chair and he became extremely agitated. He was then treated with escalating doses of risperidone. The patient died on day 5 of admission, at which time he was being treated with risperidone 2-3 mg/d. A 78-year-old white female nursing home resident was admitted to the emergency department because of increased confusion and generalized weakness. She was being treated with paroxetine for depression and risperidone for agitation. Her risperidone dose was increased to manage agitation. The patient's agitation worsened with increasing doses of risperidone; she developed tremor, dizziness, and muscle incoordination. After psychopharmacologic consultation, the risperidone and paroxetine were discontinued and she was treated with lorazepam. The patient recovered, returned to baseline status in 2 days, and was later transferred back to the nursing home. We believe that in both cases, serotonin syndrome was precipitated by risperidone in combination with SSRI antidepressants. A literature search indicated one report of serotonin syndrome with a combination of risperidone and paroxetine. An objective causality assessment revealed that the adverse drug event was probable in the first patient and definite in the second patient. We caution clinicians treating elderly patients with combined risperidone and SSRIs to include serotonin syndrome in differential diagnosis if the patient is showing signs of increasing agitation with escalating doses of risperidone.
Furiak, Nicolas M; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Klein, Robert W; Smolen, Lee J; Lawson, Anthony H; Montgomery, William; Conley, Robert R
To compare, from the perspective of third-party payers in the United States health care system, the cost-effectiveness of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI, depot) with alternative antipsychotic agents including risperidone-LAI, paliperidone-LAI, haloperidol-LAI, and oral olanzapine, in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia who have been non-adherent or partially adherent with oral antipsychotics. A 1-year micro-simulation economic decision model was developed to simulate the dynamics of usual care of patients with schizophrenia who continue, discontinue, switch, or restart their medication. The model uses a range of clinical and cost parameters including adherence levels, relapse with and without hospitalization, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), treatment discontinuation rates by reason, treatment-emergent adverse events, suicide, health care resource utilization, and direct health care costs. Published medical literature and a clinical expert panel were used to develop baseline model assumptions. Key model outputs include annual total direct cost (US$) per treatment and incremental cost-effectiveness values per additional QALY gained. Model results found that the olanzapine-LAI treatment strategy was more effective (greater QALYs) and less costly than risperidone-LAI, paliperidone-LAI, and haloperidol-LAI. In addition, olanzapine-LAI was both more effective and more costly, with an estimated incremental cost/QALY of $26,824 compared to oral olanzapine. The base-case and multiple sensitivity analyses found olanzapine-LAI to remain within acceptable cost-effective ranges (<$50,000) in terms of incremental cost/QALY gained. This micro-simulation model finds the olanzapine-LAI treatment strategy to result in better effectiveness and to be a cost-effective alternative compared to oral olanzapine and the LAI formulations of risperidone, paliperidone, and haloperidol in the treatment of non-adherent and partially adherent patients with schizophrenia in
Moosavi, S. Mohammad; Ahmadi, Mahshid; Monajemi, Mani B.
Objective: This study compared the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy with risperidone plus valproate in bipolar I disorder, manic phase. Some studies showed the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, so we examined this effectiveness in this clinical-trial study. Method: This 7-week, randomized, single-blind study included 48 bipolar I inpatients manic phase without psychotic features divided in risperidone group (n = 23) and risperidone plus sodium valproate group (n = 25). According to clinical symptoms, 3 categories: complete remission, partial remission and no remission were mentioned in weekly follow-up. Remission rate compared with survival analysis. Results: The results showed a significant difference in remission rate between risperidone monotherapy and risperidone plus sodium valproate at the 1st, 2nd and the 3rd week (p = 0.012, 0.023, 0.027 respectively), It means the remission rate in risperidone plus valproate group was higher in the first three weeks, but at the end of the seventh week, the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the development of adverse effects. Conclusions: Risperidone can be effective and well tolerated in both acute manic episodes of bipolar mood disorders. PMID:25363101
Komossa, Katja; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Schwarz, Sandra; Schmid, Franziska; Hunger, Heike; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan
Background In many countries of the industrialised world second-generation (“atypical”) antipsychotics (SGAs) have become the first line drug treatment for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether and if so how much the effects of the various SGAs differ is a matter of debate. In this review we examined how the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone differs from that of other SGAs. Objectives To evaluate the effects of risperidone compared with other atypical antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis. Search methods 1. Electronic searching We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. 2. Reference searching We inspected the references of all identified studies for more trials. 3. Personal contact We contacted the first author of each included study for missing information. 4. Drug companies We contacted the manufacturers of all atypical antipsychotics included for additional data. Selection criteria We included all randomised, blinded trials comparing oral risperidone with oral forms of amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results The review currently includes 45 blinded RCTs with 7760 participants. The number of RCTs available for each comparison varied: four studies compared risperidone with amisulpride, two with aripiprazole, 11 with clozapine, 23 with olanzapine, eleven with
Simon, Elliott W.; And Others
The use of risperidone for 10 individuals with mental retardation and mental health disturbances was evaluated using a case study approach to delineate the course of substitution of more traditional antipsychotic medications with risperidone. All participants showed improvement or resolution in side effects attributed to previous medication with…
Simon, Elliott W.; And Others
The use of risperidone for 10 individuals with mental retardation and mental health disturbances was evaluated using a case study approach to delineate the course of substitution of more traditional antipsychotic medications with risperidone. All participants showed improvement or resolution in side effects attributed to previous medication with…
P.J., Pratheesh; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Srivastava, Ashish
Risperidone is associated with hyperprolactinemia and its consequent symptoms such as gynnecomastia, galactorrhea and sexual dysfunction in adults, and less so in adolescents. Rarely, serotonin reuptake inhibitors are also associated with such adverse effects. We report a case of gynecomastia and galactorrhea in an adolescent male while on a combination of risperidone and fluvoxamine, although the serum prolactin was within normal range. PMID:22506441
Pratheesh, P J; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Srivastava, Ashish
Risperidone is associated with hyperprolactinemia and its consequent symptoms such as gynecomastia, galactorrhea and sexual dysfunction in adults, and less so in adolescents. Rarely, serotonin reuptake inhibitors are also associated with such adverse effects. We report a case of gynecomastia and galactorrhea in an adolescent male while on a combination of risperidone and fluvoxamine, although the serum prolactin was within normal range.
Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Bagi, Zsolt; Pacher, Pál; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Fülöp, László; Kecskeméti, Valéria; Nánási, Péter P
In this study, the effects of risperidone, the widely used antipsychotic drug, on isolated canine ventricular myocytes and guinea-pig papillary muscles were analyzed using conventional microelectrode and whole cell voltage-clamp techniques. Risperidone concentration-dependently lengthened action potential duration in guinea-pig papillary muscles (EC(50)=0.29+/-0.02 micro M) and single canine ventricular myocytes (EC(50)=0.48+/-0.14 micro M). This effect was reversible, showed reverse rate dependence, and it was most prominent on the terminal portion of repolarization. No significant effect of risperidone on the resting membrane potential, action potential amplitude or maximum rate of depolarization was observed. In voltage-clamped canine ventricular myocytes risperidone caused concentration-dependent block of the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current ( I(Kr)), measured as outward current tails at -40 mV, with an IC(50) of 0.92+/-0.26 micro M. Suppression of I(Kr) was not associated with changes in activation or deactivation kinetics. High concentration of risperidone (10 micro M) suppressed also the slow component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current ( I(Ks)) by 9.6+/-1.5% at +50 mV. These effects of risperidone developed rapidly and were readily reversible. Risperidone had no significant effect on the amplitude of other K(+) currents ( I(K1) and I(to)). The inhibition of cardiac I(Kr) current by risperidone may explain the cardiac side-effects observed occasionally with the drug. Our results suggest that risperidone displays class III antiarrhythmic properties, and as such, may produce QTc prolongation, especially in patients with long QT syndrome. Therefore, in psychotic patients having also cardiac disorders, ECG control may be suggested during risperidone therapy.
Bardgett, Mark E.; Franks-Henry, Julie M.; Colemire, Kristin R.; Juneau, Kathleen R.; Stevens, Rachel M.; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Griffith, Molly S.
Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug approved for use in children, but little is known about the long-term effects of early-life risperidone treatment. In animals, prolonged risperidone administration during development increases forebrain dopamine receptor expression immediately upon the cessation of treatment. A series of experiments was performed to ascertain whether early-life risperidone administration altered locomotor activity, a behavior sensitive to dopamine receptor function, in adult rats. One additional behavior modulated by forebrain dopamine function, spatial reversal learning, was also measured during adulthood. In each study, Long-Evans rats received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or one of two doses of risperidone (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg per day) from postnatal days 14 – 42. Weight gain during development was slightly yet significantly reduced in risperidone-treated rats. In the first two experiments, early-life risperidone administration was associated with increased locomotor activity at one week post-administration through approximately nine months of age, independent of changes in weight gain. In a separate experiment, it was found that the enhancing effect of early-life risperidone on locomotor activity occurred in males and female rats. A final experiment indicated that spatial reversal learning was unaffected in adult rats administered risperidone early in life. These results indicate that locomotor activity during adulthood is permanently modified by early-life risperidone treatment. The findings suggest that chronic antipsychotic drug use in pediatric populations (e.g., treatment for the symptoms of autism) could modify brain development and alter neural set-points for specific behaviors during adulthood. PMID:23750695
Yamanashi, Keiji; Marumo, Satoshi; Sumitomo, Ryota; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Motonari; Katayama, Toshiro; Huang, Cheng-Long
Long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists have been shown to increase the risk of atrial arrhythmias in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether perioperative long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists treatment would increase the risk of postoperative atrial arrhythmias after lung cancer surgery in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. We retrospectively analyzed 174 consecutive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who underwent lobectomy or segmentectomy. The subjects were divided into those with or without perioperative long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists treatment. Postoperative cardiopulmonary complications were compared between the two groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the perioperative long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists treatment group and the control group in the incidence of postoperative atrial arrhythmias (P = 0.629). In 134 propensity-score-matched pairs, including variables such as age, gender, comorbidities, smoking history, operation procedure, lung-cancer staging, and respiratory function, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, including atrial arrhythmias. Perioperative administration of long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists might not increase the incidence of postoperative atrial arrhythmias after surgical resection for non-small-cell lung cancer in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.
van den Berg, Jacob J; Rosen, Rochelle K; Bregman, Dana E; Thompson, Lara A; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kiser, Patrick F; Katz, David F; Buckheit, Karen; Buckheit, Robert W; Morrow, Kathleen M
Women's initial understandings and anticipated acceptability of long-acting vaginal gels as potential anti-HIV microbicides was investigated by exploring the perceptibility variables associated with prototype formulations. Four focus groups with 29 women, aged 18-45, were conducted to consider gel prototypes with varied physicochemical and rheological properties. Participants responded favorably to the concept of long-acting vaginal gels as microbicides. Distinctions in understandings and stated needs regarding product dosing, characteristics, and effectiveness offer valuable insights into product design. Long-acting vaginal gels capable of protecting against HIV/STIs will be a viable option among potential users, with dosing frequency being an important factor in willingness to use.
Koraćević, Goran P.; Veličković-Radovanović, Radmila M.; Apostolović, Svetlana R.; Krstić, Nebojša H.; Tasić, Ivan S.; Zdravković, Marija D.; Antonijević, Nebojša M.; Damnjanović, Goran N.; Kostić, Tomislav L.
European Society of Cardiology Guidelines cite results of meta-analysis that the use of calcium channel blockers results in fewer angina episodes per week vs. long-acting nitrates. Moreover, we listed 12 reasons more to prefer amlodipine over long-acting nitrates, especially in stable angina pectoris patients with arterial hypertension. It may be the way to decrease polypharmacy without loosing efficacy. Some important advantages of amlodipine versus long-acting nitrate(s) are: amlodipine also treats hypertension, it helps reducing hypertensive target organ damages (e.g. left ventricular hypertrophy) and prevents morning blood pressure surge. Moreover, amlodipine can be given once daily (which improves adherence), it produces neither tolerance nor rebound, it has less side effects. PMID:28352677
Owenby, Ryan K; Brown, Lindsey T; Brown, Jamie N
To review the efficacy and safety of risperidone for augmentation treatment in patients with major depressive disorder who fail to achieve adequate response to antidepressant monotherapy. A search of MEDLINE (1966-August 2010) and EMBASE (1980-August 2010) was conducted, using the terms risperidone and major depressive disorder. In addition, a manual search of the references cited in each publication identified from the database search was conducted to identify relevant articles. All English-language, peer-reviewed publications identified from the data sources were evaluated. Four clinical trials and 1 subanalysis of a clinical trial were included for analysis. Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic that displays antidepressant properties due to its activity at various serotonergic and dopaminergic receptors. Studies have demonstrated that risperidone augmentation may be effective and safe when used at low doses. Although several of the studies identified had limited sample sizes, all studies demonstrated improvement on various standardized depressive symptom assessment scales. Study durations ranged from 4 to 24 weeks, with doses ranging from 0.25 to 2 mg/day. The most common adverse effects associated with risperidone therapy were headache, dry mouth, and increased appetite. Clinical evidence suggests that the use of risperidone as adjunctive therapy for treatment-resistant depression may improve rates of response and remission, but long-term effectiveness and safety cannot be determined at this time. Therefore, an adequate trial of first-line agents from different classes and/or a combination of agents from different classes would be recommended prior to initiation of risperidone. If the decision is made to start risperidone, health-care providers should ensure that patients are educated regarding the potential benefits and adverse effects before initiating risperidone.
Stuart, Gretchen S
This month we focus on current research in contraception and women choosing long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Long-acting reversible contraception improves the health of women and their families. Dr. Stuart discusses four recent publications, which are concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The articles highlighted can be used to support actions practitioners can take to increase provision of LARC to their patients. The complete reference for each can be found in on this page, along with direct links to the abstracts.
James, Suneeta; Kapugama, Chaya; Al-Uzri, Mohammed
Background. Evidence for the efficacious use of second-generation antipsychotics for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is scant. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 34-year-old female of Afro-Caribbean origin, who presented with prominent negative symptoms of schizophrenia and was successfully treated with aripiprazole long acting injection. Within a period of six to nine months, the patient returned to her premorbid level of functioning. Conclusion. Aripiprazole long acting injection promises benefits in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Further research needs to be conducted on the use of this drug. PMID:26981301
Calarge, Chadi A; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Del Castillo, Nicole; Aman, Michael; McDougle, Christopher J; Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T; Arnold, L Eugene
Previous cross-sectional evidence has linked antipsychotic-related weight gain to reduced body iron concentration. Using longitudinal data, we examined the association between changes in weight following risperidone initiation or discontinuation and ferritin concentration. Study 1: Between April 2004 and September 2007, participants were enrolled from outpatient settings in a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of risperidone monotherapy to the combination of risperidone and behavior therapy in targeting disruptive behavior in 4- to 13-year-old children with DSM-IV-TR-based autism spectrum disorder. Study 2: Medically healthy 7- to 17-year-old participants in long-term open-label risperidone treatment at study entry returned for follow-up 1.5 years later, between July 2007 and July 2011. Available blood samples were used to measure ferritin. Linear multivariable regression analysis tested the association between ferritin concentration and change in age-sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z score between study entry and endpoint, adjusting for relevant confounders. Study 1 sample consisted of 73 participants (85% males, mean age: 7.7 ± 2.4 years). After 18.0 ± 2.0 weeks on risperidone, their BMI z score increased by 0.93 ± 0.70 points and ferritin concentration declined by 6.8 ± 13.3 μg/L. After adjusting for age and sex, change in BMI z score was inversely correlated with percent change in ferritin concentration (β = -18.3, P < .003). Study 2 participants had all been receiving risperidone at study entry. At follow-up, 1.5 ± 0.3 years later, risperidone was discontinued in 26 of the 96 who were included in the analysis. Neither change in BMI z score nor in ferritin concentration was different between those who continued versus discontinued risperidone. However, a reduction in BMI z score between study entry and follow-up was associated with higher ferritin concentration at follow-up in participants who discontinued risperidone
Gberindyer, Aondover F; Okpeh, Ene R; Semaka, Asaaga A
Both short- and long-acting formulations of oxytetracycline are commonly used in veterinary medicine to treat animals infected with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, and chlamydiae. To compare pharmacokinetics of short- and long-acting oxytetracycline in chickens, injectable formulations from the same pharmaceutical company were administered to healthy 6-week-old broiler chickens in accordance to the labeled instructions. Fourteen chickens were separated into 2 groups: chickens in group A (n = 7) were administered the short-acting formulation (10 mg/kg IM q24h) for 4 consecutive days, whereas those in group B (n = 7) were treated with a single dose (20 mg/kg IM) of the long-acting formulation. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours after initial treatment. Thereafter, blood samples were taken every 24 hours up to 120 hours. Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. Both formulations delivered therapeutic plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline for approximately 100% of their respective dosing intervals as recommended. However, considering the additional labor, patient stress, and mortalities associated with handling, in addition to rejection of the carcass due to tissue necrosis resulting from multiple injections, we recommend use of the long-acting instead of the short-acting injectable formulation in broiler chickens.
Beier, Jutta; Beeh, Kai M
Bronchodilators are the cornerstone of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment to improve airflow, symptoms, exercise tolerance, and exacerbations. There is convincing evidence that regular treatment with long-acting bronchodilators is more effective and convenient than treatment with short-acting bronchodilators. Long-acting β-2-agonists include the twice-daily drugs formoterol and salmeterol and, more recently, once-daily indacaterol. Studies with head-to-head comparisons of long-acting bronchodilators are scant, but novel data from controlled trials with the once-daily β(2)-agonist indacaterol indicate superior bronchodilation and clinical efficacy of indacaterol at recommended doses over twice-daily long-acting β(2)-agonists, and at least equipotent bronchodilation compared with once-daily tiotropium. The recent therapeutic developments in COPD underscore a shift from short-acting bronchodilators with multiple dosings per day to reduced dosing frequency and prolonged duration of action, including once-daily treatment, with more consistent effects on various clinical outcomes. This review summarizes relevant clinical data for twice-daily β-2-agonists in COPD, and further focuses on novel data for once-daily indacaterol, including head-to-head comparison trials. PMID:21814459
Francisco, C G; Freire, R; Hernandez, R; Salazar, J A; Suarez, E; García de la Mora, G A; Noguez, J A; Acosta, A; Jimeno, O
The synthesis of nine new esters of norethisterone (17 alpha-ethynyl-17 beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one) is described, with the esterifying acids bearing an acetylenic or olefinic function in a chain of eight or nine carbon atoms, for evaluation as long-acting contraceptive agents.
The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...
Spencer, Thomas J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Lerner, Marc; Cooper, Kimberly M.; Zimmerman, Brenda
Objective: To investigate whether prolonged therapy with a long-acting stimulant affects growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: One hundred seventy-eight children ages 6 to 13 years received OROS methylphenidate (OROS MPH, CONCERTA) for at least 21 months. Height and weight were measured monthly during the…
Ward, P S; Ward, I; McNinch, A W; Savage, D C
A 7 year old girl with precocious puberty was treated with buserelin, a long acting analogue of gonadotrophin releasing hormone. Spontaneous and stimulated gonadotrophin secretion became prepubertal but returned to pubertal values when buserelin was withdrawn, suggesting that normal sexual maturation should follow cessation of treatment. PMID:3931565
Long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have both glucose- and weight-lowering effects. The brain is poised to mediate both of these actions since GLP-1Rs are present in key areas known to control weight and glucose. Although some research has been performed on the effects of ...
Espey, Eve; Ogburn, Tony
The provision of effective contraception is fundamental to the practice of women's health care. The most effective methods of reversible contraception are the so-called long-acting reversible contraceptives, intrauterine devices and implants. These methods have multiple advantages over other reversible methods. Most importantly, once in place, they do not require maintenance and their duration of action is long, ranging from 3 to 10 years. Despite the advantages of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, they are infrequently used in the United States. Short-acting methods, specifically oral contraceptives and condoms, are by far the most commonly used reversible methods. A shift from the use of short-acting methods to long-acting reversible contraceptive methods could help reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States. In this review of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, we discuss the intrauterine devices and the contraceptive implant available in the United States, and we describe candidates for each method, noncontraceptive benefits, and management of complications.
Gutierrez, Santiago; Wuesthoff, Carolina
Steroids have proven to be of some benefit in rhinoplasty edema and ecchymosis when administered at a high and repeated dose. To evaluate the effects of single-dose, long-acting intramuscular steroids on postoperative edema and ecchymosis after closed rhinoplasty with osteotomies compared with placebo. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Fifty-four patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 28 received a single dose of long-acting dexamethasone (mean [± SD] dose 16±4 mg) immediately before anesthetic induction; the remaining 26 received an intramuscular injection of saline solution. The same surgeon performed all surgeries, with patients under general anesthesia. Acetaminophen was the only analgesic used to control postoperative pain. High-resolution digital photographs were taken on postoperative days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Scoring was performed separately for eyelid swelling and ecchymosis by an independent observer using a graded scale (0 to 5) for edema and a scoring system (0 to 13) for ecchymosis. No statistically significant differences in terms of age, sex or amount of bleeding during surgery were found between the two groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in the decrease of both ecchymosis and edema between placebo and high-dose, long-acting dexamethasone. A statistically significant difference in operation time was found, favouring the steroid group. No severe complications were observed due to steroid use. Osteotomies are basically a form of (controlled) trauma, with considerable disruption of the abundant blood vessels in this facial region and, therefore, are associated with with undesirable effects. A recent meta-analysis failed to show benefits of the use of steroids after postoperative day 3. Only a trend toward reduction in edema and ecchymosis with the use of long-acting steroids compared with placebo was demonstrated in the present study. There was no benefit in administering single
Gutierrez, Santiago; Wuesthoff, Carolina
BACKGROUND: Steroids have proven to be of some benefit in rhinoplasty edema and ecchymosis when administered at a high and repeated dose. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of single-dose, long-acting intramuscular steroids on postoperative edema and ecchymosis after closed rhinoplasty with osteotomies compared with placebo. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Fifty-four patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 28 received a single dose of long-acting dexamethasone (mean [± SD] dose 16±4 mg) immediately before anesthetic induction; the remaining 26 received an intramuscular injection of saline solution. The same surgeon performed all surgeries, with patients under general anesthesia. Acetaminophen was the only analgesic used to control postoperative pain. High-resolution digital photographs were taken on postoperative days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Scoring was performed separately for eyelid swelling and ecchymosis by an independent observer using a graded scale (0 to 5) for edema and a scoring system (0 to 13) for ecchymosis. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in terms of age, sex or amount of bleeding during surgery were found between the two groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in the decrease of both ecchymosis and edema between placebo and high-dose, long-acting dexamethasone. A statistically significant difference in operation time was found, favouring the steroid group. No severe complications were observed due to steroid use. DISCUSSION: Osteotomies are basically a form of (controlled) trauma, with considerable disruption of the abundant blood vessels in this facial region and, therefore, are associated with with undesirable effects. A recent meta-analysis failed to show benefits of the use of steroids after postoperative day 3. Only a trend toward reduction in edema and ecchymosis with the use of long-acting steroids compared with placebo was demonstrated in the present study
Saberi, Farzad; O'Donnell, Denis E
Bronchodilator therapy forms the mainstay of treatment for symptomatic patients with COPD. Long-acting bronchodilators, which maintain sustained airway patency over a 24-hour period, represent an advance in therapy. Tiotropium bromide is a new long-acting inhaled anticholinergic agent with superior pharmacodynamic properties compared with the short-acting anticholinergic, ipratropium bromide. Tiotropium bromide has been consistently shown to have a greater impact than ipratropium bromide on clinically important outcome measures such as health status. The mechanisms of clinical benefit with tiotropium bromide are multifactorial, but improved airway function, which enhances lung emptying and allows sustained deflation of over-inflated lungs, appears to explain improvements in dyspnea and exercise endurance in COPD. Inhaled tiotropium bromide therapy has also been associated with reduction in acute exacerbations of COPD as well as reduced hospitalizations. The safety profile of tiotropium bromide is impressive: dry mouth is the most common adverse event and rarely necessitates termination of the drug. No tachyphylaxis to tiotropium bromide has been demonstrated in clinical trials lasting up to 1 year. There is preliminary information that the combination of long-acting anticholinergics and long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists provides additive physiological and clinical benefits. According to recent international guidelines, long-acting bronchodilators should be considered early in the management of symptomatic patients with COPD in order to achieve effective symptom alleviation and reduction in activity limitation. Tiotropium bromide, because of its once-daily administration and its established efficacy and tolerability profile, has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for this condition.
Today, considering their adverse side effects, the first-generation antipsychotics have been replaced by the new-generation antipsychotics (also known as second-generation antipsychotic agents). The superiority of new-generation antipsychotics compared with first-generation antipsychotic agents in terms of side effects, especially movement disorders, are acknowledged by clinicians. But in recent years during the use of second-generation antipsychotic agents, endocrine side effects have been noteworthy. In our study with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia treated with risperidone for 14 years and operated with the diagnosis of pituitary macroadenoma, a 32-year-old female patient is presented in the light of the literature examining the framework of the history of disease. PMID:23983960
Chiles, Daniel P; Roberts, Timothy A; Klein, David A
Long-acting reversible contraception is more effective for pregnancy prevention than shorter-acting contraceptive methods and has the potential to reduce healthcare disparities and costs. However, long-acting reversible contraception is underused in the United States. One population of interest is beneficiaries of the United States military healthcare system who have access to universal healthcare, including no-cost, no-copay contraception with unlimited method switching, and comprise a large, actual use cohort. Efforts to increase long-acting reversible contraception initiation and continuation in this population may improve health outcomes and mitigate the profound consequences of unintended or mistimed pregnancy on readiness and cost to the military. We aimed to determine long-acting reversible contraception initiation and continuation rates among the diverse population with universal healthcare who are enrolled in the US military healthcare system. This study is a retrospective cohort of >1.7 million women, aged 14-40 years, who were enrolled in the US military healthcare system, TRICARE Prime, between October 2009 and September 2014. Individuals were assessed for long-acting reversible contraception initiation and continuation with the use of medical billing records. Method continuation and factors that were associated with early method discontinuation were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazard models. During the study dates, 188,533 women initiated long-acting reversible contraception. Of these, 74.6% women selected intrauterine contraceptives. Method initiation rates remained relatively stable (41.7-50.1/1000 women/year) for intrauterine methods, although the rate for subdermal implants increased from 6.1-23.0/1000 women/year. In analysis of women who selected intrauterine contraceptives, 61.2% continued their method at 36 months, and 48.8% continued at 60 months. Among women who selected the implant, 32.0% continued their
Kilburn, Jennifer J; Cox, Sherry K; Backues, Kay A
Antibiotic usage is a vital component of veterinary medicine but the unique anatomy of some species can make administration difficult. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA), a long-acting cephalosporin antibiotic, after parenteral administration in American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ). A dose of 10 mg/kg of CCFA was administered intramuscularly to 11 birds and blood was collected at various time points from 0 to 192 hr. Pharmacokinetic parameters for ceftiofur equivalents were determined and reached levels above minimum inhibitory concentrations of various bacterial organisms in other avian species through 96 hr in 9/11 birds. Based on these findings and comparison to other avian studies, ceftiofur crystalline free acid appears to be a long-acting antibiotic option for American flamingos. Administration of this antibiotic should be utilized in conjunction with culture and sensitivity of suspected pathogens.
Matlin, S A; Chan, L; Hadjigeogiou, P; Prazeres, M A; Mehani, S; Roshdi, S
More than 200 samples of esters of norethisterone (17 alpha-ethynyl-17 beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one) and levonorgestrel (13 beta-ethyl-17 alpha-ethynyl-17 beta-hydroxygon-4-en-3 -one) have been analysed by a combination of techniques, including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Compounds having a purity below the required limit (99.5%) were purified, mainly by preparative HPLC, prior to formulation and biological evaluation as long-acting progestogens.
Mesones-Peral, Jesús E; Gurillo-Muñoz, Pedro; Sánchez-Sicilia, Mari Paz; Miller, Adam; Griñant-Fernández, Alejandra
Prevent hospitalizations in psychotic disorders is an important aim, so long-acting antipsychotic is a good option that can control better the correct adherence. Moreover, in the current economic context pharmacoeconomic studies are necessary. We estimate the effect in prevention of paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection (PP-LAI) and calculate the economic cost in the 12 months preceding the start of treatment with PP-LAI and 12 months later. Mirror image study of 71 outpatients diagnosed with psychotic disorders and treated with PP-LAI. In a first analysis, we measured along one year: number of hospitalizations/year, number of hospitalization in days, number of emergency assists/year and if there is antipsychotics associated to long-acting treatment. After this phase, we applied Fees Act of Valencia for economic analysis and estimate of the cost per hospitalization (€ 5,640.41) and hospital emergency (€ 187.61). After one year of treatment with PP-LAI (mean dose=130.65mg/month), we obtained greater numbers in assistance variables: total hospitalizations decrease, 78.8% (P=.009); shortening in hospitalization days, 89.4% (P=.009); abridgement of number of emergency assists, 79.1% (P=.002); decrease of rate of antipsychotics associated to long-acting treatment, 21% (P<.0001); increase in monotherapy, 53.8% (P<.0001). Therefore, after 12 months of treatment with PP-LAI we obtained a reduction in inpatient spending (savings of € 175,766.54) and increased spending on antipsychotics 32% (equivalent to € 151,126.92). PP-LAI can be an effective therapy for the treatment of patients with severe psychotic disorders: improves symptomatic stability and can prevent hospitalizations with cost-effective symptom control. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)—intrauterine devices and the contraceptive implant—are safe and appropriate contraceptive methods for most women and adolescents. The LARC methods are top-tier contraceptives based on effectiveness, with pregnancy rates of less than 1% per year for perfect use and typical use. These contraceptives have the highest rates of satisfaction and continuation of all reversible contraceptives. Adolescents are at high risk of unintended pregnancy and may benefit from increased access to LARC methods.
Kosmicki, Marek Antoni
Long-acting nitrates are effective antianginal drugs during initial treatment. However, their therapeutic value is compromised by the rapid development of tolerance during sustained therapy, which means that their clinical efficacy is decreased during long-term use. Sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG), a short-acting nitrate, is suitable for the immediate relief of angina. In patients with stable angina treated with oral long-acting nitrates, NTG maintains its full anti-ischemic effect both after initial oral ingestion and after intermittent long-term oral administration. However, NTG attenuates this effect during continuous treatment, when tolerance to oral nitrates occurs, and this is called cross-tolerance. In stable angina long-acting nitrates are considered third-line therapy because a nitrate-free interval is required to avoid the development of tolerance. Nitrates vary in their potential to induce the development of tolerance. During long-lasting nitrate therapy, except pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), one can observe the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside the muscular cell of a vessel wall, and these bind with nitric oxide (NO). This leads to decreased NO activity, thus, nitrate tolerance. PETN has no tendency to form ROS, and therefore during long-term PETN therapy, there is probably no tolerance or cross-tolerance, as during treatment with other nitrates.
Beeh, Kai M; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Franssen, Frits M E; Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Loukides, Stelios; Hurst, John R; Fležar, Matjaž; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Di Marco, Fabiano; Stolz, Daiana; Valipour, Arschang; Casserly, Brian; Ställberg, Björn; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A
Decreasing the frequency and severity of exacerbations is one of the main goals of treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several studies have documented that long-acting bronchodilators (LABDs) can reduce exacerbation rate and/or severity, and others have shown that combinations of long-acting β2-adrenergic agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) provide greater reductions in exacerbation frequency than either their monocomponents or LABA/inhaled corticosteroids (LABA/ICS) combinations in patients at low and high risk for these events. In this review, small groups of experts critically evaluated mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased benefit of LABA/LAMA combinations over single LABDs or LABA/ICS in decreasing exacerbation. These included effects on lung hyperinflation and mechanical stress, inflammation, excessive mucus production with impaired mucociliary clearance, and symptom severity. The data assembled and analyzed by each group were reviewed by all authors and combined into this manuscript. Available clinical results support the possibility that effects of LABA/LAMA combinations on hyperinflation, mucociliary clearance, and symptom severity may all contribute to decreasing exacerbations. While preclinical studies suggest LABAs and LAMAs have anti-inflammatory effects, such effects have not been demonstrated yet in patients with COPD.
Wang, Shuang; Wu, Mingsheng; Li, Dan; Jiao, Mingli; Wang, Lan; Zhang, Haifeng; Liu, Huaiyu; Wang, Daifeng; Han, Bing
The goal of this project was to prepare long-acting lanreotide acetate poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and to analyze the in vivo and in vitro release, safety and toxicology of these preparations. Long-acting lanreotide acetate PLGA microspheres that exhibited a 5-week slow-release period were prepared by a multiple-emulsion solvent evaporation method. Physical characterization, as well as the analysis of the in vivo and in vitro release, safety, acute toxicity and chronic toxicity of the lanreotide microspheres, were conducted in animal models in rats, guinea pigs, rabbits and beagle dogs. The lanreotide acetate PLGA microspheres prepared by multiple-emulsion solvent evaporation had smooth surfaces, uniform particle size and stable lanreotide loading. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the lanreotide acetate PLGA microspheres could continuously release lanreotide for 5 weeks. The safety of these long acting lanreotide microspheres was good in the following animal models: active systemic anaphylaxis test in guinea pigs, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test in rats, hemolytic test in rabbits, local skin irritation test after subcutaneous administration in rabbits and muscle stimulation test in rabbits. Furthermore, no significant acute toxicity or chronic toxicity was observed after administration of lanreotide acetate PLGA microspheres in beagle dogs at dosages up to 22 mg/kg. The lanreotide acetate PLGA microspheres that were prepared in this study exhibited beneficial characteristics in apparent property and structural stability, as well as in release trends in vivo and in vitro.
Kofron, Ryan; McCauley, Marybeth
Purpose of review Pre-exposure prophyalxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is highly effective when taken as prescribed. Adherence to required dosing regimens for protection may pose challenges. Long Acting agents for HIV prevention may have the potential to improve adherence via favorable pharmacokinetics supportive of infrequent dosing. This review focuses on the potential benefits and considerations for the study and use of two long acting injectable agents, cabotegravir (GSK1265744 LA, CAB LA) and rilpivirine (TMC278 LA, RPV LA), for use as chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention. Recent findings Oral RPV is FDA approved for HIV treatment (in combination with other antiretrovirals). Both CAB LA and RPV LA are currently in Phase 2a safety/tolerability/pharmacokinetic studies in anticipation and support of future efficacy evaluation. Both agents have favorable pharmacokinetics, and use is complicated by injection site reactions. Summary Long acting injectable formulations, if safe and well tolerated, may improve pharmacokinetic coverage of exposures to HIV infection. Complexities around safety, tolerability, and starting/stopping protocols require careful consideration. PMID:26633643
Escudero, E; Carceles, C M; Serrano, J M
The pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline were studied in goats, after the intravenous and intramuscular injection of a conventional and long-acting formulation. The antibiotic was distributed according to an open two-compartment model. The apparent volume of distribution (Vz) and the central compartment volume (Vc) were 1.443 litres/kg and 0.453 litre/kg, respectively, and the total body clearance was 0.156 litre/kg/hour. The mean half-lives (T1/2 lambda z) of the conventional formulation after intravenous and intramuscular administration were six hours 28 minutes and 10 hours 38 minutes, respectively, whereas the long-acting formulation had half-lives of six hours 36 seconds and 29 hours, respectively, after intravenous and intramuscular injection. From the results of these single administrations two intramuscular dosage regimens can be proposed that achieve minimum concentrations of over 0.5 mg/litre (the minimum inhibitory concentration for most susceptible pathogens): with the conventional formulation by administering an initial dose of 10 mg/kg and a maintenance dose of 8.5 mg/kg every 24 hours, and with the long-acting formulation by administering an initial dose of 20 mg/kg and a maintenance dose of 14 mg/kg every 48 hours.
Ozdemir, Esra; Karaman, Mehmet Goksin; Yurteri, Nihal; Erdogan, Ayten
The prescribed use of methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is widespread. The intranasal and parenteral abuse of methylphenidate (Ritalin) among teenagers is becoming increasingly more common, and deaths have been reported. Newer medical treatment options of long-acting stimulants offer effective treatment with a lower risk of abuse potential. We describe a case of a 17-year-old girl who had attempted suicide by ingesting 270 mg of Concerta. During the third years of treatment with Concerta, parents of patient reported that the patient had a depressive mood in the last week, and had attempted suicide with five tablets of Concerta 54 mg. She was sent to a local hospital with a diagnosis of long-acting methylphenidate overdose. All of vital and laboratory findings were normal except heart rate, which was 132 beats/min. Since more than 3 h have elapsed after the time of ingestion, activated charcoal administration was not carried out at the hospital. She was only observed for 12 h at the emergency department and later discharged from the hospital. While long-acting stimulants offer lower risk of abuse, their greater availability increases the likelihood of ingestion of this nature. Education of clinicians and families to be aware of this risk should reduce the frequency of this complication of treatment.
Crout, R. J.; Koraido, G.; Moore, P. A.
The efficacy of long-acting local anesthetics for anesthesia during periodontal surgery and for analgesia during the immediate postoperative period was evaluated. The rationale for using long-acting local anesthetics such as etidocaine and bupivacaine is that they can provide surgical anesthesia and, because of their long duration, prevent discomfort that may occur for 4-6 hours postoperatively. Two clinical trials were performed. The first enrolled patients requiring bilateral periodontal surgery. Using a matched pair design and double-blind randomized study conditions, 2% lidocaine 1/100,000 epinephrine was compared with 1.5% etidocaine 1/200,000 epinephrine for periodontal surgery. The time until complete recovery and the time until pain onset were found to be longer for the etidocaine surgeries. Postoperative pain appeared more severe, and the need for oral analgesics was greater for the lidocaine surgeries. Surgeons' rating of surgical bleeding was significantly greater for the etidocaine procedures. When matched bilateral surgeries were not available, a second double-blind randomized parallel trial was performed that compared 1.5% etidocaine 1/200,000 epinephrine to 0.5% bupivacaine 1/200,000 epinephrine. No significant differences were seen in the quality of anesthesia, degree of bleeding, or postoperative pain between these two long-acting anesthetics. PMID:2096742
Aman, Michael G.; Hollway, Jill A.; Leone, Sarah; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald; Nash, Patricia; Arnold, L. Eugene
This study was designed to explore the placebo-controlled effects of risperidone on cognitive-motor processes, dyskinetic movements, and behavior in children receiving maintenance risperidone therapy. Sixteen children aged 4-14 years with disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to drug order in a crossover study of risperidone and placebo for 2…
Aman, Michael G.; Hollway, Jill A.; Leone, Sarah; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald; Nash, Patricia; Arnold, L. Eugene
This study was designed to explore the placebo-controlled effects of risperidone on cognitive-motor processes, dyskinetic movements, and behavior in children receiving maintenance risperidone therapy. Sixteen children aged 4-14 years with disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to drug order in a crossover study of risperidone and placebo for 2…
da Silva, Everton Nunes; Pereira, Maurício G
Background Long-acting insulin analogues for type 1 diabetes (T1D) treatment have been available on the Brazilian market since 2002. However, the population cannot access the analogues through the public health system. Objective To estimate the incremental budget impact of long-acting insulin analogues coverage for T1D patients in the Brazilian public health system compared to NPH insulin. Methods We performed a budget impact analysis of a five-year period. The eligible population was projected using epidemiological data from the International Diabetes Federation estimates for patients between 0–14 and 20–79 years old. The prevalence of T1D was estimated in children, and the same proportion was applied to the 15-19-year-old group due to a gap in epidemiological information. We considered 4,944 new cases per year and a 34.61/100,000 inhabitants mortality rate. Market share for long-acting insulin analogues was assumed as 20% in the first year, reaching 40% in the fifth year. The mean daily dose was taken from clinical trials. We calculated the bargaining power of the Ministry of Health by dividing the price paid for human insulin in the last purchase by the average regulated price. We performed univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. Results The incremental budget impact of long-acting insulin analogues was US$ 28.6 million in the first year, and reached US$ 58.7 million in the fifth year. The total incremental budget impact was US$ 217.9 million over the five-year period. The sensitivity analysis showed that the percentage of T1D among diabetic adults and the insulin analogue price were the main factors that affected the budget impact. Conclusions The cost of the first year of long-acting insulin analogue coverage would correspond to 0.03% of total public health expenditure. The main advantage of this study is that it identifies potential bargaining power because it features more realistic profiles of resource usage, once centralized purchasing is
Laranjeira, Fernanda O; Silva, Everton Nunes da; Pereira, Maurício G
Long-acting insulin analogues for type 1 diabetes (T1D) treatment have been available on the Brazilian market since 2002. However, the population cannot access the analogues through the public health system. To estimate the incremental budget impact of long-acting insulin analogues coverage for T1D patients in the Brazilian public health system compared to NPH insulin. We performed a budget impact analysis of a five-year period. The eligible population was projected using epidemiological data from the International Diabetes Federation estimates for patients between 0-14 and 20-79 years old. The prevalence of T1D was estimated in children, and the same proportion was applied to the 15-19-year-old group due to a gap in epidemiological information. We considered 4,944 new cases per year and a 34.61/100,000 inhabitants mortality rate. Market share for long-acting insulin analogues was assumed as 20% in the first year, reaching 40% in the fifth year. The mean daily dose was taken from clinical trials. We calculated the bargaining power of the Ministry of Health by dividing the price paid for human insulin in the last purchase by the average regulated price. We performed univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. The incremental budget impact of long-acting insulin analogues was US$ 28.6 million in the first year, and reached US$ 58.7 million in the fifth year. The total incremental budget impact was US$ 217.9 million over the five-year period. The sensitivity analysis showed that the percentage of T1D among diabetic adults and the insulin analogue price were the main factors that affected the budget impact. The cost of the first year of long-acting insulin analogue coverage would correspond to 0.03% of total public health expenditure. The main advantage of this study is that it identifies potential bargaining power because it features more realistic profiles of resource usage, once centralized purchasing is established as an economically sustainable strategy
ATAY, İnci Meltem; TANRITANIR, Bilal; AKPINAR, Abdullah; DEMİRDAŞ, Arif
The main feature of stuttering is the disturbance in terms of both timing and fluency of speech inappropriate with the age. This disturbance is characterized with the repetition and prolongation of sounds and syllables. There are two types of stuttering as acquired and developmental. Acquired stuttering may begin suddenly at any age and may be seen rarely due to the adverse effects of drugs. Stuttering induced by antipsychotics may develop very rarely. Risperidone is a strong antagonist of dopamin 2 (D2) and serotonin 2A (5 HT2A) and shows a high affinity for α1 and α2 noradrenaline receptors. It’s used in a wide spectrum including psychotic disorders, mood disorders, and behavioral disorders, even for the treatment of stuttering. Risperidone treats the symptoms of stuttering by the antagonism of D2 receptors with an increase in striatal metabolism. In literature, we haven’t observed any other case reports except the two stuttering cases with psychotic disorders due to the short term and high-dose risperidone treatment. In our case, stuttering adverse effect of chronic low-dose risperidone treatment is remarkable that is discussed for the first time. As well as the use of risperidone for the treatment of stuttering, stuttering adverse effect seems to be interesting as a paradox.
Etminan, Mahyar; Carleton, Bruce; Brophy, James M
The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of gynecomastia with risperidone in adolescent and young adult males. We created a cohort of males 15-25 years of age from the IMS LifeLink database, and conducted a case-control study within the cohort by identifying all new cases of gynecomastia. For each case, 10 controls were selected and matched to the cases by age, follow-up, and calendar times (cases and controls had the same follow up time and cohort entry date). Rate ratios (RR) for current use of risperidone were computed adjusting for potential confounding variables. First diagnosis of gynecomastia was made based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) for gynecomastia. There were 401,924 males ages 15-25 in the primary cohort. There were 1556 cases of gynecomastia and 15,560 corresponding controls. Current users of risperidone had approximately four times the risk of developing gynecomastia than non-users (RR=3.91, 95% CI=2.01-7.62). When the analysis was stratified to children and adolescents (≤18 years of age) taking risperidone, the risk of gynecomastia was five times higher than for non-users (RR=5.44, 95% CI=1.50-19.74). Risperidone is associated with an increase with the risk of gynecomastia in adolescent and young adult males.
Frazier, J A; Meyer, M C; Biederman, J; Wozniak, J; Wilens, T E; Spencer, T J; Kim, G S; Shapiro, S
To investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of the atypical neuroleptic risperidone in the treatment of juvenile mania. This is a retrospective chart review of outpatients with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (DSM-IV) treated with risperidone at a university center. Response to treatment was evaluated using the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) with separate assessments of mania, psychosis, aggression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-eight youths (mean +/- SD age, 10.4 +/- 3.8 years) with bipolar disorder (25 mixed and 3 hypomanic) who had been treated with risperidone were identified. These children received a mean dose of 1.7 +/- 1.3 mg over an average period of 6.1 +/- 8.5 months. Using a CGI Improvement score of < or = 2 (very much/much improved) to define robust improvement, 82% showed improvement in both their manic and aggressive symptoms, 69% in psychotic symptoms, but only 8% in ADHD symptoms. Although limited by its retrospective nature, this study suggests that risperidone may be effective in the treatment of manic young people and indicates the need for controlled clinical trials of risperidone and other atypical neuroleptics in juvenile mania.
Schlueter, Max; Gonzalez-Rojas, N; Baldwin, Michael; Groenke, Lars; Voss, Florian; Reason, Tim
A number of long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) for treatment of moderate-to-very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have recently become available, but none have been directly compared in head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The purpose of this study was to assess the relative clinical benefit of all currently available LAMA/LABA FDCs using a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA). A systematic literature review identified RCTs investigating the efficacy, safety and quality of life associated with licensed LAMA/LABA FDCs for the treatment of moderate-to-very severe COPD. RCTs were screened for inclusion in the NMA using prespecified eligibility criteria. Data were extracted for outcomes of interest, including change in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (tFEV1) from baseline, St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) percentage of responders, Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) percentage of responders, change in SGRQ score from baseline, change in TDI focal score from baseline, moderate-to-severe exacerbations, all-cause discontinuation, and discontinuation due to adverse events. Following screening, a total of 27 trials from 26 publications with 30,361 subjects were eligible for inclusion in the NMA. Nonsignificant results were seen in most analyses comparing efficacy, exacerbations and discontinuation rates of included LAMA/LABA FDCs (i.e. aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 µg, glycopyrronium/indacaterol 110/50 µg, tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 µg, umeclidinium/vilanterol 62.5/25 µg). Meta-regression controlling for post-bronchodilator percentage of tFEV1 predicted at baseline as well as meta-regression adjusting for concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids at baseline was performed to assess the magnitude of effect modification and produced similar results as observed in the base case analysis. All LAMA/LABA FDCs were found to have similar efficacy and safety
Haile, Anley; Fantahun, Mesganaw
Evidence suggests a high unsatisfied demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among women of age group 18-49 years in Batu town, East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional survey was conducted in six service delivery points from March to April 2009 on 398 women of age 18-49 years old. Thirteen (3%) were using long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and 89 (22.4%) wanted no more child in the future making the total demand of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods 24.4%. Older age group, multiparty, that the provider asked about reproductive intention, and the provider explained side effects of method selected were significantly associated with using LA and MPs (P < 0.05). There is high total demand and several socio demographic and family planning service quality related factors were associated with demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods indicating that multi-dimensional measures are needed to improve the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods.
Hergüner, Sabri; Özayhan, Hatice Yardım; Erdur, Emire Aybuke
There are several case reports on risperidone-related bleeding; however, to our knowledge, there is no report about gingival bleeding associated with risperidone in the literature. We presented a case who experienced gingival bleeding when risperidone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/day, and subsided after decreasing the dose to 0.25 mg/day, suggesting a dose-dependent side-effect. The bleeding side effect of risperidone might be caused by several mechanisms, including 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonism. Although bleeding associated with risperidone is rarely reported, clinicians should be aware of this side effect. PMID:27121433
Hergüner, Sabri; Özayhan, Hatice Yardım; Erdur, Emire Aybuke
There are several case reports on risperidone-related bleeding; however, to our knowledge, there is no report about gingival bleeding associated with risperidone in the literature. We presented a case who experienced gingival bleeding when risperidone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/day, and subsided after decreasing the dose to 0.25 mg/day, suggesting a dose-dependent side-effect. The bleeding side effect of risperidone might be caused by several mechanisms, including 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonism. Although bleeding associated with risperidone is rarely reported, clinicians should be aware of this side effect.
Fung, Vicki; Price, Mary; Busch, Alisa B; Landrum, Mary Beth; Fireman, Bruce; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Newhouse, Joseph P; Hsu, John
The introduction of generic second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), starting with risperidone in July 2008, could reduce antipsychotic spending and cost-related use barriers. This study examines associations between generic risperidone use and spending and adherence after introduction among Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries. Historic cohort study. The study included MA beneficiaries receiving SGA treatment prior to July 2008. We examined antipsychotic spending using linear models, adherence (proportion of days covered ≥ 80%) using logistic models, and nonpersistence (time to first gap in antipsychotic use > 30 days) in 2009 using Cox proportional hazard models, comparing beneficiaries with versus without generic use, adjusting for individual and plan characteristics. Between July 2008 and December 2009, 22.8% of beneficiaries had ≥ 1 fill of generic risperidone: 73% of those previously using branded risperidone and 6.7% of those previously using other SGAs. Beneficiaries in private fee-for-service (FFS) versus health maintenance organization (HMO) plans had lower rates of generic use (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.96]); however, cost-sharing levels were not associated with generic use. Compared with beneficiaries who continued using other SGAs, those who switched from other SGAs to generic risperidone in 2008 had lower out-of-pocket spending (-$214; 95% CI, -$314 to -$115), higher adherence (odds ratio, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.62-3.40) and lower rates of nonpersistence (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46-0.69) in 2009. Generic use was concentrated among patients previously using branded risperidone. HMO plans appeared to be more effective at encouraging generic use than unmanaged private FFS plans; however, patient financial incentives had limited influence on switching. Additional opportunity remains to encourage greater generic SGA use, reduce spending, and potentially improve treatment adherence and outcomes.
Cheslik, T A; Erramouspe, J
To describe the development of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) precipitated by an accidental overdose of risperidone in a 3.5-year-old boy. The boy presented to the emergency department with bilateral upward eye gaze, jerky movements of his extremities, and motor restlessness following an accidental ingestion of a single 4-mg risperidone tablet. Decontamination with NaCl 0.9% lavage and activated charcoal with sorbitol was performed. His symptoms responded immediately to intravenous diphenhydramine (on 3 different occasions) during his first 9.5 hours of hospitalization. He experienced no additional EPS, and was discharged home approximately 33 hours following initial presentation. At home, he received three oral doses of diphenhydramine in the 24 hours following hospital discharge because of hand tremor, total body shivering, and eye wandering. These signs resolved without further complications. Although the incidence of EPS associated with therapeutic risperidone use is low, its occurrence following overdose is less clearly defined. This represents the first published case, to our knowledge, of risperidone overdose in a child and highlights the potential for dystonic reactions at low doses in this population. Seven intentional overdoses of risperidone in adults (aged 21-68 y) have been reported in the literature and are reviewed. Amounts ingested ranged from 5 to 270 mg. All adult patients appeared to have a relatively benign course. Reported symptoms included drowsiness, slurred speech, altered levels of consciousness, hypertension, tachycardia, electrocardiogram abnormalities, atypical motor behavior, tremors, and other EPS (not specified). Accidental ingestion of low doses of risperidone can cause EPS in children that may respond well to an anticholinergic agent. Overdose management includes gastrointestinal lavage, activated charcoal with cathartic, cardiovascular monitoring, and supportive therapy.
Maia, Israel Silva; Pincelli, Mariângela Pimentel; Leite, Victor Figueiredo; Amadera, João; Buehler, Anna Maria
To determine whether long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) provide superior therapeutic effects over long-acting β2 agonists (LABAs) for preventing COPD exacerbations. This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials involving patients with stable, moderate to severe COPD according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria, treated with a LAMA (i.e., tiotropium bromide, aclidinium, or glycopyrronium), followed for at least 12 weeks and compared with controls using a LABA in isolation or in combination with a corticosteroid. A total of 2,622 studies were analyzed for possible inclusion on the basis of their title and abstract; 9 studies (17,120 participants) were included in the analysis. In comparison with LABAs, LAMAs led to a greater decrease in the exacerbation rate ratio (relative risk [RR] = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84-0.93]; a lower proportion of patients who experienced at least one exacerbation (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87-0.94; p < 0.00001); a lower risk of exacerbation-related hospitalizations (RR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.69-0.87; p < 0.0001); and a lower number of serious adverse events (RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.96; p = 0.0002). The overall quality of evidence was moderate for all outcomes. The major findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis were that LAMAs significantly reduced the exacerbation rate (exacerbation episodes/year), as well as the number of exacerbation episodes, of hospitalizations, and of serious adverse events. Determinar se long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs, antagonistas muscarínicos de longa duração) são superiores a long-acting β2 agonists (LABAs, β2-agonistas de longa duração) na prevenção de exacerbações da DPOC. Revisão sistemática e meta-análise de ensaios clínicos controlados aleatórios com pacientes com DPOC estável, de moderada a grave, conforme os critérios da Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, tratados com LAMA (brometo de
Waggoner, Miranda R.; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Klerman, Lorraine V.
Problem Greater understanding is needed related to qualitatively-assessed pregnancy intentions and rapid subsequent pregnancies among adolescent and adult mothers. Methods 4-site prospective study of 227 adolescent and adult mothers. Data analyzed to understand the relationship between pregnancy intentions, adolescent status, and use of long-acting contraceptives and rapid subsequent pregnancy. Findings The findings from this study provide evidence of the importance of goal-oriented pregnancy intentions, long-acting contraceptive use, and older age in delaying a second pregnancy. Conclusion Findings reveal the need for clinician awareness of the qualitative pregnancy intentions of young women and potential desired use of long-acting contraceptives. PMID:22512527
Waggoner, Miranda R; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Klerman, Lorraine V
Greater understanding is needed related to qualitatively assess pregnancy intentions and rapid subsequent pregnancies among adolescent and adult mothers. Four-site prospective study of 227 adolescent and adult mothers. Data were analyzed to understand the relationship between pregnancy intentions, adolescent status, and use of long-acting contraceptives and rapid subsequent pregnancy. The findings from this study provide evidence of the importance of goal-oriented pregnancy intentions, long-acting contraceptive use, and older age in delaying a second pregnancy. Findings reveal the need for clinician awareness of the qualitative pregnancy intentions of young women and potential desired use of long-acting contraceptives. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are safe for use in adolescents and do not rely on compliance or adherence for effectiveness. Continuation rates are higher and pregnancy rates are lower for adolescent users of LARCs compared with short-acting methods such as oral contraceptives. Similarly, repeat pregnancy rates are lower when LARCs are used compared with other forms of contraception. Myths and misconceptions about LARCs and other contraceptives remain a barrier to their use. Health care providers are in a unique position to provide confidential care to adolescents, and should provide education to them about the various contraceptive options, especially LARCs. Copyright © 2015 Cleveland Clinic.
Kelly, H. William; Harkins, Michelle S.; Boushey, Homer
The role of inhaled beta-2 agonists in the management of asthma has changed significantly over the last several years. This review outlines the most recent understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma and the studies that define the roles that both short- and long-acting beta-2 agonists play in therapy for this disease. A concentration on the clinical pharmacology and genetic implications for clinical use of this class of drugs in accordance with the national and international guidelines are described. PMID:16532973
Pickle, Sarah; Wu, Justine; Burbank-Schmitt, Edith
This article summarizes the literature regarding the epidemiology and prevention of unintended pregnancy in the United States. Because of the Affordable Care Act and its accompanying contraceptive provision, there is a need for more primary care clinicians to provide family planning services. Office-based interventions to incorporate family planning services in primary care are presented, including clinical tools and electronic health record use. Special attention is paid to long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (the subdermal implant and intrauterine devices); these highly effective and safe methods have the greatest potential to decrease the rate of unintended pregnancy, but have been underused.
Allen, Suzanne; Barlow, Erin
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods are 20% more effective than traditional contraceptives and are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology as first-line contraception for adolescent girls. Large studies show that LARC use reduces unintended pregnancies, increases user satisfaction, and prolongs duration of use. This article prepares the primary care provider (PCP) with knowledge on safety, efficacy, eligibility, confidentiality, anticipatory guidance, how to find a LARC provider, and guidance on common side effects so the PCP can confidently counsel adolescent patients on LARC methods.
Friedlander, EmmaKate; Kaneshiro, Bliss
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is the most effective form of reversible contraception. Although most women are satisfied with LARC methods, unscheduled bleeding and spotting are common reasons for method dissatisfaction and discontinuation. This systematic analysis of the current literature delineates treatment options for unscheduled bleeding related to LARC use. Although consistent results are lacking, all devices seem to have the best response to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for 5 to 7 days or the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid. Additional studies are necessary to identify improved treatment interventions for unscheduled bleeding with LARC use.
The current review raises the question of the place of long-acting injectable (LAI) atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia in current and future guidelines. After exposing the different points of view adopted in the former, the author presents the clinical trials conducted with LAI atypicals in this indication, as well as the surveys related to psychiatrists'opinion regarding the use of these drugs in early schizophrenia. Pros and cons of this therapeutic option are discussed and suggestions are made for further guidelines.
Li, X F; Davies, G C; Newton, J
Progestogen-only contraception acts mainly by blocking cervical mucus and preventing sperm penetration through it does have a variable pattern of contraceptive effects on the endometrium and ovary. In contrast with the complete suppression of ovarian function with combined pill or injectable use, a variable degree of endocrine activity is demonstrated in women choosing a long-acting progestogen-only contraceptive. This degree of suppression of ovarian activity explains the decrease in systemic side-effects, the rapid resumption of ovulation and recovery of fertility following the discontinuation of the method. New delivery systems of progestogens, the vaginal ring and implant, offer better and more consistent contraceptive effects.
Grau, Katharina; Plener, Paul L; Gahr, Maximilian; Denzer, Christian; Freudenmann, Roland W
Risperidone is a widely used, second-generation antipsychotic approved for treating schizophrenia as well as for treating aggression in children and adolescents with mental retardation. The substance has a well-established risk profile including alterations of body temperature. Apart from hyperthermia with and without full-blown malignant neuroleptic syndrome, low body temperatures (hypothermia) have also been reported anecdotally, usually appearing in the context of comedication. Here, we report a case of hypothermia associated with a low-dose risperidone monotherapy in a child.
Borison, R L
When treating patients with psychoses, clinicians must often consider changing their treatment from one antipsychotic agent to another. The transition may be necessary because the patient experiences serious side effects or because the existing therapy no longer controls the patient's symptoms. A principal problem in changing antipsychotic agents is the potential for withdrawal symptoms resulting from discontinuation of the existing therapy. These syndromes can manifest as reemergence or worsening of psychosis, rebound or unmasked dyskinesia, and cholinergic-rebound symptoms. Withdrawal signs and symptoms may include insomnia, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, and agitation. When switching a patient to the new antipsychotic agent risperidone, the clinician can keep withdrawal symptoms to a minimum by considering the patient's clinical history and current status. For some patients, abrupt withdrawal of the current antipsychotic may be possible. For others, the dose of the previous medication must be gradually reduced before risperidone is initiated. In many cases, the transition is best made by overlapping the existing therapy and risperidone.
Dooley, Roisin; Dooley, Joe; Antone, Irwin; Guilfoyle, John; Gerber-Finn, Lianne; Kakekagumick, Kara; Cromarty, Helen; Hopman, Wilma; Muileboom, Jill; Brunton, Nicole; Kelly, Len
To document the management of and outcomes for patients receiving narcotic replacement and tapering with long-acting morphine preparations during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study over 18 months. Northwestern Ontario. All 600 births at Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Sioux Lookout, Ont, from January 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013, including 166 narcotic-exposed pregnancies. Narcotic replacement and tapering of narcotic use with long-acting morphine preparations. Prenatal management of maternal narcotic use, incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome, and other neonatal outcomes. The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome fell significantly to 18.1% of pregnancies exposed to narcotics (from 29.5% in a previous 2010 study, P = .003) among patients using narcotic replacement and tapering with long-acting morphine preparations. Neonatal outcomes were otherwise equivalent to those of the nonexposed pregnancies. In many patients, long-acting morphine preparations can be safely used and tapered in pregnancy, with a subsequent decrease in observed neonatal withdrawal symptoms.
Potkin, Steven G; Preda, Adrian
Patient non-adherence increases the risk for relapse and the long-term care of schizophrenia. Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics can decrease this risk by ensuring adherence. An extended formulation, aripiprazole 400 mg once-monthly (AOM 400) LAI (AOM LAI), received regulatory approval in the year 2013 for the treatment of schizophrenia. AOM LAI is the first dopamine D2 partial agonist available in a long-acting formulation for the treatment of schizophrenia. This review covers data on the efficacy and tolerability/safety of AOM LAI. AOM LAI is a lyophilized powder of aripiprazole, with an elimination half-life of 29.9 - 46.5 days, allowing for a 4-week injection interval. Antipsychotic efficacy was documented in a 12-week double-blind trial (n = 340) and in two maintenance-of-effect trials: a 38-week trial (n = 662) and a 52-week trial (n = 403). The side effect profile is similar to that of oral aripiprazole. Adverse events (≥5% and at least twice that for placebo) were typically mild or moderate and did not lead to discontinuation: increased weight, akathisia, injection site pain and sedation. The 400 mg dose is tolerated by >90% of patients. Injection does not require additional training of health personnel or post-injection observation. AOM LAI is an efficacious and well-tolerated antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia.
Soffietti, Riccardo; Magistrello, Michela; Trevisan, Elisa; Bertero, Luca; Pellerino, Alessia; Rudà, Roberta
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Resection and/or radiation therapy are the treatments of choice. Medical therapies have been investigated for inoperable, recurrent and aggressive meningiomas, but the optimal medical treatment is still to be defined. Among biologic agents, somatostatin has been found to inhibit meningioma growth due to the presence of somatostatin receptors on the surface of the tumors. AIM: We retrospectively reviewed our experience with sandostatin to assess the efficacy and toxicity in the treatment of recurrent meningiomas failing standard treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 17 patients (7 women and 10 men, median age 65 years) with recurrent grade I or II or III meningiomas have been studied. All patients had already been treated with multiple surgeries or radiation treatments, and all had an overexpression of somatostatin receptors by octreotide scintigraphy. Before treatment KPS ranged from 60 to 90. The patients received long-acting somatostatin on a monthly administration schedule. Radiographic response on MRI has been assessed by MacDonald Criteria. RESULTS: Patients received 3 to 18 cycles (median 9) of somatostatin. Progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months was 56%, while PFS ranged from 3 to 25 months with a median of 6 months. Two radiological responses on MRI were achieved (1 PR and 1). Toxicity was uncommon and manageable (2 patients with diarrhea). CONCLUSION: Long acting somatostatin displays minor activity as salvage treatment for recurrent meningiomas after surgery and radiation therapy.
Atanassoff, P G; Lobato, A; Aguilar, J L
Intravenous regional anesthesia is a widely used technique for brief surgical interventions, primarily on the upper limbs and less frequently, on the lower limbs. It began being used at the beginning of the 20th century, when Bier injected procaine as a local anesthetic. The technique to accomplish anesthesia has not changed much since then, although different drugs, particularly long-acting local anesthetics, such as ropivacaine and levobupivacaine in low concentrations, were introduced. Additionally, drugs like opioids, muscle relaxants, paracetamol, neostigmine, magnesium, ketamine, clonidine, and ketorolac, have all been investigated as adjuncts to intravenous regional anesthesia, and were found to be fairly useful in terms of an increased onset of operative anesthesia and longer lasting perioperative analgesia. The present article provides an overview of current knowledge with emphasis on long-acting local anesthetic drugs. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Wilkinson, Ian R.; Pradhananga, Sarbendra L.; Speak, Rowena; Artymiuk, Peter J.; Sayers, Jon R.; Ross, Richard J.
Acromegaly is a human disease of growth hormone (GH) excess with considerable morbidity and increased mortality. Somatostatin analogues are first line medical treatment but the disease remains uncontrolled in up to 40% of patients. GH receptor (GHR) antagonist therapy is more effective but requires frequent high-dose injections. We have developed an alternative technology for generating a long acting potent GHR antagonist through translational fusion of a mutated GH linked to GH binding protein and tested three candidate molecules. All molecules had the amino acid change (G120R), creating a competitive GHR antagonist and we tested the hypothesis that an amino acid change in the GH binding domain (W104A) would increase biological activity. All were antagonists in bioassays. In rats all antagonists had terminal half-lives >20 hours. After subcutaneous administration in rabbits one variant displayed a terminal half-life of 40.5 hours. A single subcutaneous injection of the same variant in rabbits resulted in a 14% fall in IGF-I over 7 days. In conclusion: we provide proof of concept that a fusion of GHR antagonist to its binding protein generates a long acting GHR antagonist and we confirmed that introducing the W104A amino acid change in the GH binding domain enhances antagonist activity. PMID:27731358
Maughan, Daniel L.; Lillywhite, Rob; Cooke, Matthew
Aims and method This study explores the economic cost and carbon footprint associated with current patterns of prescribing long-term flupentixol decanoate long-acting injections. We conducted an analysis of prescription data from a mental health trust followed by economic and carbon cost projections using local and national data. Results A reduction of £300 000 could be achieved across England by improving prescribing behaviour, which equates to £250 per patient per year and 170 000 kg CO2e. These savings are unlikely to be released as cash from the service, but will lead to higher-value service provision at the same or lower cost. Most of these carbon emissions are attributable to the carbon footprint of the appointment – 88 000 kg CO2e (including energy use and materials used) and the overprescribing of medication – 66 000 kg CO2e. Clinical implications Psychiatrists need to review their prescribing practice of long-acting injections to reduce their impact on the National Health Service financial budget and the environment. PMID:27280033
Mei, Baisong; Pan, Clark; Jiang, Haiyan; Tjandra, Hendri; Strauss, Jonathan; Chen, Yaoqi; Liu, Tongyao; Zhang, Xin; Severs, Joanne; Newgren, Jim; Chen, Jianmin; Gu, Jian-Ming; Subramanyam, Babu; Fournel, Michael A; Pierce, Glenn F; Murphy, John E
A long-acting factor VIII (FVIII) as a replacement therapy for hemophilia A would significantly improve treatment options for patients with hemophilia A. To develop a FVIII with an extended circulating half-life, but without a reduction in activity, we have engineered 23 FVIII variants with introduced surface-exposed cysteines to which a polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer was specifically conjugated. Screening of variant expression level, PEGylation yield, and functional assay identified several conjugates retaining full in vitro coagulation activity and von Willebrand factor (VWF) binding.PEGylated FVIII variants exhibited improved pharmacokinetics in hemophilic mice and rabbits. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies in VWF knockout mice indicated that larger molecular weight PEG may substitute for VWF in protecting PEGylated FVIII from clearance in vivo. In bleeding models of hemophilic mice, PEGylated FVIII not only exhibited prolonged efficacy that is consistent with the improved pharmacokinetics but also showed efficacy in stopping acute bleeds comparable with that of unmodified rFVIII. In summary site-specifically PEGylated FVIII has the potential to be a long-acting prophylactic treatment while being fully efficacious for on-demand treatment for patients with hemophilia A.
Vargas-Estrada, D; Gracia-Mora, J; Sumano, H
Doxycycline hyclate (DOX-h) can be regarded as a time-dependant antibacterial. Hence, a parenteral long-acting formulation may be regarded as more pharmacologically sound. A poloxamer-based matrix was used to produce a long-acting injectable preparation (DOX-h-LA) and its serum concentrations vs. time profile investigated after its s.c. injection to calves. Serum concentrations profiles for such a prepartion were compared to the corresponding profiles obtained with an aqueous formulation of DOX-h injected either i.m. or i.v. in 10 calves in a crossover study at dose of 10mg/kg, with washout periods. DOX-h-LA showed the greatest values for bioavailability (602%); maximum serum concentration (C(max)) value was 1.99microg/mL with a time to reach C(max) (T(max)) of 25h and an elimination half-life of 40.81h. Considering minimum effective serum concentration of 0.5microg/mL a dose-interval of 80h can be achieved for DOX-h-LA, and only 9.7h and 17h after the i.v. or i.m. administration of DOX-h, respectively.
Gendelman, Howard E.; Gelbard, Harris A.
Purpose of review This review focuses on current and future strategies to modulate neuroinflammation while reducing residual viral burden in the central nervous system (CNS). This has been realized by targeted long acting antiretroviral nano- and adjunctive therapies being developed for HIV infected people. Our ultimate goal is to eliminate virus from its CNS reservoirs and, in so doing, reverse the cognitive and motor dysfunctions seen in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Recent findings Herein, we highlight our laboratories development of adjunctive and nanomedicine therapies for HAND. An emphasis is placed on drug-drug interactions that target both the viral life cycle and secretory pro-inflammatory neurotoxic factors and signaling pathways. Summary Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved the quality and duration of life for people living with HIV-1. A significant long-term comorbid illness is HAND. Symptoms, while reduced in severity, are common. Disease occurs, in part, through continued low-level viral replication inducing secondary glial neuroinflammatory activities. Our recent works and those of others have seen disease attenuated in animal models through the use of adjunctive and long-acting reservoir targeted nanoformulated ART. The translation of these inventions from animals to humans is the focus of this review. PMID:25226025
Baldwin, Maureen K; Edelman, Alison B
Repeat pregnancy within 2 years of a previous birth or abortion occurs in approximately 35% of recently pregnant female adolescents. The majority of these pregnancies are classified as unintended with about half ending in births and the remainder in abortions. Rapid repeat pregnancy (RRP) is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and continues a cycle of economic deprivation for young women and their families. Immediately following a pregnancy, most young women report an intention to avoid pregnancy in the near future, but many change their minds or become ambivalent within months. Lack of contraceptive use is more common among those teens that resume sexual intercourse earlier, live with a male partner, had a preterm delivery, or had an intended teen pregnancy. Adolescents who do not initiate a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method (intrauterine device or contraceptive implant) have up to a 35 times increased risk of RRP compared with their peers using LARC. Risk of RRP is decreased when LARC methods are initiated earlier after an abortion or within the postpartum period. This review will focus on the prevalence of RRP, the risk factors for RRP, and the effectiveness of strategies to reduce unintended RRP including counseling and early initiation of long-acting contraceptive methods.
Lee, Lik Hang N; Choi, Charles; Collier, Abby C; Barr, Alasdair M; Honer, William G; Procyshyn, Ric M
Product monographs (also known by terms such as Summary of Product Characteristics and Highlights of Prescribing Information, depending on the jurisdiction) provide essential information to ensure the safe and effective use of a drug. Medical practitioners often rely on these monographs for guidance on matters related to pharmacokinetics as well as indications, contraindications, clinical pharmacology, and adverse reactions. The clinical and scientific information found within these documents, forming the basis for decision making, are presumed to be derived from well-designed studies. The objective of this review is to examine the source and validity of the pharmacokinetic data used in establishing the half-lives and times to steady-state reported in the product monographs of second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics. Thus, we have critically evaluated the clinical trials from which the pharmacokinetic parameters listed in the product monographs were determined. In many cases, the pharmacokinetic information presented in product monographs is of limited use to clinicians wishing to optimize the effectiveness and tolerability of second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics. Under such circumstances, off-label prescribing practices may actually produce better clinical outcomes than if decisions were made based on the product monographs alone.
Williams, Susan K.; Scahill, Lawrence; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Ritz, Louise; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Hollway, Jill; Cronin, Pegeen; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Wheeler, Courtney; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara
Objective: To evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to measure change. Method: Forty-eight children (5 years to 16 years, 5 months) who showed behavioral improvement during acute…
Falsetti, A E
Currently available research on the use of risperidone to manage agitation in patients with dementia is discussed. Dementia affects up to 70% of nursing-home patients, and more than 90% of them exhibit aggressive or agitated behavior or severe depression. Agitation includes combativeness, hyperactivity, disinhibition, wandering, and restlessness. Environmental interventions are preferred for mild symptoms; medications are the treatment of choice for severe manifestations. Traditional neuroleptics have been the mainstay of treatment for agitated behavior in persons with dementia, but these agents have limited efficacy and are associated with high rates of adverse effects, including worsening of already poor cognitive functioning. Although the literature on the use of risperidone in elderly patients with dementia consists largely of uncontrolled trials, case reports, and chart reviews, it appears that this agent is effective for managing agitation in this population and does so with a low frequency of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Risperidone may also be useful for treating acute agitation in patients with a high risk of EPS and for long-term treatment of "sundowning" (agitation and confusion starting in the late afternoon and worsening at night). A low initial dosage that is gradually adjusted upward is recommended. Risperidone appears effective in controlling agitation in patients with dementia and has a relatively benign adverse-effect profile, but more clinical trials are needed to elucidate its role for this indication.
Diler, Rasim Somer; Yolga, Aysegul; Avci, Ayse; Scahill, Lawrence
To present two cases of rapid-onset obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children treated with risperidone. "A" was an 8-year-old boy with attention deficit and chronic tic disorder who developed obsessive-compulsive symptoms within 2 weeks of starting risperidone. When the dose of 0.5 mg tid was discontinued, the obsessive-compulsive symptoms resolved with no return over 8 months of follow-up. "B" was an 11-year-old girl with mild mental retardation and aggression who was treated with risperidone 1 mg per day. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms suddenly emerged 10 days after starting risperidone and resolved within 3 days of discontinuation. In both cases, streptococcal pharyngitis was ruled out. Although the mechanism is not clear, these cases add to several other reports concerning the sudden emergence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in children treated with atypical antipsychotics. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of these adverse effects in children treated with these drugs.
As atypical antipsychotics are increasingly used in the treatment of childhood behavioural disorders either as monotherapy or in combination with other medications, there is a need to know more about their safety, in particular during switching to and from methylphenidate treatment, as antipsychotics and methylphenidate have opposing effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission. This report is about three cases of children who developed severe adverse reactions during switching from risperidone to methylphenidate. The first patient was a 6-year-old boy, diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). He developed severe hyperactivity and agitation on taking methylphenidate after the discontinuation of risperidone treatment. The second patient was a girl of 6, already on risperidone for ADHD and borderline intellectual functioning when referred. She displayed severe hyperactivity, agitation and irritability upon switching to methylphenidate medication. The third patient was a 15-year-old female adolescent with a similar clinical course as the previous patients. In all the cases described here, it is only with the discontinuation of methylphenidate that the adverse reactions resolved and readministration of methylphenidate in two patients did not produce any adverse effect after a drug-free interval. Functional regulation of certain neuroreceptors during risperidone treatment may lead to altered behavioural responses upon switching to methylphenidate. Thus, a drug-free interval is recommended in order to prevent adverse reactions.
Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M
Investigators from Child Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, report extrapyramidal symptoms in a 13-year-old boy with a psychiatric history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism, responsive to combination risperidone, oxcarbazepine, and MPH.
Luchins, D J; Klass, D; Hanrahan, P; Malan, R; Harris, J
The authors' goal was to study the recommended dose schedule for risperidone. They obtained computerized pharmacy data on 1,283 inpatients with the diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were treated with risperidone. Continuance on risperidone was defined as remaining on the drug for 16 days or until discharge. The majority of the patients (84%) continued on resperidone. Use of the recommended dose schedule decreased greatly over time. Patients were more likely to continue on risperidone if they had a higher maximum dose (5.7 mg/day versus 4.7 mg/day), a longer number of days to maximum dose (5.7 days versus 3.9 days), and a maximum rise in dose of 0.5-2 mg/day. These findings suggest that the recommended dose schedule should be altered to one that recommends a less rapid titration (over 6 days to a week) and that the dose increments consist of 0.5-2 mg/day.
Williams, Susan K.; Scahill, Lawrence; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Ritz, Louise; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Hollway, Jill; Cronin, Pegeen; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Wheeler, Courtney; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara
Objective: To evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to measure change. Method: Forty-eight children (5 years to 16 years, 5 months) who showed behavioral improvement during acute…
Marchese, Giorgio; Bartholini, Francesco; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Ruiu, Stefania; Casti, Paola; Congeddu, Elena; Tambaro, Simone; Pani, Luca
Similarly to acute rat catalepsy, "early onset" vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by subchronic treatment with antipsychotic have recently been proposed as a model of human extrapyramidal symptoms. In the present study, the propensities of haloperidol and risperidone in inducing rat "early onset" VCMs were compared using doses of the two antipsychotics that acutely induce similar catalepsy. Comparable rat catalepsy states were observed when the effects produced by 0.1, 0.5, and 1mg/kg of haloperidol were compared with those induced by 1, 4, and 10mg/kg of risperidone, respectively. These doses of the two antipsychotics were then administered twice a day for 4 weeks and VCMs scored after 12h, 5 days, or 3 weeks of drug withdrawal. Among the haloperidol-treated groups, only those rats injected with 0.5 and 1mg/kg showed high levels of VCMs after 12h and 5 days of drug withdrawal when compared to vehicle-treated rats, while basal levels of VCMs were reached after 3 weeks from the last injection. High VCMs levels were observed in risperidone-treated rats only at the dose of 10mg/kg and after 12h of drug withdrawal, but not after 5 days or 3 weeks. The present results indicated that haloperidol possessed a much higher propensity to induce rat "early onset" VCMs than risperidone.
Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Vanwong, Natchaya; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Chamnanphon, Montri; Chamkrachchangpada, Bhunnada; Tan-kam, Teerarat; Limsila, Penkhae; Sukasem, Chonlaphat
Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during pharmacotherapy with risperidone. The main aim of this study was to investigate important clinical factors influencing the prolactin response in risperidone-treated Thai ASD. A total of 147 children and adolescents (127 males and 20 females) aged 3–19 years with ASD received risperidone treatment (0.10–6.00 mg/day) for up to 158 weeks. Prolactin levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The clinical data of patients collected from medical records – age, weight, height, body mass index, dose of risperidone, duration of treatment, and drug-use pattern – were recorded. Hyperprolactinemia was observed in 66 of 147 (44.90%) subjects. Median prolactin level at the high doses (24.00, interquartile range [IQR] 14.30–29.20) of risperidone was significantly found to be higher than at the recommended (16.20, IQR 10.65–22.30) and low (11.70, IQR 7.51–16.50) doses of risperidone. There was no relationship between prolactin levels and duration of risperidone treatment. Dose-dependence is identified as a main factor associated with hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with ASD treated with risperidone. This study suggests that risperidone treatment causes prolactin elevations and the effects of risperidone on prolactin are probably dose-related in pediatric patients. PMID:25653528
Steibliene, Vesta; Bunevicius, Adomas; Savickas, Arunas; Prange, Arthur J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Bunevicius, Robertas
In acute psychotic schizophrenia patients we investigated if the combination of triiodothyronine (T3) plus risperidone was more effective when compared to risperidone monotherapy. Thirty-two in-patients meeting the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and without thyroid disease received risperidone (flexibly adjusted dose for tolerability) and were randomized to additionally receive either T3 (25 μg daily; risperidone plus T3 group) or placebo (risperidone plus placebo group). Treatment lasted until meeting the response to treatment criteria defined as score of ≤ 3 on the Clinical Global Impression Severity and Improvement scales. Acute psychotic episode symptom severity was evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) at treatment initiation and at the final study assessment. Fourteen patients were randomized to receive risperidone plus T3 and eighteen to receive risperidone plus placebo. The time until treatment response was shorter in the risperidone plus T3 group relative to the risperidone plus placebo group (25.5 ± 4.4 days vs 32.2 ± 8.2 days, respectively; p = 0.001). Moreover, there was a greater reduction of BPRS-total score (p = 0.01) in the risperidone plus T3 group relative to the risperidone plus placebo group. Treatment with T3 was associated with shorter time to treatment response (β = -0.440, p = 0.022) and with greater improvement in BPRS score (β = 0.240, p = 0.053), independent of patients' gender, age, baseline BPRS score and mean risperidone dose. The study confirms that addition of T3 to risperidone was associated with accelerated and enhanced treatment response in acutely psychotic schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sreeraj, Vanteemar S; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Rao, Naren P; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan
Long acting injections (LAI) are an effective alternative mode of administration of antipsychotics, less commonly used in clinical practice. Gap in knowledge base is an important source of attitudinal bias. Current article is focused on reviewing the literature for the principles underlying the choice, initiation, maintenance, switch and termination of an LAI; historical, pharmacological and clinical factors implicating the rationale of using LAI against oral agents and older against newer LAIs. Evidences available in clinical and basic psychopharmacological researches are critically appraised, highlighting the lacunae in our understanding. It is endeavored to open the window for the studies to be carried forward in the future answering critical questions which could lay a stronger base for clinical utility of different LAIs. Thus, this article tries to acquaint clinicians with the translatable knowledge imparted from the research and riposte queries for the researchers to explore in relation to LAI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vallerand, April Hazard
The consensus statement from the American Pain Society and American Academy of Pain Medicine states that the undertreatment of pain is unjustified . It has been suggested that opioid therapy can be used effectively to treat noncancer pain in a subset of patients , and this is becoming more acceptable . Providing sustained analgesia is an important aspect of therapy, and medications should be administered on an around-the-clock basis, because regular administration of doses maintains a constant level of drug in the body and helps prevent recurrence of pain. Ideal treatment for persistent pain is a long-acting opioid administered around the clock to prevent baseline pain, with the use of short-acting opioids as supplemental agents for breakthrough pain. Controlled-release formulations can lessen the inconvenience associated with around-the-clock administration of short-acting opioids. Sustained analgesia also can be achieved with transdermal fentanyl, which combines a strong opioid with a 72-hour release profile and the benefits of a parenteral route, avoiding first-pass metabolism. Controlled-release formulations of morphine and oxycodone are available in the United States, and hydromorphone preparations are being reviewed for approval. Clinical experience with these formulations and transdermal fentanyl indicates that these agents are equally effective in controlling pain. Studies have demonstrated improved quality of life with the transdermal route and with controlled-release morphine and oxycodone. Because of patch reapplication every 72 hours, the transdermal route also enhances compliance. Use of an opioid without the need for oral or intravenous administration and the opportunity to improve compliance are among the advantages of the transdermal route in clinical practice. The nurse has an important role in the management of patients receiving long-acting opioids for chronic noncancer pain, Facilitation of the conversion from short-acting to long-acting
Rajoli, Rajith KR; Back, David J; Rannard, Steve; Meyers, Caren Freel; Flexner, Charles; Owen, Andrew; Siccardi, Marco
Background and Objectives Antiretrovirals (ARVs) are currently used for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. Poor adherence and low tolerability of some existing oral formulations can hinder their efficacy. Long-acting (LA) injectable nanoformulations could help address these complications by simplifying ARV administration. The aim of this study is to inform the optimisation of intramuscular LA formulations for eight ARVs through physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling. Methods A whole-body PBPK model was constructed using mathematical descriptions of molecular, physiological and anatomical processes defining pharmacokinetics. These models were validated against available clinical data and subsequently used to predict the pharmacokinetics of injectable LA formulations Results The predictions suggest that monthly intramuscular injections are possible for dolutegravir, efavirenz, emtricitabine, raltegravir, rilpivirine and tenofovir provided that technological challenges to control release rate can be addressed. Conclusions These data may help inform the target product profiles for LA ARV reformulation strategies. PMID:25523214
Hoogeveen, John; Van der Veer, Eveline
There have been limited research studies concerning the use of libido inhibitors for the treatment of patients with a paraphilia. Observational studies suggest that agents that lower testosterone are an effective treatment for paraphilia. We report a case of hormonal treatment of paraphilia that was associated with side effects. A 35-year-old man with a paraphilia was treated with long-acting gonadorelin. The desired result was reduced preoccupation with sexuality, but there were various side effects including a serious amount of bone loss. We believe that more attention should be given to the adverse effects of long-term treatment with triptorelin. In our view the drug regime needs to be revised.
Mestad, Renee E.; Kenerson, Jessica; Peipert, Jeffrey F.
The past several years have seen an expansion in contraception options. Emerging data support the use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) such as the intrauterine device and subdermal implant as the most effective methods of contraception with the highest continuation rates and very high levels of patient satisfaction. In addition, the appropriate target population for the use of the intrauterine device now includes nulliparous women and adolescents. When a patient considers initiating a new contraceptive method, it is important to consider the characteristics of each method, including the side effects, effectiveness, and patient acceptability. Additionally, medical comorbidities must also be evaluated prior to choosing a method. In this article, we provide a brief overview of available reversible contraceptive methods, with an emphasis on LARC. PMID:19641264
Bulkhi, Adeeb; Tabatabaian, Farnaz; Casale, Thomas B
Asthma is a complex disease where many patients remain symptomatic despite guideline-directed therapy. This suggests an unmet need for alternative treatment approaches. Understanding the physiological role of muscarinic receptors and the parasympathetic nervous system in the respiratory tract will provide a foundation of alternative therapeutics in asthma. Currently, several long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are on the market for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of tiotropium, a LAMA, as add-on therapy in uncontrolled asthma. These studies led to FDA approval for tiotropium use in asthma. In this review, we discuss how the neurotransmitter acetylcholine itself contributes to inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and remodeling in asthma. We further describe the current clinical studies evaluating LAMAs in adult and adolescent patients with asthma, providing a comprehensive review of the current known physiological benefits of LAMAs in respiratory disease.
George, Tracy P.; DeCristofaro, Claire; Dumas, Bonnie P.; Murphy, Pamela F.
Unintended pregnancies are an important public health issue. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARCs) are reliable, safe, highly effective methods for most women; however they are underutilized in the United States. Shared decision aids were added to usual care in five public health family planning clinics in the Southeastern United States, staffed by advance practice nurses and registered nurses. All five sites showed an increase in the use of LARCs during the time period that shared decision aids were used (results statistically significant to p < 0.001). It is important for women to make informed choices about contraception, and shared decision aids can be utilized to support this decision making. This resource has been adopted for statewide use in all public health clinics, and implications for practice suggest that the use of shared decision aids is an effective method to support informed patient decision making and acceptance of LARC methods of contraception. PMID:27417757
Zheng, Xirong; Deng, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Yao, Jianzhuang; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo
A long-acting cocaine hydrolase, known as CocH3-Fc(M3), engineered from human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was tested, in this study, for its potential anti-obesity effects. Mice on a high-fat diet gained significantly less body weight when treated weekly with 1 mg/kg CocH3-Fc(M3) compared to control mice, though their food intake was similar. There is no correlation between the average body weight and the average food intake, which is consistent with the previously reported observation in BChE knockout mice. In addition, molecular modeling was carried out to understand how ghrelin binds with CocH3, showing that ghrelin binds with CocH3 in a similar mode as ghrelin binding with wild-type human BChE. The similar binding structures explains why CocH3 and BChE have similar catalytic activity against ghrelin.
Monette, J; Tamblyn, R M; McLeod, P J; Gayton, D C
Long-acting benzodiazepines (LABZs) are relatively contraindicated for elderly patients because they increase the risk of impaired cognitive function, falls, and hip fractures. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of physicians who frequently prescribe LABZs for elderly patients. The authors examined the prescribing profile of 4,976 physicians who saw at least 20 elderly Quebec medicare registrants in 1990. Physicians who frequently prescribed LABZs for their elderly patients were more likely to have graduated before 1979, to be general practitioners as opposed to specialists, to practice in long-term care settings, and to have graduated from a medical school in Quebec as opposed to other schools in Quebec, in other provinces, or in other countries. The authors have identified several characteristics of physicians who frequently prescribed LABZs for the elderly. Strategies to improve prescribing in this field should target this group of physicians.
Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Ramaswamy, Megha
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) has incredible potential for decreasing teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, but use among adolescents remains low. LARC methods, including intrauterine devices and implants, are recommended as first-line choices for teenagers by multiple medical professional associations. Barriers at the system, provider and patient level persist, but new demonstration projects, in addition to provisions of the Affordable Care Act, show great promise in facilitating LARC use. A renewed national discourse should acknowledge the reality that many US teenagers have sex, that LARC is safe and effective and that LARC offers an opportunity to prevent teenage pregnancy. By encouraging widespread access and use, a large, positive impact across multiple health and economic sectors can be achieved.
Pritt, Nicole M; Norris, Alison H; Berlan, Elise D
Most pregnancies among teenagers are unintended and many can be attributed to contraception misuse or nonuse. The etonogestrel implant and intrauterine devices, referred to as long-acting reversible contraceptives, or LARCs, are the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. These methods are safe for use by adolescents, yet the number of LARC users remains low among adolescents in the United States. In this review we examine recent literature about barriers and facilitators to LARC use among adolescent women. Factors that influence decision-making and provision are organized into 4 categories: (1) cost and clinical operations; (2) adolescent awareness and attitudes; (3) confidentiality, consent, and parental attitudes; and (4) health care provider knowledge, attitudes, and counseling. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions among adolescents and their health care providers are key barriers to adolescent LARC use.
Brissos, Sofia; Veguilla, Miguel Ruiz; Taylor, David; Balanzá-Martinez, Vicent
Despite their widespread use, long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics (APs) are often regarded with some negativity because of the assumption of punishment, control and insufficient evolution towards psychosocial development of patients. However, LAI APs have proved effective in schizophrenia and other severe psychotic disorders because they assure stable blood levels, leading to a reduction of the risk of relapse. Therapeutic opportunities have also arisen after introduction of newer, second-generation LAI APs in recent years. Newer LAI APs are more readily dosed optimally, may be better tolerated and are better suited to integrated rehabilitation programmes. This review outlines the older and newer LAI APs available for the treatment of schizophrenia, with considerations of past and present pharmacological and therapeutic issues. Traditional, evidence-based approaches to systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials are of limited utility in this area so this paper's blending of experimental trials with observational research is particularly appropriate and effective.
Aripiprazole monohydrate (AM) and aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) are two different long-acting injectable formulations of aripiprazole. AM 400 mg administered once monthly demonstrated efficacy in an acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, as well as in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized-withdrawal maintenance study, and in two non-inferiority maintenance studies. AL is a prodrug of aripiprazole and available in 441 mg, 662 mg or 882 mg strengths. AL 441 mg and 882 mg administered once monthly demonstrated efficacy in an acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. The pharmacokinetic profile of AL also led to approval of dosing intervals of every 6 weeks for the 882 mg dose. The overall tolerability profiles of both products are consistent with what is known about oral aripiprazole.
Samalin, Ludovic; Charpeaud, Thomas; Blanc, Olivier; Heres, Stephan; Llorca, Pierre-Michel
Depot formulations are not widely used in everyday practice. This study aimed to assess psychiatrists' attitudes toward the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in schizophrenia. We interviewed 113 French psychiatrists about the factors that influenced their prescription of LAI antipsychotics. Multidimensional and cluster analyses were used to detect correlations. The most important factor against the use of LAI antipsychotics is a sufficient estimated compliance with the oral formulation. For first-generation LAI, the main factor is the risk for extrapyramidal symptoms; and for second-generation LAI, it is the unavailability of the equivalent oral formulation. Four factors incite the psychiatrists to prescribe LAI. Two different clusters of patients can also be identified. Most factors influencing the clinicians' attitudes toward the use of LAI antipsychotics are shared in many countries. Conversely, some attitudes related to organizational aspects, particularly the relevance of health care costs, may vary from one country to another.
Veguilla, Miguel Ruiz; Taylor, David; Balanzá-Martinez, Vicent
Despite their widespread use, long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics (APs) are often regarded with some negativity because of the assumption of punishment, control and insufficient evolution towards psychosocial development of patients. However, LAI APs have proved effective in schizophrenia and other severe psychotic disorders because they assure stable blood levels, leading to a reduction of the risk of relapse. Therapeutic opportunities have also arisen after introduction of newer, second-generation LAI APs in recent years. Newer LAI APs are more readily dosed optimally, may be better tolerated and are better suited to integrated rehabilitation programmes. This review outlines the older and newer LAI APs available for the treatment of schizophrenia, with considerations of past and present pharmacological and therapeutic issues. Traditional, evidence-based approaches to systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials are of limited utility in this area so this paper’s blending of experimental trials with observational research is particularly appropriate and effective. PMID:25360245
Chue, Pierre; Chue, James
Schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is a chronic and disabling mental illness that presents with mixed symptoms of schizophrenia and affective disorders. SCA is recognized as a discrete disorder, but with greater heterogeneity and symptom overlap, leading to difficulty and delay in diagnosis. Although the overall prognosis is intermediate between schizophrenia and mood disorders, SCA is associated with higher rates of suicide and hospitalization than schizophrenia. No treatment guidelines exist for SCA, and treatment is frequently complex, involving off-label use and polypharmacy (typically combinations of antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants). Oral paliperidone extended-release was the first agent to be approved for the treatment of SCA. As in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, adherence to oral medications is poor, further contributing to suboptimal outcomes. The use of an antipsychotic in a long-acting injection (LAI) addresses adherence issues, thus potentially reducing relapse. Paliperidone palmitate represents the LAI formulation of paliperidone. In a long-term, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of adult patients (n=334; intent-to-treat [ITT]) with SCA, paliperidone long-acting injection (PLAI) significantly delayed risk of relapse compared to placebo (hazard ratio 2.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.99; P<0.001). This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of PLAI when used as either monotherapy or adjunctive therapy for the maintenance treatment of SCA. The results are consistent with a similarly designed study conducted in patients with schizophrenia, which suggests a benefit in the long-term control of not only psychotic but also affective symptoms. No new safety signals were observed. When used in monotherapy, PLAI simplifies treatment by reducing complex pharmacotherapy and obviating the necessity for daily oral medications. PLAI is the second agent, and the first LAI, to be approved for the treatment of SCA; as an LAI
Chue, Pierre; Chue, James
Schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is a chronic and disabling mental illness that presents with mixed symptoms of schizophrenia and affective disorders. SCA is recognized as a discrete disorder, but with greater heterogeneity and symptom overlap, leading to difficulty and delay in diagnosis. Although the overall prognosis is intermediate between schizophrenia and mood disorders, SCA is associated with higher rates of suicide and hospitalization than schizophrenia. No treatment guidelines exist for SCA, and treatment is frequently complex, involving off-label use and polypharmacy (typically combinations of antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants). Oral paliperidone extended-release was the first agent to be approved for the treatment of SCA. As in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, adherence to oral medications is poor, further contributing to suboptimal outcomes. The use of an antipsychotic in a long-acting injection (LAI) addresses adherence issues, thus potentially reducing relapse. Paliperidone palmitate represents the LAI formulation of paliperidone. In a long-term, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of adult patients (n=334; intent-to-treat [ITT]) with SCA, paliperidone long-acting injection (PLAI) significantly delayed risk of relapse compared to placebo (hazard ratio 2.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.55–3.99; P<0.001). This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of PLAI when used as either monotherapy or adjunctive therapy for the maintenance treatment of SCA. The results are consistent with a similarly designed study conducted in patients with schizophrenia, which suggests a benefit in the long-term control of not only psychotic but also affective symptoms. No new safety signals were observed. When used in monotherapy, PLAI simplifies treatment by reducing complex pharmacotherapy and obviating the necessity for daily oral medications. PLAI is the second agent, and the first LAI, to be approved for the treatment of SCA; as an LAI
McCreath, James; Larson, Essie; Bharatiya, Purabi; Labanieh, Hisham A; Weiss, Zvi; Lozovatsky, Michael
Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medications are employed universally for the treatment of schizophrenia. This study retrospectively assessed the variables that factor into an individual's adherence to LAIs. The data sample was obtained from the adult ambulatory services of a large general hospital mental health center located in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Reports were run in November 2015 to identify patients who had received at least 1 LAI between January 1, 2014, and October 14, 2015. In September 2016, an additional report was run to collect follow-up data. The sample included 120 women and 178 men, ranging in age from 18-81 years, who received at least 1 LAI during a 23-month period. A hazard analysis for single-decrement, nonrepeatable events was used to assess the risk of discontinuation of LAIs during the study period. Separate χ² analyses were conducted to assess differences in discontinuation rates for sociodemographic variables, program type variables, type of long-acting medication, and time effects. The cumulative continuation rate across the study period was 73%. Main effect differences were found in continuation rates for program type (χ²₂undefined= 10.252, P = .006), LAI type (χ²₅ = 23.365, P < .000), and prescribed frequency of LAI (χ²₂ = 7.622, P = .022). In addition, multiple time-dependent effect differences were found. No significant main effect results were found for LAI continuation rates and patient age (χ²₃ = 3.689, P = .297), sex (χ²₁ = 0.904, P = .342), race (χ²₃ = 5.785, P = .123), or enrollment in involuntary outpatient commitment (χ²₁ = 2.989, P = .084). The findings of the current research suggest that medication type, frequency of medication appointments, and program type may be key in increasing and maintaining LAI adherence.
Cortez, John M.; Quintero, Rafaela; Moss, John A.; Beliveau, Martin; Smith, Thomas J.
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 remains a global health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations advise the administration of a once-daily, oral, prophylactic regimen of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine (NVP) from birth until 4 to 6 weeks of age for infants born to HIV-infected mothers in regions without access to safe and nutritionally adequate alternatives to breast milk. A critical factor driving the successful implementation of the WHO guidelines involves sustaining high adherence to the frequent dosing. With these challenges in mind, we have developed the first injectable, sustained-release NVP formulations with the goal of providing, for 6 weeks or longer, preventative plasma drug levels from a single subcutaneous administration at birth. The long-acting NVP consists of large (>50 μm), monodisperse NVP particles coated with biocompatible polymers that control the drug release kinetics. Two lead formulations exhibiting burst-free, sustained-release kinetics for up to 75 days in vitro were developed. Subsequent in vivo studies in rats demonstrated no toxicity related to the formulations. Rat plasma NVP concentrations were above the analytical assay's limit of quantification for up to 28 days. Pharmacokinetic analysis of the rat plasma NVP concentration-time data allowed absorption rate constants to be calculated. These data then were used to simulate infant NVP exposure from a single injected dose (<200 mg) of our long-acting formulations, demonstrating preliminary feasibility of the technology to maintain safe, preventative NVP plasma levels (0.2 to 3.0 μg ml−1) for 6 weeks or longer. PMID:25313219
Cazzola, Mario; Page, Clive; Matera, Maria Gabriella
The use of muscarinic receptor antagonists in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is well established. More recently, the potential for long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) in the treatment of asthma has also been investigated. While LAMAs offer advantages over short-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists, in terms of a reduced dosing frequency, there remains a need for therapies that improve symptom control throughout both the day and night, provide better management of exacerbations and deliver improved health-related quality of life. Furthermore, the potential for unwanted anticholinergic side effects, particularly cardiovascular effects, remains a concern for this class of compounds. Novel LAMAs in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory disease include: aclidinium bromide, NVA237 (glycopyrronium bromide), GP-MDI, EP-101, CHF-5259, umeclidinium bromide, CHF-5407, TD-4208, AZD8683 and V-0162. These compounds offer potential advantages in terms of onset of action, symptom control and safety. In addition, a number of LAMAs are also being developed as combination treatments with long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) or inhaled glucocorticosteroids, potentially important treatment options for patients who require combination therapy to achieve an optimal therapeutic response as their disease progresses. More recently, compounds such as GSK961081 and THRX-198321 have been identified that combine LAMA and LABA activity in the same molecule, and have the potential to offer the benefits of combination therapy in a single compound. Here, we review novel LAMAs and dual action compounds in clinical development, with a particular focus on how they may address the current unmet clinical needs in the treatment of respiratory disease, particularly COPD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cortez, John M; Quintero, Rafaela; Moss, John A; Beliveau, Martin; Smith, Thomas J; Baum, Marc M
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 remains a global health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations advise the administration of a once-daily, oral, prophylactic regimen of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine (NVP) from birth until 4 to 6 weeks of age for infants born to HIV-infected mothers in regions without access to safe and nutritionally adequate alternatives to breast milk. A critical factor driving the successful implementation of the WHO guidelines involves sustaining high adherence to the frequent dosing. With these challenges in mind, we have developed the first injectable, sustained-release NVP formulations with the goal of providing, for 6 weeks or longer, preventative plasma drug levels from a single subcutaneous administration at birth. The long-acting NVP consists of large (>50 μm), monodisperse NVP particles coated with biocompatible polymers that control the drug release kinetics. Two lead formulations exhibiting burst-free, sustained-release kinetics for up to 75 days in vitro were developed. Subsequent in vivo studies in rats demonstrated no toxicity related to the formulations. Rat plasma NVP concentrations were above the analytical assay's limit of quantification for up to 28 days. Pharmacokinetic analysis of the rat plasma NVP concentration-time data allowed absorption rate constants to be calculated. These data then were used to simulate infant NVP exposure from a single injected dose (<200 mg) of our long-acting formulations, demonstrating preliminary feasibility of the technology to maintain safe, preventative NVP plasma levels (0.2 to 3.0 μg ml(-1)) for 6 weeks or longer.
Kashiwagi, Seizaburo; Yoshida, Sanae; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Niwa, Shinpei; Mitsui, Noriko; Tanigawa, Masatoshi; Shiosakai, Kazuhito; Yamanouchi, Naoki; Shiozawa, Tomoo; Yamaguchi, Fumie
Laninamivir octanoate hydrate (laninamivir) is a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) that completes treatment with only a single inhalation. It was launched in Japan in October 2010 as an anti-influenza agent. A post-marketing surveillance study was conducted in the 2010/2011 influenza season to assess the safety of this drug in clinical settings. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were observed in 50 patients (59 events) out of 3542 patients subjected to safety evaluation (incidence 1.41%). Commonly reported ADRs were psychiatric disorders (abnormal behaviour, etc.), gastrointestinal disorders (diarrhoea, nausea, etc.) and nervous system disorders (dizziness, etc.), with incidences of 0.48% (n=17), 0.45% (n=16) and 0.17% (n=6), respectively. No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs usually emerged on the day on which laninamivir was inhaled (52.5%) and ADRs emerged within 3 days after inhalation in >90% of adversely affected patients. ADRs resolved or improved within 3 days in >85% of patients. The incidence of adverse events involving abnormal behaviour was 3.1% (30/959) among patients <10 years of age, 0.7% (8/1088) among patients aged 10-19 years, 0.1% (2/1431) among adult patients aged 20-64 years and 0.0% (0/64) among patients aged ≥65 years. It was confirmed that laninamivir is unlikely to cause delayed ADRs or a prolonged duration of ADRs despite this drug being a long-acting NAI. Furthermore, the incidence of ADRs was not found to have increased compared with that observed during clinical trials, and the types of ADR observed during this study were similar to those previously observed. Thus, laninamivir octanoate hydrate was confirmed to have no noticeable problem with safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Matera, Maria Gabriella; Ora, Josuel; Cazzola, Mario
Olodaterol (BI 1744 CL) is a novel, once-daily long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) designed with the aim of improving β2-adrenoreceptor selectivity and intrinsic activity. Phase III pivotal trials have documented that olodaterol Respimat Soft Mist inhaler 5 μg induces fast onset of bronchodilation, comparable with formoterol at day 1. Moreover, significant lung function improvements have been documented up to 48 weeks in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Olodaterol was generally well tolerated and had an acceptable cardiovascular and respiratory adverse event profile. Regrettably, the clinical development of olodaterol is however still too partial to draw any firm conclusions on the positioning of this ultra-LABA as monotherapy in the management of COPD. Waiting for further data on the impact of olodaterol on different patient-reported outcomes, which however are widely available for indacaterol, and mainly for a head-to-head comparison between these two ultra-LABAs and between olodaterol long-acting antimuscarinic antagonists other than tiotropium, we believe it is correct to follow the clinical indications of indacaterol also for olodaterol. In any case, the parallel bronchodilating modes of action of olodaterol and tiotropium make them an attractive combination in COPD. The results from the ongoing large TOviTO Phase III trial program have documented the efficacy and safety of olodaterol/tiotropium fixed-dose combination as maintenance therapy in patients with moderate to very severe COPD. In particular, olodaterol/tiotropium fixed-dose combination provides a convincing alternative for patients remaining symptomatic with olodaterol monotherapy. PMID:26676161
Hu, Xi; Lin, Xia; Gu, Yuechen; Liu, Zitong; Tang, Yilin; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Xi; Wang, Yanjiao; Tang, Xing
The aim of this research was to prepare biocompatible riboflavin laurate (RFL) long-acting injectable nanosuspensions for intramuscular injection with a small particle size allowing sterile filtration. RFL nanosuspensions were manufactured by a precipitation-combined high-pressure homogenization method. Three kinds of mixed stabilizers-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) as a primary stabilizer, and egg lecithin (PL-100M), Kollidon VA64, Kollidon S-630 as a secondary stabilizer, were separately applied to avoid further aggregation. In the three optimized formulations, the mean particle size of the RFL nanosuspensions was about 170 nm allowing sterilization by filtration. Results from transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimeter, powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy revealed that RFL existed as rod-like crystals. However, a few nano-spheres under 100 nm were found only when PL-100 was used as a secondary stabilizer, possibly due to TPGS and PL-100, which inserted into RFL during the process of crystallization and homogenization. In irritation testing, RFL long-acting injection (LAI) stabilized by TPGS and PL-100 led to mild paw-licking responses and a slight inflammatory reaction, which returned to normal by 14 d after administration. The endogenous PL-100 and nano-spheres with a small size may have contributed to the excellent biocompatibility. As a result, TPGS and PL-100 were selected as blended stabilizers to prepare the irritation-free RFL-LAI that could be sterilized by passage through a 0.22 μm millipore membrane filter.
Horita, Nobuyuki; Goto, Atsushi; Shibata, Yuji; Ota, Erika; Nakashima, Kentaro; Nagai, Kenjiro; Kaneko, Takeshi
Three classes of inhaler medications are used to manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): long-acting beta-agonists (LABA), long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). When two classes of medications are required, LAMA plus LABA (LAMA+LABA) and LABA plus ICS (LABA+ICS) are often selected because these combinations can be administered via a single medication device. The previous Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidance recommended LABA+ICS as the first-line treatment for managing stable COPD in high-risk people of categories C and D. However, the updated GOLD 2017 guidance recommends LAMA+LABA over LABA+ICS. To compare the benefits and harms of LAMA+LABA versus LABA+ICS for treatment of people with stable COPD. We performed an electronic search of the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (2 February 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (4 June 2016), and the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Search Portal (4 June 2016), followed by a handsearch (5 June 2016). Two review authors screened and scrutinised the selected articles. We included individual randomised controlled trials, parallel-group trials, and cross-over trials comparing LAMA+LABA and LABA+ICS for stable COPD. The minimum accepted trial duration was one month and trials should have been conducted in an outpatient setting. Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated risk of bias. We resolved any discrepancies through discussion. We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios (OR), and continuous data as mean differences (MD), with 95% confidence interval (CI) using Review Manager 5. Exacerbations were measured by counting the number of people experiencing one or more exacerbation. We included 11 studies comprising 9839 participants in our quantitative analysis. Most studies included people with moderate to severe COPD, without recent exacerbations. One pharmaceutical sponsored trial that included only people with
Dikshit, Reetika; Karia, Sagar; De Sousa, Avinash
Risperidone has been documented to be effective in the management of behavior problems, aggression, and conduct disorder in children. While metabolic side effects like weight gain and obesity have been attributed to Risperidone use in children, side effects of the drug related to the urinary bladder are rare. We present a case of Risperidone-induced enuresis in a 12-year-old boy with conduct disorder that resolved completely after stopping the medication. PMID:28149096
Yoshimura, Reiji; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Hori, Hikaru; Nakamura, Jun
In the present study, we examined the efficacy of risperidone addition on sertraline-resistant depressed patients and the effects of risperidone on the metabolism of sertraline. Ten patients (M/F: 4/6, age: 54 +/- 10 years) met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder enrolled the study. Hamilton Dating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) scores (mean +/- SD) in all 10 patients significantly decreased from 19 +/- 4 (before risperidone addition) to 11 +/- 3 (4 weeks after risperidone addition). Plasma levels of sertraline and desmethylsertraline did not change after risperidone addition. Serum BDNF levels in responders to risperidone addition were changed from 8.1 +/- 2.7 ng/ml (before risperidone addition) to 11.5 +/- 0.9 ng/ml (4 weeks after risperidone addition); in contrast, those in nonresponders changed from 7.8 +/- 2.2 ng/ml (before risperidone addition) to 7.9 +/- 2.4 ng/ml (4 weeks after risperidone addition). These results suggest that the addition of risperidone to sertraline is effective and well tolerated for sertraline-resistant depressive patients, which is accompanied with the increase in serum BDNF levels in responders to the risperidone addition, and the addition of risperidone to sertraline does not seem to influence sertraline metabolism.
Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A; Caplan, Rochelle
This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with risperidone for years. In both cases, discontinuing the valproic acid resulted in normalization of ammonia levels and cessation of the manic behavior. This case report alerts physicians to the importance of obtaining serum ammonia levels in children treated with valproic acid and risperidone who present with manic behavior.
van den Berg, Jacob J.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Bregman, Dana E.; Thompson, Lara A.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kiser, Patrick F.; Katz, David F.; Buckheit, Karen; Buckheit, Robert W.; Morrow, Kathleen M.
Women’s initial understandings and anticipated acceptability of long-acting vaginal gels as potential anti-HIV microbicides was investigated by exploring the perceptibility variables associated with prototype formulations. Four focus groups with 29 women, aged 18–45, were conducted to consider gel prototypes with varied physicochemical and rheological properties. Participants responded favorably to the concept of long-acting vaginal gels as microbicides. Distinctions in understandings and stated needs regarding product dosing, characteristics, and effectiveness offer valuable insights into product design. Long-acting vaginal gels capable of protecting against HIV/STIs will be a viable option among potential users, with dosing frequency being an important factor in willingness to use. PMID:24248674
Fuso, L; Mores, N; Valente, S; Malerba, M; Montuschi, P
Inhaled bronchodilators, including beta(2)-agonists and antimuscaric receptor antagonists, are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The short-acting beta(2)-agonists, including salbutamol, and fenoterol, have a rapid onset of action, a bronchodilating effect for 3-6 h and are used on demand. The long-acting beta(2)-agonists (LABAs), including salmeterol and formoterol, have 12-hour duration of action and are used with a twice-daily dosing regimen for long-term COPD treatment. Unlike salmeterol, formoterol has a rapid onset of action. Pharmacological characteristics required by novel inhaled LABAs include 24 h bronchodilator effect in vivo which would make them suitable for once daily administration (ultra-LABA), high potency and selectivity for beta(2)-adrenoceptors, rapid onset of action, low oral bioavailability (< 5%) after inhalation, and high systemic clearance. Indacaterol, which has been approved for long-term treatment of COPD in Europe and in the USA, has a 24-h duration of action and a once-daily dosing regimen. Newer ultra-LABAs, including olodaterol, vilanterol, milveterol, carmoterol, and abediterol, are in development. Combination with ICS (fluticasone/salmeterol, budesonide/formoterol, beclomethasone/formoterol) appears to provide an additional benefit over the monocomponent therapy, although the extent of this benefit is variable and often not clinically significant in all the endpoints assessed. In patients with COPD, treatment with ICS is associated with increased risk of pneumonia which should be carefully considered when assessing the risk/benefit ratio of ICS/LABA combinations. Subphenotyping of patients with COPD (e.g., frequent exacerbations, sputum eosinophilia, mixed asthma/COPD phenotype) might help identify those patients who are most likely to benefit from addition of ICS to bronchodilating treatment. Ultra-LABA/ long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA) combination treatment is under
Corda, Heike; Kummer, Sebastian; Welters, Alena; Teig, Norbert; Klee, Dirk; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas
Treatment of severe diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) without sufficient response to diazoxide is complicated by the lack of approved drugs. Therefore, patients are often hospitalized long-term or have to undergo pancreatic surgery if episodes of severe hypoglycaemia cannot be prevented. A long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, has been reported to be an effective treatment option that prevents severe hypoglycaemia in children with CHI, and its off-label use is common in CHI. However, octreotide requires continuous i.v. or s.c. infusion or multiple daily injections. Here, we report our experiences with the use of a monthly application of a long-acting somatostatin analogue, lanreotide autogel® (LAN-ATG), in early infancy. The mean blood glucose concentration within 7 days before the first LAN-ATG administration were compared to 7 days after the first LAN-ATG administration and increased by 0.75 mmol/L (range 0.39-1.19 mmol/L). In the following weeks intravenous glucose infusions, octreotide, and glucagon treatment could be successfully stopped in all patients 3-20 days after the first LAN-ATG injection without substantial worsening of the hypoglycaemia rate. Increased carbohydrate requirements could be normalized with an average reduction in the carbohydrate-intake of 7 g/kg body weight/d (range 1.75-12.8 g/kg body weight/d). Over a total of 52 treatment months, no serious adverse effects occurred. Long-term LAN-ATG treatment improved blood glucose concentrations, lowered the frequency of hypoglycaemia or allowed for normalization of oral carbohydrate intake in infants with CHI younger than 6 months of age. No severe side effects were observed. LAN-ATG might be an alternative treatment option in infants with severe CHI who lack risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis and are not responding to current treatment regimens as an alternative to surgery after careful individual evaluation.
Sears, M R; Ottosson, A; Radner, F; Suissa, S
The safety of long-acting beta(2)-agonist (LABA) treatment in asthma has been questioned following reported increased respiratory deaths when salmeterol was added to usual pharmacotherapy. The aim of this study was to examine whether asthma, cardiac or all-cause mortality and morbidity were increased with formoterol use. The analysis included all AstraZeneca randomised controlled parallel-group asthma trials of 3-12-months duration involving formoterol. Risks associated with formoterol use compared with non-LABA treatment, overall and in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), were assessed using an intention-to-treat analysis of the rates and rate ratios of deaths and serious adverse events (SAEs). The main objective of this study was to compare asthma-related mortality in patients using formoterol and those not using formoterol. There were eight asthma-related deaths (0.34 per 1,000 person-yrs) among 49,906 formoterol-randomised patients (92% using ICS), and two (0.22 per 1,000 person-yrs) among 18,098 patients (83% using ICS) not randomised to formoterol, which was nonsignificant. Asthma-related SAEs (>90% of which were hospitalisations) were significantly fewer among formoterol-randomised patients (0.75 versus 1.10%). There was no increase in asthma-related SAEs with increased daily doses of formoterol (9, 18 or 36 microg). There was no significant difference in cardiac mortality or noncardiac nonasthma-related mortality in formoterol-randomised compared to non-LABA-treated patients. All-cause mortality was similar. In the data set in which all subjects were prescribed ICS at baseline, there were seven asthma-related deaths (0.32 per 1,000 person-yrs) among 46,003 formoterol-randomised patients and one (0.14 per 1,000 person-yrs) among 13,905 patients not randomised to formoterol, which was also nonsignificant. There were few asthma-related or cardiac-related deaths among patients randomised to formoterol, and all differences were nonsignificant
From a historical perspective, this article describes the use of antipsychotic long-acting injections (LAI) in the treatment of schizophrenia, a disorder that was defined in the final years of the 19th century. An efficient treatment for schizophrenia was discovered only in 1952 with the introduction of chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine derivative. Fairly soon, antipsychotics became available as LAI. The first compounds were fluphenazine enanthate (1966) and decanoate (1968) whose development is attributed to G.R. Daniel, a medical director at Squibb & Sons. Other first-generation antipsychotics long-acting injections (FGA-LAIs) were introduced in a rapid succession in the 1960s and 1970s. FGA-LAIs made a key contribution to the development of community psychiatry. As neuroleptics emptied psychiatric hospitals, it was important to ensure that patients could be taken care of in outpatient facilities. FGA-LAIs prevented covert non-compliance. Compliance was further reinforced by the social and psychological support of patients. The introduction of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) led to a loss of interest in FGA-LAIs. This is evidenced by a drop in the number of papers published on this topic. The interest in LAI was revived with the introduction of the first SGA-LAI in 2003. Four different preparations have been approved in the decade between 2003 and 2013. SGA-LAIs differ from FGA-LAIs in the technology that is used to produce the depot effect, and also in the treatment objectives. The rationale for using SGA-LAIs is not only to prevent relapses due to treatment interruption, but also to achieve more constant plasma levels in order to reduce side effects due to excessive plasma levels and loss of efficacy due to insufficient plasma levels. Also, treatment objectives are no longer limited to controlling acute symptoms. Treatment objectives now include the alleviation of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits that are key prognostic factors. Copyright © 2014
Yu, Qian-sheng; Holloway, Harold W.; Luo, Weiming; Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Brossi, Arnold; Greig, Nigel H.
The N-monophenylcarbamate analogues of neostigmine methyl sulfate (6) and pyridostigmine bromide (8) together with their precursors (5), (7), and the N(1)-methylammonium analogues of (−)-phenserine (12), (−)-tolserine (14), (−)-cymserine (16) and (−)-phenethylcymserine (18) were synthesized to produce long-acting peripheral inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase. Evaluation of their cholinesterase inhibition against human enzyme ex vivo demonstrated that, whereas compounds 5–8 possessed only marginal activity, 12, 14, 16 and 18 proved to be potent anticholinesterases. An extended duration of cholinesterase inhibition was determined in rodent, making them of potential interest as long-acting agents for myasthenia gravis. PMID:20627738
Joshi, Ritu; Khadilkar, Suvarna; Patel, Madhuri
The global trend shows that the use of permanent contraception to prevent unintended pregnancy is high. Although the trend also shows a rise in the use of long-acting reversible methods, these are still underutilized despite having contraceptive as well as non-contraceptive benefits. Lack of knowledge among women, dependence on the provider for information, and provider bias for permanent contraception are cited as reasons for this reduced uptake. Training of healthcare providers and increased patient awareness about the effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods will increase their uptake and help prevent unintended pregnancies.
Hatta, Kotaro; Otachi, Taro; Sudo, Yasuhiko; Kuga, Hironori; Takebayashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hideaki; Ishii, Ryusuke; Kasuya, Masataka; Hayakawa, Tatsuro; Morikawa, Fumiyoshi; Hata, Kazuya; Nakamura, Mitsuru; Usui, Chie; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Toyoaki; Sawa, Yutaka
We examined whether augmentation with olanzapine would be superior to increased risperidone dose among acute schizophrenia patients showing early non-response to risperidone. We performed a rater-blinded, randomized controlled trial at psychiatric emergency sites. Eligible patients were newly admitted patients with acute schizophrenia. Early response was defined as Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale score ≤3 following 2 weeks of treatment. Early non-responders were allocated to receive either augmentation with olanzapine (RIS+OLZ group) or increased risperidone dose (RIS+RIS group). The 78 patients who completed 2 weeks of treatment were divided into 52 early responders to risperidone and 26 early non-responders to risperidone (RIS+OLZ group, n=13; RIS+RIS group, n=13). No difference in the achievement of ≥50% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score was observed between RIS+OLZ and RIS+RIS groups. Although time to treatment discontinuation for any cause was significantly shorter in the RIS+RIS group (6.8 weeks [95% confidence interval, 5.2-8.4]) than in early responders to risperidone (8.6 weeks [7.9-9.3]; P=0.018), there was no significant difference between the RIS+OLZ group (7.9 weeks [6.3-9.5]) and early responders to risperidone. Secondary outcomes justify the inclusion of augmentation arms in additional, larger studies comparing strategies for early non-responders.
Narayan, Reema; Singh, Mohan; Ranjan, OmPrakash; Nayak, Yogendra; Garg, Sanjay; Shavi, Gopal V; Nayak, Usha Y
The present paper is aimed at development of functionalized risperidone liposomes for brain targeting through nasal route for effective therapeutic management of schizophrenia. The risperidone liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method. Various parameters such as lipid ratio and lipid to drug ratio were optimized by using Design-Expert(®) Software to obtain high entrapment with minimum vesicle size. The surface of the optimized liposomes was modified by coating stearylamine and MPEG-DSPE for enhanced penetration to the brain. The formulations were evaluated for vesicle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The morphology was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In vivo efficacy was assessed by performing pharmacokinetic study in Wistar albino rats following intranasal administration of the formulations in comparison to intravenous bolus administration of pure drug. The mean vesicle size of optimized liposomes ranged from 90 to 100nm with low polydispersity index (<0.5). The entrapment efficiency of optimized liposomes was between 50 and 60%, functionalized liposomes showed maximum entrapment. The TEM images showed predominantly spherical vesicles with smooth bilayered surface. All formulations showed prolonged diffusion controlled drug release. The in vivo results showed that liposomal formulations provided enhanced brain exposure. Among the formulations studied, PEGylated liposomes (LP-16) had shown greater uptake of risperidone into the brain than plasma. High brain targeting efficiency index for LP-16 indicating preferential transport of the drug to brain. The study demonstrated successful formulation of surface modified risperidone liposomes for nasal delivery with brain targeting potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Niari Khams, Parisa; Arfaie, Asghar; Salari, Azim; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa
Background Antipsychotics have been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of schizophrenia and many other psychiatric disorders. Prolactin levels usually increase in patients treated with risperidone. Aripiprazole, which has a unique effect as an antipsychotic, is a D2 receptor partial agonist. It is an atypical antipsychotic with limited extrapyramidal symptoms. Since it acts as an antagonist in hyperdopaminergic conditions and as an agonist in hypodopaminergic conditions, it does not have adverse effects on serum prolactin levels. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of aripiprazole on risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods This before-and-after clinical trial was performed in 30 patients. Baseline prolactin levels were measured in all patients who were candidates for treatment with risperidone. In subjects with elevated serum prolactin, aripiprazole was added to their treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured during the first week, second week, and monthly thereafter for at least 3 months or until prolactin levels became normal. The data were analyzed using Stata version 11 software. Survival analysis and McNemar’s test were also performed. Results The mean age of the participants was 30.8 years. Prolactin levels normalized in 23 (77%) participants during the study, and menstrual disturbances normalized in 25 (83.3%). Prolactin levels normalized in most patients between days 50 and 110. The median time to recovery based on normalization of prolactin was 84 days. Psychotic symptoms were present in 26 subjects at baseline, but in only two by the end of the study. Conclusion The results of this study confirm the effects of aripiprazole in reducing risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia and its sequelae. Aripiprazole also led to significant improvements in psychotic symptoms when compared with those present prior to treatment with aripiprazole. PMID:25784810
Nannini, Luis Javier; Lasserson, Toby J; Poole, Phillippa
Background Both inhaled steroids (ICS) and long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) are used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This updated review compared compound LABA plus ICS therapy (LABA/ICS) with the LABA component drug given alone. Objectives To assess the efficacy of ICS and LABA in a single inhaler with mono-component LABA alone in adults with COPD. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. The date of the most recent search was November 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind controlled trials. We included trials comparing compound ICS and LABA preparations with their component LABA preparations in people with COPD. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed study risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcomes were exacerbations, mortality and pneumonia, while secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life (measured by validated scales), lung function, withdrawals due to lack of efficacy, withdrawals due to adverse events and side-effects. Dichotomous data were analysed as random-effects model odds ratios or rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and continuous data as mean differences and 95% CIs. We rated the quality of evidence for exacerbations, mortality and pneumonia according to recommendations made by the GRADE working group. Main results Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, randomising 11,794 people with severe COPD. We looked at any LABA plus ICS inhaler (LABA/ICS) versus the same LABA component alone, and then we looked at the 10 studies which assessed fluticasone plus salmeterol (FPS) and the four studies assessing budesonide plus formoterol (BDF) separately. The studies were well-designed with low risk of bias for randomisation and blinding but they had high rates of attrition, which reduced our confidence in the results for outcomes other than mortality. Primary outcomes There was low quality
Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Ogle, Krystal; Lin, Linda Ying; Bialer, Meir; Finnell, Richard H
Based on the recent findings from animal studies, it has been proposed that the therapeutic use of valnoctamide, an anxiolytic drug developed in the early 1960s, be extended to treat other neurological disorders such as epilepsy and bipolar disease. Given the scarcity of adequate data on its prenatal toxicity, a comparative teratogenicity study of valnoctamide and two of the most commonly used drugs to treat bipolar disorder, risperidone and olanzapine, was carried out in a mouse model system. Pregnant dams were treated with the aforementioned three drugs at the dose levels calculated as an equal proportion of the respective LD50 values of these drugs. The main reproductive indices examined included the numbers of implantations and resorptions, viable and dead fetuses, and fetal gross, visceral and skeletal abnormalities. The outcomes of the present study indicated that olanzapine was the most teratogenic of the three drugs, inducing maternal-, embryo-, and fetotoxicity. Risperidone also exerted a significant prenatal toxicity, but its adverse effect was less pronounced than that induced by olanzapine. Valnoctamide did not show any teratogenic effect, even when used in relatively higher dosages than olanzapine and risperidone. The observed increased skeletal abnormalities in one of the valnoctamide treatment groups were nonspecific and, as such, signaled a modest developmental delay rather than an indication that the compound could induce structural malformations. Under our experimental conditions, valnoctamide demonstrated the lowest prenatal toxicity of the three tested drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tomlin, Kristl; Bambulas, Tammalynn; Sutton, Maureen; Pazdernik, Vanessa; Coonrod, Dean V
To determine if teenage patients receiving prenatal care in an adolescent-focused clinic, emphasizing long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) using motivational interviewing techniques, had higher rates of uptake of postpartum LARC than a control group. Retrospective cohort study comparing young women who received prenatal care in an adolescent-focused setting with those enrolled in standard prenatal care. Adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years receiving prenatal care within the Maricopa Integrated Health safety-net system between 2007 and 2014. Motivational interviewing within the context of adolescent-focused prenatal care. Rates of uptake of LARC within 13 postpartum weeks. The adjusted rate of LARC for adolescent-focused prenatal care participants by 13 weeks postpartum was 38% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29%-47%) compared with 18% (95% CI, 11%-28%) for standard care participants, with an adjusted odds ratio of LARC use of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.5-5.2). Among patients who received adolescent-focused prenatal care, most (27% vs 12.7%) were using an intrauterine device as opposed to an implantable contraceptive device. Participation in an adolescent-focused antepartum setting using motivational interviewing to emphasize postpartum LARC resulted in nearly 3 times higher rates of uptake compared with standard prenatal care. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thompson, M. S.
David Bromham's editorial on contraceptive implants ignores the wider issues to voice concern that trial by media could limit contraceptive choice by jeopardising research into new methods. However, it is more beneficial to the public for points of conflict to be debated openly. Furthermore, the impetus for research into new contraceptive technology is driven by profit and political motives and is only marginally affected by the media. Implanted contraceptives may increase the choice of contraceptive methods, but they put control of fertility increasingly into the hands of the medical profession. Herein lies their greatest problem: their potential to increase providers' control over clients' choice. There is the danger that certain groups of women may be targeted for their use: in the United States the coercive use of Norplant for mothers receiving welfare benefit has been suggested. Long acting contraceptives are a contraceptive of choice only when they are available without pressure, as part of a wider menu; when instant removal on request is guaranteed; and when there is an open and free flow of information and opinions between users, health professionals, and special interest groups. Images p1394-a PMID:8956712
Ghosh, Joy G.; Nguyen, Andrew A.; Bigelow, Chad E.; Poor, Stephen; Qiu, Yubin; Rangaswamy, Nalini; Ornberg, Richard; Jackson, Brittany; Mak, Howard; Ezell, Tucker; Kenanova, Vania; de la Cruz, Elisa; Carrion, Ana; Etemad-Gilbertson, Bijan; Caro, Roxana Garcia; Zhu, Kan; George, Vinney; Bai, Jirong; Sharma-Nahar, Radhika; Shen, Siyuan; Wang, Yiqin; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Fassbender, Elizabeth; Maker, Michael; Hanks, Shawn; Vrouvlianis, Joanna; Leehy, Barrett; Long, Debby; Prentiss, Melissa; Kansara, Viral; Jaffee, Bruce; Dryja, Thaddeus P.; Roguska, Michael
Protein drugs that neutralize vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), such as aflibercept or ranibizumab, rescue vision in patients with retinal vascular diseases. Nonetheless, optimal visual outcomes require intraocular injections as frequently as every month. Here we report a method to extend the intravitreal half-life of protein drugs as an alternative to either encapsulation or chemical modifications with polymers. We combine a 97-amino-acid peptide of human origin that binds hyaluronan, a major macromolecular component of the eye's vitreous, with therapeutic antibodies and proteins. When administered to rabbit and monkey eyes, the half-life of the modified proteins is increased ∼3–4-fold relative to unmodified proteins. We further show that prototype long-acting anti-VEGF drugs (LAVAs) that include this peptide attenuate VEGF-induced retinal changes in animal models of neovascular retinal disease ∼3–4-fold longer than unmodified drugs. This approach has the potential to reduce the dosing frequency associated with retinal disease treatments. PMID:28332616
Fakra, E; Azorin, J-M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Blin, O; Kaladjian, A
After reminding the various phases of the development of molecules, this article will state the stages of commercialisation of treatments, underlining the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and the EMA (European Medicine Agency) requirements. Like all the other treatments available in Europe and in the United States, the long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) have to prove their efficacy compared to placebo and their non-inferiority compared to a treatment of reference, usually the same molecule in the oral form. These criteria of efficacy have evolved over time. If initially classical criteria of symptomatic intensity (score on scale PANSS) were considered, criteria more adequate from a clinical perspective, such as relapse, but also related to functioning, quality of life and, more recently, costs-effectiveness have appeared. This evolution is probably due to several factors: vision on mental illness, progress in patient's rights and aspirations, but also the pregnant place of health costs recently taken in the evaluation of treatments. These modifications are also based on the indications of L.A.I., i.e. stabilized patients for whom the challenge is rehabilitation care more than the control of symptoms. © L’Encéphale, Paris, 2016.
Xia, Ying; Kelton, Christina M. L.; Xue, Liang; Bian, Boyang; Wigle, Patricia R.
The introduction of long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) was considered a major advance in bronchodilator therapy for adult, as well as pediatric, patients with asthma. However, the use of LABAs has raised safety concerns, especially the potential for severe asthma exacerbations (SAEs) resulting in hospitalizations or even death. Meanwhile, the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), a cornerstone in the treatment of mild-to-severe persistent asthma, has been associated with growth suppression in children. The purpose of this review was to identify and discuss the major published safety studies surrounding LABA, ICS, and combined LABA/ICS usage in children. By way of a critical search for influential published clinical trials, meta-analyses, and observational studies, six studies relevant to the safety of LABA monotherapy, seven studies relevant to ICS monotherapy, and four studies on the subject of LABA/ICS combination usage were identified and reviewed. Based on the reviewed literature, the controversy surrounding these anti-asthma medications was clearly exposed. On the one hand, there is some evidence that LABA monotherapy may be associated with SAEs and asthma-related death, while ICS monotherapy may be associated with a higher risk of growth suppression. On the other hand, the concurrent use of a LABA with an ICS has been associated with positive outcomes including symptom reduction and reduced rate and severity of exacerbations. Further clinical research is warranted and has been called for by the US Food and Drug Administration. PMID:25114786
Wilkinson, Ian R; Pradhananga, Sarbendra L; Speak, Rowena; Artymiuk, Peter J; Sayers, Jon R; Ross, Richard J
Acromegaly is a human disease of growth hormone (GH) excess with considerable morbidity and increased mortality. Somatostatin analogues are first line medical treatment but the disease remains uncontrolled in up to 40% of patients. GH receptor (GHR) antagonist therapy is more effective but requires frequent high-dose injections. We have developed an alternative technology for generating a long acting potent GHR antagonist through translational fusion of a mutated GH linked to GH binding protein and tested three candidate molecules. All molecules had the amino acid change (G120R), creating a competitive GHR antagonist and we tested the hypothesis that an amino acid change in the GH binding domain (W104A) would increase biological activity. All were antagonists in bioassays. In rats all antagonists had terminal half-lives >20 hours. After subcutaneous administration in rabbits one variant displayed a terminal half-life of 40.5 hours. A single subcutaneous injection of the same variant in rabbits resulted in a 14% fall in IGF-I over 7 days.
Shi, XiaoLi; Lin, Xiao; Yao, ChunXia; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi
In the area of injectable long-acting formulations, the in situ forming system (ISFS) is an attractive alternative for its various superiorities. In this study, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic in situ forming systems, using Poloxamer and sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) or poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) copolymer (PLGA) as carrier, respectively, were investigated for Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP), a natural anti-myocardial ischemic fructan. A reasonable and applicable range of formulations were selected from each carrier for in vivo study by investigating their rheological property. The results from in vivo evaluation show that relatively promising sustained behaviors were achieved by formulations 24% P407/10% P188, 40% PLGA30k/NMP, and 30% PLGA50k/NMP. Significant differences of drug release kinetics were observed between in situ thermally-induced Poloxamer-based hydrogels and in situ solvent exchange-induced hydrophobic PLGA depots. This suggests that different ISFS could be chosen to provide different application purpose for polysaccharide drugs. In the case of ROP, Poloxamer-based ISFS is promising for short-term acute therapies; however, PLGA-based ISFS might be promising for long-term precaution or/and cure of myocardial ischemia.
Radzio, Jessica; Spreen, William; Yueh, Yun Lan; Mitchell, James; Jenkins, Leecresia; García-Lerma, J Gerardo; Heneine, Walid
Daily preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with Truvada is a proven HIV prevention strategy; however, its effectiveness is limited by low adherence. Antiretroviral drug formulations that require infrequent dosing may increase adherence and thus PrEP effectiveness. We investigated whether monthly injections of a long-acting formulation of the HIV integrase inhibitor GSK1265744 (GSK744 LA) prevented simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection by vaginal challenge in macaques. Female pigtail macaques (n = 12) were exposed to intravaginal inoculations of SHIV twice a week for up to 11 weeks. Half of the animals received a GSK744 LA injection every 4 weeks, and half received placebo. GSK744 LA, at plasma concentrations achievable with quarterly injections in humans, protected all six macaques from infection. Placebo controls were all infected after a median of 4 (range, 2 to 20) vaginal challenges with SHIV. Efficacy was related to high and sustained vaginal and plasma drug concentrations that remained above the protein-adjusted 90% inhibitory concentration during the dosing cycles. These data support advancement of GSK744 LA as a potential PrEP candidate for women.
Schneider, Eric L; Henise, Jeff; Reid, Ralph; Ashley, Gary W; Santi, Daniel V
We developed a long-acting drug-delivery system that supports subcutaneous administration of the peptidic somatostatin agonist octreotide-a blockbuster drug used to treat acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors. The current once-a-month polymer-encapsulated octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, requires a painful intragluteal injection through a large needle by a health-care professional. To overcome such shortcomings, Tetra-PEG hydrogel microspheres were covalently attached to the α-amine of d-Phe(1) or the ε-amine of Lys(5) of octreotide by a self-cleaving β-eliminative linker; upon subcutaneous injection in the rat using a small-bore needle, octreotide was slowly released. The released drug from the ε-octreotide conjugate showed a remarkably long serum half-life that exceeded two months. The α-octreotide conjugate had a half-life of ∼2 weeks, and showed an excellent correlation of in vitro and in vivo drug release. Pharmacokinetic models indicate these microspheres should support once-weekly to once-monthly self-administered subcutaneous dosing in humans. The hydrogel-octreotide conjugate shows the favorable pharmacokinetics of Sandostatin LAR without its drawbacks.
Ozdemir, N; Yildirim, M
Two commercially available long-acting oxytetracycline hydrochloride formulations (Primamycin LA (Pfizer) and Terralent 20% LA (I.E. Ulagay)) were administered by the intramuscular route to 20 clinically healthy sheep at a dose of 20 mg/kg. The study was performed in a two-period crossover design. Plasma samples were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean maximum concentrations (C (max)) was 8.00 +/- 2.05 microg/ml and 8.61 +/- 1.42 micro/ml, respectively. The mean area under the concentration time curve (AUC) values were 154.95 +/- 50.37(microg h)/ml and 161.70 +/- 47.02(microg h)/ml, respectively. The 90%confidence intervals for the ratio of C (max) and AUC values for the test and reference product are with in the interval 70-143% for C (max) and interval 80--125% for AUC proposed by EMEA. It was concluded that Primamycin LA and Terralent 20% LA formulations are bioequivalent in their rate and extent of drug absorbtion.
Gunther, Ronald E.; Harer, W. Benson
Long acting, single injection caudal anesthesia with mepivacaine was studied in 1,208 obstetrical cases. A 1 per cent solution was used in 671 patients and compared with a 1.5 per cent concentration in 537. No remarkable differences were found between the two groups. The 1 per cent solution provided relief of labor discomfort for from 60 to 180 minutes with an average of 110 minutes. In contrast, the 1.5 per cent solution provided an average of 115 minutes with a range of 80 to 210 minutes. A total volume of 30 ml of anesthetic agent yielded anesthesia to a level of the tenth thoracic vertebra or higher in 91 per cent of patients. Significant alterations in blood pressure were uncommon. About 1 per cent of patients required a vasopressor because of a drop in systolic blood pressure below 80 mm of mercury. Another 8 per cent had a drop of over 20 points in systolic pressure but from high enough levels that they did not require a vasopressor. Toxic effects similar to those of lidocaine were found in slightly more than 1 per cent of cases. This anesthesia requires a higher incidence of operative intervention for delivery. PMID:5980717
Hosseini, Hatam; Torabi, Fatemeh; Bagi, Balal
It is anticipated that the demand for contraceptives in Iran will increase in the near future as the number of women of reproductive age increases and with women wanting smaller families. The aim of this paper was to study the demand for long-acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPCMs), and its determinants, among Kurdish women in Mahabad city, Iran. Data were taken from the Mahabad Fertility Survey (MFS) conducted on a sample of over 700 households in April 2012. The results show that the demand for LAPCMs was 71.35% at the time of survey, although only 27.7% of women were using these methods. Thus, the number of unintended pregnancies is likely to increase in the future if this gap is not reduced. The multivariate analysis showed significant impacts on the dependent variables of the number of children ever born, perceived contraceptive costs and childbearing intentions. Moreover, women at the end of their reproductive lives and those with higher education were more likely to desire LAPCMs. It is concluded that despite a growing use of contraceptive methods in Iran in recent decades, the development of reproductive health services and promotion of the quality of family planning services remains a necessity.
Bracken, Jennifer; Graham, Cynthia A
To identify factors involved in women's decisions to choose particular contraceptive methods and more specifically, incentives and disincentives to use three long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods: injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices/systems (IUDs/IUSs). A total of 502 women aged 18 to 30 completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire. The three most important factors in choosing a contraceptive method were: high efficacy at preventing pregnancy, protection against sexually transmitted infections, and non-interference with sexual intercourse. The most common incentives for LARC use were the high efficacy and long duration of action. Disincentives included the possibility of irregular bleeding and concerns about effects on fertility; fear of needles and pain was a particular disincentive for IUD/IUS use. Only 93 (18%) of the participants reported ever having used a LARC. Reported disincentives to LARC use (e.g., concern about effects on future fertility) indicated that many young women hold inaccurate beliefs about these methods. The relatively high proportions of women who held neutral attitudes about LARCs (21-40%, depending on the method) highlight the importance of education and contraceptive counselling to improve knowledge about the advantages of these methods.
PARKS, Caitlin; PEIPERT, Jeffrey F.
Significant public health disparities exist surrounding teen and unplanned pregnancy in the U.S. Women of color and those with lower education and socioeconomic status are at much greater risk of unplanned pregnancy and the resulting adverse outcomes. Unplanned pregnancies reduce educational and career opportunities and may contribute to socioeconomic deprivation and widening income disparities. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), including intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants, offer the opportunity to change the default from drifting into parenthood to planned conception. LARC methods are forgettable; once placed they offer highly effective, long-term pregnancy prevention. Increasing evidence in the medical literature demonstrates the population benefits of use of these methods. However, barriers to more widespread use of LARC methods persist, and include educational, access, and cost barriers. With increasing insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act, and more widespread, no-cost coverage of methods, more and more women are choosing IUDs and the contraceptive implant. Increasing the use of highly effective contraceptive methods may provide one solution to the persistent problem of the health disparities of unplanned and teen pregnancies in the U.S., and improve women and children's health. PMID:26875950
Henry, Nathaniel; Schlueter, Max; Lowin, Julia; Lekander, Ingrid; Filonenko, Anna; Trussell, James; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil
Objectives The objective of this study was to quantify the cost burden of unintended pregnancies (UPs) in Norway, and to estimate the proportion of costs due to imperfect contraceptive adherence. Potential cost savings that could arise from increased uptake of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) were also investigated. Methods An economic model was constructed to estimate the total number of UPs and associated costs in women aged 15–24 years. Adherence-related UP was estimated using ‘perfect use’ and ‘typical use’ contraceptive failure rates. Potential savings from increased use of LARC were projected by comparing current costs to projected costs following a 5% increase in LARC uptake. Results Total costs from UP in women aged 15–24 years were estimated to be 164 million Norwegian Kroner (NOK), of which 81.7% were projected to be due to imperfect contraceptive adherence. A 5% increase in LARC uptake was estimated to generate cost savings of NOK 7.2 million in this group. Conclusions The cost of UP in Norway is substantial, with a large proportion of this cost arising from imperfect contraceptive adherence. Increased LARC uptake may reduce the UP incidence and generate cost savings for both the health care payer and contraceptive user. PMID:25537792
Masyuk, Tetyana V.; Page, Linda J.; Kubly, Vickie J.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Li, Xujian; Kim, Bohyun; King, Bernard F.; Glockner, James; Holmes, David R.; Rossetti, Sandro; Harris, Peter C.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.; Torres, Vicente E.
There are no proven, effective therapies for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) or polycystic liver disease (PLD). We enrolled 42 patients with severe PLD resulting from autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD) or autosomal dominant PLD (ADPLD) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin analogue. We randomly assigned 42 patients in a 2:1 ratio to octreotide LAR depot (up to 40 mg every 28 ± 5 days) or placebo for 1 year. The primary end point was percent change in liver volume from baseline to 1 year, measured by MRI. Secondary end points were changes in total kidney volume, GFR, quality of life, safety, vital signs, and clinical laboratory tests. Thirty-four patients had ADPKD, and eight had ADPLD. Liver volume decreased by 4.95% ± 6.77% in the octreotide group but remained practically unchanged (+0.92% ± 8.33%) in the placebo group (P = 0.048). Among patients with ADPKD, total kidney volume remained practically unchanged (+0.25% ± 7.53%) in the octreotide group but increased by 8.61% ± 10.07% in the placebo group (P = 0.045). Changes in GFR were similar in both groups. Octreotide was well tolerated; treated individuals reported an improved perception of bodily pain and physical activity. In summary, octreotide slowed the progressive increase in liver volume and total kidney volume, improved health perception among patients with PLD, and had an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:20431041
Kirk Morton, N; Zubek, Donna
Medication nonadherence has been associated with persistence of psychotic symptoms, relapse, and hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with untreated psychosis are significantly less likely to achieve remission, whereas antipsychotic drug adherence has been associated with recovery. As such, adherence to antipsychotic drug treatment is a key issue for nurses and treatment team members caring for patients who typically are on chronic, progressive disease course. Long-acting injectable (LAI) anti-psychotic drugs, developed to improve adherence and provide and alternative antipsychotic drug treatment fro schizophrenia, have been associated with improved treatment outcomes including reduction of relapse rates approximately 30% and reduction in hospitalizations. However, LAI antipsychotic drugs remain underutilized in the United States despite a growing body of literature supporting positive outcomes of LAI versus oral antipsychotic drugs. Mental health nurses are in a key position to support improved adherence inpatients with schizophrenia through use of practical educational strategies that help patients, family members, and health care providers better understand and manage treatment.
Jacobs, Tammy S; Jones, Bobby L; MacGinnitie, Andrew J
A possible association between long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) and severe asthma exacerbations including death remains controversial. We examined whether LABA in the setting of combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) increase the risk of near-fatal asthma in children using a case-control study design. Medical records from admissions for asthma exacerbations in children 4-18 years of age during the 2005 calendar year at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC were reviewed. Cases and controls were determined by pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and floor admission, respectively. Exposure was defined by LABA use in combination with ICS versus ICS alone. Records from 85 PICU and 96 pediatric floor admissions were reviewed. LABA use in combination with ICS did not increase the risk of PICU admission (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI 0.46-2.52) compared to ICS only without LABA. After adjusting for demographics, asthma severity, history of PICU admissions, and concurrent infection, LABA/ICS use still did not increase the risk of PICU admission (adjusted odds ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.26-2.76) compared to ICS alone. There were no deaths and five intubations within the study period. The combination of LABA and ICS did not appear to increase the risk of near-fatal asthma in children.
McCue, Justin; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Selvitelli, Keith; Lu, Qi; Zhang, Mingxuan; Mei, Baisong; Peters, Robert; Pierce, Glenn F; Dumont, Jennifer; Raso, Stephen; Reichert, Heidi
Recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) is a long-acting coagulation factor approved for the treatment of hemophilia A. Here, the rFVIIIFc manufacturing process and results of studies evaluating product quality and the capacity of the process to remove potential impurities and viruses are described. This manufacturing process utilized readily transferable and scalable unit operations and employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including a novel affinity chromatography adsorbent and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. A cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells was used to produce rFVIIIFc. Validation studies evaluated identity, purity, activity, and safety. Process-related impurity clearance and viral clearance spiking studies demonstrate robust and reproducible removal of impurities and viruses, with total viral clearance >8-15 log10 for four model viruses (xenotropic murine leukemia virus, mice minute virus, reovirus type 3, and suid herpes virus 1). Terminal galactose-α-1,3-galactose and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, two non-human glycans, were undetectable in rFVIIIFc. Biochemical and in vitro biological analyses confirmed the purity, activity, and consistency of rFVIIIFc. In conclusion, this manufacturing process produces a highly pure product free of viruses, impurities, and non-human glycan structures, with scale capabilities to ensure a consistent and adequate supply of rFVIIIFc. Copyright © 2015 Biogen. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Backeljauw, Philippe F; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Biller, Beverly M K; Boguszewski, Margaret C S; Casanueva, Felipe F; Chanson, Philippe; Chatelain, Pierre; Choong, Catherine S; Clemmons, David R; Cohen, Laurie E; Cohen, Pinchas; Frystyk, Jan; Grimberg, Adda; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Haymond, Morey W; Ho, Ken; Hoffman, Andrew R; Holly, Jeff M P; Horikawa, Reiko; Höybye, Charlotte; Jorgensen, Jens Otto L; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Juul, Anders; Katznelson, Laurence; Kopchick, John J; Lee, K O; Lee, Kuk-Wha; Luo, Xiaoping; Melmed, Shlomo; Miller, Bradley S; Misra, Madhusmita; Popovic, Vera; Rosenfeld, Ron G; Ross, Judith; Ross, Richard J; Saenger, Paul; Strasburger, Christian J; Thorner, Michael O; Werner, Haim; Yuen, Kevin
The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrinologists, basic scientists, regulatory scientists, and participants from the pharmaceutical industry. Current literature was reviewed for gaps in knowledge. Expert opinion was used to suggest studies required to address potential safety and efficacy issues. Following plenary presentations summarizing the literature, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. Attendees reconvened after each breakout session to share group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a draft document that was discussed and revised in an open forum on the concluding day. This was edited further and then circulated to attendees from academic institutions for review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies did not participate in the planning, writing, or in the discussions and text revision on the final day of the workshop. Scientists from industry and regulatory agencies reviewed the manuscript to identify any factual errors. LAGH compounds may represent an advance over daily GH injections because of increased convenience and differing phamacodynamic properties, providing the potential for improved adherence and outcomes. Better methods to assess adherence must be developed and validated. Long-term surveillance registries that include assessment of efficacy, cost-benefit, disease burden, quality of life, and safety are essential for understanding the impact of sustained exposure to LAGH preparations. © 2016 The authors.
Samalin, Ludovic; Garnier, Marion; Auclair, Candy; Llorca, Pierre-Michel
The purpose of this study was to identify clinician characteristics associated with higher prescription rates of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, as well as the sources that influence medical decision-making regarding the treatment of schizophrenia. We surveyed 202 psychiatrists during six regional French conferences (Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseille, Nice, Paris, and Strasbourg). Data on the characteristics of practice, prescription rates of antipsychotic, and information sources about their clinical decisions were collected. Most psychiatrists used second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), and preferentially an oral formulation, in the treatment of schizophrenia. LAI SGAs were prescribed to 30.4% of schizophrenic patients. The duration and type of practice did not influence the class or formulation of antipsychotics used. The clinicians following the higher percentage of schizophrenic patients were associated with a higher use of LAI antipsychotics and a lower use of oral SGAs. Personal experience, government regulatory approval, and guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia were the three main contributing factors guiding clinicians’ decision-making regarding the treatment of schizophrenia. The more clinicians follow schizophrenic patients, the more they use LAI antipsychotics. The development of specialized programs with top specialists should lead to better use of LAI antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:27869767
El Korchi, G; Prats, C; Arboix, M; Pérez, B
Two commercially available long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC) formulations were administered by the intramuscular (i.m.) route to six healthy pigs at the recommended dose of 30 mg/kg. After 2 h the mean maximum concentration (C(max)) reached values of 8.1 +/- 2.2 and 15.4 +/- 11.1 microg/mL, respectively. These concentrations remained higher than 0.5 microg/mL for more than 5 days after drug administration. The area under the concentration time curve (AUC09 days) of each formulation was 255 +/- 76.5 and 399.2 +/- 123 microg. h/mL, respectively, and the mean residence time (MRT) was around 3 days for both formulations. No significant differences were observed between the pharmacokinetic parameters of the two formulations, showing the bioequivalence of the two formulations studied according to the criteria established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products (CVMP).
Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie
Inhaled medications prescribed for the hypersensitive airway typically combine corticosteroids and long-acting beta2 adrenergic agonists (LABAs). The phonatory side effects of these combination treatments are widely recognized. However, there is limited understanding of the physiological changes induced by these medications that underlie the phonatory side effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the distinct effects of corticosteroids and LABAs on vocal fold mucosal physiology. Understanding the physiological changes to the vocal folds after corticosteroid and LABA treatments is necessary to prevent the prevalent vocal decrement associated with these medications. Experimental in vitro design with treatment and control groups. Native porcine vocal fold mucosae (N = 38) were exposed to corticosteroid or LABA treatments. Ion transport was measured continuously at baseline and after treatment. To quantify the nature of ion transport, vocal folds were also treated with chloride and sodium channel inhibitors. Corticosteroid treatment did not alter ion transport. Conversely, exposure to LABAs significantly increased ion transport. This increase in ion transport was transient, observed immediately after treatment in all tissue and associated with increased chloride secretion. The distinct effects of corticosteroids and LABAs on vocal fold physiology have not been examined to date. This study demonstrates that short-term treatment with LABAs, but not corticosteroids, significantly increases ion transport. These findings suggest that one underlying physiological mechanism for phonatory changes associated with inhaled treatments may be related to acute alterations in vocal fold ion transport and surface hydration.
Adolescent pregnancy rates in the U.S. have reached an all-time low from their peak in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the U.S. maintains the highest rate of teenage pregnancy among developed nations. Adolescents experience higher typical use failure rates for user-dependent contraceptives compared to their adult counterparts. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), IUDs and implants, have failure rates that are both very low and independent of user age. In settings where the most effective methods are prioritized and access barriers are removed, the majority of adolescents initiate LARC. Use of LARC by adolescents significantly reduces rates of overall and repeat teen pregnancy. All methods of contraception are safe for use in teens, including IUDs and DMPA. Dual use of LARC and barrier methods to reduce risk of sexually transmitted infection, is the optimal contraceptive strategy for most adolescents. Adolescent access to evidence-based and confidential contraceptive services, provided in a manner that respects autonomy, is a vital public health goal. PMID:27635305
Yao, Kozo; Nagashima, Ken; Miki, Hiroyuki
Benidipine is a dihydropyridine-derived calcium channel blocker developed in Japan, with several unique mechanisms of action, that is, triple calcium channels (L, N, and T) blocking action with a membrane approach. Benidipine has relatively high vascular selectivity and is expected to show protective effects on vascular endothelial cells. Renal protective effects of benidipine also have been shown in several basic and clinical studies. Moreover, anti-oxidative action and enhancing nitric oxide production have been noted with this drug, following its cardio-protective effects in patients with ischemic heart diseases. In fact, benidipine exerted a better prognostic effect than other calcium channel blockers in the therapy for patients with vasospastic angina. In addition, benidipine showed reliable antihypertensive, renoprotective effects if used in combination with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) when adequate anti-hypertensive effects are not achieved by ARBs alone, indicating that benidipine is an useful calcium channel blocker in combination therapy for hypertension. Benidipine was launched on the Japanese market 14 years ago, but few severe side effects have been reported, suggesting that this is a drug with established safety and long-acting pharmacological effects.
Puligujja, Pavan; Balkundi, Shantanu; Kendrick, Lindsey; Baldridge, Hannah; Hilaire, James; Bade, Aditya N.; Dash, Prasanta K.; Zhang, Gang; Poluektova, Larisa; Gorantla, Santhi; Liu, Xin-Ming; Ying, Tianlei; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; McMillan, JoEllyn M.; Gendelman, Howard E.
Long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) that target monocyte-macrophage could improve the drug’s half-life and protein binding capacities while facilitating cell and tissue depots. To this end, ART nanoparticles that target the folic acid (FA) receptor and permit cell-based drug depots were examined using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PD) tests. FA receptor-targeted poloxamer 407 nanocrystals, containing ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), significantly affected several therapeutic factors: drug bioavailability increased as much as 5 times and PD activity improved as much as 100 times. Drug particles administered to human peripheral blood lymphocyte reconstituted NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice and infected with HIV-1ADA at a tissue culture infective dose50 of 104 infectious viral particles/ml led to ATV/r drug concentrations that paralleled FA receptor beta staining in both the macrophage-rich parafollicular areas of spleen and lymph nodes. Drug levels were higher in these tissues than what could be achieved by either native drug or untargeted nanoART particles. The data also mirrored potent reductions in viral loads, tissue viral RNA and numbers of HIV-1p24+ cells in infected and treated animals. We conclude that FA-P407 coating of ART nanoparticles readily facilitate drug carriage and facilitate antiretroviral responses. PMID:25522973
Puligujja, Pavan; Balkundi, Shantanu S; Kendrick, Lindsey M; Baldridge, Hannah M; Hilaire, James R; Bade, Aditya N; Dash, Prasanta K; Zhang, Gang; Poluektova, Larisa Y; Gorantla, Santhi; Liu, Xin-Ming; Ying, Tianlei; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; McMillan, JoEllyn M; Gendelman, Howard E
Long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) that targets monocyte-macrophages could improve the drug's half-life and protein-binding capacities while facilitating cell and tissue depots. To this end, ART nanoparticles that target the folic acid (FA) receptor and permit cell-based drug depots were examined using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PD) tests. FA receptor-targeted poloxamer 407 nanocrystals, containing ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), significantly increased drug bioavailability and PD by five and 100 times, respectively. Drug particles administered to human peripheral blood lymphocyte reconstituted NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ mice and infected with HIV-1ADA led to ATV/r drug concentrations that paralleled FA receptor beta staining in both the macrophage-rich parafollicular areas of spleen and lymph nodes. Drug levels were higher in these tissues than what could be achieved by either native drug or untargeted nanoART particles. The data also mirrored potent reductions in viral loads, tissue viral RNA and numbers of HIV-1p24+ cells in infected and treated animals. We conclude that FA-P407 coating of ART nanoparticles readily facilitates drug carriage and antiretroviral responses.
Lang, David M; Davis, Ray S
The Food and Drug Administration approved new safety labeling on March 2, 2006 for medication containing salmeterol, a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA), because of data suggesting an increased risk of fatal or potentially fatal asthma episodes. The "black box" warning, public health advisory, and label change for salmeterol, salmeterol-fluticasone combination, and formoterol has heightened public and physician concern over the risk-to-benefit ratio and the medicolegal implications of prescribing these agents for patients with asthma. A problem-based learning (PBL) case was presented to several breakout groups at the Eastern Allergy Conference, May 6, 2006, in Naples, FL, focusing on the LABA controversy in the context of an actual patient. The consensus of opinion during the interactive group sessions among approximately 100 allergists was that (1) the patient had poorly controlled asthma on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) monotherapy and that warranted a change of therapy; (2) each physician must choose which option presents the best benefit-to-risk ratio after a thorough and open discussion with the patient; (3) of the several choices for step-up therapy when a patient is not well controlled on an ICS alone, the best choice based on current evidence is combined ICS plus LABA. After the PBL case discussion, a didactic lecture was presented describing the evidence pertaining to the LABA controversy, which is detailed in this article.
Zafar, Muhammad Ahsan; Droege, Christopher; Foertsch, Madeline; Panos, Ralph J
For the last two decades, long-acting β agonists (LABAs) have been a cornerstone in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They relax airway smooth muscle and augment expiratory airflow, which reduces hyperinflation and improves dyspnea, functional capacity and quality of life. In recent years, Indacaterol, a LABA with an ultra-long duration of action (ultra-LABA), which only requires once-daily dosing, was approved by the FDA. The clinical efficacy of indacaterol is comparable, and, in some aspects better, than the currently available LABAs. This article reviews the pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy, safety and potential role of the ultra-LABAs in COPD management. Ultra-LABAs are effective bronchodilators with a prolonged duration of action. By decreasing dosing frequency, ultra-LABAs potentially may improve respiratory medication adherence, which is associated with better survival and less healthcare utilization. In addition to their salubrious benefits, β agonists may produce untoward effects. Increased mortality and hospitalizations among patients with left ventricular heart failure, who were treated with β agonists, has caused concern about their use in patients with COPD and heart disease. Further experience and testing will determine the optimal role of ultra-LABAs in the management of COPD.
Kesteleyn, Bart; Amssoms, Katie; Schepens, Wim; Hache, Geerwin; Verschueren, Wim; Van De Vreken, Wim; Rombauts, Klara; Meurs, Greet; Sterkens, Patrick; Stoops, Bart; Baert, Lieven; Austin, Nigel; Wegner, Jörg; Masungi, Chantal; Dierynck, Inge; Lundgren, Stina; Jönsson, Daniel; Parkes, Kevin; Kalayanov, Genadiy; Wallberg, Hans; Rosenquist, Asa; Samuelsson, Bertil; Van Emelen, Kristof; Thuring, Jan Willem
The design and synthesis of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) (1-22), which display high potency against HIV-1 wild-type and multi-PI-resistant HIV-mutant clinical isolates, is described. Lead optimization was initiated from compound 1, a Phe-Phe hydroxyethylene peptidomimetic PI, and was directed towards the discovery of new PIs suitable for a long-acting (LA) injectable drug application. Introducing a heterocyclic 6-methoxy-3-pyridinyl or a 6-(dimethylamino)-3-pyridinyl moiety (R(3)) at the para-position of the P1' benzyl fragment generated compounds with antiviral potency in the low single digit nanomolar range. Halogenation or alkylation of the metabolic hot spots on the various aromatic rings resulted in PIs with high stability against degradation in human liver microsomes and low plasma clearance in rats. Replacing the chromanolamine moiety (R(1)) in the P2 protease binding site by a cyclopentanolamine or a cyclohexanolamine derivative provided a series of high clearance PIs (16-22) with EC(50)s on wild-type HIV-1 in the range of 0.8-1.8 nM. PIs 18 and 22, formulated as nanosuspensions, showed gradual but sustained and complete release from the injection site over two months in rats, and were therefore identified as interesting candidates for a LA injectable drug application for treating HIV/AIDS.
Guarnieri, Michael; Tyler, Betty M.; DeTolla, Louis; Zhao, Ming; Kobrin, Barry
Background: Long-acting therapy in laboratory animals offers advantages over the current practice of 2-3 daily drug injections. Yet little is known about the disintegration of biodegradable drug implants in rodents. Objective: Compare bioavailability of buprenorphine with the biodegradation of lipid-encapsulated subcutaneous drug pellets. Methods: Pharmacokinetic and histopathology studies were conducted in BALB/c female mice implanted with cholesterol-buprenorphine drug pellets. Results: Drug levels are below the level of detection (0.5 ng/mL plasma) within 4-5 days of implant. However, necroscopy revealed that interstitial tissues begin to seal implants within a week. Visual inspection of the implant site revealed no evidence of inflammation or edema associated with the cholesterol-drug residue. Chemical analyses demonstrated that the residues contained 10-13% of the initial opiate dose for at least two weeks post implant. Discussion: The results demonstrate that biodegradable scaffolds can become sequestered in the subcutaneous space. Conclusion: Drug implants can retain significant and unintended reservoirs of drugs. PMID:24459402
Samalin, Ludovic; Garnier, Marion; Auclair, Candy; Llorca, Pierre-Michel
The purpose of this study was to identify clinician characteristics associated with higher prescription rates of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, as well as the sources that influence medical decision-making regarding the treatment of schizophrenia. We surveyed 202 psychiatrists during six regional French conferences (Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseille, Nice, Paris, and Strasbourg). Data on the characteristics of practice, prescription rates of antipsychotic, and information sources about their clinical decisions were collected. Most psychiatrists used second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), and preferentially an oral formulation, in the treatment of schizophrenia. LAI SGAs were prescribed to 30.4% of schizophrenic patients. The duration and type of practice did not influence the class or formulation of antipsychotics used. The clinicians following the higher percentage of schizophrenic patients were associated with a higher use of LAI antipsychotics and a lower use of oral SGAs. Personal experience, government regulatory approval, and guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia were the three main contributing factors guiding clinicians' decision-making regarding the treatment of schizophrenia. The more clinicians follow schizophrenic patients, the more they use LAI antipsychotics. The development of specialized programs with top specialists should lead to better use of LAI antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Bloom, Carly Anne; Rand, Jacquie
Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder in feline practice, affecting approximately 1 in 200 cats. The majority of diabetic cats have type 2 diabetes mellitus, which results from a combination of peripheral insulin resistance and a progressive reduction in insulin production. While usually easy to diagnose, management of diabetes mellitus presents a number of challenges for practitioners and clients alike. Practitioners must decide on diet, insulin type and dose, monitoring method and intensity, and concomitant therapy, which will vary based on individual patient and client needs, and geographic location. Practitioners may also encounter patients with diabetic ketoacidosis or other diabetic complications, and patients with multiple concurrent diseases. Clients may be challenged by the substantial time and financial commitment involved in owning a diabetic cat. Understanding the pathophysiology, optimal treatment protocols and current goals of diabetes management will benefit practitioners managing diabetic cats. This article reviews the most current management plans for feline diabetics. It places particular emphasis on best practice for achieving diabetic remission, which is an attainable goal in the majority of newly diagnosed diabetic cats. The information in this article is drawn from the recent human and veterinary literature, including prospective and retrospective studies. The body of prospective clinical data on the use of newer, long-acting insulins (glargine and especially detemir) in cats is limited, but growing.
Kaneshiro, Bliss; Salcedo, Jennifer
Adolescent pregnancy rates in the U.S. have reached an all-time low from their peak in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the U.S. maintains the highest rate of teenage pregnancy among developed nations. Adolescents experience higher typical use failure rates for user-dependent contraceptives compared to their adult counterparts. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), IUDs and implants, have failure rates that are both very low and independent of user age. In settings where the most effective methods are prioritized and access barriers are removed, the majority of adolescents initiate LARC. Use of LARC by adolescents significantly reduces rates of overall and repeat teen pregnancy. All methods of contraception are safe for use in teens, including IUDs and DMPA. Dual use of LARC and barrier methods to reduce risk of sexually transmitted infection, is the optimal contraceptive strategy for most adolescents. Adolescent access to evidence-based and confidential contraceptive services, provided in a manner that respects autonomy, is a vital public health goal.
Parks, Caitlin; Peipert, Jeffrey F
Significant public health disparities exist surrounding teen and unplanned pregnancy in the United States. Women of color and those with lower education and socioeconomic status are at much greater risk of unplanned pregnancy and the resulting adverse outcomes. Unplanned pregnancies reduce educational and career opportunities and may contribute to socioeconomic deprivation and widening income disparities. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), including intrauterine devices and implants, offer the opportunity to change the default from drifting into parenthood to planned conception. LARC methods are forgettable; once placed, they offer highly effective, long-term pregnancy prevention. Increasing evidence in the medical literature demonstrates the population benefits of use of these methods. However, barriers to more widespread use of LARC methods persist and include educational, access, and cost barriers. With increasing insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act and more widespread, no-cost coverage of methods, more and more women are choosing intrauterine devices and the contraceptive implant. Increasing the use of highly effective contraceptive methods may provide one solution to the persistent problem of the health disparities of unplanned and teen pregnancies in the United States and improve women's and children's health.
Pompili, Maurizio; Orsolini, Laura; Lamis, Dorian A; Goldsmith, David R; Nardella, Adele; Falcone, Giulia; Corigliano, Valentina; Luciano, Mario; Fiorillo, Andrea
Suicide risk is a major cause of death among patients with schizophrenia. Death by suicide has been reported in approximately 5% of schizophrenia patients although such figure appears an underestimation of the problem. A number of risk factors are routinely reported as associated with suicide risk among these patients, some of which are modifiable by targeted therapeutic strategies. Clozapine is the only compound that gathered evidence as an effective treatment for reducing suicide risk in schizophrenia. Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics (LAIs) have a range of advantages in terms of efficacy, safety and tolerability in the treatment of schizophrenia, and one area of interest is whether LAI-treatment may decrease suicidality by indirectly acting on a range of risk factors for suicide specific to schizophrenia patients. This background encouraged the present, review of research pertaining to LAI in relation to modifiable risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia. We viewed our task as gathering, speculatingand critically appraising the available research relevant to the topic, with the aim of formulating a hypothesis to be tested with further research.
Thiery, M; Van Der Pas, H; Van Kets, H; Boogers, W; Haspels, A; Amy J-j
4 years of experience with the TCu 220C (901 women; 28,071 woman months of use) - a long-acting multisleeved copper IUD - are analyzed. Event rates were calculated by life-table analysis with a computer program on an IBM 370/148-OS/VS1. Net cumulative rates at 4 years were as follows: pregnancy 3.3, expulsion 5.2, removal for bleeding, pain and other medical reasons 7.7, and 4.3 respectively. The incidence of pregnancy, expulsions, and removal for bleeding/pain decreases with time. Parity influences the performance of the TCu 220C. It seems to affect the pregnancy rate only marginally, but the expulsion and removal rates (for bleeding, pain, or other medical reasons) are higher in the nulliparae, and the same trends appear to be present for women of lower age groups. The IUD insertion technique seems to be important when determining the effectiveness of the method. The expulsion rate is significantly higher when the push-in technique (without sounding) is used, and the same tendency is present for pregnancies and removals for bleeding/pain, albeit to a lesser degree. Refraining from sounding the uterus and pushing-in the TCu 220C introduces the risk of not inserting the IUD high enough into the uterine cavity and therefore increases the risk of expulsion.
Arnold, L Eugene; Farmer, Cristan; Kraemer, Helena Chmura; Davies, Mark; Witwer, Andrea; Chuang, Shirley; DiSilvestro, Robert; McDougle, Christopher J; McCracken, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G; Scahill, Lawrence; Posey, David J; Swiezy, Naomi B
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network found an effect size of d = 1.2 in favor of risperidone on the main outcome measure in an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for irritability in autistic disorder. This paper explores moderators and mediators of this effect. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were conducted with suspected moderators and mediators entered into the regression equations. MacArthur Foundation Network subgroup guidelines were followed in the evaluation of the results. Only baseline severity moderated treatment response: Higher severity showed greater improvement for risperidone but not for placebo. Weight gain mediated treatment response negatively: those who gained more weight improved less with risperidone and more with placebo. Compliance correlated with outcome for risperidone but not placebo. Higher dose correlated with worse outcome for placebo, but not risperidone. Of nonspecific predictors, parent education, family income, and low baseline prolactin positively predicted outcome; anxiety, bipolar symptoms, oppositional-defiant symptoms, stereotypy, and hyperactivity negatively predicted outcome. Risperidone moderated the effect of change in 5'-nucleotidase, a marker of zinc status, for which decrease was associated with improvement only with risperidone, not with placebo. The benefit-risk ratio of risperidone is better with greater symptom severity. Risperidone can be individually titrated to optimal dosage for excellent response in the majority of children. Weight gain is not necessary for risperidone benefit and may even detract from it. Socioeconomic advantage, low prolactin, and absence of co-morbid problems nonspecifically predict better outcome. Mineral interactions with risperidone deserve further study.
Hellings, Jessica A.; Cardona, Alicia M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.
The objective of this study was to examine long-term adverse events of risperidone in 19 children, adolescents, and adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and intellectual disability, continuing risperidone for a mean of 186.5 weeks, following a 46-week risperidone study. Nineteen individuals continued long-term follow-up after our…
Hellings, Jessica A.; Cardona, Alicia M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.
The objective of this study was to examine long-term adverse events of risperidone in 19 children, adolescents, and adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and intellectual disability, continuing risperidone for a mean of 186.5 weeks, following a 46-week risperidone study. Nineteen individuals continued long-term follow-up after our…
Watson, Nigel S; Adams, Carl; Belton, David; Brown, David; Burns-Kurtis, Cynthia L; Chaudry, Laiq; Chan, Chuen; Convery, Máire A; Davies, David E; Exall, Anne M; Harling, John D; Irvine, Stephanie; Irving, Wendy R; Kleanthous, Savvas; McLay, Iain M; Pateman, Anthony J; Patikis, Angela N; Roethke, Theresa J; Senger, Stefan; Stelman, Gary J; Toomey, John R; West, Robert I; Whittaker, Caroline; Zhou, Ping; Young, Robert J
The discovery and evaluation of potent and long-acting oral sulfonamidopyrrolidin-2-one factor Xa inhibitors with tetrahydroisoquinoline and benzazepine P4 motifs are described. Unexpected selectivity issues versus tissue plasminogen activator in the former series were addressed in the later, delivering a robust candidate for progression towards clinical studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Olivieri, Elisa; Riario-Sforza, Gian Galeazzo; Incorvaia, Cristoforo
Bronchodilators are central drugs in the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Indacaterol was the first agent of the novel family of very long-acting β2-agonists to be used as an inhaled bronchodilator for COPD and provides 24-hour therapeutic action, thus allowing once-daily administration. Data from clinical trials show that indacaterol has a bronchodilator effect similar to that of the anticholinergic tiotropium bromide and slightly higher efficacy compared with the long-acting β2-agonists, salmeterol and formoterol. Moreover, the safety profile is excellent and comparable with that of placebo. Concerning adherence with drug treatment and real-life management in respect to long-acting β2-agonists, once-daily dosing makes indacaterol more convenient for COPD patients and is likely to enhance patient adherence. Other very long-acting β2-agonists currently in development include vilanterol, olodaterol, and carmoterol, and these have shown good characteristics for clinical use in the studies reported thus far. PMID:24082783
Boffito, Marta; Jackson, Akil; Owen, Andrew; Becker, Stephen
Research on improved treatment of HIV infection and pre-exposure prophylaxis continues. Poor adherence to treatment is the critical risk factor for virological failure and resistance development, and long-acting formulations of anti-HIV medications that need only infrequent dosing may facilitate long-term therapeutic responses. Importantly, long-acting formulations of therapeutic agents have been used to avoid missing doses or treatment fatigue to prescribed lifelong medications in a number of different medical fields, with demonstrable success. However, such formulations are associated with challenges, such as the prolongation of adverse events with the persistence of drug concentrations and concerns over the development of resistance as a result of selective pressure as drug concentrations decline. Furthermore, long-acting injectable formulations of antiretroviral (ARV) agents with infrequent dosing may be advantageous over daily oral drug intake to prevent transmission of HIV. However, the knowledge on protective drug concentrations and frequency of dosing is poor to date and implementation globally is challenging. Importantly, if nanoformulations of ARVs requiring lower drug doses become available globally, the potential for treatment cost reductions is high, as, especially in resource-limited settings, the active pharmaceutical ingredient accounts for the greater proportion of the total cost of the medicine. In conclusion, different long-acting ARVs are being studied in phase I/II for both the treatment and prevention of HIV infection, and research on administering these agents in combination has started.
Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle
This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with…
Cohen, Seth A.; Ihrig, Kristin; Lott, Rex S.; Kerrick, Jill M.
Describes the use of risperidone in eight adult patients with moderate to profound mental retardation and markedly aberrant behaviors. Risperidone in these individuals was associated with significant reduction in aggression and self-injurious behavior. Side effects were primarily those of sedation and restlessness. (Author/CR)
Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Lindauer, Steven E.; Morse, Paige S.; Crosland, Kimberly A.; Valdovinos, Maria G.; McKerchar, Todd L.; Reese, R. Matthew; Hellings, Jessica A.; Schroeder, Stephen R.
Functional analyses were conducted during a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the atypical antipsychotic medication risperidone with 13 individuals. Risperidone was effective in reducing destructive behavior (compared to placebo) for 10 participants. For 7 of these responders, an undifferentiated pattern of responding occurred across their…
Gannon, Matthew A; Brown, Clifford J; Stevens, Rachel M; Griffith, Molly S; Marczinski, Cecile A; Bardgett, Mark E
Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug that is approved for use in childhood psychiatric disorders such as autism. One concern regarding the use of this drug in pediatric populations is that it may interfere with social interactions that serve to nurture brain development. This study used rats to assess the impact of risperidone administration on maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting between cage mates. Mixed-sex litters received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 1.0 or 3.0mg/kg of risperidone between postnatal days (PNDs) 14-42. Rats were weaned and housed three per cage on PND 21. In observations made between PNDs 14-17, risperidone significantly suppressed several aspects of maternal-offspring interactions at 1-hour post-injection. At 23 h post-injection, pups administered risperidone had lower activity scores and made fewer non-nursing contacts with their moms. In observations of play-fighting behavior made once a week between PNDs 22-42, risperidone profoundly decreased many forms of social interaction at 1h post-injection. At 23h post-injection, rats administered risperidone made more non-social contacts with their cage mates, but engaged in less social grooming. Risperidone administration to rats at ages analogous to early childhood through adolescence in humans produces a pattern of abnormal social interactions across the day that could impact how such interactions influence brain development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wadoo, O; Chalhoub, N
We report on a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and motor tics, who developed frequent penile erections during treatment with risperidone and atomoxetine. On discontinuation of risperidone, he recovered fully. Clinicians should be alert to the adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics, which are used to treat a wide variety of paediatric psychiatric disorders.
Keshen, Aaron; Carandang, Carlo
This report describes an acute dystonic reaction that occurred after dexamphetamine was discontinued from a drug regimen that included risperidone. This is the second report that has revealed a possible rebound dystonia when a stimulant medication is withdrawn from a patient taking risperidone. We also discuss the neurophysiological hypotheses and implications for treatment.
Gannon, Matthew A.; Brown, Clifford J.; Stevens, Rachel M.; Griffith, Molly S.; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Bardgett, Mark E.
Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug that is approved for use in childhood psychiatric disorders such as autism. One concern regarding the use of this drug in pediatric populations is that it may interfere with social interactions that serve to nurture brain development. This study used rats to assess the impact of risperidone administration on maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting between cage mates. Mixed-sex litters received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg of risperidone between postnatal days (PNDs) 14-42. Rats were weaned and housed three per cage on PND 21. In observations made between PNDs 14-17, risperidone significantly suppressed several aspects of maternal-offspring interactions at one-hour post-injection. At 23 hours post-injection, pups administered risperidone had lower activity scores and made fewer non-nursing contacts with their moms. In observations of play-fighting behavior made once a week between PNDs 22-42, risperidone profoundly decreased many forms of social interaction at one hour post-injection. At 23 hours post-injection, rats administered risperidone made more non-social contacts with their cage mates, but engaged in less social grooming. Risperidone administration to rats at ages analogous to early childhood through adolescence in humans produces a pattern of abnormal social interactions across the day that could impact how such interactions influence brain development. PMID:25600754
Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Lindauer, Steven E.; Morse, Paige S.; Crosland, Kimberly A.; Valdovinos, Maria G.; McKerchar, Todd L.; Reese, R. Matthew; Hellings, Jessica A.; Schroeder, Stephen R.
Functional analyses were conducted during a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the atypical antipsychotic medication risperidone with 13 individuals. Risperidone was effective in reducing destructive behavior (compared to placebo) for 10 participants. For 7 of these responders, an undifferentiated pattern of responding occurred across their…
Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle
This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with…
Cohen, Seth A.; Ihrig, Kristin; Lott, Rex S.; Kerrick, Jill M.
Describes the use of risperidone in eight adult patients with moderate to profound mental retardation and markedly aberrant behaviors. Risperidone in these individuals was associated with significant reduction in aggression and self-injurious behavior. Side effects were primarily those of sedation and restlessness. (Author/CR)
Wieder, Robert; DeLaRosa, Nila; Bryan, Margarette; Hill, Ann Marie; Amadio, William J.
Purpose We tested the hypothesis that prescription coverage affects the prescribing of long-acting opiates to indigent inner city minority patients with cancer pain. Materials and Methods We conducted a chart review of 360 patients treated in the Oncology Practice at UMDNJ-University Hospital, who were prescribed opiate pain medications. Half the patients were Charity Care or Self Pay (CC/SP), without the benefit of prescription coverage, and half had Medicaid, with unlimited prescription coverage. We evaluated patients discharged from a hospitalization, who had three subsequent outpatient follow up visits. We compared demographics, pain intensity, the type and dose of opiates, adherence to prescribed pain regimen, unscheduled Emergency Department (ED) visits and unscheduled hospitalizations. Results There was a significantly greater use of long-acting opiates in the Medicaid group than in the CC/SP group. The Medicaid group had significantly more African American patients and a greater rate of smoking and substance use and the CC/SP group disproportionately more Hispanic and Asian patients and less smoking and substance use. Hispanic and Asian patients were less likely to have long-acting opiates prescribed to them. Pain levels and adherence were equivalent in both groups and were not affected by any of these variables except stage of disease, which was equally distributed in the two groups. Conclusion Appropriate use of long-acting opiates for equivalent levels of cancer pain are influenced only by the availability of prescription coverage. The group without prescription coverage and receiving fewer long-acting opiates had disproportionately more Hispanic and Asian patients. PMID:24106748
Brooks, Adam C.; Comer, Sandra D.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Bisaga, Adam; Carpenter, Kenneth; Raby, Wilfrid M.; Yu, Elmer; O’Brien, Charles P.; Nunes, Edward V.
Objective To conduct a quasi-experimental comparison of early clinical outcomes between injectable, sustained release, depot naltrexone formulation versus oral naltrexone maintenance therapy. Method Early retention and urine results were compared between patients participating in two concurrently run randomized clinical trials of oral (N = 69) and long acting injectable naltrexone maintenance therapy with psychosocial therapy (N = 42). Retention in treatment and opiate use in the first 8-weeks post-detoxification were compared. Results Long acting injectable naltrexone produced significantly better outcome than oral naltrexone on days retained in treatment and one measure of opiate use; other measures were not significantly different, but differences were in the same direction. In subanalyses, there were interaction effects between baseline heroin severity and type of treatment. In subanalyses, heroin users with more severe baseline use showed better retention in oral naltrexone maintenance combined with intensive psychotherapy (Behavior Naltrexone Therapy) as compared to retention of severe users treated with long acting naltrexone injections combined with standard cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy; less severe heroin users evidenced better outcomes when treated with long acting injectable naltrexone. Conclusions This quasi-experimental analysis provides tentative indications of superior outcomes for heroin dependent patients treated with long acting injectable naltrexone compared to oral naltrexone. The finding that heroin users with more severe baseline use achieved better outcomes with oral naltrexone is most probably attributable to the intensive nature of the psychosocial treatments provided, and points to the opportunity for continued research in augmenting injectable naltrexone with psychosocial strategies to further improve outcome especially in more severe users. The results should be considered exploratory given the quasi-experimental nature of the
Wieder, Robert; Delarosa, Nila; Bryan, Margarette; Hill, Ann Marie; Amadio, William J
We tested the hypothesis that prescription coverage affects the prescribing of long-acting opiates to indigent inner city minority patients with cancer pain. We conducted a chart review of 360 patients treated in the Oncology Practice at University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey University Hospital, who were prescribed opiate pain medications. Half the patients were charity care or self-pay (CC/SP), without the benefit of prescription coverage, and half had Medicaid, with unlimited prescription coverage. We evaluated patients discharged from a hospitalization, who had three subsequent outpatient follow-up visits. We compared demographics, pain intensity, the type and dose of opiates, adherence to prescribed pain regimen, unscheduled emergency department visits, and unscheduled hospitalizations. There was a significantly greater use of long-acting opiates in the Medicaid group than in the CC/SP group. The Medicaid group had significantly more African American patients and a greater rate of smoking and substance use, and the CC/SP group disproportionately more Hispanic and Asian patients and less smoking and substance use. Hispanic and Asian patients were less likely to have long-acting opiates prescribed to them. Pain levels and adherence were equivalent in both groups and were not affected by any of these variables except stage of disease, which was equally distributed in the two groups. Appropriate use of long-acting opiates for equivalent levels of cancer pain was influenced only by the availability of prescription coverage. The group without prescription coverage and receiving fewer long-acting opiates had disproportionately more Hispanic and Asian patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhou, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Min; Peng, Guo-Guang
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-acting non-ergot dopamine agonists (NEDA) versus placebo in Parkinson's disease (PD). A comprehensive literature search up to February 2013 was performed, and the weighted mean differences (WMD) and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Nine RCT (n=2857) which assessed the rotigotine transdermal patch, extended-release pramipexole, and ropinirole prolonged-release, were included. Compared with placebo, long-acting NEDA achieved greater improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale activities of daily living (ADL) score (WMD -1.77, 95% CI -2.13 to -1.41), motor score (WMD -4.18, 95% CI -4.94 to -3.43) and the ADL and motor subtotal score (WMD -5.12, 95% CI -6.16 to -4.07), as well as a reduction in "off" time (WMD -1.29, 95% CI -1.64 to -0.93) and an increase in "on" time without troublesome dyskinesia (WMD 1.55, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.04). Compared with placebo, long-acting NEDA were associated with a higher risk of nausea, but no difference was found in headache incidence. Higher risks of dizziness, somnolence, constipation, vomiting, and insomnia were only found in early PD while higher risks of dyskinesia and hallucination were only found in advanced PD. The results of our meta-analysis showed that the use of long-acting NEDA can reduce the symptoms of PD patients. However, long-acting NEDA were also associated with a higher incidence of adverse events, especially in early PD patients, compared with placebo.
Soejima, K; Akaishi, M; Oyamada, K; Mitamura, H; Ogawa, S
Short-acting calcium antagonists have a deleterious effect on the prognosis for patients with myocardial ischemia, possibly caused by overactivation of sympathetic nerves due to vasodilatation, negative inotropism, or coronary steal. However, there is considerable debate about whether long-acting calcium antagonists as well as the short-acting calcium antagonists have the same effect. Barnidipine-HCl is a newly-developed calcium antagonist with 1:2 short- and long-acting particles. This study evaluated the changes of autonomic tone due to barnidipine. Both the short- and long-acting effect of the calcium antagonist was evaluated. Eleven patients with primary hypertension underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram and blood pressure monitoring before and after the treatment with barnidipine. Heart rate and blood pressure were compared before and after the medication. Heart rate variability was analyzed with a Marquette 8000/T. High frequency power (HF), as a parameter of vagal tone, and the ratio to low frequency power (LF), as a parameter of sympathetic tone, were obtained. Twenty-four-hour average blood pressure decreased significantly during the day, but nocturnal hypotension was not observed. Heart rate did not increase. HF decreased at the peak of the short- and long-acting components. LF/HF increased at the peak of the short-acting component. Short-acting particles of barnidipine had a deleterious effect on the autonomic tone, that is overactivation of sympathetic tone and suppression of vagal tone. Long-acting particles of barnidipine suppressed the vagal tone. These findings suggest that short-acting calcium antagonists may cause arrhythmia or deterioration of coronary ischemia.
Gunawardana, Manjula; Remedios-Chan, Mariana; Miller, Christine S.; Fanter, Rob; Yang, Flora; Marzinke, Mark A.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Beliveau, Martin; Moss, John A.; Smith, Thomas J.
Oral or topical daily administration of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to HIV-1-negative individuals in vulnerable populations is a promising strategy for HIV-1 prevention. Adherence to the dosing regimen has emerged as a critical factor determining efficacy outcomes of clinical trials. Because adherence to therapy is inversely related to the dosing period, sustained release or long-acting ARV formulations hold significant promise for increasing the effectiveness of HIV-1 preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by reducing dosing frequency. A novel, subdermal implant delivering the potent prodrug tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) with controlled, sustained, zero-order (linear) release characteristics is described. A candidate device delivering TAF at 0.92 mg day−1 in vitro was evaluated in beagle dogs over 40 days for pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety. No adverse events related to treatment with the test article were noted during the course of the study, and no significant, unusual abnormalities were observed. The implant maintained a low systemic exposure to TAF (median, 0.85 ng ml−1; interquartile range [IQR], 0.60 to 1.50 ng ml−1) and tenofovir (TFV; median, 15.0 ng ml−1; IQR, 8.8 to 23.3 ng ml−1), the product of in vivo TAF hydrolysis. High concentrations (median, 512 fmol/106 cells over the first 35 days) of the pharmacologically active metabolite, TFV diphosphate, were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at levels over 30 times higher than those associated with HIV-1 PrEP efficacy in humans. Our report on the first sustained-release nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) for systemic delivery demonstrates a successful proof of principle and holds significant promise as a candidate for HIV-1 prophylaxis in vulnerable populations. PMID:25896688
Berlan, Elise D; Pritt, Nicole M; Norris, Alison H
Adolescents are at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Because of pediatricians' potential role in contraceptive counseling, understanding their attitudes and beliefs and counseling practices about use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC; ie, etonogestrel implant and intrauterine devices [IUDs]) is vital. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We interviewed primary care pediatricians (N = 23) in a Midwestern city in June-August 2014. We transcribed the interviews, developed a coding schema, and analyzed these qualitative data using a priori and open coding of transcripts. Few pediatricians had favorable views on adolescent IUD use and most did not include IUDs in routine contraception counseling. Pediatricians perceived IUDs to impose significant risks for adverse reproductive outcomes and to be poorly tolerated by adolescents. Poor and/or outdated knowledge influenced inaccurate beliefs and unsupportive attitudes. Whereas some pediatricians were advocates for adolescent use of IUDs, many others had concerns that IUDs were not appropriate and not favored by adolescents. In contrast, participants viewed the etonogestrel implant more favorably and often included it in routine counseling. Some pediatricians focused on the familiar and readily available methods (injectable and oral contraceptives) or assumed patients had predetermined expectations for those methods. Time spent counseling on LARC was also perceived as a barrier. Pediatricians described how education and increased familiarity with LARC changed viewpoints. A variety of beliefs and attitudes, as well as factors such as time and personal habits, influence pediatricians' contraceptive counseling practices. Until knowledge deficits are addressed, uninformed viewpoints and unfavorable attitudes will limit adolescents' access to LARC, especially IUDs. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Hard, Marjie L; Mills, Richard J; Sadler, Brian M; Turncliff, Ryan Z; Citrome, Leslie
Aripiprazole lauroxil is an extended-release prodrug of aripiprazole for intramuscular injection, approved for schizophrenia treatment. We developed a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model to characterize aripiprazole lauroxil PK and evaluate dosing scenarios likely to be encountered in clinical practice. Data from 616 patients with schizophrenia, collected from 5 clinical studies, were used to construct the PopPK model. The model was subsequently used to evaluate various dose levels and frequency and the impact of dosing delay on aripiprazole concentrations. The results of the model indicate that aripiprazole is released into the systemic circulation after 5 to 6 days, and release continues for an additional 36 days. The slow increase in aripiprazole concentration after injection necessitates the coadministration of oral aripiprazole for 21 days with the first injection. Based on the PopPK model simulations, a dosing interval of 882 mg every 6 weeks results in aripiprazole concentrations that fall within the concentration range associated with the efficacious aripiprazole lauroxil dose range (441-882 mg dosed monthly). A 662-mg monthly dose also resulted in aripiprazole concentrations within the efficacious dose range. Aripiprazole lauroxil administration results in prolonged exposure, such that dose delays of 2 to 4 weeks, depending on the dose regimen, do not require oral aripiprazole supplementation upon resumption of dosing. This PopPK model and model-based simulations were effective means for evaluating aripiprazole lauroxil dosing regimens and management of missed doses. Such analyses play an important role in determining the use of this long-acting antipsychotic in clinical practice.
Secura, Gina M; Madden, Tessa; McNicholas, Colleen; Mullersman, Jennifer; Buckel, Christina M; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F
The rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States is higher than in other developed nations. Teenage births result in substantial costs, including public assistance, health care costs, and income losses due to lower educational attainment and reduced earning potential. The Contraceptive CHOICE Project was a large prospective cohort study designed to promote the use of long-acting, reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods to reduce unintended pregnancy in the St. Louis region. Participants were educated about reversible contraception, with an emphasis on the benefits of LARC methods, were provided with their choice of reversible contraception at no cost, and were followed for 2 to 3 years. We analyzed pregnancy, birth, and induced-abortion rates among teenage girls and women 15 to 19 years of age in this cohort and compared them with those observed nationally among U.S. teens in the same age group. Of the 1404 teenage girls and women enrolled in CHOICE, 72% chose an intrauterine device or implant (LARC methods); the remaining 28% chose another method. During the 2008-2013 period, the mean annual rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion among CHOICE participants were 34.0, 19.4, and 9.7 per 1000 teens, respectively. In comparison, rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion among sexually experienced U.S. teens in 2008 were 158.5, 94.0, and 41.5 per 1000, respectively. Teenage girls and women who were provided contraception at no cost and educated about reversible contraception and the benefits of LARC methods had rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion that were much lower than the national rates for sexually experienced teens. (Funded by the Susan Thompson Buffett Foundation and others.).
Gutiérrez, L; Ocampo, L; Espinosa, F; Sumano, H
Based on its ideal PK/PD ratios, doxycycline hyclate (DOX-h), a time-dependant antibacterial, is ideally expected to achieve sustained plasma drug concentrations at or slightly above the MIC level for as long as possible between dosing intervals. Pursuing this end, a poloxamer-based matrix was used to produce a 10% long-acting injectable preparation (DOX-h-LA) and its serum concentrations vs. time profile investigated after its injection to pigs in the pericaudal s.c. by parallel design. Results were compared with the forced oral bolus dose and i.v. pharmacokinetics of DOX-h. For this study, 12 recently weaned pigs per group were included in this trial, and a dose of 20 mg/kg was injected in all cases. DOX-h-LA showed the greatest values for bioavailability (115.38%); maximum serum concentration (Cmax) value was 1.5 ± 0.2 with a time to reach Cmax of 3.41 ± 0.04 h and an elimination rate constant of 70.93 ± 0.87( ) h. Considering minimum effective serum concentration of 0.5 μg/mL, a dose interval of at least 5 days can be achieved for DOX-h-LA, whereas p.o. and i.v. dosing of DOX-h may only last 11 and 15 h, respectively. Pigs were slaughtered on day 30 after this trial, and no visible remnants of the preparation were detected neither fibrosis was observed after a thorough macroscopic and histopathological analysis.
Katz, Eva G; Hauber, Brett; Gopal, Srihari; Fairchild, Angie; Pugh, Amy; Weinstein, Rachel B; Levitan, Bennett S
Purpose To quantify clinical trial participants’ and investigators’ judgments with respect to the relative importance of efficacy and safety attributes of antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia, and to assess the impact of formulation and adherence. Methods Discrete-choice experiment surveys were completed by patients with schizophrenia and physician investigators participating in two phase-3 clinical trials of paliperidone palmitate 3-month long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic. Respondents were asked to choose between hypothetical antipsychotic profiles defined by efficacy, safety, and mode of administration. Data were analyzed using random-parameters logit and probit models. Results Patients (N=214) and physicians (N=438) preferred complete improvement in positive symptoms (severe to none) as the most important attribute, compared with improvement in any other attribute studied. Both respondents preferred 3-month and 1-month injectables to oral formulation (P<0.05), irrespective of prior adherence to oral antipsychotic treatment, with physicians showing greater preference for a 3-month over a 1-month LAI for nonadherent patients. Physicians were willing to accept treatments with reduced efficacy for patients with prior poor adherence. The maximum decrease in efficacy (95% confidence interval [CI]) that physicians would accept for switching a patient from daily oral to 3-month injectable was as follows: adherent: 9.8% (95% CI: 7.2–12.4), 20% nonadherent: 25.4% (95% CI: 21.0–29.9), and 50% nonadherent: >30%. For patients, adherent: 10.1% (95% CI: 6.1–14.1), nonadherent: the change in efficacy studied was regarded as unimportant. Conclusion Improvement in positive symptoms was the most important attribute. Patients and physicians preferred LAIs over oral antipsychotics, with physicians showing a greater preference for 3-month over 1-month LAI. Physicians and patients were willing to accept reduced efficacy in exchange for switching a patient from
Kunjara, Sirilaksana; Greenbaum, A Leslie; Sochor, Milena; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Grønbaek, Henning; McLean, Patricia
The effects of long-acting somatostatin analogues, angiopeptin (AGP) and Sandostatin (SMS), on the early decline in the lens content of glutathione (GSH), ATP and NADPH and increase in sorbitol were studied in STZ diabetic rats, and comparison was made with the effect of insulin. Three factors prompted this study: (i) the known increase in IGF-1 in ocular tissue in diabetes and antagonistic effect of somatostatins, (ii) the known effect of IGF-1 in increasing lens aldose reductase and (iii) the lack of effect of somatostatins on diabetic hyperglycaemia, the latter enabling a differentiation to be made between effects of hyperglycaemia per se and site(s) of IGF-1/somatostatins. All four metabolites studied showed a significant restoration towards the normal control level after 7 days of treatment with AGP and SMS, and AGP was more effective on levels of GSH and ATP. A significant correlation was found between GSH and ATP across all groups at 7 days treatment. The redox state changes in diabetes include both NADP+/NADPH and NAD+/NADH in the conversion of glucose to sorbitol and via sorbitol dehydrogenase to fructose with a linked decrease in ATP formation via NAD+/NADH regulation of the glycolytic pathway. The interlinked network of change includes the requirement for ATP in the synthesis of GSH. The present study points to possible loci of action of somatostatins in improving metabolic parameters in the diabetic rat lens via effects on aldose reductase and/or glucose transport at GLUT 3. PMID:24602114
Pavord, Ian D; Lettis, Sally; Locantore, Nicholas; Pascoe, Steve; Jones, Paul W; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Barnes, Neil C
Objective We performed a review of studies of fluticasone propionate (FP)/salmeterol (SAL) (combination inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)) in patients with COPD, which measured baseline (pretreatment) blood eosinophil levels, to test whether blood eosinophil levels ≥2% were associated with a greater reduction in exacerbation rates with ICS therapy. Methods Three studies of ≥1-year duration met the inclusion criteria. Moderate and severe exacerbation rates were analysed according to baseline blood eosinophil levels (<2% vs ≥2%). At baseline, 57–75% of patients had ≥2% blood eosinophils. Changes in FEV1 and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores were compared by eosinophil level. Results For patients with ≥2% eosinophils, FP/SAL was associated with significant reductions in exacerbation rates versus tiotropium (INSPIRE: n=719, rate ratio (RR)=0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.92, p=0.006) and versus placebo (TRISTAN: n=1049, RR=0.63, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.79, p<0.001). No significant difference was seen in the <2% eosinophil subgroup in either study (INSPIRE: n=550, RR=1.18, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.51, p=0.186; TRISTAN: n=354, RR=0.99, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.47, p=0.957, respectively). In SCO30002 (n=373), no significant effects were observed (FP or FP/SAL vs placebo). No relationship was observed in any study between eosinophil subgroup and treatment effect on FEV1 and SGRQ. Discussion Baseline blood eosinophil levels may represent an informative marker for exacerbation reduction with ICS/LABA in patients with COPD and a history of moderate/severe exacerbations. PMID:26585525
White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Potter, Joseph E.; Grossman, Daniel
Background There is growing interest in increasing the use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), and suggestions that such methods may serve as an alternative to sterilization. However, there is little information about whether women who do not want more children would be interested in using LARC methods. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 120 parous Latina women in El Paso, Texas who wanted a sterilization but had not obtained one. We assessed women’s awareness of and interest in using the copper intrauterine device (IUD), levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), and etonogestrel implant. Findings Overall, 51%, 23% and 47% of women reported they had heard of the copper IUD, LNG-IUS and implant, respectively. More women stated they would use the copper IUD (24%) than the LNG-IUS (14%) or implant (9%). Among women interested in LARC, the most common reasons were that, relative to their current method, LARC methods were more convenient, effective, and provided longer-term protection against pregnancy. Those who had reservations about LARC were primarily concerned with menstrual changes. Women also had concerns about side effects and the methods' effectiveness in preventing pregnancy, preferring to use a familiar method. Conclusions Although these findings indicate many Latina women in this setting do not consider LARC an alternative to sterilization, they point to an existing demand among some who wish to end childbearing. Efforts are needed to improve women’s knowledge and access to a range of methods so they can achieve their childbearing goals. PMID:23816156
Kavanaugh, Megan L.; Frohwirth, Lori; Jerman, Jenna; Popkin, Ronna; Ethier, Kathleen
Study objective To describe and explore provider- and patient-level perspectives regarding long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) for teens and young adults (ages 16-24). Methods Data collection occurred between June – December 2011. We first conducted telephone interviews with administrative directors at 20 publicly funded facilities that provide family planning services. At six of these sites, we conducted a total of six focus group discussions (FGDs) with facility staff and forty-eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) with facility clients ages 16-24. Results Staff in the FGDs did not generally equate being a teen with ineligibility for IUDs. In contrast to staff, one quarter of the young women did perceive young age as rendering them ineligible. Clients and staff agreed that the “forgettable” nature of the methods and their duration were some of LARC’s most significant advantages. They also agreed that fear of pain associated with both insertion and removal and negative side effects were disadvantages. Some aspects of IUDs and implants were perceived as advantages by some clients but disadvantages by others. Common challenges to providing LARC-specific services to younger patients included extra time required to counsel young patients about LARC methods, outdated clinic policies requiring multiple visits to obtain IUDs, and a perceived higher removal rate among young women. The most commonly cited strategy for addressing many of these challenges was securing supplementary funding to support the provision of these services to young patients. Conclusion Incorporating young women’s perspectives on LARC methods into publicly funded family planning facilities’ efforts to provide these methods to a younger population may increase their use among young women. PMID:23287602
Pace, Lydia E; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Keating, Nancy L
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) required most private insurance plans to cover contraceptive services without patient cost-sharing as of January 2013 for most plans. Whether the ACA's mandate has impacted long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) use is unknown. The aim of this article is to assess trends in LARC cost-sharing and uptake before and one year after implementation of the ACA's contraceptive mandate. A retrospective cohort study using Truven Health MarketScan claims data from January 2010 to December 2013. Women aged 18-45 years with continuous insurance coverage with claims for oral contraceptive pills, patches, rings, injections, or LARC during 2010-2013 (N=3,794,793). Descriptive statistics were used to assess trends in LARC cost-sharing and uptake from 2010 through 2013. Interrupted time series models were used to assess the association of time, ACA, and time after the ACA on LARC cost-sharing and initiation rates, adjusting for patient and plan characteristics. The proportion of claims with $0 cost-sharing for intrauterine devices and implants, respectively, rose from 36.6% and 9.3% in 2010 to 87.6% and 80.5% in 2013. The ACA was associated with a significant increase in these proportions and in their rate of increase (level and slope change both P<0.001). LARC uptake increased over time with no significant change in level of LARC use after ACA implementation in January 2013 (P=0.44) and a slightly slower rate of growth post-ACA than previously reported (β coefficient for trend, -0.004; P<0.001). The ACA has significantly decreased LARC cost-sharing, but during its first year had not yet increased LARC initiation rates.
Berenson, Abbey B.; Tan, Alai; Hirth, Jacqueline M.
Objectives To compare complication and continuation rates of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with the subdermal etonogestrel (ENG) implant across the US among women 15 – 44 years of age. Study Design A retrospective study of health insurance claims records from 2007–2011 identified a cohort of women who had LNG-IUS (n=79,920) or ENG implants (n=7,374) inserted and had insurance coverage for 12 months post-insertion. Claims for complications were examined 12 months after insertion, or until removal of either device within each of three age groups. Results After its introduction in 2007, the frequency of ENG implants increased each year and almost 1/3 of all insertions were in teenagers. However, among women ≤ 24 years old who had delivered an infant in the prior 8 weeks, a LNG-IUS was more likely to be inserted than an ENG implant (P < .05). The most frequent complications with both methods were related to abnormal menstruation, which was more likely to occur among ENG implant users. Overall, 83–88% of the entire sample used their chosen method for at least 12 months. The odds of continuation were similar for both methods among teenagers, but ENG implants were more likely to be removed prematurely among women 20 – 24 years old (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06–1.39) and 25 – 44 years old (OR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.35–1.64). Conclusions Both of these long-acting contraceptive methods are well tolerated among women of all ages, and demonstrate high continuation rates. PMID:25555662
Bera, Rimal B
Compliance is a critical issue across all chronic conditions, including schizophrenia. Compliance is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, with a continuum from taking all medications as prescribed to partial compliance to complete noncompliance. Partial compliance is a serious problem that may result in abrupt dose changes leading to unanticipated adverse effects and can demoralize the patient. Further, there is a nearly 5-fold increase in the risk of relapse in first-episode patients when antipsychotic drug treatment is discontinued. Taken together, these data indicate that it is critical to ensure continuous delivery of antipsychotic treatment. Atypical antipsychotic medications were expected to result in better adherence, primarily because of the anticipated improved efficacy and safety profile. However, atypical agents have poor adherence, irrespective of the type of atypical medication, making it difficult to predict which patients are taking their oral medications. Long-acting injectable (LAI) agents may minimize the fluctuations in peak and overall plasma levels compared with oral agents, indicating they may allow more consistent and predictable administration. Based on clinical experience in my practice, several important observations regarding LAI use in patients with schizophrenia have been identified. First, there are potential advantages to using LAIs, including assistance in understanding reasons for poor response, the possibility of eliminating daily pill ingestion, and the elimination of the abrupt loss of medication coverage. There are also several potential obstacles to the use of LAIs, including a lack of infrastructure for the delivery and disposal of syringes and the ease of use with the oral agents. Several strategies can be used to increase patient willingness to initiate and continue LAI therapy. Strategies to improve acceptance involve presenting the option with enthusiasm, ensuring proper goal setting, educating the patient that this treatment
Ho, Rodney J Y; Yu, Jesse; Li, Bowen; Kraft, John C; Freeling, Jennifer P; Koehn, Josefin; Shao, Jingwei
Medication adherence and insufficient drug levels are central to HIV/AIDS disease progression. Recently, Fletcher et al. confirmed that HIV patients on oral antiretroviral therapy had lower intracellular drug concentrations in lymph nodes than in blood. For instance, in the same patient, multiple lymph node drug concentrations were as much as 99 % lower than in blood. This study built upon our previous finding that HIV patients taking oral indinavir had 3-fold lower mononuclear cell drug concentrations in lymph nodes than in blood. As a result, an association between insufficient lymph node drug concentrations in cells and persistent viral replication has now been validated. Lymph node cells, particularly CD4 T lymphocytes, host HIV infection and persistence; CD4 T cell depletion in blood correlates with AIDS progression. With established drug targets to overcome drug insufficiency in lymphoid cells and tissues, we have developed and employed a "Systems Approach" to engineer multi-drug-incorporated particles for HIV treatment. The goal is to improve lymphatic HIV drug exposure to eliminate HIV drug insufficiency and disease progression. We found that nano-particulate drugs that absorb, transit, and retain in the lymphatic system after subcutaneous dosing improve intracellular lymphatic drug exposure and overcome HIV lymphatic drug insufficiency. The composition, physical properties, and stability of the drug nanoparticles contribute to the prolonged and enhanced drug exposure in lymphoid cells and tissues. In addition to overcoming lymphatic drug insufficiency and potentially reversing HIV infection, targeted drug nanoparticle properties may extend drug concentrations and enable the development of long-acting HIV drug therapy for enhanced patient compliance.
Voss, H P; Donnell, D; Bast, A
The molecular pharmacology of a new putative long-acting bronchodilator TA 2005 (8-hydroxy-5-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-[N-[(1R)-2-(p-methoxy-phenyl)- 1-methylethyl]amino]ethyl]carbostyril hydrochloride) has been compared with that of the reference compounds isoprenaline and salbutamol in both methacholine (3 x 10(-6) M) precontracted guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle relaxation and in bovine trapezium muscle binding experiments. TA 2005 appeared very potent compared with isoprenaline and salbutamol (pD2 values of 9.29 vs. 7.65 and 7.10 respectively). For isoprenaline and salbutamol a shallow displacement curve was observed and addition of the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue guanylyl-imidodiphosphate (GppNHp) gave a rightward shift (pKd,high and pKd,low values of 7.3 and 6.1 vs. 7.0 and 5.4 respectively). For TA 2005 a steep displacement curve was found with only one binding state even without GppNHp (pKd,high value of 8.2). The long duration of action of TA 2005 might be explained by tight binding of this compound to the beta 2-adrenoceptor. The extent of tight binding for TA 2005 was extremely large. The molecular basis of the tight agonist binding phenomenon for TA 2005 seems to be of different origin than for isoprenaline. It is hypothesized that a different mechanism of activation of the beta 2-adrenoceptor may be involved for TA 2005.
Varol, Chen; Zvibel, Isabel; Spektor, Lior; Mantelmacher, Fernanda Dana; Vugman, Milena; Thurm, Tamar; Khatib, Marian; Elmaliah, Elinor; Halpern, Zamir; Fishman, Sigal
Obesity induces low-grade chronic inflammation, manifested by proinflammatory polarization of adipose tissue innate and adaptive resident and recruited immune cells that contribute to insulin resistance (IR). The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone that mediates postprandial insulin secretion and has anabolic effects on the adipose tissue. Importantly, recent evidence suggested that GIP is a potential suppressor of inflammation in several metabolic models. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory role of GIP in a murine model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) using the long-acting GIP analog [d-Ala(2)]GIP. Administration of [d-Ala(2)]GIP resulted in adipocytes of increased size, increased levels of adipose tissue lipid droplet proteins, indicating better lipid storage capacity, and reduced adipose tissue inflammation. Flow cytometry analysis revealed reduced numbers of inflammatory Ly6C(hi) monocytes and F4/80(hi)CD11c(+) macrophages, associated with IR. In addition, [d-Ala(2)]GIP reduced adipose tissue infiltration of IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, [d-Ala(2)]GIP treatment induced a favorable adipose tissue adipokine profile, manifested by a prominent reduction in key inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL8, and CCL5) and an increase in adiponectin. Notably, [d-Ala(2)]GIP also reduced the numbers of circulating neutrophils and proinflammatory Ly6C(hi) monocytes in mice fed regular chow or a high-fat diet. Finally, the beneficial immune-associated effects were accompanied by amelioration of IR and improved insulin signaling in liver and adipose tissue. Collectively, our results describe key beneficial immunoregulatory properties for GIP in DIO and reveal that its augmentation ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation and improves IR. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathy; Bayly, Chris; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane
The aim of this research was to investigate awareness, perceived reliability and consideration of use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) among Australians of reproductive age. A sample of 18- to 50-year-old women and men (N = 2235) was randomly recruited from the Australian electoral roll in 2013. Respondents completed a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. Data were weighted to reduce non-response bias. Factors associated with perceived reliability and consideration of use of LARC were identified in multivariable analyses. Most respondents had heard of implants (76.5%) and intrauterine contraception (63.7%). However, most did not think implants (56.3%) or IUDs (63.9%) were reliable and would not consider using implants (71.6%) or IUDs (77.5%). Those significantly more likely to perceive LARC as reliable were younger, did not regard religion as important in fertility choices, had private health insurance, had been pregnant and had had an abortion; and women who had a partner. Those more likely to consider using LARC were younger and did not regard religion as important in fertility choices; women who had private health insurance, lived in an area of socioeconomic advantage and had had an abortion; and men without a partner, born in Australia and comfortable talking to a health care provider about contraceptive matters. Despite high awareness of LARC among Australian adults, its perceived reliability and willingness to use it remain low in certain groups. Targeted interventions that aim to increase knowledge of the benefits and reliability of LARC and allow informed use are recommended.
Rose, Sally B; Garrett, Susan M
Post-abortion initiation of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) reduces subsequent abortion rates within 24 months, but the prevalence of post-abortion LARC use in New Zealand is unknown. To describe post-abortion initiation of intrauterine and implantable LARC methods in New Zealand between 2007 and 2012, and to determine what impact the introduction of government-funded (free) levonorgestrel (LNG) implants in August 2010 had on overall LARC use. Retrospective observational study involving New Zealand abortion clinic data. Nationally collated data on post-abortion LARC insertions were obtained for the period 2007-2012, and individual-level discharge data for patients attending a large urban hospital abortion clinic were analysed using descriptive statistics to describe annual uptake rates, and the demographic profile of LARC users during this period. Logistic regression analyses examined whether LARC use differed by parity and/or age over time. Post-abortion LARC use increased from 20.2% in 2007 to 45.6% in 2012. Intrauterine device use increased from 20.2% to 31.8% during this period, with implants contributing a further 14% to the overall use of LARC methods by 2012. Clinic data showed that LARC use increased among most demographic subgroups between 2009 and 2012, with the greatest increase among nulliparous under-20-year-olds (from 17.2% to 42.0%). Post-abortion LARC use has been steadily increasing in New Zealand since 2007. Overall LARC use significantly increased following the introduction of government-funded implants, particularly among young and nulliparous women. Improving access to alternative methods of LARC may further increase uptake and reduce unwanted pregnancy rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Arts, Joris; Caenepeel, Philip; Bisschops, Raf; Dewulf, Dominiek; Holvoet, Lieselot; Piessevaux, Hubert; Bourgeois, Stefan; Sifrim, Daniel; Janssens, Jozef; Tack, Jan
Several studies have established symptomatic and mechanistic benefits of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in patients with dumping syndrome, but clinical use is hampered by the requirement for subcutaneous administration 3 times daily. We compared the efficacy of subcutaneous octreotide with that of the long-acting repeatable (LAR) octreotide formulation, which is administered monthly, in patients with dumping syndrome. The study included 30 consecutive patients with postoperative dumping, evidenced by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results and insufficient response to dietary measures. OGTT, dumping severity score (summary of scores 0-3 for 8 early and 6 late dumping symptoms), and quality-of-life data were evaluated at baseline, after 3 days of subcutaneous administration of octreotide (0.5 mg), and then after 3 monthly intramuscular injections of octreotide LAR (20 mg). Both formulations of octreotide significantly reduced total dumping severity scores (21.7 +/- 1.6 at baseline, 11.2 +/- 1.2 for subcutaneous and 14.0 +/- 1.8 for LAR formulations; P < .05). This reduction was associated with significant improvements in the increase in pulse rate (13.8 +/- 5.8 at baseline vs -0.3 +/- 2.2 and 1.9 +/- 1.7; P < .05) as well as the increase in hematocrit level (4.0 +/- 1.4 at baseline vs 0.3 +/- 0.9. and 0.4 +/- 1.0; P < .05), and the lowest glycemia level in the OGTT (54.1 +/- 6.7 at baseline vs 98.9 +/- 7.1 and 67.8 +/- 5.9; P < .05). LAR octreotide administration significantly improved patients' quality of life. Patients' evaluations of their overall treatment efficacy was higher on LAR compared with the subcutaneous formulation (83% vs 52%; P = .01). Gallbladder stones occurred in 4 patients. Monthly administration of LAR octreotide improves OGTT results, symptoms, and quality of life in patients with postoperative dumping.
Biggs, M Antonia; Harper, Cynthia C; Malvin, Jan; Brindis, Claire D
To assess long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) beliefs and practices among site directors who represent the family planning services delivered in their practices. Medical directors from 1,000 sites listed in the Family Planning Access Care and Treatment program (California's family planning Medicaid program) provider database were mailed a survey in the fall of 2011 regarding their LARC beliefs and practices. Participants responded by mail, online, or telephone. Data on family planning clients served and LARC dispensing were obtained from administrative claims data. All analyses were limited to advanced practice clinician respondents. General estimating equation models identified the respondent and practice characteristics associated with LARC provision. After three follow-up mailings and telephone calls, 68% of eligible sites responded to the survey (636/939). Most respondents were physicians (448/587). They were most likely to consider women with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease unsuitable for hormonal (27%, n=161) and copper (26%, n=154) intrauterine devices. Smokers were the most likely to be considered unsuitable for the implant (16%, n=96). Nearly three fourths of respondents routinely discussed intrauterine devices (413/561) and half (271/558) discussed implants with their contraceptive patients. Characteristics that predicted onsite LARC provision included LARC training, beliefs, and health care provider type. Although there has been significant progress in expanding access and understanding about LARC, many clinicians from sites offering family planning services held beliefs limiting the provision of intrauterine devices and were unfamiliar with the implant, suggesting the need for targeted trainings aimed at informing clinicians of recent developments in LARC recommendations.
Silva Dos Santos, Priscilla de Nazaré; Madden, Tessa; Omvig, Karen; Peipert, Jeffrey F
Users of hormonal long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) report weight gain as a side effect, but few studies have assessed body composition change among LARC users. We evaluated weight and body composition of healthy women using the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), copper intrauterine device (copper IUD) or etonogestrel implant (ENG implant). We hypothesized that weight gain and body composition over 12 months would not differ between copper IUD, LNG-IUS and ENG implant users. We performed a prospective cohort study of a subgroup of women enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project who initiated the LNG-IUS, copper IUD or ENG implant. Inclusion criteria included lack of metabolic and eating disorders or change in body weight of more than 5% in the 6 months before enrollment. We measured changes in weight and body composition (body fat percentage, total body fat mass, total lean mass and total body mass) in women who continued their method for 12 months. We analyzed data from 149 participants: 85 LNG-IUS users, 31 copper IUD users and 33 ENG implant users. The mean age was 25.9 years, 56.4% were White, 82.5% had some college education and 67.6% were nulliparous. Although lean body mass increased over 12 months in LNG-IUS and copper IUD users but not in ENG implant users, changes in body weight and body composition did not differ between the groups. In the adjusted model, Black race was associated with change in total body mass (p<.05). Among those who continued the method for 12 months, changes in body weight and composition did not differ between copper IUD, LNG-IUS and ENG implant users. Changes in body weight and composition over 12 months did not differ between copper IUD users and LNG-IUS and ENG implant users among those with 12 months of continuous use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Foster, Diana Greene; Barar, Rana; Gould, Heather; Gomez, Ivette; Nguyen, Deborah; Biggs, M Antonia
This survey of published researchers of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) examines their opinions about important barriers to LARC use in the United States (US), projections for LARC use in the absence of barriers and attitudes toward incentives for clinicians to provide and women to use LARC methods. We identified 182 authors of 59 peer-reviewed papers on LARC use published since 2013. A total of 104 completed an internet survey. We used descriptive and multivariate analyses to assess LARC use barriers and respondent characteristics associated with LARC projections and opinions. The most commonly identified barrier was the cost of the device (63%), followed by women's knowledge of safety, method acceptability and expectations about use. A shortage of trained providers was a commonly cited barrier, primarily of primary care providers (49%). Median and modal projections of LARC use in the absence of these barriers were 25-29% of contracepting women. There was limited support for provider incentives and almost no support for incentives for women to use LARC methods, primarily out of concern about coercion. Clinical and social science LARC experts project at least a doubling of the current US rate of LARC use if barriers to method provision and adoption are removed. While LARC experts recognize the promise of LARC methods to better meet women's contraceptive needs, they anticipate that the majority of US women will not choose LARC methods. Reducing unintended pregnancy rates will depend on knowledge, availability and use of a wider range of methods of contraception to meet women's individual needs. Efforts to increase LARC use need to meet the dual goals of increasing access to LARC methods and protecting women's reproductive autonomy. To accomplish this, we need reasonable expectations for use, provider training, low-cost devices and noncoercive counseling, rather than incentives for provision or use. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier
Luchowski, Alicia T; Anderson, Britta L; Power, Michael L; Raglan, Greta B; Espey, Eve; Schulkin, Jay
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) - the copper and levonorgestrel intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the single-rod implant - are safe and effective but account for a small proportion of contraceptive use by US women. This study examined obstetrician-gynecologists' knowledge, training, practice and beliefs regarding LARC methods. A survey questionnaire was mailed to 3000 Fellows of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. After exclusions, 1221 eligible questionnaires were analyzed (45.8% response rate, accounting for exclusions). Almost all obstetrician-gynecologists reported providing IUDs (95.8%). Most obstetrician-gynecologists reported requiring two or more visits for IUD insertion (86.9%). Respondents that reported IUD insertion in a single visit reported inserting a greater number of IUDs in the last year. About half reported offering the single-rod implant (51.3%). A total of 92.0% reported residency training on IUDs, and 50.8% reported residency training on implants. Residency training and physician age correlated with the number of IUDs inserted in the past year. A total of 59.6% indicated receiving continuing education on at least one LARC method in the past 2years. Recent continuing education was most strongly associated with implant insertion, and 31.7% of respondents cited lack of insertion training as a barrier. Barriers to LARC provision could be reduced if more obstetrician-gynecologists received implant training and provided same-day IUD insertion. Continuing education will likely increase implant provision. This study shows that obstetrician-gynecologists generally offer IUDs, but fewer offer the single-rod contraceptive implant. Recent continuing education strongly predicted whether obstetrician-gynecologists inserted implants and was also associated with other practices that encourage LARC use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Izquierdo, José Luis; Paredero, José Manuel; Piedra, Raul
Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the degree of adherence for two standard regimens for administrating anticholinergic drugs (12 and 24 hours) in patients with chronic obstruction of the airflow and to establish whether the use of a once-daily dose improves the level of treatment adherence. Methods We used long-acting anticholinergics (LAMAs) as a study variable, and included the entire health area of Castile-La Mancha, numbering 2,100,998 inhabitants, as the study population. We analyzed a total of 16,446 patients who had been prescribed a LAMA between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013. The follow-up period, based on a centralized system of electronic prescription management, was extended until December 2014. Results During 2013, the medication collected was 7.4%–10.7% higher than indicated by labeling. This was very similar for all LAMAs, irrespective of the patient’s sex, the molecule, the device, and the drug dosage. We did not observe seasonal variations in the consumption of LAMAs, nor did we detect differences between prescription drugs for once-daily (every 24 hours) versus twice-daily (every 12 hours) administration, between the different molecules, or between different types of inhalers for the same molecule. The results were similar in 2014. Conclusion The principal conclusion of this study is that, in an area with a centralized management system of pharmacological prescriptions, adherence to treatment with LAMAs is very high, irrespective of the molecules or inhalation device. We did not find that patients who used twice-daily medication had a lower adherence. PMID:26929614
Katz, Eva G; Hauber, Brett; Gopal, Srihari; Fairchild, Angie; Pugh, Amy; Weinstein, Rachel B; Levitan, Bennett S
To quantify clinical trial participants' and investigators' judgments with respect to the relative importance of efficacy and safety attributes of antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia, and to assess the impact of formulation and adherence. Discrete-choice experiment surveys were completed by patients with schizophrenia and physician investigators participating in two phase-3 clinical trials of paliperidone palmitate 3-month long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic. Respondents were asked to choose between hypothetical antipsychotic profiles defined by efficacy, safety, and mode of administration. Data were analyzed using random-parameters logit and probit models. Patients (N=214) and physicians (N=438) preferred complete improvement in positive symptoms (severe to none) as the most important attribute, compared with improvement in any other attribute studied. Both respondents preferred 3-month and 1-month injectables to oral formulation (P<0.05), irrespective of prior adherence to oral antipsychotic treatment, with physicians showing greater preference for a 3-month over a 1-month LAI for nonadherent patients. Physicians were willing to accept treatments with reduced efficacy for patients with prior poor adherence. The maximum decrease in efficacy (95% confidence interval [CI]) that physicians would accept for switching a patient from daily oral to 3-month injectable was as follows: adherent: 9.8% (95% CI: 7.2-12.4), 20% nonadherent: 25.4% (95% CI: 21.0-29.9), and 50% nonadherent: >30%. For patients, adherent: 10.1% (95% CI: 6.1-14.1), nonadherent: the change in efficacy studied was regarded as unimportant. Improvement in positive symptoms was the most important attribute. Patients and physicians preferred LAIs over oral antipsychotics, with physicians showing a greater preference for 3-month over 1-month LAI. Physicians and patients were willing to accept reduced efficacy in exchange for switching a patient from an oral formulation to a LAI.
Gutiérrez, Lilia; Velasco, Zazil-Ha; Vázquez, Carlos; Vargas, Dinorah; Sumano, Héctor
Based on its PK/PD ratios, doxycycline hyclate (DOX-h), a time-dependant antibacterial, is ideally expected to achieve both sustained plasma drug concentrations at or slightly above the MIC level for as long as possible between dosing intervals. Pursuing this end, a poloxamer-based matrix was used to produce a long-acting injectable preparation (DOX-h-LA) and its serum concentrations vs. time profile investigated after its SC injection to dogs (≤ 0.3 mL per injection site), and results compared with the oral (PO) and IV pharmacokinetics of DOX-h, prepared as tablet or as freshly made solution. A crossover (4 x 4 x 4) study design was employed with 12 Mongrel dogs, with washout periods of 21 days, and at dose of 10 mg/kg in all cases. DOX-h-LA showed the greatest values for bioavailability (199.48%); maximum serum concentration (Cmax) value was 2.8 ± 0.3 with a time to reach Cmax (Tmax) of 2.11 ± 0.12 h and an elimination half-life of 133.61 ± 6.32 h. Considering minimum effective serum concentration of 0.5 μg/mL, a dose-interval of at least 1 week h can be achieved for DOX-h-LA, and only 48 h and 24 h after the IV or PO administration of DOX-h as a solution or as tablets, respectively. A non-painful small bulge, apparently non-inflammatory could be distinguished at injection sites. These lumps dissipated completely in 30 days in all cases.
Leng, Donglei; Chen, Hongming; Li, Guangjing; Guo, Mengran; Zhu, Zhaolu; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yongjun
The main purpose of this study was to develop and compare the pharmacokinetic behavior of two paliperidone palmitate (PP) nanosuspensions with different particle size after intramuscular (i.m.) administration. PP nanosuspensions were prepared by wet media milling method and the mean particle size of nanosuspension was controlled as 1,041 ± 6 nm (A) and 505 ± 9 nm (B), respectively. The morphology of nanosuspensions was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirmed the crystallinity of PP in nanosuspensions. The physical and chemical stabilities of nanosuspensions A and B were investigated by particle analyzer and HPLC after storage for 2 months at 25°C, 4°C and mechanical shaking condition. No obvious change in particle size and chemical degradation of drug were observed. Following single-dose i.m. administration to beagle dogs, the release of paliperidone lasted for nearly 1 month. The Tmax of nanosuspensions A and B was 6 (d) and 10 (d). The AUC0-t and Cmax of nanosuspensions A was 2.0-fold and 1.8-fold higher than nanosuspensions B (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that PP nanosuspensions formulation had long-acting effect. Nanosuspension A with a larger particle size performed better than nanosuspension B. As a result, it is important to design appropriate particle size of nanosuspensions for i.m. administration in order to produce larger therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Currie, Graeme P; Lee, Daniel K C; Lipworth, Brian J
Asthma is a worldwide chronic disorder that is characterised by airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness, which results in intermittent airflow obstruction and subsequent perception of symptoms and exacerbations. Inhaled corticosteroids are a fundamental component in the prevention of the short- and long-term complications associated with inadequately controlled asthma. However, many individuals experience persistent symptoms and exacerbations despite receiving low-to-medium doses of an inhaled corticosteroid (400-800 microg/day of beclometasone or equivalent). In these symptomatic asthmatic patients, guidelines advocate the initiation of a long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) as additional second-line controller therapy. The recent SMART (Salmeterol Multi-centre Asthma Research Trial) study was designed to compare the effects of add-on salmeterol 42 microg (ex-actuator) twice daily with placebo over 28 weeks in a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group fashion, with the intention to enrol 60,000 asthmatic patients. However, the study was halted prematurely because preliminary data revealed an increased mortality associated with regular use of salmeterol. Moreover, concerning rates of respiratory-related deaths, asthma-related deaths and life-threatening events were observed among African Americans, who constituted up to 18% of the study population. This in turn prompted the US FDA to announce important safety information regarding inhalers containing LABAs and advise that new labelling be produced outlining the "small but significant risk in asthma-related deaths" associated with their regular use. This evidence-based review discusses the data from SMART and highlights potentially important drawbacks with regular use of LABAs in persistent asthma.
van ′t Klooster, Gerben; Hoeben, Eva; Borghys, Herman; Looszova, Adriana; Bouche, Marie-Paule; van Velsen, Frans; Baert, Lieven
The next-generation human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine (TMC278) was administered in rats and dogs as single intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SC) injections, formulated as a 200-nm nanosuspension. The plasma pharmacokinetics, injection site concentrations, disposition to lymphoid tissues, and tolerability were evaluated in support of its potential use as a once-monthly antiretroviral agent in humans. Rilpivirine plasma concentration-time profiles showed sustained and dose-proportional release over 2 months in rats and over 6 months in dogs. The absolute bioavailability approached 100%, indicating a complete release from the depot, in spite of rilpivirine concentrations still being high at the injection site(s) 3 months after administration in dogs. For both species, IM administration was associated with higher initial peak plasma concentrations and a more rapid washout than SC administration, which resulted in a stable plasma-concentration profile over at least 6 weeks in dogs. The rilpivirine concentrations in the lymph nodes draining the IM injection site exceeded the plasma concentrations by over 100-fold 1 month after administration, while the concentrations in the lymphoid tissues decreased to 3- to 6-fold the plasma concentrations beyond 3 months. These observations suggest uptake of nanoparticles by macrophages, which generates secondary depots in these lymph nodes. Both SC and IM injections were generally well tolerated and safe, with observations of a transient inflammatory response at the injection site. The findings support clinical investigations of rilpivirine nanosuspension as a long-acting formulation to improve adherence during antiretroviral therapy and for preexposure prophylaxis. PMID:20160045
Rottenkolber, M; Voogd, E; van Dijk, L; Primatesta, P; Becker, C; de Groot, M C H; Plana, E; Alvarez, Y; Durand, J; Slattery, J; Afonso, A; Requena, G; Huerta, C; Alvarez, A; de Abajo, F; Tauscher, M; Hasford, J; Fischer, R; Reynolds, R; Schmiedl, S
For patients with asthma, COPD, or asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), inter-country comparisons of seasonal changes in drug prescriptions are scarce or missing. Hence, we aimed to compare seasonal changes in prescription rates of long-acting beta-2-agonist (LABA) in four European countries. A common study protocol was applied to six health care databases (Germany, Spain, the Netherlands (2), and the UK (2)) to calculate age- and sex-standardized point prevalence rates (PPRs) of LABA-containing prescriptions by the 1st of March, June, September, and December of each year during the study period 2002-2009. Seasonal variation of PPRs was quantified using seasonal indexes (SIs; based on the ratio-to-moving-average-method) and SIs averaged over the study period (aSI) stratified by sex, age, and indication (asthma, COPD, or ACOS). There was a moderate seasonal change in LABA-containing prescriptions which was more pronounced in asthma or COPD patients compared to ACOS patients. For asthma and ACOS patients, highest seasonal variation was found for patients living in Spain (aSI: 87.3-110.7, aSI: 93.2-103.1) whereas for COPD highest seasonal variation was revealed for the NPCRD database (the Netherlands) (aSI: 92.2-105.6). Regarding age and sex, highest seasonal variation was found in Spanish boys under 10 years of age having a diagnosis of asthma. By applying a common analysis in six databases, we could observe moderate overall seasonal changes in LABA-containing prescription rates in patients with asthma, COPD, or ACOS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polis, Ingeborgh; Moens, Yves; Hoeben, Dagmar; Tshamala, Mulenda; Hoybergs, Yves; Gasthuys, Frank
To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of sufentanil long acting (SLA) in sevoflurane-anaesthetized dogs. Randomized prospective study. Animals Forty female dogs (beagles) aged 1-2 years, weighing 11.97 +/- 1.40 kg. The dogs were divided into five groups of eight. Two control groups were used: group A received intramuscular (IM), SLA (50 microg kg(-1)) alone, while group B received the SLA vehicle followed by sevoflurane anaesthesia for 90 minutes. In the other groups, SLA (50 microg kg(-1) IM) was given immediately before (group C(0)), 15 minutes before (group D(15)) or 30 minutes (group E(30)) before induction [with intravenous (IV) thiopental] of sevoflurane anaesthesia lasting for 90 minutes. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate (f(r)), arterial oxygen haemoglobin saturation and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration (Fe'SEVO) were measured every 10 minutes during anaesthesia and at 2, 4 and 24 hours after induction (not Fe'SEVO). Acid-base and blood gas analyses were performed. Sufentanil LA reduced heart rate and increased arterial CO(2) tensions during anaesthesia. Respiratory depression was least in group E(30) compared with groups C(0) and D(15). Bradycardia was present for at least 24 hours. Respiratory rate was least in group B although arterial O(2) and CO(2) tension values were acceptable up to 24 hours after anaesthesia. Pre-anaesthetic medication with SLA moderately aggravated the cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane. In spite of a moderate depressant effect on cardiorespiratory parameters, SLA may be of use as pre-anaesthetic medication before sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation may occasionally be necessary.
Bodurtha Smith, Anna Jo; Harney, Kathleen F; Singh, Tara; Hurwitz, Anita Gupta
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is recommended as first-line contraception for adolescents. Surveys of primary care providers suggest that physician and clinic factors may influence LARC counseling, but their impact on usage is unknown. Our objective was to explore provider and clinic characteristics associated with LARC usage in adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5363 women ages 15-21 years receiving primary care within a large health system in Massachusetts in 2015. We used data abstracted from electronic medical records to characterize rates of LARC usage. We analyzed the association of provider (specialty, degree, gender, resident status, LARC credentialing) and clinic (Title X funding, onsite LARC provision, onsite obstetrician-gynecologist) factors with adolescents' LARC usage through multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 3.4% (95%CI 2.9-3.9) of adolescents were documented as currently using a LARC method. Older adolescents were significantly more likely to use a LARC method (adjusted OR 2.41, 95%CI 1.62-3.58 for women ages 20-21 years compared to ages 15-17). Adolescents whose primary care provider was a resident were significantly more likely to use a LARC method (adjusted OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.02-2.68). Provider specialty, degree, gender, onsite LARC provision, and onsite obstetrician-gynecologist were not significantly associated with LARC usage in adolescents. Being older and having a primary care provider early in their training increased the odds of LARC usage among adolescents in a large Massachusetts health system. Across primary care specialties, educating providers about the appropriate uses of LARC methods in nulliparous adolescents may facilitate LARC usage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Secura, Gina M.; Madden, Tessa; McNicholas, Colleen; Mullersman, Jennifer; Buckel, Christina M.; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F.
Background The rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States is higher than in other developed nations. Teenage births result in substantial costs, including public assistance, health care costs, and income losses due to lower educational attainment and reduced earning potential. Methods The Contraceptive CHOICE Project was a large prospective cohort study designed to promote the use of long-acting, reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods to reduce unintended pregnancy in the St. Louis region. Participants were educated about reversible contraception, with an emphasis on the benefits of LARC methods, were provided with their choice of reversible contraception at no cost, and were followed for 2 to 3 years. We analyzed pregnancy, birth, and induced-abortion rates among teenage girls and women 15 to 19 years of age in this cohort and compared them with those observed nationally among U.S. teens in the same age group. Results Of the 1404 teenage girls and women enrolled in CHOICE, 72% chose an intrauterine device or implant (LARC methods); the remaining 28% chose another method. During the 2008–2013 period, the mean annual rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion among CHOICE participants were 34.0, 19.4, and 9.7 per 1000 teens, respectively. In comparison, rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion among sexually experienced U.S. teens in 2008 were 158.5, 94.0, and 41.5 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions Teenage girls and women who were provided contraception at no cost and educated about reversible contraception and the benefits of LARC methods had rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion that were much lower than the national rates for sexually experienced teens. (Funded by the Susan Thompson Buffett Foundation and others.) PMID:25271604
Based on its PK/PD ratios, doxycycline hyclate (DOX-h), a time-dependant antibacterial, is ideally expected to achieve both sustained plasma drug concentrations at or slightly above the MIC level for as long as possible between dosing intervals. Pursuing this end, a poloxamer-based matrix was used to produce a long-acting injectable preparation (DOX-h-LA) and its serum concentrations vs. time profile investigated after its SC injection to dogs (≤ 0.3 mL per injection site), and results compared with the oral (PO) and IV pharmacokinetics of DOX-h, prepared as tablet or as freshly made solution. A crossover (4 x 4 x 4) study design was employed with 12 Mongrel dogs, with washout periods of 21 days, and at dose of 10 mg/kg in all cases. DOX-h-LA showed the greatest values for bioavailability (199.48%); maximum serum concentration (Cmax) value was 2.8 ± 0.3 with a time to reach Cmax (Tmax) of 2.11 ± 0.12 h and an elimination half-life of 133.61 ± 6.32 h. Considering minimum effective serum concentration of 0.5 μg/mL, a dose-interval of at least 1 week h can be achieved for DOX-h-LA, and only 48 h and 24 h after the IV or PO administration of DOX-h as a solution or as tablets, respectively. A non-painful small bulge, apparently non-inflammatory could be distinguished at injection sites. These lumps dissipated completely in 30 days in all cases. PMID:22682068
Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Hyun-Hee; Cho, Sung Yoon; Sohn, Young Bae; Park, Sung Won; Huh, Rimm; Kim, Jinsup; Ko, Ah-Ra; Jin, Dong-Kyu
The current recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy requires daily subcutaneous (sc) injections, which results in poor patient compliance, especially in young children. To reduce the dosing frequency, we generated a chimeric protein of rhGH and the Fc-domain of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (rhGH-Fc). The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sc-injected rhGH-Fc were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats and hypophysectomized rats, respectively. A single sc injection of rhGH-Fc at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg slowly reached a Cmax of 16.80 ng/mL and remained for 7 days with a half-life of 51.1 h. Conversely, a single sc injection of rhGH 0.2 mg/kg rapidly reached a Cmax of 46.88 ng/mL and declined with a half-life of 0.55 h to baseline values in 4 h. In the efficacy study, the sc-injected rhGH-Fc induced rapid weight gain and tibial width growth at a dose of 240 μg/animal. The effect of two injections of rhGH-Fc separated by 1 week was comparable to that of the same dose of 14 daily injections of rhGH. The rhGH-Fc is a novel candidate for long-acting rhGH therapy with more convenient weekly administration, as it reduces glomerular filtration and receptor-mediated clearance while allowing for the rapid reversal of potential adverse events.
Vu, Quyen; Micks, Elizabeth; McCoy, Erin; Prager, Sarah
The physiological changes that occur during pregnancy can be deleterious to women with a cardiovascular condition. Evidence-based contraceptive counseling and provision is essential in this patient population. Although long-acting reversible contraception (LARCs), which include the intrauterine device (IUD) and the etonogestrel contraceptive implant, have been found to be safe and effective in healthy women, there are inadequate data regarding LARC use in patients with cardiovascular conditions. We conducted a retrospective chart review of women diagnosed with cardiovascular disease who had a copper IUD, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or contraceptive implant placed at the University of Washington Medical Center from 2007 to 2012. We abstracted and analyzed patient demographic characteristics, medical conditions, indications for LARC placement, and complications. The sample included 470 women with cardiovascular conditions. The mean age was 34.6 years. One hundred twenty-four patients (26.11%) were nulligravid and 169 patients (35.58%) were nulliparous. Four hundred ten chose the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (87.23%), 33 patients (7.02%) opted for the copper IUD, and 23 patients (4.89%) chose the etonogestrel implant. Eighteen patients (3.83%) had a confirmed IUD expulsion, 2 patients (0.43%) became pregnant, and there were 4 cases of pelvic inflammatory disease (0.85%). There were no cases of perforation. There were no confirmed cases of infective endocarditis associated with LARC insertion. In conclusion, LARC devices appear safe with few complications for women with cardiovascular conditions. Clinicians can be reassured that LARC may be offered as an appropriate option when counseling women with cardiovascular disease on safe contraceptive methods.
Gunawardana, Manjula; Remedios-Chan, Mariana; Miller, Christine S; Fanter, Rob; Yang, Flora; Marzinke, Mark A; Hendrix, Craig W; Beliveau, Martin; Moss, John A; Smith, Thomas J; Baum, Marc M
Oral or topical daily administration of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to HIV-1-negative individuals in vulnerable populations is a promising strategy for HIV-1 prevention. Adherence to the dosing regimen has emerged as a critical factor determining efficacy outcomes of clinical trials. Because adherence to therapy is inversely related to the dosing period, sustained release or long-acting ARV formulations hold significant promise for increasing the effectiveness of HIV-1 preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by reducing dosing frequency. A novel, subdermal implant delivering the potent prodrug tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) with controlled, sustained, zero-order (linear) release characteristics is described. A candidate device delivering TAF at 0.92 mg day(-1) in vitro was evaluated in beagle dogs over 40 days for pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety. No adverse events related to treatment with the test article were noted during the course of the study, and no significant, unusual abnormalities were observed. The implant maintained a low systemic exposure to TAF (median, 0.85 ng ml(-1); interquartile range [IQR], 0.60 to 1.50 ng ml(-1)) and tenofovir (TFV; median, 15.0 ng ml(-1); IQR, 8.8 to 23.3 ng ml(-1)), the product of in vivo TAF hydrolysis. High concentrations (median, 512 fmol/10(6) cells over the first 35 days) of the pharmacologically active metabolite, TFV diphosphate, were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at levels over 30 times higher than those associated with HIV-1 PrEP efficacy in humans. Our report on the first sustained-release nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) for systemic delivery demonstrates a successful proof of principle and holds significant promise as a candidate for HIV-1 prophylaxis in vulnerable populations.
Gluais, Pascale; Bastide, Michèle; Caron, Jacques; Adamantidis, Monique
Prolongation of QT interval by antipsychotic drugs is an unwanted side effect that may lead to ventricular arrhythmias. The antipsychotic agent risperidone has been shown to cause QT prolongation, especially in case of overdosage. We investigated risperidone effects on action potentials recorded from rabbit Purkinje fibers and ventricular myocardium and on potassium currents recorded from atrial and ventricular rabbit isolated myocytes. The results showed that (1) risperidone (0.1-3 microM) exerted potent lengthening effects on action potential duration in both tissues with higher potency in Purkinje fibers and caused the development of early afterdepolarizations at low stimulation rate; (2) risperidone (0.03-0.3 microM) reduced significantly the current density of the delayed rectifier current and at 30 microM decreased the transient outward and the inward rectifier currents. This study might explain QT prolongation observed in some patients treated with risperidone and gives enlightenment on the risk of cardiac adverse events.
Almoguera, B; Riveiro-Alvarez, R; Lopez-Castroman, J; Dorado, P; Vaquero-Lorenzo, C; Fernandez-Piqueras, J; Llerena, A; Abad-Santos, F; Baca-García, E; Dal-Ré, R; Ayuso, C
Risperidone non-compliance is often high due to undesirable side effects, whose development is in part genetically determined. Studies with genetic variants involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of risperidone have yielded inconsistent results. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the putative association of genetic markers with the occurrence of four frequently observed adverse events secondary to risperidone treatment: sleepiness, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms and sexual adverse events. A series of 111 schizophrenia inpatients were genotyped for genetic variants previously associated with or potentially involved in risperidone response. Presence of adverse events was the main variable and potential confounding factors were considered. Allele 16Gly of ADRB2 was significantly associated with a higher risk of sexual adverse events. There were other non-significant trends for DRD3 9Gly and SLC6A4 S alleles. Our results, although preliminary, provide new candidate variants of potential use in risperidone safety prediction.
Miller, Del D.
Abstract Introduction Little is known about risperidone metabolism in a clinical sample, where polypharmacy is common. Such knowledge is important since several of its side effects are dose dependent. Methods Medically healthy patients aged 7 to 17 years old treated with risperidone for at least 6 months were enrolled. Trough serum risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentrations were measured. Results One hundred seven participants (92% males) were recruited, representing a heterogenous clinical group with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive behavior disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, tic disorders, or psychotic disorders. Risperidone had been used at a mean dose of 0.03 mg/kg, for a mean 2.5 years, predominantly to treat irritability and aggression. Cytochrome CYP2D6 inhibitors were divided into prominent (fluoxetine, bupropion, and lamotrigine), intermediate (sertraline), and weak inhibition groups (citalopram or escitalopram). The concentrations of risperidone and its metabolite were strongly associated with the dose of risperidone and time since the last dose and, to a lesser extent, with male sex. In addition, risperidone concentration increased with pubertal stage (p < 0.05), while body mass index z-score (p = 0.001) predicted a higher 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentration. The use of CYP2D6 inhibitors was much more strongly associated with risperidone concentration (p < 0.0001) than with its metabolite's (p = 0.06). Conclusions In chronically treated youths, the metabolism of risperidone depends on the stage of sexual development, whereas that of 9-hydroxyrisperidone varies with body fat. Moreover, CYP2D6 inhibitors more strongly affect risperidone metabolism than that of its metabolite. The clinical implications of these findings, in relation to efficacy and tolerability, deserve further investigation. PMID:21486167
Calarge, Chadi Albert; Miller, Del D
Little is known about risperidone metabolism in a clinical sample, where polypharmacy is common. Such knowledge is important since several of its side effects are dose dependent. Medically healthy patients aged 7 to 17 years old treated with risperidone for at least 6 months were enrolled. Trough serum risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentrations were measured. One hundred seven participants (92% males) were recruited, representing a heterogenous clinical group with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive behavior disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, tic disorders, or psychotic disorders. Risperidone had been used at a mean dose of 0.03 mg/kg, for a mean 2.5 years, predominantly to treat irritability and aggression. Cytochrome CYP2D6 inhibitors were divided into prominent (fluoxetine, bupropion, and lamotrigine), intermediate (sertraline), and weak inhibition groups (citalopram or escitalopram). The concentrations of risperidone and its metabolite were strongly associated with the dose of risperidone and time since the last dose and, to a lesser extent, with male sex. In addition, risperidone concentration increased with pubertal stage (p < 0.05), while body mass index z-score (p = 0.001) predicted a higher 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentration. The use of CYP2D6 inhibitors was much more strongly associated with risperidone concentration (p < 0.0001) than with its metabolite's (p = 0.06). In chronically treated youths, the metabolism of risperidone depends on the stage of sexual development, whereas that of 9-hydroxyrisperidone varies with body fat. Moreover, CYP2D6 inhibitors more strongly affect risperidone metabolism than that of its metabolite. The clinical implications of these findings, in relation to efficacy and tolerability, deserve further investigation.
Leahey, W. J.; Neill, J. D.; Varma, M. P. S.; Shanks, R. G.
1 Plasma levels of propranolol were measured at intervals after the oral administration of 160 mg propranolol and 160 mg L.A. propranolol in ten subjects who received both drugs on separate occasions. 2 Mean peak plasma concentration of propranolol occurred 2 h after propranolol and 10 h after the L.A. formulation; the peak concentration with the former was four times that with the latter. At 24 h the plasma level was significantly higher after L.A. propranolol. 3 Observations were made in nine healthy volunteers who exercised before and at intervals after the oral administration of 160 mg propranolol and 160 mg L.A. propranolol. 4 Propranolol produced a maximum reduction (27.84 ± 2.4%) in the exercise tachycardia at 3 h and L.A. propranolol a maximum reduction (22.00 ± 1.73%) at 6 h. The effects at 24 h were 9.24 ± 1.55 and 16.79 ± 2.16% respectively. 5 Five subjects were given 160 mg propranolol as a single dose daily for 8 days and on a separate occasion similar treatment with L.A. propranolol. Subjects were exercised and blood samples were taken before and 3 h after each dose on days 1 to 5 and on day 8. 6 The reduction in the exercise tachycardia 3 h after propranolol ranged from 33.0 to 36.9% and 24 h after propranolol from 12.2 to 20.8%. The corresponding values after L.A. propranolol were 26.8 and 31.4 (3 h values) and 20.4 and 25.0 (trough values). 7 The trough plasma levels of propranolol during administration of propranolol ranged from 10.2 to 19.4 ng/ml and peak values from 202.2 to 245.0 ng/ml. The corresponding values after L.A. propranolol were 12.5 to 17.5 (trough values) and 18.4 to 50.0 (peak values) ng/ml. 8 These observations show that the new long acting formulation of propranolol produces a significant reduction of an exercise tachycardia throughout a 24 h period without a very high initial effect during single and multiple dosing. This formulation should be suitable for once a day administration. PMID:7356891
Correll, Christoph U; Citrome, Leslie; Haddad, Peter M; Lauriello, John; Olfson, Mark; Calloway, Stephen M; Kane, John M
Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) are among the most effective treatments in psychiatry, yet they remain underutilized in clinical practice. Although LAIs are typically used to maintain treatment adherence in patients with chronic schizophrenia, recent research has suggested that they may also provide an effective treatment strategy for patients with early-phase or first-episode disease. In October 2015, a group of 8 experts on the management of schizophrenia and LAIs met to evaluate the evidence surrounding the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of LAIs and to develop practical recommendations regarding the clinical use, education, and unmet needs related to LAIs. Participants were also asked to rate the importance of several patient characteristics when choosing an LAI versus an oral antipsychotic, from the perspectives of 4 different stakeholder groups: patients, health care professionals, families, and payers. The evidence review demonstrated that LAIs are superior to placebo for acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia and, in general, appear to be similar to one another in terms of schizophrenia relapse prevention. Study design impacts the demonstrated efficacy of LAIs versus oral antipsychotics, but recent database and randomized controlled studies favor the use of LAIs in early-phase schizophrenia patients. LAIs vary considerably in their propensity to cause certain adverse effects, including weight gain, metabolic effects, extrapyramidal symptoms, and prolactin elevation, and these differences can be used to help guide LAI selection. Some studies, but not all, have demonstrated significant reductions in health care utilization or overall costs with LAIs. The expert panel identified several barriers to LAI use in current practice, including clinician lack of knowledge, negative attitudes about LAIs, and resource and cost issues. The participants also identified a number of additional factors that should be considered when weighing
Liu, Xia; Zhang, Hong-xia; Wang, Li-ping; Fu, Wei-ping
To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of half-dose depot long-acting triptorelin in the therapy of endometriosis. The efficacy and adverse effects of routine-dose or half-dose triptorelin in postoperative endometriosis patients were prospectively observed. A total of 186 postoperative patients with moderate or severe endometriosis received an intramuscular injection of triptorelin every 28 days for 6 times. They were randomly divided into 3 groups, i.e. half-dose group (n = 99): 1.875 mg each time; "draw-back" group (n = 52): 3.75 mg first time, then 1.875 mg each time; and routine-dose group (n = 35): 3.75 mg each time. Amenorrhea was effectively induced in all patients after the second injection. There was no significant difference in the rate of serum E2 level at Day 28 of every injection below the upper limit of "estrogen threshold (110 - 146 pmol/L)" not stimulating ectopic endometrium proliferation among half-dose group, "draw-back" group and routine-dose group (99% vs 100% and 99.0%, P > 0.05), the percentage of E2 < 37 pmol/L in E2 < 110 pmol/L in half-dose group was significantly lower than that in "draw-back" and routine-dose groups after 2-5(th) injection (69% vs 79% and 85%, P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference after first half-dose and routine-dose injection (71% vs 73%, P > 0.05). No significant difference existed in the rate of pelvic pain relief during the first returning menstruation and the recurrence rate of endometriosis within 1 year postoperation among three groups (both P > 0.05). However, the incidences of menopausal syndrome and severe menopausal syndrome in half-dose group were significantly lower than those in "draw-back" and routine-dose groups (both P < 0.01). And the incompletion rate of six-time drug for severe menopause syndrome was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) while the completion rate of six-time drug use in half-dose group was significantly higher (P < 0.05). As a postoperative adjuvant, half-dose depot
Background Discontinuation of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia can interrupt improvement and exacerbate the illness. Reasons for discontinuing treatment are multifactorial and include adherence, efficacy and tolerability issues. Poor adherence may be addressed through non-pharmacological approaches as well as through pharmacological ones, ie ensured delivery of medication, such as that achieved with long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics. However, attitudes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards LAI antipsychotics may influence their prescribing decisions and may influence medication choices offered to patients. We therefore conducted a survey to investigate factors driving LAI use as well as physician and nurse attitudes to LAI antipsychotics and to different injection sites. Methods An independent market research agency conducted the survey of HCPs across Europe. Participants were recruited by telephone and completed the survey online. Using conjoint analyses (a multivariate statistical technique analysing preferences on the basis of ranking a limited number of attributes which are presented repetitively), attitudes to oral versus LAI medication and gluteal versus deltoid injection routes were assessed. Results A total of 891 HCPs across Europe were surveyed. Of these, 40% would choose LAI antipsychotics for first episode patients whereas 90% would select LAI antipsychotics for chronic patients with two to five psychotic episodes. Dominant elements in antipsychotic choice were low sedation but no tardive dyskinesia, no or mild pain at injection and low risk of embarrassment or impact upon therapeutic alliance. Eighty-six per cent of respondents considered that having the choice of a deltoid as well as gluteal administration site was beneficial over not having that choice. Two thirds of respondents said they agreed that medication administration via the deltoid muscle may reduce social embarrassment associated with LAI antipsychotics and most
Trussell, James; Hassan, Fareen; Lowin, Julia; Law, Amy; Filonenko, Anna
Objectives This analysis aimed to estimate the average annual cost of available reversible contraceptive methods in the United States. In line with literature suggesting long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods become increasingly cost-saving with extended duration of use, it aimed to also quantify minimum duration of use required for LARC methods to achieve cost-neutrality relative to other reversible contraceptive methods while taking into consideration discontinuation. Study design A three-state economic model was developed to estimate relative costs of no method (chance), four short-acting reversible (SARC) methods (oral contraceptive, ring, patch and injection) and three LARC methods [implant, copper intrauterine device (IUD) and levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) 20 mcg/24 h (total content 52 mg)]. The analysis was conducted over a 5-year time horizon in 1000 women aged 20–29 years. Method-specific failure and discontinuation rates were based on published literature. Costs associated with drug acquisition, administration and failure (defined as an unintended pregnancy) were considered. Key model outputs were annual average cost per method and minimum duration of LARC method usage to achieve cost-savings compared to SARC methods. Results The two least expensive methods were copper IUD ($304 per women, per year) and LNG-IUS 20 mcg/24 h ($308). Cost of SARC methods ranged between $432 (injection) and $730 (patch), per women, per year. A minimum of 2.1 years of LARC usage would result in cost-savings compared to SARC usage. Conclusions This analysis finds that even if LARC methods are not used for their full durations of efficacy, they become cost-saving relative to SARC methods within 3 years of use. Implications Previous economic arguments in support of using LARC methods have been criticized for not considering that LARC methods are not always used for their full duration of efficacy. This study calculated that cost-savings from LARC
Background Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations are not widely used in routine practice even though they offer advantages in terms of relapse prevention. As part of a process to improve the quality of care, the French Association for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (AFPBN) elaborated guidelines for the use and management of antipsychotic depots in clinical practice. Methods Based on a literature review, a written survey was prepared that asked about 539 options in 32 specific clinical situations concerning 3 fields: target-population, prescription and use, and specific populations. We contacted 53 national experts, 42 of whom (79%) completed the survey. The options were scored using a 9-point scale derived from the Rand Corporation and the University of California in the USA. According to the answers, a categorical rank (first-line/preferred choice, second-line/alternate choice, third-line/usually inappropriate) was assigned to each option. The first-line option was defined as a strategy rated as 7–9 (extremely appropriate) by at least 50% of the experts. The following results summarize the key recommendations from the guidelines after data analysis and interpretation of the results of the survey by the scientific committee. Results LAI antipsychotics are indicated in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder and bipolar disorder. LAI second-generation antipsychotics are recommended as maintenance treatment after the first episode of schizophrenia. LAI first-generation antipsychotics are not recommended in the early course of schizophrenia and are not usually appropriate in bipolar disorder. LAI antipsychotics have long been viewed as a treatment that should only be used for a small subgroup of patients with non-compliance, frequent relapses or who pose a risk to others. The panel considers that LAI antipsychotics should be considered and systematically proposed to any patients for whom maintenance
Mestorino, Nora; Marchetti, María Laura; Lucas, Mariana Florencia; Modamio, Pilar; Zeinsteger, Pedro; Fernández Lastra, Cecilia; Segarra, Ignacio; Mariño, Eduardo Luis
The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two commercial long-acting formulations based on oxytetracycline (OTC) hydrochloride between the reference formulation (Terramycin LA, Pfizer) and a test formulation (Cyamicin LA, Fort Dodge Saude Animal). Both formulations were administered in a single intramuscular route at a dose of 20 mg OTC/kg of body weight in clinically healthy bovines. The study was carried out according to a one-period parallel design. Plasma samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of quantitation was 0.050 μg/mL with an accuracy of 101.67% with a coefficient of variation of 13.15%. Analysis of variance and 90% confidence interval tests were used to compare the bioavailability parameters (maximum plasma concentration, C max, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity, AUC0-∞) of both products. In the case of the time to maximum concentration (T max), non-parametric tests based on Wilcoxon's signed rank test were preferred. The comparison of the mean AUC0-∞ values did not reveal any significant differences (311.40 ± 93.05 μg h/mL and 287.71 ± 45.31 μg h/mL, respectively). The results were similar for the T max (3.58 ± 0.90 h versus 3.42 ± 0.51 h). However, when comparing the mean C max some significant differences were found (8.73 ± 3.66 μg/mL and 10.43 ± 3.84 μg/mL, respectively). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of AUC0-∞ and T max values for the reference and test product are within the interval 80-125%, but the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of C max falls outside the proposed interval. It was concluded that C max of test product are not within the 20% of those of the reference, thus suggesting that test OTC is not bioequivalent to the reference formulation.
Trussell, James; Hassan, Fareen; Lowin, Julia; Law, Amy; Filonenko, Anna
This analysis aimed to estimate the average annual cost of available reversible contraceptive methods in the United States. In line with literature suggesting long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods become increasingly cost-saving with extended duration of use, it aimed to also quantify minimum duration of use required for LARC methods to achieve cost-neutrality relative to other reversible contraceptive methods while taking into consideration discontinuation. A three-state economic model was developed to estimate relative costs of no method (chance), four short-acting reversible (SARC) methods (oral contraceptive, ring, patch and injection) and three LARC methods [implant, copper intrauterine device (IUD) and levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) 20 mcg/24 h (total content 52 mg)]. The analysis was conducted over a 5-year time horizon in 1000 women aged 20-29 years. Method-specific failure and discontinuation rates were based on published literature. Costs associated with drug acquisition, administration and failure (defined as an unintended pregnancy) were considered. Key model outputs were annual average cost per method and minimum duration of LARC method usage to achieve cost-savings compared to SARC methods. The two least expensive methods were copper IUD ($304 per women, per year) and LNG-IUS 20 mcg/24 h ($308). Cost of SARC methods ranged between $432 (injection) and $730 (patch), per women, per year. A minimum of 2.1 years of LARC usage would result in cost-savings compared to SARC usage. This analysis finds that even if LARC methods are not used for their full durations of efficacy, they become cost-saving relative to SARC methods within 3 years of use. Previous economic arguments in support of using LARC methods have been criticized for not considering that LARC methods are not always used for their full duration of efficacy. This study calculated that cost-savings from LARC methods relative to SARC methods, with discontinuation rates
Broecker, Jane; Jurich, Joan; Fuchs, Robin
The objective was to determine if there is a relationship between patients' financial responsibility (out-of-pocket expenses) and placement of long-acting, reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods among girls and women living in Appalachia who expressed interest in LARC device placement. A retrospective chart analysis of patients prescribed an intrauterine device (IUD) or an etonogestrel implant between December 2011 and July 2013 in an Appalachian private practice was performed. Of the 571 identified patients aged 13 to 50, the majority were Caucasian (98.7%) and using Medicaid (53.2%). Outcomes measured the patients' decision regarding whether to use LARC after being informed of out-of-pocket expenses. There was a dramatic increase in the proportion of patients who had LARC methods placed if expense was under $200 (p<.001). Placement rate for privately insured patients was 86.6% for those who paid less than $200 compared to 27.8% for those who paid $200 or more. Medicaid patients, for whom the device was free, had a 78.0% placement rate. For every additional $100 patients had to pay out of pocket, the odds of deciding to use the prescribed LARC method decreased. LARC methods are utilized significantly more often when out-of-pocket cost is low. Cost appears to be a significant barrier to device placement for the group of privately insured Appalachian patients with out-of-pocket expenses over $200. Despite the improvements in coverage for many women provided under the Affordable Care Act, cost may remain a barrier for privately insured women who are required to pay some or all of the cost of LARC methods. Unintended pregnancy rates in the United States remain high, especially in Appalachia. One contributing factor is reliance on user-dependent methods which have significantly high typical use failure rates. Placement of LARC methods for more patients could decrease unintended pregnancy, but device costs may be one barrier to utilization, even for those with private
Ross, Eric L.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Sax, Paul E.; Paltiel, A. David; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Losina, Elena
Background. Long-acting antiretroviral therapy (LA-ART) is currently under development and could improve outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with poor daily ART adherence. Methods. We used a computer simulation model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 LA-ART strategies vs daily oral ART for all: (1) LA-ART for patients with multiple ART failures; (2) second-line LA-ART for those failing first-line therapy; and (3) first-line LA-ART for ART-naive patients. We calculated the maximum annual cost of LA-ART at which each strategy would be cost-effective at a willingness to pay of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year. We assumed HIV RNA suppression on daily ART ranged from 0% to 91% depending on adherence, vs 91% suppression on LA-ART regardless of daily ART adherence. In sensitivity analyses, we varied adherence, efficacy of LA-ART and daily ART, and loss to follow-up. Results. Relative to daily ART, LA-ART increased overall life expectancy by 0.15–0.24 years, and by 0.51–0.89 years among poorly adherent patients, depending on the LA-ART strategy. LA-ART after multiple failures became cost-effective at an annual drug cost of $48 000; in sensitivity analysis, this threshold varied from $40 000–$70 000. Second-line LA-ART and first-line LA-ART became cost-effective at an annual drug cost of $26 000–$31 000 and $24 000–$27 000, vs $28 000 and $25 000 for current second-line and first-line regimens. Conclusions. LA-ART could improve survival of HIV patients, especially those with poor daily ART adherence. At an annual cost of $40 000–$70 000, LA-ART will offer good value for patients with multiple prior failures. To be a viable option for first- or second-line therapy, however, its cost must approach that of currently available regimens. PMID:25583979
Boddam-Whetham, Luke; Gul, Xaher; Al-Kobati, Eman; Gorter, Anna C
ABSTRACT In conflict-affected states, vouchers have reduced barriers to reproductive health services and have enabled health programs to use targeted subsidies to increase uptake of specific health services. Vouchers can also be used to channel funds to public- and private-service providers and improve service quality. The Yamaan Foundation for Health and Social Development in Yemen and the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) in Pakistan—both working with Options Consultancy Services—have developed voucher programs that subsidize voluntary access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs) of family planning in their respective fragile countries. The programs focus on LARCs and PMs because these methods are particularly difficult for poor women to access due to their cost and to provider biases against offering them. Using estimates of expected voluntary uptake of LARCs and PMs for 2014 based on contraceptive prevalence rates, and comparing these with uptake of LARCs and PMs through the voucher programs, we show the substantial increase in service utilization that vouchers can enable by contributing to an expanded method choice. In the governorate of Lahj, Yemen, vouchers for family planning led to an estimated 38% increase in 2014 over the expected use of LARCs and PMs (720 vs. 521 expected). We applied the same approach in 13 districts of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and Sindh provinces in Pakistan. Our calculations suggest that vouchers enabled 10 times more women than expected to choose LARCs and PMs in 2014 in those areas of Pakistan (73,639 vs. 6,455 expected). Voucher programs can promote and maintain access to family planning services where existing health systems are hampered. Vouchers are a flexible financing approach that enable expansion of contraceptive choice and the inclusion of the private sector in service delivery to the poor. They can keep financial resources flowing where the public sector is prevented from
Trussell, James; Guthrie, Kate
To discover whether a hand-out explaining the benefits of intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs) and implants could increase their uptake in Hull, UK. We developed a simple double-sided A4 hand-out. On one side was a script with pictures of copper and levonorgestrel IUCs next to a 20 pence coin and of an implant beside a hairgrip. On the other side was the three-tiered effectiveness chart published in the textbook Contraceptive Technology. We implemented the project in family planning (FP), abortion and antenatal clinics and general practitioner (GP) surgeries. The plan was that the receptionist would give the hand-out to every woman and ask her to read it before seeing a clinician. We evaluated the hand-out in FP clinics and GP practices because routine electronic monitoring reports were available only for these locations. There was no impact in GP practices. There was no overall impact in FP clinics, with the exception of the service hub, in which there was an increase in the proportion of women receiving IUCs or implants of 15.0% between the periods October 2011-April 2012 and May 2012-November 2012 (p=0.0002). This clinic is open 6 days per week and has permanent sexual health staff on the reception desk. The proportion of women receiving IUCs or implants returned to baseline in December 2012-November 2013, when a change in clinic procedure to reduce waiting times caused staff to stop dispensing hand-outs. This was not a formal study, so there was no research coordinator to monitor the project. We think that there was no impact among GPs because the project was not implemented by them. The project was poorly implemented at the four satellite FP clinics. Only the service hub implemented the project, where it had a clear impact. We conclude that when implemented as intended, this simple, very low-cost long-acting reversible contraception intervention was highly effective and also extremely cost effective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
Mestorino, Nora; Marchetti, María Laura; Lucas, Mariana Florencia; Modamio, Pilar; Zeinsteger, Pedro; Fernández Lastra, Cecilia; Segarra, Ignacio; Mariño, Eduardo Luis
The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two commercial long-acting formulations based on oxytetracycline (OTC) hydrochloride between the reference formulation (Terramycin LA, Pfizer) and a test formulation (Cyamicin LA, Fort Dodge Saude Animal). Both formulations were administered in a single intramuscular route at a dose of 20 mg OTC/kg of body weight in clinically healthy bovines. The study was carried out according to a one-period parallel design. Plasma samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of quantitation was 0.050 μg/mL with an accuracy of 101.67% with a coefficient of variation of 13.15%. Analysis of variance and 90% confidence interval tests were used to compare the bioavailability parameters (maximum plasma concentration, Cmax, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity, AUC0–∞) of both products. In the case of the time to maximum concentration (Tmax), non-parametric tests based on Wilcoxon’s signed rank test were preferred. The comparison of the mean AUC0–∞ values did not reveal any significant differences (311.40 ± 93.05 μg h/mL and 287.71 ± 45.31 μg h/mL, respectively). The results were similar for the Tmax (3.58 ± 0.90 h versus 3.42 ± 0.51 h). However, when comparing the mean Cmax some significant differences were found (8.73 ± 3.66 μg/mL and 10.43 ± 3.84 μg/mL, respectively). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of AUC0–∞ and Tmax values for the reference and test product are within the interval 80–125%, but the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of Cmax falls outside the proposed interval. It was concluded that Cmax of test product are not within the 20% of those of the reference, thus suggesting that test OTC is not bioequivalent to the reference formulation. PMID:27446938
Schoretsanitis, Georgios; Stegmann, Benedikt; Hiemke, Christoph; Gründer, Gerhard; Schruers, Koen R J; Walther, Sebastian; Lammertz, Sarah E; Haen, Ekkehard; Paulzen, Michael
The aim of the study was to investigate a correlation between plasma concentrations of risperidone (RIS), its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-RIS) and the active moiety (AM) (RIS + 9-OH-RIS), and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in a naturalistic sample. Plasma concentrations of RIS, 9-OH-RIS, and AM in patients out of a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database complaining ADRs were categorized according to the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser side effect rating scales (UKU) (n = 97) and compared to patients without ADRs (n = 398). Patients in the ADR group received a significantly lower daily dosage of risperidone (trimmed mean 3.64 mg/day) than patients without ADRs (4.40 mg/day). No differences were found for active moiety plasma concentrations between the groups (p = 0.454). Differences were detected only in the case of dose-adjusted plasma concentration values (concentration-by-dose, C/D) for 9-OH-RIS, being higher in patients reporting ADRs (4.78 ng/mL/mg) than in patients without ADRs (4.3 ng/mL/mg) (p = 0.037 for Mann-Whitney U test). Note that differences for non-adjusted 9-OH-RIS plasma levels between groups failed to reach significance (p = 0.697). Our findings are consistent with previous data supporting a prominent role of 9-hydroxyrisperidone, but not of risperidone with regard to ADRs. When studying the various subgroups of reported ADRs separately, the size of these subsamples offers some plausible limitations by reducing the power of the analysis.
Yeh, Wei-Lan; Lin, Hui-Yi; Wu, Hung-Ming; Chen, Dar-Ren
Tamoxifen has long been used and still is the most commonly used endocrine therapy for treatment of both early and advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in pre- and post-menopause women. Tamoxifen exerts its cytotoxic effect primarily through cytostasis which is associated with the accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Apoptotic activity can also be exerted by tamoxifen which involves cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 7, caspase 3, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak have also been observed. In addition, stress response protein of GRP 94 and GRP 78 have also been induced by tamoxifen in our study. However, side effects occur during tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer patients. Researching into combination regimen of tamoxifen and drug(s) that relieves tamoxifen-induced hot flushes is important, because drug interactions may decrease tamoxifen efficacy. Risperidone has been shown to be effective in reducing or eliminating hot flushes on women with hormonal variations. In this present study, we demonstrated that combination of tamoxifen with risperidone did not interfered tamoxifen-induced cytotoxic effects in both in vitro and in vivo models, while fluoxetine abrogated the effects of tamoxifen. This is the first paper suggesting the possibility of combination treatment of tamoxifen with risperidone in breast cancer patients, providing a conceivable resolution of tamoxifen-induced side effects without interfering the efficacy of tamoxifen against breast cancer. PMID:24886861
Kishi, Taro; Oya, Kazuto; Iwata, Nakao
This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the advantages of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI-APs) over oral antipsychotics (OAPs) with regard to efficacy and safety for patients with recent-onset psychotic disorders. Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. We identified five RCTs (1022 patients, mean study duration=18±7.59 months) that compared LAI-APs (paliperidone or risperidone) with OAPs. Pooled LAI-APs did not outperform OAPs in terms of the preventing of relapse (N=3, n=875). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2)=76%), with one study showing no superiority of LAI-APs over OAPs [Malla 2013: risk ratio (RR)=1.83, 95%CI=0.70-4.77, n=77] and the other two studies showing LAI-APs to be superior [Schreiner 2015: [RR=0.71, 95%CI=0.51-0.97, number needed to treat (NNT)=-17, n=715, Subotnik 2015: RR=0.15, 95%CI=0.04-0.63, NNT=-4, n=83]. Pooling the studies, there were no significant differences between LAI-APs and OAPs in the improvement of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores or in discontinuation due to all-cause, adverse events (AEs), and death, but LAI-APs outperformed OAPs in terms of discontinuation due to inefficacy (RR=0.34, NNT=-50) and nonadherence (RR=0.30, NNT=-33). However, the LAI-APs were associated with a higher incidence of at least one AE (RR=1.13) and tremor (RR=2.38) compared with OAPs.
Hollis, Chris P; Thompson, Anne
We report on acute and transient dyskinesia occurring within hours of taking modified-release methylphenidate (Concerta XL) in a stimulant-naïve 7-year-old boy who had recently stopped taking risperidone. We propose that the mechanism of this adverse drug reaction is likely to be an interaction between supersensitive dopamine receptors and acute exposure to an indirect dopamine agonist. Clinicians need to be aware of this potential side effect, and to use the combination of psychostimulants and neuroleptic drugs with caution.
Gutiérrez, M; Gibert, J; Bobes, J; Herráiz, M L; Fernández, A
A total of 439 schizophrenic patients according to ICD-10 criteria was included in an open label postmarketing surveillance study to evaluate the efficiency of resperidone as maintenance treatment of the schizophrenic acute exacerbation. The efficiency of risperidone was assessed according the number of patients who responded to treatment, the duration of the hospitalization period an the decrease in the total score as well as in the different clusters of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) during the study period. A patient was considered as responder to treatment when a decrease of, at least, a 20% was achieved in the total BPRS score while being treated in monotherapy with risperidone. Safety was evaluated by the UKU subscale for neurological side effects and spontaneous reports. Patients were evaluated at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 6 and 12. Forty patients (9.1%) were excluded from the statistical analysis due to protocol violation. Eighty one patients (20.3%) dropped out due to lost for follow-up (n = 25; 6.3%), new hospitalization (n = 23; 5.8%), inefficacy (n = 12; 3%), side effects (n = 7; 1.8%) and others (n = 14; 3.5%). Risperidone was used at doses between 1.5 and 19 mg daily (mean dosage: 7.66 +/- 3.07 mg daily). The duration of the hospitalization when dosages of risperidone of less than 6 mg daily were used was 32.1 days. However, when higher dosages were used, the number of days in-hospital decreased (26.6 days at dosages between 6 and 9 mg daily and 25.3 days when dosages higher than 9 mg daily were used). There was a significant reduction, versus baseline, in the BPRS mean total scores as well as in it's different clusters. (positive symptoms, negative symptoms, anxiety/depression) from week one onwards. At week 1, 66.9% of the patients had an improvement (20% versus baseline in their BPRS total score. At the end of the study period, 93.2% of the patients had an improvement (20% in their BPRS total score. There was a significant reduction in
Borges, Fernando de Almeida; Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino; Heckler, Rafael Pereira; Neves, Juliana Paniago Lordello; Lopes, Fernando Gonçalves; Onizuka, Marcel Kenzo Vilalba
The use of long-acting avermectins (AVMs) in cattle to treat infections with gastrointestinal nematodes was common in Brazil until its prohibition by state authorities. The prohibition; however, was rescinded in 2015, but a scientific discussion of the pros and cons of the use of these formulations is necessary. We evaluated the levels of resistance to 1.0 and 3.5% doramectin and to 3.15% ivermectin in cattle. The worms in animals treated with 3.5% doramectin were characterized by the suppression of oviposition and by a higher proportion of adult females carrying no eggs. Haemonchus placei, Cooperia punctata, C. pectinata, C. spatulata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum were resistant to the above compositions. The administration of long-acting AVM formulations did not result in a higher efficacy against these helminth populations.
Chen, Haojun; Wang, Guohao; Lang, Lixin; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Liu, Yi; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Xianzhong; Wu, Hua; Zhu, Lei; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan
The efficacy of therapeutic drugs is highly dependent on their optimal in vivo pharmacokinetics. Albumin conjugation is considered to be one of the most effective means of protracting the short lifespan of peptides and proteins. In this study, we proposed a novel platform for developing long lasting therapeutics by conjugating a small molecular albumin binding moiety, truncated Evans blue, to either peptides or proteins. Using the anti-diabetic peptide drug Exendin-4 as a model peptide, we synthesized a new long-acting Exendin-4 derivative (denoted as Abextide). Through complexation with albumin in situ, the biological half-life of Abextide was significantly extended. The hypoglycemic effect of Abextide was also improved remarkably over Exendin-4. Thus, Abextide has considerable potential to treat type 2 diabetes. This strategy as a general technology platform can be applied to other small molecules and biologics for the development of long-acting therapeutic drugs.
Chen, Haojun; Wang, Guohao; Lang, Lixin; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Liu, Yi; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Xianzhong; Wu, Hua; Zhu, Lei; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan
The efficacy of therapeutic drugs is highly dependent on their optimal in vivo pharmacokinetics. Albumin conjugation is considered to be one of the most effective means of protracting the short lifespan of peptides and proteins. In this study, we proposed a novel platform for developing long lasting therapeutics by conjugating a small molecular albumin binding moiety, truncated Evans blue, to either peptides or proteins. Using the anti-diabetic peptide drug Exendin-4 as a model peptide, we synthesized a new long-acting Exendin-4 derivative (denoted as Abextide). Through complexation with albumin in situ, the biological half-life of Abextide was significantly extended. The hypoglycemic effect of Abextide was also improved remarkably over Exendin-4. Thus, Abextide has considerable potential to treat type 2 diabetes. This strategy as a general technology platform can be applied to other small molecules and biologics for the development of long-acting therapeutic drugs. PMID:26877782
Yarman, S; Yalın, G Y; Dogansen, S C; Canbaz, B; Tanrıkulu, S; Akyuz, F
Somatostatin analogs control GH/IGF-1 excess in acromegaly. Somatostatin receptors also mediate the complex effects of somatostatin on the gastrointestinal tract and may be defensive in inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis. We present a patient who showed good response to long-acting octreotide (OCT-LAR) treatment in terms of both acromegaly and ulcerative colitis (UC). A 58-year-old female patient with diagnosis of acromegaly and ulcerative colitis was started on long-acting somatostatin treatment as a first-line treatment for acromegaly as she refused to undergo transsphenoidal surgery. During the follow-up period, a significant amelioration was also observed in the course of ulcerative colitis, and clinical remission of both diseases was achieved uneventfully. Somatostatin appears to be a promising candidate in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Curry, Eardie A; Palla, Shana; Hung, Frank; Arbuckle, Rebecca; Bruera, Eduardo
The prescribing patterns and purchasing costs of long-acting opioids over nine years at an academic oncology hospital were studied. Data were collected for doses of transdermal fentanyl, methadone (all routes of administration), and oral sustained-release morphine and oxycodone dispensed for individual inpatient use for the month of October for each year between 1996 and 2004. The dates included in the retrieval were selected to document long-acting opioid use before and after the establishment of the palliative care and rehabilitation medicine department. For each opioid the number of milligrams dispensed daily per patient was determined and converted into a morphine-equivalent daily dose (MEDD). The average wholesale price per dosing unit of each drug during each period studied was obtained from internal databases. Costs were calculated by multiplying the number of units dispensed by the average wholesale price per unit and then normalized to 1996 U.S. dollars. The mean aggregate cost for a single MEDD in a month was determined by multiplying the mean cost per MEDD for each agent by that agent's percent contribution to the total MEDDs dispensed in that month. Long-acting opioid and methadone usage increased from 1996 to 2004. Between 1996 and 2004, the mean cost of a single MEDD dropped from $0.0738 to $0.0330. During the study period, the median daily cost to treat one patient dropped from $5.96 to $2.80. Long-acting opioid use increased and cost per MEDD decreased at an academic oncology hospital between 1996 and 2004. The decreased cost of purchasing opioids was attributed to the increased proportional use of methadone.
Hoogeveen, J H; van der Veer, E
A 35-year-old man with a paraphilia was treated with long-acting gonadorelin. The desired result was reduced preoccupation with sexuality, but there were various side effects including a serious amount of bone loss. We believe that more attention should be given to the adverse effects of long-term treatment with triptorelin. In our view the drug regimen needs to be revised.
Pilon, Dominic; Tandon, Neeta; Lafeuille, Marie-Hélène; Kamstra, Rhiannon; Emond, Bruno; Lefebvre, Patrick; Joshi, Kruti
Second-generation long-acting injectable therapies (SGA-LAIs) may reduce health care resource utilization (HRU) and health care costs compared with daily oral atypical antipsychotics (OAAs) in patients with schizophrenia due to reduced dosing frequency, delivery/monitoring by a health care provider, and improved adherence. The aim of the present study was to compare treatment patterns, HRU, and Medicaid spending in patients with schizophrenia initiated on SGA-LAIs (overall and according to agent) versus OAAs. Medicaid claims data (2010-2015) from 6 states were used to identify adult schizophrenia patients initiated on SGA-LAIs or OAAs. Treatment patterns (proportion of days covered [PDC] ≥80% and persistence [no gap ≥30, 60, or 90 days] to index treatment), HRU, and costs were evaluated over 12 months and compared by using multivariable logistic, Poisson, and ordinary least squares regression models, respectively. P values for HRU and cost outcomes were obtained from a nonparametric bootstrap procedure. Costs (2015 US dollars) reflect the Medicaid payer's perspective before any rebate. Overall, 3307 and 21,355 patients initiated SGA-LAIs and OAAs, respectively (paliperidone palmitate LAI [PP-LAI; n = 2182], risperidone LAI [n = 968], aripiprazole LAI [n = 108], and olanzapine LAI [n = 49]). During follow-up and compared with OAA patients, SGA-LAI patients were more likely to reach PDC ≥80% (odds ratio [OR], 1.28; P < 0.001) and be persistent (eg, no gap ≥60 days; OR, 1.45; P < 0.001) to the index treatment. Relative to OAA patients, SGA-LAI patients had fewer long-term care days (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; P < 0.001) and home care visits (IRR, 0.75; P < 0.001) but more mental health institute (IRR, 1.16; P < 0.001) and 1-day mental health institute (IRR, 1.16; P < 0.001) admissions. Moreover, PP-LAI patients had fewer inpatient days (IRR, 0.78; P = 0.004) versus OAA patients. SGA-LAI patients had lower medical costs (mean monthly cost difference
Marrus, Natasha; Underwood-Riordan, Heather; Randall, Fellana; Zhang, Yi; Constantino, John N
The purpose of this study was to investigate the course of autistic symptoms, using a quantitative measure of core autistic traits, among risperidone-treated children who participated in a 10 year life course longitudinal study. Parents completed surveys of intervention history, as well as serial symptom severity measurements using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), on their autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-affected children. Fifty participants (out of a total of 184 with full intervention histories) were reported to have been treated with risperidone during the course of the study. Serial SRS scores during risperidone treatment were available for a majority of children whose parents reported a positive effect from risperidone. Two thirds of risperidone-treated children (n=33) were reported by parents to have improved by taking the medication, with the principal effects described being that children were calmer, better focused, and less aggressive. SRS scores of children reported to have responded positively to risperidone did not improve over time. Risperidone's beneficial effect on aggression and other elements of adaptive functioning were not necessarily accompanied by reduction in core ASD symptoms, as serially assessed by the same caregivers who reported improvement in their children. These results reflect the distinction between reduction in core symptom burden and improvement in adaptive functioning. Given the cumulative risks of atypical neuroleptics, the findings underscore the importance of periodic re-evaluation of medication benefit for children with ASD receiving neuroleptic treatment.
Underwood-Riordan, Heather; Randall, Fellana; Zhang, Yi; Constantino, John N.
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the course of autistic symptoms, using a quantitative measure of core autistic traits, among risperidone-treated children who participated in a 10 year life course longitudinal study. Methods: Parents completed surveys of intervention history, as well as serial symptom severity measurements using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), on their autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-affected children. Fifty participants (out of a total of 184 with full intervention histories) were reported to have been treated with risperidone during the course of the study. Serial SRS scores during risperidone treatment were available for a majority of children whose parents reported a positive effect from risperidone. Results: Two thirds of risperidone-treated children (n=33) were reported by parents to have improved by taking the medication, with the principal effects described being that children were calmer, better focused, and less aggressive. SRS scores of children reported to have responded positively to risperidone did not improve over time. Conclusions: Risperidone's beneficial effect on aggression and other elements of adaptive functioning were not necessarily accompanied by reduction in core ASD symptoms, as serially assessed by the same caregivers who reported improvement in their children. These results reflect the distinction between reduction in core symptom burden and improvement in adaptive functioning. Given the cumulative risks of atypical neuroleptics, the findings underscore the importance of periodic re-evaluation of medication benefit for children with ASD receiving neuroleptic treatment. PMID:25361070
Dinnissen, Mariken; Dietrich, Andrea; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hoekstra, Pieter J
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is often accompanied by psychiatric comorbidity. Although there is no medication currently available to treat the core symptoms of ASD, risperidone was the first drug to be approved for use in ASD and is still the best established psychopharmacological option for the treatment of irritability and behavioral problems in ASD. This article gives an overview of the pharmacokinetic profile of risperidone and a comprehensive review of treatment studies regarding the use of risperidone in ASD. Ample evidence supports the short-term use of risperidone for treating irritability and behavioral problems in ASD. Risperidone also shows promise in treating symptoms often associated with ASD, such as stereotypical behavior, social difficulties, hyperactivity and cognitive problems. However, several adverse effects have been identified; most are mild or moderate and well manageable, but weight gain and metabolic changes are a considerable concern. Therefore, risperidone should in our view be seen as 'a last resort', only justified for the short-term treatment of serious behavioral problems, which have failed to respond sufficiently to behavioral interventions. Future studies should investigate long-term effects of risperidone and factors that facilitate individual risk-benefit analyses before treatment.
Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Koichiro; Imasaka, Yasushi; Iwata, Kazuhiko; Tomoda, Akemi; Mimura, Masaru
We report several cases in which patients with autistic disorder with mental retardation who received risperidone experienced urinary incontinence. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of patients housed in facilities for patients with autistic disorder with mental retardation. Those who had undergone a medical examination at a hospital in Tokyo from April 1999 to March 2009 were included in the study.Retrospective data were gathered including age, sex, IQ, birth weight, dosage of risperidone, urinary density, as well as existence of urinary and fecal incontinence. We divided the participants into those who did and did not experience urinary incontinence after taking risperidone and compared the 2 groups. Risperidone had been prescribed to 35 patients. In spite of the fact that no patient had a history of urinary incontinence, 14 patients experienced urinary incontinence after receiving risperidone. Moreover, 4 of these 14 patients also had fecal incontinence. Among the variables we examined, the only significant difference between groups was in sex, with significantly more women experiencing incontinence compared with men. When the dose of risperidone was reduced or the patients switched to other drugs, urinary incontinence of the patients improved.Hence, risperidone may have a casual relationship with urinary incontinence. Further research is needed to understand the pathophysiology of possible effect.
Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Rocco, Alba
Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias are an important cause of difficult to manage bleeding, especially in older patients. To retrospectively evaluate the long-term efficacy of long acting release-octreotide in controlling angiodysplasia bleeding. 98 patients with a history of bleeding due to gastrointestinal angiodysplasias lasting over 2 years were retrospectively selected among those treated from January 2000 to December 2008. All patients had received octreotide 0.1mg tid for 28 days and, then from day 14, long acting release-octreotide 20mg monthly, for 6 months. The mean follow-up was 78 months. In all patients mean haemoglobin levels significantly increased and the number of bleeding episodes, hospitalizations, patients requiring blood transfusions and units of transfused red cells significantly decreased, compared to the two-year observation period before starting therapy. According to outcome patients were classified as: 40 full responders (40.8%), 32 relapsers (32.6%) and 26 poor responders (26.5%). At multivariate analysis age >65 years, male sex, chronic antiplatelet therapy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic renal failure were the only covariates independently associated with poor response to therapy. Our study suggests that long acting release-octreotide could be used as rescue therapy to control bleeding due to gastrointestinal angiodysplasias in patients not suitable for endoscopic or surgical treatments. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roberts, Melissa H; Mapel, Douglas W; Borrego, Matthew E; Raisch, Dennis W; Georgopoulos, Larry; van der Goes, David
Results from three observational methods for assessing effectiveness of long-acting bronchodilator therapies for reducing severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were compared: intent-to-treat (ITT), as protocol (AP), and an as-treated analysis that utilized a marginal structural model (MSM) incorporating time-varying covariates related to treatment adherence and moderate exacerbations. Severe exacerbation risk was assessed over a 2-year period using claims data for patients aged ≥40 years who initiated long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta-agonist (ICS/LABA), or triple therapy (LAMA + ICS/LABA). A total of 5475 COPD patients met inclusion criteria. Six months post-initiation, 53.5 % of patients discontinued using any therapy. The ITT analysis found an increased severe exacerbation risk for triple therapy treatment (hazard ratio [HR] 1.24; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.53). No increased risk was found in the AP (HR 1.00; 95 % CI 0.73-1.36), or MSM analyses (HR 1.11; 95 % CI 0.68-1.81). The MSM highlighted important associations among post-index events. Neglecting to adjust for treatment discontinuation may produce biased risk estimates. The MSM approach is a promising tool to compare chronic disease management by illuminating relationships between treatment decisions, adherence, patient choices, and outcomes.
Gebremariam, Alem; Addissie, Adamu
Background. Long acting and permanent contraceptive methods have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancies but the contraceptive choice and utilization in Ethiopia are highly dominated by short term contraceptives. Objective. To assess the knowledge and perception on long acting and permanent contraceptives of married women and men in Northern Ethiopia. Method. A qualitative method was conducted in Adigrat on January, 2012. Four focus group discussions with married women and men and six in-depth interviews with family planning providers were conducted. Content analysis was used to synthesize the data. Result. Participants' knowledge on long acting and permanent contraceptives is limited to recognizing the name of the methods. Most of the participants are not able to identify permanent methods as a method of contraception. They lack basic information on how these methods work and how they can use it. Women had fears and rumors about each of these methods. They prefer methods which do not require any procedure. Family planning providers stated as they have weakness on counseling of all contraceptive choices. Conclusion. There are personal barriers and knowledge gaps on these contraceptive methods. Improving the counseling service program can help women to increase knowledge and avoid misconceptions of each contraceptive choice.
Guo, Dongwei; Zhou, Tian; Araínga, Mariluz; Palandri, Diana; Gautam, Nagsen; Bronich, Tatiana; Alnouti, Yazen; McMillan, JoEllyn; Edagwa, Benson
Background: Antiretroviral drug discovery and formulation design will facilitate viral clearance in infectious reservoirs. Although progress has been realized for selected hydrophobic integrase and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, limited success has been seen to date with hydrophilic nucleosides. To overcome these limitations, hydrophobic long-acting drug nanoparticles were created for the commonly used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, lamivudine (2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine, 3TC). Methods: A 2-step synthesis created a slow-release long-acting hydrophobic 3TC. Conjugation of 3TC to a fatty acid created a myristoylated prodrug which was encased into a folate-decorated poloxamer 407. Both in vitro antiretroviral efficacy in human monocyte-derived macrophages and pharmacokinetic profiles in mice were evaluated for the decorated nanoformulated drug. Results: A stable drug formulation was produced by poloxamer encasement that improved monocyte–macrophage uptake, antiretroviral activities, and drug pharmacokinetic profiles over native drug formulations. Conclusions: Sustained release of long-acting antiretroviral therapy is a new therapeutic frontier for HIV/AIDS. 3TC depot formation in monocyte-derived macrophages can be facilitated through stable subcellular internalization and slow drug release. PMID:27559685
Vandenberghe, Frederik; Guidi, Monia; Choong, Eva; von Gunten, Armin; Conus, Philippe; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B
High interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of risperidone and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, may lead to suboptimal drug concentration. Using a population pharmacokinetic approach, we aimed to characterize the genetic and non-genetic sources of variability affecting risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone pharmacokinetics, and relate them to common side effects. Overall, 150 psychiatric patients (178 observations) treated with risperidone were genotyped for common polymorphisms in NR1/2, POR, PPARα, ABCB1, CYP2D6 and CYP3A genes. Plasma risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were measured, and clinical data and common clinical chemistry parameters were collected. Drug and metabolite concentrations were analyzed using non-linear mixed effect modeling (NONMEM(®)). Correlations between trough concentrations of the active moiety (risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone) and common side effects were assessed using logistic regression and linear mixed modeling. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 phenotype explained 52% of interindividual variability in risperidone pharmacokinetics. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of the active moiety was found to be 28% higher in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers compared with intermediate, extensive and ultrarapid metabolizers. No other genetic markers were found to significantly affect risperidone concentrations. 9-hydroxyrisperidone elimination was decreased by 26% with doubling of age. A correlation between trough predicted concentration of the active moiety and neurologic symptoms was found (p = 0.03), suggesting that a concentration >40 ng/mL should be targeted only in cases of insufficient, or absence of, response. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 play an important role in risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone and active moiety plasma concentration variability, which were associated with common side effects. These results highlight the importance of a personalized dosage adjustment during risperidone
Hegde, Aditya; Kalyani, Bangalore G; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Math, Suresh Bada; Reddy, Y C Janardhan
Risperidone is the most widely used augmenting agent in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, a recent controlled study found risperidone to be no different from placebo, raising doubts about its effectiveness. In this context, we sought to examine the real-world effectiveness of risperidone from the large database of an OCD clinic in India. A total of 1314 consecutive patients who registered at the OCD clinic between 2004 and 2014 were evaluated with structured interviews and scales. Patients with OCD initiated on risperidone augmentation without concurrent cognitive behavior therapy and who were on stable and adequate doses of serotonin reuptake inhibitors for at least 12 preceding weeks were included for analysis. The primary outcome measure was all-cause discontinuation. Logistic regression was performed to identify the factors predicting improvement with risperidone augmentation. A total of 92 patients were eligible for analysis. Risperidone continued to be used in 23 patients (25%) at the time of last follow-up, and the remaining discontinued either because of ineffectiveness or intolerability. The fall in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores was significantly greater in patients who continued to take risperidone when compared with those who did not (41.6% vs 3.7%, t = 6.95, P < 0.001). A total of 22 patients (24%) were noted to have at least a 25% reduction on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores. On regression analysis, no predictors of improvement with risperidone augmentation could be identified. The study demonstrated, in a real-world setting, that risperidone may be a useful augmenting agent in a proportion of patients with partial/poor response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Pavuluri, Mani N.; Henry, David B.; Findling, Robert L.; Parnes, Stephanie; Carbray, Julie A.; Mohammed, Tahseen; Janicak, Philip G; Sweeney, John A.
Objective To determine the relative effects of risperidone and divalproex in pediatric mania. Methods This is a double-blind randomized outpatient clinical trial with 66 children and adolescents (mean age=10.9± 3.3 years; age range = 8 to 18 years) with mania who were randomly assigned to either risperidone (0.5–2 mg/day, n = 33) or divalproex (60–120 μg/ml, n = 33) for a 6-week period. Measures included the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Child Depression Rating Scale- Revised (CDRS-R). Results Mixed-effects regression models, with interaction between time and the active drug as predictors, found that the risperidone group had more rapid improvement than the divalproex group (p<0.05), although final scores did not differ significantly between groups. Mixed models using only those subjects who completed the 6-week study found similar results. The response rate on YMRS was 78.1% for risperidone and 45.5% for divalproex (p<.01). The remission rate for risperidone was 62.5%, compared with 33.3% for divalproex (p<.05). Improvement on the CDRS-R was significantly higher for the risperidone group relative to the divalproex group (p < .05). There were no significant differences between groups in safety, but subject retention was significantly higher at study endpoint in the risperidone group (p<0.01). Drop out rate was 24% in risperidone group and 48% in divalproex group, with increased irritability being the most common reason for drop out in the latter. There was no significant weight gain in either group. Conclusion Results suggest that risperidone was associated with more rapid improvement and greater reduction in manic symptoms compared to divalproex. Although the results suggest that both drugs are safe, risperidone’s lower attrition rate and lower rate of adverse events may suggest better toleration. Clinical trials with larger samples are required to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:20868458
Cope, Mark B; Li, Xingsheng; Jumbo-Lucioni, Patricia; DiCostanzo, Catherine A; Jamison, Wendi G; Kesterson, Robert A; Allison, David B; Nagy, Tim R
Risperidone induces significant weight gain in female mice; however, the underlying mechanisms related to this effect are unknown. We investigated the effects of risperidone on locomotor activity, core body temperature, and uncoupling protein (UCP) and hypothalamic orexin mRNA expression. Female C57BL/6J mice were acclimated to individual housing and randomly assigned to either risperidone (4 mg/kg BW day) or placebo (PLA). Activity and body temperature were measured over 48-hour periods twice a week for 3 weeks. Food intake and body weights were measured weekly. UCP1 (BAT), UCP3 (gastrocnemius), and orexin (hypothalamus) mRNA expressions were measured using RT-PCR. Risperidone-treated mice consumed more food (p=0.050) and gained more weight (p=0.0001) than PLA-treated mice after 3 weeks. During the initial 2 days of treatment, there was an acute effect of treatment on activity (p=0.046), but not body temperature (p=0.290). During 3 weeks of treatment, average core body temperatures were higher in risperidone-treated mice compared to controls during the light phase (p=0.0001), and tended to be higher during the dark phase (p=0.057). Risperidone-treated mice exhibited lower activity levels than controls during the dark phase (p=0.006); there were no differences in activity during the light phase (p=0.47). UCP1 (p<0.01) and UCP3 (p<0.05) mRNA expressions were greater in risperidone-treated mice compared to controls, whereas, orexin mRNA expression was lower in risperidone-treated mice (p<0.01). These results suggest that risperidone-induced weight gain in mice is a consequence of increased energy intake and reduced activity, while the elevation in body temperature may be a result of thermogenic effect of food intake and elevated UCP1, UCP3, and a reduced hypothalamic orexin expression.
Kennedy, John S.; Bymaster, Frank P.; Basson, Bruce R.; Gilmore, Julie A.; Tran, Pierre V.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that reported in vitro muscarinic receptor affinity differences between olanzapine and risperidone would be reflected in peripheral solicited anticholinergic adverse event frequencies. METHOD: Data from a double-blind, randomized trial of olanzapine versus risperidone in 339 patients (age range, 18-65 years) with DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum acute psychosis were retrospectively analyzed. Subgroups based on the median of the mean daily drug dose were constructed (olanzapine = 17 mg; olanzapine > 17 mg; risperidone = 6 mg; risperidone > 6 mg). Mean daily dose of adjunctive anticholinergic medication was compared using ANOVA, and frequencies of treatment-emergent solicited adverse events defined by the Association de Méthodologie et de Documentation en Psychiatrie (AMDP-5) were analyzed using categorical methods. RESULTS: Mean daily anticholinergic dose was significantly higher overall for the risperidone group (0.68 +/- 1.27 mg) than for the olanzapine group (0.27 +/- 0.76 mg) (p =.002). When only patients who did not receive anticholinergic adjunct therapy were considered, no significant differences in the frequency of specific anticholinergic adverse events occurred in olanzapine-treated patients as compared with risperidone-treated patients (p >/=.245). There was also no significant difference between olanzapine and risperidone in the frequency of any anticholinergic adverse event (p =.458). CONCLUSION: At clinically effective doses, olanzapine and risperidone did not differ significantly in frequency of peripheral anticholinergic events. These results support the view that, for olanzapine and risperidone, in vitro anticholinergic receptor binding (K(i) values) may not predict in vivo peripheral events.
Puenpatom, R Amy; Szeinbach, Sheryl L; Ma, Larry; Ben-Joseph, Rami H; Summers, Kent H
Oxycodone controlled release (CR) and oxymorphone extended release (ER) are frequently prescribed long-acting opioids, which are approved for twice-daily dosing. The US Food and Drug Administration approved a reformulated crush-resistant version of oxycodone CR in April 2010. To compare the daily average consumption (DACON) for oxycodone CR and for oxymorphone ER before and after the introduction of the reformulated, crush-resistant version of oxycodone CR. This was a retrospective claims database analysis using pharmacy claims from the MarketScan database for the period from January 2010 through March 2011. The interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate the impact of the introduction of reformulated oxycodone CR on the DACON of the 2 drugs-oxycodone CR and oxymorphone ER. The source of the databases included private-sector health data from more than 150 medium and large employers. All prescription claims containing oxycodone CR and oxymorphone ER dispensed to members from January 1, 2010, to March 31, 2011, were included in the analysis. Prescription claims containing duplicate National Drug Codes, missing member identification, invalid quantities or inaccurate days supply of either drug, and DACON values of <1 and >500 were removed. The database yielded 483,063 prescription claims for oxycodone CR and oxymorphone ER from January 1, 2010, to March 31, 2011. The final sample consisted of 411,404 oxycodone CR prescriptions (traditional and reformulated) dispensed to 85,150 members and 62,656 oxymorphone ER prescriptions dispensed to 11,931 members. Before the introduction of reformulated oxycodone CR, DACON values for the highest strength available for each of the 2 drugs were 0.51 tablets higher for oxycodone CR than for oxymorphone ER, with mean DACON values of 3.5 for oxycodone CR and 3.0 for oxymorphone ER (P <.001). The differences of mean DACON between the 2 drugs for all lower strengths were 0.46 tablets, with mean DACON values of 2.7 for oxycodone
Takeuchi, K; Omura, T; Yoshiyama, M; Yoshida, K; Otsuka, R; Shimada, Y; Ujino, K; Yoshikawa, J
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the long-acting calcium channel antagonist pranidipine on ventricular remodeling, systolic and diastolic cardiac function, circulating humoral factors, and cardiac mRNA expression in myocardial infarcted rats. Myocardial infarction (MI) was produced by ligation of the coronary artery in Wistar rats. Three mg/kg per day of pranidipine was randomly administered to the infarcted rats. Hemodynamic measurements, Doppler echocardiographic examinations, analyses of the plasma levels of humoral factors, and myocardial mRNA expression were performed at 4 weeks after myocardial infarction. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and central venous pressure (CVP) increased to 24.2 +/- 1.2mmHg and 5.4 +/- 0.6 mmHg. Pranidipine reduced LVEDP and CVP to 13.6 +/- 1.4mmHg (P < 0.01) and 2.5 +/- 0.4mmHg (P < 0.01). The weight of the left and right ventricles in MI was significantly higher than in the sham-operated rats (sham, 2.02 +/- 0.04 and 0.47 +/- 0.02g/kg; MI, 2.18 +/- 0.05 and 0.79 +/- 0.04g/ kg; P < 0.01). Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVDd) in MI increased to 10.3 +/- 0.3mm (P < 0.01) (sham, 6.4 +/- 0.3mm). Pranidipine prevented an increase in the weight of the left and right ventricles (2.02 +/- 0.04 and 0.6 +/- 0.03g/kg, P < 0.01) and LVDd (7.9 +/-0.2mm, P < 0.01 to MI). Plasma renin activity (PRA), and plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine concentrations in MI were higher than those of the sham-operated rats. Pranidipine decreased the PRA and plasma cathecolamine levels of the myocardial infarcted rats to the level of the sham-operated rats. Moreover, the rats in MI showed systolic dysfunction, shown by decreased fractional shortening (sham, 31 +/- 2% vs MI, 15 +/- 1%; P < 0.01) and diastolic dysfunction shown by the E-wave deceleration rate (sham, 12.8 +/- 1.1 m/s2; MI, 32.6 +/- 2.1 m/s2; P < 0.01). Pranidipine significantly prevented systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The increases
Carqueja, Marilena; Cortez, Celia Martins
In this work we report the results from application of a mathematical model to estimate the fractional accessibility to fluorescence quenching by risperidone in human and bovine sera albumins. Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug used to treat many kinds of psychiatric disorders. Results showed that but the fractional accessibility for trypyophan 134, sub domain 1B, is about 3 times higher than that to tryptophan 212, showing that the primary binding site for risperidone is close to tryptophan 134, in domain IB of BSA.
Horska, Katerina; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Karpisek, Michal; Suchy, Pavel; Opatrilova, Radka; Kotolova, Hana
Atypical antipsychotics are associated with adverse metabolic effects including weight gain, increased adiposity, dyslipidaemia, alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Increasing evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation precedes weight gain development. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in adipokines, hormones and basic serum biochemical parameters induced by chronic treatment with depot risperidone at two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Dose-dependent metabolic alterations induced by risperidone after 6 weeks of treatment were revealed. Concomitant to weight gain and increased liver weight, an adverse lipid profile with an elevated triglyceride level was observed in the high exposure group, administered a 40 mg/kg dose repeatedly, while the low dose exposure group, administered a 20 mg/kg dose, developed weight gain without alterations in the lipid profile and adipokine levels. An initial peak in leptin serum level after the higher dose was observed in the absence of weight gain. This finding may indicate that the metabolic alterations observed in this study are not consequent to body weight gain. Taken together, these data may support the primary effects of atypical antipsychotics on peripheral tissues.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and debilitating symptoms. For patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of therapy; as symptoms progress, guidelines recommend combining bronchodilators from different classes to improve efficacy. Inhaled long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) have been licensed for the treatment of COPD since the late 1990s and include formoterol and salmeterol. They improve lung function, symptoms of breathlessness and exercise limitation, health-related quality of life, and may reduce the rate of exacerbations, although not all patients achieve clinically meaningful improvements in symptoms or health related quality of life. In addition, LABAs have an acceptable safety profile, and are not associated with an increased risk of respiratory mortality, although adverse effects such as palpitations and tremor may limit the dose that can be tolerated. Formoterol and salmeterol have 12-hour durations of action; however, sustained bronchodilation is desirable in COPD. A LABA with a 24-hour duration of action could provide improvements in efficacy, compared with twice-daily LABAs, and the once-daily dosing regimen could help improve compliance. It is also desirable that a new LABA should demonstrate fast onset of action, and a safety profile at least comparable to existing LABAs. A number of novel LABAs with once-daily profiles are in development which may be judged against these criteria. Indacaterol, a LABA with a 24-hour duration of bronchodilation and fast onset of action, is the most advanced of these. Preliminary results from large clinical trials suggest indacaterol improves lung function compared with placebo and other long-acting bronchodilators. Other LABAs with a 24-hour duration of bronchodilation include carmoterol, vilanterol trifenatate and oldaterol, with early results indicating potential for once-daily dosing in humans. The introduction of
Shieh, Meng-Shiou; Pekow, Penelope S.; Stefan, Mihaela S.
Rationale: Long-acting β-adrenergic agonists and long-acting anticholinergic agents are recommended for the management of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, their role in the acute setting is uncertain. Objectives: To describe the use and outcomes associated with long-acting bronchodilator therapy (LABD) among patients hospitalized with exacerbations of COPD. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at 421 U.S. hospitals of patients hospitalized with exacerbations of COPD between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2011. We used propensity score methods to compare the risk of a composite measure of treatment failure, length of stay, and hospital costs in patients who were treated with an LABD to those who did not receive treatment. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 77,378 patients included in the analysis, 31,725 (41%) were treated with an LABD on Hospital Day 1 or Day 2, including 15,356 (48.4%) who received a long-acting β-agonist, 6,665 (21%) who received a long-acting anticholinergic, and 9,704 (30.6%) who received both. When compared with patients who were not treated with an LABD, treated patients tended to be younger and had a modestly lower comorbidity burden but were more likely to have had prior admission for COPD and to be treated with inhaled corticosteroids. The incidence of treatment failure was similar among those who were or were not treated with LABDs (13.1 vs. 13.6%, P = 0.06). In propensity-matched analyses we found no difference in the risk of treatment failure associated with exposure to LABDs (relative risk [RR], 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–1.04), minimal differences in hospital cost (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.03), and no difference in length of stay (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00–1.02). Conclusions: Despite a lack of evidence, LABDs are commonly prescribed to patients hospitalized for exacerbations of COPD but are not associated with better clinical or economic outcomes. Clinical
Background To compare the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone extended-release (ER) with risperidone immediate-release using propensity score methodology. Methods Six double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term clinical trials for acute schizophrenia with availability of individual patient-level data were identified (3 per compound). Propensity score pairwise matching was used to balance observed covariates between the paliperidone ER and risperidone patient populations. Scores were generated using logistic regression models, with age, body mass index, race, sex, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score and baseline Clinical Global Impressions–Severity (CGI-S) score as factors. The dosage range of paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day) was compared with 2 risperidone dosage ranges: 2-4 and 4-6 mg/day. The primary efficacy measure was change in PANSS total score at week 6 end point. Tolerability end points included adverse event (AE) reports and weight. AEs with rates ≥5% and with a ≥2% difference between paliperidone ER and risperidone were identified. Results Completion rates for placebo-treated subjects in paliperidone ER trials (n = 95) and risperidone trials (n = 122) groups were 36.8% and 51.6%, respectively; end point changes on PANSS total scores were similar (p = 0.768). Completion rates for subjects receiving paliperidone ER 6-12 mg/day (n = 179), risperidone 2-4 mg/day (n = 113) or risperidone 4-6 mg/day (n = 129) were 64.8%, 54.0% and 66.7%, respectively (placebo-adjusted rates: paliperidone ER vs risperidone 2-4 mg/day, p = 0.005; paliperidone ER vs risperidone 4-6 mg/day, p = 0.159). PANSS total score improvement with paliperidone ER was greater than with risperidone 2-4 mg/day (difference in mean change score, -6.7; p < 0.05) and similar to risperidone 4-6 mg/day (0.2; p = 0.927). Placebo-adjusted AEs more common with paliperidone ER were insomnia, sinus tachycardia and tachycardia; more common with risperidone
Ji, Shuangmin; Shang, Dewei; Wu, Kehua; Li, Anning; Li, Xiwei; Deng, Chenhui; Li, Liang; Zhou, Tianyan; Wang, Chuanyue; Lu, Wei
Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic agent commonly used in the treatment of ~ 31.1% of schizophrenia patients in China, it is the most commonly-prescribed antipsychotic agent. Despite the abundant use of risperidone, population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models of risperidone have not been performed in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PopPK/PD) model to describe the PK behavior and efficacy of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone (active metabolite) in Chinese patients. Plasma concentration data (702 measurements from 131 patients) and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores (258 observations from 56 patients) were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) approach with first-order conditional estimation with interaction (FOCEI). The influence of potential covariates was evaluated. Model robustness was assessed using external validation, normalized prediction distribution error, nonparametric bootstrap, and visual predictive check approaches. Risperidone concentration data were well described by a one-compartmental model incorporating an additional compartment that refers to the concentration profiles of 9-hydroxy-risperidone. A complex absorption procedure was incorporated into the model to describe the metabolism of risperidone to 9-hydroxy-risperidone in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A binomial distribution in the estimated clearance (CL) of risperidone has been identified in our model. Decrease in PANSS score along with total AUC (AUCtotal) of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone was best characterized by an Emax model with 3 transit compartments describing the delay of drug effect. Considerable differences in PK behavior and drug effect of risperidone have been identified among Chinese extensive metabolizing (EM) and poor metabolizing (PM) patients. This PopPK/PD model may fulfill individualized treatment in clinical
Ni Chroinin, Muireann; Lasserson, Toby J; Greenstone, Ilana; Ducharme, Francine M
Background Long-acting ß2-agonists (LABA) in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are increasingly prescribed in asthmatic children. Objectives To compare the safety and benefit of adding LABA to ICS with the same or an increased dose of ICS in children with persistent asthma. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Asthma Trials Register (May 2008). Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials testing the combination of LABA and ICS versus the same or an increased dose of ICS for minimum of at least 28 days in children and adolescents with asthma. The main outcome was the rate of exacerbations requiring rescue oral steroids. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary function, symptoms, adverse events, and withdrawals. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed independently by two review authors for methodological quality and data extraction. Confirmation was obtained from the trialists when possible. Main results A total of 25 trials representing 31 control-intervention comparisons were included in the review randomising 5572 children. Most of the participants were inadequately controlled on current ICS dose. We assessed the addition of LABA to the same dose of ICS and to an increased dose of ICS: (1)The addition of LABA to ICS was compared to same dose ICS, namely 400 mcg/day of beclomethasone or less in 16 of the 24 studies. The mean age of participants was 10 years and males accounted for 64% of the study populations. The mean FEV1 at baseline was 80% of predicted or above in 10 studies; FEV1 61% to 79% of predicted in eight studies; and unreported in the remaining study. Participants were inadequately controlled before randomisation in all but seven studies. Compared to ICS alone, the addition of LABA to ICS was not associated with a significant reduction in exacerbations requiring oral steroids (seven studies, RR 0.92 95% CI 0.60 to 1.40). Compared to ICS alone, there was a significantly greater improvement in FEV1
Mekonnen, Getachew; Enquselassie, Fikre; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Semahegn, Agumasie
Introduction In Ethiopia, knowledge of contraceptive methods is high though there is low contraceptive prevalence rate. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Jinka town, southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors affecting long acting and permanent methods of contraceptives utilization from March to April 2008. Eight hundred child bearing age women were participated in the quantitative study and 32 purposively selected focus group discussants were participated in the qualitative study. Face to face interview was used for data collection. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were computed to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was 7.3%. Three fourth (76.1%) of the women have ever heard about implants and implant 28 (50%) were the most widely used method. Almost two third of women had intention to use long acting and permanent methods. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods. Conclusion The overall prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was low. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with use of long acting and permanent contraceptive. Extensive health information should be provided. PMID:25404960
Mekonnen, Getachew; Enquselassie, Fikre; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Semahegn, Agumasie
In Ethiopia, knowledge of contraceptive methods is high though there is low contraceptive prevalence rate. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Jinka town, southern Ethiopia. Community based cross sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors affecting long acting and permanent methods of contraceptives utilization from March to April 2008. Eight hundred child bearing age women were participated in the quantitative study and 32 purposively selected focus group discussants were participated in the qualitative study. Face to face interview was used for data collection. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were computed to analyze the data. The prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was 7.3%. Three fourth (76.1%) of the women have ever heard about implants and implant 28 (50%) were the most widely used method. Almost two third of women had intention to use long acting and permanent methods. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods. The overall prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was low. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with use of long acting and permanent contraceptive. Extensive health information should be provided.
Gu, Fugen; Ma, Weina; Meng, Gendalai; Wu, Chunzhi; Wang, Yi
The aim of this study was to prepare a nasal gel of risperidone and to investigate the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of the drug in rats. Compared with oral dosing, the risperidone nasal gel exhibited very fast absorption and high bioavailability. Maximal plasma concentration (cmax) and the time to reach cmax (tmax) were 15.2 μg mL-1 and 5 min for the nasal gel, 3.6 μg mL-1 and 30 min for the oral drug suspension, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as tmax', cmax and AUC of oral and nasal routes were significantly different (p < 0.01). Relative bioavailability of the drug nasal preparation to the oral suspension was up to 1600.0 %. Further, the in vitro effect of the risperidone nasal gel on nasal mucociliary movement was also investigated using a toad palate model. The risperidone nasal formulation showed mild ciliotoxicity, but the adverse effect was temporary and reversible.
Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A; Pinazo, J; Simón, V M
In this study, the antiaggressive effects of risperidone and SCH 23390 have been explored. Using the paradigm of isolation-induced aggression, 150 albino male mice of the OF1 strain were allocated to control and experimental groups which received three doses of risperidone (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or two doses of SCH 23390 (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg). Only the highest doses of risperidone decreased threat and attack behaviours but all doses significantly impaired motor behaviour. SCH 23390 decreased attack with the two doses used and also produced significant increases in immobility. Although both antipsychotics are antiaggressive, this action seems to be more specific in the case of risperidone. Finally, both drugs failed to affect animals with short attack latency, being antiaggressive only in subjects with long attack latency, which suggests that these two types of animals are different in their dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission.
Gershon, Andrea; Croxford, Ruth; To, Teresa; Stanbrook, Matthew B; Upshur, Ross; Sanchez-Romeu, Paula; Stukel, Thérèse
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a largely preventable and manageable respiratory condition, affects an estimated 12% to 20% of adults. Long-acting inhaled β-agonists and anticholinergics have both been shown to improve COPD outcomes and are recommended for moderate to severe disease; however, little is known about their comparative effectiveness. To compare survival in older patients with COPD who initially receive inhaled long-acting β-agonists with that of patients who receive anticholinergics. Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Ontario, Canada. Patients aged 66 years or older (who carry the largest burden of COPD and for whom data were available) who met a validated case definition of COPD on the basis of health administrative data and were newly prescribed an inhaled long-acting β-agonist or a long-acting anticholinergic (but not both) between 2003 and 2007. Patients were followed for up to 5.5 years. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. A total of 46 403 patients with COPD (mean age, 77 years; 49% women) were included. Overall mortality was 38.2%. Mortality was higher in patients initially prescribed a long-acting anticholinergic than in those initially prescribed a long-acting inhaled β-agonist (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.09 to 1.19]). Rates of hospitalizations and emergency department visits were also higher in those initially prescribed a long-acting anticholinergic. Patients were classified as having COPD on the basis of health administrative records, which did not contain information about lung function. Older adults initially prescribed long-acting inhaled β-agonists for the management of moderate COPD seem to have lower mortality than those initially prescribed long-acting anticholinergics. Further research is needed to confirm these findings in younger patients and in a randomized, controlled trial. Government of Ontario, Canada.
Allain, H; Tessier, C; Bentué-Ferrer, D; Tarral, A; Le Breton, S; Gandon, M; Bouhours, P
Dementia includes not only cognitive deficit but may also include psychiatric and behavioral symptoms. These psychological symptoms of dementia require specific treatment without deleterious effects on cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single dose of risperidone (0.25 or 0.5 mg) on psychomotor performances and cognitive functions compared to a placebo and to a positive control, lorazepam 1 mg, in 12 healthy elderly subjects. This study was a randomized, double-blind, four-way crossover clinical trial involving four 8-h long treatment periods. The pharmacodynamic assessment criteria included a battery of psychomotor tests, a subjective evaluation and an electroencephalogram. Safety was evaluated by clinical laboratory tests, electrocardiogram and recording of adverse events. Concentrations of risperidone, 9-hydroxy-risperidone and lorazepam were determined before and 2 h after dosing. RESULTS. Few significant effects were observed on psychomotor tests with risperidone at all dosages. Risperidone was devoid of any deleterious effects on speed of reaction, vigilance and sustained attention, working and long-term memory and increased cortical arousal. Risperidone demonstrated minor impairment on motor activity (decreased finger taping), postural stability, and information processing (impaired digit symbol substitution). Contentedness subjective evaluation was decreased with risperidone 0.5 mg, 6 h after dosing. No significant difference was observed on EEG frequencies and no sedative activity was detected with risperidone. At 2 h after dosing, risperidone plasma concentrations were 1.54+/-0.99 ng/ml and 2.80+/-1.41 ng/ml; 9-hydroxy-risperidone concentrations were 0.77+/-0.46 ng/ml and 1.54+/-0.85 ng/ml after intake of 0.25 mg and 0.5 mg doses, respectively. Well-known detrimental effects of lorazepam on psychomotor performances were observed and sedative effects were confirmed by the EEG findings. At 2 h following
Riedel, Michael; Spellmann, Ilja; Strassnig, Martin; Douhet, Anette; Dehning, Sandra; Opgen-Rhein, Markus; Valdevit, Rosamaria; Engel, Rolf R; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Müller, Norbert; Möller, Hans-Jürgen
Evidence suggests that neurocognitive impairment is a key factor in the pathology of schizophrenia and is linked with the negative symptoms of the disease. In this study the effects of the atypical antipsychotics quetiapine and risperidone on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia and with predominantly negative symptoms were compared. Patients were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with quetiapine or risperidone for 12 weeks. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline, Week 6 and Week 12. Efficacy was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) at baseline, Week 6 and Week 12. Extrapyramidal side-effects were assessed each week using the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS), adverse events were recorded as additional indicators of tolerability throughout the trial. In total, 44 patients were enrolled in the study. Data from the 34 patients who completed cognitive assessments at two or more time points out of three (baseline, Week 6 and Week 12) are analysed here. Quetiapine improved significantly global cognitive index z-scores at both Week 6 (p<0.001 vs. baseline) and Week 12 (p<0.01 vs. baseline), whereas risperidone improved significantly global cognitive index z-scores at Week 12 (p<0.05). Between-group comparisons at Week 6 showed significantly greater improvements in working memory and verbal memory with quetiapine than risperidone (p<0.05) and a significantly greater improvement in reaction quality/attention with quetiapine than risperidone at Week 12 (p<0.05). Quetiapine and risperidone produced significant improvements from baseline in PANSS total (p<0.001) and subscale scores at Week 12. Significant improvements in SANS total score were also seen in both the quetiapine (p<0.001) and risperidone (p<0.01) groups at Week 12 compared with baseline. SAS scores, measuring the incidence of extrapyramidal side-effects, were higher in patients receiving risperidone
Cortez, Celia Martins; Fragoso, Viviane Muniz S.; Silva, Dilson
In this work, we used a mathematical model to study the interaction of risperidone with human and bovine serum albumins estimating the relative position of the primary binding site, based on the fluorescence quenching theory. Results have shown that the model was able to demonstrate that primary binding site for risperidone in HSA and BSA is very close to the position where is tryptophan 134 of BSA, possibly in domain 1B.
Calarge, Chadi A; Burns, Trudy L; Schlechte, Janet A; Zemel, Babette S
In a previous cross-sectional study, we found lower bone mass during treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and risperidone in youths. Here, we evaluate the skeletal effects of these psychotropics at follow-up. Between April 2005 and July 2011, medically healthy 7- to 17-year-old males treated with risperidone for 6 months or more were enrolled through child psychiatry outpatient clinics and returned for follow-up 1.5 years later. Treatment history was extracted from the medical and pharmacy records. Anthropometric, laboratory, and bone mass measurements were obtained. Multivariable linear regression analyses compared participants who remained on risperidone at follow-up to those who had discontinued risperidone treatment as well as SSRI-treated versus SSRI-unexposed participants. The sample consisted of 94 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ± 2.7 years at study entry. The majority had an externalizing disorder and had received risperidone and SSRIs for 2.5 ± 1.7 years and 1.6 ± 1.9 years, respectively, at study entry. By follow-up, 26% (n = 24) had discontinued risperidone. Compared to discontinuing risperidone, continuing it was associated with a decline in participants' age-sex-height-race-specific areal bone mineral density (BMD) z score at the lumbar spine (P < .04) and failure to increase radius trabecular volumetric BMD (P < .03), after accounting for significant covariates. In addition, receiving an SSRI was associated with reduced lumbar spine areal BMD z score and radius trabecular volumetric BMD at both study entry (P < .02 and P < .03, respectively) and follow-up (P < .06 and P < .03, respectively), but without further decline between the 2 visits. Chronic SSRI treatment in children and adolescents is associated with reduced, albeit stable, bone mass for age, while chronic risperidone treatment is associated with failure to accrue bone mass. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Bruggeman, R; van der Linden, C; Buitelaar, J K; Gericke, G S; Hawkridge, S M; Temlett, J A
The treatment of Tourette's disorder with classical neuroleptics is limited by their side effects. Risperidone is a new efficacious antipsychotic with a low propensity for extrapyramidal side effects. To establish risperidone's therapeutic potential in Tourette's disorder, we studied the safety and efficacy of risperidone in comparison with pimozide in patients with Tourette's disorder diagnosed according to DSM-III-R. In a 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, 26 patients were treated with risperidone (mean daily dose = 3.8 mg), and 24 patients were treated with pimozide (mean daily dose = 2.9 mg). There was significant improvement of tics with respect to the Tourette's Symptom Severity Scale (TSSS) for both groups. Forty-one patients completed the study. At endpoint, 54% (14/26) of the risperidone patients and 38% (9/24) of the pimozide patients had only very mild or no symptoms on the global severity rating of the TSSS. Both treatment groups had improved significantly at endpoint in regard to Global Assessment of Functioning and Clinical Global Impressions scale outcomes. Symptoms of anxiety and depressive mood improved significantly from baseline in both groups. Obsessive-compulsive behavior improvement reached significance only in the risperidone group. Although the severity of extrapyramidal side effects was low in both groups, fewer patients in the risperidone group reported extrapyramidal side effects (N = 4) compared with the pimozide group (N = 8). Depression, fatigue, and somnolence were reported as the most prominent side effects in both treatment groups. Both drugs were efficacious and well tolerated in patients with Tourette's disorder. Risperidone may become the first-line drug in the treatment of Tourette's disorder owing to a more favorable efficacy and tolerability profile.
Darwish, Mona; Bond, Mary; Yang, Ronghua; Hellriegel, Edward T; Robertson, Philmore
Patients with bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia have an increased risk of obstructive sleep apnea. The effects of armodafinil, a weak cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inducer, on pharmacokinetics and safety of risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic used to treat major psychiatric illness, were investigated. Healthy subjects received 2 mg risperidone alone and after armodafinil pretreatment (titrated to 250 mg/day). Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from plasma concentrations of risperidone and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone (formed via CYP2D6 and CYP3A4), collected before and over 4 days after risperidone administration, and from steady-state plasma concentrations of armodafinil and its circulating metabolites, R-modafinil acid and modafinil sulfone. Safety and tolerability were assessed. Thirty-six subjects receiving study drug were evaluable for safety; 34 were evaluable for pharmacokinetics. Risperidone maximum plasma concentration (C max) decreased from mean 16.5 ng/mL when given alone to 9.2 ng/mL after armodafinil pretreatment (geometric mean ratio [90 % CI] 0.55 [0.50-0.61]); area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞) decreased from 92.3 to 44.5 ng·h/mL (geometric mean ratio [90 % CI] 0.51 [0.46-0.55]). C max and AUC0-∞ for 9-hydroxyrisperidone were also reduced (geometric mean ratios [90 % CI] 0.81 [0.77-0.85] and 0.73 [0.69-0.77], respectively). Adverse events were consistent with known safety profiles. Consistent with CYP3A4 induction, risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone systemic exposure was reduced in the presence of armodafinil. Concomitant armodafinil and risperidone use may necessitate risperidone dosage adjustment, particularly when starting or stopping coadministration of the two drugs. However, any such decision should be based on patient disease state and clinical status.
Voduc, Nha; Alvarez, Gonzalo G; Amjadi, Kayvan; Tessier, Caroline; Sabri, Elham; Aaron, Shawn D
Background Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease continue to experience significant functional limitation despite the use of both long-acting anticholinergic and beta-agonist inhalers. Theophylline is a widely available medication which may further improve lung function and exercise performance. Previous studies evaluating the effects of theophylline on exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have demonstrated heterogeneous results. Methods We performed a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind pilot study assessing the effects of theophylline on constant load exercise duration and lung function, involving 24 COPD patients already treated with long-acting inhaled beta-agonist and long-acting anti-cholinergic bronchodilator therapy. Results Analyzable data was available in 10 of 12 subjects in the treatment arm and 11 of 12 subjects in the control arm. Theophylline was associated with a 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: −17.3–69.5) improvement in exercise duration compared to placebo. Four of 10 treated patients demonstrated an improvement in exercise duration exceeding the minimum clinically important difference of 33%, compared to 1 of 11 controls (P = 0.15). Furthermore, peak ventilation was reduced by 11.1%, (95% CI: 0.77–21.5) which may suggest improvements in gas exchange. There were no significant observed differences in resting lung function nor measures of dyspnea between the two treatment groups. Conclusions Our study demonstrated a trend, but not a statistically significant improvement in exercise duration and a reduction in peak ventilation with theophylline. Based on the observed mean differences and standard deviations in this pilot study, a randomized controlled trial would require 45 subjects in each arm to detect a significant change in exercise duration. PMID:22563244
King, Nathan; Tran, Minh-Ha
Long-acting anticoagulant rodenticides (LAARs) inhibit vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). Related bleeding may present a diagnostic challenge and require administration of blood component therapy, hemostatic agents, and vitamin K. This article intends to provide the reader a comprehensive understanding of LAAR poisoning. An exhaustive literature search of PubMed, Science Direct, US National Library of Medicine Toxicology Data Network, and Google Scholar yielded 174 reported cases of LAAR poisoning from which clinical data were extracted and reviewed. In addition, 25 years of epidemiologic data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers was reviewed. In the United States, on average, there were 10413 exposures reported with 2750 patients treated annually. For 25 years, there were 315951 exposures reported with nearly 90% among children and more than 100000 patients treated in a health care facility. Fortunately, only 2% of all exposures result in morbidity or mortality. Inhalational, transcutaneous, and oral routes of exposure have been documented. Most exposures are unintentional. The most frequently reported bleeding sites are mucocutaneous, with hematuria being the most common feature. Deaths were most commonly associated with intracranial hemorrhage. Long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide-induced paradoxical thrombosis and thrombotic complications accompanying hemostatic therapy have also been observed. Most patients present with coagulation assay values beyond measurable limits. Long-acting anticoagulant rodenticides have an extremely high affinity for VKOR compared with warfarin, characterized by rebound coagulopathy and bleeding after initial treatment and the need for high-dose, long-term therapy with vitamin K1. Treatment of acute hemorrhagic symptoms often required intravenous vitamin K1 in excess of 50 to 100 mg; chronic maintenance with 100 mg PO vitamin K1 daily was the most frequently used dose required to suppress coagulopathy. Treatment
Dhalla, Irfan A.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Sivilotti, Marco L.A.; Kopp, Alex; Qureshi, Omar; Juurlink, David N.
Introduction Opioid-related mortality appears to be increasing in Canada. We examined the true extent of the problem and the impact of the introduction of long-acting oxycodone. Methods We examined trends in the prescribing of opioid analgesics in the province of Ontario from 1991 to 2007. We reviewed all deaths related to opioid use between 1991 and 2004. We linked 3271 of these deaths to administrative data to examine the patients’ use of health care services before death. Using time-series analysis, we determined whether the addition of long-acting oxycodone to the provincial drug formulary in January 2000 was associated with an increase in opioid-related mortality. Results From 1991 to 2007, annual prescriptions for opioids increased from 458 to 591 per 1000 individuals. Opioid-related deaths doubled, from 13.7 per million in 1991 to 27.2 per million in 2004. Prescriptions of oxycodone increased by 850% between 1991 and 2007. The addition of long-acting oxycodone to the drug formulary was associated with a 5-fold increase in oxycodone-related mortality (p < 0.01) and a 41% increase in overall opioid-related mortality (p = 0.02). The manner of death was deemed unintentional by the coroner in 54.2% and undetermined in 21.9% of cases. Use of health care services in the month before death was common: for example, of the 3066 patients for whom data on physician visits were available, 66.4% had visited a physician in the month before death; of the 1095 patients for whom individual-level prescribing data were available, 56.1% had filled a prescription for an opioid in the month before death. Interpretation Opioid-related deaths in Ontario have increased markedly since 1991. A significant portion of the increase was associated with the addition of long-acting oxycodone to the provincial drug formulary. Most of the deaths were deemed unintentional. The frequency of visits to a physician and prescriptions for opioids in the month before death suggests a missed
Marín, C M; Jiménez de Bagués, M P; Barberán, M; Blasco, J M
Twenty-four rams inoculated with Brucella ovis by conjunctival and preputial routes were treated with a long-acting oxytetracycline alone or in combination with dihydrostreptomycin sulfate. The combined treatment eliminated Brucella ovis from 11 of 12 (91.6%) treated rams. Only 4 of 12 (33.3%) rams treated with oxytetracycline alone were bacteriologically negative. Neither treatment resolved clinical epididymitis in 2 rams affected before treatment. Many rams had pathologic lesions in the epididymis and ampullae, which limited the efficacy of antibiotic treatment.
Raderer, M; Hamilton, G; Kurtaran, A; Valencak, J; Haberl, I; Hoffmann, O; Kornek, G V; Vorbeck, F; Hejna, M H L; Virgolini, I; Scheithauer, W
Fourteen patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with the long-acting somatostatin (SST) analogue lanreotide. No objective response was obtained, and the median survival was 4 months (range 1.8–7 months). Pancreatic cancer could not be visualized by means of SST-receptor (R) scintigraphy in our patients. In vitro data also demonstrated absence of SSTR2 expression, suggesting pancreatic cancer not to be a potential target for treatment with SST analogues. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027326
Chen, Melissa J; Hou, Melody Y; Hsia, Jennifer K; Cansino, Catherine D; Melo, Juliana; Creinin, Mitchell D
To evaluate whether a department policy changing the scheduling of the postpartum visit from 6 weeks to 2-3 weeks after delivery is associated with higher long-acting reversible contraception initiation at the postpartum visit. We conducted a quasiexperimental before-after study to evaluate long-acting reversible contraception initiation, specifically an intrauterine device or contraceptive implant, at the postpartum visit between women scheduled for follow-up at 6 weeks (before policy change) and 2-3 weeks after delivery (after policy change). Secondary outcomes included postpartum visit completion, overall contraception initiation at the postpartum visit, overall contraceptive use at 6 months after delivery, and repeat pregnancies by 6 months postpartum. We obtained delivery and postpartum information using the electronic medical record and contacted participants 3 and 6 months after delivery to assess contraception use and repeat pregnancies. We enrolled 586 participants between December 2014 and November 2015, of whom 512 women (256 in each cohort) continued to meet eligibility criteria after delivery. Long-acting reversible contraception initiation rates at the postpartum visit were lower in the 2- to 3-week (16.5%, 95% CI 12.2-21.8) compared with the 6-week group (31.1%, 95% CI 25.2-37.7, P<.01), primarily as a result of patient and health care provider preferences for delaying intrauterine device insertion to a later visit. More women completed a scheduled 2- to 3-week postpartum visit (90.2%, 95% CI 86.0-93.3) compared with a 6-week visit (81.6%, 95% CI 76.4-85.9, P<.01). Deferral of any contraception initiation was higher in the 2- to 3-week group (27.3%, 95% CI 21.9-33.4) compared with the 6-week group (15.8%, 95% CI 11.5-21.4, P<.01), but there were no differences in overall contraceptive use patterns at 6 months postpartum. No intrauterine device perforations or expulsions were observed in women who underwent insertion at 2-3 weeks postpartum. Five
Dhalla, Irfan A; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Kopp, Alex; Qureshi, Omar; Juurlink, David N
Opioid-related mortality appears to be increasing in Canada. We examined the true extent of the problem and the impact of the introduction of long-acting oxycodone. We examined trends in the prescribing of opioid analgesics in the province of Ontario from 1991 to 2007. We reviewed all deaths related to opioid use between 1991 and 2004. We linked 3271 of these deaths to administrative data to examine the patients' use of health care services before death. Using time-series analysis, we determined whether the addition of long-acting oxycodone to the provincial drug formulary in January 2000 was associated with an increase in opioid-related mortality. From 1991 to 2007, annual prescriptions for opioids increased from 458 to 591 per 1000 individuals. Opioid-related deaths doubled, from 13.7 per million in 1991 to 27.2 per million in 2004. Prescriptions of oxycodone increased by 850% between 1991 and 2007. The addition of long-acting oxycodone to the drug formulary was associated with a 5-fold increase in oxycodone-related mortality (p<0.01) and a 41% increase in overall opioid-related mortality (p=0.02). The manner of death was deemed unintentional by the coroner in 54.2% and undetermined in 21.9% of cases. Use of health care services in the month before death was common: for example, of the 3066 patients for whom data on physician visits were available, 66.4% had visited a physician in the month before death; of the 1095 patients for whom individual-level prescribing data were available, 56.1% had filled a prescription for an opioid in the month before death. Opioid-related deaths in Ontario have increased markedly since 1991. A significant portion of the increase was associated with the addition of long-acting oxycodone to the provincial drug formulary. Most of the deaths were deemed unintentional. The frequency of visits to a physician and prescriptions for opioids in the month before death suggests a missed opportunity for prevention.
Turok, David K; Gawron, Lori M; Lawson, Samantha
After decades of having the developed world's highest rates of unintended pregnancy, the United States finally shows signs of improvement. This progress is likely due in large part to increased use of highly effective long-acting reversible methods of contraception. These methods can be placed and do not require any maintenance to provide years of contraception as effective as sterilization. Upon removal, fertility returns to baseline rates. This article addresses advances in both software-improved use and elimination of barriers to provide these methods; and hardware-novel delivery systems and devices.
O'Sullivan, David; Green, Laura; Stone, Sarrabeth; Zareie, Pirooz; Kharkrang, Marie; Fong, Dahna; Connor, Bronwen; La Flamme, Anne Camille
Recent studies have demonstrated that atypical antipsychotic agents, which are known to antagonize dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2a receptors, have immunomodulatory properties. Given the potential of these drugs to modulate the immune system both peripherally and within the central nervous system, we investigated the ability of the atypical anti-psychotic agent, risperidone, to modify disease in the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS)4, experimental autoimune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found that chronic oral administration of risperidone dose-dependently reduced the severity of disease and decreased both the size and number of spinal cord lesions. Furthermore, risperidone treatment substantially reduced antigen-specific interleukin (IL)-17a, IL-2, and IL-4 but not interferon (IFN)-γ production by splenocytes at peak disease and using an in vitro model, we show that treatment of macrophages with risperidone alters their ability to bias naïve T cells. Another atypical antipsychotic agent, clozapine, showed a similar ability to modify macrophages in vitro and to reduce disease in the EAE model but this effect was not due to antagonism of the type 1 or type 2 dopamine receptors alone. Finally, we found that while risperidone treatment had little effect on the in vivo activation of splenic macrophages during EAE, it significantly reduced the activation of microglia and macrophages in the central nervous system. Together these studies indicate that atypical antipsychotic agents like risperidone are effective immunomodulatory agents with the potential to treat immune-mediated diseases such as MS.
Stone, Sarrabeth; Zareie, Pirooz; Kharkrang, Marie; Fong, Dahna; Connor, Bronwen; La Flamme, Anne Camille
Recent studies have demonstrated that atypical antipsychotic agents, which are known to antagonize dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2a receptors, have immunomodulatory properties. Given the potential of these drugs to modulate the immune system both peripherally and within the central nervous system, we investigated the ability of the atypical anti-psychotic agent, risperidone, to modify disease in the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS)4, experimental autoimune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found that chronic oral administration of risperidone dose-dependently reduced the severity of disease and decreased both the size and number of spinal cord lesions. Furthermore, risperidone treatment substantially reduced antigen-specific interleukin (IL)-17a, IL-2, and IL-4 but not interferon (IFN)-γ production by splenocytes at peak disease and using an in vitro model, we show that treatment of macrophages with risperidone alters their ability to bias naïve T cells. Another atypical antipsychotic agent, clozapine, showed a similar ability to modify macrophages in vitro and to reduce disease in the EAE model but this effect was not due to antagonism of the type 1 or type 2 dopamine receptors alone. Finally, we found that while risperidone treatment had little effect on the in vivo activation of splenic macrophages during EAE, it significantly reduced the activation of microglia and macrophages in the central nervous system. Together these studies indicate that atypical antipsychotic agents like risperidone are effective immunomodulatory agents with the potential to treat immune-mediated diseases such as MS. PMID:25116424
FAYYAZI, Afshin; SALARI, Elham; KHAJEH, Ali; GAJARPOUR, Abdi
Objective Many patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU) suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients. Materials & Methods In this crossover clinical trial study, patients with severe behavior disorders after medical examination were randomly divided into two groups of two 8-week crossover treatments with risperidone or buspirone. Patient behavioral disorders before and after treatment by each drug was rated by parents on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF), and after treatment by each drug, were assessed by a physician through clinical global impression (CGI). Results Thirteen patients were able to complete the therapy period with these two medications. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were intellectual disability accompanied by pervasive developmental disorder NOS, and intellectual disability accompanied by autistic disorder. Risperidone was significantly effective in reducing the NCBRF subscales of hyperactivity disruptive/stereotypic, and conduct problems. Treatment by buspirone only significantly decreased the severity of hyperactivity, but other behavior aspects showed no significant differences. Assessment of the severity of behavior disorder after treatment by risperidone and buspirone showed significant differences in reducing hyperactivity and masochistic/stereotype. Conclusion Although buspirone is effective in controlling hyperactivity in patients with PKU, it has no preference over risperidone. Therefore, it is recommended as an alternative to risperidone. PMID:25657768
Puangpetch, Apichaya; Vanwong, Natchaya; Nuntamool, Nopphadol; Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Chamnanphon, Monpat; Sukasem, Chonlaphat
Cytochrome P450 enzyme especially CYP2D6 plays a major role in biotransformation. The interindividual variations of treatment response and toxicity are influenced by the polymorphisms of this enzyme. This review emphasizes the effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in risperidone treatment in terms of basic knowledge, pharmacogenetics, effectiveness, adverse events, and clinical practice. Although the previous studies showed different results, the effective responses in risperidone treatment depend on the CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Several studies suggested that CYP2D6 polymorphisms were associated with plasma concentration of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and active moiety but did not impact on clinical outcomes. In addition, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer showed more serious adverse events such as weight gain and prolactin than other predicted phenotype groups. The knowledge of pharmacogenomics of CYP2D6 in risperidone treatment is increasing, and it can be used for the development of personalized medication in term of genetic-based dose recommendation. Moreover, the effects of many factors in risperidone treatment are still being investigated. Both the CYP2D6 genotyping and therapeutic drug monitoring are the important steps to complement the genetic-based risperidone treatment. PMID:27942231
Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh
Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.