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Sample records for constant comparative analysis

  1. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  2. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  3. A comparative numerical analysis of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic sound generation by vortex disturbances in homentropic constant shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Jan-Niklas, E-mail: hau@fdy.tu-darmstadt.de; Oberlack, Martin; GSC CE, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Dolivostraße 15, 64293 Darmstadt

    2015-12-15

    wavenumber plane, which results in highly directional linear sound radiation, whereas the nonlinearly generated waves are almost omni-directional. As part of this analysis, we compare the effectiveness of the linear and nonlinear mechanisms of wave generation within the range of validity of the rapid distortion theory and show the dominance of the linear aerodynamic sound generation. Finally, topological differences between the linear source term of the acoustic analogy equation and of the anisotropic non-normality induced linear mechanism of wave generation are found.« less

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Model Predictions for Rayleigh-Taylor Instability and Mixing with Constant and Complex Accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Oleg

    2016-11-01

    Two-, three- and four-equation, single-velocity, multicomponent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models, based on the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate or lengthscale, are used to simulate At = 0 . 5 Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing with constant and complex accelerations. The constant acceleration case is inspired by the Cabot and Cook (2006) DNS, and the complex acceleration cases are inspired by the unstable/stable and unstable/neutral cases simulated using DNS (Livescu, Wei & Petersen 2011) and the unstable/stable/unstable case simulated using ILES (Ramaprabhu, Karkhanis & Lawrie 2013). The four-equation models couple equations for the mass flux a and negative density-specific volume correlation b to the K- ɛ or K- L equations, while the three-equation models use a two-fluid algebraic closure for b. The lengthscale-based models are also applied with no buoyancy production in the L equation to explore the consequences of neglecting this term. Predicted mixing widths, turbulence statistics, fields, and turbulent transport equation budgets are compared among these models to identify similarities and differences in the turbulence production, dissipation and diffusion physics represented by the closures used in these models. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Comparative Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    differential qualita- tive (DQ) analysis, which solves the task, providing explanations suitable for use by design systems, automated diagnosis, intelligent...solves the task, providing explanations suitable for use by design systems, automated diagnosis, intelligent tutoring systems, and explanation based...comparative analysis as an important component; the explanation is used in many different ways. * One way method of automated design is the principlvd

  6. Comparing otoacoustic emissions evoked by chirp transients with constant absorbed sound power and constant incident pressure magnitude.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Douglas H; Feeney, M Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L; Fitzpatrick, Denis F

    2017-01-01

    Human ear-canal properties of transient acoustic stimuli are contrasted that utilize measured ear-canal pressures in conjunction with measured acoustic pressure reflectance and admittance. These data are referenced to the tip of a probe snugly inserted into the ear canal. Promising procedures to calibrate across frequency include stimuli with controlled levels of incident pressure magnitude, absorbed sound power, and forward pressure magnitude. An equivalent pressure at the eardrum is calculated from these measured data using a transmission-line model of ear-canal acoustics parameterized by acoustically estimated ear-canal area at the probe tip and length between the probe tip and eardrum. Chirp stimuli with constant incident pressure magnitude and constant absorbed sound power across frequency were generated to elicit transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), which were measured in normal-hearing adult ears from 0.7 to 8 kHz. TEOAE stimuli had similar peak-to-peak equivalent sound pressure levels across calibration conditions. Frequency-domain TEOAEs were compared using signal level, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), coherence synchrony modulus (CSM), group delay, and group spread. Time-domain TEOAEs were compared using SNR, CSM, instantaneous frequency and instantaneous bandwidth. Stimuli with constant incident pressure magnitude or constant absorbed sound power across frequency produce generally similar TEOAEs up to 8 kHz.

  7. Comparing otoacoustic emissions evoked by chirp transients with constant absorbed sound power and constant incident pressure magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L.; Fitzpatrick, Denis F.

    2017-01-01

    Human ear-canal properties of transient acoustic stimuli are contrasted that utilize measured ear-canal pressures in conjunction with measured acoustic pressure reflectance and admittance. These data are referenced to the tip of a probe snugly inserted into the ear canal. Promising procedures to calibrate across frequency include stimuli with controlled levels of incident pressure magnitude, absorbed sound power, and forward pressure magnitude. An equivalent pressure at the eardrum is calculated from these measured data using a transmission-line model of ear-canal acoustics parameterized by acoustically estimated ear-canal area at the probe tip and length between the probe tip and eardrum. Chirp stimuli with constant incident pressure magnitude and constant absorbed sound power across frequency were generated to elicit transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), which were measured in normal-hearing adult ears from 0.7 to 8 kHz. TEOAE stimuli had similar peak-to-peak equivalent sound pressure levels across calibration conditions. Frequency-domain TEOAEs were compared using signal level, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), coherence synchrony modulus (CSM), group delay, and group spread. Time-domain TEOAEs were compared using SNR, CSM, instantaneous frequency and instantaneous bandwidth. Stimuli with constant incident pressure magnitude or constant absorbed sound power across frequency produce generally similar TEOAEs up to 8 kHz. PMID:28147608

  8. Energy consumption analysis of constant voltage and constant current operations in capacitive deionization

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Yatian; Campbell, Patrick G.; Gu, Lei

    Here we report our studies to compare energy consumption of a CDI cell in constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) operations, with a focus on understanding the underlying physics of consumption patterns. The comparison is conducted under conditions that the CV and CC operations result in the same amounts of input charge and within identical charging phase durations. We present two electrical circuit models to simulate energy consumption in charging phase: one is a simple RC circuit model, and the other a transmission line circuit model. We built and tested a CDI cell to validate the transmission line model,more » and performed a series of experiments to compare CV versus CC operation under the condition of equal applied charge and charging duration. The experiments show that CC mode consumes energy at 33.8 kJ per mole of ions removed, which is only 28% of CV mode energy consumption (120.6 kJ/mol), but achieves similar level of salt removals. Lastly, together, the models and experiment support our major conclusion that CC is more energy efficient than CV for equal charge and charging duration. The models also suggest that the lower energy consumption of CC in charging is due to its lower resistive dissipation.« less

  9. Energy consumption analysis of constant voltage and constant current operations in capacitive deionization

    DOE PAGES

    Qu, Yatian; Campbell, Patrick G.; Gu, Lei; ...

    2016-09-21

    Here we report our studies to compare energy consumption of a CDI cell in constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) operations, with a focus on understanding the underlying physics of consumption patterns. The comparison is conducted under conditions that the CV and CC operations result in the same amounts of input charge and within identical charging phase durations. We present two electrical circuit models to simulate energy consumption in charging phase: one is a simple RC circuit model, and the other a transmission line circuit model. We built and tested a CDI cell to validate the transmission line model,more » and performed a series of experiments to compare CV versus CC operation under the condition of equal applied charge and charging duration. The experiments show that CC mode consumes energy at 33.8 kJ per mole of ions removed, which is only 28% of CV mode energy consumption (120.6 kJ/mol), but achieves similar level of salt removals. Lastly, together, the models and experiment support our major conclusion that CC is more energy efficient than CV for equal charge and charging duration. The models also suggest that the lower energy consumption of CC in charging is due to its lower resistive dissipation.« less

  10. Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-10-01

    During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017

  11. Comparative Study of Constant Dose Intrathecal Hypobaric Levobupivacaine with Varying Baricities in Lower Limb Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Biji, K. P.; Sunil, M.; Ramadas, K. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypobaric spinal anesthesia is advantageous for unilateral lower extremity fractures as it obviates pain of lying on fractured limb for performing subarachnoid block. Aims: This study compares block characteristics and complications of three different baricities of constant dose intrathecal hypobaric levobupivacaine to determine an optimum baricity. Settings and Design: One-twenty American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status 1 and 2 patients aged 18–65 years undergoing unilateral lower limb surgeries were divided into three equal groups for this prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: To 2 mL intrathecal 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine (10 mg), 0.4 mL, 0.6 mL, and 0.8 mL of distilled water were added in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Baricities of Groups A, B, and C are 0.999294, 0.998945, and 0.998806, respectively. Development of sensory and motor block was assessed by the pinprick method and Bromage scale, respectively. The total duration of analgesia and complications were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean, standard error, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni were used to analyze quantitative variables; proportions and Chi-square tests for qualitative variables. Results: Demographic parameters, motor block of operated limb, and complications were comparable. Group C had the fastest onset of sensory block (10.10 min) and maximum duration of analgesia (478.97 min; P < 0.001); but high sensory levels in 48.7%. Group B had T10 sensory level in 92.5%; onset comparable to Group C (P = 0.248), and reasonable duration of analgesia (332.50 min). Group A had inadequate sensory levels, slow onset, and early regression. Conclusions: Group B (baricity - 0.998945) has better block characteristics among three groups compared. PMID:28928563

  12. Vicinal fluorine-fluorine coupling constants: Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    San Fabián, J; Westra Hoekzema, A J A

    2004-10-01

    Stereochemical dependences of vicinal fluorine-fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance coupling constants (3JFF) have been studied with the multiconfigurational self-consistent field in the restricted active space approach, with the second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA), and with density functional theory. The SOPPA results show the best overall agreement with experimental couplings. The relationship with the dihedral angle between the coupled fluorines has been studied by Fourier analysis, the result is very different from that of proton-proton couplings. The Fourier coefficients do not resemble those of a typical Karplus equation. The four nonrelativistic contributions to the coupling constants of 1,2-difluoroethane configurations have been studied separately showing that up to six Fourier coefficients are required to reproduce the calculated values satisfactorily. Comparison with Fourier coefficients for matching hydrogen fluoride dimer configurations suggests that the higher order Fourier coefficients (Cn> or =3) originate mainly from through-space Fermi contact interaction. The through-space interaction is the main reason 3JFF do not follow the Karplus equation. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  13. Vicinal fluorine-fluorine coupling constants: Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Fabián, J.; Westra Hoekzema, A. J. A.

    2004-10-01

    Stereochemical dependences of vicinal fluorine-fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance coupling constants (3JFF) have been studied with the multiconfigurational self-consistent field in the restricted active space approach, with the second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA), and with density functional theory. The SOPPA results show the best overall agreement with experimental couplings. The relationship with the dihedral angle between the coupled fluorines has been studied by Fourier analysis, the result is very different from that of proton-proton couplings. The Fourier coefficients do not resemble those of a typical Karplus equation. The four nonrelativistic contributions to the coupling constants of 1,2-difluoroethane configurations have been studied separately showing that up to six Fourier coefficients are required to reproduce the calculated values satisfactorily. Comparison with Fourier coefficients for matching hydrogen fluoride dimer configurations suggests that the higher order Fourier coefficients (Cn⩾3) originate mainly from through-space Fermi contact interaction. The through-space interaction is the main reason 3JFF do not follow the Karplus equation.

  14. Comparative Cognitive Task Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    is to perform a task analyses to determine how people operate in a specific domain on a specific task. Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) is a set of...accomplish a task. In this chapter, we build on CTA methods by suggesting that comparative cognitive task analysis (C2TA) can help solve the aforementioned

  15. A Chemogenomic Analysis of Ionization Constants - Implications for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Manallack, David T.; Prankerd, Richard J.; Nassta, Gemma C.; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I.; Chalmers, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Chemogenomics methods seek to characterize the interaction between drugs and biological systems and are an important guide for the selection of screening compounds. The acid/base character of drugs has a profound influence on their affinity for the receptor, on their absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) profile and the way the drug can be formulated. In particular, the charge state of a molecule greatly influences its lipophilicity and biopharmaceutical characteristics. This study investigates the acid/base profile of human small molecule drugs, chemogenomics datasets and screening compounds including a natural products set. We estimate the ionization constants (pKa values) of these compounds and determine the identity of the ionizable functional groups in each set. We find substantial differences in acid/base profiles of the chemogenomic classes. In many cases, these differences can be linked to the nature of the target binding site and the corresponding functional groups needed for recognition of the ligand. Clear differences are also observed between the acid/base characteristics of drugs and screening compounds. For example, the proportion of drugs containing a carboxylic acid was 20%, in stark contrast to a value of 2.4% for the screening set sample. The proportion of aliphatic amines was 27% for drugs and only 3.4% for screening compounds. This suggests that there is a mismatch between commercially available screening compounds and the compounds that are likely to interact with a given chemogenomic target family. Our analysis provides a guide for the selection of screening compounds to better target specific chemogenomic families with regard to the overall balance of acids, bases and pKa distributions. PMID:23303535

  16. Comparative Study of Constant Dose Intrathecal Hypobaric Levobupivacaine with Varying Baricities in Lower Limb Surgeries.

    PubMed

    Biji, K P; Sunil, M; Ramadas, K T

    2017-01-01

    Hypobaric spinal anesthesia is advantageous for unilateral lower extremity fractures as it obviates pain of lying on fractured limb for performing subarachnoid block. This study compares block characteristics and complications of three different baricities of constant dose intrathecal hypobaric levobupivacaine to determine an optimum baricity. One-twenty American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status 1 and 2 patients aged 18-65 years undergoing unilateral lower limb surgeries were divided into three equal groups for this prospective cohort study. To 2 mL intrathecal 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine (10 mg), 0.4 mL, 0.6 mL, and 0.8 mL of distilled water were added in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Baricities of Groups A, B, and C are 0.999294, 0.998945, and 0.998806, respectively. Development of sensory and motor block was assessed by the pinprick method and Bromage scale, respectively. The total duration of analgesia and complications were noted. Mean, standard error, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni were used to analyze quantitative variables; proportions and Chi-square tests for qualitative variables. Demographic parameters, motor block of operated limb, and complications were comparable. Group C had the fastest onset of sensory block (10.10 min) and maximum duration of analgesia (478.97 min; P < 0.001); but high sensory levels in 48.7%. Group B had T 10 sensory level in 92.5%; onset comparable to Group C ( P = 0.248), and reasonable duration of analgesia (332.50 min). Group A had inadequate sensory levels, slow onset, and early regression. Group B (baricity - 0.998945) has better block characteristics among three groups compared.

  17. Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are…

  18. Comparative effects of constant versus fluctuating thermal regimens on yellow perch growth, feed conversion and survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of fluctuating or constant thermal regimens on growth, mortality, and feed conversion were determined for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Yellow perch averaging 156mm total length and 43g body weight were held in replicate 288L circular tanks for 129 days under: 1) a diel therm...

  19. Estimation of the engineering elastic constants of a directionally solidified superalloy for finite element structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    1991-01-01

    The temperature-dependent engineering elastic constants of a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy were estimated from the single-crystal elastic constants of nickel and MAR-MOO2 superalloy by using Wells' method. In this method, the directionally solidified (columnar-grained) nickel-base superalloy was modeled as a transversely isotropic material, and the five independent elastic constants of the transversely isotropic material were determined from the three independent elastic constants of a cubic single crystal. Solidification for both the single crystals and the directionally solidified superalloy was assumed to be along the (001) direction. Temperature-dependent Young's moduli in longitudinal and transverse directions, shear moduli, and Poisson's ratios were tabulated for the directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy. These engineering elastic constants could be used as input for performing finite element structural analysis of directionally solidified turbine engine components.

  20. Analysis of discrete and continuous distributions of ventilatory time constants from dynamic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doebrich, Marcus; Markstaller, Klaus; Karmrodt, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Eberle, Balthasar; Weiler, Norbert; Thelen, Manfred; Schreiber, Wolfgang G.

    2005-04-01

    In this study, an algorithm was developed to measure the distribution of pulmonary time constants (TCs) from dynamic computed tomography (CT) data sets during a sudden airway pressure step up. Simulations with synthetic data were performed to test the methodology as well as the influence of experimental noise. Furthermore the algorithm was applied to in vivo data. In five pigs sudden changes in airway pressure were imposed during dynamic CT acquisition in healthy lungs and in a saline lavage ARDS model. The fractional gas content in the imaged slice (FGC) was calculated by density measurements for each CT image. Temporal variations of the FGC were analysed assuming a model with a continuous distribution of exponentially decaying time constants. The simulations proved the feasibility of the method. The influence of experimental noise could be well evaluated. Analysis of the in vivo data showed that in healthy lungs ventilation processes can be more likely characterized by discrete TCs whereas in ARDS lungs continuous distributions of TCs are observed. The temporal behaviour of lung inflation and deflation can be characterized objectively using the described new methodology. This study indicates that continuous distributions of TCs reflect lung ventilation mechanics more accurately compared to discrete TCs.

  1. Mobility-based correction for accurate determination of binding constants by capillary electrophoresis-frontal analysis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cheng; Kovalchik, Kevin A; MacLennan, Matthew S; Huang, Xiaohua; Chen, David D Y

    2017-06-01

    Capillary electrophoresis frontal analysis (CE-FA) can be used to determine binding affinity of molecular interactions. However, its current data processing method mandate specific requirement on the mobilities of the binding pair in order to obtain accurate binding constants. This work shows that significant errors are resulted when the mobilities of the interacting species do not meet these requirements. Therefore, the applicability of CE-FA in many real word applications becomes questionable. An electrophoretic mobility-based correction method is developed in this work based on the flux of each species. A simulation program and a pair of model compounds are used to verify the new equations and evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Ibuprofen and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrinare used to demonstrate the differences in the obtained binding constant by CE-FA when different calculation methods are used, and the results are compared with those obtained by affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE). The results suggest that CE-FA, with the mobility-based correction method, can be a generally applicable method for a much wider range of applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Advances in the analysis and design of constant-torque springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, John R.; Yura, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    In order to improve the design procedure of constant-torque springs used in aerospace applications, several new analysis techniques have been developed. These techniques make it possible to accurately construct a torque-rotation curve for any general constant-torque spring configuration. These new techniques allow for friction in the system to be included in the analysis, an area of analysis that has heretofore been unexplored. The new analysis techniques also include solutions for the deflected shape of the spring as well as solutions for drum and roller support reaction forces. A design procedure incorporating these new capabilities is presented.

  3. Comparative analysis of reflective sheeting.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    A comparative analysis was made of the initial brightness of seibulite brand super engineering grade and scotchlite brand high intensity grade reflective sheeting under road conditions. Overhead and ground-mounted guide signs were analyzed. Human fac...

  4. Comparing Vibrationally Averaged Nuclear Shielding Constants by Quantum Diffusion Monte Carlo and Second-Order Perturbation Theory.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yee-Hong; Bettens, Ryan P A

    2016-03-03

    Using the method of modified Shepard's interpolation to construct potential energy surfaces of the H2O, O3, and HCOOH molecules, we compute vibrationally averaged isotropic nuclear shielding constants ⟨σ⟩ of the three molecules via quantum diffusion Monte Carlo (QDMC). The QDMC results are compared to that of second-order perturbation theory (PT), to see if second-order PT is adequate for obtaining accurate values of nuclear shielding constants of molecules with large amplitude motions. ⟨σ⟩ computed by the two approaches differ for the hydrogens and carbonyl oxygen of HCOOH, suggesting that for certain molecules such as HCOOH where big displacements away from equilibrium happen (internal OH rotation), ⟨σ⟩ of experimental quality may only be obtainable with the use of more sophisticated and accurate methods, such as quantum diffusion Monte Carlo. The approach of modified Shepard's interpolation is also extended to construct shielding constants σ surfaces of the three molecules. By using a σ surface with the equilibrium geometry as a single data point to compute isotropic nuclear shielding constants for each descendant in the QDMC ensemble representing the ground state wave function, we reproduce the results obtained through ab initio computed σ to within statistical noise. Development of such an approach could thereby alleviate the need for any future costly ab initio σ calculations.

  5. The statistical analysis of circadian phase and amplitude in constant-routine core-temperature data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the phases and amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature series is crucial for making inferences about the properties of the human biological clock from data collected under this protocol. This paper presents a set of statistical methods based on a harmonic-regression-plus-correlated-noise model for estimating the phases and the amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature data. The methods include a Bayesian Monte Carlo procedure for computing the uncertainty in these circadian functions. We illustrate the techniques with a detailed study of a single subject's core-temperature series and describe their relationship to other statistical methods for circadian data analysis. In our laboratory, these methods have been successfully used to analyze more than 300 constant routines and provide a highly reliable means of extracting phase and amplitude information from core-temperature data.

  6. Determination of elastic constants of a generally orthotropic plate by modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, T. C.; Lau, T. C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a method of finding the elastic constants of a generally orthotropic composite thin plate through modal analysis based on a Rayleigh-Ritz formulation. The natural frequencies and mode shapes for a plate with free-free boundary conditions are obtained with chirp excitation. Based on the eigenvalue equation and the constitutive equations of the plate, an iteration scheme is derived using the experimentally determined natural frequencies to arrive at a set of converged values for the elastic constants. Four sets of experimental data are required for the four independent constants: namely the two Young's moduli E1 and E2, the in-plane shear modulus G12, and one Poisson's ratio nu12. The other Poisson's ratio nu21 can then be determined from the relationship among the constants. Comparison with static test results indicate good agreement. Choosing the right combinations of natural modes together with a set of reasonable initial estimates for the constants to start the iteration has been found to be crucial in achieving convergence.

  7. Analysis of constant tension-induced rupture of lipid membranes using activation energy.

    PubMed

    Karal, Mohammad Abu Sayem; Levadnyy, Victor; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-05-11

    The stretching of biomembranes and lipid membranes plays important roles in various physiological and physicochemical phenomena. Here we analyzed the rate constant kp of constant tension-induced rupture of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) as a function of tension σ using their activation energy Ua. To determine the values of kp, we applied constant tension to a GUV membrane using the micropipette aspiration method and observed the rupture of GUVs, and then analyzed these data statistically. First, we investigated the temperature dependence of kp for GUVs of charged lipid membranes composed of negatively charged dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) and electrically neutral dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC). By analyzing this result, the values of Ua of tension-induced rupture of DOPG/DOPC-GUVs were obtained. Ua decreased with an increase in σ, supporting the classical theory of tension-induced pore formation. The analysis of the relationship between Ua and σ using the theory on the electrostatic interaction effects on the tension-induced rupture of GUVs provided the equation of Ua including electrostatic interaction effects, which well fits the experimental data of the tension dependence of Ua. A constant which does not depend on tension, U0, was also found to contribute significantly to Ua. The Arrhenius equations for kp using the equation of Ua and the parameters determined by the above analysis fit well to the experimental data of the tension dependence of kp for DOPG/DOPC-GUVs as well as for DOPC-GUVs. On the basis of these results, we discussed the possible elementary processes underlying the tension-induced rupture of GUVs of lipid membranes. These results indicate that the Arrhenius equation using the experimentally determined Ua is useful in the analysis of tension-induced rupture of GUVs.

  8. Comparing Teacher-Directed and Computer-Assisted Constant Time Delay for Teaching Functional Sight Words to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mari Beth; Hurley, Kevin J.; Cihak, David F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of teacher-directed and computer-assisted constant time delay strategies for teaching three students with moderate intellectual disability to read functional sight words. Target words were those found in recipes and were taught via teacher-delivered constant time delay or…

  9. Short time Fourier analysis of the electromyogram - Fast movements and constant contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannaford, Blake; Lehman, Steven

    1986-01-01

    Short-time Fourier analysis was applied to surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded during rapid movements, and during isometric contractions at constant forces. A portion of the data to be transformed by multiplying the signal by a Hamming window was selected, and then the discrete Fourier transform was computed. Shifting the window along the data record, a new spectrum was computed each 10 ms. The transformed data were displayed in spectograms or 'voiceprints'. This short-time technique made it possible to see time-dependencies in the EMG that are normally averaged in the Fourier analysis of these signals. Spectra of EMGs during isometric contractions at constant force vary in the short (10-20 ms) term. Short-time spectra from EMGs recorded during rapid movements were much less variable. The windowing technique picked out the typical 'three-burst pattern' in EMG's from both wrist and head movements. Spectra during the bursts were more consistent than those during isometric contractions. Furthermore, there was a consistent shift in spectral statistics in the course of the three bursts. Both the center frequency and the variance of the spectral energy distribution grew from the first burst to the second burst in the same muscle. The analogy between EMGs and speech signals is extended to argue for future applicability of short-time spectral analysis of EMG.

  10. Computing sextic centrifugal distortion constants by DFT: A benchmark analysis on halogenated compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Stoppa, Paolo; Tasinato, Nicola; Giorgianni, Santi

    2017-05-01

    This work presents a benchmark study on the calculation of the sextic centrifugal distortion constants employing cubic force fields computed by means of density functional theory (DFT). For a set of semi-rigid halogenated organic compounds several functionals (B2PLYP, B3LYP, B3PW91, M06, M06-2X, O3LYP, X3LYP, ωB97XD, CAM-B3LYP, LC-ωPBE, PBE0, B97-1 and B97-D) were used for computing the sextic centrifugal distortion constants. The effects related to the size of basis sets and the performances of hybrid approaches, where the harmonic data obtained at higher level of electronic correlation are coupled with cubic force constants yielded by DFT functionals, are presented and discussed. The predicted values were compared to both the available data published in the literature and those obtained by calculations carried out at increasing level of electronic correlation: Hartree-Fock Self Consistent Field (HF-SCF), second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled-cluster single and double (CCSD) level of theory. Different hybrid approaches, having the cubic force field computed at DFT level of theory coupled to harmonic data computed at increasing level of electronic correlation (up to CCSD level of theory augmented by a perturbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T)) were considered. The obtained results demonstrate that they can represent reliable and computationally affordable methods to predict sextic centrifugal terms with an accuracy almost comparable to that yielded by the more expensive anharmonic force fields fully computed at MP2 and CCSD levels of theory. In view of their reduced computational cost, these hybrid approaches pave the route to the study of more complex systems.

  11. Thrust Force Analysis of Tripod Constant Velocity Joint Using Multibody Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Hideki; Matsunaga, Tsugiharu; Mizutani, Yoshiteru; Ando, Yosei; Kashiwagi, Isashi

    A tripod constant velocity joint is used in the driveshaft of front wheel drive vehicles. Thrust force generated by this joint causes lateral vibration in these vehicles. To analyze the thrust force, a detailed model is constructed based on a multibody dynamics approach. This model includes all principal parts of the joint defined as rigid bodies and all force elements of contact and friction acting among these parts. This model utilizes a new contact modeling method of needle roller bearings for more precise and faster computation. By comparing computational and experimental results, the appropriateness of this model is verified and the principal factors inducing the second and third rotating order components of the thrust force are clarified. This paper also describes the influence of skewed needle rollers on the thrust force and evaluates the contribution of friction forces at each contact region to the thrust force.

  12. Photometric method for determination of acidity constants through integral spectra analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zevatskiy, Yuriy Eduardovich; Ruzanov, Daniil Olegovich; Samoylov, Denis Vladimirovich

    2015-04-01

    An express method for determination of acidity constants of organic acids, based on the analysis of the integral transmittance vs. pH dependence is developed. The integral value is registered as a photocurrent of photometric device simultaneously with potentiometric titration. The proposed method allows to obtain pKa using only simple and low-cost instrumentation. The optical part of the experimental setup has been optimized through the exclusion of the monochromator device. Thus it only takes 10-15 min to obtain one pKa value with the absolute error of less than 0.15 pH units. Application limitations and reliability of the method have been tested for a series of organic acids of various nature.

  13. Photometric method for determination of acidity constants through integral spectra analysis.

    PubMed

    Zevatskiy, Yuriy Eduardovich; Ruzanov, Daniil Olegovich; Samoylov, Denis Vladimirovich

    2015-04-15

    An express method for determination of acidity constants of organic acids, based on the analysis of the integral transmittance vs. pH dependence is developed. The integral value is registered as a photocurrent of photometric device simultaneously with potentiometric titration. The proposed method allows to obtain pKa using only simple and low-cost instrumentation. The optical part of the experimental setup has been optimized through the exclusion of the monochromator device. Thus it only takes 10-15 min to obtain one pKa value with the absolute error of less than 0.15 pH units. Application limitations and reliability of the method have been tested for a series of organic acids of various nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  15. Inverse problem analysis for identification of reaction kinetics constants in microreactors for biodiesel synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontes, P. C.; Naveira-Cotta, C. P.

    2016-09-01

    The theoretical analysis for the design of microreactors in biodiesel production is a complicated task due to the complex liquid-liquid flow and mass transfer processes, and the transesterification reaction that takes place within these microsystems. Thus, computational simulation is an important tool that aids in understanding the physical-chemical phenomenon and, consequently, in determining the suitable conditions that maximize the conversion of triglycerides during the biodiesel synthesis. A diffusive-convective-reactive coupled nonlinear mathematical model, that governs the mass transfer process during the transesterification reaction in parallel plates microreactors, under isothermal conditions, is here described. A hybrid numerical-analytical solution via the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) for this partial differential system is developed and the eigenfunction expansions convergence rates are extensively analyzed and illustrated. The heuristic method of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied in the inverse analysis of the proposed direct problem, to estimate the reaction kinetics constants, which is a critical step in the design of such microsystems. The results present a good agreement with the limited experimental data in the literature, but indicate that the GITT methodology combined with the PSO approach provide a reliable computational algorithm for direct-inverse analysis in such reactive mass transfer problems.

  16. Heating Analysis in Constant-pressure Hydraulic System based on Energy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chao; Xu, Cong; Mao, Xuyao; Li, Bin; Hu, Junhua; Liu, Yiou

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic systems are widely used in industrial applications, but the problem of heating has become an important reason to restrict the promotion of hydraulic technology. The high temperature, will seriously affect the operation of the hydraulic system, even cause stuck and other serious failure. Based on the analysis of the heat damage of the hydraulic system, this paper gives the reasons for this problem, and it is showed by the application that the energy analysis can accurately locate the main reasons for the heating of the hydraulic system, which can give strong practical guidance.

  17. Bifurcation Analysis of a DC-DC Bidirectional Power Converter Operating with Constant Power Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano, Rony; Pagano, Daniel J.; Benadero, Luis; Ponce, Enrique

    Direct current (DC) microgrids (MGs) are an emergent option to satisfy new demands for power quality and integration of renewable resources in electrical distribution systems. This work addresses the large-signal stability analysis of a DC-DC bidirectional converter (DBC) connected to a storage device in an islanding MG. This converter is responsible for controlling the balance of power (load demand and generation) under constant power loads (CPLs). In order to control the DC bus voltage through a DBC, we propose a robust sliding mode control (SMC) based on a washout filter. Dynamical systems techniques are exploited to assess the quality of this switching control strategy. In this sense, a bifurcation analysis is performed to study the nonlinear stability of a reduced model of this system. The appearance of different bifurcations when load parameters and control gains are changed is studied in detail. In the specific case of Teixeira Singularity (TS) bifurcation, some experimental results are provided, confirming the mathematical predictions. Both a deeper insight in the dynamic behavior of the controlled system and valuable design criteria are obtained.

  18. Signatures of van der Waals binding: A coupling-constant scaling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yang; Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per

    2018-02-01

    The van der Waals (vdW) density functional (vdW-DF) method [Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 066501 (2015), 10.1088/0034-4885/78/6/066501] describes dispersion or vdW binding by tracking the effects of an electrodynamic coupling among pairs of electrons and their associated exchange-correlation holes. This is done in a nonlocal-correlation energy term Ecnl, which permits density functional theory calculation in the Kohn-Sham scheme. However, to map the nature of vdW forces in a fully interacting materials system, it is necessary to also account for associated kinetic-correlation energy effects. Here, we present a coupling-constant scaling analysis, which permits us to compute the kinetic-correlation energy Tcnl that is specific to the vdW-DF account of nonlocal correlations. We thus provide a more complete spatially resolved analysis of the electrodynamical-coupling nature of nonlocal-correlation binding, including vdW attraction, in both covalently and noncovalently bonded systems. We find that kinetic-correlation energy effects play a significant role in the account of vdW or dispersion interactions among molecules. Furthermore, our mapping shows that the total nonlocal-correlation binding is concentrated to pockets in the sparse electron distribution located between the material fragments.

  19. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dron, Julien; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF3/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L(-1). Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices.

  20. Ground State of the Universe and the Cosmological Constant. A Nonperturbative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Husain, Viqar; Qureshi, Babar

    2016-02-12

    The physical Hamiltonian of a gravity-matter system depends on the choice of time, with the vacuum naturally identified as its ground state. We study the expanding Universe with scalar field in the volume time gauge. We show that the vacuum energy density computed from the resulting Hamiltonian is a nonlinear function of the cosmological constant and time. This result provides a new perspective on the relation between time, the cosmological constant, and vacuum energy.

  1. A comparative study of dynamically expanding force-free, constant-alpha magnetic configurations with applications to magnetic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Burlaga, L. F.; Osherovich, V. A.; Lepping, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    We contrast two different solutions of the constant alpha, force-free MHD equation, both of which have been suggested as models for magnetic clouds: a solution in cylindrical coordinates and one in spherical coordinates. In line with the observation that magnetic clouds expand, we generalize these static models and construct their expanding counterparts. We find that expansion introduces in both cases a large asymmetry in the field strength signature which is in the same sense as that seen the the data, i.e. towards the leading edge of the cloud. We then do a least squares fit of the respective models to one-spacecraft data on a magnetic cloud. We find that the fitting routine converges in both cases. However, while purely formally we cannot distinguish between the two models using data from one spacecraft, the field components in the 'spherical' model have features not compatible with data on magnetic clouds.

  2. Analysis on Characteristics of a C-Shaped Constant-Force Spring with a Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Atsumi; Ohshima, Shigemichi; Itoh, Daisuke

    A C-shaped constant-force spring is made of pre-stressed material in various sizes that offer the advantage of a constant tensile load, suitable for a variety of applications (for example, extension spring, motor-brush holder, power feed, retracting and restoring mechanism). Essentially, this spring consists of a coil of flat spring material and when unstressed it takes the form of a tightly wound spiral. This spiral is placed on a drum. When a tensile load is applied, the spiral uncoils. The load is practically independent of the amount of deformation. In this report, the extension mechanism of constant-force spring and the state of deformation are analyzed by using a large deformation theory. Moreover, experiments are carried out to confirm the applicability of the proposed theory. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical estimations.

  3. Constant strain rate and peri-implant bone modeling: an in vivo longitudinal micro-CT analysis.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Els; Jaecques, Siegfried V N; Wevers, Martine; Sloten, Jos Vander; Naert, Ignace E

    2013-06-01

    Strain, frequency, loading time, and strain rate, among others, determine mechanical parameters in osteogenic loading. We showed a significant osteogenic effect on bone mass (BM) by daily peri-implant loading at 1.600µε.s(-1) after 4 weeks. To study the peri-implant osteogenic effect of frequency and strain in the guinea pig tibia by in vivo longitudinal micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis. One week after implant installation in both hind limb tibiae, one implant was loaded daily for 10' during 4 weeks, while the other served as control. Frequencies (3, 10, and 30Hz) and strains varied alike in the three series to keep the strain rate constant at 1.600µε.s(-1) . In vivo micro-CT scans were taken of both tibiae: 1 week after implantation but before loading (v1) and after 2 (v2) and 4 weeks (v3) of loading as well as postmortem (pm). BM (BM (%) bone-occupied area fraction) was calculated as well as the difference between test and control sides (delta BM) RESULTS: All implants (n=78) were clinically stable at 4 weeks. Significant increase in BM was measured between v1 and v2 (p<.0001) and between v1 and v3 (p<.0001). A significant positive effect of loading on delta BM was observed in the distal peri-implant marrow 500 Region of Interest already 2 weeks after loading (p=.01) and was significantly larger (11%) in series 1 compared with series 2 (p=.006) and 3 (p=.016). Within the constraints of constant loading time and strain rate, the effect of early implant loading on the peri-implant bone is strongly dependent on strain and frequency. This cortical bone model has shown to be most sensitive for high force loading at low frequency. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality's Constant Individual Traits Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…

  5. Helicopter TEM parameters analysis and system optimization based on time constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Pan; Wu, Xin; Shi, Zongyang; Li, Jutao; Liu, Lihua; Fang, Guangyou

    2018-03-01

    Helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) method is a kind of common geophysical prospecting method, widely used in mineral detection, underground water exploration and environment investigation. In order to develop an efficient helicopter TEM system, it is necessary to analyze and optimize the system parameters. In this paper, a simple and quantitative method is proposed to analyze the system parameters, such as waveform, power, base frequency, measured field and sampling time. A wire loop model is used to define a comprehensive 'time constant domain' that shows a range of time constant, analogous to a range of conductance, after which the characteristics of the system parameters in this domain is obtained. It is found that the distortion caused by the transmitting base frequency is less than 5% when the ratio of the transmitting period to the target time constant is greater than 6. When the sampling time window is less than the target time constant, the distortion caused by the sampling time window is less than 5%. According to this method, a helicopter TEM system, called CASHTEM, is designed, and flight test has been carried out in the known mining area. The test results show that the system has good detection performance, verifying the effectiveness of the method.

  6. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  7. Learning Rates and Known-to-Unknown Flash-Card Ratios: Comparing Effectiveness While Holding Instructional Time Constant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Bethany E.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Black, Michelle P.; Yaw, Jared; Booher, Joshua; Delisle, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Using alternating treatments designs, we compared learning rates across 2 computer-based flash-card interventions (3?min each): a traditional drill intervention with 15 unknown words and an interspersal intervention with 12 known words and 3 unknown words. Each student acquired more words under the traditional drill intervention. Discussion…

  8. Characteristic constants of 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid, a reagent for spectrophotometric analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Mary H.

    1960-01-01

    The dye 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid, has shown promise as a reagent for the determination of zirconium. As the literature contains very little information about this dye, basic data pertinent to its use as a reagent were determined. The sulfonic acid group and all three of the hydroxy groups show acidic characteristics. Apparent dissociation constants were determined for the three more labile protons and the approximate order of magnitude for the fourth constant was estimated. Absorption spectra for the different ionization species are given. A curve is also included which shows the fraction of dye in the different ionization forms at acidities from 10.35M hydrochloric acid to pH 11.9. A sixth dye species was found in 1.0 to 8.4M potassium hydroxide solutions, but its nature is unknown.

  9. Injection Force of SoloSTAR® Compared with Other Disposable Insulin Pen Devices at Constant Volume Flow Rates

    PubMed Central

    van der Burg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Injection force is a particularly important practical aspect of therapy for patients with diabetes, especially those who have dexterity problems. This laboratory-based study compared the injection force of the SoloSTAR® insulin pen (SoloSTAR; sanofi-aventis) versus other available disposable pens at injection speeds based on the delivered volume of insulin released at the needle. Method Four different prefilled disposable pens were tested: SoloSTAR containing insulin glargine; FlexPen® and the Next Generation FlexPen® (NGFP) (Novo Nordisk), both containing insulin detemir; and KwikPen® containing insulin lispro (Eli Lilly). All pens were investigated using the maximum dispense volume for each pen type [80 units (U) for SoloSTAR; 60 U for the other pens], from the free needle tip dispensing into a beaker. Twenty pens of each type were fitted with the recommended needles and tested at two dose speeds (6 and 10 U/s); each pen was tested twice. Results Mean plateau injection force and maximum injection force were consistently lower with SoloSTAR compared with FlexPen, NGFP, and KwikPen at both injection speeds tested. An injection speed of 10 U/s was associated with higher injection force compared with 6 U/s for all the pens tested (p < .001). Conclusions SoloSTAR stands out because of its low injection force, even when compared with newer insulin pen devices such as the KwikPen and NGFP. This may enable patients, especially those with dexterity problems, to administer insulin more easily and improve management of their diabetes. PMID:21303637

  10. Development of a constant surface pressure penetration langmuir balance based on axisymmetric drop shape analysis.

    PubMed

    Wege, H A; Holgado-Terriza, J A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2002-05-15

    A new constant pressure pendant-drop penetration surface balance has been developed combining a pendant-drop surface balance, a rapid-subphase-exchange technique, and a fuzzy logic control algorithm. Beside the determination of insoluble monolayer compression-expansion isotherms, it allows performance of noninvasive kinetic studies of the adsorption of surfactants added to the new subphase onto the free surface and of the adsorption/penetration/reaction of the former onto/into/with surface layers, respectively. The interfacial pressure pi is a fundamental parameter in these studies: by working at constant pi one controls the height of the energy barrier to adsorption/penetration and can select different regimes and steps of the adsorption/penetration process. In our device a solution drop is formed at the tip of a coaxial double capillary, connected to a double microinjector. Drop profiles are extracted from digital drop micrographs and fitted to the equation of capillarity, yielding pi, the drop volume V, and the interfacial area A. pi is varied changing V (and hence A) with the microinjector. Control is based on a case-adaptable modulated fuzzy-logic PID algorithm able to maintain constant pi (or A) under a wide range of experimental conditions. The drop subphase liquid can be exchanged quantitatively by the coaxial capillaries. The adsorption/penetration/reaction kinetics at constant pi are then studied monitoring A(t), i.e., determining the relative area change necessary at each instant to compensate the pressure variation due to the interaction of the surfactant in the subsurface with the surface layer. A fully Windows-integrated program manages the whole setup. Examples of experimental protein adsorption and monolayer penetration kinetics are presented.

  11. Performance Analysis of Thermoelectric Modules Consisting of Square Truncated Pyramid Elements Under Constant Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Sae; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2018-01-01

    System design of a thermoelectric (TE) power generation module is pursued in order to improve the TE performance. Square truncated pyramid shaped P-N pairs of TE elements are connected electronically in series in the open space between two flat insulator boards. The performance of the TE module consisting of 2-paired elements is numerically simulated using commercial software and original TE programs. Assuming that the heat radiating into the hot surface is regulated, i.e., the amount of heat from the hot surface to the cold one is steadily constant, as it happens for solar radiation heating, the performance is significantly improved by changing the shape and the alignment pattern of the elements. When the angle θ between the edge and the base is smaller than 72°, and when the cold surface is kept at a constant temperature, two patterns in particular, amongst the 17 studied, show the largest TE power and efficiency. In comparison to other geometries, the smarter square truncated pyramid shape can provide higher performance using a large cold bath and constant heat transfer by heat radiation.

  12. Performance Analysis of Thermoelectric Modules Consisting of Square Truncated Pyramid Elements Under Constant Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Sae; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2018-06-01

    System design of a thermoelectric (TE) power generation module is pursued in order to improve the TE performance. Square truncated pyramid shaped P-N pairs of TE elements are connected electronically in series in the open space between two flat insulator boards. The performance of the TE module consisting of 2-paired elements is numerically simulated using commercial software and original TE programs. Assuming that the heat radiating into the hot surface is regulated, i.e., the amount of heat from the hot surface to the cold one is steadily constant, as it happens for solar radiation heating, the performance is significantly improved by changing the shape and the alignment pattern of the elements. When the angle θ between the edge and the base is smaller than 72°, and when the cold surface is kept at a constant temperature, two patterns in particular, amongst the 17 studied, show the largest TE power and efficiency. In comparison to other geometries, the smarter square truncated pyramid shape can provide higher performance using a large cold bath and constant heat transfer by heat radiation.

  13. Rural and Urban Crashes: A Comparative Analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-08-01

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's National Center for Statistics : and Analysis (NCSA) recently completed a study comparing the characteristics of : crashes occurring in rural areas to the characteristics of crashes occurring in : urba...

  14. Carbofuran removal in continuous-photocatalytic reactor: Reactor optimization, rate-constant determination and carbofuran degradation pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Vishnuganth, M A; Remya, Neelancherry; Kumar, Mathava; Selvaraju, N

    2017-05-04

    Carbofuran (CBF) removal in a continuous-flow photocatalytic reactor with granular activated carbon supported titanium dioxide (GAC-TiO 2 ) catalyst was investigated. The effects of feed flow rate, TiO 2 concentration and addition of supplementary oxidants on CBF removal were investigated. The central composite design (CCD) was used to design the experiments and to estimate the effects of feed flow rate and TiO 2 concentration on CBF removal. The outcome of CCD experiments demonstrated that reactor performance was influenced mainly by feed flow rate compared to TiO 2 concentration. A second-order polynomial model developed based on CCD experiments fitted the experimental data with good correlation (R 2 ∼ 0.964). The addition of 1 mL min -1 hydrogen peroxide has shown complete CBF degradation and 76% chemical oxygen demand removal under the following operating conditions of CBF ∼50 mg L -1 , TiO 2 ∼5 mg L -1 and feed flow rate ∼82.5 mL min -1 . Rate constant of the photodegradation process was also calculated by applying the kinetic data in pseudo-first-order kinetics. Four major degradation intermediates of CBF were identified using GC-MS analysis. As a whole, the reactor system and GAC-TiO 2 catalyst used could be constructive in cost-effective CBF removal with no impact to receiving environment through getaway of photocatalyst.

  15. An Analysis of the Tensor Dielectric Constant of Sea Ice at Microwave Frequencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    36.8 > t a -43.2 0 C (5) is convenient. The above equations for p in the range t > -22.9 0 C were first published by Frankenstein and Garner [12). III...Em 0 (6) for the mean electric field propagating in the medium. Here ko is the free space propagation constant, K. the quasi-static dielectric tensor...C. Essen- " tially identical results were found for the real part of the dielectric con- stant whether the polarization of the electric field was

  16. Extensions to the instantaneous normal mode analysis of cluster dynamics: Diffusion constants and the role of rotations in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, John E.; Stratt, Richard M.

    1990-08-01

    For the instantaneous normal mode analysis method to be generally useful in studying the dynamics of clusters of arbitrary size, it ought to yield values of atomic self-diffusion constants which agree with those derived directly from molecular dynamics calculations. The present study proposes that such agreement indeed can be obtained if a sufficiently sophisticated formalism for computing the diffusion constant is adopted, such as the one suggested by Madan, Keyes, and Seeley [J. Chem. Phys. 92, 7565 (1990)]. In order to implement this particular formalism, however, we have found it necessary to pay particular attention to the removal from the computed spectra of spurious rotational contributions. The utility of the formalism is demonstrated via a study of small argon clusters, for which numerous results generated using other approaches are available. We find the same temperature dependence of the Ar13 self-diffusion constant that Beck and Marchioro [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1347 (1990)] do from their direct calculation of the velocity autocorrelation function: The diffusion constant rises quickly from zero to a liquid-like value as the cluster goes through (the finite-size equivalent of) the melting transition.

  17. Thermal Modelling Analysis of Spiral Wound Supercapacitor under Constant-Current Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Li, Liwei; Yin, Huaixian; Zhang, Tiezhu; Wan, Wubo

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional modelling approach is used to study the effects of operating and ambient conditions on the thermal behaviour of the spiral wound supercapacitor. The transient temperature distribution during cycling is obtained by using the finite element method with an implicit predictor-multicorrector algorithm. At the constant current of 2A, the results show that the maximum temperature appears in core area. After 5 cycles, the maximum temperature is 34.5°C, while in steady state, it’s up to 42.5°C. This paper further studies the relationship between the maximum temperature and charge-discharge current. The maximum temperature will be more than 60°C after 5 cycles at the current of 4A, and cooling measurements should be taken at that time. It can provide thoughts on inner temperature field distribution and structure design of the spiral wound supercapacitor in working process. PMID:26444687

  18. MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, H.P.; Potter, Elinor

    1971-03-01

    This collection of mathematical data consists of two tables of decimal constants arranged according to size rather than function, a third table of integers from 1 to 1000, giving some of their properties, and a fourth table listing some infinite series arranged according to increasing size of the coefficients of the terms. The decimal values of Tables I and II are given to 20 D.

  19. Network Analysis in Comparative Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Eugenia Roldan; Schupp, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This essay describes the pertinence of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for the social sciences in general, and discusses its methodological and conceptual implications for comparative research in particular. The authors first present a basic summary of the theoretical and methodological assumptions of SNA, followed by a succinct overview of its…

  20. Howard University: A Comparative Fiscal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Deborah; And Others

    This report presents a fiscal analysis of Howard University (District of Columbia) including: (1) general education revenues; (2) education and general expenditures; and (3) faculty salaries. The study compared Howard University to four different groups of higher education institutions: similar private institutions with hospitals; public…

  1. Bi-stable dendrite in constant electric field: a model analysis.

    PubMed

    Baginskas, A; Gutman, A; Svirskis, G

    1993-03-01

    Some neurons possess dendritic persistent inward current, which is activated during depolarization. Dendrites can be stably depolarized, i.e. they are bi-stable if the net current is inward. A proper method to show the existence of dendritic bi-stability is putting the neuron into the electric field to induce transmembrane potential changes along the dendrites. Here we present analytical and computer simulation of the bi-stable dendrite in the d.c. field. A prominent jump to a depolarization plateau can be seen in the soma upon initial hyperpolarization of its membrane. If a considerable portion of dendrites are parallel to the field it is impossible to switch off the depolarization plateau by changing the direction and the strength of the electric field. There is nothing similar in neurons with ohmic dendrites. The results of the simulation conform to the experimental observations in turtle motoneurons [Hounsgaard J. and Kiehn O. (1993) J. Physiol., Lond. (in press)]; comparison of the theoretical and the experimental results makes semi-quantitative estimation of some electrical parameters of dendrites possible. We propose modifications of the experiment which enable one to measure dendritic length constants and other parameters of stained neurons.

  2. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Brittle Materials with Finite Thickness Subjected to Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chio, S. R.; Gyekenyesi, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional, numerical analysis of slow crack growth (SCG) was performed for brittle materials with finite thickness subjected to constant stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") loading in flexure. The numerical solution showed that the conventional, simple, one-dimensional analytical solution can be used with a maximum error of about 5% in determining the SCG parameters of a brittle material with the conditions of a normalized thickness (a ratio of specimen thickness to initial crack size) T > 3.3 and of a SCG parameter n > 10. The change in crack shape from semicircular to elliptical configurations was significant particularly at both low stress rate and low T, attributed to predominant difference in stress intensity factor along the crack front. The numerical solution of SCG parameters was supported within the experimental range by the data obtained from constant stress-rate flexural testing for soda-lime glass microslides at ambient temperature.

  3. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  4. Solvent and substituent effects on aggregation constants of perylene bisimide π-stacks--a linear free energy relationship analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijian; Fimmel, Benjamin; Würthner, Frank

    2012-08-14

    A series of six perylene bisimides (PBIs) with hydrophilic and hydrophobic side chains at the imide nitrogens were applied for a comparative study of the solvent and structural effects on the aggregation behaviour of this class of dyes. A comparison of the binding constants in tetrachloromethane at room temperature revealed the highest binding constant of about 10(5) M(-1) for a PBI bearing 3,4,5-tridodecyloxyphenyl substituents at the imide nitrogens, followed by 3,4,5-tridodecylphenyl and alkyl-substituted PBIs, whereas no aggregation could be observed in the accessible concentration range for PBIs equipped with bulky 2,6-diisopropylphenyl substituents at the imide nitrogens. The aggregation behaviour of three properly soluble compounds was investigated in 17 different solvents covering a broad polarity range from nonpolar n-hexane to highly polar DMSO and water. Linear free energy relationships (LFER) revealed a biphasic behaviour between Gibbs free energies of aggregation and common empirical solvent polarity scales indicating particularly strong π-π stacking interactions in nonpolar aliphatic and polar alcoholic solvents whilst the weakest binding is observed in dichloromethane and chloroform. Accordingly, PBI aggregation is dominated by electrostatic interactions in nonpolar solvents and by solvophobic interactions in protic solvents. In water, the aggregation constant is increased far beyond LFER expectations pointing at a pronounced hydrophobic effect.

  5. Comparative optical analysis of cylindrical solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Durán, J C; Nicolás, R O

    1987-02-01

    A comparison of the intensity distribution in the receiver plane for five different types of cylindrical concentrators is made. To this end, our previous 2-D optical analysis for nonperfect concentrators with plane receivers is used. Values of the local and mean concentration factors for a characteristic set of parameters of each concentrator are obtained and compared. The results show that the cylindrical-parabolic concentrator attains the highest concentration factors among the concentrators considered.

  6. Embedded Hyperchaotic Generators: A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoudi, Said; Tanougast, Camel; Azzaz, Mohamad Salah; Dandache, Abbas

    In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of FPGA implementation performances, in terms of throughput and resources cost, of five well known autonomous continuous hyperchaotic systems. The goal of this analysis is to identify the embedded hyperchaotic generator which leads to designs with small logic area cost, satisfactory throughput rates, low power consumption and low latency required for embedded applications such as secure digital communications between embedded systems. To implement the four-dimensional (4D) chaotic systems, we use a new structural hardware architecture based on direct VHDL description of the forth order Runge-Kutta method (RK-4). The comparative analysis shows that the hyperchaotic Lorenz generator provides attractive performances compared to that of others. In fact, its hardware implementation requires only 2067 CLB-slices, 36 multipliers and no block RAMs, and achieves a throughput rate of 101.6 Mbps, at the output of the FPGA circuit, at a clock frequency of 25.315 MHz with a low latency time of 316 ns. Consequently, these good implementation performances offer to the embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generator the advantage of being the best candidate for embedded communications applications.

  7. Soliton solutions, stability analysis and conservation laws for the brusselator reaction diffusion model with time- and constant-dependent coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Isa Aliyu, Aliyu; Hashemi, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies the brusselator reaction diffusion model (BRDM) with time- and constant-dependent coefficients. The soliton solutions for BRDM with time-dependent coefficients are obtained via first integral (FIM), ansatz, and sine-Gordon expansion (SGEM) methods. Moreover, it is well known that stability analysis (SA), symmetry analysis and conservation laws (CLs) give several information for modelling a system of differential equations (SDE). This is because they can be used for investigating the internal properties, existence, uniqueness and integrability of different SDE. For this reason, we investigate the SA via linear stability technique, symmetry analysis and CLs for BRDM with constant-dependent coefficients in order to extract more physics and information on the governing equation. The constraint conditions for the existence of the solutions are also examined. The new solutions obtained in this paper can be useful for describing the concentrations of diffusion problems of the BRDM. It is shown that the examined dependent coefficients are some of the factors that are affecting the diffusion rate. So, the present paper provides much motivational information in comparison to the existing results in the literature.

  8. Comparative Genome Analysis of Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wing-Yee; Wong, Chi-Fat; Chung, Karl Ming-Kar; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The Enterobacter cloacae species includes an extremely diverse group of bacteria that are associated with plants, soil and humans. Publication of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting endophytic E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 provided an opportunity to perform the first comparative genome analysis between strains of this dynamic species. Examination of the pan-genome of E. cloacae showed that the conserved core genome retains the general physiological and survival genes of the species, while genomic factors in plasmids and variable regions determine the virulence of the human pathogenic E. cloacae strain; additionally, the diversity of fimbriae contributes to variation in colonization and host determination of different E. cloacae strains. Comparative genome analysis further illustrated that E. cloacae strains possess multiple mechanisms for antagonistic action against other microorganisms, which involve the production of siderophores and various antimicrobial compounds, such as bacteriocins, chitinases and antibiotic resistance proteins. The presence of Type VI secretion systems is expected to provide further fitness advantages for E. cloacae in microbial competition, thus allowing it to survive in different environments. Competition assays were performed to support our observations in genomic analysis, where E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 demonstrated antagonistic activities against a wide range of plant pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. PMID:24069314

  9. Comparing Networks from a Data Analysis Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Yang, Jing-Yu

    To probe network characteristics, two predominant ways of network comparison are global property statistics and subgraph enumeration. However, they suffer from limited information and exhaustible computing. Here, we present an approach to compare networks from the perspective of data analysis. Initially, the approach projects each node of original network as a high-dimensional data point, and the network is seen as clouds of data points. Then the dispersion information of the principal component analysis (PCA) projection of the generated data clouds can be used to distinguish networks. We applied this node projection method to the yeast protein-protein interaction networks and the Internet Autonomous System networks, two types of networks with several similar higher properties. The method can efficiently distinguish one from the other. The identical result of different datasets from independent sources also indicated that the method is a robust and universal framework.

  10. Comparative analysis of radioecological monitoring dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, A.I.; Pol`skii, O.G.; Shanin, O.B.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes comparative estimates of radiation doses measured by two types of thermoluminescence dosimeters and two types of background radiation radiometers. The dosimetry systems were tested by simultaneously recording background radiation and standard radiation sources at a radioactive waste storage facility. Statistical analysis of the measurement results is summarized. The maximum recorded exposure dose rate for the experiment was 19 microrads per hour. The DTK-2 dosimeter overestimated dose rates by 6 to 43% and the DTU-2 dosimeter underestimated dose rates by 7 to 21%. Both devices are recommended for radioecological monitoring in populated areas. 4 refs., 3 figs., 5more » tabs.« less

  11. Constant fields and constant gradients in open ionic channels.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D P; Barcilon, V; Eisenberg, R S

    1992-01-01

    Ions enter cells through pores in proteins that are holes in dielectrics. The energy of interaction between ion and charge induced on the dielectric is many kT, and so the dielectric properties of channel and pore are important. We describe ionic movement by (three-dimensional) Nemst-Planck equations (including flux and net charge). Potential is described by Poisson's equation in the pore and Laplace's equation in the channel wall, allowing induced but not permanent charge. Asymptotic expansions are constructed exploiting the long narrow shape of the pore and the relatively high dielectric constant of the pore's contents. The resulting one-dimensional equations can be integrated numerically; they can be analyzed when channels are short or long (compared with the Debye length). Traditional constant field equations are derived if the induced charge is small, e.g., if the channel is short or if the total concentration gradient is zero. A constant gradient of concentration is derived if the channel is long. Plots directly comparable to experiments are given of current vs voltage, reversal potential vs. concentration, and slope conductance vs. concentration. This dielectric theory can easily be tested: its parameters can be determined by traditional constant field measurements. The dielectric theory then predicts current-voltage relations quite different from constant field, usually more linear, when gradients of total concentration are imposed. Numerical analysis shows that the interaction of ion and channel can be described by a mean potential if, but only if, the induced charge is negligible, that is to say, the electric field is spatially constant. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:1376159

  12. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism.more » Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.« less

  13. Acceleration and sensitivity analysis of lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations using parallel processing and rate constant rescaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, M.; Robie, T.; Vlachos, D. G.

    2017-10-01

    Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation provides insights into catalytic reactions unobtainable with either experiments or mean-field microkinetic models. Sensitivity analysis of KMC models assesses the robustness of the predictions to parametric perturbations and identifies rate determining steps in a chemical reaction network. Stiffness in the chemical reaction network, a ubiquitous feature, demands lengthy run times for KMC models and renders efficient sensitivity analysis based on the likelihood ratio method unusable. We address the challenge of efficiently conducting KMC simulations and performing accurate sensitivity analysis in systems with unknown time scales by employing two acceleration techniques: rate constant rescaling and parallel processing. We develop statistical criteria that ensure sufficient sampling of non-equilibrium steady state conditions. Our approach provides the twofold benefit of accelerating the simulation itself and enabling likelihood ratio sensitivity analysis, which provides further speedup relative to finite difference sensitivity analysis. As a result, the likelihood ratio method can be applied to real chemistry. We apply our methodology to the water-gas shift reaction on Pt(111).

  14. Limit case analysis of the "stable indenter velocity" method for obtaining creep stress exponents from constant load indentation creep tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J.; Dean, J.; Clyne, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    This study concerns a commonly-used procedure for evaluating the steady state creep stress exponent, n, from indentation data. The procedure involves monitoring the indenter displacement history under constant load and making the assumption that, once its velocity has stabilised, the system is in a quasi-steady state, with stage II creep dominating the behaviour. The stress and strain fields under the indenter are represented by "equivalent stress" and "equivalent strain rate" values. The estimate of n is then obtained as the gradient of a plot of the logarithm of the equivalent strain rate against the logarithm of the equivalent stress. Concerns have, however, been expressed about the reliability of this procedure, and indeed it has already been shown to be fundamentally flawed. In the present paper, it is demonstrated, using a very simple analysis, that, for a genuinely stable velocity, the procedure always leads to the same, constant value for n (either 1.0 or 0.5, depending on whether the tip shape is spherical or self-similar). This occurs irrespective of the value of the measured velocity, or indeed of any creep characteristic of the material. It is now clear that previously-measured values of n, obtained using this procedure, have varied in a more or less random fashion, depending on the functional form chosen to represent the displacement-time history and the experimental variables (tip shape and size, penetration depth, etc.), with little or no sensitivity to the true value of n.

  15. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypesmore » found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.« less

  16. Computational analysis of water entry of a circular section at constant velocity based on Reynold's averaged Navier-Stokes method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, M. Maruf; Fuad, Muzaddid-E.-Zaman; Rahaman, Md. Mashiur; Islam, M. Rabiul

    2017-12-01

    With the rapid decrease in the cost of computational infrastructure with more efficient algorithm for solving non-linear problems, Reynold's averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS) based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used widely now-a-days. As a preliminary evaluation tool, CFD is used to calculate the hydrodynamic loads on offshore installations, ships, and other structures in the ocean at initial design stages. Traditionally, wedges have been studied more than circular cylinders because cylinder section has zero deadrise angle at the instant of water impact, which increases with increase of submergence. In Present study, RaNS based commercial code ANSYS Fluent is used to simulate the water entry of a circular section at constant velocity. It is seen that present computational results were compared with experiment and other numerical method.

  17. Experimental study and finite element analysis based on equivalent load method for laser ultrasonic measurement of elastic constants.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu; Liu, Changsheng; Zhang, Fengpeng; Qiu, Zhaoguo

    2016-07-01

    The laser ultrasonic generation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave in an elastic plate is studied by experiment and finite element method. In order to eliminate the measurement error and the time delay of the experimental system, the linear fitting method of experimental data is applied. The finite element analysis software ABAQUS is used to simulate the propagation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave caused by laser excitation on a sheet metal sample surface. The equivalent load method is proposed and applied. The pulsed laser is equivalent to the surface load in time and space domain to meet the Gaussian profile. The relationship between the physical parameters of the laser and the load is established by the correction factor. The numerical solution is in good agreement with the experimental result. The simple and effective numerical and experimental methods for laser ultrasonic measurement of the elastic constants are demonstrated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Comparative analysis of the feline immunoglobulin repertoire.

    PubMed

    Steiniger, Sebastian C J; Glanville, Jacob; Harris, Douglas W; Wilson, Thomas L; Ippolito, Gregory C; Dunham, Steven A

    2017-03-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing combined with bioinformatics is a powerful tool for analyzing the large number of DNA sequences present in the expressed antibody repertoire and these data sets can be used to advance a number of research areas including antibody discovery and engineering. The accurate measurement of the immune repertoire sequence composition, diversity and abundance is important for understanding the repertoire response in infections, vaccinations and cancer immunology and could also be useful for elucidating novel molecular targets. In this study 4 individual domestic cats (Felis catus) were subjected to antibody repertoire sequencing with total number of sequences generated 1079863 for VH for IgG, 1050824 VH for IgM, 569518 for VK and 450195 for VL. Our analysis suggests that a similar VDJ expression patterns exists across all cats. Similar to the canine repertoire, the feline repertoire is dominated by a single subgroup, namely VH3. The antibody paratope of felines showed similar amino acid variation when compared to human, mouse and canine counterparts. All animals show a similarly skewed VH CDR-H3 profile and, when compared to canine, human and mouse, distinct differences are observed. Our study represents the first attempt to characterize sequence diversity in the expressed feline antibody repertoire and this demonstrates the utility of using NGS to elucidate entire antibody repertoires from individual animals. These data provide significant insight into understanding the feline immune system function. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Michael; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  20. Communication: Localized molecular orbital analysis of the effect of electron correlation on the anomalous isotope effect in the NMR spin-spin coupling constant in methane

    SciTech Connect

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C., E-mail: mnzarycz@gmail.com; Provasi, Patricio F., E-mail: patricio@unne.edu.ar; Sauer, Stephan P. A., E-mail: sauer@kiku.dk

    2014-10-21

    We discuss the effect of electron correlation on the unexpected differential sensitivity (UDS) in the {sup 1}J(C–H) coupling constant of CH{sub 4} using a decomposition into contributions from localized molecular orbitals and compare with the {sup 1}J(N–H) coupling constant in NH{sub 3}. In particular, we discuss the well known fact that uncorrelated coupled Hartree-Fock (CHF) calculations are not able to reproduce the UDS in methane. For this purpose we have implemented for the first time a localized molecular orbital analysis for the second order polarization propagator approximation with coupled cluster singles and doubles amplitudes—SOPPA(CCSD) in the DALTON program. Comparing themore » changes in the localized orbital contributions at the correlated SOPPA and SOPPA(CCSD) levels and at the uncorrelated CHF level, we find that the latter overestimates the effect of stretching the bond between the coupled atoms on the contribution to the coupling from the localized bonding orbital between these atoms. This disturbs the subtle balance between the molecular orbital contributions, which lead to the UDS in methane.« less

  1. Predictive and comparative analysis of Ebolavirus proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-01-01

    Ebolavirus is the pathogen for Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF). This disease exhibits a high fatality rate and has recently reached a historically epidemic proportion in West Africa. Out of the 5 known Ebolavirus species, only Reston ebolavirus has lost human pathogenicity, while retaining the ability to cause EHF in long-tailed macaque. Significant efforts have been spent to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structures of Ebolavirus proteins, to study their interaction with host proteins, and to identify the functional motifs in these viral proteins. Here, in light of these experimental results, we apply computational analysis to predict the 3D structures and functional sites for Ebolavirus protein domains with unknown structure, including a zinc-finger domain of VP30, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalytic domain and a methyltransferase domain of protein L. In addition, we compare sequences of proteins that interact with Ebolavirus proteins from RESTV-resistant primates with those from RESTV-susceptible monkeys. The host proteins that interact with GP and VP35 show an elevated level of sequence divergence between the RESTV-resistant and RESTV-susceptible species, suggesting that they may be responsible for host specificity. Meanwhile, we detect variable positions in protein sequences that are likely associated with the loss of human pathogenicity in RESTV, map them onto the 3D structures and compare their positions to known functional sites. VP35 and VP30 are significantly enriched in these potential pathogenicity determinants and the clustering of such positions on the surfaces of VP35 and GP suggests possible uncharacterized interaction sites with host proteins that contribute to the virulence of Ebolavirus. PMID:26158395

  2. Predictive and comparative analysis of Ebolavirus proteins.

    PubMed

    Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-01-01

    Ebolavirus is the pathogen for Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF). This disease exhibits a high fatality rate and has recently reached a historically epidemic proportion in West Africa. Out of the 5 known Ebolavirus species, only Reston ebolavirus has lost human pathogenicity, while retaining the ability to cause EHF in long-tailed macaque. Significant efforts have been spent to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structures of Ebolavirus proteins, to study their interaction with host proteins, and to identify the functional motifs in these viral proteins. Here, in light of these experimental results, we apply computational analysis to predict the 3D structures and functional sites for Ebolavirus protein domains with unknown structure, including a zinc-finger domain of VP30, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalytic domain and a methyltransferase domain of protein L. In addition, we compare sequences of proteins that interact with Ebolavirus proteins from RESTV-resistant primates with those from RESTV-susceptible monkeys. The host proteins that interact with GP and VP35 show an elevated level of sequence divergence between the RESTV-resistant and RESTV-susceptible species, suggesting that they may be responsible for host specificity. Meanwhile, we detect variable positions in protein sequences that are likely associated with the loss of human pathogenicity in RESTV, map them onto the 3D structures and compare their positions to known functional sites. VP35 and VP30 are significantly enriched in these potential pathogenicity determinants and the clustering of such positions on the surfaces of VP35 and GP suggests possible uncharacterized interaction sites with host proteins that contribute to the virulence of Ebolavirus.

  3. Monte Carlo analysis for the determination of the conic constant of an aspheric micro lens based on a scanning white light interferometric measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugsa, Solomon A.; Davies, Angela

    2005-08-01

    Characterizing an aspheric micro lens is critical for understanding the performance and providing feedback to the manufacturing. We describe a method to find the best-fit conic of an aspheric micro lens using a least squares minimization and Monte Carlo analysis. Our analysis is based on scanning white light interferometry measurements, and we compare the standard rapid technique where a single measurement is taken of the apex of the lens to the more time-consuming stitching technique where more surface area is measured. Both are corrected for tip/tilt based on a planar fit to the substrate. Four major parameters and their uncertainties are estimated from the measurement and a chi-square minimization is carried out to determine the best-fit conic constant. The four parameters are the base radius of curvature, the aperture of the lens, the lens center, and the sag of the lens. A probability distribution is chosen for each of the four parameters based on the measurement uncertainties and a Monte Carlo process is used to iterate the minimization process. Eleven measurements were taken and data is also chosen randomly from the group during the Monte Carlo simulation to capture the measurement repeatability. A distribution of best-fit conic constants results, where the mean is a good estimate of the best-fit conic and the distribution width represents the combined measurement uncertainty. We also compare the Monte Carlo process for the stitched data and the not stitched data. Our analysis allows us to analyze the residual surface error in terms of Zernike polynomials and determine uncertainty estimates for each coefficient.

  4. A time-based potential step analysis of electrochemical impedance incorporating a constant phase element: a study of commercially pure titanium in phosphate buffered saline.

    PubMed

    Ehrensberger, Mark T; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2010-05-01

    The measurement of electrochemical impedance is a valuable tool to assess the electrochemical environment that exists at the surface of metallic biomaterials. This article describes the development and validation of a new technique, potential step impedance analysis (PSIA), to assess the electrochemical impedance of materials whose interface with solution can be modeled as a simplified Randles circuit that is modified with a constant phase element. PSIA is based upon applying a step change in voltage to a working electrode and analyzing the subsequent current transient response in a combined time and frequency domain technique. The solution resistance, polarization resistance, and interfacial capacitance are found directly in the time domain. The experimental current transient is numerically transformed to the frequency domain to determine the constant phase exponent, alpha. This combined time and frequency approach was tested using current transients generated from computer simulations, from resistor-capacitor breadboard circuits, and from commercially pure titanium samples immersed in phosphate buffered saline and polarized at -800 mV or +1000 mV versus Ag/AgCl. It was shown that PSIA calculates equivalent admittance and impedance behavior over this range of potentials when compared to standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This current transient approach characterizes the frequency response of the system without the need for expensive frequency response analyzers or software. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A comparative analysis of mail and internet surveys

    Treesearch

    Benjamin D. Poole; David K. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    Th e field of survey research is constantly evolving with the introduction of new technologies. Each new mini-revolution brings criticism about the accuracy of the new survey method. The latest development in the survey research field has been increased reliance on Internet surveys. This paper compares data collected through a mixed-mode (mail and Internet) survey of...

  6. Analysis of Knock Phenomenon Induced in a Constant Volume Chamber by Local Gas Temperature Measurement and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyoshi, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Shigemi; Enomoto, Yoshiteru

    Knock phenomenon in SI engines is regarded as an auto-ignition of unburned end-gas, and it has been widely examined by using rapid compression machines (RCM), shock-tubes or test engines. Recent researches point out the importance of the low temperature chemical reaction and the negative temperature coefficient (NTC). To investigate the effects, analyses of instantaneous local gas temperature, flow visualization and gaseous pressure were conducted in this study. As measurements using real engines are too difficult to analyze, the authors aimed to make measurements using a constant volume vessel under knock conditions where propagating flame exists during the induction time of auto-ignition. Adopting the two-wire thermocouple method enabled us to measure the instantaneous local gas temperature until the moment when the flame front passes by. High-speed images inside the unburned region were also recorded simultaneously using an endoscope. As a result, it was found that when knock occurs, the auto-ignition initiation time seems slightly early compared to the results without knock. This causes a higher volume ratio of unburned mixture and existence of many hot spots and stochastically leads to an initiation of knock.

  7. Comparable Worth: An Analysis and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses sex-based wage discrimination, the role of comparable worth doctrine in analyzing or combating such discrimination, and the appropriateness of the remedial prescriptions that comparable worth doctrine envisions. The report consists of a brief introduction and five chapters. Chapter 1 presents a brief overview of women in the…

  8. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  9. Determination of acid ionization constants for weak acids by osmometry and the instrumental analysis self-evaluation feedback approach to student preparation of solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakolesha, Nyanguila

    One focus of this work was to develop of an alternative method to conductivity for determining the acid ionization constants. Computer-controlled osmometry is one of the emerging analytical tools in industrial research and clinical laboratories. It is slowly finding its way into chemistry laboratories. The instrument's microprocessor control ensures shortened data collection time, repeatability, accuracy, and automatic calibration. The equilibrium constants of acetic acid, chloroacetic acid, bromoacetic acid, cyanoacetic acid, and iodoacetic acid have been measured using osmometry and their values compared with the existing literature values obtained, usually, from conductometric measurements. Ionization constant determined by osmometry for the moderately strong weak acids were in reasonably good agreement with literature values. The results showed that two factors, the ionic strength and the osmotic coefficient, exert opposite effects in solutions of such weak acids. Another focus of the work was analytical chemistry students solution preparation skills. The prevailing teacher-structured experiments leave little room for students' ingenuity in quantitative volumetric analysis. The purpose of this part of the study was to improve students' skills in making solutions using instrument feedback in a constructivist-learning model. After making some solutions by weighing and dissolving solutes or by serial dilution, students used the spectrophotometer and the osmometer to compare their solutions with standard solutions. Students perceived the instrument feedback as a nonthreatening approach to monitoring the development of their skill levels and liked to clarify their understanding through interacting with an instructor-observer. An assessment of the instrument feedback and the constructivist model indicated that students would assume responsibility for their own learning if given the opportunity. This study involved 167 students enrolled in Quantitative Chemical

  10. Question analysis for Indonesian comparative question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).

  11. Artificial intelligence applied to the automatic analysis of absorption spectra. Objective measurement of the fine structure constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Webb, John K.

    2017-06-01

    A new and automated method is presented for the analysis of high-resolution absorption spectra. Three established numerical methods are unified into one `artificial intelligence' process: a genetic algorithm (Genetic Voigt Profile FIT, gvpfit); non-linear least-squares with parameter constraints (vpfit); and Bayesian model averaging (BMA). The method has broad application but here we apply it specifically to the problem of measuring the fine structure constant at high redshift. For this we need objectivity and reproducibility. gvpfit is also motivated by the importance of obtaining a large statistical sample of measurements of Δα/α. Interactive analyses are both time consuming and complex and automation makes obtaining a large sample feasible. In contrast to previous methodologies, we use BMA to derive results using a large set of models and show that this procedure is more robust than a human picking a single preferred model since BMA avoids the systematic uncertainties associated with model choice. Numerical simulations provide stringent tests of the whole process and we show using both real and simulated spectra that the unified automated fitting procedure out-performs a human interactive analysis. The method should be invaluable in the context of future instrumentation like ESPRESSO on the VLT and indeed future ELTs. We apply the method to the zabs = 1.8389 absorber towards the zem = 2.145 quasar J110325-264515. The derived constraint of Δα/α = 3.3 ± 2.9 × 10-6 is consistent with no variation and also consistent with the tentative spatial variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al.

  12. Return-to-launch-site three degree of freedom analysis, constant inertial attitude during the fuel dissipation phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, R. L.; Winans, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a study to show the effect of selecting a constant inertial attitude during the fuel dissipation phase of a return-to-launch-site abort. Results are also presented which show that the selection of the constant inertial attitude will affect the arrival point on the range-velocity target line. An alternate selection of the inertial attitude will provide control over the trajectory shape.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Monographic Collections in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Virginia M.; And Others

    The results of a project comparing the nursing monograph collections of academic health science center libraries in the Southwest are reported. Records for nursing monographs from the TALON (South Central Regional Medical Library Program) Union Catalog of Monographs from 1977-1983 were analyzed to reveal the distribution by year, publisher, and…

  14. Wellness Model of Supervision: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Balkin, Richard S.; Oliver, Marvarene; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effectiveness of the Wellness Model of Supervision (WELMS; Lenz & Smith, 2010) with alternative supervision models for developing wellness constructs, total personal wellness, and helping skills among counselors-in-training. Participants were 32 master's-level counseling students completing their…

  15. Comparative Lifecycle Energy Analysis: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jeffrey; Canzoneri, Diana

    1992-01-01

    Explores the position that more energy is conserved through recycling secondary materials than is generated from municipal solid waste incineration. Discusses one component of a lifecycle analysis--a comparison of energy requirements for manufacturing competing products. Includes methodological issues, energy cost estimates, and difficulties…

  16. Comparative Analysis of Treatment Costs in EUROHOPE.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Tor; Aas, Eline; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Häkkinen, Unto

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the challenges of estimating risk-adjusted treatment costs in international comparative research, specifically in the European Health Care Outcomes, Performance, and Efficiency (EuroHOPE) project. We describe the diverse format of resource data and challenges of converting these data into resource use indicators that allow meaningful cross-country comparisons. The three cost indicators developed in EuroHOPE are then described, discussed, and applied. We compare the risk-adjusted mean treatment costs of acute myocardial infarction for four of the seven countries in the EuroHOPE project, namely, Finland, Hungary, Norway, and Sweden. The outcome of the comparison depends on the time perspective as well as on the particular resource use indicator. We argue that these complementary indicators add to our understanding of the variation in resource use across countries. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Comparative Statistical Analysis of Auroral Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    was willing to add this project to her extremely busy schedule. Lastly, I must also express my sincere appreciation for the rest of the faculty and...models have been extensively used for estimating GPS and other communication satellite disturbances ( Newell et al., 2010a). The auroral oval...models predict changes in the auroral oval in response to various geomagnetic conditions. In 2010, Newell et al. conducted a comparative study of

  18. Comparative analysis of existing models for power-grid synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of power-grid networks is becoming an increasingly active area of research within the physics and network science communities. The results from such studies are typically insightful and illustrative, but are often based on simplifying assumptions that can be either difficult to assess or not fully justified for realistic applications. Here we perform a comprehensive comparative analysis of three leading models recently used to study synchronization dynamics in power-grid networks—a fundamental problem of practical significance given that frequency synchronization of all power generators in the same interconnection is a necessary condition for a power grid to operate. We show that each of these models can be derived from first principles within a common framework based on the classical model of a generator, thereby clarifying all assumptions involved. This framework allows us to view power grids as complex networks of coupled second-order phase oscillators with both forcing and damping terms. Using simple illustrative examples, test systems, and real power-grid datasets, we study the inherent frequencies of the oscillators as well as their coupling structure, comparing across the different models. We demonstrate, in particular, that if the network structure is not homogeneous, generators with identical parameters need to be modeled as non-identical oscillators in general. We also discuss an approach to estimate the required (dynamical) system parameters that are unavailable in typical power-grid datasets, their use for computing the constants of each of the three models, and an open-source MATLAB toolbox that we provide for these computations.

  19. Comparative analysis of GOCI ocean color products.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Lewis, Mark David; Lawson, Adam; Gould, Richard W; Martinolich, Paul; Li, Rong-Rong; Ladner, Sherwin; Gallegos, Sonia

    2015-10-12

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is the first geostationary ocean color sensor in orbit that provides bio-optical properties from coastal and open waters around the Korean Peninsula at unprecedented temporal resolution. In this study, we compare the normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw) products generated by the Naval Research Laboratory Automated Processing System (APS) with those produced by the stand-alone software package, the GOCI Data Processing System (GDPS), developed by the Korean Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI). Both results are then compared to the nLw measured by the above water radiometer at the Ieodo site. This above-water radiometer is part of the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AeroNET). The results indicate that the APS and GDPS processed  correlates well within the same image slot where the coefficient of determination (r²) is higher than 0.84 for all the bands from 412 nm to 745 nm. The agreement between APS and the AeroNET data is higher when compared to the GDPS results. The Root-Mean-Squared-Error (RMSE) between AeroNET and APS data ranges from 0.24 [mW/(cm²srμm)] at 555 nm to 0.52 [mW/(cm²srμm)]  at 412 nm while RMSE between AeroNET and GDPS data ranges from 0.47 [mW/(cm²srμm)] at 443 nm to 0.69 [mW/(cm²srμm)]  at 490 nm.

  20. Comparative Analysis of GOCI Ocean Color Products

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ruhul; Lewis, Mark David; Lawson, Adam; Gould, Richard W.; Martinolich, Paul; Li, Rong-Rong; Ladner, Sherwin; Gallegos, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is the first geostationary ocean color sensor in orbit that provides bio-optical properties from coastal and open waters around the Korean Peninsula at unprecedented temporal resolution. In this study, we compare the normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw) products generated by the Naval Research Laboratory Automated Processing System (APS) with those produced by the stand-alone software package, the GOCI Data Processing System (GDPS), developed by the Korean Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI). Both results are then compared to the nLw measured by the above water radiometer at the Ieodo site. This above-water radiometer is part of the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AeroNET). The results indicate that the APS and GDPS processed nLw correlates well within the same image slot where the coefficient of determination (r2) is higher than 0.84 for all the bands from 412 nm to 745 nm. The agreement between APS and the AeroNET data is higher when compared to the GDPS results. The Root-Mean-Squared-Error (RMSE) between AeroNET and APS data ranges from 0.24 [mW/(cm2srμm)] at 555 nm to 0.52 [mW/(cm2srμm)] at 412 nm while RMSE between AeroNET and GDPS data ranges from 0.47 [mW/(cm2srμm)] at 443 nm to 0.69 [mW/(cm2srμm)] at 490 nm. PMID:26473861

  1. Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds.

    PubMed

    Benson, Roger B J; Starmer-Jones, Ethan; Close, Roger A; Walsh, Stig A

    2017-12-01

    The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations. We test the hypothesis that the lengths, streamlines and angles between the semicircular canals are related to body size, wing kinematics and flying style in birds. To do this, we applied geometric morphometrics and multivariate phylogenetic comparative methods to a dataset of 64 three-dimensional reconstructions of the endosseous labyrinth obtained using micro-computed tomography scanning of bird crania. A strong relationship between centroid size of the semicircular canals and body size indicates that larger birds have longer semicircular canals compared with their evolutionary relatives. Wing kinematics related to manoeuvrability (and quantified using the brachial index) explain a small additional portion of the variance in labyrinth size. We also find strong evidence for allometric shape change in the semicircular canals of birds, indicating that major aspects of the shape of the avian labyrinth are determined by spatial constraints. The avian braincase accommodates a large brain, a large eye and large semicircular canals compared with other tetrapods. Negative allometry of these structures means that the restriction of space within the braincase is intense in small birds. This may explain our observation that the angles between planes of the semicircular canals of birds deviate more strongly from orthogonality than those of mammals, and especially from agile, gliding and flying

  2. Quantitative analysis of comparative genomic hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Manoir, S. du; Bentz, M.; Joos, S.

    1995-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a new molecular cytogenetic method for the detection of chromosomal imbalances. Following cohybridization of DNA prepared from a sample to be studied and control DNA to normal metaphase spreads, probes are detected via different fluorochromes. The ratio of the test and control fluorescence intensities along a chromosome reflects the relative copy number of segments of a chromosome in the test genome. Quantitative evaluation of CGH experiments is required for the determination of low copy changes, e.g., monosomy or trisomy, and for the definition of the breakpoints involved in unbalanced rearrangements. In this study, a programmore » for quantitation of CGH preparations is presented. This program is based on the extraction of the fluorescence ratio profile along each chromosome, followed by averaging of individual profiles from several metaphase spreads. Objective parameters critical for quantitative evaluations were tested, and the criteria for selection of suitable CGH preparations are described. The granularity of the chromosome painting and the regional inhomogeneity of fluorescence intensities in metaphase spreads proved to be crucial parameters. The coefficient of variation of the ratio value for chromosomes in balanced state (CVBS) provides a general quality criterion for CGH experiments. Different cutoff levels (thresholds) of average fluorescence ratio values were compared for their specificity and sensitivity with regard to the detection of chromosomal imbalances. 27 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.« less

  3. Comparative analysis of Goodwin's business cycle models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S.; Todorov, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    We compare the behavior of solutions of Goodwin's business cycle equation in the form of neutral delay differential equation with fixed delay (NDDE model) and in the form of the differential equations of 3rd, 4th and 5th orders (ODE model's). Such ODE model's (Taylor series expansion of NDDE in powers of θ) are proposed in N. Dharmaraj and K. Vela Velupillai [6] for investigation of the short periodic sawthooth oscillations in NDDE. We show that the ODE's of 3rd, 4th and 5th order may approximate the asymptotic behavior of only main Goodwin's mode, but not the sawthooth modes. If the order of the Taylor series expansion exceeds 5, then the approximate ODE becomes unstable independently of time lag θ.

  4. Comparative Modal Analysis of Sieve Hardware Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    The CMTB Thwacker hardware operates as a testbed analogue for the Flight Thwacker and Sieve components of CHIMRA, a device on the Curiosity Rover. The sieve separates particles with a diameter smaller than 150 microns for delivery to onboard science instruments. The sieving behavior of the testbed hardware should be similar to the Flight hardware for the results to be meaningful. The elastodynamic behavior of both sieves was studied analytically using the Rayleigh Ritz method in conjunction with classical plate theory. Finite element models were used to determine the mode shapes of both designs, and comparisons between the natural frequencies and mode shapes were made. The analysis predicts that the performance of the CMTB Thwacker will closely resemble the performance of the Flight Thwacker within the expected steady state operating regime. Excitations of the testbed hardware that will mimic the flight hardware were recommended, as were those that will improve the efficiency of the sieving process.

  5. Comparative analysis of metazoan chromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joshua W K; Jung, Youngsook L; Liu, Tao; Alver, Burak H; Lee, Soohyun; Ikegami, Kohta; Sohn, Kyung-Ah; Minoda, Aki; Tolstorukov, Michael Y; Appert, Alex; Parker, Stephen C J; Gu, Tingting; Kundaje, Anshul; Riddle, Nicole C; Bishop, Eric; Egelhofer, Thea A; Hu, Sheng'en Shawn; Alekseyenko, Artyom A; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Asker, Dalal; Belsky, Jason A; Bowman, Sarah K; Chen, Q Brent; Chen, Ron A-J; Day, Daniel S; Dong, Yan; Dose, Andrea C; Duan, Xikun; Epstein, Charles B; Ercan, Sevinc; Feingold, Elise A; Ferrari, Francesco; Garrigues, Jacob M; Gehlenborg, Nils; Good, Peter J; Haseley, Psalm; He, Daniel; Herrmann, Moritz; Hoffman, Michael M; Jeffers, Tess E; Kharchenko, Peter V; Kolasinska-Zwierz, Paulina; Kotwaliwale, Chitra V; Kumar, Nischay; Langley, Sasha A; Larschan, Erica N; Latorre, Isabel; Libbrecht, Maxwell W; Lin, Xueqiu; Park, Richard; Pazin, Michael J; Pham, Hoang N; Plachetka, Annette; Qin, Bo; Schwartz, Yuri B; Shoresh, Noam; Stempor, Przemyslaw; Vielle, Anne; Wang, Chengyang; Whittle, Christina M; Xue, Huiling; Kingston, Robert E; Kim, Ju Han; Bernstein, Bradley E; Dernburg, Abby F; Pirrotta, Vincenzo; Kuroda, Mitzi I; Noble, William S; Tullius, Thomas D; Kellis, Manolis; MacAlpine, David M; Strome, Susan; Elgin, Sarah C R; Liu, Xiaole Shirley; Lieb, Jason D; Ahringer, Julie; Karpen, Gary H; Park, Peter J

    2014-08-28

    Genome function is dynamically regulated in part by chromatin, which consists of the histones, non-histone proteins and RNA molecules that package DNA. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster have contributed substantially to our understanding of molecular mechanisms of genome function in humans, and have revealed conservation of chromatin components and mechanisms. Nevertheless, the three organisms have markedly different genome sizes, chromosome architecture and gene organization. On human and fly chromosomes, for example, pericentric heterochromatin flanks single centromeres, whereas worm chromosomes have dispersed heterochromatin-like regions enriched in the distal chromosomal 'arms', and centromeres distributed along their lengths. To systematically investigate chromatin organization and associated gene regulation across species, we generated and analysed a large collection of genome-wide chromatin data sets from cell lines and developmental stages in worm, fly and human. Here we present over 800 new data sets from our ENCODE and modENCODE consortia, bringing the total to over 1,400. Comparison of combinatorial patterns of histone modifications, nuclear lamina-associated domains, organization of large-scale topological domains, chromatin environment at promoters and enhancers, nucleosome positioning, and DNA replication patterns reveals many conserved features of chromatin organization among the three organisms. We also find notable differences in the composition and locations of repressive chromatin. These data sets and analyses provide a rich resource for comparative and species-specific investigations of chromatin composition, organization and function.

  6. Recognizing chemicals in patents: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Maryam; Wiegandt, David Luis; Schmedding, Florian; Leser, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, methods for Chemical Named Entity Recognition (NER) have gained substantial interest, driven by the need for automatically analyzing todays ever growing collections of biomedical text. Chemical NER for patents is particularly essential due to the high economic importance of pharmaceutical findings. However, NER on patents has essentially been neglected by the research community for long, mostly because of the lack of enough annotated corpora. A recent international competition specifically targeted this task, but evaluated tools only on gold standard patent abstracts instead of full patents; furthermore, results from such competitions are often difficult to extrapolate to real-life settings due to the relatively high homogeneity of training and test data. Here, we evaluate the two state-of-the-art chemical NER tools, tmChem and ChemSpot, on four different annotated patent corpora, two of which consist of full texts. We study the overall performance of the tools, compare their results at the instance level, report on high-recall and high-precision ensembles, and perform cross-corpus and intra-corpus evaluations. Our findings indicate that full patents are considerably harder to analyze than patent abstracts and clearly confirm the common wisdom that using the same text genre (patent vs. scientific) and text type (abstract vs. full text) for training and testing is a pre-requisite for achieving high quality text mining results.

  7. Breastfeeding policy: a globally comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Jody; Raub, Amy; Earle, Alison

    2013-06-01

    To explore the extent to which national policies guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks to working women may facilitate breastfeeding. An analysis was conducted of the number of countries that guarantee breastfeeding breaks, the daily number of hours guaranteed, and the duration of guarantees. To obtain current, detailed information on national policies, original legislation as well as secondary sources on 182 of the 193 Member States of the United Nations were examined. Regression analyses were conducted to test the association between national policy and rates of exclusive breastfeeding while controlling for national income level, level of urbanization, female percentage of the labour force and female literacy rate. Breastfeeding breaks with pay are guaranteed in 130 countries (71%) and unpaid breaks are guaranteed in seven (4%). No policy on breastfeeding breaks exists in 45 countries (25%). In multivariate models, the guarantee of paid breastfeeding breaks for at least 6 months was associated with an increase of 8.86 percentage points in the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (P < 0.05). A greater percentage of women practise exclusive breastfeeding in countries where laws guarantee breastfeeding breaks at work. If these findings are confirmed in longitudinal studies, health outcomes could be improved by passing legislation on breastfeeding breaks in countries that do not yet ensure the right to breastfeed.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of the Bombyx mori fat body after constant high temperature treatment shows differences between the sexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Fang, Yan; Wang, Lipeng; Zhu, Wenjuan; Ji, Haipeng; Wang, Haiying; Xu, Shiqing; Sima, Yanghu

    2014-09-01

    Ambient temperature plays a large role in insect growth, development and even their distribution. The elucidation of the associated molecular mechanism that underlies the effect of constant high temperature will enables us to further understand the stress responses. We constructed four digital gene expression libraries from the fat body of female and male Bombyx mori. Differential gene expression was analyzed after constant high temperature treatment. The results showed that there were significant changes to the gene expression in the fat body after heat treatment, especially in binding, catalytic, cellular and metabolic processes. Constant high temperature may induce more traditional cryoprotectants, such as glycerol, glycogen, sorbitol and lipids, to protect cells from damage, and induce heat oxidative stress in conjunction with the heat shock proteins. The data also indicated a difference between males and females. The heat shock protein-related genes were up-regulated in both sexes but the expression of Hsp25.4 and DnaJ5 were down-regulated in the male fat body of B. mori. This is the first report of such a result. Constant high temperature also affected the expression of other functional genes and differences were observed between male and female fat bodies in the expression of RPS2, RPL37A and MREL. These findings provide abundant data on the effect of high temperature on insects at the molecular level. The data will also be beneficial to the study of differences between the sexes, manifested in variations in gene expression under high temperature.

  9. Comparative and demographic analysis of orangutan genomes

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.; Worley, Kim C.; Nazareth, Lynne V.; Muzny, Donna M.; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Wang, Zhengyuan; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Minx, Pat; Mitreva, Makedonka; Cook, Lisa; Delehaunty, Kim D.; Fronick, Catrina; Schmidt, Heather; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Nelson, Joanne O.; Magrini, Vincent; Pohl, Craig; Graves, Tina A.; Markovic, Chris; Cree, Andy; Dinh, Huyen H.; Hume, Jennifer; Kovar, Christie L.; Fowler, Gerald R.; Lunter, Gerton; Meader, Stephen; Heger, Andreas; Ponting, Chris P.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Eichler, Evan E.; White, Simon; Searle, Stephen; Vilella, Albert J.; Chen, Yuan; Flicek, Paul; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; Suh, Bernard; Burhans, Richard; Herrero, Javier; Haussler, David; Faria, Rui; Fernando, Olga; Darré, Fleur; Farré, Domènec; Gazave, Elodie; Oliva, Meritxell; Navarro, Arcadi; Roberto, Roberta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Valle, Giuliano Della; Purgato, Stefania; Rocchi, Mariano; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Ullmer, Brygg; Batzer, Mark A.; Smit, Arian F. A.; Hubley, Robert; Casola, Claudio; Schrider, Daniel R.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xose S.; Ordoñez, Gonzalo R.; López-Otín, Carlos; Vinar, Tomas; Brejova, Brona; Ratan, Aakrosh; Harris, Robert S.; Miller, Webb; Kosiol, Carolin; Lawson, Heather A.; Taliwal, Vikas; Martins, André L.; Siepel, Adam; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Ma, Xin; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Mailund, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien Y.; Hobolth, Asger; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A.; Yoshinaga, Yuko; de Jong, Pieter J.; Weinstock, George M.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Mardis, Elaine R.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    “Orangutan” is derived from the Malay term “man of the forest” and aptly describes the Southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orangutan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orangutan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orangutan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orangutan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orangutan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe the first primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orangutan genome structure. Orangutans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal1, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400k years ago (ya), is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orangutan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (Ne) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral Ne after the split, while Bornean Ne declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities

  10. Allograft materials in phalloplasty: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Mark P; Komlo, Caroline; Defrain, Molly

    2013-09-01

    Allograft use has increased recently with the rising use of allograft materials in breast surgery. There are few data that compare the performance of the various allograft materials in this application, despite marketing efforts by the manufacturers to present one allograft material as superior to another. Phalloplasty is a procedure that uses allografts for penis girth augmentation. Preparation of these grafts differs with each manufacturer. We report our experience with 3 different types of allografts for this procedure. This allows for the comparison of these materials in their performance with a single model. Forty-seven patients who underwent penis girth enhancement with allograft material were reviewed. All patients underwent circumferential grafting to the shaft of the penis at the level of Buck's fascia. Graft materials included AlloDerm (n = 9), Belladerm (n = 20), and Repriza (n = 21). Charts were reviewed for material type, presence and type of infection, wound exposure, and graft loss with attention to the type of allograft material that was used. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 120 months with an average of 11.25 months. Infection, defined as an open wound with graft exposure, occurred in 20 (42%) of 47 patients. Of these, graft exposure only occurred in 17 (36%) patients, whereas 3 (6%) patients sustained total graft loss. Graft exposure or loss occurred in 3 patients who had AlloDerm, 9 patients with Belladerm, and 8 patients with Repriza. No patients with AlloDerm sustained graft loss, whereas 2 patients with Belladerm and 1 patient with Repriza sustained graft loss. There were no statistical differences among these graft types with regard to infection or graft loss. Three different brands of allograft material were used in 1 surgical procedure and followed up for their performance with regard to exposure and infection. In this model, there is no difference in the rate of infection in these materials despite their different methods of preparation

  11. Measurement of monomolecular binding constants of neutral phenols into the beta-cyclodextrin by continuous frontal analysis in capillary and microchip electrophoresis via a competitive assay.

    PubMed

    Le Saux, Thomas; Hisamoto, Hideaki; Terabe, Shigeru

    2006-02-03

    Measurement of binding constant by chip electrophoresis is a very promising technique for the high throughput screening of non-covalent interactions. Among the different electrophoretic methods available that yield the binding parameters, continuous frontal analysis is the most appropriate for a transposition from capillary electrophoresis (CE) to microchip electrophoresis. Implementation of this methodology in microchip was exemplified by the measurement of inclusion constants of 2-naphtalenesulfonate and neutral phenols (phenol, 4-chlorophenol and 4-nitrophenol) into beta-cyclodextrin by competitive assays. The issue of competitor choice is discussed in relation to its appropriateness for proper monitoring of the interaction.

  12. Determination of equilibrium and rate constants for complex formation by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy supplemented by dynamic light scattering and Taylor dispersion analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuzhu; Poniewierski, Andrzej; Jelińska, Aldona; Zagożdżon, Anna; Wisniewska, Agnieszka; Hou, Sen; Hołyst, Robert

    2016-10-04

    The equilibrium and rate constants of molecular complex formation are of great interest both in the field of chemistry and biology. Here, we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), supplemented by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA), to study the complex formation in model systems of dye-micelle interactions. In our case, dyes rhodamine 110 and ATTO-488 interact with three differently charged surfactant micelles: octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether C 12 E 8 (neutral), cetyltrimethylammonium chloride CTAC (positive) and sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS (negative). To determine the rate constants for the dye-micelle complex formation we fit the experimental data obtained by FCS with a new form of the autocorrelation function, derived in the accompanying paper. Our results show that the association rate constants for the model systems are roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than those in the case of the diffusion-controlled limit. Because the complex stability is determined by the dissociation rate constant, a two-step reaction mechanism, including the diffusion-controlled and reaction-controlled rates, is used to explain the dye-micelle interaction. In the limit of fast reaction, we apply FCS to determine the equilibrium constant from the effective diffusion coefficient of the fluorescent components. Depending on the value of the equilibrium constant, we distinguish three types of interaction in the studied systems: weak, intermediate and strong. The values of the equilibrium constant obtained from the FCS and TDA experiments are very close to each other, which supports the theoretical model used to interpret the FCS data.

  13. An Analysis of Descriptors of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Impact on Rate Constant for Reaction with Hydroxyl Radicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-05-01

    the descriptors were correlated to experimental rate constants. The five descriptors fell into one of two categories: whole molecule descriptors or...model based on these correlations . Although that goal was not achieved in full, considerable progress has been made, and there is potential for a...readme.txt) and compiled. We then searched for correlations between the calculated properties from theory and the experimental measurements of reaction rate

  14. Transient signal isotope analysis: validation of the method for isotope signal synchronization with the determination of amplifier first-order time constants.

    PubMed

    Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis; Manhès, Gérard; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Gaillardet, Jérôme

    2015-09-30

    During transient signal acquisition by Multi-Collection Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS), an isotope ratio increase or decrease (isotopic drift hereafter) is often observed which is related to the different time responses of the amplifiers involved in multi-collection. This isotopic drift affects the quality of the isotopic data and, in a recent study, a method of internal amplifier signal synchronization for isotope drift correction was proposed. In this work the determination of the amplifier time constants was investigated in order to validate the method of internal amplifier signal synchronization for isotope ratio drift correction. Two different MC-ICPMS instruments, the Neptune and the Neptune Plus, were used, and both the lead transient signals and the signal decay curves of the amplifiers were investigated. Our results show that the first part of the amplifier signal decay curve is characterized by a pure exponential decay. This part of the signal decay was used for the effective calculation of the amplifier first-order time constants. The small differences between these time constants were compared with time lag values obtained from the method of isotope signal synchronization and were found to be in good agreement. This work proposes a way of determining amplifier first-order time constants. We show that isotopic drift is directly related to the amplifier first-order time constants and the method of internal amplifier signal synchronization for isotope ratio drift correction is validated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Kinetic Analysis for the Multistep Profiles of Organic Reactions: Significance of the Conformational Entropy on the Rate Constants of the Claisen Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, Yosuke; Nagahata, Yutaka; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Maeda, Satoshi

    2015-12-03

    The significance of kinetic analysis as a tool for understanding the reactivity and selectivity of organic reactions has recently been recognized. However, conventional simulation approaches that solve rate equations numerically are not amenable to multistep reaction profiles consisting of fast and slow elementary steps. Herein, we present an efficient and robust approach for evaluating the overall rate constants of multistep reactions via the recursive contraction of the rate equations to give the overall rate constants for the products and byproducts. This new method was applied to the Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ether, as well as a substituted allyl vinyl ether. Notably, the profiles of these reactions contained 23 and 84 local minima, and 66 and 278 transition states, respectively. The overall rate constant for the Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ether was consistent with the experimental value. The selectivity of the Claisen rearrangement reaction has also been assessed using a substituted allyl vinyl ether. The results of this study showed that the conformational entropy in these flexible chain molecules had a substantial impact on the overall rate constants. This new method could therefore be used to estimate the overall rate constants of various other organic reactions involving flexible molecules.

  16. Analysis of the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Erel, Suat; Şimşek, İbrahim Engin; Özkan, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the validity and reliability of the Turkish version (ICOAP-TR) of the intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain (ICOAP) questionnaire in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Thirty-eight volunteer patients diagnosed with knee OA answered the questionnaire twice with an interval of 2-4 days. The reliability of the measurement was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intraclass correlation (ICC) for test-retest reliability. Criterion validity was tested against the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score and visual analog scale (VAS) designed to assess the perceived discomfort rated by the patient. Test-retest reliability was found to be ICC=0.942 for total score, 0.902 for constant pain subscale, and 0.945 for intermittent pain subscale. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach's alpha and was found to be 0.970 for total score, 0.948 for constant pain subscale, and 0.972 for intermittent pain subscale. For criterion validity, the correlation between the total score of ICOAP-TR and WOMAC pain subscale was r=0.779 (p<0.05), and correlation between total score of ICOAP-TR and VAS was r=0.570 (p<0.05). The ICOAP-TR is a reliable and valid instrument to be used with patients with knee OA.

  17. Golden Gate National Recreation Area: Alcatraz Island Ferry Comparability Analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-08-31

    This report presents a summary of an analysis comparing the ferry operated between San Francisco and Alcatraz Island with : similar water transportation services. The analysis was performed to assist the National Park Service in determining the rates...

  18. Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.

  19. Influence of gamma ray irradiation and annealing temperature on the optical constants and spectral dispersion parameters of metal-free and zinc tetraphenylporphyrin thin films: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zeyada, H M; Makhlouf, M M; El-Nahass, M M

    2015-09-05

    In this work, we report on the effect of γ-ray irradiation and annealing temperature on the optical properties of metal-free tetraphenylporphyrin, H2TPP, and zinc tetraphenylporphyrin, ZnTPP, thin films. Thin films of H2TPP and ZnTPP were successfully prepared by the thermal evaporation technique. The optical properties of H2TPP and ZnTPP films were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range from 200 to 2500 nm. The absorption spectra of H2TPP showed four absorption bands, namely the Q, B, N and M bands. The effect of inserting Zn atom into the cavity of porphyrin macrocycle in ZnTPP molecule distorted the Q and B bands, reduced the width of absorption region and influenced the optical constants and dispersion parameters. In all conditions, the type of electron transition is indirect allowed transition. Anomalous dispersion is observed in the absorption region but normal dispersion occurs in the transparent region of spectra. We adopted multi-oscillator model and the single oscillator model to interpret the anomalous and normal dispersion, respectively. We have found that the annealing temperature has mostly the opposite effect of γ-ray irradiation on absorption and dispersion characteristics of these films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Simulation Analysis of Errors in the Measurement of Standard Electrochemical Rate Constants from Phase-Selective Impedance Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    RESTRICTIVE MARKINGSC Unclassif ied 2a SECURIly CLASSIFICATION ALIIMOA4TY 3 DIS1RSBj~jiOAVAILAB.I1Y OF RkPORI _________________________________ Approved...of the AC current, including the time dependence at a growing DME, at a given fixed potential either in the presence or the absence of an...the relative error in k b(app) is ob relatively small for ks (true) : 0.5 cm s-, and increases rapidly for ob larger rate constants as kob reaches the

  1. Robust Bayesian linear regression with application to an analysis of the CODATA values for the Planck constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wübbeler, Gerd; Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens

    2018-02-01

    Weighted least-squares estimation is commonly applied in metrology to fit models to measurements that are accompanied with quoted uncertainties. The weights are chosen in dependence on the quoted uncertainties. However, when data and model are inconsistent in view of the quoted uncertainties, this procedure does not yield adequate results. When it can be assumed that all uncertainties ought to be rescaled by a common factor, weighted least-squares estimation may still be used, provided that a simple correction of the uncertainty obtained for the estimated model is applied. We show that these uncertainties and credible intervals are robust, as they do not rely on the assumption of a Gaussian distribution of the data. Hence, common software for weighted least-squares estimation may still safely be employed in such a case, followed by a simple modification of the uncertainties obtained by that software. We also provide means of checking the assumptions of such an approach. The Bayesian regression procedure is applied to analyze the CODATA values for the Planck constant published over the past decades in terms of three different models: a constant model, a straight line model and a spline model. Our results indicate that the CODATA values may not have yet stabilized.

  2. New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    a function of the redshift and the corresponding look-back time. The open circle is the measurement from the Oklo natural reactor. The horizontal long dashed lines show the area of the previous claim of variation of the fine structure constant. Clearly, the new UVES data are inconsistent with this range. A team of astronomers [1], led by Patrick Petitjean (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris and Observatoire de Paris, France) and Raghunathan Srianand (IUCAA Pune, India) very carefully studied a homogeneous sample of 50 absorption systems observed with UVES and Kueyen along 18 distant quasars lines of sight. They recorded the spectra of quasars over a total of 34 nights to achieve the highest possible spectral resolution and the best signal-to-noise ratio. Sophisticated automatic procedures specially designed for this programme were applied. In addition, the astronomers used extensive simulations to show that they can correctly model the line profiles to recover a possible variation of alpha. The result of this extensive study is that over the last 10,000 million years, the relative variation of alpha must be less than 0.6 part per million. This is the strongest constraint from quasar absorption lines studies to date. More importantly, this new result does not support previous claims of a statistically significant change of alpha with time. Interestingly, this result is supported by another - less extensive - analysis, also conducted with the UVES spectrometer on the VLT [2]. Even though those observations were only concerned with one of the brightest known quasar HE 0515-4414, this independent study lends further support to the hypothesis of no variation of alpha. Even though these new results represent a significant improvement in our knowledge of the possible (non-) variation of one of the fundamental physical constants, the present set of data would in principle still allow variations that are comparatively large compared to those resulting from the measurements

  3. Comparative genome analysis in the integrated microbial genomes (IMG) system.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Victor M; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2007-01-01

    Comparative genome analysis is critical for the effective exploration of a rapidly growing number of complete and draft sequences for microbial genomes. The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system (img.jgi.doe.gov) has been developed as a community resource that provides support for comparative analysis of microbial genomes in an integrated context. IMG allows users to navigate the multidimensional microbial genome data space and focus their analysis on a subset of genes, genomes, and functions of interest. IMG provides graphical viewers, summaries, and occurrence profile tools for comparing genes, pathways, and functions (terms) across specific genomes. Genes can be further examined using gene neighborhoods and compared with sequence alignment tools.

  4. Analysis of a dc bus system with a nonlinear constant power load and its delayed feedback control.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Keiji; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Hara, Naoyuki

    2014-02-01

    This paper tackles a destabilizing problem of a direct-current (dc) bus system with constant power loads, which can be considered a fundamental problem of dc power grid networks. The present paper clarifies scenarios of the destabilization and applies the well-known delayed-feedback control to the stabilization of the destabilized bus system on the basis of nonlinear science. Further, we propose a systematic procedure for designing the delayed feedback controller. This controller can converge the bus voltage exactly on an unstable operating point without accurate information and can track it using tiny control energy even when a system parameter, such as the power consumption of the load, is slowly varied. These features demonstrate that delayed feedback control can be considered a strong candidate for solving the destabilizing problem.

  5. Effect analysis of quantum chemical descriptors and substituent characteristics on Henry's law constants of polybrominated diphenyl ethers at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiang; Youli, Qiu; Yu, Li

    2017-11-01

    Twelve substituent descriptors, 17 quantum chemical descriptors and 1/T were selected to establish a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model of Henry's law constants for 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) at five different temperatures. Then, the lgH of 202 congeners at different temperatures were predicted. The variation rule and regulating mechanism of lgH was studied from the perspectives of both quantum chemical descriptors and substituent characteristics. The R 2 for modeling and testing sets of the final QSPR model are 0.977 and 0.979, respectively, thus indicating good fitness and predictive ability for Henry' law constants of PBDEs at different temperatures. The favorable hydrogen binding sites are the 5,5',6,6'-positions for high substituent congeners and the O atom of the ether bond for low substituent congeners, which affects the interaction between PBDEs and water molecules. lgH is negatively and linearly correlated with 1/T, and the variation trends of lgH with temperature are primarily regulated by individual substituent characteristics, wherein: the more substituents involved, the smaller the lgH. The significant sequence for the main effect of substituent positions is para>meta>ortho, where the ortho-positions are mainly involved in second-order interaction effect (64.01%). Having two substituents in the same ring also provides a significant effect, with 81.36% of second-order interaction effects, particularly where there is an adjacent distribution (55.02%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EMERGY ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our mission at USEPA is to protect human health and safeguard the natural environment. We aim to base our environmental regulations and policies on sound scientific and, where appropriate, economic analyses. Although EPA has conducted analysis of the impact of regulations on ...

  7. Henry's law constants of polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-12-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  8. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shu-Cui; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Liu, Gui-Xia

    2015-02-01

    The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation-deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid-base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m2/g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. tbnd Si-OH, tbnd Fe-OH, and tbnd Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K1, log K2) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation-deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent.

  9. Relativistic coupled-cluster-theory analysis of energies, hyperfine-structure constants, and dipole polarizabilities of Cd+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Bin; Yu, Yan-Mei; Sahoo, B. K.

    2018-02-01

    Roles of electron correlation effects in the determination of attachment energies, magnetic-dipole hyperfine-structure constants, and electric-dipole (E 1 ) matrix elements of the low-lying states in the singly charged cadmium ion (Cd+) have been analyzed. We employ the singles and doubles approximated relativistic coupled-cluster (RCC) method to calculate these properties. Intermediate results from the Dirac-Hartree-Fock approximation,the second-order many-body perturbation theory, and considering only the linear terms of the RCC method are given to demonstrate propagation of electron correlation effects in this ion. Contributions from important RCC terms are also given to highlight the importance of various correlation effects in the evaluation of these properties. At the end, we also determine E 1 polarizabilities (αE 1) of the ground and 5 p 2P1 /2 ;3 /2 states of Cd+ in the ab initio approach. We estimate them again by replacing some of the E 1 matrix elements and energies from the measurements to reduce their uncertainties so that they can be used in the high-precision experiments of this ion.

  10. Vicinal 1H-1H NMR coupling constants from density functional theory as reliable tools for stereochemical analysis of highly flexible multichiral center molecules.

    PubMed

    López-Vallejo, Fabian; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Suárez-Ortiz, Gloria Alejandra; Hernández-Rojas, Adriana C; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2011-08-05

    A protocol for stereochemical analysis, based on the systematic comparison between theoretical and experimental vicinal (1)H-(1)H NMR coupling constants, was developed and applied to a series of flexible compounds (1-8) derived from the 6-heptenyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one framework. The method included a broad conformational search, followed by geometry optimization at the DFT B3LYP/DGDZVP level, calculation of the vibrational frequencies, thermochemical parameters, magnetic shielding tensors, and the total NMR spin-spin coupling constants. Three scaling factors, depending on the carbon atom hybridizations, were found for the (1)H-C-C-(1)H vicinal coupling constants: f((sp3)-(sp3)) = 0.910, f((sp3)-(sp2)) = 0.929, and f((sp2)-(sp2))= 0.977. A remarkable correlation between the theoretical (J(pre)) and experimental (1)H-(1)H NMR (J(exp)) coupling constants for spicigerolide (1), a cytotoxic natural product, and some of its synthetic stereoisomers (2-4) demonstrated the predictive value of this approach for the stereochemical assignment of highly flexible compounds containing multiple chiral centers. The stereochemistry of two natural 6-heptenyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-ones (14 and 15) containing diverse functional groups in the heptenyl side chain was also analyzed by application of this combined theoretical and experimental approach, confirming its reliability. Additionally, a geometrical analysis for the conformations of 1-8 revealed that weak hydrogen bonds substantially guide the conformational behavior of the tetraacyloxy-6-heptenyl-2H-pyran-2-ones.

  11. A Constant Pressure Bomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, F W

    1924-01-01

    This report describes a new optical method of unusual simplicity and of good accuracy suitable to study the kinetics of gaseous reactions. The device is the complement of the spherical bomb of constant volume, and extends the applicability of the relationship, pv=rt for gaseous equilibrium conditions, to the use of both factors p and v. The method substitutes for the mechanical complications of a manometer placed at some distance from the seat of reaction the possibility of allowing the radiant effects of reaction to record themselves directly upon a sensitive film. It is possible the device may be of use in the study of the photoelectric effects of radiation. The method makes possible a greater precision in the measurement of normal flame velocities than was previously possible. An approximate analysis shows that the increase of pressure and density ahead of the flame is negligible until the velocity of the flame approaches that of sound.

  12. Suite of Benchmark Tests to Conduct Mesh-Convergence Analysis of Nonlinear and Non-constant Coefficient Transport Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, K.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Verification of geophysics codes is imperative to avoid serious academic as well as practical consequences. In case that access to any given source code is not possible, the Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) cannot be employed in code verification. In contrast, employing the Method of Exact Solution (MES) has several practical advantages. In this research, we first provide four new one-dimensional analytical solutions designed for code verification; these solutions are able to uncover the particular imperfections of the Advection-diffusion-reaction equation, such as nonlinear advection, diffusion or source terms, as well as non-constant coefficient equations. After that, we provide a solution of Burgers' equation in a novel setup. Proposed solutions satisfy the continuity of mass for the ambient flow, which is a crucial factor for coupled hydrodynamics-transport solvers. Then, we use the derived analytical solutions for code verification. To clarify gray-literature issues in the verification of transport codes, we designed a comprehensive test suite to uncover any imperfection in transport solvers via a hierarchical increase in the level of tests' complexity. The test suite includes hundreds of unit tests and system tests to check vis-a-vis the portions of the code. Examples for checking the suite start by testing a simple case of unidirectional advection; then, bidirectional advection and tidal flow and build up to nonlinear cases. We design tests to check nonlinearity in velocity, dispersivity and reactions. The concealing effect of scales (Peclet and Damkohler numbers) on the mesh-convergence study and appropriate remedies are also discussed. For the cases in which the appropriate benchmarks for mesh convergence study are not available, we utilize symmetry. Auxiliary subroutines for automation of the test suite and report generation are designed. All in all, the test package is not only a robust tool for code verification but it also provides comprehensive

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jodi Renee Abbott

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this descriptive research study was to compare charter and traditional public schools on the academic knowledge of fifth grade students as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) in a suburb of a large southwestern city. This analysis also compared charter and traditional public schools on AYP status. It was…

  14. Religious Education in Russia: A Comparative and Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinkova, Alexandra; Vermeer, Paul

    2018-01-01

    RE in Russia has been recently introduced as a compulsory regular school subject during the last year of elementary school. The present study offers a critical analysis of the current practice of Russian RE by comparing it with RE in Sweden, Denmark and Britain. This analysis shows that Russian RE is ambivalent. Although it is based on a…

  15. Constant Communities in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Srinivasan, Sriram; Ganguly, Niloy; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Mukherjee, Animesh

    2013-05-01

    Identifying community structure is a fundamental problem in network analysis. Most community detection algorithms are based on optimizing a combinatorial parameter, for example modularity. This optimization is generally NP-hard, thus merely changing the vertex order can alter their assignments to the community. However, there has been less study on how vertex ordering influences the results of the community detection algorithms. Here we identify and study the properties of invariant groups of vertices (constant communities) whose assignment to communities are, quite remarkably, not affected by vertex ordering. The percentage of constant communities can vary across different applications and based on empirical results we propose metrics to evaluate these communities. Using constant communities as a pre-processing step, one can significantly reduce the variation of the results. Finally, we present a case study on phoneme network and illustrate that constant communities, quite strikingly, form the core functional units of the larger communities.

  16. Comparing Visual and Statistical Analysis of Multiple Baseline Design Graphs.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Katie; Dickenson, Tammiee S; Miller, Bridget; McGrath, Kathleen V

    2018-04-01

    A growing number of statistical analyses are being developed for single-case research. One important factor in evaluating these methods is the extent to which each corresponds to visual analysis. Few studies have compared statistical and visual analysis, and information about more recently developed statistics is scarce. Therefore, our purpose was to evaluate the agreement between visual analysis and four statistical analyses: improvement rate difference (IRD); Tau-U; Hedges, Pustejovsky, Shadish (HPS) effect size; and between-case standardized mean difference (BC-SMD). Results indicate that IRD and BC-SMD had the strongest overall agreement with visual analysis. Although Tau-U had strong agreement with visual analysis on raw values, it had poorer agreement when those values were dichotomized to represent the presence or absence of a functional relation. Overall, visual analysis appeared to be more conservative than statistical analysis, but further research is needed to evaluate the nature of these disagreements.

  17. Constant symplectic 2-groupoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Rajan Amit; Tang, Xiang

    2018-05-01

    We propose a definition of symplectic 2-groupoid which includes integrations of Courant algebroids that have been recently constructed. We study in detail the simple but illustrative case of constant symplectic 2-groupoids. We show that the constant symplectic 2-groupoids are, up to equivalence, in one-to-one correspondence with a simple class of Courant algebroids that we call constant Courant algebroids. Furthermore, we find a correspondence between certain Dirac structures and Lagrangian sub-2-groupoids.

  18. CloVR-Comparative: automated, cloud-enabled comparative microbial genome sequence analysis pipeline.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sonia; Arze, Cesar; Adkins, Ricky S; Crabtree, Jonathan; Riley, David; Vangala, Mahesh; Galens, Kevin; Fraser, Claire M; Tettelin, Hervé; White, Owen; Angiuoli, Samuel V; Mahurkar, Anup; Fricke, W Florian

    2017-04-27

    The benefit of increasing genomic sequence data to the scientific community depends on easy-to-use, scalable bioinformatics support. CloVR-Comparative combines commonly used bioinformatics tools into an intuitive, automated, and cloud-enabled analysis pipeline for comparative microbial genomics. CloVR-Comparative runs on annotated complete or draft genome sequences that are uploaded by the user or selected via a taxonomic tree-based user interface and downloaded from NCBI. CloVR-Comparative runs reference-free multiple whole-genome alignments to determine unique, shared and core coding sequences (CDSs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Output includes short summary reports and detailed text-based results files, graphical visualizations (phylogenetic trees, circular figures), and a database file linked to the Sybil comparative genome browser. Data up- and download, pipeline configuration and monitoring, and access to Sybil are managed through CloVR-Comparative web interface. CloVR-Comparative and Sybil are distributed as part of the CloVR virtual appliance, which runs on local computers or the Amazon EC2 cloud. Representative datasets (e.g. 40 draft and complete Escherichia coli genomes) are processed in <36 h on a local desktop or at a cost of <$20 on EC2. CloVR-Comparative allows anybody with Internet access to run comparative genomics projects, while eliminating the need for on-site computational resources and expertise.

  19. The hubble constant.

    PubMed

    Huchra, J P

    1992-04-17

    The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and distance in the expanding universe. It is a fundamental property of cosmology that sets both the scale and the expansion age of the universe. It is determined by measurement of galaxy The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and development of new techniques for the measurements of galaxy distances, both calibration uncertainties and debates over systematic errors remain. Current determinations still range over nearly a factor of 2; the higher values favored by most local measurements are not consistent with many theories of the origin of large-scale structure and stellar evolution.

  20. Genome-wide comparative analysis of four Indian Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sujata; Khanna, Radhika

    2017-12-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes of closely or distantly related Drosophila species undoubtedly creates excitement among evolutionary biologists in exploring the genomic changes with an ecology and evolutionary perspective. We present herewith the de novo assembled whole genome sequences of four Drosophila species, D. bipectinata, D. takahashii, D. biarmipes and D. nasuta of Indian origin using Next Generation Sequencing technology on an Illumina platform along with their detailed assembly statistics. The comparative genomics analysis, e.g. gene predictions and annotations, functional and orthogroup analysis of coding sequences and genome wide SNP distribution were performed. The whole genome of Zaprionus indianus of Indian origin published earlier by us and the genome sequences of previously sequenced 12 Drosophila species available in the NCBI database were included in the analysis. The present work is a part of our ongoing genomics project of Indian Drosophila species.

  1. CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 121 NIST CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants (Web, free access)   This site, developed in the Physics Laboratory at NIST, addresses three topics: fundamental physical constants, the International System of Units (SI), which is the modern metric system, and expressing the uncertainty of measurement results.

  2. CRITICA: coding region identification tool invoking comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, J. H.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Gene recognition is essential to understanding existing and future DNA sequence data. CRITICA (Coding Region Identification Tool Invoking Comparative Analysis) is a suite of programs for identifying likely protein-coding sequences in DNA by combining comparative analysis of DNA sequences with more common noncomparative methods. In the comparative component of the analysis, regions of DNA are aligned with related sequences from the DNA databases; if the translation of the aligned sequences has greater amino acid identity than expected for the observed percentage nucleotide identity, this is interpreted as evidence for coding. CRITICA also incorporates noncomparative information derived from the relative frequencies of hexanucleotides in coding frames versus other contexts (i.e., dicodon bias). The dicodon usage information is derived by iterative analysis of the data, such that CRITICA is not dependent on the existence or accuracy of coding sequence annotations in the databases. This independence makes the method particularly well suited for the analysis of novel genomes. CRITICA was tested by analyzing the available Salmonella typhimurium DNA sequences. Its predictions were compared with the DNA sequence annotations and with the predictions of GenMark. CRITICA proved to be more accurate than GenMark, and moreover, many of its predictions that would seem to be errors instead reflect problems in the sequence databases. The source code of CRITICA is freely available by anonymous FTP (rdp.life.uiuc.edu in/pub/critica) and on the World Wide Web (http:/(/)rdpwww.life.uiuc.edu).

  3. Flows of the Tycho Crater type, comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratkov, Yury

    Some embeddings of the Tycho Crater type flow or, more generally, of the Tycho Butterfly type flow, are demonstrated, and comparative analysis is given. Additionally, identity of the Earthen World Ocean and the Moon Global Ocean is demonstrated. Supersonic flows (jets, shock waves, Mach stems) are comparatively studied [1]. References: [1] Bratkov Yu.N., Caspian Seas, http://viXra.org/abs/1211.0067, 12 Nov 2012

  4. Theoretical Evaluation of the Transient Response of Constant Head and Constant Flow-Rate Permeability Tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, M.; Takahashi, M.; Morin, R.H.; Esaki, T.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented that compares the response characteristics of the constant head and the constant flowrate (flow pump) laboratory techniques for quantifying the hydraulic properties of geologic materials having permeabilities less than 10-10 m/s. Rigorous analytical solutions that describe the transient distributions of hydraulic gradient within a specimen are developed, and equations are derived for each method. Expressions simulating the inflow and outflow rates across the specimen boundaries during a constant-head permeability test are also presented. These solutions illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method, including insights into measurement accuracy and the validity of using Darcy's law under certain conditions. The resulting observations offer practical considerations in the selection of an appropriate laboratory test method for the reliable measurement of permeability in low-permeability geologic materials.

  5. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-05

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH 4 + strategy for ethylene and SO 2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO 2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO 2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO 2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be <4.3% and 2.1% respectively. Good recoveries for ethylene and sulfur dioxide from fruit samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be < 4.3% and 2.1% respectively. Good recoveries for ethylene and sulfur dioxide from fruit samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS.

  7. [Overview of design, implementation and analysis of comparative effectiveness research].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng; Shen, Hao

    2013-03-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has been regarded as a hot topic in health care recently. Many medicalresearchers currently deem CER as a potential powerful instrument for improving the quality of healthcare and cut medical cost. However, in the past, classic efficacy studies are always focusing on comparing one new intervention with placebo under complete controlled environment. Now CER turns to comparing different interventions directly in real world of routine practice. This article reviewed a series of literature about the design, implementation and analysis of CER in order to give a clue for Chinese medicine researchers in future.

  8. Comparative and Familial Analysis of Handedness in Great Apes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, William D.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, population-level handedness has been considered a hallmark of human evolution. Whether nonhuman primates exhibit population-level handedness remains a topic of considerable debate. This paper summarizes published data on handedness in great apes. Comparative analysis indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos show population-level right…

  9. Initial implementation of a comparative data analysis ontology.

    PubMed

    Prosdocimi, Francisco; Chisham, Brandon; Pontelli, Enrico; Thompson, Julie D; Stoltzfus, Arlin

    2009-07-03

    Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species) are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: "Operational Taxonomic Units" (OTUs), representing the entities to be compared; "character-state data" representing the observations compared among OTUs; "phylogenetic tree", representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and "transitions", the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL), we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO). CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc.) that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Method Books for Class Jazz Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare instructional topics and teaching approaches included in selected class method books for jazz pedagogy through content analysis methodology. Frequency counts for the number of pages devoted to each defined instructional content category were compiled and percentages of pages allotted to each…

  11. COGNAT: a web server for comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Klimchuk, Olesya I; Konovalov, Kirill A; Perekhvatov, Vadim V; Skulachev, Konstantin V; Dibrova, Daria V; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2017-11-22

    In prokaryotic genomes, functionally coupled genes can be organized in conserved gene clusters enabling their coordinated regulation. Such clusters could contain one or several operons, which are groups of co-transcribed genes. Those genes that evolved from a common ancestral gene by speciation (i.e. orthologs) are expected to have similar genomic neighborhoods in different organisms, whereas those copies of the gene that are responsible for dissimilar functions (i.e. paralogs) could be found in dissimilar genomic contexts. Comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods facilitates the prediction of co-regulated genes and helps to discern different functions in large protein families. We intended, building on the attribution of gene sequences to the clusters of orthologous groups of proteins (COGs), to provide a method for visualization and comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods of evolutionary related genes, as well as a respective web server. Here we introduce the COmparative Gene Neighborhoods Analysis Tool (COGNAT), a web server for comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods. The tool is based on the COG database, as well as the Pfam protein families database. As an example, we show the utility of COGNAT in identifying a new type of membrane protein complex that is formed by paralog(s) of one of the membrane subunits of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase of type 1 (COG1009) and a cytoplasmic protein of unknown function (COG3002). This article was reviewed by Drs. Igor Zhulin, Uri Gophna and Igor Rogozin.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. his article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most co...

  13. A comparative analysis of protected area planning and management frameworks

    Treesearch

    Per Nilsen; Grant Tayler

    1997-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC), a Process for Visitor Impact Management (VIM), Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP), and the Management Process for Visitor Activities (known as VAMP) decision frameworks examines their origins; methodology; use of factors, indicators, and standards;...

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

  15. [Comparative analysis of Andean and Caribbean region health systems].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Camelo, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Carrying out a comparative analysis of Andean and Caribbean health systems contributing towards the general panorama of Andean and Caribbean region health care system experience. This study was aimed at carrying out a comparative analysis of health systems in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic and Cuba between 1990 and 2004. Documentary information from secondary sources was used. Reform and changes during the aforementioned period were compared, as well as the systems' current configurations. Described typologies were used for studying the health systems. Different organisational designs were found for the systems: a national health system (NHS), segmented systems and systems based on mandatory insurance. The trend of reforms introduced in the 1990s and current proposals in almost all systems are directed towards adopting mandatory insurance via a basic packet of services and strengthening competition in providing services through a public and private mix. The organisation and structure of most systems studied have introduced and continue to introduce changes in line with international guidelines. The generality of these structures means that efforts must still be made to adopt designs strengthening them as instruments improving populations' quality of life. Comparative analysis is a tool leading to studying health systems and producing information which can nourish debate regarding current sector reform. This work took shape during the first approach to a comparative study of Andean region and Caribbean health systems.

  16. The aquatic animals' transcriptome resource for comparative functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Hung; Huang, Hsi-Yuan; Huang, Wei-Chih; Hsu, Sheng-Da; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Liu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Yu-Hung; Liu, Yu-Chen; Huang, Wei-Yun; Lee, Meng-Lin; Chen, Yi-Chang; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2018-05-09

    Aquatic animals have great economic and ecological importance. Among them, non-model organisms have been studied regarding eco-toxicity, stress biology, and environmental adaptation. Due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing techniques, large amounts of RNA-seq data for aquatic animals are publicly available. However, currently there is no comprehensive resource exist for the analysis, unification, and integration of these datasets. This study utilizes computational approaches to build a new resource of transcriptomic maps for aquatic animals. This aquatic animal transcriptome map database dbATM provides de novo assembly of transcriptome, gene annotation and comparative analysis of more than twenty aquatic organisms without draft genome. To improve the assembly quality, three computational tools (Trinity, Oases and SOAPdenovo-Trans) were employed to enhance individual transcriptome assembly, and CAP3 and CD-HIT-EST software were then used to merge these three assembled transcriptomes. In addition, functional annotation analysis provides valuable clues to gene characteristics, including full-length transcript coding regions, conserved domains, gene ontology and KEGG pathways. Furthermore, all aquatic animal genes are essential for comparative genomics tasks such as constructing homologous gene groups and blast databases and phylogenetic analysis. In conclusion, we establish a resource for non model organism aquatic animals, which is great economic and ecological importance and provide transcriptomic information including functional annotation and comparative transcriptome analysis. The database is now publically accessible through the URL http://dbATM.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/ .

  17. Comparative analysis and visualization of multiple collinear genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome browsers are a common tool used by biologists to visualize genomic features including genes, polymorphisms, and many others. However, existing genome browsers and visualization tools are not well-suited to perform meaningful comparative analysis among a large number of genomes. With the increasing quantity and availability of genomic data, there is an increased burden to provide useful visualization and analysis tools for comparison of multiple collinear genomes such as the large panels of model organisms which are the basis for much of the current genetic research. Results We have developed a novel web-based tool for visualizing and analyzing multiple collinear genomes. Our tool illustrates genome-sequence similarity through a mosaic of intervals representing local phylogeny, subspecific origin, and haplotype identity. Comparative analysis is facilitated through reordering and clustering of tracks, which can vary throughout the genome. In addition, we provide local phylogenetic trees as an alternate visualization to assess local variations. Conclusions Unlike previous genome browsers and viewers, ours allows for simultaneous and comparative analysis. Our browser provides intuitive selection and interactive navigation about features of interest. Dynamic visualizations adjust to scale and data content making analysis at variable resolutions and of multiple data sets more informative. We demonstrate our genome browser for an extensive set of genomic data sets composed of almost 200 distinct mouse laboratory strains. PMID:22536897

  18. IMG: the integrated microbial genomes database and comparative analysis system

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Chen, I-Min A.; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chu, Ken; Szeto, Ernest; Grechkin, Yuri; Ratner, Anna; Jacob, Biju; Huang, Jinghua; Williams, Peter; Huntemann, Marcel; Anderson, Iain; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system serves as a community resource for comparative analysis of publicly available genomes in a comprehensive integrated context. IMG integrates publicly available draft and complete genomes from all three domains of life with a large number of plasmids and viruses. IMG provides tools and viewers for analyzing and reviewing the annotations of genes and genomes in a comparative context. IMG's data content and analytical capabilities have been continuously extended through regular updates since its first release in March 2005. IMG is available at http://img.jgi.doe.gov. Companion IMG systems provide support for expert review of genome annotations (IMG/ER: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/er), teaching courses and training in microbial genome analysis (IMG/EDU: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/edu) and analysis of genomes related to the Human Microbiome Project (IMG/HMP: http://www.hmpdacc-resources.org/img_hmp). PMID:22194640

  19. IMG: the Integrated Microbial Genomes database and comparative analysis system.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Victor M; Chen, I-Min A; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chu, Ken; Szeto, Ernest; Grechkin, Yuri; Ratner, Anna; Jacob, Biju; Huang, Jinghua; Williams, Peter; Huntemann, Marcel; Anderson, Iain; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system serves as a community resource for comparative analysis of publicly available genomes in a comprehensive integrated context. IMG integrates publicly available draft and complete genomes from all three domains of life with a large number of plasmids and viruses. IMG provides tools and viewers for analyzing and reviewing the annotations of genes and genomes in a comparative context. IMG's data content and analytical capabilities have been continuously extended through regular updates since its first release in March 2005. IMG is available at http://img.jgi.doe.gov. Companion IMG systems provide support for expert review of genome annotations (IMG/ER: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/er), teaching courses and training in microbial genome analysis (IMG/EDU: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/edu) and analysis of genomes related to the Human Microbiome Project (IMG/HMP: http://www.hmpdacc-resources.org/img_hmp).

  20. MetaComp: comprehensive analysis software for comparative meta-omics including comparative metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Peng; Yang, Longshu; Guo, Xiao; Wang, Zhe; Guo, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaoqi; Zhu, Huaiqiu

    2017-10-02

    During the past decade, the development of high throughput nucleic sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis techniques have enabled the characterization of microbial communities through metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics data. To reveal the diversity of microbial communities and interactions between living conditions and microbes, it is necessary to introduce comparative analysis based upon integration of all four types of data mentioned above. Comparative meta-omics, especially comparative metageomics, has been established as a routine process to highlight the significant differences in taxon composition and functional gene abundance among microbiota samples. Meanwhile, biologists are increasingly concerning about the correlations between meta-omics features and environmental factors, which may further decipher the adaptation strategy of a microbial community. We developed a graphical comprehensive analysis software named MetaComp comprising a series of statistical analysis approaches with visualized results for metagenomics and other meta-omics data comparison. This software is capable to read files generated by a variety of upstream programs. After data loading, analyses such as multivariate statistics, hypothesis testing of two-sample, multi-sample as well as two-group sample and a novel function-regression analysis of environmental factors are offered. Here, regression analysis regards meta-omic features as independent variable and environmental factors as dependent variables. Moreover, MetaComp is capable to automatically choose an appropriate two-group sample test based upon the traits of input abundance profiles. We further evaluate the performance of its choice, and exhibit applications for metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics samples. MetaComp, an integrative software capable for applying to all meta-omics data, originally distills the influence of living environment on microbial community by regression analysis

  1. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (P<0.10). Outcomes and analysis Cumulative pairwise and network meta-analyses were performed for each selected comparison. Monitoring boundaries of statistical significance were constructed and the evidence against the null hypothesis was considered to be strong when the monitoring boundaries were crossed. A significance level was defined as α=5%, power of 90% (β=10%), and an anticipated treatment effect to detect equal to the final estimate from the network meta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis

  2. Space Shuttle astrodynamical constants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, B. F.; Williamson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Basic space shuttle astrodynamic constants are reported for use in mission planning and construction of ground and onboard software input loads. The data included here are provided to facilitate the use of consistent numerical values throughout the project.

  3. Constant potential pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of constant potential pulse polarography, In which all pulses are to be the same potential, is presented theoretically and evaluated experimentally. The response obtained is in the form of a faradaic current wave superimposed on a constant capacitative component. Results obtained with a computer-controlled system exhibit a capillary response current similar to that observed In normal pulse polarography. Calibration curves for Pb obtained using a modified commercial pulse polarographic instrument are in good accord with theoretical predictions.

  4. Evaluating the risks of clinical research: direct comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Rid, Annette; Abdoler, Emily; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S; Wendler, David

    2014-09-01

    Many guidelines and regulations allow children and adolescents to be enrolled in research without the prospect of clinical benefit when it poses minimal risk. However, few systematic methods exist to determine when research risks are minimal. This situation has led to significant variation in minimal risk judgments, raising concern that some children are not being adequately protected. To address this concern, we describe a new method for implementing the widely endorsed "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. This standard defines research risks as minimal when they do not exceed the risks posed by daily life activities or routine examinations. This study employed a conceptual and normative analysis, and use of an illustrative example. Different risks are composed of the same basic elements: Type, likelihood, and magnitude of harm. Hence, one can compare the risks of research and the risks of daily life by comparing the respective basic elements with each other. We use this insight to develop a systematic method, direct comparative analysis, for implementing the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. The method offers a way of evaluating research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities, such as the risk of experiencing anxiety, stress, or other psychological harm. We thus illustrate how direct comparative analysis can be applied in practice by using it to evaluate whether the anxiety induced by a respiratory CO2 challenge poses minimal or greater than minimal risks in children and adolescents. Direct comparative analysis is a systematic method for applying the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk to research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities. It thereby offers a method to protect children and adolescents in research, while ensuring that important studies are not blocked because of unwarranted concerns about research risks.

  5. Evaluating the Risks of Clinical Research: Direct Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdoler, Emily; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S.; Wendler, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Many guidelines and regulations allow children and adolescents to be enrolled in research without the prospect of clinical benefit when it poses minimal risk. However, few systematic methods exist to determine when research risks are minimal. This situation has led to significant variation in minimal risk judgments, raising concern that some children are not being adequately protected. To address this concern, we describe a new method for implementing the widely endorsed “risks of daily life” standard for minimal risk. This standard defines research risks as minimal when they do not exceed the risks posed by daily life activities or routine examinations. Methods: This study employed a conceptual and normative analysis, and use of an illustrative example. Results: Different risks are composed of the same basic elements: Type, likelihood, and magnitude of harm. Hence, one can compare the risks of research and the risks of daily life by comparing the respective basic elements with each other. We use this insight to develop a systematic method, direct comparative analysis, for implementing the “risks of daily life” standard for minimal risk. The method offers a way of evaluating research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities, such as the risk of experiencing anxiety, stress, or other psychological harm. We thus illustrate how direct comparative analysis can be applied in practice by using it to evaluate whether the anxiety induced by a respiratory CO2 challenge poses minimal or greater than minimal risks in children and adolescents. Conclusions: Direct comparative analysis is a systematic method for applying the “risks of daily life” standard for minimal risk to research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities. It thereby offers a method to protect children and adolescents in research, while ensuring that important studies are not blocked because of unwarranted concerns about

  6. Analysis of the tensile stress-strain behavior of elastomers at constant strain rates. I - Criteria for separability of the time and strain effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. D.; Fedors, R. F.; Schwarzl, F.; Moacanin, J.; Landel, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the tensile stress-strain relation of elastomers at constant strain rate is presented which shows that the time and the stress effect are separable if the experimental time scale coincides with a segment of the relaxation modulus that can be described by a single power law. It is also shown that time-strain separability is valid if the strain function is linearly proportional to the Cauchy strain, and that when time-strain separability holds, two strain-dependent quantities can be obtained experimentally. In the case where time and strain effect are not separable, superposition can be achieved only by using temperature and strain-dependent shift factors.

  7. Comparative study of smile analysis by subjective and computerized methods.

    PubMed

    Basting, Roberta Tarkany; da Trindade, Rita de Cássia Silva; Flório, Flávia Martão

    2006-01-01

    This study compared: 1) the subjective analyses of a smile done by specialists with advanced training and by general dentists; 2) the subjective analysis of a smile, or that associated with the face, by specialists with advanced training and general dentists; 3) subjective analysis using a computerized analysis of the smile by specialists with advanced training, verifying the midline, labial line, smile line, the line between commissures and the golden proportion. The sample consisted of 100 adults with natural dentition; 200 photographs were taken (100 of the smile and 100 of the entire face). Computerized analysis using AutoCAD software was performed, together with the subjective analyses of 2 groups of professionals (3 general dentists and 3 specialists with advanced training), using the following assessment factors: the midline, labial line, smile line, line between the commissures and the golden proportion. The smile itself and the smile associated with the entire face were recorded as being agreeable or not agreeable by the professionals. The McNemar test showed a highly significant difference (p=0.0000) among the subjective analyses performed by specialists compared to general dentists. Between the 2 groups of dental professionals, there were highly significant differences (p=0.0000) found between the subjective analyses of the smile and that of the face. The McNemar test showed statistical differences in all factors assessed, with the exception of the midline (p=0.1951), when the computerized analysis and subjective analysis of the specialists were compared. In order to establish harmony of the smile, it was not possible to establish a greater or lesser relevance among the factors analyzed.

  8. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study.

    PubMed

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias; Salanti, Georgia

    2018-02-28

    To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (P<0.10). Cumulative pairwise and network meta-analyses were performed for each selected comparison. Monitoring boundaries of statistical significance were constructed and the evidence against the null hypothesis was considered to be strong when the monitoring boundaries were crossed. A significance level was defined as α=5%, power of 90% (β=10%), and an anticipated treatment effect to detect equal to the final estimate from the network meta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10

  9. Dimeric spectra analysis in Microsoft Excel: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gilani, A Ghanadzadeh; Moghadam, M; Zakerhamidi, M S

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce the reader to an Add-in implementation, Decom. This implementation provides the whole processing requirements for analysis of dimeric spectra. General linear and nonlinear decomposition algorithms were integrated as an Excel Add-in for easy installation and usage. In this work, the results of several samples investigations were compared to those obtained by Datan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing methods for analysis of biomedical hyperspectral image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavesley, Silas J.; Sweat, Brenner; Abbott, Caitlyn; Favreau, Peter F.; Annamdevula, Naga S.; Rich, Thomas C.

    2017-02-01

    Over the past 2 decades, hyperspectral imaging technologies have been adapted to address the need for molecule-specific identification in the biomedical imaging field. Applications have ranged from single-cell microscopy to whole-animal in vivo imaging and from basic research to clinical systems. Enabling this growth has been the availability of faster, more effective hyperspectral filtering technologies and more sensitive detectors. Hence, the potential for growth of biomedical hyperspectral imaging is high, and many hyperspectral imaging options are already commercially available. However, despite the growth in hyperspectral technologies for biomedical imaging, little work has been done to aid users of hyperspectral imaging instruments in selecting appropriate analysis algorithms. Here, we present an approach for comparing the effectiveness of spectral analysis algorithms by combining experimental image data with a theoretical "what if" scenario. This approach allows us to quantify several key outcomes that characterize a hyperspectral imaging study: linearity of sensitivity, positive detection cut-off slope, dynamic range, and false positive events. We present results of using this approach for comparing the effectiveness of several common spectral analysis algorithms for detecting weak fluorescent protein emission in the midst of strong tissue autofluorescence. Results indicate that this approach should be applicable to a very wide range of applications, allowing a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the combined biology, hardware, and computational analysis for detecting a specific molecular signature.

  11. The Henry's constant of monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Miguel A; Anderson, Michael A

    2018-02-01

    Monochloramine is a secondary disinfectant used in drinking water and is also formed in chlorinated wastewater. While known to hydrolyze over time and react with dissolved organic matter, its partitioning between the aqueous and gas phase has not been extensively studied. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that monochloramine concentrations in solutions open to the atmosphere or actively aerated decreased more rapidly than in sealed solutions, indicating significant losses to the atmosphere. For example, a monochloramine solution open to the atmosphere yielded a loss rate constant of 0.08 d -1 , a value twice that for sealed samples without headspace (0.04 d -1 ) where loss occurs exclusively as a result of hydrolysis. A solution aerated at 10 mL s -1 had a loss rate constant nearly 10× greater than that for hydrolysis alone (0.35 d -1 ). To better understand partitioning of monochloramine to the gas phase and potential for volatilization, the dimensionless Henry's law constants of monochloramine (K H ) were determined using an equilibrium headspace technique at five different temperatures (11, 16, 21, 27, and 32 °C). The resulting values ranged from 8 × 10 -3 to 4 × 10 -2 , indicating a semi-volatile compound, and were found to be consistent with quantitative structure activity relationship predictions. At 20 °C, monochloramine exhibits a dimensionless Henry's constant of about 1.7 × 10 -2 which is 35 times greater than ammonia but comparable to the Henry's constant of inorganic semi-volatile compounds such sulfur dioxide. The Henry's constant values for monochloramine suggests that volatilization could be a relevant loss process in open systems such as rivers receiving chlorinated wastewater effluent, swimming pools and cooling towers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Elastic constants of calcite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.

    1962-01-01

    The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.

  13. Comparative analysis through probability distributions of a data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Gabriel; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai

    2018-02-01

    In practice, probability distributions are applied in such diverse fields as risk analysis, reliability engineering, chemical engineering, hydrology, image processing, physics, market research, business and economic research, customer support, medicine, sociology, demography etc. This article highlights important aspects of fitting probability distributions to data and applying the analysis results to make informed decisions. There are a number of statistical methods available which can help us to select the best fitting model. Some of the graphs display both input data and fitted distributions at the same time, as probability density and cumulative distribution. The goodness of fit tests can be used to determine whether a certain distribution is a good fit. The main used idea is to measure the "distance" between the data and the tested distribution, and compare that distance to some threshold values. Calculating the goodness of fit statistics also enables us to order the fitted distributions accordingly to how good they fit to data. This particular feature is very helpful for comparing the fitted models. The paper presents a comparison of most commonly used goodness of fit tests as: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, and Chi-Squared. A large set of data is analyzed and conclusions are drawn by visualizing the data, comparing multiple fitted distributions and selecting the best model. These graphs should be viewed as an addition to the goodness of fit tests.

  14. Analysis of Four Automated Urinalysis Systems Compared to Reference Methods.

    PubMed

    Bartosova, Kamila; Kubicek, Zdenek; Franekova, Janka; Louzensky, Gustav; Lavrikova, Petra; Jabor, Antonin

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare four automated urinalysis systems: the Iris iQ200 Sprint (Iris Diagnostics, U.S.A.) combined with the Arkray AUTION MAX AX 4030, Iris + AUTION, Arkray AU 4050 (Arkray Global Business, Inc., Japan), Dirui FUS 2000 (Dirui Industrial Co., P.R.C.), and Menarini sediMAX (Menarini, Italy). Urine concentrations of protein and glucose (Iris, Dirui) were compared using reference quantitative analysis on an Abbott Architect c16000. Leukocytes, erythrocytes, epithelia, and casts (Iris, Arkray, Diuri, Menarini) were compared to urine sediment under reference light microscopy, Leica DM2000 (Leica Microsystems GmbH, Germany) with calibrated FastRead plates (Biosigma S.r.l., Italy), using both native and stained preparations. Total protein and glucose levels were measured using the Iris + AUTION system with borderline trueness, while the Dirui analysis revealed worse performances for the protein and glucose measurements. True classifications of leukocytes and erythrocytes were above 85% and 72%, respectively. Kappa statistics revealed a nearly perfect evaluation of leukocytes for all tested systems; the erythrocyte evaluation was nearly perfect for the Iris, Dirui and Arkray analyzers and substantial for the Menarini analyzer. The epithelia identification was connected to high false negativity (above 15%) in the Iris, Arkray, and Menarini analyses. False-negative casts were above 70% for all tested systems. The use of automated urinalysis demonstrated some weaknesses and should be checked by experienced laboratory staff using light microscopy.

  15. Measuring the Gas Constant "R": Propagation of Uncertainty and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert J.; Sattar, Simeen

    2013-01-01

    Determining the gas constant "R" by measuring the properties of hydrogen gas collected in a gas buret is well suited for comparing two approaches to uncertainty analysis using a single data set. The brevity of the experiment permits multiple determinations, allowing for statistical evaluation of the standard uncertainty u[subscript…

  16. Revisiting the Dielectric Constant Effect on the Nucleophile and Leaving Group of Prototypical Backside Sn2 Reactions: a Reaction Force and Atomic Contribution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-González, Laura Milena; Galindo, Johan Fabian; Gonzalez, Ronald; Reyes, Andrés

    2016-10-09

    The solvent effect on the nucleophile and leaving group atoms of the prototypical F - + CH 3 Cl → CH 3 F + Cl - backside bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction (S N 2) is analyzed employing the reaction force and the atomic contributions methods on the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC). Solvent effects were accounted for using the polarizable continuum solvent model. Calculations were performed employing eleven dielectric constants, ε, ranging from 1.0 to 78.5, to cover a wide spectrum of solvents. The reaction force data reveals that the solvent mainly influences the region of the IRC preceding the energy barrier, where the structural rearrangement to reach the transition state occurs. A detailed analysis of the atomic role in the reaction as a function of ε reveals that the nucleophile and the carbon atom are the ones that contribute the most to the energy barrier. In addition, we investigated the effect of the choice of nucleophile and leaving group on the ΔE 0 and ΔE ↕ of Y - + CH 3 X → YCH 3 + X - (X,Y= F, Cl, Br, I) in aqueous solution. Our analysis allowed us to find relationships between the atomic contributions to the activation energy and leaving group ability and nucleophilicity.

  17. Tachyon constant-roll inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Saaidi, Kh.; Golanbari, T.

    2018-04-01

    The constant-roll inflation is studied where the inflaton is taken as a tachyon field. Based on this approach, the second slow-roll parameter is taken as a constant which leads to a differential equation for the Hubble parameter. Finding an exact solution for the Hubble parameter is difficult and leads us to a numerical solution for the Hubble parameter. On the other hand, since in this formalism the slow-roll parameter η is constant and could not be assumed to be necessarily small, the perturbation parameters should be reconsidered again which, in turn, results in new terms appearing in the amplitude of scalar perturbations and the scalar spectral index. Utilizing the numerical solution for the Hubble parameter, we estimate the perturbation parameter at the horizon exit time and compare it with observational data. The results show that, for specific values of the constant parameter η , we could have an almost scale-invariant amplitude of scalar perturbations. Finally, the attractor behavior for the solution of the model is presented, and we determine that the feature could be properly satisfied.

  18. REACTOR PHYSICS CONSTANTS

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1963-07-01

    This second edition is based on data available on March 15, 1961. Sections on constants necessary for the interpretation of experimental data and on digital computer programs for reactor design and reactor physics have been added. 1344 references. (D.C.W.)

  19. Comparative and familial analysis of handedness in great apes.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D

    2006-07-01

    Historically, population-level handedness has been considered a hallmark of human evolution. Whether nonhuman primates exhibit population-level handedness remains a topic of considerable debate. This paper summarizes published data on handedness in great apes. Comparative analysis indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos show population-level right handedness, whereas gorillas and orangutans do not. All ape species showed evidence of population-level handedness when considering specific tasks. Familial analyses in chimpanzees indicated that offspring and maternal (but not paternal) handedness was significantly positively correlated, but this finding was contingent upon the classification criteria used to evaluate hand preference. Overall, the proportion of right handedness is lower in great apes compared with humans, and various methodological and theoretical explanations for this discrepancy are discussed. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Stigma, sex work, and substance use: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Cecilia; McCarthy, Bill; Jansson, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Stigma is a widely used concept in social science research and an extensive literature claims that stigmatisation contributes to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies compare groups that vary in the extent to which they are stigmatised and even fewer studies examine stigma's independent and mediating effects. This article addresses these gaps in a comparative study of perceived stigma and drug use among three low-income feminised service occupations: sex work, food and alcoholic beverage serving, and barbering and hairstyling. An analysis of longitudinal data shows positive associations between sex work, perceived stigma, and socially less acceptable drug use (for example, heroin and cocaine), and that stigma mediates part of the link between sex work and the use of these drugs. Our overall findings suggest that perceived stigma is pronounced among those who work in the sex industry and negatively affects health independently of sex work involvement. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  1. Comparative and Familial Analysis of Handedness in Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, population-level handedness has been considered a hallmark of human evolution. Whether nonhuman primates exhibit population-level handedness remains a topic of considerable debate. This paper summarizes published data on handedness in great apes. Comparative analysis indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos show population-level right handedness, whereas gorillas and orangutans do not. All ape species showed evidence of population-level handedness when considering specific tasks. Familial analyses in chimpanzees indicated that offspring and maternal (but not paternal) handedness was significantly positively correlated, but this finding was contingent upon the classification criteria used to evaluate hand preference. Overall, the proportion of right handedness is lower in great apes compared with humans, and various methodological and theoretical explanations for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:16822166

  2. Systems design and comparative analysis of large antenna concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual designs are evaluated and comparative analyses conducted for several large antenna spacecraft for Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) communications missions. Structural configurations include trusses, hoop and column and radial rib. The study was conducted using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system. The current capabilities, development status, and near-term plans for the IDEAS system are reviewed. Overall capabilities are highlighted. IDEAS is an integrated system of computer-aided design and analysis software used to rapidly evaluate system concepts and technology needs for future advanced spacecraft such as large antennas, platforms, and space stations. The system was developed at Langley to meet a need for rapid, cost-effective, labor-saving approaches to the design and analysis of numerous missions and total spacecraft system options under consideration. IDEAS consists of about 40 technical modules efficient executive, data-base and file management software, and interactive graphics display capabilities.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Extract, Transformation and Loading (ETL) Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runtuwene, J. P. A.; Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Manoppo, C. T. M.; Salaki, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    The current growth of data and information occurs rapidly in varying amount and media. These types of development will eventually produce large number of data better known as the Big Data. Business Intelligence (BI) utilizes large number of data and information for analysis so that one can obtain important information. This type of information can be used to support decision-making process. In practice a process integrating existing data and information into data warehouse is needed. This data integration process is known as Extract, Transformation and Loading (ETL). In practice, many applications have been developed to carry out the ETL process, but selection which applications are more time, cost and power effective and efficient may become a challenge. Therefore, the objective of the study was to provide comparative analysis through comparison between the ETL process using Microsoft SQL Server Integration Service (SSIS) and one using Pentaho Data Integration (PDI).

  4. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome

    SciTech Connect

    Waterston, Robert H.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birney, Ewan

    2002-12-15

    The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of themore » genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.« less

  5. Experimental analysis of volumetric wear behavioural and mechanical properties study of as cast and 1Hr homogenized Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy at constant load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlapur, M. D.; Mallapur, D. G.; Udupa, K. Rajendra

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, an experimental analysis of volumetric wear behaviour and mechanical properties of aluminium (Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni) alloy in as cast and 1Hr homogenized with T6 heat treatment is carried out at constant load. Pin-on-disc apparatus was used to carry out sliding wear test. Mechanical properties such as tensile, hardness and compression test on as-cast and 1 hr homogenized samples are measured. Universal testing machine was used to conduct the tensile and compressive test at room temperature. Brinell hardness tester was used to conduct the hardness test. The scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the worn-out wear surfaces. Wear results and mechanical properties shows that 1Hr homogenized Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy samples with T6 treated had better volumetric wear resistance, hardness, tensile and compressive strength as compared to as cast samples.

  6. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  7. The digital storytelling process: A comparative analysis from various experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Hashiroh; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada

    2016-08-01

    Digital Storytelling (DST) is a method of delivering information to the audience. It combines narrative and digital media content infused with the multimedia elements. In order for the educators (i.e the designers) to create a compelling digital story, there are sets of processes introduced by experts. Nevertheless, the experts suggest varieties of processes to guide them; of which some are redundant. The main aim of this study is to propose a single guide process for the creation of DST. A comparative analysis is employed where ten DST models from various experts are analysed. The process can also be implemented in other multimedia materials that used the concept of DST.

  8. Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Riechmann, J L; Heard, J; Martin, G; Reuber, L; Jiang, C; Keddie, J; Adam, L; Pineda, O; Ratcliffe, O J; Samaha, R R; Creelman, R; Pilgrim, M; Broun, P; Zhang, J Z; Ghandehari, D; Sherman, B K; Yu, G

    2000-12-15

    The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to families common to all eukaryotes do not share significant similarity with those of the other kingdoms beyond the conserved DNA binding domains, many of which have been arranged in combinations specific to each lineage. The genome-wide comparison reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the regulation of transcription.

  9. Racial classification in the evolutionary sciences: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Billinger, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    Human racial classification has long been a problem for the discipline of anthropology, but much of the criticism of the race concept has focused on its social and political connotations. The central argument of this paper is that race is not a specifically human problem, but one that exists in evolutionary thought in general. This paper looks at various disciplinary approaches to racial or subspecies classification, extending its focus beyond the anthropological race concept by providing a comparative analysis of the use of racial classification in evolutionary biology, genetics, and anthropology.

  10. Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: A Status Report

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barry N.; Cohen, E. Richard

    1990-01-01

    We summarize the principal advances made in the fundamental physical constants field since the completion of the 1986 CODATA least-squares adjustment of the constants and discuss their implications for both the 1986 set of recommended values and the next least-squares adjustment. In general, the new results lead to values of the constants with uncertainties 5 to 7 times smaller than the uncertainties assigned the 1986 values. However, the changes in the values themselves are less than twice the 1986 assigned one-standard-deviation uncertainties and thus are not highly significant. Although much new data has become available since 1986, three new results dominate the analysis: a value of the Planck constant obtained from a realization of the watt; a value of the fine-structure constant obtained from the magnetic moment anomaly of the electron; and a value of the molar gas constant obtained from the speed of sound in argon. Because of their dominant role in determining the values and uncertainties of many of the constants, it is highly desirable that additional results of comparable uncertainty that corroborate these three data items be obtained before the next adjustment is carried out. Until then, the 1986 CODATA set of recommended values will remain the set of choice. PMID:28179787

  11. Beyond the Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    of SN 1995K of about 22.7, but the uncertainty of this value is still so large that this measurement alone cannot be used to determine the value of q0. This will require many more observations of supernovae at least as distant as the present one, a daunting task that may nevertheless be possible within this broad, international programme. It is estimated that a reliable measurement of q0 may become possible when about 20 Type Ia supernovae with accurate peak magnitudes have been measured. According to the discovery predictions, this could be possible within the next couple of years. In this connection, it is of some importance that for this investigation, it is in principle not necessary to know the correct value of the Hubble constant H0 in advance; q0 may still be determined by comparing the relative distance scale of distant supernovae with that of nearby ones. This research is described in more detail in a forthcoming article in the September 1995 issue of the ESO Messenger. Notes: [1] Brian P. Schmidt (Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Australia), Bruno Leibundgut, Jason Spyromilio, Jeremy Walsh (ESO), Mark M. Phillips, Nicholas B. Suntzeff, Mario Hamuy, Robert A. Schommer (Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory), Roberto Aviles (formerly Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory; now at ESO), Robert P. Kirshner, Adam Riess, Peter Challis, Peter Garnavich (Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachussetts, U.S.A.), Christopher Stubbs, Craig Hogan (University of Washington, Seattle, U.S.A.), Alan Dressler (Carnegie Observatories, U.S.A.) and Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A.) [2] In astronomy, the redshift denotes the fraction by which the lines in the spectrum of an object are shifted towards longer wavelengths. The observed redshift of a distant galaxy gives a direct estimate of the apparent recession velocity as caused by the universal expansion. Since the expansion rate increases with the distance, the velocity is itself a

  12. Comparative transcriptome analysis of soybean response to bean pyralid larvae.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weiying; Sun, Zudong; Cai, Zhaoyan; Chen, Huaizhu; Lai, Zhenguang; Yang, Shouzhen; Tang, Xiangmin

    2017-11-13

    Soybean is one of most important oilseed crop worldwide, however, its production is often limited by many insect pests. Bean pyralid is one of the major soybean leaf-feeding insects in China. To explore the defense mechanisms of soybean resistance to bean pyralid, the comparative transcriptome sequencing was completed between the leaves infested with bean pyralid larvae and no worm of soybean (Gantai-2-2 and Wan82-178) on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. In total, we identified 1744 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the leaves of Gantai-2-2 (1064) and Wan82-178 (680) fed by bean pyralid for 48 h, compared to 0 h. Interestingly, 315 DEGs were shared by Gantai-2-2 and Wan82-178, while 749 and 365 DEGs specifically identified in Gantai-2-2 and Wan82-178, respectively. When comparing Gantai-2-2 with Wan82-178, 605 DEGs were identified at 0 h feeding, and 468 DEGs were identified at 48 h feeding. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation analysis revealed that the DEGs were mainly involved in the metabolic process, single-organism process, cellular process, responses to stimulus, catalytic activities and binding. Pathway analysis showed that most of the DEGs were associated with the plant-pathogen interaction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, peroxisome, plant hormone signal transduction, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, and so on. Finally, we used qRT-PCR to validate the expression patterns of several genes and the results showed an excellent agreement with deep sequencing. According to the comparative transcriptome analysis results and related literature reports, we concluded that the response to bean pyralid feeding might be related to the disturbed functions and metabolism pathways of some key DEGs, such as DEGs involved in the ROS removal system, plant hormone metabolism, intracellular signal transduction pathways, secondary metabolism, transcription factors, biotic and abiotic stresses. We speculated that these

  13. The 1% concordance Hubble constant

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.

    2014-10-20

    The determination of the Hubble constant has been a central goal in observational astrophysics for nearly a hundred years. Extraordinary progress has occurred in recent years on two fronts: the cosmic distance ladder measurements at low redshift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at high redshift. The CMB is used to predict the current expansion rate through a best-fit cosmological model. Complementary progress has been made with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at relatively low redshifts. While BAO data do not independently determine a Hubble constant, they are important for constraints on possible solutions and checks on cosmic consistency. Amore » precise determination of the Hubble constant is of great value, but it is more important to compare the high and low redshift measurements to test our cosmological model. Significant tension would suggest either uncertainties not accounted for in the experimental estimates or the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology. In this paper we examine in detail the tension between the CMB, BAO, and cosmic distance ladder data sets. We find that these measurements are consistent within reasonable statistical expectations and we combine them to determine a best-fit Hubble constant of 69.6 ± 0.7 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. This value is based upon WMAP9+SPT+ACT+6dFGS+BOSS/DR11+H {sub 0}/Riess; we explore alternate data combinations in the text. The combined data constrain the Hubble constant to 1%, with no compelling evidence for new physics.« less

  14. Comparative Analysis of Vertebrate Diurnal/Circadian Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Greg; Richter, Kerstin; Priest, Henry D.; Traver, David; Mockler, Todd C.; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Kay, Steve A.

    2017-01-01

    From photosynthetic bacteria to mammals, the circadian clock evolved to track diurnal rhythms and enable organisms to anticipate daily recurring changes such as temperature and light. It orchestrates a broad spectrum of physiology such as the sleep/wake and eating/fasting cycles. While we have made tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the circadian clock mechanism and how it is synchronized with the environment, we still have rudimentary knowledge regarding its connection to help regulate diurnal physiology. One potential reason is the sheer size of the output network. Diurnal/circadian transcriptomic studies are reporting that around 10% of the expressed genome is rhythmically controlled. Zebrafish is an important model system for the study of the core circadian mechanism in vertebrate. As Zebrafish share more than 70% of its genes with human, it could also be an additional model in addition to rodent for exploring the diurnal/circadian output with potential for translational relevance. Here we performed comparative diurnal/circadian transcriptome analysis with established mouse liver and other tissue datasets. First, by combining liver tissue sampling in a 48h time series, transcription profiling using oligonucleotide arrays and bioinformatics analysis, we profiled rhythmic transcripts and identified 2609 rhythmic genes. The comparative analysis revealed interesting features of the output network regarding number of rhythmic genes, proportion of tissue specific genes and the extent of transcription factor family expression. Undoubtedly, the Zebrafish model system will help identify new vertebrate outputs and their regulators and provides leads for further characterization of the diurnal cis-regulatory network. PMID:28076377

  15. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-02-08

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species.

  16. Comparative analysis of prophages in Streptococcus mutans genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Tiwei; Fan, Xiangyu; Long, Quanxin; Deng, Wanyan; Song, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    Prophages have been considered genetic units that have an intimate association with novel phenotypic properties of bacterial hosts, such as pathogenicity and genomic variation. Little is known about the genetic information of prophages in the genome of Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of human dental caries. In this study, we identified 35 prophage-like elements in S. mutans genomes and performed a comparative genomic analysis. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses of prophage sequences revealed that the prophages could be classified into three main large clusters: Cluster A, Cluster B, and Cluster C. The S. mutans prophages in each cluster were compared. The genomic sequences of phismuN66-1, phismuNLML9-1, and phismu24-1 all shared similarities with the previously reported S. mutans phages M102, M102AD, and ϕAPCM01. The genomes were organized into seven major gene clusters according to the putative functions of the predicted open reading frames: packaging and structural modules, integrase, host lysis modules, DNA replication/recombination modules, transcriptional regulatory modules, other protein modules, and hypothetical protein modules. Moreover, an integrase gene was only identified in phismuNLML9-1 prophages. PMID:29158986

  17. White matter degeneration in schizophrenia: a comparative diffusion tensor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura A.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Kim, Jinsuh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Magnotta, Vincent A.

    2010-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious and disabling mental disorder. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed on schizophrenia have demonstrated white matter degeneration either due to loss of myelination or deterioration of fiber tracts although the areas where the changes occur are variable across studies. Most of the population based studies analyze the changes in schizophrenia using scalar indices computed from the diffusion tensor such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and relative anisotropy (RA). The scalar measures may not capture the complete information from the diffusion tensor. In this paper we have applied the RADTI method on a group of 9 controls and 9 patients with schizophrenia. The RADTI method converts the tensors to log-Euclidean space where a linear regression model is applied and hypothesis testing is performed between the control and patient groups. Results show that there is a significant difference in the anisotropy between patients and controls especially in the parts of forceps minor, superior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule and genu of corpus callosum. To check if the tensor analysis gives a better idea of the changes in anisotropy, we compared the results with voxelwise FA analysis as well as voxelwise geodesic anisotropy (GA) analysis.

  18. SFG analysis of the molecular structures at the surfaces and buried interfaces of PECVD ultralow-dielectric constant pSiCOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Myers, John N.; Huang, Huai; Shobha, Hosadurga; Chen, Zhan; Grill, Alfred

    2016-02-01

    PECVD deposited porous SiCOH with ultralow dielectric constant has been successfully integrated as the insulator in advanced interconnects to decrease the RC delay. The effects of NH3 plasma treatment and the effectiveness of the dielectric repair on molecular structures at the surface and buried interface of a pSiCOH film deposited on top of a SiCNH film on a Si wafer were fully characterized using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG), supplemented by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. After exposure to NH3 plasma for 18 s, about 40% of the methyl groups were removed from the pSiCOH surface, and the average orientation of surface methyl groups tilted more towards the surface. The repair method used here effectively repaired the molecular structures at the pSiCOH surface but did not totally recover the entire plasma-damaged layer. Additionally, simulated SFG spectra with various average orientations of methyl groups at the SiCNH/pSiCOH buried interface were compared with the experimental SFG spectra collected using three different laser input angles to determine the molecular structural information at the SiCNH/pSiCOH buried interface after NH3 plasma treatment and repair. The molecular structures including the coverage and the average orientation of methyl groups at the buried interface were found to be unchanged by NH3 plasma treatment and repair.

  19. Constant-pressure Blowers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, E

    1940-01-01

    The conventional axial blowers operate on the high-pressure principle. One drawback of this type of blower is the relatively low pressure head, which one attempts to overcome with axial blowers producing very high pressure at a given circumferential speed. The Schicht constant-pressure blower affords pressure ratios considerably higher than those of axial blowers of conventional design with approximately the same efficiency.

  20. Reports on Astronomical Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    Recent progress in the determination of astronomical constants is reviewed. By using the latest numerical integration of LC (Irwin and Fukushima, 1999) and the latest value of the geoidal potential W0 (Groten, 1999), we reestimated the general relativistic scale constants as LC = 1.480~826~867~4 × 10-8 ± 1.4 × 10-17, LG = 6.969~290~13 × 10-10 ± 6 × 10-18, and LB = 1.550~519~767~5 × 10-8 ± 2.0 × 10-17. Presented is a proposal to fix the numerical value of LG as the above in order to remove the geophysical ambiguity in its evaluation in the future. Next focused upon is the correction to the IAU 1976 Precession (Lieske et al., 1977). By simply averaging the latest VLBI-based determinations (Mathews et al., 2000; Petrov, 2000; Shirai and Fukushima, 2000; Vondrak and Ron, 2000) and the latest LLR-based determinations (Chapront et al., 1999), we obtained the best estimates of precession-related quantities at J2000.0: the general precession in longitude, p = 5~028.78 ± 0.03 ''/cy; obliquity of the ecliptic, ɛ0 = 23o26'21.''405~6 ± 0.''0005; and the pole offsets of the CEP of ICRS, Δ ψ0 sin ɛ0 = (-17.5 ± 0.8) mas, and Δ ɛ0 = (-5.2 ± 0.4) mas. After quoting the latest determination of mass of Pluto-Charon system (Tholen and Buie, 1997) and the recent change of G (Mohr and Taylor, 1999), proposed is a draft IAU 2000 File of Current Best Estimates of Astronomical Constants to replace the former 1994 version (Standish, 1995). It may even supplant the IAU 1976 System of Astronomical Constants (Duncombe et al., 1977), subject to discussion at this General Assembly.

  1. Universe of constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-10-01

    The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan

  2. Connecting Fundamental Constants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Mario, D.

    2008-05-29

    A model for a black hole electron is built from three basic constants only: h, c and G. The result is a description of the electron with its mass and charge. The nature of this black hole seems to fit the properties of the Planck particle and new relationships among basic constants are possible. The time dilation factor in a black hole associated with a variable gravitational field would appear to us as a charge; on the other hand the Planck time is acting as a time gap drastically limiting what we are able to measure and its dimension willmore » appear in some quantities. This is why the Planck time is numerically very close to the gravitational/electric force ratio in an electron: its difference, disregarding a {pi}{radical}(2) factor, is only 0.2%. This is not a coincidence, it is always the same particle and the small difference is between a rotating and a non-rotating particle. The determination of its rotational speed yields accurate numbers for many quantities, including the fine structure constant and the electron magnetic moment.« less

  3. The Hubble Constant.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Neal

    2015-01-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H 0 values of around 72-74 km s -1 Mpc -1 , with typical errors of 2-3 km s -1 Mpc -1 . This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67-68 km s -1 Mpc -1 and typical errors of 1-2 km s -1 Mpc -1 . The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  4. An example of qualitative comparative analysis in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Frank; Wiechula, Richard

    2013-07-01

    To describe an example of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in a study about the role of clinical placement, nursing education and patient outcomes. Clinical placement is often considered an essential aspect of nursing education and an invaluable way to prepare students for the reality of nursing. However, many questions about the role of clinical placement remain unanswered, such as duration, style and learning outcomes. QCA is a novel approach to data analysis, which has been used for some time in social science research, and may be useful in tackling such questions. Participants (n= 16) involved in a case study using questionnaire, in-depth interview and document analysis. Few examples of QCA exist in nursing-related research. Examination of approaches to social sciences and educational research, and the conditions that influence nursing education and clinical placement were conducted via a number of online database searches. The paper presents an example of how QCA was used to consider whether there is any causal relationship between certain features of clinical placement, such as duration, level of preparation, level of benefit, and the capacity of recently graduated registered nurses to provide a range of nursing interventions for pneumonia, falls and pressure-area care. Effective and contemporary curriculum design requires examination of the components of clinical placement that influence graduates and their learning, particularly important at a time when access to the clinical placement setting is becoming increasingly difficult. This paper should stimulate nurse researchers to consider the potential for QCA and case study in addressing many of the complex questions that lend themselves to research designs with small numbers of participants. This paper will be of interest to nurse researchers looking for innovative approaches to data analysis and educators responsible for curriculum design and the delivery of clinical placement experience. A greater

  5. Charged structure constants from modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Diptarka; Datta, Shouvik; Pal, Sridip

    2017-11-01

    We derive a universal formula for the average heavy-heavy-light structure constants for 2 d CFTs with non-vanishing u(1) charge. The derivation utilizes the modular properties of one-point functions on the torus. Refinements in N=2 SCFTs, show that the resulting Cardy-like formula for the structure constants has precisely the same shifts in the central charge as that of the thermodynamic entropy found earlier. This analysis generalizes the recent results by Kraus and Maloney for CFTs with an additional global u(1) symmetry [1]. Our results at large central charge are also shown to match with computations from the holographic dual, which suggest that the averaged CFT three-point coefficient also serves as a useful probe of detecting black hole hair.

  6. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Gastric Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, Tamami; Yashiro, Masakazu; Kakehashi, Anna; Inagaki, Azusa; Kinoshita, Haruhito; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Kasashima, Hiroaki; Masuda, Go; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kubo, Naoshi; Muguruma, Kazuya; Ohira, Masaichi; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for cancer progression, metastasis, and recurrence. To date, the specific markers of CSCs remain undiscovered. The aim of this study was to identify novel biomarkers of gastric CSCs for clinical diagnosis using proteomics technology. CSC-like SP cells, OCUM-12/SP cells, OCUM-2MD3/SP cells, and their parent OCUM-12 cells and OCUM-2MD3 cells were used in this study. Protein lysates from each cell line were analyzed using QSTAR Elite Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry, coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation technology. Candidate proteins detected by proteomics technology were validated by immunohistochemical analysis of 300 gastric cancers. Based on the results of LC-MS/MS, eight proteins, including RBBP6, GLG1, VPS13A, DCTPP1, HSPA9, HSPA4, ALDOA, and KRT18, were up-regulated in both OCUM-12/SP cells and OCUM-2MD3/SP cells when compared to their corresponding parent cells. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression level of RBBP6, HSPA4, DCTPP1, HSPA9, VPS13A, ALDOA, GLG1, and CK18 was high in OCUM-12/SP and OCUM-2MD3/SP, in compared with the control of parent OCUM-12 and OCUM-2MD3. These proteins were significantly associated with advanced invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, or advanced clinical stage. RBBP6, DCTPP1, HSPA4, and ALDOA expression in particular were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in the 300 gastric cancer patients. RBBP6 was determined to be an independent prognostic factor. The motility-stimulating ability of OCUM-12/SP cells and OCUM-2MD3/SP cells was inhibited by RBBP6 siRNA. These findings might suggest that the eight proteins, RBBP6, GLG1, VPS13A, DCTPP1, HSPA9, HSPA4, ALDOA, and KRT18, utilizing comparative proteomics analysis, were perceived to be potential CSC markers of gastric cancer. Of the eight candidate proteins, RBBP6 was suggested to be a promising prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for gastric cancer

  7. Industrial Acetogenic Biocatalysts: A Comparative Metabolic and Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bengelsdorf, Frank R.; Poehlein, Anja; Linder, Sonja; Erz, Catarina; Hummel, Tim; Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Daniel, Rolf; Dürre, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation by anaerobic acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway is a bioprocess for production of biofuels and biocommodities. The major fermentation products of the most relevant biocatalytic strains (Clostridium ljungdahlii, C. autoethanogenum, C. ragsdalei, and C. coskatii) are acetic acid and ethanol. A comparative metabolic and genomic analysis using the mentioned biocatalysts might offer targets for metabolic engineering and thus improve the production of compounds apart from ethanol. Autotrophic growth and product formation of the four wild type (WT) strains were compared in uncontrolled batch experiments. The genomes of C. ragsdalei and C. coskatii were sequenced and the genome sequences of all four biocatalytic strains analyzed in comparative manner. Growth and product spectra (acetate, ethanol, 2,3-butanediol) of C. autoethanogenum, C. ljungdahlii, and C. ragsdalei were rather similar. In contrast, C. coskatii produced significantly less ethanol and its genome sequence lacks two genes encoding aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductases (AOR). Comparative genome sequence analysis of the four WT strains revealed high average nucleotide identity (ANI) of C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum (99.3%) and C. coskatii (98.3%). In contrast, C. ljungdahlii WT and C. ragsdalei WT showed an ANI-based similarity of only 95.8%. Additionally, recombinant C. ljungdahlii strains were constructed that harbor an artificial acetone synthesis operon (ASO) consisting of the following genes: adc, ctfA, ctfB, and thlA (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase, acetoacetyl-CoA:acetate/butyrate:CoA-transferase subunits A and B, and thiolase) under the control of thlA promoter (PthlA) from C. acetobutylicum or native pta-ack promoter (Ppta-ack) from C. ljungdahlii. Respective recombinant strains produced 2-propanol rather than acetone, due to the presence of a NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase that converts acetone to 2

  8. Comprehensive comparative analysis of kinesins in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Dale N; Simmons, Mark P; Reddy, Anireddy SN

    2006-01-01

    Background Kinesins, a superfamily of molecular motors, use microtubules as tracks and transport diverse cellular cargoes. All kinesins contain a highly conserved ~350 amino acid motor domain. Previous analysis of the completed genome sequence of one flowering plant (Arabidopsis) has resulted in identification of 61 kinesins. The recent completion of genome sequencing of several photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotes that belong to divergent lineages offers a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive comparative analysis of kinesins in plant and non-plant systems and infer their evolutionary relationships. Results We used the kinesin motor domain to identify kinesins in the completed genome sequences of 19 species, including 13 newly sequenced genomes. Among the newly analyzed genomes, six represent photosynthetic eukaryotes. A total of 529 kinesins was used to perform comprehensive analysis of kinesins and to construct gene trees using the Bayesian and parsimony approaches. The previously recognized 14 families of kinesins are resolved as distinct lineages in our inferred gene tree. At least three of the 14 kinesin families are not represented in flowering plants. Chlamydomonas, a green alga that is part of the lineage that includes land plants, has at least nine of the 14 known kinesin families. Seven of ten families present in flowering plants are represented in Chlamydomonas, indicating that these families were retained in both the flowering-plant and green algae lineages. Conclusion The increase in the number of kinesins in flowering plants is due to vast expansion of the Kinesin-14 and Kinesin-7 families. The Kinesin-14 family, which typically contains a C-terminal motor, has many plant kinesins that have the motor domain at the N terminus, in the middle, or the C terminus. Several domains in kinesins are present exclusively either in plant or animal lineages. Addition of novel domains to kinesins in lineage-specific groups contributed to the

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals vertebrate phylotypic period during organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Naoki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    One of the central issues in evolutionary developmental biology is how we can formulate the relationships between evolutionary and developmental processes. Two major models have been proposed: the 'funnel-like' model, in which the earliest embryo shows the most conserved morphological pattern, followed by diversifying later stages, and the 'hourglass' model, in which constraints are imposed to conserve organogenesis stages, which is called the phylotypic period. Here we perform a quantitative comparative transcriptome analysis of several model vertebrate embryos and show that the pharyngula stage is most conserved, whereas earlier and later stages are rather divergent. These results allow us to predict approximate developmental timetables between different species, and indicate that pharyngula embryos have the most conserved gene expression profiles, which may be the source of the basic body plan of vertebrates. PMID:21427719

  10. A comparative analysis of soft computing techniques for gene prediction.

    PubMed

    Goel, Neelam; Singh, Shailendra; Aseri, Trilok Chand

    2013-07-01

    The rapid growth of genomic sequence data for both human and nonhuman species has made analyzing these sequences, especially predicting genes in them, very important and is currently the focus of many research efforts. Beside its scientific interest in the molecular biology and genomics community, gene prediction is of considerable importance in human health and medicine. A variety of gene prediction techniques have been developed for eukaryotes over the past few years. This article reviews and analyzes the application of certain soft computing techniques in gene prediction. First, the problem of gene prediction and its challenges are described. These are followed by different soft computing techniques along with their application to gene prediction. In addition, a comparative analysis of different soft computing techniques for gene prediction is given. Finally some limitations of the current research activities and future research directions are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  12. A comparative analysis of fertility differentials in Ghana and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olatoregun, Oluwaseun; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Akinyemi, Odunayo Joshua; Yusuf, Oyindamola Bidemi; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2014-09-01

    Nigeria and Ghana are the most densely populated countries in the West African sub-region with fertility levels above world average. Our study compared the two countries' fertility levels and their determinants as well as the differentials in the effect of these factors across the two countries. We carried out a retrospective analysis of data from the Nigeria and Ghana Demographic Health Surveys, 2008. The sample of 33,385 and 4,916 women aged 15-49 years obtained in Nigeria and Ghana respectively was stratified into low, medium and high fertility using reported children ever born. Data was summarized using appropriate descriptive statistics. Factors influencing fertility were identified using ordinal logistic regression at 5% significance level. While unemployment significantly lowers fertility in Nigeria, it wasn't significant in Ghana. In both countries, education, age at first marriage, marital status, urban-rural residence, wealth index and use of oral contraception were the main factors influencing high fertility levels.

  13. Comprehensive comparative analysis of 5'-end RNA-sequencing methods.

    PubMed

    Adiconis, Xian; Haber, Adam L; Simmons, Sean K; Levy Moonshine, Ami; Ji, Zhe; Busby, Michele A; Shi, Xi; Jacques, Justin; Lancaster, Madeline A; Pan, Jen Q; Regev, Aviv; Levin, Joshua Z

    2018-06-04

    Specialized RNA-seq methods are required to identify the 5' ends of transcripts, which are critical for studies of gene regulation, but these methods have not been systematically benchmarked. We directly compared six such methods, including the performance of five methods on a single human cellular RNA sample and a new spike-in RNA assay that helps circumvent challenges resulting from uncertainties in annotation and RNA processing. We found that the 'cap analysis of gene expression' (CAGE) method performed best for mRNA and that most of its unannotated peaks were supported by evidence from other genomic methods. We applied CAGE to eight brain-related samples and determined sample-specific transcription start site (TSS) usage, as well as a transcriptome-wide shift in TSS usage between fetal and adult brain.

  14. A Novel Framework for the Comparative Analysis of Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pache, Roland A.; Aloy, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Genome sequencing projects provide nearly complete lists of the individual components present in an organism, but reveal little about how they work together. Follow-up initiatives have deciphered thousands of dynamic and context-dependent interrelationships between gene products that need to be analyzed with novel bioinformatics approaches able to capture their complex emerging properties. Here, we present a novel framework for the alignment and comparative analysis of biological networks of arbitrary topology. Our strategy includes the prediction of likely conserved interactions, based on evolutionary distances, to counter the high number of missing interactions in the current interactome networks, and a fast assessment of the statistical significance of individual alignment solutions, which vastly increases its performance with respect to existing tools. Finally, we illustrate the biological significance of the results through the identification of novel complex components and potential cases of cross-talk between pathways and alternative signaling routes. PMID:22363585

  15. Comparative dynamic analysis of the full Grossman model.

    PubMed

    Ried, W

    1998-08-01

    The paper applies the method of comparative dynamic analysis to the full Grossman model. For a particular class of solutions, it derives the equations implicitly defining the complete trajectories of the endogenous variables. Relying on the concept of Frisch decision functions, the impact of any parametric change on an endogenous variable can be decomposed into a direct and an indirect effect. The focus of the paper is on marginal changes in the rate of health capital depreciation. It also analyses the impact of either initial financial wealth or the initial stock of health capital. While the direction of most effects remains ambiguous in the full model, the assumption of a zero consumption benefit of health is sufficient to obtain a definite for any direct or indirect effect.

  16. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein familiesmore » that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.« less

  17. A comparative analysis of readmission rates after outpatient cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Mioton, Lauren M; Alghoul, Mohammed S; Kim, John Y S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the increasing scrutiny of surgical procedures, outpatient cosmetic surgery has an established record of safety and efficacy. A key measure in assessing surgical outcomes is the examination of readmission rates. However, there is a paucity of data on unplanned readmission following cosmetic surgery procedures. The authors studied readmission rates for outpatient cosmetic surgery and compared the data with readmission rates for other surgical procedures. The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data set was queried for all outpatient procedures. Readmission rates were calculated for the 5 surgical specialties with the greatest number of outpatient procedures and for the overall outpatient cosmetic surgery population. Subgroup analysis was performed on the 5 most common cosmetic surgery procedures. Multivariate regression models were used to determine predictors of readmission for cosmetic surgery patients. The 2879 isolated outpatient cosmetic surgery cases had an associated 0.90% unplanned readmission rate. The 5 specialties with the highest number of outpatient surgical procedures were general, orthopedic, gynecologic, urologic, and otolaryngologic surgery; their unplanned readmission rates ranged from 1.21% to 3.73%. The 5 most common outpatient cosmetic surgery procedures and their associated readmission rates were as follows: reduction mammaplasty, 1.30%; mastopexy, 0.31%; liposuction, 1.13%; abdominoplasty, 1.78%; and breast augmentation, 1.20%. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that operating time (in hours) was an independent predictor of readmission (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.81; P=.010). Rates of unplanned readmission with outpatient cosmetic surgery are low and compare favorably to those of other outpatient surgeries.

  18. Comparative analysis of linear motor geometries for Stirling coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Rajesh V.; Kuzhiveli, Biju T.

    2017-12-01

    Compared to rotary motor driven Stirling coolers, linear motor coolers are characterized by small volume and long life, making them more suitable for space and military applications. The motor design and operational characteristics have a direct effect on the operation of the cooler. In this perspective, ample scope exists in understanding the behavioural description of linear motor systems. In the present work, the authors compare and analyze different moving magnet linear motor geometries to finalize the most favourable one for Stirling coolers. The required axial force in the linear motors is generated by the interaction of magnetic fields of a current carrying coil and that of a permanent magnet. The compact size, commercial availability of permanent magnets and low weight requirement of the system are quite a few constraints for the design. The finite element analysis performed using Maxwell software serves as the basic tool to analyze the magnet movement, flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetic saturation levels on the core. A number of material combinations are investigated for core before finalizing the design. The effect of varying the core geometry on the flux produced in the air gap is also analyzed. The electromagnetic analysis of the motor indicates that the permanent magnet height ought to be taken in such a way that it is under the influence of electromagnetic field of current carrying coil as well as the outer core in the balanced position. This is necessary so that sufficient amount of thrust force is developed by efficient utilisation of the air gap flux density. Also, the outer core ends need to be designed to facilitate enough room for the magnet movement under the operating conditions.

  19. Bisphenol A alters gut microbiome: Comparative metagenomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Keng-Po; Chung, Yan-Tung; Li, Rong; Wan, Hin-Ting; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Mounting evidence has shown that an alteration of the gut microbiota is associated with diet, and plays an important role in animal health and metabolic diseases. However, little is known about the influence of environmental contaminants on the gut microbial community. Bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used for manufacturing plastic products, has recently been classified as an environmental obesogen. Although many studies have demonstrated the metabolic-disrupting effects of BPA on liver and pancreatic functions, the possible effects of this synthetic compound on the metabolic diversity of the intestinal microbiota is unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis on caecum samples of CD-1 mice, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary BPA intake may influence the gut microbiota composition and functions, an important attributing factor to development of the metabolic syndrome. A high-fat diet (HFD) and high-sucrose diet (HSD) were included as the positive controls for comparing the changes in the intestinal microbial profiles. Our results demonstrated a significant reduction of species diversity in the gut microbiota of BPA-fed mice. Alpha and beta diversity analyses showed that dietary BPA intake led to a similar gut microbial community structure as that induced by HFD and HSD in mice. In addition, comparative analysis of the microbial communities revealed that both BPA and a HFD favored the growth of Proteobacteria, a microbial marker of dysbiosis. Consistently, growth induction of the family Helicobacteraceae and reduction of the Firmicutes and Clostridia populations were observed in the mice fed BPA or a HFD. Collectively, our study highlighted that the effects of dietary BPA intake on the shift of microbial community structure were similar to those of a HFD and HSD, and revealed microbial markers for the development of diseases associated with an unstable microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CODATA recommended values of the fundamental constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.

    2000-11-01

    A review is given of the latest Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) adjustment of the values of the fundamental constants. The new set of constants, referred to as the 1998 values, replaces the values recommended for international use by CODATA in 1986. The values of the constants, and particularly the Rydberg constant, are of relevance to the calculation of precise atomic spectra. The standard uncertainty (estimated standard deviation) of the new recommended value of the Rydberg constant, which is based on precision frequency metrology and a detailed analysis of the theory, is approximately 1/160 times the uncertainty of the 1986 value. The new set of recommended values as well as a searchable bibliographic database that gives citations to the relevant literature is available on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants and physics.nist.gov/constantsbib, respectively. .

  1. Interactions of cisplatin analogues with lysozyme: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Giarita; De Benedictis, Ilaria; Malfitano, Annamaria; Morelli, Giancarlo; Novellino, Ettore; Marasco, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    The biophysical characterization of drug binding to proteins plays a key role in structural biology and in the discovery and optimization of drug discovery processes. The search for optimal combinations of biophysical techniques that can correctly and efficiently identify and quantify binding of metal-based drugs to their final target is challenging, due to the physicochemical properties of these agents. Different cisplatin derivatives have shown different citotoxicities in most common cancer lines, suggesting that they exert their biological activity via different mechanisms of action. Here we carried out a comparative analysis, by studying the behaviours of three Pt-compounds under the same experimental conditions and binding assays to properly deepen the determinants of the different MAOs. Indeed we compared the results obtained using surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy and thermal shift assays based on circular dichroism experiments in the characterization of the formation of adducts obtained upon reaction of cisplatin, carboplatin and iodinated analogue of cisplatin, cis-Pt (NH 3 ) 2 I 2 , with the model protein hen egg white lysozyme, both at neutral and acid pHs. Further we reasoned on the applicability of employed techniques for the study the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reaction of a metallodrug with a protein and to reveal which information can be obtained using a combination of these analyses. Data were discussed on the light of the existing structural data collected on the platinated protein.

  2. Novel index for micromixing characterization and comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mranal; Nandakumar, K.

    2010-01-01

    The most basic micromixer is a T- or Y-mixer, where two confluent streams mix due to transverse diffusion. To enhance micromixing, various modifications of T-mixers are reported such as heterogeneously charged walls, grooves on the channel base, geometric variations by introducing physical constrictions, etc. The performance of these reported designs is evaluated against the T-mixer in terms of the deviation from perfectly mixed state and mixing length (device length required to achieve perfect mixing). Although many studies have noticed the reduced flow rates for improved mixer designs, the residence time is not taken into consideration for micromixing performance evaluation. In this work, we propose a novel index, based on residence time, for micromixing characterization and comparative analysis. For any given mixer, the proposed index identifies the nondiffusive mixing enhancement with respect to the T-mixer. Various micromixers are evaluated using the proposed index to demonstrate the usefulness of the index. It is also shown that physical constriction mixer types are equivalent to T-mixers. The proposed index is found to be insightful and could be used as a benchmark for comparing different mixing strategies. PMID:20689773

  3. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus secretomes: a comparative proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Joana M. S.; Anjo, Sandra I.; Fonseca, Luís; Egas, Conceição; Manadas, Bruno; Abrantes, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, recognized as a worldwide major forest pest, is a migratory endoparasitic nematode with capacity to feed on pine tissues and also on fungi colonizing the trees. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus, the closest related species, differs from B. xylophilus on its pathogenicity, making this nematode a good candidate for comparative analyses. Secretome profiles of B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus were obtained and proteomic differences were evaluated by quantitative SWATH-MS. From the 681 proteins initially identified, 422 were quantified and compared between B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus secretomes and from these, 243 proteins were found differentially regulated: 158 and 85 proteins were increased in B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus secretomes, respectively. While increased proteins in B. xylophilus secretome revealed a strong enrichment in proteins with peptidase activity, the increased proteins in B. mucronatus secretome were mainly related to oxidative stress responses. The changes in peptidases were evaluated at the transcription level by RT-qPCR, revealing a correlation between the mRNA levels of four cysteine peptidases with secretion levels. The analysis presented expands our knowledge about molecular basis of B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus hosts interaction and supports the hypothesis of a key role of secreted peptidases in B. xylophilus pathogenicity. PMID:27941947

  4. Comparative evaluation of saliva collection methods for proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Golatowski, Claas; Salazar, Manuela Gesell; Dhople, Vishnu Mukund; Hammer, Elke; Kocher, Thomas; Jehmlich, Nico; Völker, Uwe

    2013-04-18

    Saliva collection devices are widely used for large-scale screening approaches. This study was designed to compare the suitability of three different whole-saliva collection approaches for subsequent proteome analyses. From 9 young healthy volunteers (4 women and 5 men) saliva samples were collected either unstimulated by passive drooling or stimulated using a paraffin gum or Salivette® (cotton swab). Saliva volume, protein concentration and salivary protein patterns were analyzed comparatively. Samples collected using paraffin gum showed the highest saliva volume (4.1±1.5 ml) followed by Salivette® collection (1.8±0.4 ml) and drooling (1.0±0.4 ml). Saliva protein concentrations (average 1145 μg/ml) showed no significant differences between the three sampling schemes. Each collection approach facilitated the identification of about 160 proteins (≥2 distinct peptides) per subject, but collection-method dependent variations in protein composition were observed. Passive drooling, paraffin gum and Salivette® each allows similar coverage of the whole saliva proteome, but the specific proteins observed depended on the collection approach. Thus, only one type of collection device should be used for quantitative proteome analysis in one experiment, especially when performing large-scale cross-sectional or multi-centric studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparative proteomic analysis of bile for biomarkers of cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Laohaviroj, Marut; Potriquet, Jeremy; Jia, Xinying; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Mulvenna, Jason; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-06-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a primary malignant tumor of the bile duct epithelium. Cholangiocarcinoma is usually detected at an advanced stage when successful treatment is no longer possible. As the tumor originates from the bile duct epithelium, bile is an ideal source of tumor biomarkers for cholangiocarcinoma. In this study, we used a quantitative proteomics approach to identify potential tumor-associated proteins in the bile fluid of six cholangiocarcinoma patients. Three different gross-appearance tumor types were used in the analysis: mass-forming type ( n = 2), periductal infiltrating type ( n = 2), and intraductal growth type ( n = 2). Two bile samples from non-cancerous patients were used as controls. Isobaric labeling, coupled with Tandem mass spectrometry, was used to quantify protein levels in the bile of cholangiocarcinoma and control patients. In all, 63 proteins were significantly increased in cholangiocarcinoma bile compared to normal bile. Alpha-1-antitrypsin was one of the overexpressed proteins that increased in cholangiocarcinoma bile samples. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that alpha-1-antitrypsin was detected in 177 (50%) of 354 cholangiocarcinoma tissues from our Tissue Bank. Immunoblotting of 54 cholangiocarcinoma bile samples showed that alpha-1-antitrypsin was positive in 38 (70%) samples. Fecal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that alpha-1-antitrypsin level was able to distinguish cholangiocarcinoma patients from normal individuals. In conclusion, alpha-1-antitrypsin is a potential marker for early diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.

  6. Comparative genomic analysis by microbial COGs self-attraction rate.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Daniele; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2009-06-21

    Whole genome analysis provides new perspectives to determine phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms. The availability of whole nucleotide sequences allows different levels of comparison among genomes by several approaches. In this work, self-attraction rates were considered for each cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COGs) class in order to analyse gene aggregation levels in physical maps. Phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms were obtained by comparing self-attraction coefficients. Eighteen-dimensional vectors were computed for a set of 168 completely sequenced microbial genomes (19 archea, 149 bacteria). The components of the vector represent the aggregation rate of the genes belonging to each of 18 COGs classes. Genes involved in nonessential functions or related to environmental conditions showed the highest aggregation rates. On the contrary genes involved in basic cellular tasks showed a more uniform distribution along the genome, except for translation genes. Self-attraction clustering approach allowed classification of Proteobacteria, Bacilli and other species belonging to Firmicutes. Rearrangement and Lateral Gene Transfer events may influence divergences from classical taxonomy. Each set of COG classes' aggregation values represents an intrinsic property of the microbial genome. This novel approach provides a new point of view for whole genome analysis and bacterial characterization.

  7. Comparative analysis of quantitative efficiency evaluation methods for transportation networks

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuxin; Hong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    An effective evaluation of transportation network efficiency could offer guidance for the optimal control of urban traffic. Based on the introduction and related mathematical analysis of three quantitative evaluation methods for transportation network efficiency, this paper compares the information measured by them, including network structure, traffic demand, travel choice behavior and other factors which affect network efficiency. Accordingly, the applicability of various evaluation methods is discussed. Through analyzing different transportation network examples it is obtained that Q-H method could reflect the influence of network structure, traffic demand and user route choice behavior on transportation network efficiency well. In addition, the transportation network efficiency measured by this method and Braess’s Paradox can be explained with each other, which indicates a better evaluation of the real operation condition of transportation network. Through the analysis of the network efficiency calculated by Q-H method, it can also be drawn that a specific appropriate demand is existed to a given transportation network. Meanwhile, under the fixed demand, both the critical network structure that guarantees the stability and the basic operation of the network and a specific network structure contributing to the largest value of the transportation network efficiency can be identified. PMID:28399165

  8. Comparative analysis on flexibility requirements of typical Cryogenic Transfer lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadon, Mohit; Kumar, Uday; Choukekar, Ketan; Shah, Nitin; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2017-04-01

    The cryogenic systems and their applications; primarily in large Fusion devices, utilize multiple cryogen transfer lines of various sizes and complexities to transfer cryogenic fluids from plant to the various user/ applications. These transfer lines are composed of various critical sections i.e. tee section, elbows, flexible components etc. The mechanical sustainability (under failure circumstances) of these transfer lines are primary requirement for safe operation of the system and applications. The transfer lines need to be designed for multiple design constraints conditions like line layout, support locations and space restrictions. The transfer lines are subjected to single load and multiple load combinations, such as operational loads, seismic loads, leak in insulation vacuum loads etc. [1]. The analytical calculations and flexibility analysis using professional software are performed for the typical transfer lines without any flexible component, the results were analysed for functional and mechanical load conditions. The failure modes were identified along the critical sections. The same transfer line was then refurbished with the flexible components and analysed for failure modes. The flexible components provide additional flexibility to the transfer line system and make it safe. The results obtained from the analytical calculations were compared with those obtained from the flexibility analysis software calculations. The optimization of the flexible component’s size and selection was performed and components were selected to meet the design requirements as per code.

  9. Comparative analysis of quantitative efficiency evaluation methods for transportation networks.

    PubMed

    He, Yuxin; Qin, Jin; Hong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    An effective evaluation of transportation network efficiency could offer guidance for the optimal control of urban traffic. Based on the introduction and related mathematical analysis of three quantitative evaluation methods for transportation network efficiency, this paper compares the information measured by them, including network structure, traffic demand, travel choice behavior and other factors which affect network efficiency. Accordingly, the applicability of various evaluation methods is discussed. Through analyzing different transportation network examples it is obtained that Q-H method could reflect the influence of network structure, traffic demand and user route choice behavior on transportation network efficiency well. In addition, the transportation network efficiency measured by this method and Braess's Paradox can be explained with each other, which indicates a better evaluation of the real operation condition of transportation network. Through the analysis of the network efficiency calculated by Q-H method, it can also be drawn that a specific appropriate demand is existed to a given transportation network. Meanwhile, under the fixed demand, both the critical network structure that guarantees the stability and the basic operation of the network and a specific network structure contributing to the largest value of the transportation network efficiency can be identified.

  10. Comparative structural analysis of human DEAD-box RNA helicases.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Patrick; Karlberg, Tobias; van den Berg, Susanne; Collins, Ruairi; Lehtiö, Lari; Högbom, Martin; Holmberg-Schiavone, Lovisa; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won; Hammarström, Martin; Moche, Martin; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Schüler, Herwig

    2010-09-30

    DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members.

  11. Comparative Structural Analysis of Human DEAD-Box RNA Helicases

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Patrick; Karlberg, Tobias; van den Berg, Susanne; Collins, Ruairi; Lehtiö, Lari; Högbom, Martin; Holmberg-Schiavone, Lovisa; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won; Hammarström, Martin; Moche, Martin; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Schüler, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members. PMID:20941364

  12. Comparative analysis reveals the underlying mechanism of vertebrate seasonal reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Animals utilize photoperiodic changes as a calendar to regulate seasonal reproduction. Birds have highly sophisticated photoperiodic mechanisms and functional genomics analysis in quail uncovered the signal transduction pathway regulating avian seasonal reproduction. Birds detect light with deep brain photoreceptors. Long day (LD) stimulus induces secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland. PT-derived TSH locally activates thyroid hormone (TH) in the hypothalamus, which induces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and hence gonadotropin secretion. However, during winter, low temperatures increase serum TH for adaptive thermogenesis, which accelerates germ cell apoptosis by activating the genes involved in metamorphosis. Therefore, TH has a dual role in the regulation of seasonal reproduction. Studies using TSH receptor knockout mice confirmed the involvement of PT-derived TSH in mammalian seasonal reproduction. In addition, studies in mice revealed that the tissue-specific glycosylation of TSH diversifies its function in the circulation to avoid crosstalk. In contrast to birds and mammals, one of the molecular machineries necessary for the seasonal reproduction of fish are localized in the saccus vasculosus from the photoreceptor to the neuroendocrine output. Thus, comparative analysis is a powerful tool to uncover the universality and diversity of fundamental properties in various organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Senin, Lucia L; Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Castelao, Cecilia; Alonso, Jana; Folgueira, Cintia; Casanueva, Felipe F; Pardo, Maria; Seoane, Luisa M

    2015-02-26

    Obesity is a major public health threat for many industrialised countries. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment against obesity, suggesting that gut derived signals are crucial for energy balance regulation. Several descriptive studies have proven the presence of gastric endogenous systems that modulate energy homeostasis; however, these systems and the interactions between them are still not well known. In the present study, we show for the first time the comparative 2-DE gastric secretome analysis under different nutritional status. We have identified 38 differently secreted proteins by comparing stomach secretomes from tissue explant cultures of rats under feeding, fasting and re-feeding conditions. Among the proteins identified, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was found to be more abundant in gastric secretome and plasma after re-feeding, and downregulated in obesity. Additionally, two calponin-1 species were decreased in feeding state, and other were modulated by nutritional and metabolic conditions. These and other secreted proteins identified in this work may be considered as potential gastrokines implicated in food intake regulation. The present work has an important impact in the field of obesity, especially in the regulation of body weight maintenance by the stomach. Nowadays, the most effective treatment in the fight against obesity is bariatric surgery, which suggests that stomach derived signals might be crucial for the regulation of the energy homeostasis. However, until now, the knowledge about the gastrokines and its mechanism of action has been poorly elucidated. In the present work, we had updated a previously validated explant secretion model for proteomic studies; this analysis allowed us, for the first time, to study the gastric secretome without interferences from other organs. We had identified 38 differently secreted proteins comparing ex vivo cultured stomachs from rats under feeding, fasting and re-feeding regimes

  14. Comparative genomic analysis and phylogenetic position of Theileria equi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transmission of arthropod-borne apicomplexan parasites that cause disease and result in death or persistent infection represents a major challenge to global human and animal health. First described in 1901 as Piroplasma equi, this re-emergent apicomplexan parasite was renamed Babesia equi and subsequently Theileria equi, reflecting an uncertain taxonomy. Understanding mechanisms by which apicomplexan parasites evade immune or chemotherapeutic elimination is required for development of effective vaccines or chemotherapeutics. The continued risk of transmission of T. equi from clinically silent, persistently infected equids impedes the goal of returning the U. S. to non-endemic status. Therefore comparative genomic analysis of T. equi was undertaken to: 1) identify genes contributing to immune evasion and persistence in equid hosts, 2) identify genes involved in PBMC infection biology and 3) define the phylogenetic position of T. equi relative to sequenced apicomplexan parasites. Results The known immunodominant proteins, EMA1, 2 and 3 were discovered to belong to a ten member gene family with a mean amino acid identity, in pairwise comparisons, of 39%. Importantly, the amino acid diversity of EMAs is distributed throughout the length of the proteins. Eight of the EMA genes were simultaneously transcribed. As the agents that cause bovine theileriosis infect and transform host cell PBMCs, we confirmed that T. equi infects equine PBMCs, however, there is no evidence of host cell transformation. Indeed, a number of genes identified as potential manipulators of the host cell phenotype are absent from the T. equi genome. Comparative genomic analysis of T. equi revealed the phylogenetic positioning relative to seven apicomplexan parasites using deduced amino acid sequences from 150 genes placed it as a sister taxon to Theileria spp. Conclusions The EMA family does not fit the paradigm for classical antigenic variation, and we propose a novel model describing the

  15. Change is a Constant.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Provencher, Matthew T; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Poehling, Gary G

    2015-06-01

    In 2015, Henry P. Hackett, Managing Editor, Arthroscopy, retires, and Edward A. Goss, Executive Director, Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA), retires. Association is a positive constant, in a time of change. With change comes a need for continuing education, research, and sharing of ideas. While the quality of education at AANA and ISAKOS is superior and most relevant, the unique reason to travel and meet is the opportunity to interact with innovative colleagues. Personal interaction best stimulates new ideas to improve patient care, research, and teaching. Through our network, we best create innovation. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypochlorous acid-mediated oxidation of lipid components and antioxidants present in low-density lipoproteins: absolute rate constants, product analysis, and computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Pattison, David I; Hawkins, Clare L; Davies, Michael J

    2003-04-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is believed to contribute to the increased uptake of LDL by macrophages, which is an early event in atherosclerosis. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has been implicated as one of the major oxidants involved in these processes. In a previous study, the rates of reaction of HOCl with the reactive sites in proteins were investigated (Pattison, D. I., and Davies, M. J. (2001) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14, 1453-1464). The work presented here expands on those studies to determine absolute second-order rate constants for the reactions of HOCl with various lipid components and antioxidants in aqueous solution (pH 7.4). The reactions of HOCl with phosphoryl-serine and phosphoryl-ethanolamine are rapid (k approximately 10(5) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and of comparable reactivity to many of the protein sites. The major products formed in these reactions are chloramines, which decay to give both nitrogen- and carbon-centered radicals. Subsequent reactions of these species may induce oxidation of the LDL lipid component. In contrast, phosphoryl-choline reacted much more slowly (k < 10(-)(2) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). Reaction of HOCl with 3-pentenoic acid was used as a model of lipid double bonds and yielded k = 9 M(-)(1) s(-)(1). The reactions of the lipid-soluble antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinol-10, with HOCl were investigated with model compounds. For the reactions of HOCl with both Trolox and ubiquinol-0, k = 1.3 x 10(3) M(-)(1) s(-)(1); thus, these lipid soluble antioxidants are relatively ineffective as direct scavengers for HOCl as compared to water soluble antioxidants (e.g., ascorbate, k ca. 10(6) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). The reaction of HOCl with hydroquinone (a simple model for ubiquinol-10) was also investigated both in aqueous solution (k = 45 M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and in a less polar environment (k approximately 0.5 M(-)(1) s(-)(1) in THF). A computational model was developed using these kinetic parameters to predict which LDL targets are oxidized

  17. Atrazine Molecular Imprinted Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Far-Infrared and Ultraviolet Induced Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Bai, Lian-Yang; Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Run-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIPuv possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIPFIR radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot’s of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high-and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), and mercury analyzer (MA). Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%–94.8%), higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%–97.1% and 94.4%–101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively. PMID:24398982

  18. Comparative analysis of algorithms for lunar landing control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, B. I.; Likhachev, V. N.; Sazonov, V. V.; Sikharulidze, Yu. G.; Tuchin, A. G.; Tuchin, D. A.; Fedotov, V. P.; Yaroshevskii, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    For the descent from the pericenter of a prelanding circumlunar orbit a comparison of three algorithms for the control of lander motion is performed. These algorithms use various combinations of terminal and programmed control in a trajectory including three parts: main braking, precision braking, and descent with constant velocity. In the first approximation, autonomous navigational measurements are taken into account and an estimate of the disturbances generated by movement of the fuel in the tanks was obtained. Estimates of the accuracy for landing placement, fuel consumption, and performance of the conditions for safe lunar landing are obtained.

  19. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455; Peloso, Marco

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of themore » constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.« less

  20. Specialty and Full-Service Hospitals: A Comparative Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kathleen; Burgess, James F; Young, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the costs of physician-owned cardiac, orthopedic, and surgical single specialty hospitals with those of full-service hospital competitors. Data Sources The primary data sources are the Medicare Cost Reports for 1998–2004 and hospital inpatient discharge data for three of the states where single specialty hospitals are most prevalent, Texas, California, and Arizona. The latter were obtained from the Texas Department of State Health Services, the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Additional data comes from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database. Study Design We identified all physician-owned cardiac, orthopedic, and surgical specialty hospitals in these three states as well as all full-service acute care hospitals serving the same market areas, defined using Dartmouth Hospital Referral Regions. We estimated a hospital cost function using stochastic frontier regression analysis, and generated hospital specific inefficiency measures. Application of t-tests of significance compared the inefficiency measures of specialty hospitals with those of full-service hospitals to make general comparisons between these classes of hospitals. Principal Findings Results do not provide evidence that specialty hospitals are more efficient than the full-service hospitals with whom they compete. In particular, orthopedic and surgical specialty hospitals appear to have significantly higher levels of cost inefficiency. Cardiac hospitals, however, do not appear to be different from competitors in this respect. Conclusions Policymakers should not embrace the assumption that physician-owned specialty hospitals produce patient care more efficiently than their full-service hospital competitors. PMID:18662170

  1. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Uveitis Models in Lewis Rats.

    PubMed

    Pepple, Kathryn L; Rotkis, Lauren; Wilson, Leslie; Sandt, Angela; Van Gelder, Russell N

    2015-12-01

    Inflammation generates changes in the protein constituents of the aqueous humor. Proteins that change in multiple models of uveitis may be good biomarkers of disease or targets for therapeutic intervention. The present study was conducted to identify differentially-expressed proteins in the inflamed aqueous humor. Two models of uveitis were induced in Lewis rats: experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and primed mycobacterial uveitis (PMU). Differential gel electrophoresis was used to compare naïve and inflamed aqueous humor. Differentially-expressed proteins were separated by using 2-D gel electrophoresis and excised for identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Expression of select proteins was verified by Western blot analysis in both the aqueous and vitreous. The inflamed aqueous from both models demonstrated an increase in total protein concentration when compared to naïve aqueous. Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9, was increased in the aqueous in both PMU and EAU. In the vitreous, S100A8 and S100A9 were preferentially elevated in PMU. Apolipoprotein E was elevated in the aqueous of both uveitis models but was preferentially elevated in EAU. Beta-B2-crystallin levels decreased in the aqueous and vitreous of EAU but not PMU. The proinflammatory molecules S100A8 and S100A9 were elevated in both models of uveitis but may play a more significant role in PMU than EAU. The neuroprotective protein β-B2-crystallin was found to decline in EAU. Therapies to modulate these proteins in vivo may be good targets in the treatment of ocular inflammation.

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Uveitis Models in Lewis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pepple, Kathryn L.; Rotkis, Lauren; Wilson, Leslie; Sandt, Angela; Van Gelder, Russell N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Inflammation generates changes in the protein constituents of the aqueous humor. Proteins that change in multiple models of uveitis may be good biomarkers of disease or targets for therapeutic intervention. The present study was conducted to identify differentially-expressed proteins in the inflamed aqueous humor. Methods Two models of uveitis were induced in Lewis rats: experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and primed mycobacterial uveitis (PMU). Differential gel electrophoresis was used to compare naïve and inflamed aqueous humor. Differentially-expressed proteins were separated by using 2-D gel electrophoresis and excised for identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Expression of select proteins was verified by Western blot analysis in both the aqueous and vitreous. Results The inflamed aqueous from both models demonstrated an increase in total protein concentration when compared to naïve aqueous. Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9, was increased in the aqueous in both PMU and EAU. In the vitreous, S100A8 and S100A9 were preferentially elevated in PMU. Apolipoprotein E was elevated in the aqueous of both uveitis models but was preferentially elevated in EAU. Beta-B2–crystallin levels decreased in the aqueous and vitreous of EAU but not PMU. Conclusions The proinflammatory molecules S100A8 and S100A9 were elevated in both models of uveitis but may play a more significant role in PMU than EAU. The neuroprotective protein β-B2–crystallin was found to decline in EAU. Therapies to modulate these proteins in vivo may be good targets in the treatment of ocular inflammation. PMID:26747776

  3. A comparative analysis of biclustering algorithms for gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Kemal; Deveci, Mehmet; Küçüktunç, Onur; Çatalyürek, Ümit V.

    2013-01-01

    The need to analyze high-dimension biological data is driving the development of new data mining methods. Biclustering algorithms have been successfully applied to gene expression data to discover local patterns, in which a subset of genes exhibit similar expression levels over a subset of conditions. However, it is not clear which algorithms are best suited for this task. Many algorithms have been published in the past decade, most of which have been compared only to a small number of algorithms. Surveys and comparisons exist in the literature, but because of the large number and variety of biclustering algorithms, they are quickly outdated. In this article we partially address this problem of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing biclustering methods. We used the BiBench package to compare 12 algorithms, many of which were recently published or have not been extensively studied. The algorithms were tested on a suite of synthetic data sets to measure their performance on data with varying conditions, such as different bicluster models, varying noise, varying numbers of biclusters and overlapping biclusters. The algorithms were also tested on eight large gene expression data sets obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was performed on the resulting biclusters, and the best enrichment terms are reported. Our analyses show that the biclustering method and its parameters should be selected based on the desired model, whether that model allows overlapping biclusters, and its robustness to noise. In addition, we observe that the biclustering algorithms capable of finding more than one model are more successful at capturing biologically relevant clusters. PMID:22772837

  4. A comparative reliability analysis of free-piston Stirling machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2001-02-01

    A free-piston Stirling power convertor is being developed for use in an advanced radioisotope power system to provide electric power for NASA deep space missions. These missions are typically long lived, lasting for up to 14 years. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for providing the radioisotope power system for the NASA missions, and has managed the development of the free-piston power convertor for this application. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in the development of Stirling power conversion technology for over 25 years and is currently providing support to DOE. Due to the nature of the potential missions, long life and high reliability are important features for the power system. Substantial resources have been spent on the development of long life Stirling cryocoolers for space applications. As a very general statement, free-piston Stirling power convertors have many features in common with free-piston Stirling cryocoolers, however there are also significant differences. For example, designs exist for both power convertors and cryocoolers that use the flexure bearing support system to provide noncontacting operation of the close-clearance moving parts. This technology and the operating experience derived from one application may be readily applied to the other application. This similarity does not pertain in the case of outgassing and contamination. In the cryocooler, the contaminants normally condense in the critical heat exchangers and foul the performance. In the Stirling power convertor just the opposite is true as contaminants condense on non-critical surfaces. A methodology was recently published that provides a relative comparison of reliability, and is applicable to systems. The methodology has been applied to compare the reliability of a Stirling cryocooler relative to that of a free-piston Stirling power convertor. The reliability analysis indicates that the power convertor should be able to have superior reliability

  5. Specialty and full-service hospitals: a comparative cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Carey, Kathleen; Burgess, James F; Young, Gary J

    2008-10-01

    To compare the costs of physician-owned cardiac, orthopedic, and surgical single specialty hospitals with those of full-service hospital competitors. The primary data sources are the Medicare Cost Reports for 1998-2004 and hospital inpatient discharge data for three of the states where single specialty hospitals are most prevalent, Texas, California, and Arizona. The latter were obtained from the Texas Department of State Health Services, the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Additional data comes from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database. We identified all physician-owned cardiac, orthopedic, and surgical specialty hospitals in these three states as well as all full-service acute care hospitals serving the same market areas, defined using Dartmouth Hospital Referral Regions. We estimated a hospital cost function using stochastic frontier regression analysis, and generated hospital specific inefficiency measures. Application of t-tests of significance compared the inefficiency measures of specialty hospitals with those of full-service hospitals to make general comparisons between these classes of hospitals. Results do not provide evidence that specialty hospitals are more efficient than the full-service hospitals with whom they compete. In particular, orthopedic and surgical specialty hospitals appear to have significantly higher levels of cost inefficiency. Cardiac hospitals, however, do not appear to be different from competitors in this respect. Policymakers should not embrace the assumption that physician-owned specialty hospitals produce patient care more efficiently than their full-service hospital competitors.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Mitochondrial Physiology of Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul; Patel, Pinal; Gouvin, Lindsey M.; Brown, Melissa L.; Khalil, Ahmed; Henchey, Elizabeth M; Heuck, Alejandro P.; Yadava, Nagendra

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial metabolism of β cells is thought to be highly specialized. Its direct comparison with other cells using isolated mitochondria is limited by the availability of islets/β cells in sufficient quantity. In this study, we have compared mitochondrial metabolism of INS1E/β cells with other cells in intact and permeabilized states. To selectively permeabilize the plasma membrane, we have evaluated the use of perfringolysin-O (PFO) in conjunction with microplate-based respirometry. PFO is a protein that binds membranes based on a threshold level of active cholesterol. Therefore, unless active cholesterol reaches a threshold level in mitochondria, they are expected to remain untouched by PFO. Cytochrome c sensitivity tests showed that in PFO-permeabilized cells, the mitochondrial integrity was completely preserved. Our data show that a time-dependent decline of the oligomycin-insensitive respiration observed in INS1E cells was due to a limitation in substrate supply to the respiratory chain. We predict that it is linked with the β cell-specific metabolism involving metabolites shuttling between the cytoplasm and mitochondria. In permeabilized β cells, the Complex l-dependent respiration was either transient or absent because of the inefficient TCA cycle. The TCA cycle insufficiency was confirmed by analysis of the CO2 evolution. This may be linked with lower levels of NAD+, which is required as a co-factor for CO2 producing reactions of the TCA cycle. β cells showed comparable OxPhos and respiratory capacities that were not affected by the inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels in the respiration medium. They showed lower ADP-stimulation of the respiration on different substrates. We believe that this study will significantly enhance our understanding of the β cell mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:25309834

  7. Comparative Analysis of Genome Sequences Covering the Seven Cronobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Craig A.; Shih, Rita; Degoricija, Lovorka; Rico, Alain; Brzoska, Pius; Hamby, Stephen E.; Masood, Naqash; Hariri, Sumyya; Sonbol, Hana; Chuzhanova, Nadia; McClelland, Michael; Furtado, Manohar R.; Forsythe, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Species of Cronobacter are widespread in the environment and are occasional food-borne pathogens associated with serious neonatal diseases, including bacteraemia, meningitis, and necrotising enterocolitis. The genus is composed of seven species: C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis, C. dublinensis, C. muytjensii, C. universalis, and C. condimenti. Clinical cases are associated with three species, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis and, in particular, with C. sakazakii multilocus sequence type 4. Thus, it is plausible that virulence determinants have evolved in certain lineages. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated high quality sequence drafts for eleven Cronobacter genomes representing the seven Cronobacter species, including an ST4 strain of C. sakazakii. Comparative analysis of these genomes together with the two publicly available genomes revealed Cronobacter has over 6,000 genes in one or more strains and over 2,000 genes shared by all Cronobacter. Considerable variation in the presence of traits such as type six secretion systems, metal resistance (tellurite, copper and silver), and adhesins were found. C. sakazakii is unique in the Cronobacter genus in encoding genes enabling the utilization of exogenous sialic acid which may have clinical significance. The C. sakazakii ST4 strain 701 contained additional genes as compared to other C. sakazakii but none of them were known specific virulence-related genes. Conclusions/Significance Genome comparison revealed that pair-wise DNA sequence identity varies between 89 and 97% in the seven Cronobacter species, and also suggested various degrees of divergence. Sets of universal core genes and accessory genes unique to each strain were identified. These gene sequences can be used for designing genus/species specific detection assays. Genes encoding adhesins, T6SS, and metal resistance genes as well as prophages are found in only subsets of genomes and have contributed considerably to the variation of

  8. Feedback interventions and driving speed: A parametric and comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houten, Ron Van; Nau, Paul A.

    1983-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to assess the effects of several variables on the efficacy of feedback in reducing driving speed. Experiment 1 systematically varied the criterion used to define speeding, and results showed that the use of a lenient criterion (20 km/hr over the speed limit), which allowed for the posting of high percentages of drivers not speeding, was more effective in reducing speeding than the use of a stringent criterion (10 km/hr over the speed limit). In Experiment 2 an analysis revealed that posting feedback reduced speeding on a limited access highway and the effects persisted to some degree up to 6 km. Experiments 3 and 4 compared the effectiveness of an unmanned parked police vehicle (Experiment 3) and a police air patrol speeding program (Experiment 4) with the feedback sign and determined whether the presence of either of these enforcement variables could potentiate the efficacy of the sign. The results of both experiments demonstrated that although the two enforcement programs initially produced larger effects than the feedback sign, the magnitude of their effect attenuated over time. Experiment 5 compared the effectiveness of a traditional enforcement program with a warning program which included handing out a flier providing feedback on the number and types of accidents occuring on the road during the past year. This experiment demonstrated that the warning program produced a marked reduction in speeding and the traditional enforcement program did not. Furthermore, the warning program and a feedback sign together produced an even greater reduction in speeding than either alone. PMID:16795666

  9. Comparative Analysis of Korean Human Gut Microbiota by Barcoded Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Young-Do; Jung, Mi-Ja; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Human gut microbiota plays important roles in harvesting energy from the diet, stimulating the proliferation of the intestinal epithelium, developing the immune system, and regulating fat storage in the host. Characterization of gut microbiota, however, has been limited to western people and is not sufficiently extensive to fully describe microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the overall composition of the gut microbiota and its host specificity and temporal stability in 20 Koreans using 454-pyrosequencing with barcoded primers targeting the V1 to V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. A total of 303,402 high quality reads covered each sample and 8,427 reads were analyzed on average. The results were compared with those of individuals from the USA, China and Japan. In general, microbial communities were dominated by five previously identified phyla: Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the species composition of gut microbiota was host-specific and stable over the duration of the test period, but the relative abundance of each member fluctuated. 43 core Korean gut microbiota were identified by comparison of sequences from each individual, of which 15 species level phylotypes were related to previously-reported butyrate-producing bacteria. UniFrac analysis revealed that human gut microbiota differed between countries: Korea, USA, Japan and China, but tended to vary less between individual Koreans, suggesting that gut microbial composition is related to internal and external characteristics of each country member such as host genetics and diet styles. PMID:21829445

  10. Waveguide-based electro-absorption modulator performance: comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Rubab; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Sorger, Volker J.

    2018-06-01

    Electro-optic modulation is a key function for data communication. Given the vast amount of data handled, understanding the intricate physics and trade-offs of modulators on-chip allows revealing performance regimes not explored yet. Here we show a holistic performance analysis for waveguide-based electro-absorption modulators. Our approach centers around material properties revealing obtainable optical absorption leading to effective modal cross-section, and material broadening effects. Taken together both describe the modulator physical behavior entirely. We consider a plurality of material modulation classes to include two-level absorbers such as quantum dots, free carrier accumulation or depletion such as ITO or Silicon, two-dimensional electron gas in semiconductors such as quantum wells, Pauli blocking in Graphene, and excitons in two-dimensional atomic layered materials such as found in transition metal dichalcogendies. Our results show that reducing the modal area generally improves modulator performance defined by the amount of induced electrical charge, and hence the energy-per-bit function, required switching the signal. We find that broadening increases the amount of switching charge needed. While some material classes allow for reduced broadening such as quantum dots and 2-dimensional materials due to their reduced Coulomb screening leading to increased oscillator strengths, the sharpness of broadening is overshadowed by thermal effects independent of the material class. Further we find that plasmonics allows the switching charge and energy-per-bit function to be reduced by about one order of magnitude compared to bulk photonics. This analysis is aimed as a guide for the community to predict anticipated modulator performance based on both existing and emerging materials.

  11. Comparative Analysis of State Fish Consumption Advisories Targeting Sensitive Populations

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Alison C.; Tsuchiya, Ami; Younglove, Lisa R.; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Fish consumption advisories are issued to warn the public of possible toxicological threats from consuming certain fish species. Although developing fetuses and children are particularly susceptible to toxicants in fish, fish also contain valuable nutrients. Hence, formulating advice for sensitive populations poses challenges. We conducted a comparative analysis of advisory Web sites issued by states to assess health messages that sensitive populations might access. Data sources We evaluated state advisories accessed via the National Listing of Fish Advisories issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Data extraction We created criteria to evaluate advisory attributes such as risk and benefit message clarity. Data synthesis All 48 state advisories issued at the time of this analysis targeted children, 90% (43) targeted pregnant women, and 58% (28) targeted women of childbearing age. Only six advisories addressed single contaminants, while the remainder based advice on 2–12 contaminants. Results revealed that advisories associated a dozen contaminants with specific adverse health effects. Beneficial health effects of any kind were specifically associated only with omega-3 fatty acids found in fish. Conclusions These findings highlight the complexity of assessing and communicating information about multiple contaminant exposure from fish consumption. Communication regarding potential health benefits conferred by specific fish nutrients was minimal and focused primarily on omega-3 fatty acids. This overview suggests some lessons learned and highlights a lack of both clarity and consistency in providing the breadth of information that sensitive populations such as pregnant women need to make public health decisions about fish consumption during pregnancy. PMID:19079708

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis of Cronobacter sakazakii isolates with different virulences.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin-jun; Han, Ran; Li, Ping; Wang, Shuo

    2015-10-14

    Cronobacter is a genus of widespread, opportunistic, foodborne pathogens that can result in serious illnesses in at-risk infants because of their immature immunity and high dependence on powdered formula, which is one of the foods most often contaminated by this pathogen. However, limited information is available regarding the pathogenesis and the specific virulence factors of this species. In this study, the virulences of 42 Cronobacter sakazakii isolates were analyzed by infecting neonatal SD rats. A comparison of the typing patterns of the isolates enabled groups with close relationships but that exhibited distinct pathogenesis to be identified. Among these groups, 2 strains belonging to the same group but showing distinct virulences were selected, and 2-DE was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins, focusing on virulence-related proteins. A total of 111 protein spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS), and 89 were successfully identified. Further analysis suggested that at least 11 of these proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of this pathogen. Real-time PCR was carried out to further confirm the differential expression pattern of the genes, and the results indicated that the mRNA expression levels were consistent with the protein expression levels. The virulence factors and pathogenesis of Cronobacter are largely unknown. In combination with animal toxicological experiments and subtyping results of C. sakazakii, comparative proteomics analysis was performed to comprehensively evaluate the differentially expressed proteins of two isolates that exhibited distinct virulence but were closely related. These procedures made it possible to identify the virulence-related of factors of Cronobacter. Among the 89 total identified proteins, at least 11 show virulence-related potential. This work provides comprehensive candidates for the further investigation of

  13. Efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stuart; Hansen, Thomas; Kasper, Siegfried

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the clinical relevance of the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and citalopram by meta-analysis. Studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) with both escitalopram and citalopram treatment arms were identified. Adult patients had to meet DSM-IV criteria for MDD. The primary outcome measure was the treatment difference in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at week 8 (or last assessment if <8 wk). Secondary outcome measures were response (≥ 50% improvement from baseline) and remission (MADRS ≤ 12). A search of the literature and websites found eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and onr naturalistic trial, with a total of 2009 patients (escitalopram, n=995; citalopram, n=1014). Escitalopram was significantly more effective than citalopram in overall treatment effect, with an estimated mean treatment difference of 1.7 points at week 8 (or last assessment if <8 wk) on the MADRS (95% CI 0.8-2.6, p=0.0002) (six RCTs used the MADRS), and in responder rate (8.3 percentage points, 95% CI 4.4-12.3) (eight RCTs) and remitter rate (17.6 percentage points, 95% CI 12.1-23.1) analyses (reported for four RCTs), corresponding to number-needed-to-treat (NNT) values of 11.9 (p<0.0001) for response and 5.7 (p<0.0001) for remission. The overall odds ratios were 1.44 (p<0.0003) for response and 1.86 (p<0.0001) for remission, in favour of escitalopram. In this meta-analysis, the statistically significant superior efficacy of escitalopram compared to citalopram was shown to be clinically relevant.

  14. Mental health network governance: comparative analysis across Canadian regions

    PubMed Central

    Wiktorowicz, Mary E; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Adair, Carol E; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot; Peters, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Objective Modes of governance were compared in ten local mental health networks in diverse contexts (rural/urban and regionalized/non-regionalized) to clarify the governance processes that foster inter-organizational collaboration and the conditions that support them. Methods Case studies of ten local mental health networks were developed using qualitative methods of document review, semi-structured interviews and focus groups that incorporated provincial policy, network and organizational levels of analysis. Results Mental health networks adopted either a corporate structure, mutual adjustment or an alliance governance model. A corporate structure supported by regionalization offered the most direct means for local governance to attain inter-organizational collaboration. The likelihood that networks with an alliance model developed coordination processes depended on the presence of the following conditions: a moderate number of organizations, goal consensus and trust among the organizations, and network-level competencies. In the small and mid-sized urban networks where these conditions were met their alliance realized the inter-organizational collaboration sought. In the large urban and rural networks where these conditions were not met, externally brokered forms of network governance were required to support alliance based models. Discussion In metropolitan and rural networks with such shared forms of network governance as an alliance or voluntary mutual adjustment, external mediation by a regional or provincial authority was an important lever to foster inter-organizational collaboration. PMID:21289999

  15. Mental health network governance: comparative analysis across Canadian regions.

    PubMed

    Wiktorowicz, Mary E; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Adair, Carol E; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot; Peters, Suzanne

    2010-10-26

    Modes of governance were compared in ten local mental health networks in diverse contexts (rural/urban and regionalized/non-regionalized) to clarify the governance processes that foster inter-organizational collaboration and the conditions that support them. Case studies of ten local mental health networks were developed using qualitative methods of document review, semi-structured interviews and focus groups that incorporated provincial policy, network and organizational levels of analysis. Mental health networks adopted either a corporate structure, mutual adjustment or an alliance governance model. A corporate structure supported by regionalization offered the most direct means for local governance to attain inter-organizational collaboration. The likelihood that networks with an alliance model developed coordination processes depended on the presence of the following conditions: a moderate number of organizations, goal consensus and trust among the organizations, and network-level competencies. In the small and mid-sized urban networks where these conditions were met their alliance realized the inter-organizational collaboration sought. In the large urban and rural networks where these conditions were not met, externally brokered forms of network governance were required to support alliance based models. In metropolitan and rural networks with such shared forms of network governance as an alliance or voluntary mutual adjustment, external mediation by a regional or provincial authority was an important lever to foster inter-organizational collaboration.

  16. Margins in extra-abdominal desmoid tumors: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Leithner, Andreas; Gapp, Markus; Leithner, Katharina; Radl, Roman; Krippl, Peter; Beham, Alfred; Windhager, Reinhard

    2004-06-01

    The main treatment of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors remains surgery, but recurrence rates up to 80% are reported. The impact of microscopic surgical margin status according to the Enneking classification system is discussed controversially. Therefore, the authors screened the published literature for reliable data on the importance of a wide or radical excision of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors. All studies with more than ten patients, a surgical treatment only, and margin status stated were included. Only 12 out of 49 identified studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One hundred fifty-two primary tumors were excised with wide or radical microscopic surgical margins, while in 260 cases a marginal or intralesional excision was performed. In the first group 41 patients (27%) and in the second one 187 patients (72%) developed a recurrence. Therefore, microscopic surgical margin status according to the Enneking classification system is a significant prognostic factor (P < 0.001). The data of this review underline the strategy of a wide or radical local excision as the treatment of choice. Furthermore, as a large number of studies had to be excluded from this analysis, exact microscopic surgical margin status should be provided in future studies in order to allow comparability. . Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Comparative whole genome analysis of six diagnostic brucellaphages.

    PubMed

    Farlow, Jason; Filippov, Andrey A; Sergueev, Kirill V; Hang, Jun; Kotorashvili, Adam; Nikolich, Mikeljon P

    2014-05-15

    Whole genome sequencing of six diagnostic brucellaphages, Tbilisi (Tb), Firenze (Fz), Weybridge (Wb), S708, Berkeley (Bk) and R/C, was followed with genomic comparisons including recently described genomes of the Tb phage from Mexico (TbM) and Pr phage to elucidate genomic diversity and candidate host range determinants. Comparative whole genome analysis revealed high sequence homogeneity among these brucellaphage genomes and resolved three genetic groups consistent with defined host range phenotypes. Group I was composed of Tb and Fz phages that are predominantly lytic for Brucella abortus and Brucella neotomae; Group II included Bk, R/C, and Pr phages that are lytic mainly for B. abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis; Group III was composed of Wb and S708 phages that are lytic for B. suis, B. abortus and B. neotomae. We found that the putative phage collar protein is a variable locus with features that may be contributing to the host specificities exhibited by different brucellaphage groups. The presence of several candidate host range determinants is illustrated herein for future dissection of the differential host specificity observed among these phages. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Life-Cycle Assessment Tools for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We identified and evaluated five life-cycle assessment tools that community decision makers can use to assess the environmental and economic impacts of end-of-life (EOL) materials management options. The tools evaluated in this report are waste reduction mode (WARM), municipal solid waste-decision support tool (MSW-DST), solid waste optimization life-cycle framework (SWOLF), environmental assessment system for environmental technologies (EASETECH), and waste and resources assessment for the environment (WRATE). WARM, MSW-DST, and SWOLF were developed for US-specific materials management strategies, while WRATE and EASETECH were developed for European-specific conditions. All of the tools (with the exception of WARM) allow specification of a wide variety of parameters (e.g., materials composition and energy mix) to a varying degree, thus allowing users to model specific EOL materials management methods even outside the geographical domain they are originally intended for. The flexibility to accept user-specified input for a large number of parameters increases the level of complexity and the skill set needed for using these tools. The tools were evaluated and compared based on a series of criteria, including general tool features, the scope of the analysis (e.g., materials and processes included), and the impact categories analyzed (e.g., climate change, acidification). A series of scenarios representing materials management problems currently relevant to c

  19. Engine System Loads Analysis Compared to Hot-Fire Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Jennings, John M.; Mims, Katherine; Brunty, Joseph; Christensen, Eric R.; McConnaughey, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Early implementation of structural dynamics finite element analyses for calculation of design loads is considered common design practice for high volume manufacturing industries such as automotive and aeronautical industries. However with the rarity of rocket engine development programs starts, these tools are relatively new to the design of rocket engines. In the NASA MC-1 engine program, the focus was to reduce the cost-to-weight ratio. The techniques for structural dynamics analysis practices, were tailored in this program to meet both production and structural design goals. Perturbation of rocket engine design parameters resulted in a number of MC-1 load cycles necessary to characterize the impact due to mass and stiffness changes. Evolution of loads and load extraction methodologies, parametric considerations and a discussion of load path sensitivities are important during the design and integration of a new engine system. During the final stages of development, it is important to verify the results of an engine system model to determine the validity of the results. During the final stages of the MC-1 program, hot-fire test results were obtained and compared to the structural design loads calculated by the engine system model. These comparisons are presented in this paper.

  20. Geomorphometric comparative analysis of Latin-American volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camiz, Sergio; Poscolieri, Maurizio; Roverato, Matteo

    2017-07-01

    The geomorphometric classifications of three groups of volcanoes situated in the Andes Cordillera, Central America, and Mexico are performed and compared. Input data are eight local topographic gradients (i.e. elevation differences) obtained by processing each volcano raster ASTER-GDEM data. The pixels of each volcano DEM have been classified into 17 classes through a K-means clustering procedure following principal component analysis of the gradients. The spatial distribution of the classes, representing homogeneous terrain units, is shown on thematic colour maps, where colours are assigned according to mean slope and aspect class values. The interpretation of the geomorphometric classification of the volcanoes is based on the statistics of both gradients and morphometric parameters (slope, aspect and elevation). The latter were used for a comparison of the volcanoes, performed through classes' slope/aspect scatterplots and multidimensional methods. In this paper, we apply the mentioned methodology on 21 volcanoes, randomly chosen from Mexico to Patagonia, to show how it may contribute to detect geomorphological similarities and differences among them. As such, both its descriptive and graphical abilities may be a useful complement to future volcanological studies.

  1. Comparative modular analysis of gene expression in vertebrate organs.

    PubMed

    Piasecka, Barbara; Kutalik, Zoltán; Roux, Julien; Bergmann, Sven; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

    2012-03-29

    The degree of conservation of gene expression between homologous organs largely remains an open question. Several recent studies reported some evidence in favor of such conservation. Most studies compute organs' similarity across all orthologous genes, whereas the expression level of many genes are not informative about organ specificity. Here, we use a modularization algorithm to overcome this limitation through the identification of inter-species co-modules of organs and genes. We identify such co-modules using mouse and human microarray expression data. They are functionally coherent both in terms of genes and of organs from both organisms. We show that a large proportion of genes belonging to the same co-module are orthologous between mouse and human. Moreover, their zebrafish orthologs also tend to be expressed in the corresponding homologous organs. Notable exceptions to the general pattern of conservation are the testis and the olfactory bulb. Interestingly, some co-modules consist of single organs, while others combine several functionally related organs. For instance, amygdala, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and spinal cord form a clearly discernible unit of expression, both in mouse and human. Our study provides a new framework for comparative analysis which will be applicable also to other sets of large-scale phenotypic data collected across different species.

  2. Earth mapping - aerial or satellite imagery comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotev, Svetlin; Jordanov, Dimitar; Lukarski, Hristo

    Nowadays, solving the tasks for revision of existing map products and creation of new maps requires making a choice of the land cover image source. The issue of the effectiveness and cost of the usage of aerial mapping systems versus the efficiency and cost of very-high resolution satellite imagery is topical [1, 2, 3, 4]. The price of any remotely sensed image depends on the product (panchromatic or multispectral), resolution, processing level, scale, urgency of task and on whether the needed image is available in the archive or has to be requested. The purpose of the present work is: to make a comparative analysis between the two approaches for mapping the Earth having in mind two parameters: quality and cost. To suggest an approach for selection of the map information sources - airplane-based or spacecraft-based imaging systems with very-high spatial resolution. Two cases are considered: area that equals approximately one satellite scene and area that equals approximately the territory of Bulgaria.

  3. Comparative analysis of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella micdadei virulence traits.

    PubMed

    Joshi, A D; Swanson, M S

    1999-08-01

    While the majority of Legionnaire's disease has been attributed to Legionella pneumophila, Legionella micdadei can cause a similar infection in immunocompromised people. Consistent with its epidemiological profile, the growth of L. micdadei in cultured macrophages is less robust than that of L. pneumophila. To identify those features of the Legionella spp. which are correlated to efficient growth in macrophages, two approaches were taken. First, a phenotypic analysis compared four clinical isolates of L. micdadei to one well-characterized strain of L. pneumophila. Seven traits previously correlated with the virulence of L. pneumophila were evaluated: infection and replication in cultured macrophages, evasion of phagosome-lysosome fusion, contact-dependent cytotoxicity, sodium sensitivity, osmotic resistance, and conjugal DNA transfer. By nearly every measure, L. micdadei appeared less virulent than L. pneumophila. The surprising exception was L. micdadei 31B, which evaded lysosomes and replicated in macrophages as efficiently as L. pneumophila, despite lacking both contact-dependent cytopathicity and regulated sodium sensitivity. Second, in an attempt to identify virulence factors genetically, an L. pneumophila genomic library was screened for clones which conferred robust intracellular growth on L. micdadei. No such loci were isolated, consistent with the multiple phenotypic differences observed for the two species. Apparently, L. pneumophila and L. micdadei use distinct strategies to colonize alveolar macrophages, causing Legionnaire's disease.

  4. Comparative analysis of hazardous household waste in two Mexican regions.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Otoniel Buenrostro; Ojeda-Benítez, Sara; Márquez-Benavides, Liliana

    2007-01-01

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) generation in two Mexican regions was examined, a northern region (bordering with the USA) and a central region. The aim of this work was to determine the dynamics of solid waste generation and to be able to compare the results of both regions, regarding consumption patterns and solid waste generation rates. In the northern region, household solid waste was analysed quantitatively. In order to perform this analysis, the population was categorized into three socioeconomic strata (lower, middle, upper). Waste characterization revealed the presence of products that give origin to household hazardous waste. In the northern region (Mexicali city), household hazardous waste comprised 3.7% of municipal solid waste, the largest categories in this fraction were home care products (29.2%), cleaning products (19.5%) and batteries and electronic equipment (15.7%). In the central region, HHW comprised 1.03% of municipal solid waste; the main categories in this fraction were represented by cleaning products (39%), self care products (27.3%), and insecticides (14.4%). In Mexicali, the socioeconomic study demonstrated that the production of HHW is independent of the income level. Furthermore, the composition of the solid waste stream in both regions suggested the influence of another set of variables such as local climate, migration patterns and marketing coverage. Further research is needed in order to establish the effect of low quantities of HHW upon the environment and public health.

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of seven Mycoplasma hyosynoviae strains

    PubMed Central

    Bumgardner, Eric A; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E; Lawrence, Paulraj K

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Mycoplasma hyosynoviae can result in debilitating arthritis in pigs, particularly those aged 10 weeks or older. Strategies for controlling this pathogen are becoming increasingly important due to the rise in the number of cases of arthritis that have been attributed to infection in recent years. In order to begin to develop interventions to prevent arthritis caused by M. hyosynoviae, more information regarding the specific proteins and potential virulence factors that its genome encodes was needed. However, the genome of this emerging swine pathogen had not been sequenced previously. In this report, we present a comparative analysis of the genomes of seven strains of M. hyosynoviae isolated from different locations in North America during the years 2010 to 2013. We identified several putative virulence factors that may contribute to the ability of this pathogen to adhere to host cells. Additionally, we discovered several prophage genes present within the genomes of three strains that show significant similarity to MAV1, a phage isolated from the related species, M. arthritidis. We also identified CRISPR-Cas and type III restriction and modification systems present in two strains that may contribute to their ability to defend against phage infection. PMID:25693846

  6. Comparative Analysis of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella micdadei Virulence Traits

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amrita D.; Swanson, Michele S.

    1999-01-01

    While the majority of Legionnaire’s disease has been attributed to Legionella pneumophila, Legionella micdadei can cause a similar infection in immunocompromised people. Consistent with its epidemiological profile, the growth of L. micdadei in cultured macrophages is less robust than that of L. pneumophila. To identify those features of the Legionella spp. which are correlated to efficient growth in macrophages, two approaches were taken. First, a phenotypic analysis compared four clinical isolates of L. micdadei to one well-characterized strain of L. pneumophila. Seven traits previously correlated with the virulence of L. pneumophila were evaluated: infection and replication in cultured macrophages, evasion of phagosome-lysosome fusion, contact-dependent cytotoxicity, sodium sensitivity, osmotic resistance, and conjugal DNA transfer. By nearly every measure, L. micdadei appeared less virulent than L. pneumophila. The surprising exception was L. micdadei 31B, which evaded lysosomes and replicated in macrophages as efficiently as L. pneumophila, despite lacking both contact-dependent cytopathicity and regulated sodium sensitivity. Second, in an attempt to identify virulence factors genetically, an L. pneumophila genomic library was screened for clones which conferred robust intracellular growth on L. micdadei. No such loci were isolated, consistent with the multiple phenotypic differences observed for the two species. Apparently, L. pneumophila and L. micdadei use distinct strategies to colonize alveolar macrophages, causing Legionnaire’s disease. PMID:10417184

  7. Comparative analysis of used car price evaluation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuancan; Hao, Lulu; Xu, Cong

    2017-05-01

    An accurate used car price evaluation is a catalyst for the healthy development of used car market. Data mining has been applied to predict used car price in several articles. However, little is studied on the comparison of using different algorithms in used car price estimation. This paper collects more than 100,000 used car dealing records throughout China to do empirical analysis on a thorough comparison of two algorithms: linear regression and random forest. These two algorithms are used to predict used car price in three different models: model for a certain car make, model for a certain car series and universal model. Results show that random forest has a stable but not ideal effect in price evaluation model for a certain car make, but it shows great advantage in the universal model compared with linear regression. This indicates that random forest is an optimal algorithm when handling complex models with a large number of variables and samples, yet it shows no obvious advantage when coping with simple models with less variables.

  8. Comparing models for perfluorooctanoic acid pharmacokinetics using Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Wambaugh, John F; Barton, Hugh A; Setzer, R Woodrow

    2008-12-01

    Selecting the appropriate pharmacokinetic (PK) model given the available data is investigated for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which has been widely analyzed with an empirical, one-compartment model. This research examined the results of experiments [Kemper R. A., DuPont Haskell Laboratories, USEPA Administrative Record AR-226.1499 (2003)] that administered single oral or iv doses of PFOA to adult male and female rats. PFOA concentration was observed over time; in plasma for some animals and in fecal and urinary excretion for others. There were four rats per dose group, for a total of 36 males and 36 females. Assuming that the PK parameters for each individual within a gender were drawn from the same, biologically varying population, plasma and excretion data were jointly analyzed using a hierarchical framework to separate uncertainty due to measurement error from actual biological variability. Bayesian analysis using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) provides tools to perform such an analysis as well as quantitative diagnostics to evaluate and discriminate between models. Starting from a one-compartment PK model with separate clearances to urine and feces, the model was incrementally expanded using Bayesian measures to assess if the expansion was supported by the data. PFOA excretion is sexually dimorphic in rats; male rats have bi-phasic elimination that is roughly 40 times slower than that of the females, which appear to have a single elimination phase. The male and female data were analyzed separately, keeping only the parameters describing the measurement process in common. For male rats, including excretion data initially decreased certainty in the one-compartment parameter estimates compared to an analysis using plasma data only. Allowing a third, unspecified clearance improved agreement and increased certainty when all the data was used, however a significant amount of eliminated PFOA was estimated to be missing from the excretion data. Adding an additional

  9. The Hubble Constant.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Neal

    2007-01-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. In the last 20 years, much progress has been made and estimates now range between 60 and 75 km s -1 Mpc -1 , with most now between 70 and 75 km s -1 Mpc -1 , a huge improvement over the factor-of-2 uncertainty which used to prevail. Further improvements which gave a generally agreed margin of error of a few percent rather than the current 10% would be vital input to much other interesting cosmology. There are several programmes which are likely to lead us to this point in the next 10 years.

  10. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-manometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment.

  11. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Timothy

    sensing satellite industry. In commissioning this study, NOAA's goal was to better understand the role that U.S. Government policies and regulations have in shaping the prospects for emerging commercial remote sensing satellite firms. The study assessed the risks against broader trends in the larger U.S. remote sensing industry and geospatial technology and effective policy implementation. The Department of Commerce is working with NOAA licensees to identify foreign actions which could restrict market access by U.S. firms, and seeking to provide a "level playing field" for U.S. service providers. The Department of Commerce has dedicated new resources to its licensing activities. In Fiscal Year 2002, the Department obtained 1.2 million in funding to support the NOAA program, through staff, equipment, technical support, constituent outreach, and market and policy studies. To better understand the market and make more well-informed licensing decisions, NOAA is participating in a broad-based market study effort under the direction of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) and NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program. This study is providing long-term analysis of the commercial remote sensing industry. It is being supported by interviews with industry and government experts, a web-based survey, and a thorough review and analysis of related literature. The project should more clearly determine future remote sensing needs and requirements, and maximize the industry's baselines, standards, and socio-economic potential. NOAA, through its participation in this study, has gained important new insights into the status and future trends of this industry. The study's initial findings estimate 2001 industry revenue at 2 billion, growing at 13% per year, to an approximate level of 6 billion in 2010 (in constant, calendar year 2000 dollars). Currently, across all sectors, the most active market segments are in nati onal /glo bal security, mapping

  12. Statistical correlation analysis for comparing vibration data from test and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.; Strang, R. F.; Purves, L. R.; Hershfeld, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A theory was developed to compare vibration modes obtained by NASTRAN analysis with those obtained experimentally. Because many more analytical modes can be obtained than experimental modes, the analytical set was treated as expansion functions for putting both sources in comparative form. The dimensional symmetry was developed for three general cases: nonsymmetric whole model compared with a nonsymmetric whole structural test, symmetric analytical portion compared with a symmetric experimental portion, and analytical symmetric portion with a whole experimental test. The theory was coded and a statistical correlation program was installed as a utility. The theory is established with small classical structures.

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Hu, Yongfei; Wang, Qi; Li, Hong Min; Gao, George F; Liu, Cui Hua; Zhu, Baoli

    2014-06-13

    Due to excessive antibiotic use, drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become a serious public health threat and a major obstacle to disease control in many countries. To better understand the evolution of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains, we performed whole genome sequencing for 7 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates with different antibiotic resistance profiles and conducted comparative genomic analysis of gene variations among them. We observed that all 7 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates with different levels of drug resistance harbored similar numbers of SNPs, ranging from 1409-1464. The numbers of insertion/deletions (Indels) identified in the 7 isolates were also similar, ranging from 56 to 101. A total of 39 types of mutations were identified in drug resistance-associated loci, including 14 previously reported ones and 25 newly identified ones. Sixteen of the identified large Indels spanned PE-PPE-PGRS genes, which represents a major source of antigenic variability. Aside from SNPs and Indels, a CRISPR locus with varied spacers was observed in all 7 clinical isolates, suggesting that they might play an important role in plasticity of the M. tuberculosis genome. The nucleotide diversity (Л value) and selection intensity (dN/dS value) of the whole genome sequences of the 7 isolates were similar. The dN/dS values were less than 1 for all 7 isolates (range from 0.608885 to 0.637365), supporting the notion that M. tuberculosis genomes undergo purifying selection. The Л values and dN/dS values were comparable between drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains. In this study, we show that clinical M. tuberculosis isolates exhibit distinct variations in terms of the distribution of SNP, Indels, CRISPR-cas locus, as well as the nucleotide diversity and selection intensity, but there are no generalizable differences between drug-susceptible and drug-resistant isolates on the genomic scale. Our study provides evidence strengthening the notion that

  14. Comparative analysis on the probability of being a good payer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihova, V.; Pavlov, V.

    2017-10-01

    Credit risk assessment is crucial for the bank industry. The current practice uses various approaches for the calculation of credit risk. The core of these approaches is the use of multiple regression models, applied in order to assess the risk associated with the approval of people applying for certain products (loans, credit cards, etc.). Based on data from the past, these models try to predict what will happen in the future. Different data requires different type of models. This work studies the causal link between the conduct of an applicant upon payment of the loan and the data that he completed at the time of application. A database of 100 borrowers from a commercial bank is used for the purposes of the study. The available data includes information from the time of application and credit history while paying off the loan. Customers are divided into two groups, based on the credit history: Good and Bad payers. Linear and logistic regression are applied in parallel to the data in order to estimate the probability of being good for new borrowers. A variable, which contains value of 1 for Good borrowers and value of 0 for Bad candidates, is modeled as a dependent variable. To decide which of the variables listed in the database should be used in the modelling process (as independent variables), a correlation analysis is made. Due to the results of it, several combinations of independent variables are tested as initial models - both with linear and logistic regression. The best linear and logistic models are obtained after initial transformation of the data and following a set of standard and robust statistical criteria. A comparative analysis between the two final models is made and scorecards are obtained from both models to assess new customers at the time of application. A cut-off level of points, bellow which to reject the applications and above it - to accept them, has been suggested for both the models, applying the strategy to keep the same Accept Rate as

  15. Comparing ungulate dietary proxies using discriminant function analysis.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Danielle; Theodor, Jessica M

    2011-12-01

    A variety of tooth-wear and morphological dietary proxies have been proposed for ungulates. In turn, they have been applied to fossil specimens with the purpose of reconstructing the diets of extinct taxa. Although these dietary proxies have been used in isolation and in combination, a consistent set of statistical analyses has never been applied to all of the available datasets. The purpose of this study is to determine how well the most commonly used dietary proxies classify ungulates as browsers, grazers, and mixed feeders individually and in combination. Discriminant function analysis is applied to individual dietary proxies (hypsodonty, mesowear, microwear, and several cranial dietary proxies) and to combinations thereof to compare rates of successful dietary classification. In general, the tooth-wear dietary proxies (mesowear and microwear) perform better than morphological dietary proxies, though none are strong proxies in isolation. The success rates of the cranial dietary proxies are not increased substantially when ruminants and bovids are analyzed separately, and significance among the three dietary guilds is reduced when controlling for phylogenetic relatedness. The combination of hypsodonty, mesowear, and microwear is found to have a high rate of successful dietary classification, but a combination of all commonly used proxies increases the success rate to 100%. In most cases, mixed feeders bear the greatest resemblance to browsers suggesting that a morphology intermediate to browsers and grazers may represent a fitness valley resulting from the inability to exploit both browse and graze efficiently. These results are important for future paleoecological studies and should be used as a guide for determining which dietary proxies are appropriate to the research question. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of brains of naturally aging mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Liu, T; Li, S; Zhang, X; Ding, Q; Que, H; Yan, X; Wei, K; Liu, S

    2008-06-26

    We used comparative proteomic techniques to identify aging-related brain proteins in normal mice from neonate to old age. By 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) analysis, 39 proteins were identified, among which 6 stayed unchanged since 3 months, 6 increased and 27 decreased in various manners during aging. They are mainly involved in processes usually with destructive changes during aging, such as metabolism, transport, signaling, stress response and apoptosis. The 27 proteins' decrease may be responsible for brain aging. In particular, decrease of proteasome alpha subunits 3/6, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L3, valosin-containing protein and calreticulin may be responsible for the declination of protein quality control; glutamate dehydrogenase 1, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase core protein 2 for the shortage of energy and reducing agent; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 for the increase of DNA damage and transcription detuning; calbindin 1 and amphiphysin for the disturbance of synaptic transport and ion signals. The six proteins' increase may be involved in anti-aging processes. In particular, transketolase, mitochondrial creatine kinase 1 and ribosomal protein L37 may help to enhance energy metabolism; triosephosphate isomerase 1 may help to resist oxidative stress. Moreover, most of these proteins were found for the first time to be involved in the natural senescence of brain, which would provide new clues about the mechanism of brain aging.

  17. Comparative analysis of metagenomes of Italian top soil improvers

    SciTech Connect

    Gigliucci, Federica, E-mail: Federica.gigliucci@li

    Biosolids originating from Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants are proposed as top soil improvers (TSI) for their beneficial input of organic carbon on agriculture lands. Their use to amend soil is controversial, as it may lead to the presence of emerging hazards of anthropogenic or animal origin in the environment devoted to food production. In this study, we used a shotgun metagenomics sequencing as a tool to perform a characterization of the hazards related with the TSIs. The samples showed the presence of many virulence genes associated to different diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes as well as of different antimicrobial resistance-associatedmore » genes. The genes conferring resistance to Fluoroquinolones was the most relevant class of antimicrobial resistance genes observed in all the samples tested. To a lesser extent traits associated with the resistance to Methicillin in Staphylococci and genes conferring resistance to Streptothricin, Fosfomycin and Vancomycin were also identified. The most represented metal resistance genes were cobalt-zinc-cadmium related, accounting for 15–50% of the sequence reads in the different metagenomes out of the total number of those mapping on the class of resistance to compounds determinants. Moreover the taxonomic analysis performed by comparing compost-based samples and biosolids derived from municipal sewage-sludges treatments divided the samples into separate populations, based on the microbiota composition. The results confirm that the metagenomics is efficient to detect genomic traits associated with pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in complex matrices and this approach can be efficiently used for the traceability of TSI samples using the microorganisms’ profiles as indicators of their origin. - Highlights: • Sludge- and green- based biosolids analysed by metagenomics. • Biosolids may introduce microbial hazards in the food chain. • Metagenomics enables tracking biosolids’ sources.« less

  18. Hidden Markov models for evolution and comparative genomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Bykova, Nadezda A; Favorov, Alexander V; Mironov, Andrey A

    2013-01-01

    The problem of reconstruction of ancestral states given a phylogeny and data from extant species arises in a wide range of biological studies. The continuous-time Markov model for the discrete states evolution is generally used for the reconstruction of ancestral states. We modify this model to account for a case when the states of the extant species are uncertain. This situation appears, for example, if the states for extant species are predicted by some program and thus are known only with some level of reliability; it is common for bioinformatics field. The main idea is formulation of the problem as a hidden Markov model on a tree (tree HMM, tHMM), where the basic continuous-time Markov model is expanded with the introduction of emission probabilities of observed data (e.g. prediction scores) for each underlying discrete state. Our tHMM decoding algorithm allows us to predict states at the ancestral nodes as well as to refine states at the leaves on the basis of quantitative comparative genomics. The test on the simulated data shows that the tHMM approach applied to the continuous variable reflecting the probabilities of the states (i.e. prediction score) appears to be more accurate then the reconstruction from the discrete states assignment defined by the best score threshold. We provide examples of applying our model to the evolutionary analysis of N-terminal signal peptides and transcription factor binding sites in bacteria. The program is freely available at http://bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/~nadya/tHMM and via web-service at http://bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/treehmmweb.

  19. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica from Bovine Sources.

    PubMed

    Klima, Cassidy L; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Laing, Chad; Gannon, Vick P; Xu, Yong; Rasmussen, Jay; Potter, Andrew; Hendrick, Steve; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A

    2016-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1) and 6 (S6) isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2) found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2-8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design intended to reduce the

  20. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica from Bovine Sources

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Cook, Shaun R.; Zaheer, Rahat; Laing, Chad; Gannon, Vick P.; Xu, Yong; Rasmussen, Jay; Potter, Andrew; Hendrick, Steve; Alexander, Trevor W.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1) and 6 (S6) isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2) found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2–8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design intended to reduce the

  1. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid and Adult Stages

    PubMed Central

    Sulima, Anna; Savijoki, Kirsi; Bień, Justyna; Näreaho, Anu; Sałamatin, Rusłan; Conn, David Bruce; Młocicki, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Cestodiases are common parasitic diseases of animals and humans. As cestodes have complex lifecycles, hexacanth larvae, metacestodes (including cysticercoids), and adults produce proteins allowing them to establish invasion and to survive in the hostile environment of the host. Hymenolepis diminuta is the most commonly used model cestode in experimental parasitology. The aims of the present study were to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of two consecutive developmental stages of H. diminuta (cysticercoid and adult) and to distinguish proteins which might be characteristic for each of the stages from those shared by both stages. Somatic proteins of H. diminuta were isolated from 6-week-old cysticercoids and adult tapeworms. Cysticercoids were obtained from experimentally infected beetles, Tenebrio molitor, whereas adult worms were collected from experimentally infected rats. Proteins were separated by GeLC-MS/MS (one dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry). Additionally protein samples were digested in-liquid and identified by LC-MS/MS. The identified proteins were classified according to molecular function, cellular components and biological processes. Our study showed a number of differences and similarities in the protein profiles of cysticercoids and adults; 233 cysticercoid and 182 adult proteins were identified. From these proteins, 131 were present only in the cysticercoid and 80 only in the adult stage samples. Both developmental stages shared 102 proteins; among which six represented immunomodulators and one is a potential drug target. In-liquid digestion and LC-MS/MS complemented and confirmed some of the GeLC-MS/MS identifications. Possible roles and functions of proteins identified with both proteomic approaches are discussed. PMID:29379475

  2. Online Patient Resources for Liposuction: A Comparative Analysis of Readability.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Christina R; Ricci, Joseph A; Chuang, Danielle J; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-03-01

    As patients strive to become informed about health care, inadequate functional health literacy is a significant barrier. Nearly half of American adults have poor or marginal health literacy skills and the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association have recommended that patient information should be written at a sixth grade level. The aim of this study is to identify the most commonly used online patient information about liposuction and to evaluate its readability relative to average American literacy. An internet search of "liposuction" was performed and the 10 most popular websites identified. User and location data were disabled and sponsored results excluded. All relevant, patient-directed articles were downloaded and formatted into plain text. Articles were then analyzed using 10 established readability tests. A comparison group was constructed to identify the most popular online consumer information about tattooing. Mean readability scores and specific article characteristics were compared. A total of 80 articles were collected from websites about liposuction. Readability analysis revealed an overall 13.6 grade reading level (range, 10-16 grade); all articles exceeded the target sixth grade level. Consumer websites about tattooing were significantly easier to read, with a mean 7.8 grade level. These sites contained significantly fewer characters per word and words per sentence, as well as a smaller proportion of complex, long, and unfamiliar words. Online patient resources about liposuction are potentially too difficult for a large number of Americans to understand. Liposuction websites are significantly harder to read than consumer websites about tattooing. Aesthetic surgeons are advised to discuss with patients resources they use and guide patients to appropriate information for their skill level.

  3. a Comparative Analysis of Fluent and Cerebral Palsied Speech.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Doorn, Janis Lee

    Several features of the acoustic waveforms of fluent and cerebral palsied speech were compared, using six fluent and seven cerebral palsied subjects, with a major emphasis being placed on an investigation of the trajectories of the first three formants (vocal tract resonances). To provide an overall picture which included other acoustic features, fundamental frequency, intensity, speech timing (speech rate and syllable duration), and prevocalization (vocalization prior to initial stop consonants found in cerebral palsied speech) were also investigated. Measurements were made using repetitions of a test sentence which was chosen because it required large excursions of the speech articulators (lips, tongue and jaw), so that differences in the formant trajectories for the fluent and cerebral palsied speakers would be emphasized. The acoustic features were all extracted from the digitized speech waveform (10 kHz sampling rate): the fundamental frequency contours were derived manually, the intensity contours were measured using the signal covariance, speech rate and syllable durations were measured manually, as were the prevocalization durations, while the formant trajectories were derived from short time spectra which were calculated for each 10 ms of speech using linear prediction analysis. Differences which were found in the acoustic features can be summarized as follows. For cerebral palsied speakers, the fundamental frequency contours generally showed inappropriate exaggerated fluctuations, as did some of the intensity contours; the mean fundamental frequencies were either higher or the same as for the fluent subjects; speech rates were reduced, and syllable durations were longer; prevocalization was consistently present at the beginning of the test sentence; formant trajectories were found to have overall reduced frequency ranges, and to contain anomalous transitional features, but it is noteworthy that for any one cerebral palsied subject, the inappropriate

  4. Optical constants, single-oscillator modal and refractive index dispersion analysis of lithium zinc bismuth borate glasses doped with Eu{sup 3+} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Boda, Ramesh; Srinivas, G.; Komaraiah, D.

    2016-05-06

    The glasses of composition xLi{sub 2}O-15ZnO- 20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}- (64 - x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3}- 1EuO (ZLB) (where x=0, 5, 10, 15, 20 mole %) prepared by melt-quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the prepared glasses was confirmed by XRD spectra. The UV-Vis optical absorption spectrum was recorded in the wave length range of 200-1000 nm. It is observed that the optical band gap is inversely changing with Urbach energy. The optical constants such as G (a constant proportional to the second-order deformation potential) and E{sub f} (a constant that depends on local coordination and is called as free energy ofmore » the glass system). The most significant result of the present work is the refractive index dispersion curves of the ZLB glasses obey the single-oscillator model and oscillator parameters (E{sub o}, E{sub d}) changed with the Li{sub 2}O content. the absorption edge, band gap and Urbach energy is changing nonlinearly with increasing content of Li{sub 2}O, which can be used to calculate the optical, physical, and other constants.« less

  5. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  6. Constant-parameter capture-recapture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownie, C.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Jolly (1982, Biometrics 38, 301-321) presented modifications of the Jolly-Seber model for capture-recapture data, which assume constant survival and/or capture rates. Where appropriate, because of the reduced number of parameters, these models lead to more efficient estimators than the Jolly-Seber model. The tests to compare models given by Jolly do not make complete use of the data, and we present here the appropriate modifications, and also indicate how to carry out goodness-of-fit tests which utilize individual capture history information. We also describe analogous models for the case where young and adult animals are tagged. The availability of computer programs to perform the analysis is noted, and examples are given using output from these programs.

  7. Comparative analysis of multiple inducible phages from Mannheimia haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yan D; Cook, Shaun R; Wang, Jiaying; Klima, Cassidy L; Hsu, Yu-hung; Kropinski, Andrew M; Turner, Dann; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-08-30

    Mannheimia haemolytica is a commensal bacterium that resides in the upper respiratory tract of cattle that can play a role in bovine respiratory disease. Prophages are common in the M. haemolytica genome and contribute significantly to host diversity. The objective of this research was to undertake comparative genomic analysis of phages induced from strains of M. haemolytica serotype A1 (535A and 2256A), A2 (587A and 1127A) and A6 (1152A and 3927A). Overall, four P2-like (535AP1, 587AP1, 1127AP1 and 2256AP1; genomes: 34.9-35.7 kb; G+C content: 41.5-42.1 %; genes: 51-53 coding sequences, CDSs), four λ-like (535AP2, 587AP2, 1152AP2 and 3927AP1; genomes: 48.6-52.1 kb; 41.1-41.4 % mol G+C; genes: 77-83 CDSs and 2 tRNAs) and one Mu-like (3927AP2; genome: 33.8 kb; 43.1 % mol G+C; encoding 50 CDSs) phages were identified. All P2-like phages are collinear with the temperate phage φMhaA1-PHL101 with 535AP1, 2256AP1 and 1152AP1 being most closely related, followed by 587AP1 and 1127AP1. Lambdoid phages are not collinear with any other known λ-type phages, with 587AP2 being distinct from 535AP2, 3927AP1 and 1152AP2. All λ-like phages contain genes encoding a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system and cell-associated haemolysin XhlA. The Mu-like phage induced from 3927A is closely related to the phage remnant φMhaMu2 from M. haemolytica PHL21, with similar Mu-like phages existing in the genomes of M. haemolytica 535A and 587A. This is among the first reports of both λ- and Mu-type phages being induced from M. haemolytica. Compared to phages induced from commensal strains of M. haemolytica serotype A2, those induced from the more virulent A1 and A6 serotypes are more closely related. Moreover, when P2-, λ- and Mu-like phages co-existed in the M. haemolytica genome, only P2- and λ-like phages were detected upon induction, suggesting that Mu-type phages may be more resistant to induction. Toxin-antitoxin gene cassettes in λ-like phages may contribute to their genomic

  8. A comparative analysis of frequency modulation threshold extension techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Loch, F. J.

    1970-01-01

    FM threshold extension for system performance improvement, comparing impulse noise elimination, correlation detection and delta modulation signal processing techniques implemented at demodulator output

  9. Organizational Effectiveness: A Comparative Analysis between Army and Navy Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    evaluate leadership styles . These forty questions were modified from Fleishman’s leadership questionnaire. Comparative analyses were conducted among groups to determine if significant differences existed.

  10. Comparative durability and costs analysis of ventricular shunts.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Kashkoush, Ahmed; McDowell, Michael M; Lariviere, William R; Ismail, Naveed; Friedlander, Robert M

    2018-05-11

    OBJECTIVE Ventricular shunt (VS) durability has been well studied in the pediatric population and in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus; however, further evaluation in a more heterogeneous adult population is needed. This study aims to evaluate the effect of diagnosis and valve type-fixed versus programmable-on shunt durability and cost for placement of shunts in adult patients. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent implantation of a VS for hydrocephalus at their institution over a 3-year period between August 2013 and October 2016 with a minimum postoperative follow-up of 6 months. The primary outcome was shunt revision, which was defined as reoperation for any indication after the initial procedure. Supply costs, shunt durability, and hydrocephalus etiologies were compared between fixed and programmable valves. RESULTS A total of 417 patients underwent shunt placement during the index time frame, consisting of 62 fixed shunts (15%) and 355 programmable shunts (85%). The mean follow-up was 30 ± 12 (SD) months. The shunt revision rate was 22% for programmable pressure valves and 21% for fixed pressure valves (HR 1.1 [95% CI 0.6-1.8]). Shunt complications, such as valve failure, infection, and overdrainage, occurred with similar frequency across valve types. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed no difference in durability between fixed (mean 39 months) and programmable (mean 40 months) shunts (p = 0.980, log-rank test). The median shunt supply cost per index case and accounting for subsequent revisions was $3438 (interquartile range $2938-$3876) and $1504 (interquartile range $753-$1584) for programmable and fixed shunts, respectively (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Of all hydrocephalus etiologies, pseudotumor cerebri (HR 1.9 [95% CI 1.2-3.1]) and previous shunt malfunction (HR 1.8 [95% CI 1.2-2.7]) were found to significantly increase the risk of shunt revision. Within each diagnosis

  11. Comparative analysis of aerosols elemental distribution in some Romanian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Susumu; Masuda, Toshio; Popa-Simil, Liviu; Mateescu, Liviu

    1996-04-01

    The study's main aim is obtaining aerosols particulate elemental distribution and mapping it for some Romanian regions, in order to obtain preliminary information regarding the concentrations of aerosol particles and networking strategy versus local conditions. For this we used the mobile sampling strategy, but taking care on all local specific conditions and weather. In the summer of 1993, in July we took about 8 samples on a rather large territory of SE Romania which were analysed and mapped. The regions which showed an interesting behaviour or doubts such as Bucharest and Dobrogea were zoomed in near the same period of 1994, for comparing the new details with the global aspect previously obtained. An attempt was made to infer the minimum necessary number of stations in a future monitoring network. A mobile sampler was used, having tow polycarbonate filter posts of 8 and 0.4 μm. PIXE elemental analysis was performed on a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, by using a proton beam. More than 15 elements were measured. Suggestive 2D and 3D representations were drawn, as well as histogram charts for the concentrations' distribution in the specific regions at the specified times. In spite of the poor samples from the qualitative point of view the experiment surprised us by the good coincidence (good agreement) with realities in terrain known by other means long time ago, and highlighted the power of PIXE methods in terms of money and time. Conclusions over the link between industry, traffic, vegetation, wether, surface waters, soil composition, power plant exhaust and so on, on the one hand, and surface concentration distribution, on the other, were drawn. But the method's weak points were also highlighted; these are weather dependencies (especially air masses movement and precipitation), local relief, microclimate and vegetation, and of course localisation of the sampling point versus the pollution sources and their regime. The paper contains a synthesis of the whole

  12. Comparative analysis of anchorage systems for micro implant orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Favero, Lorenzo; Giagnorio, Costantino; Cocilovo, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The study analysed twelve anchorage systems based on micro implants in terms of their bio-mechanical properties and appraised their actual clinical effectiveness. The analysed micro implants had data provided by the manufacturers or extracted from articles published in specialised journals. The parameters taken into account were: material, surface treatment, head type, length, diameter, neck length, filleted self drilling or self tapping surface, applicable orthodontic forces, possibility of immediate loading, and device removal. Material Grade 5 titanium, titanium alloy (TiAl6V4), surgical steel; surfaces: smooth, sand-blasted and acid etched; head type: bracket, conic with button, round, hexagonal, button with cross cuts, double melted sphere; lengths: between 8.0 to 14 mm; diameters: between 1.2 to 2.0 mms; neck lengths: inferior to 1.5mm and superior to 2.0mm; filleted portion: self tapping and/or self drilling; applicable orthodontic forces: up to 500 g, possibility of immediate loading, device removal, possibility to use in growing patients. The most widely used material was TiAl6V4; most of the surfaces were smooth; the most commonly used head type was the bracket; the most often produced length was the "short" one (8.0-9.9 mm), the most demanded diameter the "smaller" one (1.2-1.4 mms); six systems out of eleven had micro implants with "extra" and "standard" necks; only 3 systems out of eleven produced "non self drilling"devices; all the micro implants analysed were able to withstand orthodontic forces between 150 g and 350 g; all devices were suitable for "immediate loading"; all micro implants had to be removed; all micro implants could be used in growing patients. The comparative analysis showed that micro implants could be used as valid anchorage systems, if dental anchorage was insufficient either in qualitative terms (i.e. parodontal problems) or in quantitative terms (i.e. few dental elements remaining), and in all those situations of limited patient

  13. Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Miao; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ωhde are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ2min=426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain -0.07<ΩΛ0<0.68 and correspondingly 0.04<Ωhde0<0.79, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy between the holographic dark energy and cosmological constant components in the ΛHDE model.

  14. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  15. A Comparative Assessment of Greek Universities' Efficiency Using Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George

    2010-01-01

    In part due to the increased demand for higher education, typical evaluation frameworks for universities often address the key issue of available resource utilisation. This study seeks to estimate the efficiency of 20 public universities in Greece through quantitative analysis (including performance indicators, data envelopment analysis (DEA) and…

  16. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  17. The Risky Shift in Policy Decision Making: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilpert, B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Based on analysis of data on 432 decision-makers from around the world, this study examines the decision-making phenomenon that individuals tend to move toward riskier decisions after group discussion. Findings of the analysis contradicted earlier studies, showing a consistent shift toward greater risk avoidance. Available from Elsevier Scientific…

  18. Comparative Analysis of Languages for Machine Processing. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto; And Others

    This report gives the results obtained in the semantic and syntactic analysis of the Japanese particles "de,""ni,""e," and "wo" in comparison to their equivalents in English, German, and Spanish. The study is based on the so-called "Correlational Analysis" as proposed by Ernst von Glaserfeld. The…

  19. Discovery and Analysis of Intersecting Datasets: JMARS as a Comparative Science Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Dickenshied, S.; Anwar, S.; Noss, D.

    2014-12-01

    A great deal can be discovered from comparing and studying a chosen region or area on a planetary body. In this age, science has an enormous amount of instruments and data to study from; often the first obstacle can be finding the right information. Developed at Arizona State University, Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS), enables users to easily find and study related datasets. JMARS supports a long list of planetary bodies in our solar system, including Earth, the Moon, Mars, and other planets, satellites, and asteroids. Within JMARS a user can start with a particular area and search for all datasets that have images/information intersecting that region of interest. Once a user has found data they are interested in comparing, they can view the image at once and see the numeric information at that location. This information can be analyzed in a few powerful ways. If the dataset of interest varies with time but the location stays constant, then the user may want to compare specific locations through time. This can be done the Investigate Tool in JMARS. Users can create a Data Spike and the information at that point will be plotted through time. If the region does not have a temporal dataset, then a different method would be suitable and involves a profile line. Also using the Investigate Tool, a user can create a Data Profile (a line which can contain as many vertices as necessary) and all numeric data underneath the line will be plotted on one graph for easy comparison. This can be used to compare differences between similar datasets - perhaps the same measurement but from different instruments - or to find correlations from one dataset to another. A third form of analysis is planned for future development. This method involves entire areas (polygons). Sampling of the different data sources beneath an area can reveal statistics like maximum, minimum, and average values, and standard deviation. These values can be compared to other data

  20. Analysis of the Dielectric constant of saline-alkali soils and the effect on radar backscattering coefficient: a case study of soda alkaline saline soils in Western Jilin Province using RADARSAT-2 data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yang; Zhao, Kai; Ren, Jian-hua; Ding, Yan-ling; Wu, Li-li

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is a global problem, especially in developing countries, which affects the environment and productivity of agriculture areas. Salt has a significant effect on the complex dielectric constant of wet soil. However, there is no suitable model to describe the variation in the backscattering coefficient due to changes in soil salinity content. The purpose of this paper is to use backscattering models to understand behaviors of the backscattering coefficient in saline soils based on the analysis of its dielectric constant. The effects of moisture and salinity on the dielectric constant by combined Dobson mixing model and seawater dielectric constant model are analyzed, and the backscattering coefficient is then simulated using the AIEM. Simultaneously, laboratory measurements were performed on ground samples. The frequency effect of the laboratory results was not the same as the simulated results. The frequency dependence of the ionic conductivity of an electrolyte solution is influenced by the ion's components. Finally, the simulated backscattering coefficients measured from the dielectric constant with the AIEM were analyzed using the extracted backscattering coefficient from the RADARSAT-2 image. The results show that RADARSAT-2 is potentially able to measure soil salinity; however, the mixed pixel problem needs to be more thoroughly considered.

  1. Transportation Brokerage : A Comparative Analysis of 13 Projects

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-06-01

    This report is a comparative study of 13 transportation brokerage projects evaluated under the auspices of UMTA's Service and Methods Demonstration (SMD) Program. Transportation brokerage is characterized as an orientation toward understanding and ac...

  2. Design and Analysis of Cognitive Interviews for Comparative Multinational Testing

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Rory; Padilla, José-Luis; Willson, Stephanie; Widdop, Sally; Caspar, Rachel; Dimov, Martin; Gray, Michelle; Nunes, Cátia; Prüfer, Peter; Schöbi, Nicole; Schoua-Glusberg, Alisú

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the work of the Comparative Cognitive Testing Workgroup, an international coalition of survey methodologists interested in developing an evidence-based methodology for examining the comparability of survey questions within cross-cultural or multinational contexts. To meet this objective, it was necessary to ensure that the cognitive interviewing (CI) method itself did not introduce method bias. Therefore, the workgroup first identified specific characteristics inherent in CI methodology that could undermine the comparability of CI evidence. The group then developed and implemented a protocol addressing those issues. In total, 135 cognitive interviews were conducted by participating countries. Through the process, the group identified various interpretive patterns resulting from sociocultural and language-related differences among countries as well as other patterns of error that would impede comparability of survey data. PMID:29081719

  3. Comparative analysis of dynamic pricing strategies for managed lanes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate and compare the performances of different : dynamic pricing strategies for managed lanes facilities. These pricing strategies include real-time : traffic responsive methods, as well as refund options a...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Red-Edge Hyperspectral Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T.

    The spectrally continuous observations of 3 nm bandwidth in 680 to 800 nm range over the growth cycle of wheat were subjected to first order differentiation to identify the point of inflection in red to near-IR transition zone. During 40 to 84 days after sowing (DAS), the point of inflection was observed in 723 to 735 nm region with peak response at 729 nm for 64 DAS . For differentiated curve pertaining to 25 DAS (initial vegetative) and 90 DAS (initial senescence) phenological stages, the point of inflection was in 690-693 and 744-747 nm spectral region, respectively. The ratios corresponding to 1dB (RI1dB = R 735 /R720), 2dB (RI 2dB = R738/R 720), 3dB (RI3dB = R741 /R 717) down signal levels and half signal level (RIhalf = R747/R 708 ) were computed. For nomenclature point of view, R41 refers to reflectance for 3 nm7 bandwidth centered at 741 nm. Correlations for these developed RIs were studied with reference to indices given by Vogelmann i.e., VOG a = R 740 /R720 , VOG b = [(R 734-R747)/(R715+R720)] and red edge spectral parameter (RESP) = R750 /R 710. VOG a and RESP conceptually resemble with developed RI 2dB and RIhalf , respectively. All RIs were found correlated with VOGa , VOG b and RESP with r2 in the range of 0.96 to 0.99; r2 was 0.998 for RI2dB and VOG a pair and 0.996 for RI half and RESP pair; the slope factor of regression relationship improved by about 50% from RI dB to2 RI3dB and by about 125% from RI3dB to RIhalf with r2 in 0.97-0.99 range. Thus, theoretical basis for VOG a and RESP in terms of dB based indices has been provided. The wavelengths used in VOGb are noticed in dB based indices ; to provide stability to small magnitude R720, the sum of R720 and R715 has been used in VOGb. Based on regression analysis of these indices with LAI in its growth and decline phases separately, the slope value for VOG b, RI 2dB, VOG a, RIhalf, RESP and area under 680 to 760 nm for first order derivative curve (area) were in 0.08-0.11, 0.24 - 0.34, 0

  5. A comparative policy analysis of seat belt laws : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-24

    This analysis examined data from a variety of sources to estimate the benefit of enhancing Iowas current law to require all : passengers to use seat belts. In addition to assessing Iowans opinions about changing the law, a literature review, a ...

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    Analysis Modeling and Simulation (AMS) Testbeds can make significant contributions in identifying the benefits of more effective, more active systems management, resulting from integrating transformative applications enabled by new data from wireless...

  7. TOOLS FOR COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES: COMPETING OR COMPLEMENTARY PERSPECTIVES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A third generation of environmental policymaking and risk management will increasingly impose environmental measures, which may give rise to analyzing countervailing risks. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of these risks associated with the decision alternatives at hand will e...

  8. Comparative study of Sperm Motility Analysis System and conventional microscopic semen analysis

    PubMed Central

    KOMORI, KAZUHIKO; ISHIJIMA, SUMIO; TANJAPATKUL, PHANU; FUJITA, KAZUTOSHI; MATSUOKA, YASUHIRO; TAKAO, TETSUYA; MIYAGAWA, YASUSHI; TAKADA, SHINGO; OKUYAMA, AKIHIKO

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aim:  Conventional manual sperm analysis still shows variations in structure, process and outcome although World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines present an appropriate method for sperm analysis. In the present study a new system for sperm analysis, Sperm Motility Analysis System (SMAS), was compared with manual semen analysis based on WHO guidelines. Materials and methods:  Samples from 30 infertility patients and 21 healthy volunteers were subjected to manual microscopic analysis and SMAS analysis, simultaneously. We compared these two methods with respect to sperm concentration and percent motility. Results:  Sperm concentrations obtained by SMAS (Csmas) and manual microscopic analyses on WHO guidelines (Cwho) were strongly correlated (Cwho = 1.325 × Csmas; r = 0.95, P < 0.001). If we excluded subjects with Csmas values >30 × 106 sperm/mL, the results were more similar (Cwho = 1.022 × Csmas; r = 0.81, P < 0.001). Percent motility obtained by SMAS (Msmas) and manual analysis on WHO guidelines (Mwho) were strongly correlated (Mwho = 1.214 × Msmas; r = 0.89, P < 0.001). Conclusions:  The data indicate that the results of SMAS and those of manual microscopic sperm analyses based on WHO guidelines are strongly correlated. SMAS is therefore a promising system for sperm analysis. (Reprod Med Biol 2006; 5: 195–200) PMID:29662398

  9. (In)validity of the constant field and constant currents assumptions in theories of ion transport.

    PubMed Central

    Syganow, A; von Kitzing, E

    1999-01-01

    Constant electric fields and constant ion currents are often considered in theories of ion transport. Therefore, it is important to understand the validity of these helpful concepts. The constant field assumption requires that the charge density of permeant ions and flexible polar groups is virtually voltage independent. We present analytic relations that indicate the conditions under which the constant field approximation applies. Barrier models are frequently fitted to experimental current-voltage curves to describe ion transport. These models are based on three fundamental characteristics: a constant electric field, negligible concerted motions of ions inside the channel (an ion can enter only an empty site), and concentration-independent energy profiles. An analysis of those fundamental assumptions of barrier models shows that those approximations require large barriers because the electrostatic interaction is strong and has a long range. In the constant currents assumption, the current of each permeating ion species is considered to be constant throughout the channel; thus ion pairing is explicitly ignored. In inhomogeneous steady-state systems, the association rate constant determines the strength of ion pairing. Among permeable ions, however, the ion association rate constants are not small, according to modern diffusion-limited reaction rate theories. A mathematical formulation of a constant currents condition indicates that ion pairing very likely has an effect but does not dominate ion transport. PMID:9929480

  10. Comparative analysis of Pdf-mediated circadian behaviors between Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis.

    PubMed

    Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Gyunghee; Park, Jae H

    2009-03-01

    A group of small ventrolateral neurons (s-LN(v)'s) are the principal pacemaker for circadian locomotor rhythmicity of Drosophila melanogaster, and the pigment-dispersing factor (Pdf) neuropeptide plays an essential role as a clock messenger within these neurons. In our comparative studies on Pdf-associated circadian rhythms, we found that daily locomotor activity patterns of D. virilis were significantly different from those of D. melanogaster. Activities of D. virilis adults were mainly restricted to the photophase under light:dark cycles and subsequently became arrhythmic or weakly rhythmic in constant conditions. Such activity patterns resemble those of Pdf(01) mutant of D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, endogenous D. virilis Pdf (DvPdf) expression was not detected in the s-LN(v)-like neurons in the adult brains, implying that the Pdf(01)-like behavioral phenotypes of D. virilis are attributed in part to the lack of DvPdf in the s-LN(v)-like neurons. Heterologous transgenic analysis showed that cis-regulatory elements of the DvPdf transgene are capable of directing their expression in all endogenous Pdf neurons including s-LN(v)'s, as well as in non-Pdf clock neurons (LN(d)'s and fifth s-LN(v)) in a D. melanogaster host. Together these findings suggest a significant difference in the regulatory mechanisms of Pdf transcription between the two species and such a difference is causally associated with species-specific establishment of daily locomotor activity patterns.

  11. Comparative NMR analysis of the decadeoxynucleotide d-(GCATTAATGC)2 and an analogue containing 2-aminoadenine.

    PubMed Central

    Chazin, W J; Rance, M; Chollet, A; Leupin, W

    1991-01-01

    The dodecadeoxynucleotide duplex d-(GCATTAATGC)2 has been prepared with all adenine bases replaced by 2-NH2-adenine. This modified duplex has been characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Complete sequence-specific 1H resonance assignments have been obtained by using a variety of 2D NMR methods. Multiple quantum-filtered and multiple quantum experiments have been used to completely assign all sugar ring protons, including 5'H and 5'H resonances. The assignments form the basis for a detailed comparative analysis of the 1H NMR parameters of the modified and parent duplex. The structural features of both decamer duplexes in solution are characteristic of the B-DNA family. The spin-spin coupling constants in the sugar rings and the relative spatial proximities of protons in the bases and sugars (as determined from the comparison of corresponding nuclear Overhauser effects) are virtually identical in the parent and modified duplexes. Thus, substitution by this adenine analogue in oligonucleotides appears not to disturb the global or local conformation of the DNA duplex. PMID:1945828

  12. Comparative analysis of three prehospital emergency medical services organizations in India and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sriram, V; Gururaj, G; Razzak, J A; Naseer, R; Hyder, A A

    2016-08-01

    Strengthened emergency medical services (EMS) are urgently required in South Asia to reduce needless death and disability. Several EMS models have been introduced in India and Pakistan, and research on these models can facilitate improvements to EMS in the region. Our objective was to conduct a cross-case comparative analysis of three EMS organizations in India and Pakistan - GVK EMRI, Aman Foundation and Rescue 1122 - in order to draw out similarities and differences in their models. Case study methodology was used to systematically explore the organizational models of GVK EMRI (Karnataka, India), Aman Foundation (Karachi, Pakistan), and Rescue 1122 (Punjab, Pakistan). Qualitative methods - interviews, document review and non-participant observation - were utilized, and using a process of constant comparison, data were analysed across cases according to the WHO health system 'building blocks'. Emergent themes under each health system 'building block' of service delivery, health workforce, medical products and technology, health information systems, leadership and governance, and financing were described. Cross-cutting issues not applicable to any single building block were further identified. This cross-case comparison, the first of its kind in low- and middle-income countries, highlights key innovations and lessons, and areas of further research across EMS organizations in India, Pakistan and other resource-poor settings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Asympotics with positive cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonga, Beatrice; Ashtekar, Abhay; Kesavan, Aruna

    2014-03-01

    Since observations to date imply that our universe has a positive cosmological constant, one needs an extension of the theory of isolated systems and gravitational radiation in full general relativity from the asymptotically flat to asymptotically de Sitter space-times. In current definitions, one mimics the boundary conditions used in asymptotically AdS context to conclude that the asymptotic symmetry group is the de Sitter group. However, these conditions severely restricts radiation and in fact rules out non-zero flux of energy, momentum and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves. Therefore, these formulations of asymptotically de Sitter space-times are uninteresting beyond non-radiative spacetimes. The situation is compared and contrasted with conserved charges and fluxes at null infinity in asymptotically flat space-times.

  14. Comparative genomic analysis as a tool for biologicaldiscovery

    SciTech Connect

    Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Biology is a discipline rooted in comparisons. Comparative physiology has assembled a detailed catalogue of the biological similarities and differences between species, revealing insights into how life has adapted to fill a wide-range of environmental niches. For example, the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying capacity of vertebrate has evolved to provide strong advantages for species respiring at sea level, at high elevation or within water. Comparative- anatomy, -biochemistry, -pharmacology, -immunology and -cell biology have provided the fundamental paradigms from which each discipline has grown.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Supernova Legacy Survey Sample With ΛCDM and the Rh=ct Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift-luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the Rh = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the Rh = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since Rh = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of Rh = ct is ˜90%, compared with only ˜10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to Rh = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely. This work is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Tan Lu, who sadly passed away 2014 December 3. Among his many achievements, he is considered to be one of the founders of high-energy astrophysics, and a pioneer in modern cosmology, in China.

  16. Framework for Comparative Risk Analysis of Dredged Material Disposal Options.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    TC3898-62 DACU67-85-D-8829 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 24/3 NL 125 ൖ ൘ ilil;1III -I uPSDDAR UTReports m ~ Puget Sound Dredged DipslAnalysis e~ od Washington State...I rB T T for Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis c/o U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Seattle District 1 A" October, 1986 l-jq .__ .. _ Tetra Tech, Inc...priority pollutants C-2 E-1 Hypothetical example of total or bulk contaminant concentrations in four Puget Sound sediments E-1 E-2 ’Hypothetical example

  17. Comparative study on DuPont analysis and DEA models for measuring stock performance using financial ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsad, Roslah; Shaari, Siti Nabilah Mohd; Isa, Zaidi

    2017-11-01

    Determining stock performance using financial ratio is challenging for many investors and researchers. Financial ratio can indicate the strengths and weaknesses of a company's stock performance. There are five categories of financial ratios namely liquidity, efficiency, leverage, profitability and market ratios. It is important to interpret the ratio correctly for proper financial decision making. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and DuPont analysis Models. The study is conducted in 2015 involving 116 consumer products companies listed in Bursa Malaysia. The estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis computes the efficiency scores and ranks the companies accordingly. The Alirezaee and Afsharian's method of analysis based Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) where Constant Return to Scale (CRS) is employed. The DuPont analysis is a traditional tool for measuring the operating performance of companies. In this study, DuPont analysis is used to evaluate three different aspects such as profitability, efficiency of assets utilization and financial leverage. Return on Equity (ROE) is also calculated in DuPont analysis. This study finds that both analysis models provide different rankings of the selected samples. Hypothesis testing based on Pearson's correlation, indicates that there is no correlation between rankings produced by DEA and DuPont analysis. The DEA ranking model proposed by Alirezaee and Asharian is unstable. The method cannot provide complete ranking because the values of Balance Index is equal and zero.

  18. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Teenagers Who Smoke Different Cigarette Brands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Carl E.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes and compares the survey responses of teenagers who smoke different cigarette brands, specifically Marlboro, Camel, and Newport. Differences were seen across brands but teen smokers had similar opinions about quitting. Given the differences across brands, more flexible approaches may be needed to address teenage smoking. (Author/MKA)

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Educational Teaching in Shahnameh and Iliad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahverdi, Elham; Sepahvandi, Masood

    2018-01-01

    Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and Homer's Iliad are among the first literary masterpieces of Iran and Greece. These teachings include the educational teachings of Zal and Roudabeh, and Paris and Helen. This paper presents a comparative look at the immortal effect of this Iranian poet with Homer's poem--the Greek blind poet. In this comparison, using a…

  1. [Comparative GC analysis of essential oil in imported sandalwood].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Hong, X

    1991-01-01

    The GC-fingerprint spectra of essential oils in imported sandalwood are established by the new technique of GC-relative retention value fingerprint spectrum (GC-FPS). According to the GC-FPS of samples, their chromatographic peaks, overlap ratio of peaks and eight strong peaks are studied comparatively.

  2. Reference Management Software: A Comparative Analysis of Four Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmour, Ron; Cobus-Kuo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Reference management (RM) software is widely used by researchers in the health and natural sciences. Librarians are often called upon to provide support for these products. The present study compares four prominent RMs: CiteULike, RefWorks, Mendeley, and Zotero, in terms of features offered and the accuracy of the bibliographies that they…

  3. Reasoning and Proving Opportunities in Textbooks: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Dae S.; Choi, Kyong Mi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed and compared reasoning and proving opportunities in geometry lessons from American standard-based textbooks and Korean textbooks to understand how these textbooks provide student opportunities to engage in reasoning and proving activities. Overall, around 40% of exercise problems in Core Plus Mathematics Project (CPMP)…

  4. Sustainability of Social Programs: A Comparative Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savaya, Riki; Spiro, Shimon; Elran-Barak, Roni

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the findings of a comparative case study of six projects that operated in Israel between 1980 and 2000. The study findings identify characteristics of the programs, the host organizations, and the social and political environment, which differentiated programs that are sustained from those that are not. The findings reaffirm…

  5. A Comparative Analysis for Wilderness User Fee Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuschner, William A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two similar wilderness areas, one of which charges user fees, were sampled in order to compare user characteristics, trip characteristics, and travel cost demand functions. The purpose was to examine the effect fees had on user behavior and choices of area. Results are presented. (MT)

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of virulent and rifampicin attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the etiologic agent of bacterial coldwater disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome. In this study we compared a wild-type strain (CSF 259.93) with a rifampicin resistant and virulence attenuated strain of F. psychrophilum (CSF 259.93B.17). The attenuated strain harbour...

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Concept of Shakespearean Tragedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipra, Muhammad Aslam; Nasir, Muhammad Haseeb

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the analysis of Shakespearean tragedies is presented. It reveals that Shakespeare's plays are full of conflicting thoughts, and expression is so convincing that it is not possible to plan a system of philosophy out of them. Each character, from the king to the clown, from the most highly intellectual to the simpleton, judges life…

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Ranking Systems in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendel, Darwin D.; Stolz, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    According to Altbach in 2004, "everyone wants a world-class university". Corresponding developmental efforts undertaken by higher education institutions are very often referenced to improvements in ranking results. Surprisingly, there is relatively little analysis of variations in higher education ranking systems across countries…

  9. Reading in Two Languages: A Comparative Miscue Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulec, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate what miscue analysis, a method described as a "window" into the reading process, can reveal about first and second language reading. Two participants, native English speakers proficient in Spanish, read and retold two folktales: one in English and one in Spanish. The researcher performed…

  10. Environmental Education in Macedonian Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srbinovski, Mile

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss an analysis of the extent to which environmental issues are addressed in the textbooks in the schools of the Republic of Macedonia. Research has analyzed a range of textbooks (279) published in the past 15 years. Our fundamental conclusion is that the inclusion of environmental issues in the…

  11. Analysis of the calibration methods and error propagation for the sensitivity S and the cooling time constant τc of the gold metal foil bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, A.; Cecconello, M.; Marrelli, L.; Mast, K. F.

    2004-08-01

    Bolometers are radiation sensors designed to have a spectral response as constant as possible in the region of interest. In high-temperature plasmas, the main radiation output is in the ultraviolet and SXR part of the spectrum and the metal foil bolometers are special detectors developed for this interval. For such sensors, as in general for all bolometers, the absolute calibration is a crucial issue. This problem becomes particularly severe when, like in nuclear fusion, the sensors are not easily accessible. In this article, a detailed description of the in situ calibration methods for the bolometer sensitivity S and the cooling time τc, the two essential parameters characterizing the behavior of the sensor, is provided and an estimate of the uncertainties for both constants is presented. The sensitivity S is determined via an electrical calibration, in which the effect of the cables connecting the bolometers to the powering circuitry is taken into account leading to an effective estimate for S. Experimental measurements confirming the quality of the adopted coaxial cable modelling are reported. The cooling time constant τc is calculated via an optical calibration, in which the bolometer is stimulated by a light-emitting diode. The behavior of τc in a broad pressure range is investigated, showing that it does not depend upon this quantity up until 10-2 mbar, well above the standard operating conditions of many applications. The described methods were tested on 36 bolometric channels of RFX tomography, providing a significant statistical basis for present applications and future developments of both the calibration procedures and the detectors.

  12. Comparative analysis of wind energy production in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilova, Ekaterina Alexeevna

    Scope and method of study. In the last decades humanity has realized the necessity of developing alternative energy sources for its efficient economic development and simple survival in the future. During the last 30 years major improvements were made in renewable energy technologies and they started to become competitive with traditional energy sources (fossil fuels), especially with consideration of external costs. Among the renewable energy sources, wind energy is one of the cheapest and fastest growing nowadays. Oklahoma is a very promising site for wind energy development considering its excellent wind resources. Developing wind energy can allow not only electricity production for in-state consumption, but also exporting to other states. The development of wind energy could encourage economic growth with very few adverse impacts on the environment. However, traditional energy sources are still the cheapest and, thus, the introduction of the wind energy in Oklahoma should be critically analyzed from economic, ecological and social points of view. The goal of this study is to conduct analysis of wind energy electricity production in Oklahoma on the four main stages: (1) Investment Analysis from Private Perspective: Calculate present value net benefits for wind energy and traditional energy (natural gas), make sure that both of them are positive. (2) Investment Analysis from Social Perspective: Evaluate present value net private benefits (PVNPB) and present value net social benefit from both projects (PVNSB). (3) Government Subsidy Analysis: recognize the necessity of the subsidies and evaluate the amount of subsidies if any. (4) Investment Analysis from a Geographic Perspective: determine economic feasibility of wind power generation for 77 Oklahoma counties. Findings and conclusions. The final output of the study is the recommendations concerning wind energy development in Oklahoma with consideration of economic efficiency, ecological and social impacts. Study

  13. YersiniaBase: a genomic resource and analysis platform for comparative analysis of Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Mutha, Naresh Vr; Heydari, Hamed; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Choo, Siew Woh

    2015-01-16

    Yersinia is a Gram-negative bacteria that includes serious pathogens such as the Yersinia pestis, which causes plague, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica. The remaining species are generally considered non-pathogenic to humans, although there is evidence that at least some of these species can cause occasional infections using distinct mechanisms from the more pathogenic species. With the advances in sequencing technologies, many genomes of Yersinia have been sequenced. However, there is currently no specialized platform to hold the rapidly-growing Yersinia genomic data and to provide analysis tools particularly for comparative analyses, which are required to provide improved insights into their biology, evolution and pathogenicity. To facilitate the ongoing and future research of Yersinia, especially those generally considered non-pathogenic species, a well-defined repository and analysis platform is needed to hold the Yersinia genomic data and analysis tools for the Yersinia research community. Hence, we have developed the YersiniaBase, a robust and user-friendly Yersinia resource and analysis platform for the analysis of Yersinia genomic data. YersiniaBase has a total of twelve species and 232 genome sequences, of which the majority are Yersinia pestis. In order to smooth the process of searching genomic data in a large database, we implemented an Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX)-based real-time searching system in YersiniaBase. Besides incorporating existing tools, which include JavaScript-based genome browser (JBrowse) and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), YersiniaBase also has in-house developed tools: (1) Pairwise Genome Comparison tool (PGC) for comparing two user-selected genomes; (2) Pathogenomics Profiling Tool (PathoProT) for comparative pathogenomics analysis of Yersinia genomes; (3) YersiniaTree for constructing phylogenetic tree of Yersinia. We ran analyses based on the tools and genomic data in YersiniaBase and the

  14. Comparative analysis of Medicare spending for medical imaging: sustained dramatic slowdown compared with other services.

    PubMed

    Lee, David W; Duszak, Richard; Hughes, Danny R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess trends in Medicare spending growth for medical imaging relative to other services and the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA). We calculated per-beneficiary Part B Medicare medical imaging expenditures for three-digit Berenson-Eggers Type of Service (BETOS) categories using Physician Supplier Procedure Summary Master Files for 32 million beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011. We adjusted BETOS categories to address changes in coding and payment policy and excluded categories with 2011 aggregate spending less than $500 million. We computed and ranked compound annual growth rates over three periods: pre-DRA (2000-2005), DRA transition period (2005-2007), and post-DRA (2007-2011). Forty-four modified BETOS categories fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Between 2000 and 2006, Medicare outlays for nonimaging services grew by 6.8% versus 12.0% for imaging services. In the ensuing 5 years, annual growth in spending for nonimaging continued at 3.6% versus a decline of 3.5% for imaging. Spending growth for all services during the pre-DRA, DRA, and post-DRA periods were 7.8%, 3.8%, and 2.9 compared with 15.0%, -3.4%, and -2.2% for advanced imaging services. Advanced imaging was among the fastest growing categories of Medicare services in the early 2000s but was in the bottom 2% of spending categories in 2011. Between 2007 and 2011, the fastest growing service categories were evaluation and management services with other specialists (29.1%), nursing home visits (11.2%), anesthesia (9.1%), and other ambulatory procedures (9.0%). Slowing volume growth and massive Medicare payment cuts have left medical imaging near the bottom of all service categories contributing to growth in Medicare spending.

  15. Comparing Distributions of Environmental Outcomes for Regulatory Environmental Justice Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Kelly; Sheriff, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long been interested in measuring distributional impacts of policy interventions. As environmental justice (EJ) emerged as an ethical issue in the 1970s, the academic literature has provided statistical analyses of the incidence and causes of various environmental outcomes as they relate to race, income, and other demographic variables. In the context of regulatory impacts, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding what information is relevant for EJ analysis, and how best to present it. This paper helps frame the discussion by suggesting a set of questions fundamental to regulatory EJ analysis, reviewing past approaches to quantifying distributional equity, and discussing the potential for adapting existing tools to the regulatory context. PMID:21655146

  16. Single incision laparoscopic surgery for appendicectomy: a retrospective comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Chow, Andre; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Nehme, Jean; Darzi, Lord Ara; Paraskeva, Paraskevas

    2010-10-01

    Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) may further reduce the trauma of surgery leading to reduced port site complications and postoperative pain. The improved cosmetic result also may lead to improved patient satisfaction with surgery. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed for all patients who underwent SILS appendicectomy at our institution and were compared with those who had undergone conventional laparoscopic appendicectomy during the same time period. This included patient demographic data, intraoperative, and postoperative outcomes. Thirty-three patients underwent conventional laparoscopic appendicectomy and 40 patients underwent SILS appendicectomy between January 26, 2008 and July 14, 2009. Operative time was shorter with SILS appendicectomy compared with conventional laparoscopic appendicectomy (p < 0.05). No patients in the SILS appendicectomy group required conversion to open surgery compared with two patients in the conventional laparoscopic appendicectomy group. Patients stayed an average of 1.36 days after SILS appendicectomy, and 2.36 days after conventional laparoscopic appendicectomy. SILS appendicectomy seems to be a safe and efficacious technique. Further work in the form of randomized studies is required to investigate any significant advantages of this new and attractive technique.

  17. Initial sequence and comparative analysis of the cat genome

    PubMed Central

    Pontius, Joan U.; Mullikin, James C.; Smith, Douglas R.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Gnerre, Sante; Clamp, Michele; Chang, Jean; Stephens, Robert; Neelam, Beena; Volfovsky, Natalia; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Agarwala, Richa; Narfström, Kristina; Murphy, William J.; Giger, Urs; Roca, Alfred L.; Antunes, Agostinho; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Yuhki, Naoya; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Johnson, Warren E.; Bourque, Guillaume; Tesler, Glenn; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The genome sequence (1.9-fold coverage) of an inbred Abyssinian domestic cat was assembled, mapped, and annotated with a comparative approach that involved cross-reference to annotated genome assemblies of six mammals (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, and cow). The results resolved chromosomal positions for 663,480 contigs, 20,285 putative feline gene orthologs, and 133,499 conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Additional annotated features include repetitive elements, endogenous retroviral sequences, nuclear mitochondrial (numt) sequences, micro-RNAs, and evolutionary breakpoints that suggest historic balancing of translocation and inversion incidences in distinct mammalian lineages. Large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), deletion insertion polymorphisms (DIPs), and short tandem repeats (STRs), suitable for linkage or association studies were characterized in the context of long stretches of chromosome homozygosity. In spite of the light coverage capturing ∼65% of euchromatin sequence from the cat genome, these comparative insights shed new light on the tempo and mode of gene/genome evolution in mammals, promise several research applications for the cat, and also illustrate that a comparative approach using more deeply covered mammals provides an informative, preliminary annotation of a light (1.9-fold) coverage mammal genome sequence. PMID:17975172

  18. Comparative analysis of cryopreservation methods in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Scarbrough, Chasity; Wirschell, Maureen

    2016-10-01

    Chlamydomonas is a model organism used for studies of many important biological processes. Traditionally, strains have been propagated on solid agar, which requires routine passaging for long-term maintenance. Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas is possible, yet long-term viability is highly variable. Thus, improved cryopreservation methods for Chlamydomonas are an important requirement for sustained study of genetically defined strains. Here, we tested a commercial cryopreservation kit and directly compared it's effectiveness to a methanol-based method. We also tested thaw-back procedures comparing the growth of cells in liquid culture or on solid agar media. We demonstrated that methanol was the superior cryopreservation method for Chlamydomonas compared to the commercial kit and that post-thaw culture conditions dramatically affect viability. We also demonstrated that cryopreserved cells could be successfully thawed and plated directly onto solid agar plates. Our findings have important implications for the long-term storage of Chlamydomonas that can likely be extended to other algal species. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Genome Diversity in Bullmastiff Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Mortlock, Sally-Anne; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Williamson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Management and preservation of genomic diversity in dog breeds is a major objective for maintaining health. The present study was undertaken to characterise genomic diversity in Bullmastiff dogs using both genealogical and molecular analysis. Genealogical analysis of diversity was conducted using a database consisting of 16,378 Bullmastiff pedigrees from year 1980 to 2013. Additionally, a total of 188 Bullmastiff dogs were genotyped using the 170,000 SNP Illumina CanineHD Beadchip. Genealogical parameters revealed a mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.047; 142 total founders (f); an effective number of founders (fe) of 79; an effective number of ancestors (fa) of 62; and an effective population size of the reference population of 41. Genetic diversity and the degree of genome-wide homogeneity within the breed were also investigated using molecular data. Multiple-locus heterozygosity (MLH) was equal to 0.206; runs of homozygosity (ROH) as proportion of the genome, averaged 16.44%; effective population size was 29.1, with an average inbreeding coefficient of 0.035, all estimated using SNP Data. Fine-scale population structure was analysed using NETVIEW, a population analysis pipeline. Visualisation of the high definition network captured relationships among individuals within and between subpopulations. Effects of unequal founder use, and ancestral inbreeding and selection, were evident. While current levels of Bullmastiff heterozygosity, inbreeding and homozygosity are not unusual, a relatively small effective population size indicates that a breeding strategy to reduce the inbreeding rate may be beneficial. PMID:26824579

  20. Comparative analysis of cation/proton antiporter superfamily in plants.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chu-Yu; Yang, Xiaohan; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2013-06-01

    The cation/proton antiporter superfamily is associated with the transport of monovalent cations across membranes. This superfamily was annotated in the Arabidopsis genome and some members were functionally characterized. In the present study, a systematic analysis of the cation/proton antiporter genes in diverse plant species was reported. We identified 240 cation/proton antiporters in alga, moss, and angiosperm. A phylogenetic tree was constructed showing these 240 members are separated into three families, i.e., Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, K(+) efflux antiporters, and cation/H(+) exchangers. Our analysis revealed that tandem and/or segmental duplications contribute to the expansion of cation/H(+) exchangers in the examined angiosperm species. Sliding window analysis of the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios showed some differences in the evolutionary fate of cation/proton antiporter paralogs. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs among these 240 proteins and found most motifs are family specific, demonstrating diverse evolution of the cation/proton antiporters among three families. In addition, we investigated the co-expressed genes of the cation/proton antiporters in Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed some biological processes are enriched in the co-expressed genes, suggesting the cation/proton antiporters may be involved in these biological processes. Taken together, this study furthers our knowledge on cation/proton antiporters in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative analysis of imaging configurations and objectives for Fourier microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kurvits, Jonathan A; Jiang, Mingming; Zia, Rashid

    2015-11-01

    Fourier microscopy is becoming an increasingly important tool for the analysis of optical nanostructures and quantum emitters. However, achieving quantitative Fourier space measurements requires a thorough understanding of the impact of aberrations introduced by optical microscopes that have been optimized for conventional real-space imaging. Here we present a detailed framework for analyzing the performance of microscope objectives for several common Fourier imaging configurations. To this end, we model objectives from Nikon, Olympus, and Zeiss using parameters that were inferred from patent literature and confirmed, where possible, by physical disassembly. We then examine the aberrations most relevant to Fourier microscopy, including the alignment tolerances of apodization factors for different objective classes, the effect of magnification on the modulation transfer function, and vignetting-induced reductions of the effective numerical aperture for wide-field measurements. Based on this analysis, we identify an optimal objective class and imaging configuration for Fourier microscopy. In addition, the Zemax files for the objectives and setups used in this analysis have been made publicly available as a resource for future studies.

  2. Wormholes and the cosmological constant problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanov, I.

    The author reviews the cosmological constant problem and the recently proposed wormhole mechanism for its solution. Summation over wormholes in the Euclidean path integral for gravity turns all the coupling parameters into dynamical variables, sampled from a probability distribution. A formal saddle point analysis results in a distribution with a sharp peak at the cosmological constant equal to zero, which appears to solve the cosmological constant problem. He discusses the instabilities of the gravitational Euclidean path integral and the difficulties with its interpretation. He presents an alternate formalism for baby universes, based on the "third quantization" of the Wheeler-De Witt equation. This approach is analyzed in a minisuperspace model for quantum gravity, where it reduces to simple quantum mechanics. Once again, the coupling parameters become dynamical. Unfortunately, the a priori probability distribution for the cosmological constant and other parameters is typically a smooth function, with no sharp peaks.

  3. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-06

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spentmore » fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.« less

  4. Bayesian models for comparative analysis integrating phylogenetic uncertainty.

    PubMed

    de Villemereuil, Pierre; Wells, Jessie A; Edwards, Robert D; Blomberg, Simon P

    2012-06-28

    Uncertainty in comparative analyses can come from at least two sources: a) phylogenetic uncertainty in the tree topology or branch lengths, and b) uncertainty due to intraspecific variation in trait values, either due to measurement error or natural individual variation. Most phylogenetic comparative methods do not account for such uncertainties. Not accounting for these sources of uncertainty leads to false perceptions of precision (confidence intervals will be too narrow) and inflated significance in hypothesis testing (e.g. p-values will be too small). Although there is some application-specific software for fitting Bayesian models accounting for phylogenetic error, more general and flexible software is desirable. We developed models to directly incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty into a range of analyses that biologists commonly perform, using a Bayesian framework and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses. We demonstrate applications in linear regression, quantification of phylogenetic signal, and measurement error models. Phylogenetic uncertainty was incorporated by applying a prior distribution for the phylogeny, where this distribution consisted of the posterior tree sets from Bayesian phylogenetic tree estimation programs. The models were analysed using simulated data sets, and applied to a real data set on plant traits, from rainforest plant species in Northern Australia. Analyses were performed using the free and open source software OpenBUGS and JAGS. Incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty through an empirical prior distribution of trees leads to more precise estimation of regression model parameters than using a single consensus tree and enables a more realistic estimation of confidence intervals. In addition, models incorporating measurement errors and/or individual variation, in one or both variables, are easily formulated in the Bayesian framework. We show that BUGS is a useful, flexible general purpose tool for phylogenetic comparative analyses

  5. Bayesian models for comparative analysis integrating phylogenetic uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncertainty in comparative analyses can come from at least two sources: a) phylogenetic uncertainty in the tree topology or branch lengths, and b) uncertainty due to intraspecific variation in trait values, either due to measurement error or natural individual variation. Most phylogenetic comparative methods do not account for such uncertainties. Not accounting for these sources of uncertainty leads to false perceptions of precision (confidence intervals will be too narrow) and inflated significance in hypothesis testing (e.g. p-values will be too small). Although there is some application-specific software for fitting Bayesian models accounting for phylogenetic error, more general and flexible software is desirable. Methods We developed models to directly incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty into a range of analyses that biologists commonly perform, using a Bayesian framework and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses. Results We demonstrate applications in linear regression, quantification of phylogenetic signal, and measurement error models. Phylogenetic uncertainty was incorporated by applying a prior distribution for the phylogeny, where this distribution consisted of the posterior tree sets from Bayesian phylogenetic tree estimation programs. The models were analysed using simulated data sets, and applied to a real data set on plant traits, from rainforest plant species in Northern Australia. Analyses were performed using the free and open source software OpenBUGS and JAGS. Conclusions Incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty through an empirical prior distribution of trees leads to more precise estimation of regression model parameters than using a single consensus tree and enables a more realistic estimation of confidence intervals. In addition, models incorporating measurement errors and/or individual variation, in one or both variables, are easily formulated in the Bayesian framework. We show that BUGS is a useful, flexible general purpose tool for

  6. Comparative Analysis of Volcanic Inflation—Deflation Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walwer, D.; Ghil, M.; Calais, E.

    2016-12-01

    GPS geodetic data together with INSAR images are often used to formulate kinematic models of the sources of volcanic deformations. The increasing amount of data now available allows one to produce time series that are several years long and thus capture continuously the history of volcanic deformations, in particular their nonlinear behavior. This information is highly valuable in helping understand the dynamics of volcanic systems.Nonlinear deformation signals are, however, difficult to extract from the background noise inherent in the GPS time series. It is also arduous to unravel the signal of interest from other nonlinear signals, such as the seasonal oscillations associated with mass variations in the atmosphere, the ocean, and the hydrological reservoirs. Here we use Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA) — an advanced, data-adaptive method for time series analysis that exploits simultaneously the temporal and spatial correlations of geophysical fields — to extract such deformation signals.We apply M-SSA to GPS data sets from four volcanoes: Akutan, Alaska; Okmok, Alaska; Westdahl, Alaska; and Piton de la Fournaise, La Reunion. Our analyses show that all four volcanoes share similar features in their deformation history, suggesting similarities in the dynamics that generate the inflation-deflation cycles. In particular, all four volcanic systems exhibit sawtooth-shaped oscillations with slow inflations followed by slower deflations, with time scales that vary from 6 months to 4 years. This relation of dynamical similarity is further highlighted by the phase portrait reconstruction of the four systems in the plane of deformation vs. rate-of-deformation, as obtained from the deformation signals extracted from the GPS time series using M-SSA.The inflating phase of these oscillations is followed by eruptions at Okmok volcano and at Piton de la Fournaise. These analysis results suggest that these volcanic inflation—deflation cycles are associated

  7. Comparative molecular biological analysis of membrane transport genes in organisms

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Toshifumi; Iizumi, Shigemi; Satoh, Kouji

    2008-01-01

    Comparative analyses of membrane transport genes revealed many differences in the features of transport homeostasis in eight diverse organisms, ranging from bacteria to animals and plants. In bacteria, membrane-transport systems depend mainly on single genes encoding proteins involved in an ATP-dependent pump and secondary transport proteins that use H+ as a co-transport molecule. Animals are especially divergent in their channel genes, and plants have larger numbers of P-type ATPase and secondary active transporters than do other organisms. The secondary transporter genes have diverged evolutionarily in both animals and plants for different co-transporter molecules. Animals use Na+ ions for the formation of concentration gradients across plasma membranes, dependent on secondary active transporters and on membrane voltages that in turn are dependent on ion transport regulation systems. Plants use H+ ions pooled in vacuoles and the apoplast to transport various substances; these proton gradients are also dependent on secondary active transporters. We also compared the numbers of membrane transporter genes in Arabidopsis and rice. Although many transporter genes are similar in these plants, Arabidopsis has a more diverse array of genes for multi-efflux transport and for response to stress signals, and rice has more secondary transporter genes for carbohydrate and nutrient transport. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11103-007-9287-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18293089

  8. Mental health literacy in family caregivers: A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Kanika; Nautiyal, Snigdha; Raguram, Ahalya

    2018-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the current level of mental health literacy in family caregivers and to compare the changes over a 23-year period between 1993 and 2016. The current sample consisted of 60 family caregivers of patients with major mental illness from the in-patient and out-patient departments of NIMHANS, assessed on the Orientation towards Mental Illness Scale (OMI). This was compared with data of 80 family caregivers from previous study done in 1993. Family caregivers in the current study showed a significant positive trend on comparison with the previous study. However, area of abnormal behaviour shows a worsening of negative attitudes. Hopelessness and hypo-functioning, relating to the factor of after-effects of mental illness show no significant difference. While knowledge about mental illnesses can be improved by providing information, this does not automatically translate to integration of the mentally ill in society. Current initiatives need to be matched with specific and sustained efforts to reduce stigma associated with mental illness which have persisted unchanged. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Nitrate Levels in Pensacola Area Rain Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J.; Caffrey, J. M.; Maestre, A.; Landing, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrate is an important constituent of acid rain and often correlated with atmospheric NOx levels. This link between air and water quality was tested over a course of summer 2017 and compared to data from 2005-2012. Rain water samples collected from late May through early July of 2017 were tested for pH and nitrate concentrations. These months were among the stormiest on record for the Northwest Florida region with a total rainfall of 648 mm. The data analyzed from these rain events was compared to previous data to show the trends of nitrate and pH levels in the rainwater. Median pH for this study was 5.2, higher than the medians between 2015-2012 which ranged from 4.2 to 5.0, while nitrate concentrations for this study were 15.2 µM. This contrasts with a significant drop in nitrate concentrations from 41 µM in 2005 and 2006 to around 12 µM between 2007 and 2012. The drop between 2006-7 was suspected to be a result of implementation of NOx controls at Plant Crist coal fired power plant and other Clean Air Act requirements. These inputs of nitrate and H+ ions from rainwater can have a significant influence water quality throughout the region.

  10. In silico comparative analysis of SSR markers in plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The adverse environmental conditions impose extreme limitation to growth and plant development, restricting the genetic potential and reflecting on plant yield losses. The progress obtained by classic plant breeding methods aiming at increasing abiotic stress tolerances have not been enough to cope with increasing food demands. New target genes need to be identified to reach this goal, which requires extensive studies of the related biological mechanisms. Comparative analyses in ancestral plant groups can help to elucidate yet unclear biological processes. Results In this study, we surveyed the occurrence patterns of expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers for model plants. A total of 13,133 SSR markers were discovered using the SSRLocator software in non-redundant EST databases made for all eleven species chosen for this study. The dimer motifs are more frequent in lower plant species, such as green algae and mosses, and the trimer motifs are more frequent for the majority of higher plant groups, such as monocots and dicots. With this in silico study we confirm several microsatellite plant survey results made with available bioinformatics tools. Conclusions The comparative studies of EST-SSR markers among all plant lineages is well suited for plant evolution studies as well as for future studies of transferability of molecular markers. PMID:21247422

  11. Comparative Analysis of Head Impact in Contact and Collision Sports

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Bryson B.; Patrie, James; Henry, Erich J.; Goodkin, Howard P.; Broshek, Donna K.; Wintermark, Max

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As concerns about head impact in American football have grown, similar concerns have started to extend to other sports thought to experience less head impact, such as soccer and lacrosse. However, the amount of head impact experienced in soccer and lacrosse is relatively unknown, particularly compared with the substantial amount of data from football. This pilot study quantifies and compares head impact from four different types of sports teams: college football, high school football, college soccer, and college lacrosse. During the 2013 and 2014 seasons, 61 players wore mastoid patch accelerometers to quantify head impact during official athletic events (i.e., practices and games). In both practices and games, college football players experienced the most or second-most impacts per athletic event, highest average peak resultant linear and rotational acceleration per impact, and highest cumulative linear and rotational acceleration per athletic event. For average peak resultant linear and rotational acceleration per individual impact, college football was followed by high school football, then college lacrosse, and then college soccer, with similar trends in both practices and games. In the four teams under study, college football players experienced a categorically higher burden of head impact. However, for cumulative impact burden, the high school football cohort was not significantly different from the college soccer cohort. The results suggest that head impact in sport substantially varies by both the type of sport (football vs. soccer vs. lacrosse) and level of play (college vs. high school). PMID:27541183

  12. a Comparative Analysis of Five Cropland Datasets in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Lu, M.; Wu, W.

    2018-04-01

    The food security, particularly in Africa, is a challenge to be resolved. The cropland area and spatial distribution obtained from remote sensing imagery are vital information. In this paper, according to cropland area and spatial location, we compare five global cropland datasets including CCI Land Cover, GlobCover, MODIS Collection 5, GlobeLand30 and Unified Cropland in circa 2010 of Africa in terms of cropland area and spatial location. The accuracy of cropland area calculated from five datasets was analyzed compared with statistic data. Based on validation samples, the accuracies of spatial location for the five cropland products were assessed by error matrix. The results show that GlobeLand30 has the best fitness with the statistics, followed by MODIS Collection 5 and Unified Cropland, GlobCover and CCI Land Cover have the lower accuracies. For the accuracy of spatial location of cropland, GlobeLand30 reaches the highest accuracy, followed by Unified Cropland, MODIS Collection 5 and GlobCover, CCI Land Cover has the lowest accuracy. The spatial location accuracy of five datasets in the Csa with suitable farming condition is generally higher than in the Bsk.

  13. Comparative analysis of the blood transcriptomes between wolves and dogs.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Zhang, H; Shang, J; Liu, G; Xia, T; Zhao, C; Sun, G; Dou, H

    2018-06-28

    Dogs were domesticated by human and originated from wolves. Their evolutionary relationships have attracted much scientific interest due to their genetic affinity but different habitats. To identify the differences between dogs and wolves associated with domestication, we analysed the blood transcriptomes of wolves and dogs by RNA-Seq. We obtained a total of 30.87 Gb of raw reads from two dogs and three wolves using RNA-Seq technology. Comparisons of the wolf and dog transcriptomes revealed 524 genes differentially expressed genes between them. We found that some genes related to immune function (DCK, ICAM4, GAPDH and BSG) and aerobic capacity (HBA1, HBA2 and HBB) were more highly expressed in the wolf. Six differentially expressed genes related to the innate immune response (CCL23, TRIM10, DUSP10, RAB27A, CLEC5A and GCH1) were found in the wolf by a Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. Immune system development was also enriched only in the wolf group. The ALAS2, HMBS and FECH genes, shown to be enriched by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis, were associated with the higher aerobic capacity and hypoxia endurance of the wolf. The results suggest that the wolf might have greater resistance to pathogens, hypoxia endurance and aerobic capacity than dogs do. © 2018 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  14. Plant Reactome: a resource for plant pathways and comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Sushma; Preece, Justin; D'Eustachio, Peter; Gupta, Parul; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha D; Wu, Guanming; Fabregat, Antonio; Elser, Justin L; Weiser, Joel; Keays, Maria; Fuentes, Alfonso Munoz-Pomer; Petryszak, Robert; Stein, Lincoln D; Ware, Doreen; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2017-01-04

    Plant Reactome (http://plantreactome.gramene.org/) is a free, open-source, curated plant pathway database portal, provided as part of the Gramene project. The database provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualization, analysis and interpretation of pathway knowledge to support genome annotation, genome analysis, modeling, systems biology, basic research and education. Plant Reactome employs the structural framework of a plant cell to show metabolic, transport, genetic, developmental and signaling pathways. We manually curate molecular details of pathways in these domains for reference species Oryza sativa (rice) supported by published literature and annotation of well-characterized genes. Two hundred twenty-two rice pathways, 1025 reactions associated with 1173 proteins, 907 small molecules and 256 literature references have been curated to date. These reference annotations were used to project pathways for 62 model, crop and evolutionarily significant plant species based on gene homology. Database users can search and browse various components of the database, visualize curated baseline expression of pathway-associated genes provided by the Expression Atlas and upload and analyze their Omics datasets. The database also offers data access via Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) and in various standardized pathway formats, such as SBML and BioPAX. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Plant Reactome: a resource for plant pathways and comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Naithani, Sushma; Preece, Justin; D'Eustachio, Peter; Gupta, Parul; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha D.; Wu, Guanming; Fabregat, Antonio; Elser, Justin L.; Weiser, Joel; Keays, Maria; Fuentes, Alfonso Munoz-Pomer; Petryszak, Robert; Stein, Lincoln D.; Ware, Doreen; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    Plant Reactome (http://plantreactome.gramene.org/) is a free, open-source, curated plant pathway database portal, provided as part of the Gramene project. The database provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualization, analysis and interpretation of pathway knowledge to support genome annotation, genome analysis, modeling, systems biology, basic research and education. Plant Reactome employs the structural framework of a plant cell to show metabolic, transport, genetic, developmental and signaling pathways. We manually curate molecular details of pathways in these domains for reference species Oryza sativa (rice) supported by published literature and annotation of well-characterized genes. Two hundred twenty-two rice pathways, 1025 reactions associated with 1173 proteins, 907 small molecules and 256 literature references have been curated to date. These reference annotations were used to project pathways for 62 model, crop and evolutionarily significant plant species based on gene homology. Database users can search and browse various components of the database, visualize curated baseline expression of pathway-associated genes provided by the Expression Atlas and upload and analyze their Omics datasets. The database also offers data access via Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) and in various standardized pathway formats, such as SBML and BioPAX. PMID:27799469

  16. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Yak Follicular Fluid during Estrus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xian; Pei, Jie; Ding, Xuezhi; Chu, Min; Bao, Pengjia; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Chunnian; Yan, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The breeding of yaks is highly seasonal, there are many crucial proteins involved in the reproduction control program, especially in follicular development. In order to isolate differential proteins between mature and immature follicular fluid (FF) of yak, the FF from yak follicles with different sizes were sampled respectively, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of the proteins was carried out. After silver staining, the Image Master 2D platinum software was used for protein analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was performed for differential protein identification. The expression level of transferrin and enolase superfamily member 1 (ENOSF1) was determined by Western blotting for verification analysis. The results showed that 2-DE obtained an electrophoresis map of proteins from mature and immature yak FF with high resolution and repeatability. A comparison of protein profiles identified 12 differently expressed proteins, out of which 10 of them were upregulated while 2 were downregulated. Western blotting showed that the expression of transferrin and ENOSF1 was enhanced with follicular development. Both the obtained protein profiles and the differently expressed proteins identified in this study provided experimental data related to follicular development during yak breeding seasons. This study also laid the foundation for understanding the microenvironment during oocyte development. PMID:26954118

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Mandated Benefit Laws, 1949–2002

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, Miriam J; Paul, Rebecca R; Luft, Harold S; Aubry, Wade; Ganiats, Theodore G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To understand and compare the trends in mandated benefits laws in the United States. Data Sources/Study Setting Mandated benefit laws enacted in 50 states and the District of Columbia for the period 1949–2002 were compiled from multiple published compendia. Study Design Laws that require private insurers and health plans to cover particular services, types of diseases, or care by specific providers in 50 states and the District of Columbia are compared for the period 1949–2002. Legislation is compared by year, by average and total frequency, by state, by type (provider, health care service, or preventive), and according to whether it requires coverage or an offer of coverage. Data Collection/Extraction Method Data from published tables were entered into a spreadsheet and analyzed using statistical software. Principal Findings A total of 1,471 laws mandated coverage for 76 types of providers and services. The most common type of mandated coverage is for specific health care services (670 laws for 34 different services), followed by laws for services offered by specific professionals and other providers (507 mandated benefits laws for 25 types of providers), and coverage for specific preventive services (295 laws for 17 benefits). On average, a mandated benefit law has been adopted or significantly revised by 19 states, and each state has approximately 29 mandates. Only two benefits (minimum maternity stay and breast reconstruction) are mandated in all 51 jurisdictions and these were also federally mandated benefits. The mean number of total mandated benefit laws adopted or significantly revised per year was 17 per year in the 1970s, 36 per year in the 1980s, 59 per year in the 1990s, and 76 per year between 2000 and 2002. Since 1990, mandate adoption increased substantially, with around 55 percent of all mandated benefit laws enacted between 1990 and 2002. Conclusions There was a large increase in the number of mandated benefits laws during the managed

  18. Satellite microwave observations of a storm complex: A comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis that cold events correspond to a particular stage in a class of thunderstorms was tested. That class is a storms class which updrafts are: (1) strong, broad and moist, and (2) extend well above the freezing level. Condition (1) implies strong mesoscale forcing. Condition (2) implies a tall updraft or a relatively low freezing level. Such storms should have big, intense radar echoes and cold, fast-growing anvils. The thunderstorm events were analyzed by radar, rain gauge and GOES infrared observations. Radar was the starting point for detection and definition of the hypothesized thunderstorms. The radar signature is compared to the signature of the storm in rain gauge observations, satellite infrared images and satellite microwave images.

  19. Assigning protein functions by comparative genome analysis protein phylogenetic profiles

    DOEpatents

    Pellegrini, Matteo; Marcotte, Edward M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Eisenberg, David; Grothe, Robert; Yeates, Todd O.

    2003-05-13

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  20. Comparative analysis of toxin detection in biological and enviromental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogert, Robert A.; Burans, James; O'Brien, Tom; Ligler, Frances S.

    1994-03-01

    The basic recognition schemes underlying the principles of standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) protocols are increasingly being adapted for use with new detection devices. A direct comparison was made using a fiber optic biosensor that employs evanescent wave detection and an ELISA using avidin-biotin. The assays were developed for the detection of Ricinus communis agglutinin II, also known as ricin or RCA60. Detection limits between the two methods were comparable for ricin in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), however results in complex samples differed slightly. In PBS, sensitivity for ricin was 1 ng/ml using the fiber optic device and 500 pg/ml using the ELISA. The fiber optic sensor could not detect ricin directly in urine or serum spiked with 5 ng/ml ricin, however, the ELISA showed detection but at reduced levels to the PBS control.

  1. Quantifying Drosophila food intake: comparative analysis of current methodology

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sonali A.; Carvalho, Gil B.; Amador, Ariadna; Phillips, Angela M.; Hoxha, Sany; Lizotte, Keith J.; Ja, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Food intake is a fundamental parameter in animal studies. Despite the prevalent use of Drosophila in laboratory research, precise measurements of food intake remain challenging in this model organism. Here, we compare several common Drosophila feeding assays: the Capillary Feeder (CAFE), food-labeling with a radioactive tracer or a colorimetric dye, and observations of proboscis extension (PE). We show that the CAFE and radioisotope-labeling provide the most consistent results, have the highest sensitivity, and can resolve differences in feeding that dye-labeling and PE fail to distinguish. We conclude that performing the radiolabeling and CAFE assays in parallel is currently the best approach for quantifying Drosophila food intake. Understanding the strengths and limitations of food intake methodology will greatly advance Drosophila studies of nutrition, behavior, and disease. PMID:24681694

  2. Police suicide in small departments: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Violanti, John M; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were employed to assess differences in rates across categories. The annual suicide rate varied significantly across departments. Smaller police departments had a significantly higher suicide rate than large departments. Possible reasons include lack of availability for mental health assistance, increased workload and danger and community visibility.

  3. Police Suicide in Small Departments: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were employed to assess differences in rates across categories. The annual suicide rate varied significantly across departments. Smaller police departments had a significantly higher suicide rate than large departments. Possible reasons include lack of availability for mental health assistance, increased workload and danger, and community visibility. PMID:23894796

  4. Comparative Bacterial Proteomics: Analysis of the Core Genome Concept

    PubMed Central

    Callister, Stephen J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Turse, Joshua E.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2008-01-01

    While comparative bacterial genomic studies commonly predict a set of genes indicative of common ancestry, experimental validation of the existence of this core genome requires extensive measurement and is typically not undertaken. Enabled by an extensive proteome database developed over six years, we have experimentally verified the expression of proteins predicted from genomic ortholog comparisons among 17 environmental and pathogenic bacteria. More exclusive relationships were observed among the expressed protein content of phenotypically related bacteria, which is indicative of the specific lifestyles associated with these organisms. Although genomic studies can establish relative orthologous relationships among a set of bacteria and propose a set of ancestral genes, our proteomics study establishes expressed lifestyle differences among conserved genes and proposes a set of expressed ancestral traits. PMID:18253490

  5. Indications for quantum computation requirements from comparative brain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernroider, Gustav; Baer, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    Whether or not neuronal signal properties can engage 'non-trivial', i.e. functionally significant, quantum properties, is the subject of an ongoing debate. Here we provide evidence that quantum coherence dynamics can play a functional role in ion conduction mechanism with consequences on the shape and associative character of classical membrane signals. In particular, these new perspectives predict that a specific neuronal topology (e.g. the connectivity pattern of cortical columns in the primate brain) is less important and not really required to explain abilities in perception and sensory-motor integration. Instead, this evidence is suggestive for a decisive role of the number and functional segregation of ion channel proteins that can be engaged in a particular neuronal constellation. We provide evidence from comparative brain studies and estimates of computational capacity behind visual flight functions suggestive for a possible role of quantum computation in biological systems.

  6. Comparative analysis of large antenna spacecraft using the ideas system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS), capable of providing mobile communications for commercial and government applications in nonmetropolitan areas of the continental U.S. and Canada as an augmentation to existing and planned terrestrial systems, is being studied. The satellite system would provide 'narrow band' telecommunications services such as mobile radio, telephone, dispatch, safety, and special radio services, and thin-route fixed telephone and data services in the 806-890 MHz band and continuous emergency beacon monitoring in the 406-406.1 MHz band. A single Shuttle launch with an upper stage orbital transfer system would place the LMSS spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit over the continental U.S. in 1995 with a 10-year lifetime. The present investigation has the objective to evaluate, compare, and rank selected spacecraft concepts, to suggest design improvement to the individual concepts, and to identify technology needs.

  7. Comparative study of mobile Raman instrumentation for art analysis.

    PubMed

    Vandenabeele, P; Castro, K; Hargreaves, M; Moens, L; Madariaga, J M; Edwards, H G M

    2007-04-04

    In archaeometry, one of the main concerns is to extract information from an art object, without damaging it. Raman spectroscopy is being applied in this research field with recent developments in mobile instrumentation facilitating more routine analysis. This research paper evaluates the performances of five mobile Raman instruments (Renishaw RA100, Renishaw Portable Raman Analyser RX210, Ocean Optics RSL-1, Delta Nu Inspector Raman, Mobile Art Analyser--MArtA) in three different laboratories. A set of samples were collected, in order to obtain information on the spectral performances of the instruments including: spectral resolution, calibration, laser cut-off, the ability to record spectra of organic and inorganic pigments through varnish layers and on the possibilities to identify biomaterials. Spectra were recorded from predefined regions on a canvas painting to simulate the investigation of artworks and the capabilities to record spectra from hardly accessible areas was evaluated.

  8. Comparative analysis of student self-reflections on course projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomales-García, Cristina; Cortés Barreto, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    This study presents the skills, experiences, and values identified in project self-reflections of 161 undergraduate engineering students. Self-reflections from two different engineering design courses, which provide experiences in project-based learning (PBL), are analysed through the content analysis methodology. Results show that 'application', 'true life', 'satisfaction', and 'communication' are the common keywords shared in the reflections. Multiple hypothesis tests to identify differences between courses, project types, years, and gender suggest that there are no significant differences between experiences, skills, and values self-reported by students who completed either a case study or an industry project. Based on research findings, recommendations will be provided to enhance the engineering curriculum based on PBL experiences to support the development of relevant professional skills and experiences.

  9. Informed consent in colonoscopy: A comparative analysis of 2 methods.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, J M; Lotero Polesel, J C; Iriarte, S M; Ledesma, C; Canseco Fuentes, S E; Caro, L E

    2015-01-01

    The manner in which informed consent is obtained varies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of knowledge about colonoscopy and comparing 2 methods of obtaining informed consent. A comparative, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on patients that underwent colonoscopy in a public hospital (Group A) and in a private hospital (Group B). Group A received information verbally from a physician, as well as in the form of printed material, and Group B only received printed material. A telephone survey was carried out one or 2 weeks later. The study included a total of 176 subjects (group A [n=55] and group B [n=121]). As regards education level, 69.88% (n=123) of the patients had completed university education, 23.29% (n= 41) secondary level, 5.68% (n=10) primary level, and the remaining subjects (n=2) had not completed any level of education. All (100%) of the subjects knew the characteristics of the procedure, and 99.43% were aware of its benefits. A total of 97.7% received information about complications, 93.7% named some of them, and 25% (n=44) remembered major complications. All the subjects received, read, and signed the informed consent statement before the study. There were no differences between the groups with respect to knowledge of the characteristics and benefits of the procedure, or the receipt and reading of the consent form. Group B responded better in relation to complications (P=.0027) and group A had a better recollection of the major complications (P<.0001). Group A had a higher number of affirmative answers (P<.0001). The combination of verbal and written information provides the patient with a more comprehensive level of knowledge about the procedure. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative assessment of statistical methods for extreme weather analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlögl, Matthias; Laaha, Gregor

    2017-04-01

    Extreme weather exposure assessment is of major importance for scientists and practitioners alike. We compare different extreme value approaches and fitting methods with respect to their value for assessing extreme precipitation and temperature impacts. Based on an Austrian data set from 25 meteorological stations representing diverse meteorological conditions, we assess the added value of partial duration series over the standardly used annual maxima series in order to give recommendations for performing extreme value statistics of meteorological hazards. Results show the merits of the robust L-moment estimation, which yielded better results than maximum likelihood estimation in 62 % of all cases. At the same time, results question the general assumption of the threshold excess approach (employing partial duration series, PDS) being superior to the block maxima approach (employing annual maxima series, AMS) due to information gain. For low return periods (non-extreme events) the PDS approach tends to overestimate return levels as compared to the AMS approach, whereas an opposite behavior was found for high return levels (extreme events). In extreme cases, an inappropriate threshold was shown to lead to considerable biases that may outperform the possible gain of information from including additional extreme events by far. This effect was neither visible from the square-root criterion, nor from standardly used graphical diagnosis (mean residual life plot), but from a direct comparison of AMS and PDS in synoptic quantile plots. We therefore recommend performing AMS and PDS approaches simultaneously in order to select the best suited approach. This will make the analyses more robust, in cases where threshold selection and dependency introduces biases to the PDS approach, but also in cases where the AMS contains non-extreme events that may introduce similar biases. For assessing the performance of extreme events we recommend conditional performance measures that focus

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Flexural Stiffness of Pinniped Vibrissae

    PubMed Central

    Ginter Summarell, Carly C.; Ingole, Sudeep; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrissae are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system and are used to detect vibrotactile stimuli in the environment. Pinnipeds have the largest and most highly innervated vibrissae among mammals, and the hair shafts function as a biomechanical filter spanning the environmental stimuli and the neural mechanoreceptors deep in the follicle-sinus complex. Therefore, the material properties of these structures are critical in transferring vibrotactile information to the peripheral nervous system. Vibrissae were tested as cantilever beams and their flexural stiffness (EI) was measured to test the hypotheses that the shape of beaded vibrissae reduces EI and that vibrissae are anisotropic. EI was measured at two locations on each vibrissa, 25% and 50% of the overall length, and at two orientations to the point force. EI differed in orientations that were normal to each other, indicating a functional anisotropy. Since vibrissae taper from base to tip, the second moment of area (I) was lower at 50% than 25% of total length. The anterior orientation exhibited greater EI values at both locations compared to the dorsal orientation for all species. Smooth vibrissae were generally stiffer than beaded vibrissae. The profiles of beaded vibrissae are known to decrease the amplitude of vibrations when protruded into a flow field. The lower EI values of beaded vibrissae, along with the reduced vibrations, may function to enhance the sensitivity of mechanoreceptors to detection of small changes in flow from swimming prey by increasing the signal to noise ratio. This study builds upon previous morphological and hydrodynamic analyses of vibrissae and is the first comparative study of the mechanical properties of pinniped vibrissae. PMID:26132102

  12. Comparative risk analysis of technological hazards (a review).

    PubMed Central

    Kates, R W; Kasperson, J X

    1983-01-01

    Hazards are threats to people and what they value and risks are measures of hazards. Comparative analyses of the risks and hazards of technology can be dated to Starr's 1969 paper [Starr, C. (1969) Science 165, 1232-1238] but are rooted in recent trends in the evolution of technology, the identification of hazard, the perception of risk, and the activities of society. These trends have spawned an interdisciplinary quasi profession with new terminology, methodology, and literature. A review of 54 English-language monographs and book-length collections, published between 1970 and 1983, identified seven recurring themes: (i) overviews of the field of risk assessment, (ii) efforts to estimate and quantify risk, (iii) discussions of risk acceptability, (iv) perception, (v) analyses of regulation, (vi) case studies of specific technological hazards, and (vii) agenda for research. Within this field, science occupies a unique niche, for many technological hazards transcend the realm of ordinary experience and require expert study. Scientists can make unique contributions to each area of hazard management but their primary contribution is the practice of basic science. Beyond that, science needs to further risk assessment by understanding the more subtle processes of hazard creation and by establishing conventions for estimating risk and for presenting and handling uncertainty. Scientists can enlighten the discussion of tolerable risk by setting risks into comparative contexts, by studying the process of evaluation, and by participating as knowledgeable individuals, but they cannot decide the issue. Science can inform the hazard management process by broadening the range of alternative control actions and modes of implementation and by devising methods to evaluate their effectiveness. PMID:6580625

  13. Transmembrane helix prediction: a comparative evaluation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Jonathan M; Doyle, Declan A; Sansom, Mark S P

    2005-06-01

    The prediction of transmembrane (TM) helices plays an important role in the study of membrane proteins, given the relatively small number (approximately 0.5% of the PDB) of high-resolution structures for such proteins. We used two datasets (one redundant and one non-redundant) of high-resolution structures of membrane proteins to evaluate and analyse TM helix prediction. The redundant (non-redundant) dataset contains structure of 434 (268) TM helices, from 112 (73) polypeptide chains. Of the 434 helices in the dataset, 20 may be classified as 'half-TM' as they are too short to span a lipid bilayer. We compared 13 TM helix prediction methods, evaluating each method using per segment, per residue and termini scores. Four methods consistently performed well: SPLIT4, TMHMM2, HMMTOP2 and TMAP. However, even the best methods were in error by, on average, about two turns of helix at the TM helix termini. The best and worst case predictions for individual proteins were analysed. In particular, the performance of the various methods and of a consensus prediction method, were compared for a number of proteins (e.g. SecY, ClC, KvAP) containing half-TM helices. The difficulties of predicting half-TM helices suggests that current prediction methods successfully embody the two-state model of membrane protein folding, but do not accommodate a third stage in which, e.g., short helices and re-entrant loops fold within a bundle of stable TM helices.

  14. Comparative analysis of old-age mortality estimations in Africa.

    PubMed

    Bendavid, Eran; Seligman, Benjamin; Kubo, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Survival to old ages is increasing in many African countries. While demographic tools for estimating mortality up to age 60 have improved greatly, mortality patterns above age 60 rely on models based on little or no demographic data. These estimates are important for social planning and demographic projections. We provide direct estimations of older-age mortality using survey data. Since 2005, nationally representative household surveys in ten sub-Saharan countries record counts of living and recently deceased household members: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. After accounting for age heaping using multiple imputation, we use this information to estimate probability of death in 5-year intervals ((5)q(x)). We then compare our (5)q(x) estimates to those provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Population Division (UNPD) to estimate the differences in mortality estimates, especially among individuals older than 60 years old. We obtained information on 505,827 individuals (18.4% over age 60, 1.64% deceased). WHO and UNPD mortality models match our estimates closely up to age 60 (mean difference in probability of death -1.1%). However, mortality probabilities above age 60 are lower using our estimations than either WHO or UNPD. The mean difference between our sample and the WHO is 5.9% (95% CI 3.8-7.9%) and between our sample is UNPD is 13.5% (95% CI 11.6-15.5%). Regardless of the comparator, the difference in mortality estimations rises monotonically above age 60. Mortality estimations above age 60 in ten African countries exhibit large variations depending on the method of estimation. The observed patterns suggest the possibility that survival in some African countries among adults older than age 60 is better than previously thought. Improving the quality and coverage of vital information in developing countries will become increasingly important with future

  15. Scorpion venom complexity fractal analysis. Its relevance for comparing venoms.

    PubMed

    D'Suze, Gina; Sevcik, Carlos

    2010-12-07

    We analyzed the venom elution pattern of 15 scorpions species. Data were scanned at 1 Hz and stored digitally. Approximate fractal dimension (D) [Sevcik (1998)] was calculated for minutes 0-60 of the elutions. D was calculated for either the whole time range, or calculated using a window of 500 points, which was displaced by one time increment recursively, and stored [(t(i),D(i)) sets]. We avoid the term complexity as much as possible since defining complexity is difficult; instead we propose the term contortedness and represent it by the variable Q=D-1. To compare venom contortednesses of different species, a phase plot with their (t(i),Q(i)) sets was constructed and determination coefficient (d(s)) were calculated squaring the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. (t(i),Q(i)) sets of several elutions of the same species were averaged and compared with other species finding that some were amazingly similar (Tityus clathratus vs Tityus caripitensis, d(s) = 0.813). Tityus discrepans was similar to 6 of 8 species of the same genus (d(s) ranging from 0.23 to 0.49), and also similar to Centruroides gracilis and Chactas laevipes (d(s) 0.54 and 0.49, respectively). Serendipitously,T. discrepans was chosen many years ago to produce anti-Tityus antivenom in Venezuela; perhaps the clinical success in neutralizing the venom of the other known Venezuelan Tityus, stems from the mimetism of this venom with the remaining species' venom. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparative analysis of infraorbital foramen size in Paleogene euarchontans.

    PubMed

    Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Kirk, E Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The size of the infraorbital foramen (IOF) is correlated with the size of the infraorbital nerve and number of mystacial vibrissae in mammals. Accordingly, IOF cross-sectional area has been used to infer both the rostral mechanoreceptive acuity and phylogenetic relationships of extinct crown primates and plesiadapiforms. Among living mammals, extant primates, scandentians, and dermopterans (Euarchonta) exhibit smaller IOF cross-sectional areas than most other mammals. Here we assess whether fossil adapoids, omomyoids, and plesiadapiforms show a reduction in relative IOF area similar to that characterizing extant euarchontans. The IOFs of 12 adapoid, 7 omomyoid, 15 plesiadapiform, and 3 fossil gliran species were measured and compared to a diverse extant mammalian sample. These data demonstrate that adapoids and omomyoids have IOFs that are similar in relative size to those of extant euarchontans. Conversely, IOFs of plesiadapiforms are on average about twice as large as those of extant euarchontans and are more comparable in size to those of extant non-euarchontan mammals. These results indicate that crown primates share a derived reduction in relative IOF size with treeshrews and colugos. Accordingly, a decreased reliance on the muzzle and an increased reliance on the hands for environmental exploration may have first evolved in the euarchontan stem lineage. However, the relatively large IOFs of plesiadapiforms imply a continued reliance on the muzzle for close exploration of objects. This finding may indicate that either parallel evolutionary decreases in IOF size occurred within Euarchonta or that plesiadapiforms lie outside the euarchontan crown group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the axisymmetric indentation of a semi-infinite piezoelectric material: The evaluation of the contact stiffness and the effective piezoelectric constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuqian

    2008-04-01

    A general solution of the axisymmetric indentation is obtained in the closed form for a semi-infinite, transverse isotropic piezoelectric material by a rigid-conducting indenter of arbitrary-axisymmetric profile. Explicit relationships are derived for dependences of the indentation depth and the indentation-induced charge on indentation force and applied electrical potential. Simple formulas are obtained for contact stiffness and effective piezoelectric constant, which can be used in indentation test and piezoresponse force microscopy to analyze the elastic and piezoelectric responses of piezoelectric materials. Depending on the direction of electric field (the potential difference), the electric field can either increase or suppress indentation deformation. The corresponding results are given for cylindrical, conical, and paraboloidal indenters.

  18. Comparative analysis of methods for detecting interacting loci

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interactions among genetic loci are believed to play an important role in disease risk. While many methods have been proposed for detecting such interactions, their relative performance remains largely unclear, mainly because different data sources, detection performance criteria, and experimental protocols were used in the papers introducing these methods and in subsequent studies. Moreover, there have been very few studies strictly focused on comparison of existing methods. Given the importance of detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, a rigorous, comprehensive comparison of performance and limitations of available interaction detection methods is warranted. Results We report a comparison of eight representative methods, of which seven were specifically designed to detect interactions among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with the last a popular main-effect testing method used as a baseline for performance evaluation. The selected methods, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), full interaction model (FIM), information gain (IG), Bayesian epistasis association mapping (BEAM), SNP harvester (SH), maximum entropy conditional probability modeling (MECPM), logistic regression with an interaction term (LRIT), and logistic regression (LR) were compared on a large number of simulated data sets, each, consistent with complex disease models, embedding multiple sets of interacting SNPs, under different interaction models. The assessment criteria included several relevant detection power measures, family-wise type I error rate, and computational complexity. There are several important results from this study. First, while some SNPs in interactions with strong effects are successfully detected, most of the methods miss many interacting SNPs at an acceptable rate of false positives. In this study, the best-performing method was MECPM. Second, the statistical significance assessment criteria, used by some of the methods to control the

  19. Comparative analysis of methods for detecting interacting loci.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yu, Guoqiang; Langefeld, Carl D; Miller, David J; Guy, Richard T; Raghuram, Jayaram; Yuan, Xiguo; Herrington, David M; Wang, Yue

    2011-07-05

    Interactions among genetic loci are believed to play an important role in disease risk. While many methods have been proposed for detecting such interactions, their relative performance remains largely unclear, mainly because different data sources, detection performance criteria, and experimental protocols were used in the papers introducing these methods and in subsequent studies. Moreover, there have been very few studies strictly focused on comparison of existing methods. Given the importance of detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, a rigorous, comprehensive comparison of performance and limitations of available interaction detection methods is warranted. We report a comparison of eight representative methods, of which seven were specifically designed to detect interactions among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with the last a popular main-effect testing method used as a baseline for performance evaluation. The selected methods, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), full interaction model (FIM), information gain (IG), Bayesian epistasis association mapping (BEAM), SNP harvester (SH), maximum entropy conditional probability modeling (MECPM), logistic regression with an interaction term (LRIT), and logistic regression (LR) were compared on a large number of simulated data sets, each, consistent with complex disease models, embedding multiple sets of interacting SNPs, under different interaction models. The assessment criteria included several relevant detection power measures, family-wise type I error rate, and computational complexity. There are several important results from this study. First, while some SNPs in interactions with strong effects are successfully detected, most of the methods miss many interacting SNPs at an acceptable rate of false positives. In this study, the best-performing method was MECPM. Second, the statistical significance assessment criteria, used by some of the methods to control the type I error rate

  20. Comparative analysis of hospital energy use: pacific northwest and scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Burpee, Heather; McDade, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the potential for significant energy reduction in hospitals in the United States by providing evidence of Scandinavian operational precedents with high Interior Environmental Quality (IEQ) and substantially lower energy profiles than comparable U.S. facilities. These facilities set important precedents for design teams seeking operational examples for achieving aggressive energy and interior environmental quality goals. This examination of operational hospitals is intended to offer hospital owners, designers, and building managers a strong case and concrete framework for strategies to achieve exceptionally high performing buildings. Energy efficient hospitals have the potential to significantly impact the U.S.'s overall energy profile, and key stakeholders in the hospital industry need specific, operationally grounded precedents in order to successfully implement informed energy reduction strategies. This study is an outgrowth of previous research evaluating high quality, low energy hospitals that serve as examples for new high performance hospital design, construction, and operation. Through extensive interviews, numerous site visits, the development of case studies, and data collection, this team has established thorough qualitative and quantitative analyses of several contemporary hospitals in Scandinavia and the Pacific Northwest. Many Scandinavian hospitals demonstrate a low energy profile, and when analyzed in comparison with U.S. hospitals, such Scandinavian precedents help define the framework required to make significant changes in the U.S. hospital building industry. Eight hospitals, four Scandinavian and four Pacific Northwest, were quantitatively compared using the Environmental Protection Agency's Portfolio Manager, allowing researchers to answer specific questions about the impact of energy source and architectural and mechanical strategies on energy efficiency in operational hospitals. Specific architectural, mechanical

  1. Survival analysis: comparing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiu-Ching; Cheng, Kuang-Fu; Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac

    2008-06-01

    Comparisons of survival in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and on hemodialysis (HD) have been conducted in many Western countries, but publications on this subject in Asian populations are scarce. The present study estimated the survival and the relative mortality hazard for HD and PD patients in Taiwan. Incident end-stage renal disease patients reported to the Taiwan Renal Registry during 1995 - 2002 were included in the study. Patients had to be 20 years of age or older and had to have survived for the first 90 days on dialysis. A total of 45,820 incident HD and 2,809 incident PD patients formed the study population. Patients on PD were treated mainly with traditional glucose-based solutions. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, the Cox proportional hazards (CPH) model was applied to identify the factors that predict survival by treatment modality. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying patients according to sex, comorbidity, age, and diabetes status. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to explore the survival of HD and PD patients. Adjustments were implemented using the CPH model. The overall 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, 5-year and 10-year survival rates for PD patients were 89.8%, 77.6%, 67.6%, 55.5%, and 35% respectively. The equivalent survival rates for HD patients were 87.5%, 76.6%, 68.1%, 54.3%, and 33.8%. The differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.125). The CPH analysis stratified by diabetes status and age revealed that PD patients 55 years of age or younger and nondiabetic had a lower mortality ratio (MR) of 0.94. But the MR increased to 1.31 for nondiabetic patients older than 55. The MR for PD versus HD further increased to 1.72 for diabetic patients 55 years of age or younger, and to 1.99 for diabetic patients older than 55. After adjusting for both demographic and clinical case-mix differences, PD and HD patients were observed to have similar long-term survival. Subgroup analyses revealed that, among diabetic patients and patients

  2. Work satisfaction among California registered nurses: a longitudinal comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    California's minimum nurse-to-patient staffing ratio law, the nation's first, was implemented in 2004. This study had two aims: (a) to evaluate the effect of the nurse-to-patient ratios law on nurse job satisfaction in order to advance the debate over the merits of nurse staffing law, and (b) to compare California nurses who were satisfied against those who were not, in order to facilitate the development targeted retention interventions based on empirical evidence. The sample's overall job satisfaction increased significantly as the years passed, suggesting the nurse-to-patient ratios law was associated with improvements in nurse satisfaction. Satisfied RNs were more likely to have a balanced and financially secure life that included a partner, children living at home, higher hourly wages, and higher income from sources other than a nursing job. Nurses working in direct patient care positions remained dissatisfied in larger proportions than those working in other types of positions, even after the nurse-to-patient ratios were implemented. More nurses are satisfied today than before the ratios; nevertheless, far too many nurses (18.5%) have job satisfaction scores that are neutral or worse.

  3. Comparative analysis of feature extraction methods in satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Shahid; Zhang, Ye; Asif, Muhammad Rizwan; Ali, Saad

    2017-10-01

    Feature extraction techniques are extensively being used in satellite imagery and getting impressive attention for remote sensing applications. The state-of-the-art feature extraction methods are appropriate according to the categories and structures of the objects to be detected. Based on distinctive computations of each feature extraction method, different types of images are selected to evaluate the performance of the methods, such as binary robust invariant scalable keypoints (BRISK), scale-invariant feature transform, speeded-up robust features (SURF), features from accelerated segment test (FAST), histogram of oriented gradients, and local binary patterns. Total computational time is calculated to evaluate the speed of each feature extraction method. The extracted features are counted under shadow regions and preprocessed shadow regions to compare the functioning of each method. We have studied the combination of SURF with FAST and BRISK individually and found very promising results with an increased number of features and less computational time. Finally, feature matching is conferred for all methods.

  4. Comparative analysis of protocols for DNA extraction from soybean caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Palma, J; Valmorbida, I; da Costa, I F D; Guedes, J V C

    2016-04-07

    Genomic DNA extraction is crucial for molecular research, including diagnostic and genome characterization of different organisms. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze protocols of DNA extraction based on cell lysis by sarcosyl, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, and to determine the most efficient method applicable to soybean caterpillars. DNA was extracted from specimens of Chrysodeixis includens and Spodoptera eridania using the aforementioned three methods. DNA quantification was performed using spectrophotometry and high molecular weight DNA ladders. The purity of the extracted DNA was determined by calculating the A260/A280 ratio. Cost and time for each DNA extraction method were estimated and analyzed statistically. The amount of DNA extracted by these three methods was sufficient for PCR amplification. The sarcosyl method yielded DNA of higher purity, because it generated a clearer pellet without viscosity, and yielded high quality amplification products of the COI gene I. The sarcosyl method showed lower cost per extraction and did not differ from the other methods with respect to preparation times. Cell lysis by sarcosyl represents the best method for DNA extraction in terms of yield, quality, and cost effectiveness.

  5. Islamic Medicine and Evolutionary Medicine: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saniotis, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The advent of evolutionary medicine in the last two decades has provided new insights into the causes of human disease and possible preventative strategies. One of the strengths of evolutionary medicine is that it follows a multi-disciplinary approach. Such an approach is vital to future biomedicine as it enables for the infiltration of new ideas. Although evolutionary medicine uses Darwinian evolution as a heuristic for understanding human beings’ susceptibility to disease, this is not necessarily in conflict with Islamic medicine. It should be noted that current evolutionary theory was first expounded by various Muslim scientists such as al-Jāḥiẓ, al-Ṭūsī, Ibn Khaldūn and Ibn Maskawayh centuries before Darwin and Wallace. In this way, evolution should not be viewed as being totally antithetical to Islam. This article provides a comparative overview of Islamic medicine and Evolutionary medicine as well as drawing points of comparison between the two approaches which enables their possible future integration. PMID:23864992

  6. Islamic medicine and evolutionary medicine: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Saniotis, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The advent of evolutionary medicine in the last two decades has provided new insights into the causes of human disease and possible preventative strategies. One of the strengths of evolutionary medicine is that it follows a multi-disciplinary approach. Such an approach is vital to future biomedicine as it enables for the infiltration of new ideas. Although evolutionary medicine uses Darwinian evolution as a heuristic for understanding human beings' susceptibility to disease, this is not necessarily in conflict with Islamic medicine. It should be noted that current evolutionary theory was first expounded by various Muslim scientists such as al-Jāḥiẓ, al-Ṭūsī, Ibn Khaldūn and Ibn Maskawayh centuries before Darwin and Wallace. In this way, evolution should not be viewed as being totally antithetical to Islam. This article provides a comparative overview of Islamic medicine and Evolutionary medicine as well as drawing points of comparison between the two approaches which enables their possible future integration.

  7. Interspecific variation of warning calls in piranhas: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Mélotte, Geoffrey; Vigouroux, Régis; Michel, Christian; Parmentier, Eric

    2016-10-26

    Fish sounds are known to be species-specific, possessing unique temporal and spectral features. We have recorded and compared sounds in eight piranha species to evaluate the potential role of acoustic communication as a driving force in clade diversification. All piranha species showed the same kind of sound-producing mechanism: sonic muscles originate on vertebrae and attach to a tendon surrounding the bladder ventrally. Contractions of the sound-producing muscles force swimbladder vibration and dictate the fundamental frequency. It results the calling features of the eight piranha species logically share many common characteristics. In all the species, the calls are harmonic sounds composed of multiple continuous cycles. However, the sounds of Serrasalmus elongatus (higher number of cycles and high fundamental frequency) and S. manueli (long cycle periods and low fundamental frequency) are clearly distinguishable from the other species. The sonic mechanism being largely conserved throughout piranha evolution, acoustic communication can hardly be considered as the main driving force in the diversification process. However, sounds of some species are clearly distinguishable despite the short space for variations supporting the need for specific communication. Behavioural studies are needed to clearly understand the eventual role of the calls during spawning events.

  8. Comparative analysis of uranium bioassociation with halophilic bacteria and archaea

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Miriam; Müller, Katharina; Foerstendorf, Harald; Schmidt, Matthias; Simmons, Karen; Swanson, Juliet S.; Reed, Donald T.; Stumpf, Thorsten

    2018-01-01

    Rock salt represents a potential host rock formation for the final disposal of radioactive waste. The interactions between indigenous microorganisms and radionuclides, e.g. uranium, need to be investigated to better predict the influence of microorganisms on the safety assessment of the repository. Hence, the association process of uranium with two microorganisms isolated from rock salt was comparatively studied. Brachybacterium sp. G1, which was isolated from the German salt dome Gorleben, and Halobacterium noricense DSM15987T, were selected as examples of a moderately halophilic bacterium and an extremely halophilic archaeon, respectively. The microorganisms exhibited completely different association behaviors with uranium. While a pure biosorption process took place with Brachybacterium sp. G1 cells, a multistage association process occurred with the archaeon. In addition to batch experiments, in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was applied to characterize the U(VI) interaction process. Biosorption was identified as the dominating process for Brachybacterium sp. G1 with this method. Carboxylic functionalities are the dominant interacting groups for the bacterium, whereas phosphoryl groups are also involved in U(VI) association by the archaeon H. noricense. PMID:29329319

  9. Interspecific variation of warning calls in piranhas: a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mélotte, Geoffrey; Vigouroux, Régis; Michel, Christian; Parmentier, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Fish sounds are known to be species-specific, possessing unique temporal and spectral features. We have recorded and compared sounds in eight piranha species to evaluate the potential role of acoustic communication as a driving force in clade diversification. All piranha species showed the same kind of sound-producing mechanism: sonic muscles originate on vertebrae and attach to a tendon surrounding the bladder ventrally. Contractions of the sound-producing muscles force swimbladder vibration and dictate the fundamental frequency. It results the calling features of the eight piranha species logically share many common characteristics. In all the species, the calls are harmonic sounds composed of multiple continuous cycles. However, the sounds of Serrasalmus elongatus (higher number of cycles and high fundamental frequency) and S. manueli (long cycle periods and low fundamental frequency) are clearly distinguishable from the other species. The sonic mechanism being largely conserved throughout piranha evolution, acoustic communication can hardly be considered as the main driving force in the diversification process. However, sounds of some species are clearly distinguishable despite the short space for variations supporting the need for specific communication. Behavioural studies are needed to clearly understand the eventual role of the calls during spawning events. PMID:27782184

  10. A Comparative Biocompatibility Analysis of Ternary Nitinol Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Waseem; Munroe, Norman; Pulletikurthi, Chandan; Singh Gill, Puneet K.; Amruthaluri, Sushma

    2009-01-01

    Nitinol alloys are rapidly being utilized as the material of choice in a variety of applications in the medical industry. It has been used for self-expanding stents, graft support systems, and various other devices for minimally invasive interventional and endoscopic procedures. However, the biocompatibility of this alloy remains a concern to many practitioners in the industry due to nickel sensitivity experienced by many patients. In recent times, several new Nitinol alloys have been introduced with the addition of a ternary element. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of information concerning the biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of these alloys. This study compared the biocompatibility of two ternary Nitinol alloys prepared by powder metallurgy (PM) and arc melting (AM) and critically assessed the influence of the ternary element. ASTM F 2129-08 cyclic polarization in vitro corrosion tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The growth of endothelial cells on NiTi was examined using optical microscopy. PMID:19956791

  11. A Comparative Biocompatibility Analysis of Ternary Nitinol Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Waseem; Munroe, Norman; Pulletikurthi, Chandan; Gill, Puneet K. Singh; Amruthaluri, Sushma

    2009-08-01

    Nitinol alloys are rapidly being utilized as the material of choice in a variety of applications in the medical industry. It has been used for self-expanding stents, graft support systems, and various other devices for minimally invasive interventional and endoscopic procedures. However, the biocompatibility of this alloy remains a concern to many practitioners in the industry due to nickel sensitivity experienced by many patients. In recent times, several new Nitinol alloys have been introduced with the addition of a ternary element. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of information concerning the biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of these alloys. This study compared the biocompatibility of two ternary Nitinol alloys prepared by powder metallurgy (PM) and arc melting (AM) and critically assessed the influence of the ternary element. ASTM F 2129-08 cyclic polarization in vitro corrosion tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The growth of endothelial cells on NiTi was examined using optical microscopy.

  12. A Comparative Biocompatibility Analysis of Ternary Nitinol Alloys.

    PubMed

    Haider, Waseem; Munroe, Norman; Pulletikurthi, Chandan; Singh Gill, Puneet K; Amruthaluri, Sushma

    2009-08-01

    Nitinol alloys are rapidly being utilized as the material of choice in a variety of applications in the medical industry. It has been used for self-expanding stents, graft support systems, and various other devices for minimally invasive interventional and endoscopic procedures. However, the biocompatibility of this alloy remains a concern to many practitioners in the industry due to nickel sensitivity experienced by many patients. In recent times, several new Nitinol alloys have been introduced with the addition of a ternary element. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of information concerning the biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of these alloys. This study compared the biocompatibility of two ternary Nitinol alloys prepared by powder metallurgy (PM) and arc melting (AM) and critically assessed the influence of the ternary element. ASTM F 2129-08 cyclic polarization in vitro corrosion tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The growth of endothelial cells on NiTi was examined using optical microscopy.

  13. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Fischer, Mary J.; Capoferro, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner’s migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman’s own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings. PMID:21399742

  14. A comparative analysis of generics markets in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Garattini, L; Tediosi, F

    2000-04-01

    A generic medicine is a faithful copy of a mature drug--no longer under patent marketed with the chemical name of the active ingredient. This article analyses generics markets in five European countries: France, Germany Italy, The Netherlands and the U.K. The study investigate all the main issues--patent, approval to market, pricing and reimbursement, prescription and distribution--which affect the life cycle of a pharmaceutical product. The situation in the five countries varied widely. Because of European harmonization, patent legislation and approval procedures no longer affect much the development of generics. Only national legislation on patent protection approved before the EU directive came into force still plays a role. Approval differences seem to be due mainly to common practice, rather than to the regulations themselves. None of the countries have an efficient public information system on patent expiry. Generics have had more success in countries with more flexible pricing policies. Reimbursement has not yet been used widely to discriminate between generics and proprietary drugs. Financial incentives are based more on physicians' prescribing behaviour than on pharmacists. The freedom of pharmacy ownership and the consequent possibility of dispensing pharmaceuticals through different channels affects dramatically the structure of generics markets. A free market of wholesalers and retailers can enhance a comparative market, through horizontal and vertical integration all along the distribution chain. Such an environment has stimulate the success of unbranded generics by delegating strong purchasing power to distributors.

  15. Comparative Analysis of the First Complete Enterococcus faecium Genome

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Margaret M. C.; Seemann, Torsten; Bulach, Dieter M.; Gladman, Simon L.; Chen, Honglei; Haring, Volker; Moore, Robert J.; Ballard, Susan; Grayson, M. Lindsay; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections in health care facilities around the globe. In particular, infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium are becoming increasingly common. Comparative and functional genomic studies of E. faecium isolates have so far been limited owing to the lack of a fully assembled E. faecium genome sequence. Here we address this issue and report the complete 3.0-Mb genome sequence of the multilocus sequence type 17 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strain Aus0004, isolated from the bloodstream of a patient in Melbourne, Australia, in 1998. The genome comprises a 2.9-Mb circular chromosome and three circular plasmids. The chromosome harbors putative E. faecium virulence factors such as enterococcal surface protein, hemolysin, and collagen-binding adhesin. Aus0004 has a very large accessory genome (38%) that includes three prophage and two genomic islands absent among 22 other E. faecium genomes. One of the prophage was present as inverted 50-kb repeats that appear to have facilitated a 683-kb chromosomal inversion across the replication terminus, resulting in a striking replichore imbalance. Other distinctive features include 76 insertion sequence elements and a single chromosomal copy of Tn1549 containing the vanB vancomycin resistance element. A complete E. faecium genome will be a useful resource to assist our understanding of this emerging nosocomial pathogen. PMID:22366422

  16. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas S; Fischer, Mary J; Capoferro, Chiara

    2006-12-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner's migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman's own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings.

  17. Hospital profitability and capital structure: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Valvona, J; Sloan, F A

    1988-01-01

    This article compares the financial performance of hospitals by ownership type and of five publicly traded hospital companies with other industries, using such indicators as profit margins, return on equity (ROE) and total capitalization, and debt-to-equity ratios. We also examine stock returns to investors for the five hospital companies versus other industries, as well as the relative roles of debt and equity in new financing. Investor-owned hospitals had substantially greater margins and ROE than did other hospital types. In 1982, investor-owned chain hospitals had a ROE of 26 percent, 18 points above the average for all hospitals. Stock returns on the five selected hospital companies were more than twice as large as returns on other industries between 1972 and 1983. However, after 1983, returns for these companies fell dramatically in absolute terms and relative to other industries. We also found investor-owned hospitals to be much more highly levered than their government and voluntary counterparts, and more highly levered than other industries as well. PMID:3403274

  18. Ageism in Belgium and Burundi: a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Manon; Missotten, Pierre; Schroyen, Sarah; Nindaba, Desiderate; Adam, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent cross-cultural comparisons between Asian and Western cultures have shown that ageism arises more from the lack of availability of social and economic resources for older adults than from the culture itself. We tested this assumption by conducting a survey among people living in a least developed country compared with those living in a developed country. Participants and methods Twenty-seven Belgians living in Belgium, 29 Burundians living in Belgium, and 32 Burundians living in Burundi were included in this study. Their attitudes toward older adults were assessed using several self-reported measures. Results Statistical analyses confirmed that older people are more negatively perceived by Burundians living in Burundi than by Burundians and Belgians living in Belgium, whose attitudes did not differ from each other. Conclusion Consistent with our hypothesis, our results suggest that the level of development of a country and more particularly the lack of government spending on older people (pension and health care systems) may contribute to their younger counterparts perceiving them more negatively. PMID:27601889

  19. Sequence Diversity Diagram for comparative analysis of multiple sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Ryo; Aerts, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The sequence logo is a graphical representation of a set of aligned sequences, commonly used to depict conservation of amino acid or nucleotide sequences. Although it effectively communicates the amount of information present at every position, this visual representation falls short when the domain task is to compare between two or more sets of aligned sequences. We present a new visual presentation called a Sequence Diversity Diagram and validate our design choices with a case study. Our software was developed using the open-source program called Processing. It loads multiple sequence alignment FASTA files and a configuration file, which can be modified as needed to change the visualization. The redesigned figure improves on the visual comparison of two or more sets, and it additionally encodes information on sequential position conservation. In our case study of the adenylate kinase lid domain, the Sequence Diversity Diagram reveals unexpected patterns and new insights, for example the identification of subgroups within the protein subfamily. Our future work will integrate this visual encoding into interactive visualization tools to support higher level data exploration tasks.

  20. Comparative analysis of Meissner's corpuscles in the fingertips of primates.

    PubMed

    Verendeev, Andrey; Thomas, Christian; McFarlin, Shannon C; Hopkins, William D; Phillips, Kimberley A; Sherwood, Chet C

    2015-07-01

    Meissner's corpuscles (MCs) are tactile mechanoreceptors found in the glabrous skin of primates, including fingertips. These receptors are characterized by sensitivity to light touch, and therefore might be associated with the evolution of manipulative abilities of the hands in primates. We examined MCs in different primate species, including common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, n = 5), baboon (Papio anubis, n = 2), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta, n = 3), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, n = 3), bonobo (Pan paniscus, n = 1) and human (Homo sapiens, n = 8). Fingertips of the first, second and fourth digits were collected from both hands of specimens, dissected and histologically stained using hematoxylin and eosin. The density (MCs per 1 mm(2) ) and the size (cross-sectional diameter of MCs) were quantified. Overall, there were no differences in the densities of MCs or their size among the digits or between the hands for any species examined. However, MCs varied across species. We found a trend for higher densities of MCs in macaques and humans compared with chimpanzees and bonobos; moreover, apes had larger MCs than monkeys. We further examined whether the density or size of MCs varied as a function of body mass, measures of dexterity and dietary frugivory. Among these variables, only body size accounted for a significant amount of variation in the size of MCs. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  1. A comparative analysis of experimental selection on the stickleback pelvis.

    PubMed

    Miller, S E; Barrueto, M; Schluter, D

    2017-06-01

    Mechanisms of natural selection can be identified using experimental approaches. However, such experiments often yield nonsignificant effects and imprecise estimates of selection due to low power and small sample sizes. Combining results from multiple experimental studies might produce an aggregate estimate of selection that is more revealing than individual studies. For example, bony pelvic armour varies conspicuously among stickleback populations, and predation by vertebrate and insect predators has been hypothesized to be the main driver of this variation. Yet experimental selection studies testing these hypotheses frequently fail to find a significant effect. We experimentally manipulated length of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) pelvic spines in a mesocosm experiment to test whether prickly sculpin (Cottus asper), an intraguild predator of stickleback, favours longer spines. The probability of survival was greater for stickleback with unclipped pelvic spines, but this effect was noisy and not significant. We used meta-analysis to combine the results of our mesocosm experiment with previously published experimental studies of selection on pelvic armour. We found evidence that fish predation indeed favours increased pelvic armour, with a moderate effect size. The same approach found little evidence that insect predation favours reduced pelvic armour. The causes of reduced pelvic armour in many stickleback populations remain uncertain. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Systematic Characterization and Comparative Analysis of the Rabbit Immunoglobulin Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Lavinder, Jason J.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Reddy, Sai T.; Wine, Yariv; Georgiou, George

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits have been used extensively as a model system for the elucidation of the mechanism of immunoglobulin diversification and for the production of antibodies. We employed Next Generation Sequencing to analyze Ig germline V and J gene usage, CDR3 length and amino acid composition, and gene conversion frequencies within the functional (transcribed) IgG repertoire of the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Several previously unannotated rabbit heavy chain variable (VH) and light chain variable (VL) germline elements were deduced bioinformatically using multidimensional scaling and k-means clustering methods. We estimated the gene conversion frequency in the rabbit at 23% of IgG sequences with a mean gene conversion tract length of 59±36 bp. Sequencing and gene conversion analysis of the chicken, human, and mouse repertoires revealed that gene conversion occurs much more extensively in the chicken (frequency 70%, tract length 79±57 bp), was observed to a small, yet statistically significant extent in humans, but was virtually absent in mice. PMID:24978027

  3. Comparative analysis of Beggiatoa from hypersaline and marine environments.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Julia Peixoto; Keim, Carolina Neumann; Lins, Ulysses

    2010-07-01

    The main criterion to classify a microorganism as belonging to the genus Beggiatoa is its morphology. All multicellular, colorless, gliding bacterial filaments containing sulfur globules described so far belong to this genus. At the ultrastructural level, they show also a very complex cell envelope structure. Here we describe uncultured vacuolated and non-vacuolated bacteria from two different environments showing all characteristics necessary to assign a bacterium to the genus Beggiatoa. We also intended to investigate whether narrow and vacuolate Beggiatoa do differ morphologically as much as they do phylogenetically. Both large, vacuolated trichomes and narrow filaments devoid of vacuoles were observed. We confirmed the identity of the narrow filaments by 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. The diameters of the trichomes ranged from 2.4 to 34 microm, and their lengths ranged from 10 microm to over 30 mm. Narrow trichomes moved by gliding at 3.0 microm/s; large filaments moved at 1.5 microm/s. Periplasmic sulfur inclusions were observed in both types of filaments, whereas phosphorus-rich bodies were found only in narrow trichomes. On the other hand, nitrate vacuoles were observed only in large trichomes. Ultra-thin section transmission electron microscopy showed differences between the cell ultrastructure of narrow (non-vacuolated) and large (vacuolated) Beggiatoa. We observed that cell envelopes from narrow Beggiatoa consist of five layers, whereas cell envelopes from large trichomes contain four layers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative analysis of proton- and neutron-halo breakups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukeru, B.

    2018-06-01

    A detailed analysis of the proton- and neutron-halo breakup cross sections is presented. Larger neutron-halo breakup cross sections than proton-halo breakup cross sections are obtained. This is found to be mainly due to the projectile structure, namely the ground state wave function and the dipole electric response function. It is also found that the continuum–continuum couplings are stronger in the proton-halo breakup than in the neutron-halo breakup. The increase of proton- and neutron-halo ground state separation energy slightly strengthens these couplings in the proton- and neutron-halo total and nuclear breakups, while they are weakened in the proton- and neutron-halo Coulomb breakups. The Coulomb-nuclear interference remains strongly destructive in both proton- and neutron-halo breakups and this is independent of the ground state separation energy. The results also show that the increase of the neutron-halo ground state separation energy decreases significantly the agreement between the proton- and neutron-halo breakup cross sections, both qualitatively and quantitatively. It is obtained that when the proton-halo ground state separation energy is increased by a factor of 4.380, the proton-halo breakup cross section is reduced by a factor of 4.392, indicating a clear proportionality. However, when the neutron-halo ground state separation energy is increased by the same factor, the neutron-halo total breakup cross section is reduced by a factor of 8.522.

  5. Family policies in OECD countries: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Thévenon, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the diversity of family policy models in 28 OECD countries in terms of the balance between their different objectives and the mix of instruments adopted to implement the policies. Cross-country policy differences are investigated by applying a principal component analysis to comprehensive country-level data from the OECD Family database covering variables such as parental leave conditions, childcare service provision, and financial support to families. The results find persistent differences in the family policy patterns embedded in different contexts of work-family "outcomes." Country classifications of family policy packages only partially corroborate categorizations in earlier studies, owing to considerable within-group heterogeneity and the presence of group outliers. The Nordic countries outdistance the others with comprehensive support to working parents with very young children. Anglo-Saxon countries provide much less support for working parents with very young children, and financial support is targeted on low-income and large families and focuses on preschool and early elementary education. Continental and Eastern European countries form a more heterogeneous group, while the support received by families in Southern Europe and in Asian countries is much lower in all its dimensions.

  6. Delineation of Steroid-Degrading Microorganisms through Comparative Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrand, Lee H.; Cardenas, Erick; Holert, Johannes; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Steroids are ubiquitous in natural environments and are a significant growth substrate for microorganisms. Microbial steroid metabolism is also important for some pathogens and for biotechnical applications. This study delineated the distribution of aerobic steroid catabolism pathways among over 8,000 microorganisms whose genomes are available in the NCBI RefSeq database. Combined analysis of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genomes with both hidden Markov models and reciprocal BLAST identified 265 putative steroid degraders within only Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which mainly originated from soil, eukaryotic host, and aquatic environments. These bacteria include members of 17 genera not previously known to contain steroid degraders. A pathway for cholesterol degradation was conserved in many actinobacterial genera, particularly in members of the Corynebacterineae, and a pathway for cholate degradation was conserved in members of the genus Rhodococcus. A pathway for testosterone and, sometimes, cholate degradation had a patchy distribution among Proteobacteria. The steroid degradation genes tended to occur within large gene clusters. Growth experiments confirmed bioinformatic predictions of steroid metabolism capacity in nine bacterial strains. The results indicate there was a single ancestral 9,10-seco-steroid degradation pathway. Gene duplication, likely in a progenitor of Rhodococcus, later gave rise to a cholate degradation pathway. Proteobacteria and additional Actinobacteria subsequently obtained a cholate degradation pathway via horizontal gene transfer, in some cases facilitated by plasmids. Catabolism of steroids appears to be an important component of the ecological niches of broad groups of Actinobacteria and individual species of Proteobacteria. PMID:26956583

  7. Effective optical constants of anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    The applicability of a technique for determining the optical constants of soil or aerosol components on the basis of measurements of the reflectance or transmittance of inhomogeneous samples of component material is investigated. Optical constants for a sample of very pure quartzite were obtained by a specular reflection technique and line parameters were calculated by classical dispersion theory. Predictions of the reflectance of powdered quartz were then derived from optical constants measured for the anisotropic quartz and for pure quartz crystals, and compared with experimental measurements. The calculated spectra are found to resemble each other moderately well in shape, however the reflectance level calculated from the psuedo-optical constants (quartzite) is consistently below that calculated from quartz values. The spectrum calculated from the quartz optical constants is also shown to represent the experimental nonrestrahlen features more accurately. It is thus concluded that although optical constants derived from inhomogeneous materials may represent the spectral features of a powdered sample qualitatively a quantitative fit to observed data is not likely.

  8. Comparative analysis of salivary zinc level in recurrent herpes labialis

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Jafari, Nasim; Attar, Ahmad Movahedian; Jafari, Shahram; Ataie, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recurrent Herpes Labialis (RHL) is one of most common infective vesiculoulcerative lesions. According to some studies administration of topical and/or systemic zinc compositions has been effective in treatment and prevention. This article aims to comparison of zinc level in healthy subjects and RHL patients in acute and convalescent phases. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective case – control study, carried on 80 individuals (40 normal and 40 RHL patients) mean age=34.5 and 34.4, respectively. Saliva samples were taken in patients in acute phase once and after healing of lesions in convalescent phase (averagely 21 days later) and in normal individuals. Salivary zinc level concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer by dry digestion method. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS software by t-test (α=0.05). Results: Results showed that salivary zinc level in case group in acute and convalescent phases were 160.8 ngr/mland 205.7 ngr/ml respectivly and significant differences between them were existed (P <0.05). Also significant differences were existed between zinc concentration in healthy subjects and patient groups (in both phases) (P=.001 and .002 for acute and convalescent phases respectively). Conclusion: According to the results, zinc level is significantly lower in acute phase than in convalescent phase and significantly lower in both phases compared to healthy individuals,so determination of serum zinc level and prescribing zinc complement in low serum status has both treatmental and preventive effects in RHL patients. PMID:22363358

  9. Comparative proteome analysis of egg yolk plasma proteins during storage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dan; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu

    2017-06-01

    Physical changes such as chicken egg white thinning and egg yolk flattening occur during storage, implying a decline in egg quality. To reveal the deteriorative process related to chicken egg internal quality, a comparative proteomic method was used in this study to analyze the alterations in egg yolk plasma proteins at different storage times (0, 20 and 40 days) under an ambient temperature of 22 ± 2 °C. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, 33 protein spots representing 12 proteins were identified with significant (P < 0.05) alterations in abundance at different storage times. The proteins that showed significant changes in abundance included serum albumin, vitellogenin fragments, IgY chains, ovalbumin, ovoinhibitor, α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like, hemopexin, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A-I and β 2 -glycoprotein I precursor. Accelerating degradation for most egg yolk plasma proteins was observed after prolonged storage (from day 20 to day 40). It is likely that the increased degradation of protease inhibitors such as ovoinhibitor and α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like during prolonged storage lead to an imbalance of protease and antiprotease in egg yolk, which may play a key role in the degradation of egg yolk proteins. These findings will provide an insight into the effects of storage on egg yolk protein changes and give a deeper understanding of the deteriorative process of chicken egg yolk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Comparative secretome analysis of four isogenic Bacillus clausii probiotic strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The spore-bearing alkaliphilic Bacillus species constitute a large, heterogeneous group of microorganisms, important for their ability to produce enzymes, antibodies and metabolites of potential medical use. Some Bacillus species are currently being used for manufacturing probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores, exhibiting specific features (colonization, immune-stimulation and antimicrobial activity) that can account for their claimed probiotic properties. In the present work a comparative proteomic study was performed aimed at characterizing the secretome of four closely related isogenic O/C, SIN, N/R and T B. clausii strains, already marketed in a pharmaceutical mixture as probiotics. Results Proteomic analyses revealed a high degree of concordance among the four secretomes, although some proteins exhibited considerable variations in their expression level in the four strains. Among these, some proteins with documented activity in the interaction with host cells were identified, such as the glycolytic enzyme enolase, with a putative plasminogen-binding activity, GroEL, a molecular chaperone shown to be able to bind to mucin, and flagellin protein, a structural flagella protein and a putative immunomodulation agent. Conclusion This study shows, for the first time, differences in the secretome of the OC, SIN, NR and T B. clausii strains. These differences indicate that specific secretome features characterize each of the four strains despite their genotypic similarity. This could confer to the B. clausii strains specific probiotic functions associated with the differentially expressed proteins and indicate that they can cooperate as probiotics as the secretome components of each strain could contribute to the overall activity of a mixed probiotic preparation. PMID:23816335

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SHRINKAGE STRESS OF COMPOSITE RESINS

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Rosana Aparecida; de Araujo, Paulo Amarante; Castañeda-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the shrinkage stress of composite resins by three methods. In the first method, composites were inserted between two stainless steel plates. One of the plates was connected to a 20 kgf load cell of a universal testing machine (EMIC-DL-500). In the second method, disk-shaped cavities were prepared in 2-mm-thick Teflon molds and filled with the different composites. Gaps between the composites and molds formed after polymerization were evaluated microscopically. In the third method, the wall-to-wall shrinkage stress of the resins that were placed in bovine dentin cavities was evaluated. The gaps were measured microscopically. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The obtained contraction forces were: Grandio = 12.18 ± 0.428N; Filtek Z 250 = 11.80 ± 0.760N; Filtek Supreme = 11.80 ± 0.707 N; and Admira = 11.89 ± 0.647 N. The gaps obtained between composites and Teflon molds were: Filtek Z 250 = 0.51 ± 0.0357%; Filtek Supreme = 0.36 ± 0.0438%; Admira = 0.25 ± 0.0346% and Grandio = 0.16 ± 0.008%. The gaps obtained in wall-to-wall contraction were: Filtek Z 250 = 11.33 ± 2.160 μm; Filtek Supreme = 10.66 ± 1.211μm; Admira = 11.16 ± 2.041 μm and Grandio = 10.50 ± 1.224 μm. There were no significant differences among the composite resins obtained with the first (shrinkage stress generated during polymerization) and third method (wall-to-wall shrinkage). The composite resins obtained with the second method (Teflon method) differed significantly regarding gap formation. PMID:19089286

  12. Comparative analysis of nasal deformities according to patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Baykal, Bahadir; Erdim, Ibrahim; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin; Oghan, Fatih

    2014-03-01

    The study aim was to compare patient satisfaction levels among patient groups with nasal hump deformity (NHD), nasal axis deviation (NAD), and NHD plus NAD using the Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation Questionnaire (ROEQ) pre- and postoperatively. Forty-seven patients were divided into the NHD (n = 16), NAD (n = 13), and NHD + NAD (n = 18) groups according to the patients' physical examination results. Deviation angles were measured using frontal views and the AutoCAD 2012 computer program. Levels of patient satisfaction were assessed by the ROEQ pre- and postoperatively. The preoperative ROE scores were 6 in the NAD group and 4.9 in the NHD group. In the NAD + NHD group, the preoperative ROE score was 6.6. The postoperative ROE scores were 17.4, 21.4, and 19.1, respectively. The pre- and postoperative ROEQ scores were significantly different for all groups. The preoperative ROE score was 5.6 in women. The score was 18.6 at 6 months after surgery. In male patients, the preoperative ROE score was 6.2. The score was 20.4 at 6 months after surgery. The preoperative ROE score was 6.3 in patients younger than 30 years; the score was 19.4 in the postoperative period for this group. Preoperatively, the ROE score was 5.2 for patients older than 30 years. Postoperatively, the ROE score was 19.3 (P < .05). Patient satisfaction and quality of life should improve after rhinoplasty. Patient satisfaction ranged from high to low for patients, with the NHD group the most satisfied, followed by the NAD + NHD group and the NAD group. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparative effectiveness analysis of three continuous glucose monitors.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Edward R; El-Khatib, Firas H; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M; Russell, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    To compare three continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices in subjects with type 1 diabetes under closed-loop blood glucose (BG) control. Six subjects with type 1 diabetes (age 52 ± 14 years, diabetes duration 32 ± 14 years) each participated in two 51-h closed-loop BG control experiments in the hospital. Venous plasma glucose (PG) measurements (GlucoScout, International Biomedical) obtained every 15 min (2,360 values) were paired in time with corresponding CGM glucose (CGMG) measurements obtained from three CGM devices, the Navigator (Abbott Diabetes Care), the Seven Plus (DexCom), and the Guardian (Medtronic), worn simultaneously by each subject. Errors in paired PG-CGMG measurements and data reporting percentages were obtained for each CGM device. The Navigator had the best overall accuracy, with an aggregate mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of all paired points of 11.8 ± 11.1% and an average MARD across all 12 experiments of 11.8 ± 3.8%. The Seven Plus and Guardian produced aggregate MARDs of all paired points of 16.5 ± 17.8% and 20.3 ± 18.0%, respectively, and average MARDs across all 12 experiments of 16.5 ± 6.7% and 20.2 ± 6.8%, respectively. Data reporting percentages, a measure of reliability, were 76% for the Seven Plus and nearly 100% for the Navigator and Guardian. A comprehensive head-to-head-to-head comparison of three CGM devices for BG values from 36 to 563 mg/dL revealed marked differences in performance characteristics that include accuracy, precision, and reliability. The Navigator outperformed the other two in these areas.

  14. Architecture of a Fur Binding Site: a Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lavrrar, Jennifer L.; McIntosh, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Fur is an iron-binding transcriptional repressor that recognizes a 19-bp consensus site of the sequence 5′-GATAATGATAATCATTATC-3′. This site can be defined as three adjacent hexamers of the sequence 5′-GATAAT-3′, with the third being slightly imperfect (an F-F-F configuration), or as two hexamers in the forward orientation separated by one base pair from a third hexamer in the reverse orientation (an F-F-x-R configuration). Although Fur can bind synthetic DNA sequences containing the F-F-F arrangement, most natural binding sites are variations of the F-F-x-R arrangement. The studies presented here compared the ability of Fur to recognize synthetic DNA sequences containing two to four adjacent hexamers with binding to sequences containing variations of the F-F-x-R arrangement (including natural operator sequences from the entS and fepB promoter regions of Escherichia coli). Gel retardation assays showed that the F-F-x-R architecture was necessary for high-affinity Fur-DNA interactions and that contiguous hexamers were not recognized as effectively. In addition, the stoichiometry of Fur at each binding site was determined, showing that Fur interacted with its minimal 19-bp binding site as two overlapping dimers. These data confirm the proposed overlapping-dimer binding model, where the unit of interaction with a single Fur dimer is two inverted hexamers separated by a C:G base pair, with two overlapping units comprising the 19-bp consensus binding site required for the high-affinity interaction with two Fur dimers. PMID:12644489

  15. Comparative analysis of multiple-casualty incident triage algorithms.

    PubMed

    Garner, A; Lee, A; Harrison, K; Schultz, C H

    2001-11-01

    We sought to retrospectively measure the accuracy of multiple-casualty incident (MCI) triage algorithms and their component physiologic variables in predicting adult patients with critical injury. We performed a retrospective review of 1,144 consecutive adult patients transported by ambulance and admitted to 2 trauma centers. Association between first-recorded out-of-hospital physiologic variables and a resource-based definition of severe injury appropriate to the MCI context was determined. The association between severe injury and Triage Sieve, Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment, modified Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment, and CareFlight Triage was determined in the patient population. Of the physiologic variables, the Motor Component of the Glasgow Coma Scale had the strongest association with severe injury, followed by systolic blood pressure. The differences between CareFlight Triage, Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment, and modified Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment were not dramatic, with sensitivities of 82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 75% to 88%), 85% (95% CI 78% to 90%), and 84% (95% CI 76% to 89%), respectively, and specificities of 96% (95% CI 94% to 97%), 86% (95% CI 84% to 88%), and 91% (95% CI 89% to 93%), respectively. Both forms of Triage Sieve were significantly poorer predictors of severe injury. Of the physiologic variables used in the triage algorithms, the Motor Component of the Glasgow Coma Scale and systolic blood pressure had the strongest association with severe injury. CareFlight Triage, Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment, and modified Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment had similar sensitivities in predicting critical injury in designated trauma patients, but CareFlight Triage had better specificity. Because patients in a true mass casualty situation may not be completely comparable with designated trauma patients transported to emergency departments in routine circumstances, the best triage instrument in this study may not be the best in an

  16. [Comparative analysis of quality labels of health websites].

    PubMed

    Padilla-Garrido, N; Aguado-Correa, F; Huelva-López, L; Ortega-Moreno, M

    2016-01-01

    The search for health related information on the Internet is a growing phenomenon, buts its main drawback is the lack of reliability of information consulted. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare existing quality labels of health websites. A cross-sectional study was performed by searching Medline, IBECS, Google, and Yahoo, in both English and Spanish, between 8 and 9 March, 2015. Different keywords were used depending on whether the search was conducted in medical databases or generic search engines. The quality labels were classified according to their origin, analysing their character, year of implementation, the existence of the accreditation process, number of categories, criteria and standards, possibility of self-assessment, number of levels of certification, certification scope, validity, analytical quality of content, fee, results of the accreditation process, application and number of websites granted the seal, and quality labels obtained by the accrediting organisation. Seven quality labels, five of Spanish origin (WMA, PAWS, WIS, SEAFORMEC and M21) and two international ones (HONcode and Health Web Site Accreditation), were analysed. There was disparity in carrying out the accreditation process, with some not detailing key aspects of the process, or providing incomplete, outdated, or even inaccurate information. The most rigorous guaranteed the level of confidence that the websites had in relation to the content of information, but none checked the quality of them. Although rigorous quality labels may become useful, the deficiencies in some of them cast doubt on their current usefulness. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of the Tribolium immune system

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhen; Evans, Jay D; Lu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Picheng; Williams, Michael; Sumathipala, Niranji; Hetru, Charles; Hultmark, Dan; Jiang, Haobo

    2007-01-01

    Background Tribolium castaneum is a species of Coleoptera, the largest and most diverse order of all eukaryotes. Components of the innate immune system are hardly known in this insect, which is in a key phylogenetic position to inform us about genetic innovations accompanying the evolution of holometabolous insects. We have annotated immunity-related genes and compared them with homologous molecules from other species. Results Around 300 candidate defense proteins are identified based on sequence similarity to homologs known to participate in immune responses. In most cases, paralog counts are lower than those of Drosophila melanogaster or Anopheles gambiae but are substantially higher than those of Apis mellifera. The genome contains probable orthologs for nearly all members of the Toll, IMD, and JAK/STAT pathways. While total numbers of the clip-domain serine proteinases are approximately equal in the fly (29), mosquito (32) and beetle (30), lineage-specific expansion of the family is discovered in all three species. Sixteen of the thirty-one serpin genes form a large cluster in a 50 kb region that resulted from extensive gene duplications. Among the nine Toll-like proteins, four are orthologous to Drosophila Toll. The presence of scavenger receptors and other related proteins indicates a role of cellular responses in the entire system. The structures of some antimicrobial peptides drastically differ from those in other orders of insects. Conclusion A framework of information on Tribolium immunity is established, which may serve as a stepping stone for future genetic analyses of defense responses in a nondrosophiline genetic model insect. PMID:17727709

  18. Comparative analysis of prodigiosin isolated from endophyte Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Khanam, B; Chandra, R

    2018-03-01

    Extraction of pigments from endophytes is an uphill task. Up till now, there are no efficient methods available to extract the maximum amount of prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens. This is one of the important endophytes of Beta vulgaris L. The present work was carried out for the comparative study of six different extraction methods such as homogenization, ultrasonication, freezing and thawing, heat treatment, organic solvents and inorganic acids to evaluate the efficiency of prodigiosin yield. Our results demonstrated that highest extraction was observed in ultrasonication (98·1 ± 1·7%) while the lowest extraction by freezing and thawing (31·8 ± 3·8%) methods. However, thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared data suggest that bioactive pigment in the extract was prodigiosin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study of extraction methods and identification and purification of prodigiosin from cell biomass of Ser. marcescens isolated from Beta vulgaris L. The prodigiosin family is a potent drug with anticancer, antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, antiproliferative and immunosuppressive activities. Moreover, it has immense potential in pharmaceutical, food and textile industries. For the industrial perspective, it is essential to achieve purified, high yield and cost-effective extraction of prodigiosin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study on prodigiosin extraction and also the first report on endophyte Serratia marcescens isolated from Beta vulgaris L. The significance of our results is to extract high amount and good quality prodigiosin for commercial application. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma: histopathological and molecular comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Brennan, Murray F; Hoos, Axel; Omeroglu, Atilla; Leung, Denis H Y; Dudas, Maria E; Nissan, Aviram; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2003-08-01

    We compared histomorphological features and molecular expression profiles of adrenocortical adenomas (ACAd) and carcinomas (ACCa). A critical histopathological review (mean, 11 slides per patient) was conducted of 37 ACAd and 67 ACCa. Paraffin-embedded tissue cores of ACAd (n = 33) and ACCa (n = 38) were arrayed in triplicate on tissue microarrays. Expression profiles of p53, mdm-2, p21, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, p27, and Ki-67 were investigated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with histopathology and patient outcome using standard statistical methodology. Median follow-up period was 5 years. Tumor necrosis, atypical mitoses, and >1 mitosis per 50 high-power fields were factors that were highly specific for ACCa (P <.001). Number (0 to 4) of unfavorable markers [Ki-67 (+), p21 (+), p27 (+), mdm-2(-)] expressed was significantly associated with mitotic activity and morphologic index (i.e., number of adverse morphologic features) and highly predictive of malignancy (P <.001). Ki-67 overexpression occurred in 0 ACAd and 36% ACCa (P <.001) and was significantly associated with mitotic rate and unfavorable morphologic index (P <.001). Tumor necrosis, atypical mitoses, >5 mitoses per 50 high-power fields, sinusoidal invasion, histologic index of >5, and presence of more than two unfavorable molecular markers were associated significantly with metastasis in ACCa. Well-established histopathologic criteria and Ki-67 can specifically distinguish ACCAd from ACCa. Tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67) correlates with mitotic activity and morphologic index. Tumor morphology is a better predictor of metastatic risk in ACCa than current immunohistochemistry-detected cell cycle regulatory and proliferation-associated proteins.

  20. Comparative analysis of programmed cell death pathways in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Natalie D; Badger, Jonathan H; Robson, Geoff D; Wortman, Jennifer R; Nierman, William C

    2005-12-08

    Fungi can undergo autophagic- or apoptotic-type programmed cell death (PCD) on exposure to antifungal agents, developmental signals, and stress factors. Filamentous fungi can also exhibit a form of cell death called heterokaryon incompatibility (HI) triggered by fusion between two genetically incompatible individuals. With the availability of recently sequenced genomes of Aspergillus fumigatus and several related species, we were able to define putative components of fungi-specific death pathways and the ancestral core apoptotic machinery shared by all fungi and metazoa. Phylogenetic profiling of HI-associated proteins from four Aspergilli and seven other fungal species revealed lineage-specific protein families, orphan genes, and core genes conserved across all fungi and metazoa. The Aspergilli-specific domain architectures include NACHT family NTPases, which may function as key integrators of stress and nutrient availability signals. They are often found fused to putative effector domains such as Pfs, SesB/LipA, and a newly identified domain, HET-s/LopB. Many putative HI inducers and mediators are specific to filamentous fungi and not found in unicellular yeasts. In addition to their role in HI, several of them appear to be involved in regulation of cell cycle, development and sexual differentiation. Finally, the Aspergilli possess many putative downstream components of the mammalian apoptotic machinery including several proteins not found in the model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our analysis identified more than 100 putative PCD associated genes in the Aspergilli, which may help expand the range of currently available treatments for aspergillosis and other invasive fungal diseases. The list includes species-specific protein families as well as conserved core components of the ancestral PCD machinery shared by fungi and metazoa.

  1. Urban Detection, Delimitation and Morphology: Comparative Analysis of Selective "MEGACITIES"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhaddad, B.; Arellano, B. E.; Roca, J.

    2012-08-01

    Over the last 50 years, the world has faced an impressive growth of urban population. The walled city, close to the outside, an "island"for economic activities and population density within the rural land, has led to the spread of urban life and urban networks in almost all the territory. There was, as said Margalef (1999), "a topological inversion of the landscape". The "urban" has gone from being an island in the ocean of rural land vastness, to represent the totally of the space in which are inserted natural and rural "systems". New phenomena such as the fall of the fordist model of production, the spread of urbanization known as urban sprawl, and the change of scale of the metropolis, covering increasingly large regions, called "megalopolis" (Gottmann, 1961), have characterized the century. However there are no rigorous databases capable of measuring and evaluating the phenomenon of megacities and in general the process of urbanization in the contemporary world. The aim of this paper is to detect, identify and analyze the morphology of the megacities through remote sensing instruments as well as various indicators of landscape. To understand the structure of these heterogeneous landscapes called megacities, land consumption and spatial complexity needs to be quantified accurately. Remote sensing might be helpful in evaluating how the different land covers shape urban megaregions. The morphological landscape analysis allows establishing the analogies and the differences between patterns of cities and studying the symmetry, growth direction, linearity, complexity and compactness of the urban form. The main objective of this paper is to develop a new methodology to detect urbanized land of some megacities around the world (Tokyo, Mexico, Chicago, New York, London, Moscow, Sao Paulo and Shanghai) using Landsat 7 images.

  2. Comparative Analysis Study of Open Source GIS in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasid, Muhammad Zamir Abdul; Kamis, Naddia; Khuizham Abd Halim, Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Open source origin might appear like a major prospective change which is qualified to deliver in various industries and also competing means in developing countries. The leading purpose of this research study is to basically discover the degree of adopting Open Source Software (OSS) that is connected with Geographic Information System (GIS) application within Malaysia. It was derived based on inadequate awareness with regards to the origin ideas or even on account of techie deficiencies in the open origin instruments. This particular research has been carried out based on two significant stages; the first stage involved a survey questionnaire: to evaluate the awareness and acceptance level based on the comparison feedback regarding OSS and commercial GIS. This particular survey was conducted among three groups of candidates: government servant, university students and lecturers, as well as individual. The approaches of measuring awareness in this research were based on a comprehending signal plus a notion signal for each survey questions. These kinds of signs had been designed throughout the analysis in order to supply a measurable and also a descriptive signal to produce the final result. The second stage involved an interview session with a major organization that carries out available origin internet GIS; the Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia (JPBD). The impact of this preliminary study was to understand the particular viewpoint of different groups of people on the available origin, and also their insufficient awareness with regards to origin ideas as well as likelihood may be significant root of adopting level connected with available origin options.

  3. Comparative Population Genomics Analysis of the Mammalian Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis.

    PubMed

    Cissé, Ousmane H; Ma, Liang; Wei Huang, Da; Khil, Pavel P; Dekker, John P; Kutty, Geetha; Bishop, Lisa; Liu, Yueqin; Deng, Xilong; Hauser, Philippe M; Pagni, Marco; Hirsch, Vanessa; Lempicki, Richard A; Stajich, Jason E; Cuomo, Christina A; Kovacs, Joseph A

    2018-05-08

    Pneumocystis species are opportunistic mammalian pathogens that cause severe pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals. These fungi are highly host specific and uncultivable in vitro Human Pneumocystis infections present major challenges because of a limited therapeutic arsenal and the rise of drug resistance. To investigate the diversity and demographic history of natural populations of Pneumocystis infecting humans, rats, and mice, we performed whole-genome and large-scale multilocus sequencing of infected tissues collected in various geographic locations. Here, we detected reduced levels of recombination and variations in historical demography, which shape the global population structures. We report estimates of evolutionary rates, levels of genetic diversity, and population sizes. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Pneumocystis species diverged before their hosts, while the asynchronous timing of population declines suggests host shifts. Our results have uncovered complex patterns of genetic variation influenced by multiple factors that shaped the adaptation of Pneumocystis populations during their spread across mammals. IMPORTANCE Understanding how natural pathogen populations evolve and identifying the determinants of genetic variation are central issues in evolutionary biology. Pneumocystis , a fungal pathogen which infects mammals exclusively, provides opportunities to explore these issues. In humans, Pneumocystis can cause a life-threatening pneumonia in immunosuppressed individuals. In analysis of different Pneumocystis species infecting humans, rats, and mice, we found that there are high infection rates and that natural populations maintain a high level of genetic variation despite low levels of recombination. We found no evidence of population structuring by geography. Our comparisons of the times of divergence of these species to their respective hosts suggest that Pneumocystis may have undergone recent host shifts. The results demonstrate that

  4. Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-02-01

    Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

  5. Phylogenetic comparative methods complement discriminant function analysis in ecomorphology.

    PubMed

    Barr, W Andrew; Scott, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    In ecomorphology, Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) has been used as evidence for the presence of functional links between morphometric variables and ecological categories. Here we conduct simulations of characters containing phylogenetic signal to explore the performance of DFA under a variety of conditions. Characters were simulated using a phylogeny of extant antelope species from known habitats. Characters were modeled with no biomechanical relationship to the habitat category; the only sources of variation were body mass, phylogenetic signal, or random "noise." DFA on the discriminability of habitat categories was performed using subsets of the simulated characters, and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares (PGLS) was performed for each character. Analyses were repeated with randomized habitat assignments. When simulated characters lacked phylogenetic signal and/or habitat assignments were random, <5.6% of DFAs and <8.26% of PGLS analyses were significant. When characters contained phylogenetic signal and actual habitats were used, 33.27 to 45.07% of DFAs and <13.09% of PGLS analyses were significant. False Discovery Rate (FDR) corrections for multiple PGLS analyses reduced the rate of significance to <4.64%. In all cases using actual habitats and characters with phylogenetic signal, correct classification rates of DFAs exceeded random chance. In simulations involving phylogenetic signal in both predictor variables and predicted categories, PGLS with FDR was rarely significant, while DFA often was. In short, DFA offered no indication that differences between categories might be explained by phylogenetic signal, while PGLS did. As such, PGLS provides a valuable tool for testing the functional hypotheses at the heart of ecomorphology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Statistical Modelling of the Soil Dielectric Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Marczewski, Wojciech; Bogdan Usowicz, Jerzy; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2010-05-01

    The dielectric constant of soil is the physical property being very sensitive on water content. It funds several electrical measurement techniques for determining the water content by means of direct (TDR, FDR, and others related to effects of electrical conductance and/or capacitance) and indirect RS (Remote Sensing) methods. The work is devoted to a particular statistical manner of modelling the dielectric constant as the property accounting a wide range of specific soil composition, porosity, and mass density, within the unsaturated water content. Usually, similar models are determined for few particular soil types, and changing the soil type one needs switching the model on another type or to adjust it by parametrization of soil compounds. Therefore, it is difficult comparing and referring results between models. The presented model was developed for a generic representation of soil being a hypothetical mixture of spheres, each representing a soil fraction, in its proper phase state. The model generates a serial-parallel mesh of conductive and capacitive paths, which is analysed for a total conductive or capacitive property. The model was firstly developed to determine the thermal conductivity property, and now it is extended on the dielectric constant by analysing the capacitive mesh. The analysis is provided by statistical means obeying physical laws related to the serial-parallel branching of the representative electrical mesh. Physical relevance of the analysis is established electrically, but the definition of the electrical mesh is controlled statistically by parametrization of compound fractions, by determining the number of representative spheres per unitary volume per fraction, and by determining the number of fractions. That way the model is capable covering properties of nearly all possible soil types, all phase states within recognition of the Lorenz and Knudsen conditions. In effect the model allows on generating a hypothetical representative of

  7. Determination of the Gravitational Constant with a Beam Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlamminger, St.; Holzschuh, E.; Kündig, W.

    2002-09-01

    The Newtonian gravitational constant G was determined by means of a novel beam-balance experiment with an accuracy comparable to that of the most precise torsion-balance experiments. The gravitational force of two stainless steel tanks filled with 13 521kg mercury on 1.1kg test masses was measured using a commercial mass comparator. A careful analysis of the data and the experimental error yields G=6.674 07(22)×10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2. This value is in excellent agreement with most values previously obtained with different methods.

  8. A comparative analysis of perspectives of Mileva Maric Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Carol C.

    This dissertation examines the controversy surrounding Mileva Maric Einstein and the allegations subsequent to the publication of love letters during the time that Mileva Maric and Albert Einstein were students and during the early years of their marriage. It also examines the role of women in science from a historical perspective. Chapter One surveys the history of women in science from antiquity to the late nineteenth century and the patterns of gender related and restricting practices such as education, publication, the problem of mentoring and the issue of the lack of historical recognition. Chapter Two provides a comparative analyses between the lives of Mileva Maric Einstein and Marie Sklodowska Curie. Both had very similar social and educational backgrounds yet Marie Curie was able to work and publish jointly with her husband and received (although belatedly) international recognition for her work. On the other hand, Mileva Maric Einstein was never able to complete her degree and lived a life of obscurity and unfulfilled professional dreams. Both highly educated and intelligent women, but with drastically different outcomes in their professional and personal lives. Chapter Three examines the one book devoted to the life of Mileva Maric Einstein, Im Schatten Albert Einsteins: Das Tragische Leben der Mileva Einstein-Maric (In The Shadow of Albert Einstein: The Tragic Life of Mileva Maric), by Desanka Trbuhovic-Gjuric, Paul Haupt Publishers, 1985. It addresses the subjective as well as constructive and destructive criticisms of the various critical camps and provides examples of the statements made by the author which prompted a controversy within the academic and scientific communities. Appropriate responses are provided from various members of the scientific community to reflect the diversity of opinion and the intensity of the debate. Chapter Four addresses the problem of historicity and various interpretations of evidence which might suggest that the role

  9. Comparative Analysis of Uninhibited and Constrained Avian Wing Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Jordan A.

    The flight of birds has intrigued and motivated man for many years. Bird flight served as the primary inspiration of flying machines developed by Leonardo Da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal, and even the Wright brothers. Avian flight has once again drawn the attention of the scientific community as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are not only becoming more popular, but smaller. Birds are once again influencing the designs of aircraft. Small UAVs operating within flight conditions and low Reynolds numbers common to birds are not yet capable of the high levels of control and agility that birds display with ease. Many researchers believe the potential to improve small UAV performance can be obtained by applying features common to birds such as feathers and flapping flight to small UAVs. Although the effects of feathers on a wing have received some attention, the effects of localized transient feather motion and surface geometry on the flight performance of a wing have been largely overlooked. In this research, the effects of freely moving feathers on a preserved red tailed hawk wing were studied. A series of experiments were conducted to measure the aerodynamic forces on a hawk wing with varying levels of feather movement permitted. Angle of attack and air speed were varied within the natural flight envelope of the hawk. Subsequent identical tests were performed with the feather motion constrained through the use of externally-applied surface treatments. Additional tests involved the study of an absolutely fixed geometry mold-and-cast wing model of the original bird wing. Final tests were also performed after applying surface coatings to the cast wing. High speed videos taken during tests revealed the extent of the feather movement between wing models. Images of the microscopic surface structure of each wing model were analyzed to establish variations in surface geometry between models. Recorded aerodynamic forces were then compared to the known feather motion and surface

  10. Comparative analysis between Payen and Daedalia Planum lava fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Pasquarè, Giorgio; Carli, Cristian; Martellato, Elena; Frigeri, Alessandro; Cremonese, Gabriele; Bistacchi, Andrea; Federico, Costanzo

    The Payen volcanic complex is a large Quaternary fissural structure belonging to the back-arc extensional area of the Andes in the Mendoza Province (Argentina). From the eastern portion of this volcanic structure huge pahoehoe lava flows were emitted, extending more than 180 km from the feeding vents. These huge flows propagated over the nearly flat surface of the Pampean foreland (ca 0.3° slope). The very low viscosity of the olivine basalt lavas, coupled with the inflation process are the most probable explanation for their considerable length. In an inflation process a thin viscoelastic crust, produced at an early stage, is later inflated by the underlying fluid core, which remains hot and fluid thanks to the thermal-shield effect of the crust. The inflation shows some typical morphological fingerprints like tumuli, lava lobes, lava rises and lava ridges. In order to compare the morphology of the Argentinean Payen flows with lava flows on Mars, MOLA, THEMIS, MOC, MRO/HIRISE, and MEX/OMEGA data have been analysed, providing a multi-scale characterisation of Martian flows. Mars Global Surveyor/MOLA data were used to investigate the topographic environment over which flows propagated on Mars in order to detect very low angle slopes where possibly inflation processes could have developed. Then Mars Odyssey/THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor's MOC data were used to detect Martian lava flows with inflation "fingerprints", whereas OMEGA data were used to obtain some inferences about their composition. Finally the MRO/HIRISE images recently acquired, can provide further details and constraints on surface morphologies and lava fronts. All these data were used to analyze Daedalia Planum lava field, at about 300 km southwest of Arsia Mons, and clear morphological similarities with the longest flows of the Payen lava fields were found. These striking morphological analogies suggest that inflation process is quite common also for the Daedalia field. This is also supported by

  11. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  12. Fundamental constants and high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, P.; Rahmani, H.; Whitmore, J. B.; Wendt, M.; Centurion, M.; Molaro, P.; Srianand, R.; Murphy, M. T.; Petitjean, P.; Agafonova, I. I.; D'Odorico, S.; Evans, T. M.; Levshakov, S. A.; Lopez, S.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Reimers, D.; Vladilo, G.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption-line systems detected in high resolution quasar spectra can be used to compare the value of dimensionless fundamental constants such as the fine-structure constant, α, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ = m_p/m_e, as measured in remote regions of the Universe to their value today on Earth. In recent years, some evidence has emerged of small temporal and also spatial variations in α on cosmological scales which may reach a fractional level of ≈ 10 ppm (parts per million). We are conducting a Large Programme of observations with the Very Large Telescope's Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), and are obtaining high-resolution ({R ≈ 60 000}) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 100) spectra calibrated specifically to study the variations of the fundamental constants. We here provide a general overview of the Large Programme and report on the first results for these two constants, discussed in detail in Molaro et al. (2013) and Rahmani et al. (2013). A stringent bound for Δα/α is obtained for the absorber at z_abs = 1.6919 towards HE 2217-2818. The absorption profile is complex with several very narrow features, and is modeled with 32 velocity components. The relative variation in α in this system is +1.3± 2.4_stat ± 1.0_sys ppm if Al II λ 1670 Å and three Fe II transitions are used, and +1.1 ± 2.6_stat ppm in a slightly different analysis with only Fe II transitions used. This is one of the tightest bounds on α-variation from an individual absorber and reveals no evidence for variation in α at the 3-ppm precision level (1σ confidence). The expectation at this sky position of the recently-reported dipolar variation of α is (3.2-5.4)±1.7 ppm depending on dipole model used and this constraint of Δα/α at face value is not supporting this expectation but not inconsistent with it at the 3σ level. For the proton-to-electron mass ratio the analysis of the H_2 absorption lines of the z_abs ≈ 2.4018 damped Lyα system

  13. Metabolic Labeling and Membrane Fractionation for Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Suspension Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Szymanski, Witold G.; Kierszniowska, Sylwia; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma membrane microdomains are features based on the physical properties of the lipid and sterol environment and have particular roles in signaling processes. Extracting sterol-enriched membrane microdomains from plant cells for proteomic analysis is a difficult task mainly due to multiple preparation steps and sources for contaminations from other cellular compartments. The plasma membrane constitutes only about 5-20% of all the membranes in a plant cell, and therefore isolation of highly purified plasma membrane fraction is challenging. A frequently used method involves aqueous two-phase partitioning in polyethylene glycol and dextran, which yields plasma membrane vesicles with a purity of 95% 1. Sterol-rich membrane microdomains within the plasma membrane are insoluble upon treatment with cold nonionic detergents at alkaline pH. This detergent-resistant membrane fraction can be separated from the bulk plasma membrane by ultracentrifugation in a sucrose gradient 2. Subsequently, proteins can be extracted from the low density band of the sucrose gradient by methanol/chloroform precipitation. Extracted protein will then be trypsin digested, desalted and finally analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Our extraction protocol for sterol-rich microdomains is optimized for the preparation of clean detergent-resistant membrane fractions from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures. We use full metabolic labeling of Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cell cultures with K15NO3 as the only nitrogen source for quantitative comparative proteomic studies following biological treatment of interest 3. By mixing equal ratios of labeled and unlabeled cell cultures for joint protein extraction the influence of preparation steps on final quantitative result is kept at a minimum. Also loss of material during extraction will affect both control and treatment samples in the same way, and therefore the ratio of light and heave peptide will remain constant. In the proposed method either labeled or unlabeled

  14. Comparison of entrainment in constant volume and constant flux dense currents over sloping bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, K.; Nayamatullah, M.; Cenedese, C.

    2014-12-01

    Three dimensional high resolution large eddy simulations (LES) are employed to simulate lock-exchange and constant flux dense flows over inclined surface with the aim of investigating, visualizing and describing the turbulent structure and the evolution of bottom-propagating compositional density current at the channel bottom. The understanding of dynamics of density current is largely determined by the amount of interfacial mixing or entrainment between the ambient and dense fluids. No previous experimental or numerical studies have been done to estimate entrainment in classical lock-exchange system. The differences in entrainment between the lock-exchange and constant flux are explored. Comparing the results of flat bed with inclined surface results, flow exhibits significant differences near the leading edge or nose of the front of the density currents due to inclination of surface. Further, the instabilities are remarkably enhanced resulting Kelvin-Helmholtz and lobe-cleft type of instabilities arises much earlier in time. In this study, a brief analysis of entrainment on lock-exchange density current is presented using different bed slopes and a set of reduced gravity values (g'). We relate the entrainment value with different flow parameters such as Froude number (Fr) and Reynolds number (Re).

  15. rCAD: A Novel Database Schema for the Comparative Analysis of RNA.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Stuart; Doshi, Kishore J; Xu, Weijia; Gutell, Robin R

    2011-12-31

    Beyond its direct involvement in protein synthesis with mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA, RNA is now being appreciated for its significance in the overall metabolism and regulation of the cell. Comparative analysis has been very effective in the identification and characterization of RNA molecules, including the accurate prediction of their secondary structure. We are developing an integrative scalable data management and analysis system, the RNA Comparative Analysis Database (rCAD), implemented with SQL Server to support RNA comparative analysis. The platformagnostic database schema of rCAD captures the essential relationships between the different dimensions of information for RNA comparative analysis datasets. The rCAD implementation enables a variety of comparative analysis manipulations with multiple integrated data dimensions for advanced RNA comparative analysis workflows. In this paper, we describe details of the rCAD schema design and illustrate its usefulness with two usage scenarios.

  16. rCAD: A Novel Database Schema for the Comparative Analysis of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Stuart; Doshi, Kishore J.; Xu, Weijia; Gutell, Robin R.

    2013-01-01

    Beyond its direct involvement in protein synthesis with mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA, RNA is now being appreciated for its significance in the overall metabolism and regulation of the cell. Comparative analysis has been very effective in the identification and characterization of RNA molecules, including the accurate prediction of their secondary structure. We are developing an integrative scalable data management and analysis system, the RNA Comparative Analysis Database (rCAD), implemented with SQL Server to support RNA comparative analysis. The platformagnostic database schema of rCAD captures the essential relationships between the different dimensions of information for RNA comparative analysis datasets. The rCAD implementation enables a variety of comparative analysis manipulations with multiple integrated data dimensions for advanced RNA comparative analysis workflows. In this paper, we describe details of the rCAD schema design and illustrate its usefulness with two usage scenarios. PMID:24772454

  17. The Hubble Constant from Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Macri, Lucas M.

    The decades-long quest to obtain a precise and accurate measurement of the local expansion rate of the universe (the Hubble Constant or H0) has greatly benefited from the use of supernovae (SNe). Starting from humble beginnings (dispersions of ˜ 0.5 mag in the Hubble flow in the late 1960s/early 1970s), the increasingly more sophisticated understanding, classification, and analysis of these events turned type Ia SNe into the premiere choice for a secondary distance indicator by the early 1990s. While some systematic uncertainties specific to SNe and to Cepheid-based distances to the calibrating host galaxies still contribute to the H0 error budget, the major emphasis over the past two decades has been on reducing the statistical uncertainty by obtaining ever-larger samples of distances to SN hosts. Building on early efforts with the first-generation instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope, recent observations with the latest instruments on this facility have reduced the estimated total uncertainty on H0 to 2.4 % and shown a path to reach a 1 % measurement by the end of the decade, aided by Gaia and the James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. FINDING A METHOD FOR THE MADNESS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC DESIGN METHODOLOGIES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    FINDING A METHOD FOR THE MADNESS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC DESIGN METHODOLOGIES BY AMANDA DONNELLY A THESIS...work develops a comparative model for strategic design methodologies, focusing on the primary elements of vision, time, process, communication and...collaboration, and risk assessment. My analysis dissects and compares three potential design methodologies including, net assessment, scenarios and

  19. Comparative Analysis of Enrollment and Financial Strength of Private Institutions. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Robert H.; Mills, Michael R.

    A research design, decision support system, and results of a comparative analysis of enrollment and financial strength (of private institutions granting masters and doctoral degrees) are presented. Cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, multiple regression, and an interactive decision support system are used to compare the enrollment and…

  20. Is There a Cosmological Constant?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochanek, Christopher; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The grant contributed to the publication of 18 refereed papers and 5 conference proceedings. The primary uses of the funding have been for page charges, travel for invited talks related to the grant research, and the support of a graduate student, Charles Keeton. The refereed papers address four of the primary goals of the proposal: (1) the statistics of radio lenses as a probe of the cosmological model (#1), (2) the role of spiral galaxies as lenses (#3), (3) the effects of dust on statistics of lenses (#7, #8), and (4) the role of groups and clusters as lenses (#2, #6, #10, #13, #15, #16). Four papers (#4, #5, #11, #12) address general issues of lens models, calibrations, and the relationship between lens galaxies and nearby galaxies. One considered cosmological effects in lensing X-ray sources (#9), and two addressed issues related to the overall power spectrum and theories of gravity (#17, #18). Our theoretical studies combined with the explosion in the number of lenses and the quality of the data obtained for them is greatly increasing our ability to characterize and understand the lens population. We can now firmly conclude both from our study of the statistics of radio lenses and our survey of extinctions in individual lenses that the statistics of optically selected quasars were significantly affected by extinction. However, the limits on the cosmological constant remain at lambda < 0.65 at a 2-sigma confidence level, which is in mild conflict with the results of the Type la supernova surveys. We continue to find that neither spiral galaxies nor groups and clusters contribute significantly to the production of gravitational lenses. The lack of group and cluster lenses is strong evidence for the role of baryonic cooling in increasing the efficiency of galaxies as lenses compared to groups and clusters of higher mass but lower central density. Unfortunately for the ultimate objective of the proposal, improved constraints on the cosmological constant, the next

  1. Atomic weights: no longer constants of nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Holden, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Many of us were taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis have changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature

  2. Capillary Tube and Thermostatic Expansion Valve Comparative Analysis in Water Chiller Air Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya Sunu, Putu; Made Rasta, I.; Anakottapary, Daud Simon; Made Suarta, I.; Cipta Santosa, I. D. M.

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study to compares the performance characteristics of a water chiller air conditioning simulation equipped with thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) with those of a capillary tube. Water chiller system filled with the same charge of refrigerant. Comparative analyses were performed based on coefficient of performance (COP) and performance parameter of the refrigeration system, carried out at medium cooling load level with the ambient temperature of 29-31°C, constant compressor speed and fixed chilled water volume flowrate at 15 lpm. It was shown that the TEV system showed better energy consumption compared to that of capillary tube. From the coefficient of performance perspective, the thermostatic expansion valve system showed higher COP (± 21.4%) compared to that of capillary tube system.

  3. Cosmological constant is a conserved charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyavsky, Dmitry; Hajian, Kamal

    2018-06-01

    Cosmological constant can always be considered as the on-shell value of a top form in gravitational theories. The top form is the field strength of a gauge field, and the theory enjoys a gauge symmetry. We show that cosmological constant is the charge of the global part of the gauge symmetry, and is conserved irrespective of the dynamics of the metric and other fields. In addition, we introduce its conjugate chemical potential, and prove the generalized first law of thermodynamics which includes variation of cosmological constant as a conserved charge. We discuss how our new term in the first law is related to the volume–pressure term. In parallel with the seminal Wald entropy, this analysis suggests that pressure can also be considered as a conserved charge.

  4. Design verification of large time constant thermal shields for optical reference cavities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Wu, W; Shi, X H; Zeng, X Y; Deng, K; Lu, Z H

    2016-02-01

    In order to achieve high frequency stability in ultra-stable lasers, the Fabry-Pérot reference cavities shall be put inside vacuum chambers with large thermal time constants to reduce the sensitivity to external temperature fluctuations. Currently, the determination of thermal time constants of vacuum chambers is based either on theoretical calculation or time-consuming experiments. The first method can only apply to simple system, while the second method will take a lot of time to try out different designs. To overcome these limitations, we present thermal time constant simulation using finite element analysis (FEA) based on complete vacuum chamber models and verify the results with measured time constants. We measure the thermal time constants using ultrastable laser systems and a frequency comb. The thermal expansion coefficients of optical reference cavities are precisely measured to reduce the measurement error of time constants. The simulation results and the experimental results agree very well. With this knowledge, we simulate several simplified design models using FEA to obtain larger vacuum thermal time constants at room temperature, taking into account vacuum pressure, shielding layers, and support structure. We adopt the Taguchi method for shielding layer optimization and demonstrate that layer material and layer number dominate the contributions to the thermal time constant, compared with layer thickness and layer spacing.

  5. A Comparative Study of Data Envelopment Analysis and Other Approaches to Efficiency Evaluation and Estimation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    ADA27 91 A COMPARATIVE STJDO DATAENVEOPMENT ANALYSISAND / HER APPROACHES TO A .i)TEXAS UN VAT AUSIN CENTER FOCAS RE CCYR 5 NO BERRETIC STADIES A... COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AND OTHER APPROACHES TO EFFICIENCY EVALUATION AND ESTIMATIONt by A. Charnes W.W. Cooper H.D. Sherman...School of Business, 1981, entitled "Measurement of Hospital Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis of Data Envelopment Analysis and Other Approaches for

  6. Automated Microwave Dielectric Constant Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    IJSWC TR 86-46 AD.-A 184 182 AUTOMATED MICROWAVE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT MEASUREMENT SYTIEM BY B. C. GLANCY A. KRALL PESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT...NO0. NO. ACCESSION NO. Silver Spring, Maryland 20903-500061152N ZROO1 ZRO131 R1AA29 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) AUTOMATED MICROWAVE ...constants as a funct on of microwave frequency has been simplified using an automated testing apparatus. This automated procedure is based on the use of a

  7. Carter constant and angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sajal; Nayak, K. Rajesh

    We investigate the Carter-like constant in the case of a particle moving in a nonrelativistic dipolar potential. This special case is a missing link between the Carter constant in stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes (SASS) such as Kerr solution and its possible Newtonian counterpart. We use this system to carry over the definition of angular momentum from the Newtonian mechanics to the relativistic SASS.

  8. Nursing home quality: a comparative analysis using CMS Nursing Home Compare data to examine differences between rural and nonrural facilities.

    PubMed

    Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Gessert, Charles E; Lipsky, Martin S

    2013-08-01

    Advances in medicine and an aging US population suggest that there will be an increasing demand for nursing home services. Although nursing homes are highly regulated and scrutinized, their quality remains a concern and may be a greater issue to those living in rural communities. Despite this, few studies have investigated differences in the quality of nursing home care across the rural-urban continuum. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of rural and nonrural nursing homes by using aggregated rankings on multiple quality measures calculated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and reported on their Nursing Home Compare Web site. Independent-sample t tests were performed to compare the mean ratings on the reported quality measures of rural and nonrural nursing homes. A linear mixed binary logistic regression model controlling for state was performed to determine if the covariates of ownership, number of beds, and geographic locale were associated with a higher overall quality rating. Of the 15,177 nursing homes included in the study sample, 69.2% were located in nonrural areas and 30.8% in rural areas. The t test analysis comparing the overall, health inspection, staffing, and quality measure ratings of rural and nonrural nursing homes yielded statistically significant results for 3 measures, 2 of which (overall ratings and health inspections) favored rural nursing homes. Although a higher percentage of nursing homes (44.8%-42.2%) received a 4-star or higher rating, regression analysis using an overall rating of 4 stars or higher as the dependent variable revealed that when controlling for state and adjusting for size and ownership, rural nursing homes were less likely to have a 4-star or higher rating when compared with nonrural nursing homes (OR = .901, 95% CI 0.824-0.986). Mixed model logistic regression analysis suggested that rural nursing home quality was not comparable to that of nonrural nursing homes. When controlling for

  9. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY SAMPLE WITH ΛCDM AND THE R{sub h}=ct UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift–luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the R{sub h} = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or fourmore » nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the R{sub h} = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since R{sub h} = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of R{sub h} = ct is ∼90%, compared with only ∼10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to R{sub h} = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely.« less

  10. Constant-roll tachyon inflation and observational constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qing; Gong, Yungui; Fei, Qin

    2018-05-01

    For the constant-roll tachyon inflation, we derive the analytical expressions for the scalar and tensor power spectra, the scalar and tensor spectral tilts and the tensor to scalar ratio to the first order of epsilon1 by using the method of Bessel function approximation. The derived ns-r results are compared with the observations, we find that only the constant-roll inflation with ηH being a constant is consistent with the observations and observations constrain the constant-roll inflation to be slow-roll inflation. The tachyon potential is also reconstructed for the constant-roll inflation which is consistent with the observations.

  11. Calculation of kinetic rate constants from thermodynamic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. John

    1995-01-01

    A new scheme for relating the absolute value for the kinetic rate constant k to the thermodynamic constant Kp is developed for gases. In this report the forward and reverse rate constants are individually related to the thermodynamic data. The kinetic rate constants computed from thermodynamics compare well with the current kinetic rate constants. This method is self consistent and does not have extensive rules. It is first demonstrated and calibrated by computing the HBr reaction from H2 and Br2. This method then is used on other reactions.

  12. Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ω{sub hde} are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by usingmore » the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ{sup 2}{sub min}=426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain −0.07« less

  13. Frontier production function estimates for steam electric generation: a comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, R.J.; Smith, V.K.

    1980-04-01

    The performance of three frontier steam electric generation estimators is compared in terms of the consideration given to new production technologies and their technical efficiency. The Cobb-Douglas, constant elasticity of substitution, and translog production functions are examined, using the Aigner-Chu linear programming, the sophisticated Aigner-Lovell-Schmidt stochastic frontier, and the direct method of adjusted ordinary least squares frontier estimators. The use of Cobb-Douglas specification is judged to have narrowed the perceived difference between competing estimators. The choice of frontier estimator is concluded to have a greater effect on the plant efficiency than functional form. 19 references. (DCK)

  14. Evaluation of uncertainty in the adjustment of fundamental constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens; Fischer, Joachim; Possolo, Antonio; Toman, Blaza

    2016-02-01

    Combining multiple measurement results for the same quantity is an important task in metrology and in many other areas. Examples include the determination of fundamental constants, the calculation of reference values in interlaboratory comparisons, or the meta-analysis of clinical studies. However, neither the GUM nor its supplements give any guidance for this task. Various approaches are applied such as weighted least-squares in conjunction with the Birge ratio or random effects models. While the former approach, which is based on a location-scale model, is particularly popular in metrology, the latter represents a standard tool used in statistics for meta-analysis. We investigate the reliability and robustness of the location-scale model and the random effects model with particular focus on resulting coverage or credible intervals. The interval estimates are obtained by adopting a Bayesian point of view in conjunction with a non-informative prior that is determined by a currently favored principle for selecting non-informative priors. Both approaches are compared by applying them to simulated data as well as to data for the Planck constant and the Newtonian constant of gravitation. Our results suggest that the proposed Bayesian inference based on the random effects model is more reliable and less sensitive to model misspecifications than the approach based on the location-scale model.

  15. A Comparative Evaluation of Mixed Dentition Analysis on Reliability of Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Compared to Plaster Model

    PubMed Central

    Gowd, Snigdha; Shankar, T; Dash, Samarendra; Sahoo, Nivedita; Chatterjee, Suravi; Mohanty, Pritam

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) obtained image over plaster model for the assessment of mixed dentition analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirty CBCT-derived images and thirty plaster models were derived from the dental archives, and Moyer's and Tanaka-Johnston analyses were performed. The data obtained were interpreted and analyzed statistically using SPSS 10.0/PC (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive and analytical analysis along with Student's t-test was performed to qualitatively evaluate the data and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Statistically, significant results were obtained on data comparison between CBCT-derived images and plaster model; the mean for Moyer's analysis in the left and right lower arch for CBCT and plaster model was 21.2 mm, 21.1 mm and 22.5 mm, 22.5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: CBCT-derived images were less reliable as compared to data obtained directly from plaster model for mixed dentition analysis. PMID:28852639

  16. A Comparative Evaluation of Mixed Dentition Analysis on Reliability of Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Compared to Plaster Model.

    PubMed

    Gowd, Snigdha; Shankar, T; Dash, Samarendra; Sahoo, Nivedita; Chatterjee, Suravi; Mohanty, Pritam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) obtained image over plaster model for the assessment of mixed dentition analysis. Thirty CBCT-derived images and thirty plaster models were derived from the dental archives, and Moyer's and Tanaka-Johnston analyses were performed. The data obtained were interpreted and analyzed statistically using SPSS 10.0/PC (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive and analytical analysis along with Student's t -test was performed to qualitatively evaluate the data and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistically, significant results were obtained on data comparison between CBCT-derived images and plaster model; the mean for Moyer's analysis in the left and right lower arch for CBCT and plaster model was 21.2 mm, 21.1 mm and 22.5 mm, 22.5 mm, respectively. CBCT-derived images were less reliable as compared to data obtained directly from plaster model for mixed dentition analysis.

  17. Asymptotically Vanishing Cosmological Constant in the Multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hikaru; Okada, Takashi

    We study the problem of the cosmological constant in the context of the multiverse in Lorentzian space-time, and show that the cosmological constant will vanish in the future. This sort of argument was started by Sidney Coleman in 1989, and he argued that the Euclidean wormholes make the multiverse partition function a superposition of various values of the cosmological constant Λ, which has a sharp peak at Λ = 0. However, the implication of the Euclidean analysis to our Lorentzian space-time is unclear. With this motivation, we analyze the quantum state of the multiverse in Lorentzian space-time by the WKB method, and calculate the density matrix of our universe by tracing out the other universes. Our result predicts vanishing cosmological constant. While Coleman obtained the enhancement at Λ = 0 through the action itself, in our Lorentzian analysis the similar enhancement arises from the front factor of eiS in the universe wave function, which is in the next leading order in the WKB approximation.

  18. Constant load and constant volume response of municipal solid waste in simple shear.

    PubMed

    Zekkos, Dimitrios; Fei, Xunchang

    2017-05-01

    Constant load and constant volume simple shear testing was conducted on relatively fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) from two landfills in the United States, one in Michigan and a second in Texas, at respective natural moisture content below field capacity. The results were assessed in terms of two failure strain criteria, at 10% and 30% shear strain, and two interpretations of effective friction angle. Overall, friction angle obtained assuming that the failure plane is horizontal and at 10% shear strain resulted in a conservative estimation of shear strength of MSW. Comparisons between constant volume and constant load simple shear testing results indicated significant differences in the shear response of MSW with the shear resistance in constant volume being lower than the shear resistance in constant load. The majority of specimens were nearly uncompacted during specimen preparation to reproduce the state of MSW in bioreactor landfills or in uncontrolled waste dumps. The specimens had identical percentage of <20mm material but the type of <20mm material was different. The <20mm fraction from Texas was finer and of high plasticity. MSW from Texas was overall weaker in both constant load and constant volume conditions compared to Michigan waste. The results of these tests suggest the possibility of significantly lower shear strength of MSW in bioreactor landfills where waste is placed with low compaction effort and constant volume, i.e., "undrained", conditions may occur. Compacted MSW specimens resulted in shear strength parameters that are higher than uncompacted specimens and closer to values reported in the literature. However, the normalized undrained shear strength in simple shear for uncompacted and compacted MSW was still higher than the normalized undrained shear strength reported in the literature for clayey and silty soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Present status of astronomical constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, T.

    Given was the additional information to the previous report on the recent progress in the determinations of astronomical constants (Fukushima 2000). First noted was the revision of LG as 6.969290134×10-10 based on the proposal to shift its status from a primary to a defining constant (Petit 2000). Next focused was the significant update of the correction to the current precession constant, Δp, based on the recent LLR-based determination (Chapront et al. 2000) as -0.3164+/-0.0030"/cy. By combining this and the equal weighted average of VLBI determinations (Mathews et al. 2000; Petrov 2000; Shirai and Fukushima 2000; Vondrak and Ron 2000) as -0.2968+/-0.0043"/cy, we derived the best estimate of precession constant as p = 5028.790+/-0.005"/cy. Also redetermined were some other quantities related to the precession formula; namely the offsets of Celestial Ephemeris Pole of the International Celestial Reference System as &Deltaψ0sinɛ0 = (-17.0+/-0.3) mas and Δɛ0 = (-5.1+/-0.3) mas. As a result, the obliquity of the ecliptic at the epoch J2000.0 was estimated as ɛ0 = 23°26'21."4059+/-0."0003. As a summary, presented was the (revised) IAU 2000 File of Current Best Estimates of astronomical constants, which is to replace the former 1994 version (Standish 1995).

  20. How fundamental are fundamental constants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, ?. For example, the standard model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers or scales? they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as ?, c, G, e and k ?, are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense, only dimensionless constants are 'fundamental'. Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental 'constants' of nature is operationally well defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as ? or ? on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might disagree depending on their apparatus. All these confusions disappear if one asks only unit-independent questions. We provide a selection of opposing opinions in the literature and respond accordingly.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of the PKS genes in five species and expression analysis in upland cotton

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi; Wang, Yanan; Abdullah, Muhammad; Li, Manli; Li, Dahui; Gao, Junshan

    2017-01-01

    Plant type III polyketide synthase (PKS) can catalyse the formation of a series of secondary metabolites with different structures and different biological functions; the enzyme plays an important role in plant growth, development and resistance to stress. At present, the PKS gene has been identified and studied in a variety of plants. Here, we identified 11 PKS genes from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and compared them with 41 PKS genes in Populus tremula, Vitis vinifera, Malus domestica and Arabidopsis thaliana. According to the phylogenetic tree, a total of 52 PKS genes can be divided into four subfamilies (I–IV). The analysis of gene structures and conserved motifs revealed that most of the PKS genes were composed of two exons and one intron and there are two characteristic conserved domains (Chal_sti_synt_N and Chal_sti_synt_C) of the PKS gene family. In our study of the five species, gene duplication was found in addition to Arabidopsis thaliana and we determined that purifying selection has been of great significance in maintaining the function of PKS gene family. From qRT-PCR analysis and a combination of the role of the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in brown cotton fibers, we concluded that five PKS genes are candidate genes involved in brown cotton fiber pigment synthesis. These results are important for the further study of brown cotton PKS genes. It not only reveals the relationship between PKS gene family and pigment in brown cotton, but also creates conditions for improving the quality of brown cotton fiber. PMID:29104824

  2. Model for the techno-economic analysis of common work of wind power and CCGT power plant to offer constant level of power in the electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsic, Z.; Rajsl, I.; Filipovic, M.

    2017-11-01

    Wind power varies over time, mainly under the influence of meteorological fluctuations. The variations occur on all time scales. Understanding these variations and their predictability is of key importance for the integration and optimal utilization of wind in the power system. There are two major attributes of variable generation that notably impact the participation on power exchanges: Variability (the output of variable generation changes and resulting in fluctuations in the plant output on all time scales) and Uncertainty (the magnitude and timing of variable generation output is less predictable, wind power output has low levels of predictability). Because of these variability and uncertainty wind plants cannot participate to electricity market, especially to power exchanges. For this purpose, the paper presents techno-economic analysis of work of wind plants together with combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant as support for offering continues power to electricity market. A model of wind farms and CCGT plant was developed in program PLEXOS based on real hourly input data and all characteristics of CCGT with especial analysis of techno-economic characteristics of different types of starts and stops of the plant. The Model analyzes the followings: costs of different start-stop characteristics (hot, warm, cold start-ups and shutdowns) and part load performance of CCGT. Besides the costs, the technical restrictions were considered such as start-up time depending on outage duration, minimum operation time, and minimum load or peaking capability. For calculation purposes, the following parameters are necessary to know in order to be able to economically evaluate changes in the start-up process: ramp up and down rate, time of start time reduction, fuel mass flow during start, electricity production during start, variable cost of start-up process, cost and charges for life time consumption for each start and start type, remuneration during start up time regarding

  3. Conformational analysis of the deoxyribofuranose ring in DNA by means of sums of proton-proton coupling constants: A graphical method

    SciTech Connect

    Rinkel, L.J.; Altona, C.

    1987-02-01

    A graphical method is presented for the conformational analysis of the sugar ring in DNA fragments by means of proton-proton couplings. The coupling data required for this analysis consist of sums of couplings, which are referred to as sigma 1' (= J1'2' + J1'2''), sigma 2' (= J1'2' + J2'3' + J2'2''), sigma 2'' (= J1'2'' + J2''3' + J2'2'') and sigma 3' (= J2'3' + J2''3' + J3'4'). These sums of couplings correspond to the distance between the outer peaks of the H1', H2', H2'' and H3' (31P) resonances, respectively, (except for sigma 2' and sigma 2'' in themore » case of a small chemical shift difference between the H2' and H2'' resonances) and can often be obtained from 1H-NMR spectra via first-order measurement, obviating the necessity of a computer-assisted simulation of the fine structure of these resonances. Two different types of graphs for the interpretation of the coupling data are discussed: the first type of graph serves to probe as to whether or not the sugar ring occurs as a single conformer, and if so to analyze the coupling data in terms of the geometry of this sugar ring. In cases where the sugar ring does not occur as a single conformer, but as a blend of N- and S-type sugar puckers, the second type of graph is used to analyze the coupling data in terms of the geometry and population of the most abundant form. It is shown that the latter type of analysis can be carried out on the basis of experimental values for merely sigma 1',sigma 2' and sigma 2'', without any assumptions or restrictions concerning a relation between the geometry of the N- and S-type conformer. In addition, the question is discussed as to how insight can be gained into the conformational purity of the sugar ring from the observed fine structure of the H1' resonance.« less

  4. Comparative Analysis of Academic Grades in Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain Using Statistical Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veas, Alejandro; Gilar, Raquel; Miñano, Pablo; Castejón, Juan Luis

    2017-01-01

    The present study, based on the construct comparability approach, performs a comparative analysis of general points average for seven courses, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the Partial Credit model (PCM) with a sample of 1398 student subjects (M = 12.5, SD = 0.67) from 8 schools in the province of Alicante (Spain). EFA confirmed a…

  5. Autonomous Dirigible Airships: A Comparative Analysis and Operational Efficiency Evaluation for Logistical Use in Complex Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Autonomous Dirigible Airships: A Comparative Analysis...COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Autonomous Dirigible Airships: A Comparative Analysis and Operational Efficiency Evaluation...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/ A 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this report are

  6. Living with constant leaking of urine and odour: thematic analysis of socio-cultural experiences of women affected by obstetric fistula in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mselle, Lilian T; Kohi, Thecla W

    2015-11-24

    Obstetric fistula is a worldwide problem that affects women and girls mostly in Sub Saharan Africa. It is a devastating medical condition consisting of an abnormal opening between the vagina and the bladder or rectum, resulting from unrelieved obstructed labour. Obstetric fistula has devastating social, economic and psychological effect on the health and wellbeing of the women living with it. This study aimed at exploring social-cultural experiences of women living with obstetric fistula in rural Tanzania. Women living with obstetric fistula were identified from the fistula ward at CCBRT hospital. Sixteen individual semi structured interviews and two (2) focus group discussions were conducted among consenting women. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and transcripts analysed independently by two researchers using a thematic analysis approach. Themes related to the experiences of living with obstetric fistula were identified. Four themes illustrating the socio-cultural experiences of women living with obstetric fistula emerged from the analysis of women experiences of living with incontinence and odour. These were keeping clean and neat, earning an income, maintaining marriage, and keeping association. Women experiences of living with fistula were largely influenced by perceptions of people around them basing on their cultural understanding of a woman. Living with fistula reveals women's day-to-day experiences of social discrimination and loss of control due to incontinence and odour. They cannot work and contribute to the family income, cannot satisfy their husband's sexual needs and or bear children, and cannot interact with members of the community in social activities. Women experience of living with fistula was influenced by perceptions of people around them. In the eyes of these people, women who leak urine were of less value since they were not capable of carrying out ascribed social roles.

  7. Comparative study of standard space and real space analysis of quantitative MR brain data.

    PubMed

    Aribisala, Benjamin S; He, Jiabao; Blamire, Andrew M

    2011-06-01

    To compare the robustness of region of interest (ROI) analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain data in real space with analysis in standard space and to test the hypothesis that standard space image analysis introduces more partial volume effect errors compared to analysis of the same dataset in real space. Twenty healthy adults with no history or evidence of neurological diseases were recruited; high-resolution T(1)-weighted, quantitative T(1), and B(0) field-map measurements were collected. Algorithms were implemented to perform analysis in real and standard space and used to apply a simple standard ROI template to quantitative T(1) datasets. Regional relaxation values and histograms for both gray and white matter tissues classes were then extracted and compared. Regional mean T(1) values for both gray and white matter were significantly lower using real space compared to standard space analysis. Additionally, regional T(1) histograms were more compact in real space, with smaller right-sided tails indicating lower partial volume errors compared to standard space analysis. Standard space analysis of quantitative MRI brain data introduces more partial volume effect errors biasing the analysis of quantitative data compared to analysis of the same dataset in real space. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Systematics of constant roll inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2018-02-01

    We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.

  9. Comparative analysis of tissue reactions to anesthetic solutions: histological analysis in subcutaneous tissue of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Paulo Domingos; Sanches, Marcio Giampietro; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2003-01-01

    Postanesthetic pain is a relatively common complication after local anesthesia. This complication may be caused by the anesthetic technique or by the anesthetic solution used. Tissue reactions induced by the anesthetic solutions may be one of the factors resulting in pain after anesthesia. The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze tissue reactions induced by different anesthetic solutions in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The following solutions were utilized: 2% lidocaine without vasoconstrictor; a 0.5% bupivacaine solution with 1:200,000 adrenaline; a 4% articaine solution and 2% mepivacaine, both with 1:100,000 adrenaline; and a 0.9% sodium chloride solution as a control. Sterilized absorbent paper cones packed inside polyethylene tubes were soaked in the solutions and implanted in the subcutaneous region. The sacrifice periods were 1, 2, 5, and 10 days after surgery. The specimens were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis. The results showed that there is a difference in tissue irritability produced by the local anesthetic solutions. The results also showed that there is no relation between the concentration of the drug and the inflammatory intensity, that the mepivacaine and articaine solutions promoted less inflammatory reaction than the bupivacaine, and that the lidocaine solution produced the least intense inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:14959905

  10. Comparative Analysis of Disruption Tolerant Network Routing Simulations in the One and NS-3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    real systems with less work compared to ns-2. In order to meet the design goals of ns-3, the entire code structure changed to a modular design . As a...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DISRUPTION TOLERANT NETWORK ROUTING SIMULATIONS IN THE ONE AND NS-3...Thesis 03-23-2016 to 12-15-2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DISRUPTION TOLERANT NETWORK ROUTING SIMULATIONS IN THE ONE AND NS-3 5

  11. Qualitative Comparative Analysis, Necessary Conditions, and Limited Diversity: Some Problematic Consequences of Schneider and Wagemann's Enhanced Standard Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Barry; Glaesser, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a recent development in the set theoretic analysis of data sets characterized by limited diversity. Ragin, in developing his Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), developed a standard analysis that produces parsimonious, intermediate, and complex Boolean solutions of truth tables. Schneider and Wagemann argue this standard analysis…

  12. Constant and Progressive Time Delay Procedures for Teaching Children with Autism: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    A review of 22 empirical studies examining the use of constant (CTD) and progressive (PTD) time delay procedures employed with children with autism frames an indirect analysis of the demographic, procedural, methodological, and outcome parameters of existing research. None of the previous manuscripts compared the two response prompting procedures.…

  13. All-Atom Molecular Dynamics-Based Analysis of Membrane-Stabilizing Copolymer Interactions with Lipid Bilayers Probed under Constant Surface Tensions.

    PubMed

    Houang, Evelyne M; Bates, Frank S; Sham, Yuk Y; Metzger, Joseph M

    2017-11-30

    An all-atom phospholipid bilayer and triblock copolymer model was developed for molecular dynamics (MD) studies. These were performed to investigate the mechanism of interaction between membrane-stabilizing triblock copolymer P188 and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) lipid bilayers under applied lateral surface tension (γ) to model membrane mechanical stress. Results showed that P188 insertion is driven by the hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) core and dependent on bilayer area per lipid. Moreover, insertion of P188 increased the bilayer's resistance to mechanical rupture, as observed by a significant increase in the absolute lateral pressure required to disrupt the bilayer. To further investigate the specific chemical features of P188 underlying membrane stabilizer function, a series of MD simulations with triblock copolymers of the same class as P188 but of varying chemical composition and sizes were performed. Results showed that triblock copolymer insertion into the lipid bilayer is dependent on overall copolymer hydrophobicity, with higher copolymer hydrophobicity requiring a reduced bilayer area per lipid ratio for insertion. Further analysis revealed that the effect of copolymer insertion on membrane mechanical integrity was also dependent on hydrophobicity. Here, P188 insertion significantly increased the absolute apparent lateral pressure required to rupture the POPC bilayer, thereby protecting the membrane against mechanical stress. In marked contrast, highly hydrophobic copolymers decreased the lateral pressure necessary for membrane rupture and thus rendering the membrane significantly more susceptible to mechanical stress. These new in silico findings align with recent experimental findings using synthetic lipid bilayers and in muscle cells in vitro and mouse models in vivo. Collectively, these data underscore the importance of PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer chemical composition in copolymer-based muscle membrane stabilization

  14. Relativistic problems on astronomical constants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jinhe; Huang, Tianyi

    1999-06-01

    The fact that modern astronomical observational technique has made rapid progress and the 1PN approximation of general relativity has been extensively applied in celestial mechanics and astrometry, makes it is necessary to investigate and examine the system of astronomical constants carefully and rigorously in the relativistic framework. The mass of a celestial body in the solar system should be defined as its BD mass that changes relatively in an amount less than 10-19 and could be considered as a constant. The equations satisfied by the gravitational potentials are not Poisson equations anymore but depend on the choice of the coordinate gauge. Therefore the gravitational potentials cannot be expanded in the traditional harmonics. It is neccessary to choose the coordinate gauge and take BD multipole moments as astronomical constants. The obliquity of the ecliptic has been determined in high precision and it would be neccessary to give a conventional definition of the 1PN ecliptic. A relativistic definition of the geoid is important and left to be discussed. The astronomical constants that relate the units of time and length have been clearly defined but need to be clarified to avoid their misuse.

  15. Comparative cost analysis of housing and case management program for chronically ill homeless adults compared to usual care.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kee, Romina; Buchanan, David; Sadowski, Laura S

    2012-02-01

    To assess the costs of a housing and case management program in a novel sample-homeless adults with chronic medical illnesses. The study used data from multiple sources: (1) electronic medical records for hospital, emergency room, and ambulatory medical and mental health visits; (2) institutional and regional databases for days in respite centers, jails, or prisons; and (3) interviews for days in nursing homes, shelters, substance abuse treatment centers, and case manager visits. Total costs were estimated using unit costs for each service. Randomized controlled trial of 407 homeless adults with chronic medical illnesses enrolled at two hospitals in Chicago, Illinois, and followed for 18 months. Compared to usual care, the intervention group generated an average annual cost savings of (-)$6,307 per person (95 percent CI: -16,616, 4,002; p = .23). Subgroup analyses of chronically homeless and those with HIV showed higher per person, annual cost savings of (-)$9,809 and (-)$6,622, respectively. Results were robust to sensitivity analysis using unit costs. The findings of this comprehensive, comparative cost analyses demonstrated an important average annual savings, though in this underpowered study these savings did not achieve statistical significance. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. A comparative analysis of optical and conventional axiography for the analysis of temporomandibular joint movements.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Arne; Seemann, Rudolf; Schicho, Kurt; Ewers, Rolf; Piehslinger, Eva

    2003-11-01

    Currently available systems for pantographic tracing are heavy, bulky, and can interfere with jaw movements. This study describes the development and clinical application of optoelectronic axiography designed to overcome system inherent problems of conventional bulky frame-based registration axiography. The purpose of this study is the comparison of the newly developed system and conventional axiography. Three-dimensional recordings of condylar pathways were acquired by means of infrared digitizers interfaced to newly developed software. Ten distinct curves in each of 10 subjects were recorded by synchronous optoelectronic axiography (100 tracings) and by conventional axiography (100 tracings). Usually, two 3-dimensional (3D) light weight sensors are provisionally fixed to the facial surface of a maxillary and mandibular incisor by means of a single orthodontic bracket. To allow for direct comparison of all 100 pairs of curves in this study, the 3D sensors of the optoelectronic system were attached to the bulky double face-bow system of the axiograph. The conformity of tracings (protrusion, opening/closing, mediotrusion, and laterotrusion) was evaluated by means of correlation analysis. Resulting axiographic recordings from both systems were evaluated by 3 experts (dentists, experienced in axiographic investigations, who were blind to the source of the data), focusing on standardized qualitative criteria of the recordings (homogeneity/smoothness, pathway-characteristics, excursion, and left/right-symmetry). After testing for normal distribution of the ratio scaled data (length of pathway, horizontal condylar inclination [HCI], Bennett angle) with the Kolmogoroff-Smirnov test (alpha=.01), axiographic curves were quantitatively compared by means of an intraclass correlation coefficient ([ICC] alpha =.01). The Wilcoxon test (alpha=.01) was used to evaluate equivalence of ordinally scaled values (homogeneity of tracings) and Cohen's Kappa was used to compare excursion

  17. An Analysis Technique/Automated Tool for Comparing and Tracking Analysis Modes of Different Finite Element Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towner, Robert L.; Band, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis technique was developed to compare and track mode shapes for different Finite Element Models. The technique may be applied to a variety of structural dynamics analyses, including model reduction validation (comparing unreduced and reduced models), mode tracking for various parametric analyses (e.g., launch vehicle model dispersion analysis to identify sensitivities to modal gain for Guidance, Navigation, and Control), comparing models of different mesh fidelity (e.g., a coarse model for a preliminary analysis compared to a higher-fidelity model for a detailed analysis) and mode tracking for a structure with properties that change over time (e.g., a launch vehicle from liftoff through end-of-burn, with propellant being expended during the flight). Mode shapes for different models are compared and tracked using several numerical indicators, including traditional Cross-Orthogonality and Modal Assurance Criteria approaches, as well as numerical indicators obtained by comparing modal strain energy and kinetic energy distributions. This analysis technique has been used to reliably identify correlated mode shapes for complex Finite Element Models that would otherwise be difficult to compare using traditional techniques. This improved approach also utilizes an adaptive mode tracking algorithm that allows for automated tracking when working with complex models and/or comparing a large group of models.

  18. Constant pressure mode extended simple gradient liquid chromatography system for micro and nanocolumns.

    PubMed

    Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav

    2014-07-11

    Performing gradient liquid chromatography at constant pressure instead of constant flow rate has serious potential for shortening the analysis time and increasing the productivity of HPLC instruments that use gradient methods. However, in the constant pressure mode the decreasing column permeability during a long period of time negatively affects the repeatability of retention time. Thus a volume-based approach, in which the detector signal is plotted as a function of retention volume, must be taken into consideration. Traditional HPLC equipment, however, requires quite complex hardware and software modifications in order to work at constant pressure and in the volume-based mode. In this short communication, a low cost and easily feasible pressure-controlled extension of the previously described simple gradient liquid chromatography platform is proposed. A test mixture of four nitro esters was separated by 10-60% (v/v) acetone/water gradient and a high repeatability of retention volumes at 20MPa (RSD less than 0.45%) was realized. Separations were also performed at different values of pressure (20, 25, and 31MPa), and only small variations of the retention volumes (up to 0.8%) were observed. In this particular case, the gain in the analysis speed of 7% compared to the constant flow mode was realized at a constant pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dielectric-constant gas thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiser, Christof; Zandt, Thorsten; Fellmuth, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    The principles, techniques and results from dielectric-constant gas thermometry (DCGT) are reviewed. Primary DCGT with helium has been used for measuring T-T90 below the triple point of water (TPW), where T is the thermodynamic temperature and T90 is the temperature on the international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90), and, in an inverse regime with T as input quantity, for determining the Boltzmann constant at the TPW. Furthermore, DCGT allows the determination of several important material properties including the polarizability of neon and argon as well as the virial coefficients of helium, neon, and argon. With interpolating DCGT (IDCGT), the ITS-90 has been approximated in the temperature range from 4 K to 25 K. An overview and uncertainty budget for each of these applications of DCGT is provided, accompanied by corroborating evidence from the literature or, for IDCGT, a CIPM key comparison.

  20. Estimation of hydrolysis rate constants for carbamates ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cheminformatics based tools, such as the Chemical Transformation Simulator under development in EPA’s Office of Research and Development, are being increasingly used to evaluate chemicals for their potential to degrade in the environment or be transformed through metabolism. Hydrolysis represents a major environmental degradation pathway; unfortunately, only a small fraction of hydrolysis rates for about 85,000 chemicals on the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory are in public domain, making it critical to develop in silico approaches to estimate hydrolysis rate constants. In this presentation, we compare three complementary approaches to estimate hydrolysis rates for carbamates, an important chemical class widely used in agriculture as pesticides, herbicides and fungicides. Fragment-based Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) using Hammett-Taft sigma constants are widely published and implemented for relatively simple functional groups such as carboxylic acid esters, phthalate esters, and organophosphate esters, and we extend these to carbamates. We also develop a pKa based model and a quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) model, and evaluate them against measured rate constants using R square and root mean square (RMS) error. Our work shows that for our relatively small sample size of carbamates, a Hammett-Taft based fragment model performs best, followed by a pKa and a QSPR model. This presentation compares three comp

  1. Unruh thermal hadronization and the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassino, Antonia M.; Bleicher, Marcus; Mann, Robert B.

    2018-05-01

    We use black holes with a negative cosmological constant to investigate aspects of the freeze-out temperature for hadron production in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The two black hole solutions present in the anti-de Sitter geometry have different mass and are compared to the data showing that the small black hole solution is in good agreement. This is a new feature in the literature since the small black hole in general relativity has different thermodynamic behavior from that of the large black hole solution. We find that the inclusion of the cosmological constant (which can be interpreted as the plasma pressure) leads to a lowering of the temperature of the freeze-out curve as a function of the baryochemical potential, improving the description previously suggested by Castorina, Kharzeev, and Satz.

  2. A comparative analysis on the binding characteristics of various mammalian albumins towards a multitherapeutic agent, pinostrobin

    PubMed Central

    FEROZ, Shevin R.; SUMI, Rumana A.; MALEK, Sri N.A.; TAYYAB, Saad

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of pinostrobin (PS), a multitherapeutic agent with serum albumins of various mammalian species namely, goat, bovine, human, porcine, rabbit, sheep and dog was investigated using fluorescence quench titration and competitive drug displacement experiments. Analysis of the intrinsic fluorescence quenching data revealed values of the association constant, Ka in the range of 1.49 – 6.12 × 104 M−1, with 1:1 binding stoichiometry. Based on the PS–albumin binding characteristics, these albumins were grouped into two classes. Ligand displacement studies using warfarin as the site I marker ligand correlated well with the binding data. Albumins from goat and bovine were found to be closely similar to human albumin on the basis of PS binding characteristics. PMID:25519455

  3. Comparative Analysis of Reconstructed Image Quality in a Simulated Chromotomographic Imager

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    quality . This example uses five basic images a backlit bar chart with random intensity, 100 nm separation. A total of 54 initial target...compared for a variety of scenes. Reconstructed image quality is highly dependent on the initial target hypercube so a total of 54 initial target...COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RECONSTRUCTED IMAGE QUALITY IN A SIMULATED CHROMOTOMOGRAPHIC IMAGER THESIS

  4. Communicating Comparative Findings from Meta-Analysis in Educational Research: Some Examples and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve; Katsipataki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews some of the strengths and limitations of the comparative use of meta-analysis findings, using examples from the Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation Teaching and Learning "Toolkit" which summarizes a range of educational approaches to improve pupil attainment in schools. This comparative use of quantitative…

  5. The Governance of Higher Education Regionalisation: Comparative Analysis of the Bologna Process and MERCOSUR-Educativo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Hermo, Javier Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses two processes of higher education regionalisation, MERCOSUR-Educativo in Latin America and the Bologna Process in Europe, from a comparative perspective. The comparative analysis is centered on the content and the governance of both processes and, specifically, on the reasons of their uneven evolution and implementation. We…

  6. The Effects of Attrition on Baseline Comparability in Randomized Experiments in Education: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jeffrey C.; McHugh, Cathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Using meta-analysis, randomized experiments in education that either clearly did or clearly did not experience student attrition were examined for the baseline comparability of groups. Results from 35 studies suggested that after attrition, the observed measures of baseline comparability of groups did not differ more than would be expected given…

  7. Comparing the High School English Curriculum in Turkey through Multi-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the High School English Curriculum (HSEC) in accordance with Stufflebeam's context, input, process and product (CIPP) model through multi-analysis. The research includes both quantitative and qualitative aspects. A descriptive analysis was operated through Rasch Measurement Model; SPSS program for the quantitative…

  8. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  9. A Comparative Analysis of PISA Scientific Literacy Framework in Finnish and Thai Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    A curriculum is a master plan that regulates teaching and learning. This paper compares Finnish and Thai primary school level science curricula to the PISA 2006 Scientific Literacy Framework. Curriculum comparison was made following the procedure of deductive content analysis. In the analysis, there were four main categories adopted from PISA…

  10. Wallerstein's World-Systems Analysis in Comparative Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Knezevic, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1970s, using his world-systems analysis, Immanuel Wallerstein has developed a wide-ranging framework for the social sciences, with potential applications for comparative educational research. In this paper we outline key aspects of Wallerstein's theorising, and then analyse the uptake, understandings, and applications of his analysis in…

  11. Statistics Education Research in Malaysia and the Philippines: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reston, Enriqueta; Krishnan, Saras; Idris, Noraini

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of statistics education research in Malaysia and the Philippines by modes of dissemination, research areas, and trends. An electronic search for published research papers in the area of statistics education from 2000-2012 yielded 20 for Malaysia and 19 for the Philippines. Analysis of these papers showed…

  12. Rapid estimation of glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants in leaves of Chinese kale and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) in two seasons.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Kristin; Verkerk, Ruud; Bonnema, Guusje; Dekker, Matthijs

    2012-08-15

    Kinetic modeling was used as a tool to quantitatively estimate glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants. Literature shows that thermal degradation rates differ in different vegetables. Well-characterized plant material, leaves of broccoli and Chinese kale plants grown in two seasons, was used in the study. It was shown that a first-order reaction is appropriate to model glucosinolate degradation independent from the season. No difference in degradation rate constants of structurally identical glucosinolates was found between broccoli and Chinese kale leaves when grown in the same season. However, glucosinolate degradation rate constants were highly affected by the season (20-80% increase in spring compared to autumn). These results suggest that differences in glucosinolate degradation rate constants can be due to variation in environmental as well as genetic factors. Furthermore, a methodology to estimate rate constants rapidly is provided to enable the analysis of high sample numbers for future studies.

  13. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  14. Elastic constants from microscopic strain fluctuations

    PubMed

    Sengupta; Nielaba; Rao; Binder

    2000-02-01

    Fluctuations of the instantaneous local Lagrangian strain epsilon(ij)(r,t), measured with respect to a static "reference" lattice, are used to obtain accurate estimates of the elastic constants of model solids from atomistic computer simulations. The measured strains are systematically coarse-grained by averaging them within subsystems (of size L(b)) of a system (of total size L) in the canonical ensemble. Using a simple finite size scaling theory we predict the behavior of the fluctuations as a function of L(b)/L and extract elastic constants of the system in the thermodynamic limit at nonzero temperature. Our method is simple to implement, efficient, and general enough to be able to handle a wide class of model systems, including those with singular potentials without any essential modification. We illustrate the technique by computing isothermal elastic constants of "hard" and "soft" disk triangular solids in two dimensions from Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. We compare our results with those from earlier simulations and theory.

  15. An Analysis on a Dynamic Amplifier and Calibration Methods for a Pseudo-Differential Dynamic Comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Daehwa; Miyahara, Masaya; Matsuzawa, Akira

    This paper analyzes a pseudo-differential dynamic comparator with a dynamic pre-amplifier. The transient gain of a dynamic pre-amplifier is derived and applied to equations of the thermal noise and the regeneration time of a comparator. This analysis enhances understanding of the roles of transistor's parameters in pre-amplifier's gain. Based on the calculated gain, two calibration methods are also analyzed. One is calibration of a load capacitance and the other is calibration of a bypass current. The analysis helps designers' estimation for the accuracy of calibration, dead-zone of a comparator with a calibration circuit, and the influence of PVT variation. The analyzed comparator uses 90-nm CMOS technology as an example and each estimation is compared with simulation results.

  16. Comparability of river suspended-sediment sampling and laboratory analysis methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groten, Joel T.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2018-03-06

    Accurate measurements of suspended sediment, a leading water-quality impairment in many Minnesota rivers, are important for managing and protecting water resources; however, water-quality standards for suspended sediment in Minnesota are based on grab field sampling and total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis methods that have underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment in rivers compared to U.S. Geological Survey equal-width-increment or equal-discharge-increment (EWDI) field sampling and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) laboratory analysis methods. Because of this underrepresentation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, collected concurrent grab and EWDI samples at eight sites to compare results obtained using different combinations of field sampling and laboratory analysis methods.Study results determined that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis results were biased substantially low compared to EWDI sampling and SSC laboratory analysis results, respectively. Differences in both field sampling and laboratory analysis methods caused grab and TSS methods to be biased substantially low. The difference in laboratory analysis methods was slightly greater than field sampling methods.Sand-sized particles had a strong effect on the comparability of the field sampling and laboratory analysis methods. These results indicated that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods fail to capture most of the sand being transported by the stream. The results indicate there is less of a difference among samples collected with grab field sampling and analyzed for TSS and concentration of fines in SSC. Even though differences are present, the presence of strong correlations between SSC and TSS concentrations provides the opportunity to develop site specific relations to address transport processes not captured by grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods.

  17. Comparative analysis of the photocatalytic reduction of drinking water oxoanions using titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Marks, Randal; Yang, Ting; Westerhoff, Paul; Doudrick, Kyle

    2016-11-01

    Regulated oxidized pollutants in drinking water can have significant health effects, resulting in the need for ancillary treatment processes. Oxoanions (e.g., nitrate) are one important class of oxidized inorganic ions. Ion exchange and reverse osmosis are often used treatment processes for oxoanions, but these separation processes leave behind a concentrated waste product that still requires treatment or disposal. Photocatalysis has emerged as a sustainable treatment technology capable of catalytically reducing oxoanions directly to innocuous byproducts. Compared with the large volume of knowledge available for photocatalytic oxidation, very little knowledge exists regarding photocatalytic reduction of oxoanion pollutants. This study investigates the reduction of various oxoanions of concern in drinking water (nitrate, nitrite, bromate, perchlorate, chlorate, chlorite, chromate) using a commercial titanium dioxide photocatalyst and a polychromatic light source. Results showed that oxoanions were readily reduced under acidic conditions in the presence of formate, which served as a hole scavenger, with the first-order rate decreasing as follows: bromate > nitrite > chlorate > nitrate > dichromate > perchlorate, corresponding to rate constants of 0.33, 0.080, 0.052, 0.0074, 0.0041, and 0 cm 2 /photons × 10 18 , respectively. Only bromate and nitrite were reduced at neutral pH, with substantially lower rate constants of 0.034 and 0.0021 cm 2 /photons × 10 18 , respectively. No direct relationship between oxoanion physicochemical properties, including electronegativity of central atom, internal bond strength, and polarizability was discovered. However, observations presented herein suggest the presence of kinetic barriers unique to each oxoanion and provides a framework for investigating photocatalytic reduction mechanisms of oxoanions in order to design better photocatalysts and optimize treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study of accumulation rates derived by He and Th isotope analysis of marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcantonio, Franco; Kumar, Niraj; Stute, Martin; Anderson, Robert F.; Seidl, Michele A.; Schlosser, Peter; Mix, Alan

    1995-07-01

    We present a detailed down-core analysis of helium isotope ratios and concentrations for bulk sediments from the central Equatorial Pacific that span the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. Measured 3He/4He ratios range from 1.0 × 10 -5 to 2.1 × 10 -4, or 7.4 to 149 times the atmospheric ratio. The 3He from interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) constitutes virtually all of the 3He measured within the sediment. Because carbonate accumulation rates are high in the Equatorial Pacific, the measured 3He concentrations are lower than have been measured elsewhere, and range from 4.7 × 10 -13 to 3.0 × 10 -12 cm 3STP · g -1. If the cosmic dust 3He-flux is constant with time, sediment mass accumulation rates can be determined from the 3He concentration in sediments. The excess 230Th technique is an entirely independent method for calculating sediment mass accumulation rates because its source is in-situ decay of 234U in seawater. To first order, initial excess 230Th activities correlate with 3He concentrations within this core. Based on the 230Th results, we estimate the 3He-flux to the Earth's surface as (9.6 ± 2.0) × 10 -16 cm 3STP · cm -2 · a -1. If this flux has remained constant over extended periods of time, it can be used to determine sediment accumulation rates beyond the 230Th range (300,000 yr).

  19. GenomeFingerprinter: the genome fingerprint and the universal genome fingerprint analysis for systematic comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yuncan; Ai, Hannan; Meng, Fanmei; Zhao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    No attention has been paid on comparing a set of genome sequences crossing genetic components and biological categories with far divergence over large size range. We define it as the systematic comparative genomics and aim to develop the methodology. First, we create a method, GenomeFingerprinter, to unambiguously produce a set of three-dimensional coordinates from a sequence, followed by one three-dimensional plot and six two-dimensional trajectory projections, to illustrate the genome fingerprint of a given genome sequence. Second, we develop a set of concepts and tools, and thereby establish a method called the universal genome fingerprint analysis (UGFA). Particularly, we define the total genetic component configuration (TGCC) (including chromosome, plasmid, and phage) for describing a strain as a systematic unit, the universal genome fingerprint map (UGFM) of TGCC for differentiating strains as a universal system, and the systematic comparative genomics (SCG) for comparing a set of genomes crossing genetic components and biological categories. Third, we construct a method of quantitative analysis to compare two genomes by using the outcome dataset of genome fingerprint analysis. Specifically, we define the geometric center and its geometric mean for a given genome fingerprint map, followed by the Euclidean distance, the differentiate rate, and the weighted differentiate rate to quantitatively describe the difference between two genomes of comparison. Moreover, we demonstrate the applications through case studies on various genome sequences, giving tremendous insights into the critical issues in microbial genomics and taxonomy. We have created a method, GenomeFingerprinter, for rapidly computing, geometrically visualizing, intuitively comparing a set of genomes at genome fingerprint level, and hence established a method called the universal genome fingerprint analysis, as well as developed a method of quantitative analysis of the outcome dataset. These have set

  20. Comparative analysis of vaginal microbiota sampling using 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Seppo; Kalliala, Ilkka; Nieminen, Pekka; Salonen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Molecular methods such as next-generation sequencing are actively being employed to characterize the vaginal microbiota in health and disease. Previous studies have focused on characterizing the biological variation in the microbiota, and less is known about how factors related to sampling contribute to the results. Our aim was to investigate the impact of a sampling device and anatomical sampling site on the quantitative and qualitative outcomes relevant for vaginal microbiota research. We sampled 10 Finnish women representing diverse clinical characteristics with flocked swabs, the Evalyn® self-sampling device, sterile plastic spatulas and a cervical brush that were used to collect samples from fornix, vaginal wall and cervix. Samples were compared on DNA and protein yield, bacterial load, and microbiota diversity and species composition based on Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We quantified the relative contributions of sampling variables versus intrinsic