ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.
2010-01-01
This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…
The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fram, Sheila M.
2013-01-01
This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…
Keefe, Douglas H; Feeney, M Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L; Fitzpatrick, Denis F
2017-01-01
Human ear-canal properties of transient acoustic stimuli are contrasted that utilize measured ear-canal pressures in conjunction with measured acoustic pressure reflectance and admittance. These data are referenced to the tip of a probe snugly inserted into the ear canal. Promising procedures to calibrate across frequency include stimuli with controlled levels of incident pressure magnitude, absorbed sound power, and forward pressure magnitude. An equivalent pressure at the eardrum is calculated from these measured data using a transmission-line model of ear-canal acoustics parameterized by acoustically estimated ear-canal area at the probe tip and length between the probe tip and eardrum. Chirp stimuli with constant incident pressure magnitude and constant absorbed sound power across frequency were generated to elicit transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), which were measured in normal-hearing adult ears from 0.7 to 8 kHz. TEOAE stimuli had similar peak-to-peak equivalent sound pressure levels across calibration conditions. Frequency-domain TEOAEs were compared using signal level, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), coherence synchrony modulus (CSM), group delay, and group spread. Time-domain TEOAEs were compared using SNR, CSM, instantaneous frequency and instantaneous bandwidth. Stimuli with constant incident pressure magnitude or constant absorbed sound power across frequency produce generally similar TEOAEs up to 8 kHz.
Keefe, Douglas H.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L.; Fitzpatrick, Denis F.
2017-01-01
Human ear-canal properties of transient acoustic stimuli are contrasted that utilize measured ear-canal pressures in conjunction with measured acoustic pressure reflectance and admittance. These data are referenced to the tip of a probe snugly inserted into the ear canal. Promising procedures to calibrate across frequency include stimuli with controlled levels of incident pressure magnitude, absorbed sound power, and forward pressure magnitude. An equivalent pressure at the eardrum is calculated from these measured data using a transmission-line model of ear-canal acoustics parameterized by acoustically estimated ear-canal area at the probe tip and length between the probe tip and eardrum. Chirp stimuli with constant incident pressure magnitude and constant absorbed sound power across frequency were generated to elicit transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), which were measured in normal-hearing adult ears from 0.7 to 8 kHz. TEOAE stimuli had similar peak-to-peak equivalent sound pressure levels across calibration conditions. Frequency-domain TEOAEs were compared using signal level, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), coherence synchrony modulus (CSM), group delay, and group spread. Time-domain TEOAEs were compared using SNR, CSM, instantaneous frequency and instantaneous bandwidth. Stimuli with constant incident pressure magnitude or constant absorbed sound power across frequency produce generally similar TEOAEs up to 8 kHz. PMID:28147608
Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito
2017-10-01
During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017
Constant fields and constant gradients in open ionic channels.
Chen, D P; Barcilon, V; Eisenberg, R S
1992-01-01
Ions enter cells through pores in proteins that are holes in dielectrics. The energy of interaction between ion and charge induced on the dielectric is many kT, and so the dielectric properties of channel and pore are important. We describe ionic movement by (three-dimensional) Nemst-Planck equations (including flux and net charge). Potential is described by Poisson's equation in the pore and Laplace's equation in the channel wall, allowing induced but not permanent charge. Asymptotic expansions are constructed exploiting the long narrow shape of the pore and the relatively high dielectric constant of the pore's contents. The resulting one-dimensional equations can be integrated numerically; they can be analyzed when channels are short or long (compared with the Debye length). Traditional constant field equations are derived if the induced charge is small, e.g., if the channel is short or if the total concentration gradient is zero. A constant gradient of concentration is derived if the channel is long. Plots directly comparable to experiments are given of current vs voltage, reversal potential vs. concentration, and slope conductance vs. concentration. This dielectric theory can easily be tested: its parameters can be determined by traditional constant field measurements. The dielectric theory then predicts current-voltage relations quite different from constant field, usually more linear, when gradients of total concentration are imposed. Numerical analysis shows that the interaction of ion and channel can be described by a mean potential if, but only if, the induced charge is negligible, that is to say, the electric field is spatially constant. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:1376159
Advances in the analysis and design of constant-torque springs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McGuire, John R.; Yura, Joseph A.
1996-01-01
In order to improve the design procedure of constant-torque springs used in aerospace applications, several new analysis techniques have been developed. These techniques make it possible to accurately construct a torque-rotation curve for any general constant-torque spring configuration. These new techniques allow for friction in the system to be included in the analysis, an area of analysis that has heretofore been unexplored. The new analysis techniques also include solutions for the deflected shape of the spring as well as solutions for drum and roller support reaction forces. A design procedure incorporating these new capabilities is presented.
Qu, Yatian; Campbell, Patrick G.; Gu, Lei; ...
2016-09-21
Here we report our studies to compare energy consumption of a CDI cell in constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) operations, with a focus on understanding the underlying physics of consumption patterns. The comparison is conducted under conditions that the CV and CC operations result in the same amounts of input charge and within identical charging phase durations. We present two electrical circuit models to simulate energy consumption in charging phase: one is a simple RC circuit model, and the other a transmission line circuit model. We built and tested a CDI cell to validate the transmission line model,more » and performed a series of experiments to compare CV versus CC operation under the condition of equal applied charge and charging duration. The experiments show that CC mode consumes energy at 33.8 kJ per mole of ions removed, which is only 28% of CV mode energy consumption (120.6 kJ/mol), but achieves similar level of salt removals. Lastly, together, the models and experiment support our major conclusion that CC is more energy efficient than CV for equal charge and charging duration. The models also suggest that the lower energy consumption of CC in charging is due to its lower resistive dissipation.« less
Qu, Yatian; Campbell, Patrick G.; Gu, Lei
Here we report our studies to compare energy consumption of a CDI cell in constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) operations, with a focus on understanding the underlying physics of consumption patterns. The comparison is conducted under conditions that the CV and CC operations result in the same amounts of input charge and within identical charging phase durations. We present two electrical circuit models to simulate energy consumption in charging phase: one is a simple RC circuit model, and the other a transmission line circuit model. We built and tested a CDI cell to validate the transmission line model,more » and performed a series of experiments to compare CV versus CC operation under the condition of equal applied charge and charging duration. The experiments show that CC mode consumes energy at 33.8 kJ per mole of ions removed, which is only 28% of CV mode energy consumption (120.6 kJ/mol), but achieves similar level of salt removals. Lastly, together, the models and experiment support our major conclusion that CC is more energy efficient than CV for equal charge and charging duration. The models also suggest that the lower energy consumption of CC in charging is due to its lower resistive dissipation.« less
Vicinal fluorine-fluorine coupling constants: Fourier analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
San Fabián, J.; Westra Hoekzema, A. J. A.
2004-10-01
Stereochemical dependences of vicinal fluorine-fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance coupling constants (3JFF) have been studied with the multiconfigurational self-consistent field in the restricted active space approach, with the second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA), and with density functional theory. The SOPPA results show the best overall agreement with experimental couplings. The relationship with the dihedral angle between the coupled fluorines has been studied by Fourier analysis, the result is very different from that of proton-proton couplings. The Fourier coefficients do not resemble those of a typical Karplus equation. The four nonrelativistic contributions to the coupling constants of 1,2-difluoroethane configurations have been studied separately showing that up to six Fourier coefficients are required to reproduce the calculated values satisfactorily. Comparison with Fourier coefficients for matching hydrogen fluoride dimer configurations suggests that the higher order Fourier coefficients (Cn⩾3) originate mainly from through-space Fermi contact interaction. The through-space interaction is the main reason 3JFF do not follow the Karplus equation.
Vicinal fluorine-fluorine coupling constants: Fourier analysis.
San Fabián, J; Westra Hoekzema, A J A
2004-10-01
Stereochemical dependences of vicinal fluorine-fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance coupling constants (3JFF) have been studied with the multiconfigurational self-consistent field in the restricted active space approach, with the second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA), and with density functional theory. The SOPPA results show the best overall agreement with experimental couplings. The relationship with the dihedral angle between the coupled fluorines has been studied by Fourier analysis, the result is very different from that of proton-proton couplings. The Fourier coefficients do not resemble those of a typical Karplus equation. The four nonrelativistic contributions to the coupling constants of 1,2-difluoroethane configurations have been studied separately showing that up to six Fourier coefficients are required to reproduce the calculated values satisfactorily. Comparison with Fourier coefficients for matching hydrogen fluoride dimer configurations suggests that the higher order Fourier coefficients (Cn> or =3) originate mainly from through-space Fermi contact interaction. The through-space interaction is the main reason 3JFF do not follow the Karplus equation. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics
Zhang, M.; Takahashi, M.; Morin, R.H.; Esaki, T.
1998-01-01
A theoretical analysis is presented that compares the response characteristics of the constant head and the constant flowrate (flow pump) laboratory techniques for quantifying the hydraulic properties of geologic materials having permeabilities less than 10-10 m/s. Rigorous analytical solutions that describe the transient distributions of hydraulic gradient within a specimen are developed, and equations are derived for each method. Expressions simulating the inflow and outflow rates across the specimen boundaries during a constant-head permeability test are also presented. These solutions illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method, including insights into measurement accuracy and the validity of using Darcy's law under certain conditions. The resulting observations offer practical considerations in the selection of an appropriate laboratory test method for the reliable measurement of permeability in low-permeability geologic materials.
Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.
2013-04-01
Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.
Determination of elastic constants of a generally orthotropic plate by modal analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, T. C.; Lau, T. C.
1993-01-01
This paper describes a method of finding the elastic constants of a generally orthotropic composite thin plate through modal analysis based on a Rayleigh-Ritz formulation. The natural frequencies and mode shapes for a plate with free-free boundary conditions are obtained with chirp excitation. Based on the eigenvalue equation and the constitutive equations of the plate, an iteration scheme is derived using the experimentally determined natural frequencies to arrive at a set of converged values for the elastic constants. Four sets of experimental data are required for the four independent constants: namely the two Young's moduli E1 and E2, the in-plane shear modulus G12, and one Poisson's ratio nu12. The other Poisson's ratio nu21 can then be determined from the relationship among the constants. Comparison with static test results indicate good agreement. Choosing the right combinations of natural modes together with a set of reasonable initial estimates for the constants to start the iteration has been found to be crucial in achieving convergence.
New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2004-03-01
a function of the redshift and the corresponding look-back time. The open circle is the measurement from the Oklo natural reactor. The horizontal long dashed lines show the area of the previous claim of variation of the fine structure constant. Clearly, the new UVES data are inconsistent with this range. A team of astronomers [1], led by Patrick Petitjean (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris and Observatoire de Paris, France) and Raghunathan Srianand (IUCAA Pune, India) very carefully studied a homogeneous sample of 50 absorption systems observed with UVES and Kueyen along 18 distant quasars lines of sight. They recorded the spectra of quasars over a total of 34 nights to achieve the highest possible spectral resolution and the best signal-to-noise ratio. Sophisticated automatic procedures specially designed for this programme were applied. In addition, the astronomers used extensive simulations to show that they can correctly model the line profiles to recover a possible variation of alpha. The result of this extensive study is that over the last 10,000 million years, the relative variation of alpha must be less than 0.6 part per million. This is the strongest constraint from quasar absorption lines studies to date. More importantly, this new result does not support previous claims of a statistically significant change of alpha with time. Interestingly, this result is supported by another - less extensive - analysis, also conducted with the UVES spectrometer on the VLT [2]. Even though those observations were only concerned with one of the brightest known quasar HE 0515-4414, this independent study lends further support to the hypothesis of no variation of alpha. Even though these new results represent a significant improvement in our knowledge of the possible (non-) variation of one of the fundamental physical constants, the present set of data would in principle still allow variations that are comparatively large compared to those resulting from the measurements
Analysis of constant tension-induced rupture of lipid membranes using activation energy.
Karal, Mohammad Abu Sayem; Levadnyy, Victor; Yamazaki, Masahito
2016-05-11
The stretching of biomembranes and lipid membranes plays important roles in various physiological and physicochemical phenomena. Here we analyzed the rate constant kp of constant tension-induced rupture of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) as a function of tension σ using their activation energy Ua. To determine the values of kp, we applied constant tension to a GUV membrane using the micropipette aspiration method and observed the rupture of GUVs, and then analyzed these data statistically. First, we investigated the temperature dependence of kp for GUVs of charged lipid membranes composed of negatively charged dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) and electrically neutral dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC). By analyzing this result, the values of Ua of tension-induced rupture of DOPG/DOPC-GUVs were obtained. Ua decreased with an increase in σ, supporting the classical theory of tension-induced pore formation. The analysis of the relationship between Ua and σ using the theory on the electrostatic interaction effects on the tension-induced rupture of GUVs provided the equation of Ua including electrostatic interaction effects, which well fits the experimental data of the tension dependence of Ua. A constant which does not depend on tension, U0, was also found to contribute significantly to Ua. The Arrhenius equations for kp using the equation of Ua and the parameters determined by the above analysis fit well to the experimental data of the tension dependence of kp for DOPG/DOPC-GUVs as well as for DOPC-GUVs. On the basis of these results, we discussed the possible elementary processes underlying the tension-induced rupture of GUVs of lipid membranes. These results indicate that the Arrhenius equation using the experimentally determined Ua is useful in the analysis of tension-induced rupture of GUVs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schilling, Oleg
2016-11-01
Two-, three- and four-equation, single-velocity, multicomponent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models, based on the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate or lengthscale, are used to simulate At = 0 . 5 Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing with constant and complex accelerations. The constant acceleration case is inspired by the Cabot and Cook (2006) DNS, and the complex acceleration cases are inspired by the unstable/stable and unstable/neutral cases simulated using DNS (Livescu, Wei & Petersen 2011) and the unstable/stable/unstable case simulated using ILES (Ramaprabhu, Karkhanis & Lawrie 2013). The four-equation models couple equations for the mass flux a and negative density-specific volume correlation b to the K- ɛ or K- L equations, while the three-equation models use a two-fluid algebraic closure for b. The lengthscale-based models are also applied with no buoyancy production in the L equation to explore the consequences of neglecting this term. Predicted mixing widths, turbulence statistics, fields, and turbulent transport equation budgets are compared among these models to identify similarities and differences in the turbulence production, dissipation and diffusion physics represented by the closures used in these models. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coleman, Mari Beth; Hurley, Kevin J.; Cihak, David F.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of teacher-directed and computer-assisted constant time delay strategies for teaching three students with moderate intellectual disability to read functional sight words. Target words were those found in recipes and were taught via teacher-delivered constant time delay or…
Ng, Yee-Hong; Bettens, Ryan P A
2016-03-03
Using the method of modified Shepard's interpolation to construct potential energy surfaces of the H2O, O3, and HCOOH molecules, we compute vibrationally averaged isotropic nuclear shielding constants ⟨σ⟩ of the three molecules via quantum diffusion Monte Carlo (QDMC). The QDMC results are compared to that of second-order perturbation theory (PT), to see if second-order PT is adequate for obtaining accurate values of nuclear shielding constants of molecules with large amplitude motions. ⟨σ⟩ computed by the two approaches differ for the hydrogens and carbonyl oxygen of HCOOH, suggesting that for certain molecules such as HCOOH where big displacements away from equilibrium happen (internal OH rotation), ⟨σ⟩ of experimental quality may only be obtainable with the use of more sophisticated and accurate methods, such as quantum diffusion Monte Carlo. The approach of modified Shepard's interpolation is also extended to construct shielding constants σ surfaces of the three molecules. By using a σ surface with the equilibrium geometry as a single data point to compute isotropic nuclear shielding constants for each descendant in the QDMC ensemble representing the ground state wave function, we reproduce the results obtained through ab initio computed σ to within statistical noise. Development of such an approach could thereby alleviate the need for any future costly ab initio σ calculations.
Qian, Cheng; Kovalchik, Kevin A; MacLennan, Matthew S; Huang, Xiaohua; Chen, David D Y
2017-06-01
Capillary electrophoresis frontal analysis (CE-FA) can be used to determine binding affinity of molecular interactions. However, its current data processing method mandate specific requirement on the mobilities of the binding pair in order to obtain accurate binding constants. This work shows that significant errors are resulted when the mobilities of the interacting species do not meet these requirements. Therefore, the applicability of CE-FA in many real word applications becomes questionable. An electrophoretic mobility-based correction method is developed in this work based on the flux of each species. A simulation program and a pair of model compounds are used to verify the new equations and evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Ibuprofen and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrinare used to demonstrate the differences in the obtained binding constant by CE-FA when different calculation methods are used, and the results are compared with those obtained by affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE). The results suggest that CE-FA, with the mobility-based correction method, can be a generally applicable method for a much wider range of applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Biji, K. P.; Sunil, M.; Ramadas, K. T.
2017-01-01
Background: Hypobaric spinal anesthesia is advantageous for unilateral lower extremity fractures as it obviates pain of lying on fractured limb for performing subarachnoid block. Aims: This study compares block characteristics and complications of three different baricities of constant dose intrathecal hypobaric levobupivacaine to determine an optimum baricity. Settings and Design: One-twenty American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status 1 and 2 patients aged 18–65 years undergoing unilateral lower limb surgeries were divided into three equal groups for this prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: To 2 mL intrathecal 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine (10 mg), 0.4 mL, 0.6 mL, and 0.8 mL of distilled water were added in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Baricities of Groups A, B, and C are 0.999294, 0.998945, and 0.998806, respectively. Development of sensory and motor block was assessed by the pinprick method and Bromage scale, respectively. The total duration of analgesia and complications were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean, standard error, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni were used to analyze quantitative variables; proportions and Chi-square tests for qualitative variables. Results: Demographic parameters, motor block of operated limb, and complications were comparable. Group C had the fastest onset of sensory block (10.10 min) and maximum duration of analgesia (478.97 min; P < 0.001); but high sensory levels in 48.7%. Group B had T10 sensory level in 92.5%; onset comparable to Group C (P = 0.248), and reasonable duration of analgesia (332.50 min). Group A had inadequate sensory levels, slow onset, and early regression. Conclusions: Group B (baricity - 0.998945) has better block characteristics among three groups compared. PMID:28928563
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doebrich, Marcus; Markstaller, Klaus; Karmrodt, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Eberle, Balthasar; Weiler, Norbert; Thelen, Manfred; Schreiber, Wolfgang G.
2005-04-01
In this study, an algorithm was developed to measure the distribution of pulmonary time constants (TCs) from dynamic computed tomography (CT) data sets during a sudden airway pressure step up. Simulations with synthetic data were performed to test the methodology as well as the influence of experimental noise. Furthermore the algorithm was applied to in vivo data. In five pigs sudden changes in airway pressure were imposed during dynamic CT acquisition in healthy lungs and in a saline lavage ARDS model. The fractional gas content in the imaged slice (FGC) was calculated by density measurements for each CT image. Temporal variations of the FGC were analysed assuming a model with a continuous distribution of exponentially decaying time constants. The simulations proved the feasibility of the method. The influence of experimental noise could be well evaluated. Analysis of the in vivo data showed that in healthy lungs ventilation processes can be more likely characterized by discrete TCs whereas in ARDS lungs continuous distributions of TCs are observed. The temporal behaviour of lung inflation and deflation can be characterized objectively using the described new methodology. This study indicates that continuous distributions of TCs reflect lung ventilation mechanics more accurately compared to discrete TCs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Kalluri, Sreeramesh
1991-01-01
The temperature-dependent engineering elastic constants of a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy were estimated from the single-crystal elastic constants of nickel and MAR-MOO2 superalloy by using Wells' method. In this method, the directionally solidified (columnar-grained) nickel-base superalloy was modeled as a transversely isotropic material, and the five independent elastic constants of the transversely isotropic material were determined from the three independent elastic constants of a cubic single crystal. Solidification for both the single crystals and the directionally solidified superalloy was assumed to be along the (001) direction. Temperature-dependent Young's moduli in longitudinal and transverse directions, shear moduli, and Poisson's ratios were tabulated for the directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy. These engineering elastic constants could be used as input for performing finite element structural analysis of directionally solidified turbine engine components.
Measuring the Gas Constant "R": Propagation of Uncertainty and Statistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olsen, Robert J.; Sattar, Simeen
2013-01-01
Determining the gas constant "R" by measuring the properties of hydrogen gas collected in a gas buret is well suited for comparing two approaches to uncertainty analysis using a single data set. The brevity of the experiment permits multiple determinations, allowing for statistical evaluation of the standard uncertainty u[subscript…
Short time Fourier analysis of the electromyogram - Fast movements and constant contraction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hannaford, Blake; Lehman, Steven
1986-01-01
Short-time Fourier analysis was applied to surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded during rapid movements, and during isometric contractions at constant forces. A portion of the data to be transformed by multiplying the signal by a Hamming window was selected, and then the discrete Fourier transform was computed. Shifting the window along the data record, a new spectrum was computed each 10 ms. The transformed data were displayed in spectograms or 'voiceprints'. This short-time technique made it possible to see time-dependencies in the EMG that are normally averaged in the Fourier analysis of these signals. Spectra of EMGs during isometric contractions at constant force vary in the short (10-20 ms) term. Short-time spectra from EMGs recorded during rapid movements were much less variable. The windowing technique picked out the typical 'three-burst pattern' in EMG's from both wrist and head movements. Spectra during the bursts were more consistent than those during isometric contractions. Furthermore, there was a consistent shift in spectral statistics in the course of the three bursts. Both the center frequency and the variance of the spectral energy distribution grew from the first burst to the second burst in the same muscle. The analogy between EMGs and speech signals is extended to argue for future applicability of short-time spectral analysis of EMG.
Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: A Status Report
Taylor, Barry N.; Cohen, E. Richard
1990-01-01
We summarize the principal advances made in the fundamental physical constants field since the completion of the 1986 CODATA least-squares adjustment of the constants and discuss their implications for both the 1986 set of recommended values and the next least-squares adjustment. In general, the new results lead to values of the constants with uncertainties 5 to 7 times smaller than the uncertainties assigned the 1986 values. However, the changes in the values themselves are less than twice the 1986 assigned one-standard-deviation uncertainties and thus are not highly significant. Although much new data has become available since 1986, three new results dominate the analysis: a value of the Planck constant obtained from a realization of the watt; a value of the fine-structure constant obtained from the magnetic moment anomaly of the electron; and a value of the molar gas constant obtained from the speed of sound in argon. Because of their dominant role in determining the values and uncertainties of many of the constants, it is highly desirable that additional results of comparable uncertainty that corroborate these three data items be obtained before the next adjustment is carried out. Until then, the 1986 CODATA set of recommended values will remain the set of choice. PMID:28179787
(In)validity of the constant field and constant currents assumptions in theories of ion transport.
Syganow, A; von Kitzing, E
1999-01-01
Constant electric fields and constant ion currents are often considered in theories of ion transport. Therefore, it is important to understand the validity of these helpful concepts. The constant field assumption requires that the charge density of permeant ions and flexible polar groups is virtually voltage independent. We present analytic relations that indicate the conditions under which the constant field approximation applies. Barrier models are frequently fitted to experimental current-voltage curves to describe ion transport. These models are based on three fundamental characteristics: a constant electric field, negligible concerted motions of ions inside the channel (an ion can enter only an empty site), and concentration-independent energy profiles. An analysis of those fundamental assumptions of barrier models shows that those approximations require large barriers because the electrostatic interaction is strong and has a long range. In the constant currents assumption, the current of each permeating ion species is considered to be constant throughout the channel; thus ion pairing is explicitly ignored. In inhomogeneous steady-state systems, the association rate constant determines the strength of ion pairing. Among permeable ions, however, the ion association rate constants are not small, according to modern diffusion-limited reaction rate theories. A mathematical formulation of a constant currents condition indicates that ion pairing very likely has an effect but does not dominate ion transport. PMID:9929480
The statistical analysis of circadian phase and amplitude in constant-routine core-temperature data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, E. N.; Czeisler, C. A.
1992-01-01
Accurate estimation of the phases and amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature series is crucial for making inferences about the properties of the human biological clock from data collected under this protocol. This paper presents a set of statistical methods based on a harmonic-regression-plus-correlated-noise model for estimating the phases and the amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature data. The methods include a Bayesian Monte Carlo procedure for computing the uncertainty in these circadian functions. We illustrate the techniques with a detailed study of a single subject's core-temperature series and describe their relationship to other statistical methods for circadian data analysis. In our laboratory, these methods have been successfully used to analyze more than 300 constant routines and provide a highly reliable means of extracting phase and amplitude information from core-temperature data.
Comparison of entrainment in constant volume and constant flux dense currents over sloping bottoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhaganagar, K.; Nayamatullah, M.; Cenedese, C.
2014-12-01
Three dimensional high resolution large eddy simulations (LES) are employed to simulate lock-exchange and constant flux dense flows over inclined surface with the aim of investigating, visualizing and describing the turbulent structure and the evolution of bottom-propagating compositional density current at the channel bottom. The understanding of dynamics of density current is largely determined by the amount of interfacial mixing or entrainment between the ambient and dense fluids. No previous experimental or numerical studies have been done to estimate entrainment in classical lock-exchange system. The differences in entrainment between the lock-exchange and constant flux are explored. Comparing the results of flat bed with inclined surface results, flow exhibits significant differences near the leading edge or nose of the front of the density currents due to inclination of surface. Further, the instabilities are remarkably enhanced resulting Kelvin-Helmholtz and lobe-cleft type of instabilities arises much earlier in time. In this study, a brief analysis of entrainment on lock-exchange density current is presented using different bed slopes and a set of reduced gravity values (g'). We relate the entrainment value with different flow parameters such as Froude number (Fr) and Reynolds number (Re).
Constant load and constant volume response of municipal solid waste in simple shear.
Zekkos, Dimitrios; Fei, Xunchang
2017-05-01
Constant load and constant volume simple shear testing was conducted on relatively fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) from two landfills in the United States, one in Michigan and a second in Texas, at respective natural moisture content below field capacity. The results were assessed in terms of two failure strain criteria, at 10% and 30% shear strain, and two interpretations of effective friction angle. Overall, friction angle obtained assuming that the failure plane is horizontal and at 10% shear strain resulted in a conservative estimation of shear strength of MSW. Comparisons between constant volume and constant load simple shear testing results indicated significant differences in the shear response of MSW with the shear resistance in constant volume being lower than the shear resistance in constant load. The majority of specimens were nearly uncompacted during specimen preparation to reproduce the state of MSW in bioreactor landfills or in uncontrolled waste dumps. The specimens had identical percentage of <20mm material but the type of <20mm material was different. The <20mm fraction from Texas was finer and of high plasticity. MSW from Texas was overall weaker in both constant load and constant volume conditions compared to Michigan waste. The results of these tests suggest the possibility of significantly lower shear strength of MSW in bioreactor landfills where waste is placed with low compaction effort and constant volume, i.e., "undrained", conditions may occur. Compacted MSW specimens resulted in shear strength parameters that are higher than uncompacted specimens and closer to values reported in the literature. However, the normalized undrained shear strength in simple shear for uncompacted and compacted MSW was still higher than the normalized undrained shear strength reported in the literature for clayey and silty soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Constant-roll tachyon inflation and observational constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Qing; Gong, Yungui; Fei, Qin
2018-05-01
For the constant-roll tachyon inflation, we derive the analytical expressions for the scalar and tensor power spectra, the scalar and tensor spectral tilts and the tensor to scalar ratio to the first order of epsilon1 by using the method of Bessel function approximation. The derived ns-r results are compared with the observations, we find that only the constant-roll inflation with ηH being a constant is consistent with the observations and observations constrain the constant-roll inflation to be slow-roll inflation. The tachyon potential is also reconstructed for the constant-roll inflation which is consistent with the observations.
Henry's law constants of polyols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.
2014-12-01
Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.
Determination of the Gravitational Constant with a Beam Balance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlamminger, St.; Holzschuh, E.; Kündig, W.
2002-09-01
The Newtonian gravitational constant G was determined by means of a novel beam-balance experiment with an accuracy comparable to that of the most precise torsion-balance experiments. The gravitational force of two stainless steel tanks filled with 13 521kg mercury on 1.1kg test masses was measured using a commercial mass comparator. A careful analysis of the data and the experimental error yields G=6.674 07(22)×10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2. This value is in excellent agreement with most values previously obtained with different methods.
Tachyon constant-roll inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi, A.; Saaidi, Kh.; Golanbari, T.
2018-04-01
The constant-roll inflation is studied where the inflaton is taken as a tachyon field. Based on this approach, the second slow-roll parameter is taken as a constant which leads to a differential equation for the Hubble parameter. Finding an exact solution for the Hubble parameter is difficult and leads us to a numerical solution for the Hubble parameter. On the other hand, since in this formalism the slow-roll parameter η is constant and could not be assumed to be necessarily small, the perturbation parameters should be reconsidered again which, in turn, results in new terms appearing in the amplitude of scalar perturbations and the scalar spectral index. Utilizing the numerical solution for the Hubble parameter, we estimate the perturbation parameter at the horizon exit time and compare it with observational data. The results show that, for specific values of the constant parameter η , we could have an almost scale-invariant amplitude of scalar perturbations. Finally, the attractor behavior for the solution of the model is presented, and we determine that the feature could be properly satisfied.
Hau, Jan-Niklas, E-mail: hau@fdy.tu-darmstadt.de; Oberlack, Martin; GSC CE, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Dolivostraße 15, 64293 Darmstadt
2015-12-15
wavenumber plane, which results in highly directional linear sound radiation, whereas the nonlinearly generated waves are almost omni-directional. As part of this analysis, we compare the effectiveness of the linear and nonlinear mechanisms of wave generation within the range of validity of the rapid distortion theory and show the dominance of the linear aerodynamic sound generation. Finally, topological differences between the linear source term of the acoustic analogy equation and of the anisotropic non-normality induced linear mechanism of wave generation are found.« less
Design verification of large time constant thermal shields for optical reference cavities.
Zhang, J; Wu, W; Shi, X H; Zeng, X Y; Deng, K; Lu, Z H
2016-02-01
In order to achieve high frequency stability in ultra-stable lasers, the Fabry-Pérot reference cavities shall be put inside vacuum chambers with large thermal time constants to reduce the sensitivity to external temperature fluctuations. Currently, the determination of thermal time constants of vacuum chambers is based either on theoretical calculation or time-consuming experiments. The first method can only apply to simple system, while the second method will take a lot of time to try out different designs. To overcome these limitations, we present thermal time constant simulation using finite element analysis (FEA) based on complete vacuum chamber models and verify the results with measured time constants. We measure the thermal time constants using ultrastable laser systems and a frequency comb. The thermal expansion coefficients of optical reference cavities are precisely measured to reduce the measurement error of time constants. The simulation results and the experimental results agree very well. With this knowledge, we simulate several simplified design models using FEA to obtain larger vacuum thermal time constants at room temperature, taking into account vacuum pressure, shielding layers, and support structure. We adopt the Taguchi method for shielding layer optimization and demonstrate that layer material and layer number dominate the contributions to the thermal time constant, compared with layer thickness and layer spacing.
Constant Communities in Complex Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Srinivasan, Sriram; Ganguly, Niloy; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Mukherjee, Animesh
2013-05-01
Identifying community structure is a fundamental problem in network analysis. Most community detection algorithms are based on optimizing a combinatorial parameter, for example modularity. This optimization is generally NP-hard, thus merely changing the vertex order can alter their assignments to the community. However, there has been less study on how vertex ordering influences the results of the community detection algorithms. Here we identify and study the properties of invariant groups of vertices (constant communities) whose assignment to communities are, quite remarkably, not affected by vertex ordering. The percentage of constant communities can vary across different applications and based on empirical results we propose metrics to evaluate these communities. Using constant communities as a pre-processing step, one can significantly reduce the variation of the results. Finally, we present a case study on phoneme network and illustrate that constant communities, quite strikingly, form the core functional units of the larger communities.
Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav
2014-07-11
Performing gradient liquid chromatography at constant pressure instead of constant flow rate has serious potential for shortening the analysis time and increasing the productivity of HPLC instruments that use gradient methods. However, in the constant pressure mode the decreasing column permeability during a long period of time negatively affects the repeatability of retention time. Thus a volume-based approach, in which the detector signal is plotted as a function of retention volume, must be taken into consideration. Traditional HPLC equipment, however, requires quite complex hardware and software modifications in order to work at constant pressure and in the volume-based mode. In this short communication, a low cost and easily feasible pressure-controlled extension of the previously described simple gradient liquid chromatography platform is proposed. A test mixture of four nitro esters was separated by 10-60% (v/v) acetone/water gradient and a high repeatability of retention volumes at 20MPa (RSD less than 0.45%) was realized. Separations were also performed at different values of pressure (20, 25, and 31MPa), and only small variations of the retention volumes (up to 0.8%) were observed. In this particular case, the gain in the analysis speed of 7% compared to the constant flow mode was realized at a constant pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Calculation of kinetic rate constants from thermodynamic data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marek, C. John
1995-01-01
A new scheme for relating the absolute value for the kinetic rate constant k to the thermodynamic constant Kp is developed for gases. In this report the forward and reverse rate constants are individually related to the thermodynamic data. The kinetic rate constants computed from thermodynamics compare well with the current kinetic rate constants. This method is self consistent and does not have extensive rules. It is first demonstrated and calibrated by computing the HBr reaction from H2 and Br2. This method then is used on other reactions.
Constant-parameter capture-recapture models
Brownie, C.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.
1986-01-01
Jolly (1982, Biometrics 38, 301-321) presented modifications of the Jolly-Seber model for capture-recapture data, which assume constant survival and/or capture rates. Where appropriate, because of the reduced number of parameters, these models lead to more efficient estimators than the Jolly-Seber model. The tests to compare models given by Jolly do not make complete use of the data, and we present here the appropriate modifications, and also indicate how to carry out goodness-of-fit tests which utilize individual capture history information. We also describe analogous models for the case where young and adult animals are tagged. The availability of computer programs to perform the analysis is noted, and examples are given using output from these programs.
Effective optical constants of anisotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.
1980-01-01
The applicability of a technique for determining the optical constants of soil or aerosol components on the basis of measurements of the reflectance or transmittance of inhomogeneous samples of component material is investigated. Optical constants for a sample of very pure quartzite were obtained by a specular reflection technique and line parameters were calculated by classical dispersion theory. Predictions of the reflectance of powdered quartz were then derived from optical constants measured for the anisotropic quartz and for pure quartz crystals, and compared with experimental measurements. The calculated spectra are found to resemble each other moderately well in shape, however the reflectance level calculated from the psuedo-optical constants (quartzite) is consistently below that calculated from quartz values. The spectrum calculated from the quartz optical constants is also shown to represent the experimental nonrestrahlen features more accurately. It is thus concluded that although optical constants derived from inhomogeneous materials may represent the spectral features of a powdered sample qualitatively a quantitative fit to observed data is not likely.
Asymptotically Vanishing Cosmological Constant in the Multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, Hikaru; Okada, Takashi
We study the problem of the cosmological constant in the context of the multiverse in Lorentzian space-time, and show that the cosmological constant will vanish in the future. This sort of argument was started by Sidney Coleman in 1989, and he argued that the Euclidean wormholes make the multiverse partition function a superposition of various values of the cosmological constant Λ, which has a sharp peak at Λ = 0. However, the implication of the Euclidean analysis to our Lorentzian space-time is unclear. With this motivation, we analyze the quantum state of the multiverse in Lorentzian space-time by the WKB method, and calculate the density matrix of our universe by tracing out the other universes. Our result predicts vanishing cosmological constant. While Coleman obtained the enhancement at Λ = 0 through the action itself, in our Lorentzian analysis the similar enhancement arises from the front factor of eiS in the universe wave function, which is in the next leading order in the WKB approximation.
CODATA recommended values of the fundamental constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.
2000-11-01
A review is given of the latest Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) adjustment of the values of the fundamental constants. The new set of constants, referred to as the 1998 values, replaces the values recommended for international use by CODATA in 1986. The values of the constants, and particularly the Rydberg constant, are of relevance to the calculation of precise atomic spectra. The standard uncertainty (estimated standard deviation) of the new recommended value of the Rydberg constant, which is based on precision frequency metrology and a detailed analysis of the theory, is approximately 1/160 times the uncertainty of the 1986 value. The new set of recommended values as well as a searchable bibliographic database that gives citations to the relevant literature is available on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants and physics.nist.gov/constantsbib, respectively. .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Stoppa, Paolo; Tasinato, Nicola; Giorgianni, Santi
2017-05-01
This work presents a benchmark study on the calculation of the sextic centrifugal distortion constants employing cubic force fields computed by means of density functional theory (DFT). For a set of semi-rigid halogenated organic compounds several functionals (B2PLYP, B3LYP, B3PW91, M06, M06-2X, O3LYP, X3LYP, ωB97XD, CAM-B3LYP, LC-ωPBE, PBE0, B97-1 and B97-D) were used for computing the sextic centrifugal distortion constants. The effects related to the size of basis sets and the performances of hybrid approaches, where the harmonic data obtained at higher level of electronic correlation are coupled with cubic force constants yielded by DFT functionals, are presented and discussed. The predicted values were compared to both the available data published in the literature and those obtained by calculations carried out at increasing level of electronic correlation: Hartree-Fock Self Consistent Field (HF-SCF), second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled-cluster single and double (CCSD) level of theory. Different hybrid approaches, having the cubic force field computed at DFT level of theory coupled to harmonic data computed at increasing level of electronic correlation (up to CCSD level of theory augmented by a perturbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T)) were considered. The obtained results demonstrate that they can represent reliable and computationally affordable methods to predict sextic centrifugal terms with an accuracy almost comparable to that yielded by the more expensive anharmonic force fields fully computed at MP2 and CCSD levels of theory. In view of their reduced computational cost, these hybrid approaches pave the route to the study of more complex systems.
Evaluation of uncertainty in the adjustment of fundamental constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens; Fischer, Joachim; Possolo, Antonio; Toman, Blaza
2016-02-01
Combining multiple measurement results for the same quantity is an important task in metrology and in many other areas. Examples include the determination of fundamental constants, the calculation of reference values in interlaboratory comparisons, or the meta-analysis of clinical studies. However, neither the GUM nor its supplements give any guidance for this task. Various approaches are applied such as weighted least-squares in conjunction with the Birge ratio or random effects models. While the former approach, which is based on a location-scale model, is particularly popular in metrology, the latter represents a standard tool used in statistics for meta-analysis. We investigate the reliability and robustness of the location-scale model and the random effects model with particular focus on resulting coverage or credible intervals. The interval estimates are obtained by adopting a Bayesian point of view in conjunction with a non-informative prior that is determined by a currently favored principle for selecting non-informative priors. Both approaches are compared by applying them to simulated data as well as to data for the Planck constant and the Newtonian constant of gravitation. Our results suggest that the proposed Bayesian inference based on the random effects model is more reliable and less sensitive to model misspecifications than the approach based on the location-scale model.
Davulis, Peter M; da Cunha, Mauricio Pereira
2013-04-01
A full set of langatate (LGT) elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants with their respective temperature coefficients up to 900°C is presented, and the relevance of the dielectric and piezoelectric constants and temperature coefficients are discussed with respect to predicted and measured high-temperature SAW propagation properties. The set of constants allows for high-temperature acoustic wave (AW) propagation studies and device design. The dielectric constants and polarization and conductive losses were extracted by impedance spectroscopy of parallel-plate capacitors. The measured dielectric constants at high temperatures were combined with previously measured LGT expansion coefficients and used to determine the elastic and piezoelectric constants using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) measurements at temperatures up to 900°C. The extracted LGT piezoelectric constants and temperature coefficients show that e11 and e14 change by up to 62% and 77%, respectively, for the entire 25°C to 900°C range when compared with room-temperature values. The LGT high-temperature constants and temperature coefficients were verified by comparing measured and predicted phase velocities (vp) and temperature coefficients of delay (TCD) of SAW delay lines fabricated along 6 orientations in the LGT plane (90°, 23°, Ψ) up to 900°C. For the 6 tested orientations, the predicted SAW vp agree within 0.2% of the measured vp on average and the calculated TCD is within 9.6 ppm/°C of the measured value on average over the temperature range of 25°C to 900°C. By including the temperature dependence of both dielectric and piezoelectric constants, the average discrepancies between predicted and measured SAW properties were reduced, on average: 77% for vp, 13% for TCD, and 63% for the turn-over temperatures analyzed.
Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yazhou; Li, Miao; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui
2015-08-01
Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ωhde are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ2min=426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain -0.07<ΩΛ0<0.68 and correspondingly 0.04<Ωhde0<0.79, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy between the holographic dark energy and cosmological constant components in the ΛHDE model.
Constants and pseudo-constants of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation.
Case, K M
1985-08-01
Elucidating earlier work, it is shown that the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation has n + 2 constants for all n >/= 0. It also has a pseudo-constant from which the constants can be obtained by differentiation with respect to time. The pseudo-constant can be obtained from a basis functional J(n) ((n+2)) = -1/18 [unk] y(n+2)q by taking repeated Poisson brackets with the Hamiltonian.
Adjoint-based constant-mass partial derivatives
Favorite, Jeffrey A.
2017-09-01
In transport theory, adjoint-based partial derivatives with respect to mass density are constant-volume derivatives. Likewise, adjoint-based partial derivatives with respect to surface locations (i.e., internal interface locations and the outer system boundary) are constant-density derivatives. This study derives the constant-mass partial derivative of a response with respect to an internal interface location or the outer system boundary and the constant-mass partial derivative of a response with respect to the mass density of a region. Numerical results are given for a multiregion two-dimensional (r-z) cylinder for three very different responses: the uncollided gamma-ray flux at an external detector point, k effmore » of the system, and the total neutron leakage. Finally, results from the derived formulas compare extremely well with direct perturbation calculations.« less
Constants and pseudo-constants of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation
Case, K. M.
1985-01-01
Elucidating earlier work, it is shown that the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation has n + 2 constants for all n ≥ 0. It also has a pseudo-constant from which the constants can be obtained by differentiation with respect to time. The pseudo-constant can be obtained from a basis functional Jn(n+2) = -1/18 [unk] yn+2q by taking repeated Poisson brackets with the Hamiltonian. PMID:16593588
Constants and pseudo-constants of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation
Case, K.M.
1985-08-01
Elucidating earlier work, it is shown that the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation has n + 2 constants for all n greater than or equal to 0. It also has a pseudo-constant from which the constants can be obtained by differentiation with respect to time. The pseudo-constant can be obtained from a basis functional J/sub n/sup (n+2)/ = -1/18 integral y/sup n+2/ q by taking repeated Poisson brackets with the Hamiltonian.
1987-11-01
differential qualita- tive (DQ) analysis, which solves the task, providing explanations suitable for use by design systems, automated diagnosis, intelligent...solves the task, providing explanations suitable for use by design systems, automated diagnosis, intelligent tutoring systems, and explanation based...comparative analysis as an important component; the explanation is used in many different ways. * One way method of automated design is the principlvd
Photometric method for determination of acidity constants through integral spectra analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zevatskiy, Yuriy Eduardovich; Ruzanov, Daniil Olegovich; Samoylov, Denis Vladimirovich
2015-04-01
An express method for determination of acidity constants of organic acids, based on the analysis of the integral transmittance vs. pH dependence is developed. The integral value is registered as a photocurrent of photometric device simultaneously with potentiometric titration. The proposed method allows to obtain pKa using only simple and low-cost instrumentation. The optical part of the experimental setup has been optimized through the exclusion of the monochromator device. Thus it only takes 10-15 min to obtain one pKa value with the absolute error of less than 0.15 pH units. Application limitations and reliability of the method have been tested for a series of organic acids of various nature.
Wormholes and the cosmological constant problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klebanov, I.
The author reviews the cosmological constant problem and the recently proposed wormhole mechanism for its solution. Summation over wormholes in the Euclidean path integral for gravity turns all the coupling parameters into dynamical variables, sampled from a probability distribution. A formal saddle point analysis results in a distribution with a sharp peak at the cosmological constant equal to zero, which appears to solve the cosmological constant problem. He discusses the instabilities of the gravitational Euclidean path integral and the difficulties with its interpretation. He presents an alternate formalism for baby universes, based on the "third quantization" of the Wheeler-De Witt equation. This approach is analyzed in a minisuperspace model for quantum gravity, where it reduces to simple quantum mechanics. Once again, the coupling parameters become dynamical. Unfortunately, the a priori probability distribution for the cosmological constant and other parameters is typically a smooth function, with no sharp peaks.
Profiles of equilibrium constants for self-association of aromatic molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beshnova, Daria A.; Lantushenko, Anastasia O.; Davies, David B.; Evstigneev, Maxim P.
2009-04-01
Analysis of the noncovalent, noncooperative self-association of identical aromatic molecules assumes that the equilibrium self-association constants are either independent of the number of molecules (the EK-model) or change progressively with increasing aggregation (the AK-model). The dependence of the self-association constant on the number of molecules in the aggregate (i.e., the profile of the equilibrium constant) was empirically derived in the AK-model but, in order to provide some physical understanding of the profile, it is proposed that the sources for attenuation of the equilibrium constant are the loss of translational and rotational degrees of freedom, the ordering of molecules in the aggregates and the electrostatic contribution (for charged units). Expressions are derived for the profiles of the equilibrium constants for both neutral and charged molecules. Although the EK-model has been widely used in the analysis of experimental data, it is shown in this work that the derived equilibrium constant, KEK, depends on the concentration range used and hence, on the experimental method employed. The relationship has also been demonstrated between the equilibrium constant KEK and the real dimerization constant, KD, which shows that the value of KEK is always lower than KD.
Dynamic Characteristics of The DSI-Type Constant-Flow Valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Yuan; Hu, Sheng-Yan; Chou, Hsien-Chin; Lee, Hsing-Han
Constant flow valves have been presented in industrial applications or academic studies, which compensate recess pressures of a hydrostatic bearing to resist load fluctuating. The flow rate of constant-flow valves can be constant in spite of the pressure changes in recesses, however the design parameters must be specified. This paper analyzes the dynamic responses of DSI-type constant-flow valves that is designed as double pistons on both ends of a spool with single feedback of working pressure and regulating restriction at inlet. In this study the static analysis presents the specific relationships among design parameters for constant flow rate and the dynamic analyses give the variations around the constant flow rate as the working pressure fluctuates.
Photometric method for determination of acidity constants through integral spectra analysis.
Zevatskiy, Yuriy Eduardovich; Ruzanov, Daniil Olegovich; Samoylov, Denis Vladimirovich
2015-04-15
An express method for determination of acidity constants of organic acids, based on the analysis of the integral transmittance vs. pH dependence is developed. The integral value is registered as a photocurrent of photometric device simultaneously with potentiometric titration. The proposed method allows to obtain pKa using only simple and low-cost instrumentation. The optical part of the experimental setup has been optimized through the exclusion of the monochromator device. Thus it only takes 10-15 min to obtain one pKa value with the absolute error of less than 0.15 pH units. Application limitations and reliability of the method have been tested for a series of organic acids of various nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Kelley, W. W.
1979-01-01
A study was conducted to determine the effect of head-wind profiles and mean head-wind velocities on runway landing capacity for airplanes flying constant-airspeed and constant-groundspeed approaches. It was determined that when the wind profiles were encountered with the currently used constant airspeed approach method, the landing capacity was reduced. The severity of these reductions increased as the mean head-wind value of the profile increased. When constant-groundspeed approaches were made in the same wind profiles, there were no losses in landing capacity. In an analysis of mean head winds, it was determined that in a mean head wind of 35 knots, the landing capacity using constant-airspeed approaches was 13% less than for the no wind condition. There were no reductions in landing capacity with constant-groundspeed approaches for mean head winds less than 35 knots. This same result was observed when the separation intervals between airplanes was reduced.
Experimental determination of the effective strong coupling constant
Alexandre Deur; Volker Burkert; Jian-Ping Chen
2007-07-01
We extract an effective strong coupling constant from low Q{sup 2} data on the Bjorken sum. Using sum rules, we establish its Q{sup 2}-behavior over the complete Q{sup 2}-range. The result is compared to effective coupling constants extracted from different processes and to calculations based on Schwinger-Dyson equations, hadron spectroscopy or lattice QCD. Although the connection between the experimentally extracted effective coupling constant and the calculations is not clear, the results agree surprisingly well.
Li, Xiaogai; von Holst, Hans; Kleiven, Svein
2013-01-01
A 3D finite element (FE) model has been developed to study the mean intracranial pressure (ICP) response during constant-rate infusion using linear poroelasticity. Due to the uncertainties in the poroelastic constants for brain tissue, the influence of each of the main parameters on the transient ICP infusion curve was studied. As a prerequisite for transient analysis, steady-state simulations were performed first. The simulated steady-state pressure distribution in the brain tissue for a normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation system showed good correlation with experiments from the literature. Furthermore, steady-state ICP closely followed the infusion experiments at different infusion rates. The verified steady-state models then served as a baseline for the subsequent transient models. For transient analysis, the simulated ICP shows a similar tendency to that found in the experiments, however, different values of the poroelastic constants have a significant effect on the infusion curve. The influence of the main poroelastic parameters including the Biot coefficient α, Skempton coefficient B, drained Young's modulus E, Poisson's ratio ν, permeability κ, CSF absorption conductance C(b) and external venous pressure p(b) was studied to investigate the influence on the pressure response. It was found that the value of the specific storage term S(ε) is the dominant factor that influences the infusion curve, and the drained Young's modulus E was identified as the dominant parameter second to S(ε). Based on the simulated infusion curves from the FE model, artificial neural network (ANN) was used to find an optimised parameter set that best fit the experimental curve. The infusion curves from both the FE simulation and using ANN confirmed the limitation of linear poroelasticity in modelling the transient constant-rate infusion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walker, Gabriela
2008-01-01
A review of 22 empirical studies examining the use of constant (CTD) and progressive (PTD) time delay procedures employed with children with autism frames an indirect analysis of the demographic, procedural, methodological, and outcome parameters of existing research. None of the previous manuscripts compared the two response prompting procedures.…
Fundamental constants and high-resolution spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonifacio, P.; Rahmani, H.; Whitmore, J. B.; Wendt, M.; Centurion, M.; Molaro, P.; Srianand, R.; Murphy, M. T.; Petitjean, P.; Agafonova, I. I.; D'Odorico, S.; Evans, T. M.; Levshakov, S. A.; Lopez, S.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Reimers, D.; Vladilo, G.
2014-01-01
Absorption-line systems detected in high resolution quasar spectra can be used to compare the value of dimensionless fundamental constants such as the fine-structure constant, α, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ = m_p/m_e, as measured in remote regions of the Universe to their value today on Earth. In recent years, some evidence has emerged of small temporal and also spatial variations in α on cosmological scales which may reach a fractional level of ≈ 10 ppm (parts per million). We are conducting a Large Programme of observations with the Very Large Telescope's Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), and are obtaining high-resolution ({R ≈ 60 000}) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 100) spectra calibrated specifically to study the variations of the fundamental constants. We here provide a general overview of the Large Programme and report on the first results for these two constants, discussed in detail in Molaro et al. (2013) and Rahmani et al. (2013). A stringent bound for Δα/α is obtained for the absorber at z_abs = 1.6919 towards HE 2217-2818. The absorption profile is complex with several very narrow features, and is modeled with 32 velocity components. The relative variation in α in this system is +1.3± 2.4_stat ± 1.0_sys ppm if Al II λ 1670 Å and three Fe II transitions are used, and +1.1 ± 2.6_stat ppm in a slightly different analysis with only Fe II transitions used. This is one of the tightest bounds on α-variation from an individual absorber and reveals no evidence for variation in α at the 3-ppm precision level (1σ confidence). The expectation at this sky position of the recently-reported dipolar variation of α is (3.2-5.4)±1.7 ppm depending on dipole model used and this constraint of Δα/α at face value is not supporting this expectation but not inconsistent with it at the 3σ level. For the proton-to-electron mass ratio the analysis of the H_2 absorption lines of the z_abs ≈ 2.4018 damped Lyα system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gugsa, Solomon A.; Davies, Angela
2005-08-01
Characterizing an aspheric micro lens is critical for understanding the performance and providing feedback to the manufacturing. We describe a method to find the best-fit conic of an aspheric micro lens using a least squares minimization and Monte Carlo analysis. Our analysis is based on scanning white light interferometry measurements, and we compare the standard rapid technique where a single measurement is taken of the apex of the lens to the more time-consuming stitching technique where more surface area is measured. Both are corrected for tip/tilt based on a planar fit to the substrate. Four major parameters and their uncertainties are estimated from the measurement and a chi-square minimization is carried out to determine the best-fit conic constant. The four parameters are the base radius of curvature, the aperture of the lens, the lens center, and the sag of the lens. A probability distribution is chosen for each of the four parameters based on the measurement uncertainties and a Monte Carlo process is used to iterate the minimization process. Eleven measurements were taken and data is also chosen randomly from the group during the Monte Carlo simulation to capture the measurement repeatability. A distribution of best-fit conic constants results, where the mean is a good estimate of the best-fit conic and the distribution width represents the combined measurement uncertainty. We also compare the Monte Carlo process for the stitched data and the not stitched data. Our analysis allows us to analyze the residual surface error in terms of Zernike polynomials and determine uncertainty estimates for each coefficient.
Cosmological constant is a conserved charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyavsky, Dmitry; Hajian, Kamal
2018-06-01
Cosmological constant can always be considered as the on-shell value of a top form in gravitational theories. The top form is the field strength of a gauge field, and the theory enjoys a gauge symmetry. We show that cosmological constant is the charge of the global part of the gauge symmetry, and is conserved irrespective of the dynamics of the metric and other fields. In addition, we introduce its conjugate chemical potential, and prove the generalized first law of thermodynamics which includes variation of cosmological constant as a conserved charge. We discuss how our new term in the first law is related to the volume–pressure term. In parallel with the seminal Wald entropy, this analysis suggests that pressure can also be considered as a conserved charge.
Zarycz, M. Natalia C., E-mail: mnzarycz@gmail.com; Provasi, Patricio F., E-mail: patricio@unne.edu.ar; Sauer, Stephan P. A., E-mail: sauer@kiku.dk
2014-10-21
We discuss the effect of electron correlation on the unexpected differential sensitivity (UDS) in the {sup 1}J(C–H) coupling constant of CH{sub 4} using a decomposition into contributions from localized molecular orbitals and compare with the {sup 1}J(N–H) coupling constant in NH{sub 3}. In particular, we discuss the well known fact that uncorrelated coupled Hartree-Fock (CHF) calculations are not able to reproduce the UDS in methane. For this purpose we have implemented for the first time a localized molecular orbital analysis for the second order polarization propagator approximation with coupled cluster singles and doubles amplitudes—SOPPA(CCSD) in the DALTON program. Comparing themore » changes in the localized orbital contributions at the correlated SOPPA and SOPPA(CCSD) levels and at the uncorrelated CHF level, we find that the latter overestimates the effect of stretching the bond between the coupled atoms on the contribution to the coupling from the localized bonding orbital between these atoms. This disturbs the subtle balance between the molecular orbital contributions, which lead to the UDS in methane.« less
A comparative analysis of mail and internet surveys
Benjamin D. Poole; David K. Loomis
2010-01-01
Th e field of survey research is constantly evolving with the introduction of new technologies. Each new mini-revolution brings criticism about the accuracy of the new survey method. The latest development in the survey research field has been increased reliance on Internet surveys. This paper compares data collected through a mixed-mode (mail and Internet) survey of...
Helicopter TEM parameters analysis and system optimization based on time constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Pan; Wu, Xin; Shi, Zongyang; Li, Jutao; Liu, Lihua; Fang, Guangyou
2018-03-01
Helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) method is a kind of common geophysical prospecting method, widely used in mineral detection, underground water exploration and environment investigation. In order to develop an efficient helicopter TEM system, it is necessary to analyze and optimize the system parameters. In this paper, a simple and quantitative method is proposed to analyze the system parameters, such as waveform, power, base frequency, measured field and sampling time. A wire loop model is used to define a comprehensive 'time constant domain' that shows a range of time constant, analogous to a range of conductance, after which the characteristics of the system parameters in this domain is obtained. It is found that the distortion caused by the transmitting base frequency is less than 5% when the ratio of the transmitting period to the target time constant is greater than 6. When the sampling time window is less than the target time constant, the distortion caused by the sampling time window is less than 5%. According to this method, a helicopter TEM system, called CASHTEM, is designed, and flight test has been carried out in the known mining area. The test results show that the system has good detection performance, verifying the effectiveness of the method.
The Henry's constant of monochloramine.
Garcia, Miguel A; Anderson, Michael A
2018-02-01
Monochloramine is a secondary disinfectant used in drinking water and is also formed in chlorinated wastewater. While known to hydrolyze over time and react with dissolved organic matter, its partitioning between the aqueous and gas phase has not been extensively studied. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that monochloramine concentrations in solutions open to the atmosphere or actively aerated decreased more rapidly than in sealed solutions, indicating significant losses to the atmosphere. For example, a monochloramine solution open to the atmosphere yielded a loss rate constant of 0.08 d -1 , a value twice that for sealed samples without headspace (0.04 d -1 ) where loss occurs exclusively as a result of hydrolysis. A solution aerated at 10 mL s -1 had a loss rate constant nearly 10× greater than that for hydrolysis alone (0.35 d -1 ). To better understand partitioning of monochloramine to the gas phase and potential for volatilization, the dimensionless Henry's law constants of monochloramine (K H ) were determined using an equilibrium headspace technique at five different temperatures (11, 16, 21, 27, and 32 °C). The resulting values ranged from 8 × 10 -3 to 4 × 10 -2 , indicating a semi-volatile compound, and were found to be consistent with quantitative structure activity relationship predictions. At 20 °C, monochloramine exhibits a dimensionless Henry's constant of about 1.7 × 10 -2 which is 35 times greater than ammonia but comparable to the Henry's constant of inorganic semi-volatile compounds such sulfur dioxide. The Henry's constant values for monochloramine suggests that volatilization could be a relevant loss process in open systems such as rivers receiving chlorinated wastewater effluent, swimming pools and cooling towers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Biji, K P; Sunil, M; Ramadas, K T
2017-01-01
Hypobaric spinal anesthesia is advantageous for unilateral lower extremity fractures as it obviates pain of lying on fractured limb for performing subarachnoid block. This study compares block characteristics and complications of three different baricities of constant dose intrathecal hypobaric levobupivacaine to determine an optimum baricity. One-twenty American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status 1 and 2 patients aged 18-65 years undergoing unilateral lower limb surgeries were divided into three equal groups for this prospective cohort study. To 2 mL intrathecal 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine (10 mg), 0.4 mL, 0.6 mL, and 0.8 mL of distilled water were added in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Baricities of Groups A, B, and C are 0.999294, 0.998945, and 0.998806, respectively. Development of sensory and motor block was assessed by the pinprick method and Bromage scale, respectively. The total duration of analgesia and complications were noted. Mean, standard error, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni were used to analyze quantitative variables; proportions and Chi-square tests for qualitative variables. Demographic parameters, motor block of operated limb, and complications were comparable. Group C had the fastest onset of sensory block (10.10 min) and maximum duration of analgesia (478.97 min; P < 0.001); but high sensory levels in 48.7%. Group B had T 10 sensory level in 92.5%; onset comparable to Group C ( P = 0.248), and reasonable duration of analgesia (332.50 min). Group A had inadequate sensory levels, slow onset, and early regression. Group B (baricity - 0.998945) has better block characteristics among three groups compared.
Kartamyshev, Sergey P; Balashov, Sergey A; Melkumyants, Arthur M
2007-01-01
The effect of shear stress at the endothelium in the attenuation of the noradrenaline-induced constriction of the femoral vascular bed perfused at a constant blood flow was investigated in 16 anesthetized cats. It is known that the adrenergic vasoconstriction of the femoral vascular bed is considerably greater at a constant pressure perfusion than at a constant blood flow. This difference may depend on the ability of the endothelium to relax smooth muscle in response to an increase in wall shear stress. Since the shear stress is directly related to the blood flow and inversely related to the third power of vessel diameter, vasoconstriction at a constant blood flow increases the wall shear stress that is the stimulus for smooth muscle relaxation opposing constriction. On the other hand, at a constant perfusion pressure, vasoconstriction is accompanied by a decrease in flow rate, which prevents a wall shear stress increase. To reveal the effect of endothelial sensitivity to shear stress, we compared noradrenaline-induced changes in total and proximal arterial resistances during perfusion of the hind limb at a constant blood flow and at a constant pressure in vessels with intact and injured endothelium. We found that in the endothelium-intact bed the same concentration of noradrenaline at a constant flow caused an increase in overall vascular peripheral resistance that was half as large as at a constant perfusion pressure. This difference is mainly confined to the proximal arterial vessels (arteries and large arterioles) whose resistance at a constant flow increased only 0.19 +/- 0.03 times compared to that at a constant pressure. The removal of the endothelium only slightly increased constrictor responses at the perfusion under a constant pressure (noradrenaline-induced increases of both overall and proximal arterial resistance augmented by 12%), while the responses of the proximal vessels at a constant flow became 4.7 +/- 0.4 times greater than in the endothelium
The 1% concordance Hubble constant
Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.
2014-10-20
The determination of the Hubble constant has been a central goal in observational astrophysics for nearly a hundred years. Extraordinary progress has occurred in recent years on two fronts: the cosmic distance ladder measurements at low redshift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at high redshift. The CMB is used to predict the current expansion rate through a best-fit cosmological model. Complementary progress has been made with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at relatively low redshifts. While BAO data do not independently determine a Hubble constant, they are important for constraints on possible solutions and checks on cosmic consistency. Amore » precise determination of the Hubble constant is of great value, but it is more important to compare the high and low redshift measurements to test our cosmological model. Significant tension would suggest either uncertainties not accounted for in the experimental estimates or the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology. In this paper we examine in detail the tension between the CMB, BAO, and cosmic distance ladder data sets. We find that these measurements are consistent within reasonable statistical expectations and we combine them to determine a best-fit Hubble constant of 69.6 ± 0.7 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. This value is based upon WMAP9+SPT+ACT+6dFGS+BOSS/DR11+H {sub 0}/Riess; we explore alternate data combinations in the text. The combined data constrain the Hubble constant to 1%, with no compelling evidence for new physics.« less
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs, Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beach, Darrell H.
1969-01-01
Describes a method of calculating the equilibrium constant from free energy data. Values of the equilibrium constants of six Bronsted-Lowry reactions calculated by the author's method and by a conventional textbook method are compared. (LC)
Constant strain rate and peri-implant bone modeling: an in vivo longitudinal micro-CT analysis.
De Smet, Els; Jaecques, Siegfried V N; Wevers, Martine; Sloten, Jos Vander; Naert, Ignace E
2013-06-01
Strain, frequency, loading time, and strain rate, among others, determine mechanical parameters in osteogenic loading. We showed a significant osteogenic effect on bone mass (BM) by daily peri-implant loading at 1.600µε.s(-1) after 4 weeks. To study the peri-implant osteogenic effect of frequency and strain in the guinea pig tibia by in vivo longitudinal micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis. One week after implant installation in both hind limb tibiae, one implant was loaded daily for 10' during 4 weeks, while the other served as control. Frequencies (3, 10, and 30Hz) and strains varied alike in the three series to keep the strain rate constant at 1.600µε.s(-1) . In vivo micro-CT scans were taken of both tibiae: 1 week after implantation but before loading (v1) and after 2 (v2) and 4 weeks (v3) of loading as well as postmortem (pm). BM (BM (%) bone-occupied area fraction) was calculated as well as the difference between test and control sides (delta BM) RESULTS: All implants (n=78) were clinically stable at 4 weeks. Significant increase in BM was measured between v1 and v2 (p<.0001) and between v1 and v3 (p<.0001). A significant positive effect of loading on delta BM was observed in the distal peri-implant marrow 500 Region of Interest already 2 weeks after loading (p=.01) and was significantly larger (11%) in series 1 compared with series 2 (p=.006) and 3 (p=.016). Within the constraints of constant loading time and strain rate, the effect of early implant loading on the peri-implant bone is strongly dependent on strain and frequency. This cortical bone model has shown to be most sensitive for high force loading at low frequency. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A Comparative Analysis of the Supernova Legacy Survey Sample With ΛCDM and the Rh=ct Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.
2015-03-01
The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift-luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the Rh = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the Rh = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since Rh = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of Rh = ct is ˜90%, compared with only ˜10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to Rh = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely. This work is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Tan Lu, who sadly passed away 2014 December 3. Among his many achievements, he is considered to be one of the founders of high-energy astrophysics, and a pioneer in modern cosmology, in China.
Spring constant of a tuning-fork sensor for dynamic force microscopy
Lange, Manfred; Schmuck, Merlin; Schmidt, Nico; Möller, Rolf
2012-01-01
Summary We present an overview of experimental and numerical methods to determine the spring constant of a quartz tuning fork in qPlus configuration. The simple calculation for a rectangular cantilever is compared to the values obtained by the analysis of the thermal excitation and by the direct mechanical measurement of the force versus displacement. To elucidate the difference, numerical simulations were performed taking account of the real geometry including the glue that is used to mount the tuning fork. PMID:23365793
Charged structure constants from modularity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Diptarka; Datta, Shouvik; Pal, Sridip
2017-11-01
We derive a universal formula for the average heavy-heavy-light structure constants for 2 d CFTs with non-vanishing u(1) charge. The derivation utilizes the modular properties of one-point functions on the torus. Refinements in N=2 SCFTs, show that the resulting Cardy-like formula for the structure constants has precisely the same shifts in the central charge as that of the thermodynamic entropy found earlier. This analysis generalizes the recent results by Kraus and Maloney for CFTs with an additional global u(1) symmetry [1]. Our results at large central charge are also shown to match with computations from the holographic dual, which suggest that the averaged CFT three-point coefficient also serves as a useful probe of detecting black hole hair.
Determination of Henry’s Law Constants Using Internal Standards with Benchmark Values
It is shown that Henry’s law constants can be experimentally determined by comparing headspace content of compounds with known constants to interpolate the constants of other compounds. Studies were conducted over a range of water temperatures to identify temperature dependence....
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY SAMPLE WITH ΛCDM AND THE R{sub h}=ct UNIVERSE
Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio
The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift–luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the R{sub h} = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or fourmore » nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the R{sub h} = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since R{sub h} = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of R{sub h} = ct is ∼90%, compared with only ∼10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to R{sub h} = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely.« less
The Constant Intensity Cut Method applied to the KASCADE-Grande muon data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Apel, W. D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Brüggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Fuhrmann, D.; Ghia, P. L.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Kickelbick, D.; Klages, H. O.; Kolotaev, Y.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Over, S.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schröder, F.; Sima, O.; Stümpert, M.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G.; Ulrich, H.; Walkowiak, W.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.
2009-12-01
The constant intensity cut method is a very useful tool to reconstruct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in order to combine or compare extensive air shower data measured for different attenuation depths independently of the MC model. In this contribution the method is used to explore the muon data of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. In particular, with this technique, the measured muon number spectra for different zenith angle ranges are compared and summed up to obtain a single muon spectrum for the measured showers. Preliminary results are presented, along with estimations of the systematic uncertainties associated with the analysis technique.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Hetherington, N. W.
1970-01-01
The existence of a biological rhythm in the response of animals to noxious stimuli and drugs is well known. However, the mechanism of this response is not well understood. This study was undertaken to describe the existence of a diurnal rhythm in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system before and after stress in female rats kept in controlled environmental conditions in 12L:12D, 24L:OD, or OL:24D. Plasma ACTH and plasma corticosterone concentrations were compared in unstressed animals. The time pattern in the response to stress was determined at four hourly intervals during a 24 hr period in which plasma ACTH and plasma corticosterone were measured at different time intervals. The stress response varied considerably with time of day in both magnitude and duration. The adrenals of rats exposed to constant light for 45 days atrophied, whereas the adrenals of animals kept in constant dark for the same period did not differ significantly from those of controls kept in 12L:12D. The increase in plasma ACTH in response to stress was greater both in the animals maintained in constant light and in constant dark than in the 12L:12D controls. Homeostatic mechanisms involved in these changes are discussed.
Instanton rate constant calculations close to and above the crossover temperature.
McConnell, Sean; Kästner, Johannes
2017-11-15
Canonical instanton theory is known to overestimate the rate constant close to a system-dependent crossover temperature and is inapplicable above that temperature. We compare the accuracy of the reaction rate constants calculated using recent semi-classical rate expressions to those from canonical instanton theory. We show that rate constants calculated purely from solving the stability matrix for the action in degrees of freedom orthogonal to the instanton path is not applicable at arbitrarily low temperatures and use two methods to overcome this. Furthermore, as a by-product of the developed methods, we derive a simple correction to canonical instanton theory that can alleviate this known overestimation of rate constants close to the crossover temperature. The combined methods accurately reproduce the rate constants of the canonical theory along the whole temperature range without the spurious overestimation near the crossover temperature. We calculate and compare rate constants on three different reactions: H in the Müller-Brown potential, methylhydroxycarbene → acetaldehyde and H 2 + OH → H + H 2 O. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thrust Force Analysis of Tripod Constant Velocity Joint Using Multibody Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugiura, Hideki; Matsunaga, Tsugiharu; Mizutani, Yoshiteru; Ando, Yosei; Kashiwagi, Isashi
A tripod constant velocity joint is used in the driveshaft of front wheel drive vehicles. Thrust force generated by this joint causes lateral vibration in these vehicles. To analyze the thrust force, a detailed model is constructed based on a multibody dynamics approach. This model includes all principal parts of the joint defined as rigid bodies and all force elements of contact and friction acting among these parts. This model utilizes a new contact modeling method of needle roller bearings for more precise and faster computation. By comparing computational and experimental results, the appropriateness of this model is verified and the principal factors inducing the second and third rotating order components of the thrust force are clarified. This paper also describes the influence of skewed needle rollers on the thrust force and evaluates the contribution of friction forces at each contact region to the thrust force.
Atomic weights: no longer constants of nature
Coplen, Tyler B.; Holden, Norman E.
2011-01-01
Many of us were taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis have changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature
Convexity and concavity constants in Lorentz and Marcinkiewicz spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaminska, Anna; Parrish, Anca M.
2008-07-01
We provide here the formulas for the q-convexity and q-concavity constants for function and sequence Lorentz spaces associated to either decreasing or increasing weights. It yields also the formula for the q-convexity constants in function and sequence Marcinkiewicz spaces. In this paper we extent and enhance the results from [G.J.O. Jameson, The q-concavity constants of Lorentz sequence spaces and related inequalities, Math. Z. 227 (1998) 129-142] and [A. Kaminska, A.M. Parrish, The q-concavity and q-convexity constants in Lorentz spaces, in: Banach Spaces and Their Applications in Analysis, Conference in Honor of Nigel Kalton, May 2006, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 2007, pp. 357-373].
Inflation with a smooth constant-roll to constant-roll era transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2017-07-01
In this paper, we study canonical scalar field models, with a varying second slow-roll parameter, that allow transitions between constant-roll eras. In the models with two constant-roll eras, it is possible to avoid fine-tunings in the initial conditions of the scalar field. We mainly focus on the stability of the resulting solutions, and we also investigate if these solutions are attractors of the cosmological system. We shall calculate the resulting scalar potential and, by using a numerical approach, we examine the stability and attractor properties of the solutions. As we show, the first constant-roll era is dynamically unstable towards linear perturbations, and the cosmological system is driven by the attractor solution to the final constant-roll era. As we demonstrate, it is possible to have a nearly scale-invariant power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations in some cases; however, this is strongly model dependent and depends on the rate of the final constant-roll era. Finally, we present, in brief, the essential features of a model that allows oscillations between constant-roll eras.
Signatures of van der Waals binding: A coupling-constant scaling analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Yang; Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per
2018-02-01
The van der Waals (vdW) density functional (vdW-DF) method [Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 066501 (2015), 10.1088/0034-4885/78/6/066501] describes dispersion or vdW binding by tracking the effects of an electrodynamic coupling among pairs of electrons and their associated exchange-correlation holes. This is done in a nonlocal-correlation energy term Ecnl, which permits density functional theory calculation in the Kohn-Sham scheme. However, to map the nature of vdW forces in a fully interacting materials system, it is necessary to also account for associated kinetic-correlation energy effects. Here, we present a coupling-constant scaling analysis, which permits us to compute the kinetic-correlation energy Tcnl that is specific to the vdW-DF account of nonlocal correlations. We thus provide a more complete spatially resolved analysis of the electrodynamical-coupling nature of nonlocal-correlation binding, including vdW attraction, in both covalently and noncovalently bonded systems. We find that kinetic-correlation energy effects play a significant role in the account of vdW or dispersion interactions among molecules. Furthermore, our mapping shows that the total nonlocal-correlation binding is concentrated to pockets in the sparse electron distribution located between the material fragments.
Huchra, J P
1992-04-17
The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and distance in the expanding universe. It is a fundamental property of cosmology that sets both the scale and the expansion age of the universe. It is determined by measurement of galaxy The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and development of new techniques for the measurements of galaxy distances, both calibration uncertainties and debates over systematic errors remain. Current determinations still range over nearly a factor of 2; the higher values favored by most local measurements are not consistent with many theories of the origin of large-scale structure and stellar evolution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, Y. S.
1977-01-01
A theoretical analysis of constant momentum mass spectrometry was made. A maximum resolving power for the decelerating mode constant momentum mass spectrometer was shown theoretically to exist for a beam of ions of known energy. A vacuum system and an electron beam ionization source was constructed. Supporting electronics for a residual gas analyzer were built. Experimental investigations of various types of accelerating and decelerating impulsive modes of a constant momentum mass spectrometer as applied to a residual gas analyzer were made. The data indicate that the resolving power for the decelerating mode is comparable to that of the accelerating mode.
Numerical determination of Paris law constants for carbon steel using a two-scale model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mlikota, M.; Staib, S.; Schmauder, S.; Božić, Ž.
2017-05-01
For most engineering alloys, the long fatigue crack growth under a certain stress level can be described by the Paris law. The law provides a correlation between the fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR or da/dN), the range of stress intensity factor (ΔK), and the material constants C and m. A well-established test procedure is typically used to determine the Paris law constants C and m, considering standard specimens, notched and pre-cracked. Definition of all the details necessary to obtain feasible and comparable Paris law constants are covered by standards. However, these cost-expensive tests can be replaced by appropriate numerical calculations. In this respect, this paper deals with the numerical determination of Paris law constants for carbon steel using a two-scale model. A micro-model containing the microstructure of a material is generated using the Finite Element Method (FEM) to calculate the fatigue crack growth rate at a crack tip. The model is based on the Tanaka-Mura equation. On the other side, a macro-model serves for the calculation of the stress intensity factor. The analysis yields a relationship between the crack growth rates and the stress intensity factors for defined crack lengths which is then used to determine the Paris law constants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Isa Aliyu, Aliyu; Hashemi, M. S.
2018-05-01
This paper studies the brusselator reaction diffusion model (BRDM) with time- and constant-dependent coefficients. The soliton solutions for BRDM with time-dependent coefficients are obtained via first integral (FIM), ansatz, and sine-Gordon expansion (SGEM) methods. Moreover, it is well known that stability analysis (SA), symmetry analysis and conservation laws (CLs) give several information for modelling a system of differential equations (SDE). This is because they can be used for investigating the internal properties, existence, uniqueness and integrability of different SDE. For this reason, we investigate the SA via linear stability technique, symmetry analysis and CLs for BRDM with constant-dependent coefficients in order to extract more physics and information on the governing equation. The constraint conditions for the existence of the solutions are also examined. The new solutions obtained in this paper can be useful for describing the concentrations of diffusion problems of the BRDM. It is shown that the examined dependent coefficients are some of the factors that are affecting the diffusion rate. So, the present paper provides much motivational information in comparison to the existing results in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, John E.; Stratt, Richard M.
1990-08-01
For the instantaneous normal mode analysis method to be generally useful in studying the dynamics of clusters of arbitrary size, it ought to yield values of atomic self-diffusion constants which agree with those derived directly from molecular dynamics calculations. The present study proposes that such agreement indeed can be obtained if a sufficiently sophisticated formalism for computing the diffusion constant is adopted, such as the one suggested by Madan, Keyes, and Seeley [J. Chem. Phys. 92, 7565 (1990)]. In order to implement this particular formalism, however, we have found it necessary to pay particular attention to the removal from the computed spectra of spurious rotational contributions. The utility of the formalism is demonstrated via a study of small argon clusters, for which numerous results generated using other approaches are available. We find the same temperature dependence of the Ar13 self-diffusion constant that Beck and Marchioro [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1347 (1990)] do from their direct calculation of the velocity autocorrelation function: The diffusion constant rises quickly from zero to a liquid-like value as the cluster goes through (the finite-size equivalent of) the melting transition.
Ground State of the Universe and the Cosmological Constant. A Nonperturbative Analysis.
Husain, Viqar; Qureshi, Babar
2016-02-12
The physical Hamiltonian of a gravity-matter system depends on the choice of time, with the vacuum naturally identified as its ground state. We study the expanding Universe with scalar field in the volume time gauge. We show that the vacuum energy density computed from the resulting Hamiltonian is a nonlinear function of the cosmological constant and time. This result provides a new perspective on the relation between time, the cosmological constant, and vacuum energy.
Time variation of fundamental constants in nonstandard cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosquera, M. E.; Civitarese, O.
2017-10-01
In this work we have studied the lithium problem in nonstandard cosmological models. In particular, by using the public code alterbbn, we have included in the computation of the primordial light nuclei abundances, the effects of the inclusion of dark energy and dark entropy, along with the variation of the fine structure constant and the Higgs vacuum expectation value. In order to set constrains on the variation of the fundamental constants we have compared our theoretical results with the available observational data. We have found that the lithium abundance is reduced for not-null variation at the 3 σ -level of both constants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakli, Hedi; Benzina, Hafedh; Aguili, Taoufik; Tao, Jun Wu
2009-08-01
This paper is an analysis of rectangular waveguide completely full of ferrite magnetized longitudinally. The analysis is based on the formulation of the transverse operator method (TOM), followed by the application of the Galerkin method. We obtain an eigenvalue equation system. The propagation constant of some homogenous and anisotropic waveguide structures with ferrite has been obtained. The results presented here show that the transverse operator formulation is not only an elegant theoretical form, but also a powerful and efficient analysis method, it is useful to solve a number of the propagation problems in electromagnetic. One advantage of this method is that it presents a fast convergence. Numerical examples are given for different cases and compared with the published results. A good agreement is obtained.
Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant
Hu, Yazhou; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui
2015-08-01
Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ω{sub hde} are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by usingmore » the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ{sup 2}{sub min}=426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain −0.07« less
Estimation of hydrolysis rate constants for carbamates ...
Cheminformatics based tools, such as the Chemical Transformation Simulator under development in EPA’s Office of Research and Development, are being increasingly used to evaluate chemicals for their potential to degrade in the environment or be transformed through metabolism. Hydrolysis represents a major environmental degradation pathway; unfortunately, only a small fraction of hydrolysis rates for about 85,000 chemicals on the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory are in public domain, making it critical to develop in silico approaches to estimate hydrolysis rate constants. In this presentation, we compare three complementary approaches to estimate hydrolysis rates for carbamates, an important chemical class widely used in agriculture as pesticides, herbicides and fungicides. Fragment-based Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) using Hammett-Taft sigma constants are widely published and implemented for relatively simple functional groups such as carboxylic acid esters, phthalate esters, and organophosphate esters, and we extend these to carbamates. We also develop a pKa based model and a quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) model, and evaluate them against measured rate constants using R square and root mean square (RMS) error. Our work shows that for our relatively small sample size of carbamates, a Hammett-Taft based fragment model performs best, followed by a pKa and a QSPR model. This presentation compares three comp
Elastic constants from microscopic strain fluctuations
Sengupta; Nielaba; Rao; Binder
2000-02-01
Fluctuations of the instantaneous local Lagrangian strain epsilon(ij)(r,t), measured with respect to a static "reference" lattice, are used to obtain accurate estimates of the elastic constants of model solids from atomistic computer simulations. The measured strains are systematically coarse-grained by averaging them within subsystems (of size L(b)) of a system (of total size L) in the canonical ensemble. Using a simple finite size scaling theory we predict the behavior of the fluctuations
Stress-stress fluctuation formula for elastic constants in the NPT ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lips, Dominik; Maass, Philipp
2018-05-01
Several fluctuation formulas are available for calculating elastic constants from equilibrium correlation functions in computer simulations, but the ones available for simulations at constant pressure exhibit slow convergence properties and cannot be used for the determination of local elastic constants. To overcome these drawbacks, we derive a stress-stress fluctuation formula in the NPT ensemble based on known expressions in the NVT ensemble. We validate the formula in the NPT ensemble by calculating elastic constants for the simple nearest-neighbor Lennard-Jones crystal and by comparing the results with those obtained in the NVT ensemble. For both local and bulk elastic constants we find an excellent agreement between the simulated data in the two ensembles. To demonstrate the usefulness of the formula, we apply it to determine the elastic constants of a simulated lipid bilayer.
18 CFR 806.12 - Constant-rate aquifer testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... withdraw or increase a withdrawal of groundwater shall perform a constant-rate aquifer test in accordance... groundwater availability analysis to determine the availability of water during a 1-in-10-year recurrence...
18 CFR 806.12 - Constant-rate aquifer testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... withdraw or increase a withdrawal of groundwater shall perform a constant-rate aquifer test in accordance... groundwater availability analysis to determine the availability of water during a 1-in-10-year recurrence...
18 CFR 806.12 - Constant-rate aquifer testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... withdraw or increase a withdrawal of groundwater shall perform a constant-rate aquifer test in accordance... groundwater availability analysis to determine the availability of water during a 1-in-10-year recurrence...
18 CFR 806.12 - Constant-rate aquifer testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... withdraw or increase a withdrawal of groundwater shall perform a constant-rate aquifer test in accordance... groundwater availability analysis to determine the availability of water during a 1-in-10-year recurrence...
Comparative Cognitive Task Analysis
2007-01-01
is to perform a task analyses to determine how people operate in a specific domain on a specific task. Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) is a set of...accomplish a task. In this chapter, we build on CTA methods by suggesting that comparative cognitive task analysis (C2TA) can help solve the aforementioned
Hennig, Kristin; Verkerk, Ruud; Bonnema, Guusje; Dekker, Matthijs
2012-08-15
Kinetic modeling was used as a tool to quantitatively estimate glucosinolate thermal degradation rate constants. Literature shows that thermal degradation rates differ in different vegetables. Well-characterized plant material, leaves of broccoli and Chinese kale plants grown in two seasons, was used in the study. It was shown that a first-order reaction is appropriate to model glucosinolate degradation independent from the season. No difference in degradation rate constants of structurally identical glucosinolates was found between broccoli and Chinese kale leaves when grown in the same season. However, glucosinolate degradation rate constants were highly affected by the season (20-80% increase in spring compared to autumn). These results suggest that differences in glucosinolate degradation rate constants can be due to variation in environmental as well as genetic factors. Furthermore, a methodology to estimate rate constants rapidly is provided to enable the analysis of high sample numbers for future studies.
Precisely and Accurately Inferring Single-Molecule Rate Constants
Kinz-Thompson, Colin D.; Bailey, Nevette A.; Gonzalez, Ruben L.
2017-01-01
The kinetics of biomolecular systems can be quantified by calculating the stochastic rate constants that govern the biomolecular state versus time trajectories (i.e., state trajectories) of individual biomolecules. To do so, the experimental signal versus time trajectories (i.e., signal trajectories) obtained from observing individual biomolecules are often idealized to generate state trajectories by methods such as thresholding or hidden Markov modeling. Here, we discuss approaches for idealizing signal trajectories and calculating stochastic rate constants from the resulting state trajectories. Importantly, we provide an analysis of how the finite length of signal trajectories restrict the precision of these approaches, and demonstrate how Bayesian inference-based versions of these approaches allow rigorous determination of this precision. Similarly, we provide an analysis of how the finite lengths and limited time resolutions of signal trajectories restrict the accuracy of these approaches, and describe methods that, by accounting for the effects of the finite length and limited time resolution of signal trajectories, substantially improve this accuracy. Collectively, therefore, the methods we consider here enable a rigorous assessment of the precision, and a significant enhancement of the accuracy, with which stochastic rate constants can be calculated from single-molecule signal trajectories. PMID:27793280
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chio, S. R.; Gyekenyesi, J. P.
1999-01-01
A two-dimensional, numerical analysis of slow crack growth (SCG) was performed for brittle materials with finite thickness subjected to constant stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") loading in flexure. The numerical solution showed that the conventional, simple, one-dimensional analytical solution can be used with a maximum error of about 5% in determining the SCG parameters of a brittle material with the conditions of a normalized thickness (a ratio of specimen thickness to initial crack size) T > 3.3 and of a SCG parameter n > 10. The change in crack shape from semicircular to elliptical configurations was significant particularly at both low stress rate and low T, attributed to predominant difference in stress intensity factor along the crack front. The numerical solution of SCG parameters was supported within the experimental range by the data obtained from constant stress-rate flexural testing for soda-lime glass microslides at ambient temperature.
Verstraeten, M; Broeckhoven, K; Lynen, F; Choikhet, K; Landt, K; Dittmann, M; Witt, K; Sandra, P; Desmet, G
2013-01-25
The present contribution investigates the quantitation aspects of mass-sensitive detectors with nebulizing interface (ESI-MSD, ELSD, CAD) in the constant pressure gradient elution mode. In this operation mode, the pressure is controlled and maintained at a set value and the liquid flow rate will vary according to the inverse mobile phase viscosity. As the pressure is continuously kept at the allowable maximum during the entire gradient run, the average liquid flow rate is higher compared to that in the conventional constant flow rate operation mode, thus shortening the analysis time. The following three mass-sensitive detectors were investigated: mass spectrometry detector (MS), evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and charged aerosol detector (CAD) and a wide variety of samples (phenones, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, wine, cocoa butter) has been considered. It was found that the nebulizing efficiency of the LC-interfaces of the three detectors under consideration changes with the increasing liquid flow rate. For the MS, the increasing flow rate leads to a lower peak area whereas for the ELSD the peak area increases compared to the constant flow rate mode. The peak area obtained with a CAD is rather insensitive to the liquid flow rate. The reproducibility of the peak area remains similar in both modes, although variation in system permeability compromises the 'long-term' reproducibility. This problem can however be overcome by running a flow rate program with an optimized flow rate and composition profile obtained from the constant pressure mode. In this case, the quantification remains reproducibile, despite any occuring variations of the system permeability. Furthermore, the same fragmentation pattern (MS) has been found in the constant pressure mode compared to the customary constant flow rate mode. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Giles, Tracey M; de Lacey, Sheryl; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear
2016-01-01
Grounded theory method has been described extensively in the literature. Yet, the varying processes portrayed can be confusing for novice grounded theorists. This article provides a worked example of the data analysis phase of a constructivist grounded theory study that examined family presence during resuscitation in acute health care settings. Core grounded theory methods are exemplified, including initial and focused coding, constant comparative analysis, memo writing, theoretical sampling, and theoretical saturation. The article traces the construction of the core category "Conditional Permission" from initial and focused codes, subcategories, and properties, through to its position in the final substantive grounded theory.
Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry.
Dron, Julien; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri
2007-12-12
The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF3/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L(-1). Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices.
Scene-based nonuniformity correction using local constant statistics.
Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Wenyi
2008-06-01
In scene-based nonuniformity correction, the statistical approach assumes all possible values of the true-scene pixel are seen at each pixel location. This global-constant-statistics assumption does not distinguish fixed pattern noise from spatial variations in the average image. This often causes the "ghosting" artifacts in the corrected images since the existing spatial variations are treated as noises. We introduce a new statistical method to reduce the ghosting artifacts. Our method proposes a local-constant statistics that assumes that the temporal signal distribution is not constant at each pixel but is locally true. This considers statistically a constant distribution in a local region around each pixel but uneven distribution in a larger scale. Under the assumption that the fixed pattern noise concentrates in a higher spatial-frequency domain than the distribution variation, we apply a wavelet method to the gain and offset image of the noise and separate out the pattern noise from the spatial variations in the temporal distribution of the scene. We compare the results to the global-constant-statistics method using a clean sequence with large artificial pattern noises. We also apply the method to a challenging CCD video sequence and a LWIR sequence to show how effective it is in reducing noise and the ghosting artifacts.
A constant current charge technique for low Earth orbit life testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glueck, Peter
1991-01-01
A constant current charge technique for low earth orbit testing of nickel cadmium cells is presented. The method mimics the familiar taper charge of the constant potential technique while maintaining cell independence for statistical analysis. A detailed example application is provided and the advantages and disadvantages of this technique are discussed.
Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias
2018-01-01
Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (P<0.10). Outcomes and analysis Cumulative pairwise and network meta-analyses were performed for each selected comparison. Monitoring boundaries of statistical significance were constructed and the evidence against the null hypothesis was considered to be strong when the monitoring boundaries were crossed. A significance level was defined as α=5%, power of 90% (β=10%), and an anticipated treatment effect to detect equal to the final estimate from the network meta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis
Analysis on Characteristics of a C-Shaped Constant-Force Spring with a Guide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohtsuki, Atsumi; Ohshima, Shigemichi; Itoh, Daisuke
A C-shaped constant-force spring is made of pre-stressed material in various sizes that offer the advantage of a constant tensile load, suitable for a variety of applications (for example, extension spring, motor-brush holder, power feed, retracting and restoring mechanism). Essentially, this spring consists of a coil of flat spring material and when unstressed it takes the form of a tightly wound spiral. This spiral is placed on a drum. When a tensile load is applied, the spiral uncoils. The load is practically independent of the amount of deformation. In this report, the extension mechanism of constant-force spring and the state of deformation are analyzed by using a large deformation theory. Moreover, experiments are carried out to confirm the applicability of the proposed theory. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical estimations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakolesha, Nyanguila
One focus of this work was to develop of an alternative method to conductivity for determining the acid ionization constants. Computer-controlled osmometry is one of the emerging analytical tools in industrial research and clinical laboratories. It is slowly finding its way into chemistry laboratories. The instrument's microprocessor control ensures shortened data collection time, repeatability, accuracy, and automatic calibration. The equilibrium constants of acetic acid, chloroacetic acid, bromoacetic acid, cyanoacetic acid, and iodoacetic acid have been measured using osmometry and their values compared with the existing literature values obtained, usually, from conductometric measurements. Ionization constant determined by osmometry for the moderately strong weak acids were in reasonably good agreement with literature values. The results showed that two factors, the ionic strength and the osmotic coefficient, exert opposite effects in solutions of such weak acids. Another focus of the work was analytical chemistry students solution preparation skills. The prevailing teacher-structured experiments leave little room for students' ingenuity in quantitative volumetric analysis. The purpose of this part of the study was to improve students' skills in making solutions using instrument feedback in a constructivist-learning model. After making some solutions by weighing and dissolving solutes or by serial dilution, students used the spectrophotometer and the osmometer to compare their solutions with standard solutions. Students perceived the instrument feedback as a nonthreatening approach to monitoring the development of their skill levels and liked to clarify their understanding through interacting with an instructor-observer. An assessment of the instrument feedback and the constructivist model indicated that students would assume responsibility for their own learning if given the opportunity. This study involved 167 students enrolled in Quantitative Chemical
Elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials in the phase-field crystal model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zi-Le; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Zhirong
2018-04-01
A general procedure is developed to investigate the elastic response and calculate the elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials through continuum field modeling, particularly the phase-field crystal (PFC) models. It is found that for a complete description of system response to elastic deformation, the variations of all the quantities of lattice wave vectors, their density amplitudes (including the corresponding anisotropic variation and degeneracy breaking), the average atomic density, and system volume should be incorporated. The quantitative and qualitative results of elastic constant calculations highly depend on the physical interpretation of the density field used in the model, and also importantly, on the intrinsic pressure that usually pre-exists in the model system. A formulation based on thermodynamics is constructed to account for the effects caused by constant pre-existing stress during the homogeneous elastic deformation, through the introducing of a generalized Gibbs free energy and an effective finite strain tensor used for determining the elastic constants. The elastic properties of both solid and liquid states can be well produced by this unified approach, as demonstrated by an analysis for the liquid state and numerical evaluations for the bcc solid phase. The numerical calculations of bcc elastic constants and Poisson's ratio through this method generate results that are consistent with experimental conditions, and better match the data of bcc Fe given by molecular dynamics simulations as compared to previous work. The general theory developed here is applicable to the study of different types of stressed or unstressed material systems under elastic deformation.
Statistical Modelling of the Soil Dielectric Constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usowicz, Boguslaw; Marczewski, Wojciech; Bogdan Usowicz, Jerzy; Lipiec, Jerzy
2010-05-01
The dielectric constant of soil is the physical property being very sensitive on water content. It funds several electrical measurement techniques for determining the water content by means of direct (TDR, FDR, and others related to effects of electrical conductance and/or capacitance) and indirect RS (Remote Sensing) methods. The work is devoted to a particular statistical manner of modelling the dielectric constant as the property accounting a wide range of specific soil composition, porosity, and mass density, within the unsaturated water content. Usually, similar models are determined for few particular soil types, and changing the soil type one needs switching the model on another type or to adjust it by parametrization of soil compounds. Therefore, it is difficult comparing and referring results between models. The presented model was developed for a generic representation of soil being a hypothetical mixture of spheres, each representing a soil fraction, in its proper phase state. The model generates a serial-parallel mesh of conductive and capacitive paths, which is analysed for a total conductive or capacitive property. The model was firstly developed to determine the thermal conductivity property, and now it is extended on the dielectric constant by analysing the capacitive mesh. The analysis is provided by statistical means obeying physical laws related to the serial-parallel branching of the representative electrical mesh. Physical relevance of the analysis is established electrically, but the definition of the electrical mesh is controlled statistically by parametrization of compound fractions, by determining the number of representative spheres per unitary volume per fraction, and by determining the number of fractions. That way the model is capable covering properties of nearly all possible soil types, all phase states within recognition of the Lorenz and Knudsen conditions. In effect the model allows on generating a hypothetical representative of
Methodology for extracting local constants from petroleum cracking flows
Chang, Shen-Lin; Lottes, Steven A.; Zhou, Chenn Q.
2000-01-01
A methodology provides for the extraction of local chemical kinetic model constants for use in a reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer code with chemical kinetic computations to optimize the operating conditions or design of the system, including retrofit design improvements to existing systems. The coupled CFD and kinetic computer code are used in combination with data obtained from a matrix of experimental tests to extract the kinetic constants. Local fluid dynamic effects are implicitly included in the extracted local kinetic constants for each particular application system to which the methodology is applied. The extracted local kinetic model constants work well over a fairly broad range of operating conditions for specific and complex reaction sets in specific and complex reactor systems. While disclosed in terms of use in a Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) riser, the inventive methodology has application in virtually any reaction set to extract constants for any particular application and reaction set formulation. The methodology includes the step of: (1) selecting the test data sets for various conditions; (2) establishing the general trend of the parametric effect on the measured product yields; (3) calculating product yields for the selected test conditions using coupled computational fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics; (4) adjusting the local kinetic constants to match calculated product yields with experimental data; and (5) validating the determined set of local kinetic constants by comparing the calculated results with experimental data from additional test runs at different operating conditions.
Kny Coupling Constants and Form Factors from the Chiral Bag Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, M. T.; Cheon, Il-T.
2000-09-01
The form factors and coupling constants for KNΛ and KNΣ interactions have been calculated in the framework of the Chiral Bag Model with vector mesons. Taking into account vector meson (ρ, ω, K*) field effects, we find -3.88 ≤ gKNΛ ≤ -3.67 and 1.15 ≤ gKNΣ ≤ 1.24, where the quark-meson coupling constants are determined by fitting the renormalized, πNN coupling constant, [gπNN(0)]2/4π = 14.3. It is shown that vector mesons make significant contributions to the coupling constants gKNΛ and gKNΣ. Our values are existing within the experimental limits compared to the phenomenological values extracted from the kaon photo production experiments.
Zhang, Xuzhu; Poniewierski, Andrzej; Jelińska, Aldona; Zagożdżon, Anna; Wisniewska, Agnieszka; Hou, Sen; Hołyst, Robert
2016-10-04
The equilibrium and rate constants of molecular complex formation are of great interest both in the field of chemistry and biology. Here, we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), supplemented by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA), to study the complex formation in model systems of dye-micelle interactions. In our case, dyes rhodamine 110 and ATTO-488 interact with three differently charged surfactant micelles: octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether C 12 E 8 (neutral), cetyltrimethylammonium chloride CTAC (positive) and sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS (negative). To determine the rate constants for the dye-micelle complex formation we fit the experimental data obtained by FCS with a new form of the autocorrelation function, derived in the accompanying paper. Our results show that the association rate constants for the model systems are roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than those in the case of the diffusion-controlled limit. Because the complex stability is determined by the dissociation rate constant, a two-step reaction mechanism, including the diffusion-controlled and reaction-controlled rates, is used to explain the dye-micelle interaction. In the limit of fast reaction, we apply FCS to determine the equilibrium constant from the effective diffusion coefficient of the fluorescent components. Depending on the value of the equilibrium constant, we distinguish three types of interaction in the studied systems: weak, intermediate and strong. The values of the equilibrium constant obtained from the FCS and TDA experiments are very close to each other, which supports the theoretical model used to interpret the FCS data.
Cosmological constant and quantum gravitational corrections to the running fine structure constant.
Toms, David J
2008-09-26
The quantum gravitational contribution to the renormalization group behavior of the electric charge in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a cosmological constant is considered. Quantum gravity is shown to lead to a contribution to the running charge not present when the cosmological constant vanishes. This reopens the possibility, suggested by Robinson and Wilczek, of altering the scaling behavior of gauge theories at high energies although our result differs. We show the possibility of an ultraviolet fixed point that is linked directly to the cosmological constant.
Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias; Salanti, Georgia
2018-02-28
To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (P<0.10). Cumulative pairwise and network meta-analyses were performed for each selected comparison. Monitoring boundaries of statistical significance were constructed and the evidence against the null hypothesis was considered to be strong when the monitoring boundaries were crossed. A significance level was defined as α=5%, power of 90% (β=10%), and an anticipated treatment effect to detect equal to the final estimate from the network meta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10
Lattice constants and expansivities of gas hydrates from 10 K up to the stability limit
Hansen, T. C.; Falenty, A.; Kuhs, W. F.
2016-02-07
The lattice constants of hydrogenated and deuterated CH{sub 4}-, CO{sub 2}-, Xe- (clathrate structure type I) and N{sub 2}-hydrates (clathrate structure type II) from 10 K up to the stability limit were established in neutron- and synchrotron diffraction experiments and were used to derive the related thermal expansivities. The following results emerge from this analysis: (1) The differences of expansivities of structure type I and II hydrates are fairly small. (2) Despite the larger guest-size of CO{sub 2} as compared to methane, CO{sub 2}-hydrate has the smaller lattice constants at low temperatures, which is ascribed to the larger attractive guest-hostmore » interaction of the CO{sub 2}-water system. (3) The expansivity of CO{sub 2}-hydrate is larger than for CH{sub 4}-hydrate which leads to larger lattice constants for the former at temperatures above ∼150 K; this is likely due to the higher motional degrees of freedom of the CO{sub 2} guest molecules. (4) The cage occupancies of Xe- and CO{sub 2}-hydrates affect significantly the lattice constants. (5) Similar to ice Ih, the deuterated compounds have generally slightly larger lattice constants which can be ascribed to the somewhat weaker H-bonding. (6) Compared to ice Ih, the high temperature expansivities are about 50% larger; in contrast to ice Ih and the empty hydrate, there is no negative thermal expansion at low temperature. (7) A comparison of the experimental results with lattice dynamical work, with models based on an Einstein oscillator model, and results from inelastic neutron scattering suggest that the contribution of the guest atoms’ vibrational energy to thermal expansion is important, most prominently for CO{sub 2}- and Xe-hydrates.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, A. R.; Kópházi, J.; Eaton, M. D.
2017-12-01
In this paper, a new method to numerically calculate the trace inequality constants, which arise in the calculation of penalty parameters for interior penalty discretisations of elliptic operators, is presented. These constants are provably optimal for the inequality of interest. As their calculation is based on the solution of a generalised eigenvalue problem involving the volumetric and face stiffness matrices, the method is applicable to any element type for which these matrices can be calculated, including standard finite elements and the non-uniform rational B-splines of isogeometric analysis. In particular, the presented method does not require the Jacobian of the element to be constant, and so can be applied to a much wider variety of element shapes than are currently available in the literature. Numerical results are presented for a variety of finite element and isogeometric cases. When the Jacobian is constant, it is demonstrated that the new method produces lower penalty parameters than existing methods in the literature in all cases, which translates directly into savings in the solution time of the resulting linear system. When the Jacobian is not constant, it is shown that the naive application of existing approaches can result in penalty parameters that do not guarantee coercivity of the bilinear form, and by extension, the stability of the solution. The method of manufactured solutions is applied to a model reaction-diffusion equation with a range of parameters, and it is found that using penalty parameters based on the new trace inequality constants result in better conditioned linear systems, which can be solved approximately 11% faster than those produced by the methods from the literature.
Identification of elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants in piezoceramic disks.
Perez, Nicolas; Andrade, Marco A B; Buiochi, Flavio; Adamowski, Julio C
2010-12-01
Three-dimensional modeling of piezoelectric devices requires a precise knowledge of piezoelectric material parameters. The commonly used piezoelectric materials belong to the 6mm symmetry class, which have ten independent constants. In this work, a methodology to obtain precise material constants over a wide frequency band through finite element analysis of a piezoceramic disk is presented. Given an experimental electrical impedance curve and a first estimate for the piezoelectric material properties, the objective is to find the material properties that minimize the difference between the electrical impedance calculated by the finite element method and that obtained experimentally by an electrical impedance analyzer. The methodology consists of four basic steps: experimental measurement, identification of vibration modes and their sensitivity to material constants, a preliminary identification algorithm, and final refinement of the material constants using an optimization algorithm. The application of the methodology is exemplified using a hard lead zirconate titanate piezoceramic. The same methodology is applied to a soft piezoceramic. The errors in the identification of each parameter are statistically estimated in both cases, and are less than 0.6% for elastic constants, and less than 6.3% for dielectric and piezoelectric constants.
Sumiya, Yosuke; Nagahata, Yutaka; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Maeda, Satoshi
2015-12-03
The significance of kinetic analysis as a tool for understanding the reactivity and selectivity of organic reactions has recently been recognized. However, conventional simulation approaches that solve rate equations numerically are not amenable to multistep reaction profiles consisting of fast and slow elementary steps. Herein, we present an efficient and robust approach for evaluating the overall rate constants of multistep reactions via the recursive contraction of the rate equations to give the overall rate constants for the products and byproducts. This new method was applied to the Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ether, as well as a substituted allyl vinyl ether. Notably, the profiles of these reactions contained 23 and 84 local minima, and 66 and 278 transition states, respectively. The overall rate constant for the Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ether was consistent with the experimental value. The selectivity of the Claisen rearrangement reaction has also been assessed using a substituted allyl vinyl ether. The results of this study showed that the conformational entropy in these flexible chain molecules had a substantial impact on the overall rate constants. This new method could therefore be used to estimate the overall rate constants of various other organic reactions involving flexible molecules.
Inter-atomic force constants of BaF{sub 2} by diffuse neutron scattering measurement
Sakuma, Takashi, E-mail: sakuma@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Makhsun,; Sakai, Ryutaro
2015-04-16
Diffuse neutron scattering measurement on BaF{sub 2} crystals was performed at 10 K and 295 K. Oscillatory form in the diffuse scattering intensity of BaF{sub 2} was observed at 295 K. The correlation effects among thermal displacements of F-F atoms were obtained from the analysis of oscillatory diffuse scattering intensity. The force constants among neighboring atoms in BaF{sub 2} were determined and compared to those in ionic crystals and semiconductors.
Constant symplectic 2-groupoids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, Rajan Amit; Tang, Xiang
2018-05-01
We propose a definition of symplectic 2-groupoid which includes integrations of Courant algebroids that have been recently constructed. We study in detail the simple but illustrative case of constant symplectic 2-groupoids. We show that the constant symplectic 2-groupoids are, up to equivalence, in one-to-one correspondence with a simple class of Courant algebroids that we call constant Courant algebroids. Furthermore, we find a correspondence between certain Dirac structures and Lagrangian sub-2-groupoids.
Quantification of root gravitropic response using a constant stimulus feedback system.
Wolverton, Chris
2015-01-01
Numerous software packages now exist for quantifying root growth responses, most of which analyze a time resolved sequence of images ex post facto. However, few allow for the real-time analysis of growth responses. The system in routine use in our lab allows for real-time growth analysis and couples this to positional feedback to control the stimulus experienced by the responding root. This combination allows us to overcome one of the confounding variables in studies of root gravity response. Seedlings are grown on standard petri plates attached to a vertical rotating stage and imaged using infrared illumination. The angle of a particular region of the root is determined by image analysis, compared to the prescribed angle, and any corrections in positioning are made by controlling a stepper motor. The system allows for the long-term stimulation of a root at a constant angle and yields insights into the gravity perception and transduction machinery not possible with other approaches.
Constant-frequency, clamped-mode resonant converters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Materu, Peter; Lee, Fred C.
1987-01-01
Two novel clamped-mode resonant converters are proposed which operate at a constant frequency while retaining many desired features of conventional series- and parallel-resonant converters. State-plane analysis techniques are used to identify all possible operating modes and define their mode boundaries. Control-to-output characteristics are derived that specify the regions for natural and forced commutation. The predicted operating modes are verified using a prototype circuit.
Bifurcation Analysis of a DC-DC Bidirectional Power Converter Operating with Constant Power Loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristiano, Rony; Pagano, Daniel J.; Benadero, Luis; Ponce, Enrique
Direct current (DC) microgrids (MGs) are an emergent option to satisfy new demands for power quality and integration of renewable resources in electrical distribution systems. This work addresses the large-signal stability analysis of a DC-DC bidirectional converter (DBC) connected to a storage device in an islanding MG. This converter is responsible for controlling the balance of power (load demand and generation) under constant power loads (CPLs). In order to control the DC bus voltage through a DBC, we propose a robust sliding mode control (SMC) based on a washout filter. Dynamical systems techniques are exploited to assess the quality of this switching control strategy. In this sense, a bifurcation analysis is performed to study the nonlinear stability of a reduced model of this system. The appearance of different bifurcations when load parameters and control gains are changed is studied in detail. In the specific case of Teixeira Singularity (TS) bifurcation, some experimental results are provided, confirming the mathematical predictions. Both a deeper insight in the dynamic behavior of the controlled system and valuable design criteria are obtained.
Lott, B.; Escande, L.; Larsson, S.; ...
2012-07-19
Here, we present a method enabling the creation of constant-uncertainty/constant-significance light curves with the data of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). The adaptive-binning method enables more information to be encapsulated within the light curve than with the fixed-binning method. Although primarily developed for blazar studies, it can be applied to any sources. Furthermore, this method allows the starting and ending times of each interval to be calculated in a simple and quick way during a first step. The reported mean flux and spectral index (assuming the spectrum is a power-law distribution) in the interval are calculated via the standard LATmore » analysis during a second step. In the absence of major caveats associated with this method Monte-Carlo simulations have been established. We present the performance of this method in determining duty cycles as well as power-density spectra relative to the traditional fixed-binning method.« less
2013-01-01
Background Copy number variation (CNV), an important source of diversity in genomic structure, is frequently found in clusters called CNV regions (CNVRs). CNVRs are strongly associated with segmental duplications (SDs), but the composition of these complex repetitive structures remains unclear. Results We conducted self-comparative-plot analysis of all mouse chromosomes using the high-speed and large-scale-homology search algorithm SHEAP. For eight chromosomes, we identified various types of large SD as tartan-checked patterns within the self-comparative plots. A complex arrangement of diagonal split lines in the self-comparative-plots indicated the presence of large homologous repetitive sequences. We focused on one SD on chromosome 13 (SD13M), and developed SHEPHERD, a stepwise ab initio method, to extract longer repetitive elements and to characterize repetitive structures in this region. Analysis using SHEPHERD showed the existence of 60 core elements, which were expected to be the basic units that form SDs within the repetitive structure of SD13M. The demonstration that sequences homologous to the core elements (>70% homology) covered approximately 90% of the SD13M region indicated that our method can characterize the repetitive structure of SD13M effectively. Core elements were composed largely of fragmented repeats of a previously identified type, such as long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), together with partial genic regions. Comparative genome hybridization array analysis showed that whereas 42 core elements were components of CNVR that varied among mouse strains, 8 did not vary among strains (constant type), and the status of the others could not be determined. The CNV-type core elements contained significantly larger proportions of long terminal repeat (LTR) types of retrotransposon than the constant-type core elements, which had no CNV. The higher divergence rates observed in the CNV-type core elements than in the constant type indicate that the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pontes, P. C.; Naveira-Cotta, C. P.
2016-09-01
The theoretical analysis for the design of microreactors in biodiesel production is a complicated task due to the complex liquid-liquid flow and mass transfer processes, and the transesterification reaction that takes place within these microsystems. Thus, computational simulation is an important tool that aids in understanding the physical-chemical phenomenon and, consequently, in determining the suitable conditions that maximize the conversion of triglycerides during the biodiesel synthesis. A diffusive-convective-reactive coupled nonlinear mathematical model, that governs the mass transfer process during the transesterification reaction in parallel plates microreactors, under isothermal conditions, is here described. A hybrid numerical-analytical solution via the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) for this partial differential system is developed and the eigenfunction expansions convergence rates are extensively analyzed and illustrated. The heuristic method of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied in the inverse analysis of the proposed direct problem, to estimate the reaction kinetics constants, which is a critical step in the design of such microsystems. The results present a good agreement with the limited experimental data in the literature, but indicate that the GITT methodology combined with the PSO approach provide a reliable computational algorithm for direct-inverse analysis in such reactive mass transfer problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke
2017-08-01
In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be < 4.3% and 2.1% respectively. Good recoveries for ethylene and sulfur dioxide from fruit samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS.
Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke
2017-08-05
In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH 4 + strategy for ethylene and SO 2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO 2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO 2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO 2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be <4.3% and 2.1% respectively. Good recoveries for ethylene and sulfur dioxide from fruit samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis; Manhès, Gérard; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Gaillardet, Jérôme
2015-09-30
During transient signal acquisition by Multi-Collection Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS), an isotope ratio increase or decrease (isotopic drift hereafter) is often observed which is related to the different time responses of the amplifiers involved in multi-collection. This isotopic drift affects the quality of the isotopic data and, in a recent study, a method of internal amplifier signal synchronization for isotope drift correction was proposed. In this work the determination of the amplifier time constants was investigated in order to validate the method of internal amplifier signal synchronization for isotope ratio drift correction. Two different MC-ICPMS instruments, the Neptune and the Neptune Plus, were used, and both the lead transient signals and the signal decay curves of the amplifiers were investigated. Our results show that the first part of the amplifier signal decay curve is characterized by a pure exponential decay. This part of the signal decay was used for the effective calculation of the amplifier first-order time constants. The small differences between these time constants were compared with time lag values obtained from the method of isotope signal synchronization and were found to be in good agreement. This work proposes a way of determining amplifier first-order time constants. We show that isotopic drift is directly related to the amplifier first-order time constants and the method of internal amplifier signal synchronization for isotope ratio drift correction is validated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A Constant-Factor Approximation Algorithm for the Link Building Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, Martin; Viglas, Anastasios; Zvedeniouk, Ilia
In this work we consider the problem of maximizing the PageRank of a given target node in a graph by adding k new links. We consider the case that the new links must point to the given target node (backlinks). Previous work [7] shows that this problem has no fully polynomial time approximation schemes unless P = NP. We present a polynomial time algorithm yielding a PageRank value within a constant factor from the optimal. We also consider the naive algorithm where we choose backlinks from nodes with high PageRank values compared to the outdegree and show that the naive algorithm performs much worse on certain graphs compared to the constant factor approximation scheme.
Imaging nanoclusters in the constant height mode of the dynamic SFM.
Barth, Clemens; Pakarinen, Olli H; Foster, Adam S; Henry, Claude R
2006-04-14
For the first time, high quality images of metal nanoclusters which were recorded in the constant height mode of a dynamic scanning force microscope (dynamic SFM) are shown. Surfaces of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were used as a test substrate since metal nanoclusters with well defined and symmetric shapes can be created by epitaxial growth. We performed imaging of gold clusters with sizes between 5 and 15 nm in both scanning modes, constant Δf mode and constant height mode, and compared the image contrast. We notice that clusters in constant height images appear much sharper, and exhibit more reasonable lateral shapes and sizes in comparison to images recorded in the constant Δf mode. With the help of numerical simulations we show that only a microscopically small part of the tip apex (nanotip) is probably the main contributor for the image contrast formation. In principle, the constant height mode can be used for imaging surfaces of any material, e.g. ionic crystals, as shown for the system Au/NaCl(001).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.
2008-01-01
An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…
Role of dielectric constant in electrohydrodynamics of conducting fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.; Roberts, Glyn O.
1992-01-01
Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flows are driven by the interaction of an electric field with variations in electric conductivity or dielectric constant. In reported EHD experiments on the deformation of drops of immiscible dielectric fluids, the role of conductivity has tended to overshadow the role of dielectric constant. Often, large conductivity contrasts were convenient because the conductivities of the dielectric fluid were relatively uncertain. As a result, the observed effects were always qualitatively the same as if there had been no contrast in dielectric constant. Our early experiments studying the EHC deformations of cylindrical streams readily showed the conductivity effect but the dielectric constant effect was not discernible. We have modified our flow chamber and improved our method of observation and can now see an unequivocal dielectric constant effect which is in agreement with the prior theory. In this paper we first give a brief description of the physics of charge buildup at the interface of an immersed spherical drop or flowing cylindrical sample stream and then show how these charge distributions lead to interface distortions and accompanying viscous flows which constitute EHD. We next review theory and experiment describing the deformation of spherical drops. We show that in the reported drop deformation experiments, the contrast in dielectric constant was never sufficient to reverse the deformation due to the conductivity contrast. We review our work describing the deformation of a cylindrical stream of one fluid flowing in a parallel flow of another, and we compare the deformation equations with those for spherical drops. Finally, we show a definite experimental dielectric constant effect for cylindrical stream of aqueous polystyrene latex suspension. The dielectric constant varies with the frequency of the imposed electric field, and the associated EHD flow change is very apparent.
Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks.
Wieland, Shannon C; Brownstein, John S; Berger, Bonnie; Mandl, Kenneth D
2007-06-13
For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p < 0.05). We develop an outbreak detection method, called the expectation-variance model, based on generalized additive modeling to achieve a constant specificity by accounting for not only the expected number of visits, but also the variance of the number of visits. The expectation-variance model achieves constant specificity on all three time scales, as well as earlier detection and improved sensitivity compared to traditional methods in most circumstances. Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.
The effects of varied versus constant high-, medium-, and low-preference stimuli on performance.
Wine, Byron; Wilder, David A
2009-01-01
The purpose of the current study was to compare the delivery of varied versus constant high-, medium-, and low-preference stimuli on performance of 2 adults on a computer-based task in an analogue employment setting. For both participants, constant delivery of the high-preference stimulus produced the greatest increases in performance over baseline; the varied presentation produced performance comparable to constant delivery of medium-preference stimuli. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the selection and delivery of stimuli as part of employee performance-improvement programs in the field of organizational behavior management.
Finite-Temperature Behavior of PdH x Elastic Constants Computed by Direct Molecular Dynamics
Zhou, X. W.; Heo, T. W.; Wood, B. C.; ...
2017-05-30
In this paper, robust time-averaged molecular dynamics has been developed to calculate finite-temperature elastic constants of a single crystal. We find that when the averaging time exceeds a certain threshold, the statistical errors in the calculated elastic constants become very small. We applied this method to compare the elastic constants of Pd and PdH 0.6 at representative low (10 K) and high (500 K) temperatures. The values predicted for Pd match reasonably well with ultrasonic experimental data at both temperatures. In contrast, the predicted elastic constants for PdH 0.6 only match well with ultrasonic data at 10 K; whereas, atmore » 500 K, the predicted values are significantly lower. We hypothesize that at 500 K, the facile hydrogen diffusion in PdH 0.6 alters the speed of sound, resulting in significantly reduced values of predicted elastic constants as compared to the ultrasonic experimental data. Finally, literature mechanical testing experiments seem to support this hypothesis.« less
Chen, Zhijian; Fimmel, Benjamin; Würthner, Frank
2012-08-14
A series of six perylene bisimides (PBIs) with hydrophilic and hydrophobic side chains at the imide nitrogens were applied for a comparative study of the solvent and structural effects on the aggregation behaviour of this class of dyes. A comparison of the binding constants in tetrachloromethane at room temperature revealed the highest binding constant of about 10(5) M(-1) for a PBI bearing 3,4,5-tridodecyloxyphenyl substituents at the imide nitrogens, followed by 3,4,5-tridodecylphenyl and alkyl-substituted PBIs, whereas no aggregation could be observed in the accessible concentration range for PBIs equipped with bulky 2,6-diisopropylphenyl substituents at the imide nitrogens. The aggregation behaviour of three properly soluble compounds was investigated in 17 different solvents covering a broad polarity range from nonpolar n-hexane to highly polar DMSO and water. Linear free energy relationships (LFER) revealed a biphasic behaviour between Gibbs free energies of aggregation and common empirical solvent polarity scales indicating particularly strong π-π stacking interactions in nonpolar aliphatic and polar alcoholic solvents whilst the weakest binding is observed in dichloromethane and chloroform. Accordingly, PBI aggregation is dominated by electrostatic interactions in nonpolar solvents and by solvophobic interactions in protic solvents. In water, the aggregation constant is increased far beyond LFER expectations pointing at a pronounced hydrophobic effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Núñez, M.; Robie, T.; Vlachos, D. G.
2017-10-01
Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation provides insights into catalytic reactions unobtainable with either experiments or mean-field microkinetic models. Sensitivity analysis of KMC models assesses the robustness of the predictions to parametric perturbations and identifies rate determining steps in a chemical reaction network. Stiffness in the chemical reaction network, a ubiquitous feature, demands lengthy run times for KMC models and renders efficient sensitivity analysis based on the likelihood ratio method unusable. We address the challenge of efficiently conducting KMC simulations and performing accurate sensitivity analysis in systems with unknown time scales by employing two acceleration techniques: rate constant rescaling and parallel processing. We develop statistical criteria that ensure sufficient sampling of non-equilibrium steady state conditions. Our approach provides the twofold benefit of accelerating the simulation itself and enabling likelihood ratio sensitivity analysis, which provides further speedup relative to finite difference sensitivity analysis. As a result, the likelihood ratio method can be applied to real chemistry. We apply our methodology to the water-gas shift reaction on Pt(111).
Unruh thermal hadronization and the cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frassino, Antonia M.; Bleicher, Marcus; Mann, Robert B.
2018-05-01
We use black holes with a negative cosmological constant to investigate aspects of the freeze-out temperature for hadron production in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The two black hole solutions present in the anti-de Sitter geometry have different mass and are compared to the data showing that the small black hole solution is in good agreement. This is a new feature in the literature since the small black hole in general relativity has different thermodynamic behavior from that of the large black hole solution. We find that the inclusion of the cosmological constant (which can be interpreted as the plasma pressure) leads to a lowering of the temperature of the freeze-out curve as a function of the baryochemical potential, improving the description previously suggested by Castorina, Kharzeev, and Satz.
2JHH-resolved HSQC: Exclusive determination of geminal proton-proton coupling constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcó, Núria; Nolis, Pau; Gil, Roberto R.; Parella, Teodor
2017-09-01
The measurement of two-bond proton-proton coupling constants (2JHH) in prochiral CH2 groups from the F2 dimension of 2D spectra is not easy due to the usual presence of complex multiplet J patterns, line broadening effects and strong coupling artifacts. These drawbacks are particularly pronounced and frequent in AB spin systems, as those normally exhibited by the pair of diastereotopic CH2 protons. Here, a novel 2JHH-resolved HSQC experiment for the exclusive and accurate determination of the magnitude of 2JHH from the doublet displayed along the highly-resolved indirect F1 dimension is described. A pragmatic 2JHH NMR profile affords a fast overview of the full range of existing 2JHH values. In addition, a 2JHH/δ(13C)-scaled version proves to be an efficient solution when severe signal overlapping complicate a rigorous analysis. The performance of the method is compared with other current techniques and illustrated by the determination of challenging residual dipolar 2DHH coupling constants of small molecules dissolved in weakly orienting media.
Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Nitrile Ices Relevant to Titan's Atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Carrie; Ferrante, Robert F.; Moore, W. James; Hudson, Reggie; Moore, Marla H.
2011-01-01
Spectra and optical constants of nitrile ices known or suspected to be in Titan?s atmosphere have been determined from 2.0 to 333.3 microns (approx.5000 to 30/cm). These results are relevant to the ongoing modeling of Cassini CIRS observations of Titan?s winter pole. Ices studied were: HCN, hydrogen cyanide; C2N2, cyanogen; CH3CN, acetonitrile; C2H5CN, propionitrile; and HC3N, cyanoacetylene. Optical constants were calculated, using Kramers-Kronig analysis, for each nitrile ice?s spectrum measured at a variety of temperatures, in both the amorphous- and crystalline phases. Spectra were also measured for many of the nitriles after quenching at the annealing temperature and compared with those of annealed ices. For each of these molecules we also measured the real component, n, of the refractive index for amorphous and crystalline phases at 670 nm. Several examples of the information contained in these new data sets and their usefulness in modeling Titan?s observed features will be presented (e.g., the broad emission feature at 160/cm; Anderson and Samuelson, 2011).
18 CFR 806.12 - Constant-rate aquifer testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... groundwater availability analysis to determine the availability of water during a 1-in-10-year recurrence... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constant-rate aquifer testing. 806.12 Section 806.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN...
The Original Michaelis Constant: Translation of the 1913 Michaelis-Menten Paper
Johnson, Kenneth A.; Goody, Roger S.
2011-01-01
Nearly 100 years ago Michaelis and Menten published their now classic paper (Michaelis, L., and Menten, M. L. (1913) Die Kinetik der Invertinwirkung, Biochemische Zeitschrift 49, 333–369), in which they show that the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction is proportional to the concentration of enzyme-substrate complex predicted by the Michaelis-Menten equation. Because the original text was written in German, yet is often quoted by English speaking authors, we undertook a complete translation of the 1913 publication, which we provide as an online supplement (http://pubs.acs.org). Here we introduce the translation, describe the historical context of the work, and show a new analysis of the original data. In doing so, we uncovered several surprises that reveal an interesting glimpse into the early history of enzymology. In particular, our re-analysis of Michaelis and Menten’s data using modern computational methods revealed an unanticipated rigor and precision in the original publication and uncovered a sophisticated, comprehensive analysis that has been overlooked in the century since their work was published. Michaelis and Menten not only analyzed initial velocity measurements, but they also fit their full time course data to the integrated form of the rate equations, including product inhibition, and derived a single global constant to represent all of their data. That constant was not the Michaelis constant, but rather, Vmax/Km, the specificity constant times the enzyme concentration (kcat/Km*E0). PMID:21888353
Simulating Supercapacitors: Can We Model Electrodes As Constant Charge Surfaces?
Merlet, Céline; Péan, Clarisse; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Madden, Paul A; Simon, Patrice; Salanne, Mathieu
2013-01-17
Supercapacitors based on an ionic liquid electrolyte and graphite or nanoporous carbon electrodes are simulated using molecular dynamics. We compare a simplified electrode model in which a constant, uniform charge is assigned to each carbon atom with a realistic model in which a constant potential is applied between the electrodes (the carbon charges are allowed to fluctuate). We show that the simulations performed with the simplified model do not provide a correct description of the properties of the system. First, the structure of the adsorbed electrolyte is partly modified. Second, dramatic differences are observed for the dynamics of the system during transient regimes. In particular, upon application of a constant applied potential difference, the increase in the temperature, due to the Joule effect, associated with the creation of an electric current across the cell follows Ohm's law, while unphysically high temperatures are rapidly observed when constant charges are assigned to each carbon atom.
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
The effects of fluctuating or constant thermal regimens on growth, mortality, and feed conversion were determined for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Yellow perch averaging 156mm total length and 43g body weight were held in replicate 288L circular tanks for 129 days under: 1) a diel therm...
Electromyographic Comparison of Squats Using Constant or Variable Resistance.
Andersen, Vidar; Steiro Fimland, Marius; Knutson Kolnes, Maria; Jensen, Susanne; Laume, Martine; Hole Saeterbakken, Atle
2016-12-01
Andersen, V, Fimland, MS, Kolnes, MK, Jensen, S, Laume, M and Saeterbakken, AH. Electromyographic comparison of squats using constant or variable resistance. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3456-3463, 2016-The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris when performing the squat with constant resistance or variable resistance with 2 or 4 elastic bands, respectively, contributing with a mean of 39 and 73% of the total loads. Nineteen resistance-trained women performed 6 repetition maximum using 3 different experimental conditions: free weights (FW), free weights + 2 elastic bands (FW + 2EB), and free weights + 4 elastic bands (FW + 4EB). During analyses, each repetition was divided into 6 phases: upper (more extended knee), middle, and lower phase of the descending and ascending movements. Increased activation in the upper parts of the movement was observed for both variable resistance conditions compared with constant resistance (9-51%, p < 0.001-0.050). Further, a dose-response effect of variable resistance was observed in the upper ascending movement, with 4 elastic bands increasing muscle activation more than 2 elastic bands (7-28%, p = 0.003-0.007). For the whole movement, a 12% higher activation of the biceps femoris was observed for FW + 4EB compared with FW (p = 0.005). There were no differences between the other conditions in any of the muscles (p = 0.077-1.000). In conclusion, performing the squat using free weights in combination with elastic bands seems to be preferable compared with free weights alone and more so with a high contribution from variable resistance to the total load.
Gravity–capillary waves in finite depth on flows of constant vorticity
Hsu, Hung-Chu; Francius, Marc; Kharif, Christian
2016-01-01
This paper considers two-dimensional periodic gravity–capillary waves propagating steadily in finite depth on a linear shear current (constant vorticity). A perturbation series solution for steady periodic waves, accurate up to the third order, is derived using a classical Stokes expansion procedure, which allows us to include surface tension effects in the analysis of wave–current interactions in the presence of constant vorticity. The analytical results are then compared with numerical computations with the full equations. The main results are (i) the phase velocity is strongly dependent on the value of the vorticity; (ii) the singularities (Wilton singularities) in the Stokes expansion in powers of wave amplitude that correspond to a Bond number of 1/2 and 1/3, which are the consequences of the non-uniformity in the ordering of the Fourier coefficients, are found to be influenced by vorticity; (iii) different surface profiles of capillary–gravity waves are computed and the effect of vorticity on those profiles is shown to be important, in particular that the solutions exhibit type-2-like wave features, characterized by a secondary maximum on the surface profile with a trough between the two maxima. PMID:27956873
Colossal dielectric constant in PrFeO 3 semiconductor ceramics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, Bandi Vittal; Rao, G. Narsinga; Chen, J. W.; Babu, D. Suresh
2012-02-01
The perovskite PrFeO 3 ceramics were synthesized via sol-gel method. The dielectric properties and impedance spectroscopy (IS) of these ceramics were studied in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1000 kHz in the temperature range from 80 K to 300 K. These materials exhibited colossal dielectric constant value of ˜10 4 at room temperature. The response is similar to that observed for relaxorferroelectrics. IS data analysis indicates the ceramics to be electrically heterogeneous semiconductor consisting of semiconducting grains with dielectric constant 30 and more resistive grain boundaries with effective dielectric constant ˜10 4. We conclude, therefore that grain boundary effect is the primary source for the high effective permittivity in PrFeO 3 ceramics.
Defect-induced change of temperature-dependent elastic constants in BCC iron
Gao, N.; Setyawan, W.; Zhang, S. H.
2017-07-01
The effects of radiation-induced defects (randomly distributed vacancies, voids, and interstitial dislocation loops) on temperature-dependent elastic constants, C11, C12, and C44 in BCC iron, are studied with molecular dynamics method. The elastic constants are found to decrease with increasing temperatures for all cases containing different defects. The presence of vacancies, voids, or interstitial loops further decreases the elastic constants. For a given number of point defects, the randomly distributed vacancies show the strongest effect compared to voids or interstitial loops. All these results are expected to provide useful information to combine with experimental results for further understanding of radiation damage.
Comparative analysis of existing models for power-grid synchronization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.
2015-01-01
The dynamics of power-grid networks is becoming an increasingly active area of research within the physics and network science communities. The results from such studies are typically insightful and illustrative, but are often based on simplifying assumptions that can be either difficult to assess or not fully justified for realistic applications. Here we perform a comprehensive comparative analysis of three leading models recently used to study synchronization dynamics in power-grid networks—a fundamental problem of practical significance given that frequency synchronization of all power generators in the same interconnection is a necessary condition for a power grid to operate. We show that each of these models can be derived from first principles within a common framework based on the classical model of a generator, thereby clarifying all assumptions involved. This framework allows us to view power grids as complex networks of coupled second-order phase oscillators with both forcing and damping terms. Using simple illustrative examples, test systems, and real power-grid datasets, we study the inherent frequencies of the oscillators as well as their coupling structure, comparing across the different models. We demonstrate, in particular, that if the network structure is not homogeneous, generators with identical parameters need to be modeled as non-identical oscillators in general. We also discuss an approach to estimate the required (dynamical) system parameters that are unavailable in typical power-grid datasets, their use for computing the constants of each of the three models, and an open-source MATLAB toolbox that we provide for these computations.
CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 121 NIST CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants (Web, free access) This site, developed in the Physics Laboratory at NIST, addresses three topics: fundamental physical constants, the International System of Units (SI), which is the modern metric system, and expressing the uncertainty of measurement results.
Pierens, Gregory K; Venkatachalam, Taracad K; Reutens, David C
2016-12-01
Two- and three-bond coupling constants ( 2 J HC and 3 J HC ) were determined for a series of 12 substituted cinnamic acids using a selective 2D inphase/antiphase (IPAP)-single quantum multiple bond correlation (HSQMBC) and 1D proton coupled 13 C NMR experiments. The coupling constants from two methods were compared and found to give very similar values. The results showed coupling constant values ranging from 1.7 to 9.7 Hz and 1.0 to 9.6 Hz for the IPAP-HSQMBC and the direct 13 C NMR experiments, respectively. The experimental values of the coupling constants were compared with discrete density functional theory (DFT) calculated values and were found to be in good agreement for the 3 J HC . However, the DFT method under estimated the 2 J HC coupling constants. Knowing the limitations of the measurement and calculation of these multibond coupling constants will add confidence to the assignment of conformation or stereochemical aspects of complex molecules like natural products. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Determination of mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal.
Soluch, Waldemar; Brzozowski, Ernest; Lysakowska, Magdalena; Sadura, Jolanta
2011-11-01
Mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal were determined. Mass density was obtained from the measured ratio of mass to volume of a cuboid. The dielectric constants were determined from the measured capacitances of an interdigital transducer (IDT) deposited on a Z-cut plate and from a parallel plate capacitor fabricated from this plate. The elastic and piezoelectric constants were determined by comparing the measured and calculated SAW velocities and electromechanical coupling coefficients on the Z- and X-cut plates. The following new constants were obtained: mass density p = 5986 kg/m(3); relative dielectric constants (at constant strain S) ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 8.6 and ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 10.5, where ε(0) is a dielectric constant of free space; elastic constants (at constant electric field E) C(E)(11) = 349.7, C(E)(12) = 128.1, C(E)(13) = 129.4, C(E)(33) = 430.3, and C(E)(44) = 96.5 GPa; and piezoelectric constants e(33) = 0.84, e(31) = -0.47, and e(15) = -0.41 C/m(2).
Galvanic Cells and the Determination of Equilibrium Constants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brosmer, Jonathan L.; Peters, Dennis G.
2012-01-01
Readily assembled mini-galvanic cells can be employed to compare their observed voltages with those predicted from the Nernst equation and to determine solubility products for silver halides and overall formation constants for metal-ammonia complexes. Results obtained by students in both an honors-level first-year course in general chemistry and…
Ramirez de Noriega, Fernando; Eitan, Renana; Marmor, Odeya; Lavi, Adi; Linetzky, Eduard; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi
2015-02-18
Background: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Motor efficacy and safety have been established for constant voltage (CV) devices and more recently for constant current (CC) devices. CC devices adjust output voltage to provide CC stimulation irrespective of impedance fluctuation, while the current applied by CV stimulation depends on the impedance that may change over time. No study has directly compared the clinical effects of these two stimulation modalities. Objective: To compare the safety and clinical impact of CC STN DBS to CV STN DBS in patients with advanced PD 2 years after surgery. Methods: Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had undergone STN DBS surgery for idiopathic PD, had been implanted with a Medtronic Activa PC and if their stimulation program and medication had been stable for at least 1 year. This single-center trial was designed as a double-blind, randomized, prospective study with crossover after 2 weeks. Motor equivalence of the 2 modalities was confirmed utilizing part III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). PD diaries and multiple subjective and objective evaluations of quality of life, depression, cognition and emotional processing were evaluated on both CV and on CC stimulation. Analysis using the paired t test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was performed to identify any significant difference between the stimulation modalities. Results: 8 patients were recruited (6 men, 2 women); 1 patient did not complete the study. The average age at surgery was 56.7 years (range 47-63). Disease duration at the time of surgery was 7.5 years (range 3-12). Patients were recruited 23.8 months (range 22.5-24) after surgery. At the postoperative study baseline, this patient group showed an average motor improvement of 69% (range 51-97) as measured by the change in UPDRS part III with stimulation alone. Levodopa equivalent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, I. I.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, C. S.; Choi, Y.-W.
2011-02-01
We propose a novel circuit to be applied to the front-end integrated circuits of gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. Our circuit is designed as a type of current conveyor (ICON) employing a constant- gm (transconductance) method which can significantly improve the linearity in the amplified signals by using a large time constant and the time-invariant characteristics of an amplifier. The constant- gm method is obtained by a feedback control which keeps the transconductance of the input transistor constant. To verify the performance of the propose circuit, the time constant variations for the channel resistances are simulated with the TSMC 0.18 μm transistor parameters using HSPICE, and then compared with those of a conventional ICON. As a result, the proposed ICON shows only 0.02% output linearity variation and 0.19% time constant variation for the input amplitude up to 100 mV. These are significantly small values compared to a conventional ICON's 1.39% and 19.43%, respectively, for the same conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Jinlong; Tian, Yan; Hu, Fei; Gui, Liangqi; Cheng, Yayun; Peng, Xiaohui
2017-10-01
Dielectric constant is an important role to describe the properties of matter. This paper proposes This paper proposes the concept of mixed dielectric constant(MDC) in passive microwave radiometric measurement. In addition, a MDC inversion method is come up, Ratio of Angle-Polarization Difference(RAPD) is utilized in this method. The MDC of several materials are investigated using RAPD. Brightness temperatures(TBs) which calculated by MDC and original dielectric constant are compared. Random errors are added to the simulation to test the robustness of the algorithm. Keywords: Passive detection, microwave/millimeter, radiometric measurement, ratio of angle-polarization difference (RAPD), mixed dielectric constant (MDC), brightness temperatures, remote sensing, target recognition.
Theory of diffusion of active particles that move at constant speed in two dimensions.
Sevilla, Francisco J; Gómez Nava, Luis A
2014-08-01
Starting from a Langevin description of active particles that move with constant speed in infinite two-dimensional space and its corresponding Fokker-Planck equation, we develop a systematic method that allows us to obtain the coarse-grained probability density of finding a particle at a given location and at a given time in arbitrary short-time regimes. By going beyond the diffusive limit, we derive a generalization of the telegrapher equation. Such generalization preserves the hyperbolic structure of the equation and incorporates memory effects in the diffusive term. While no difference is observed for the mean-square displacement computed from the two-dimensional telegrapher equation and from our generalization, the kurtosis results in a sensible parameter that discriminates between both approximations. We carry out a comparative analysis in Fourier space that sheds light on why the standard telegrapher equation is not an appropriate model to describe the propagation of particles with constant speed in dispersive media.
Third-order elastic constants of diamond determined from experimental data
Winey, J. M.; Hmiel, A.; Gupta, Y. M.
2016-06-01
The pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) of diamond were determined by analyzing previous sound velocity measurements under hydrostatic stress [McSkimin and Andreatch, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 294 (1972)]. Furthermore, our analysis corrects an error in the previously reported results.We present a complete and corrected set of third-order elastic constants (TOECs) using the corrected pressure derivatives, together with published data for the nonlinear elastic response of shock compressed diamond [Lang and Gupta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 125502 (2011)] and it differs significantly from TOECs published previously.
Variations in the fine-structure constant constraining gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra, V. B.; Cunha, M. S.; Muniz, C. R.; Tahim, M. O.; Vieira, H. S.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we investigate how the fine-structure constant, α, locally varies in the presence of a static and spherically symmetric gravitational source. The procedure consists in calculating the solution and the energy eigenvalues of a massive scalar field around that source, considering the weak-field regime. From this result, we obtain expressions for a spatially variable fine-structure constant by considering suitable modifications in the involved parameters admitting some scenarios of semi-classical and quantum gravities. Constraints on free parameters of the approached theories are calculated from astrophysical observations of the emission spectra of a white dwarf. Such constraints are finally compared with those obtained in the literature.
Reflectance and optical constants for Cer-Vit from 250 to 1050 A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osantowski, J. F.
1974-01-01
The reflectance for a bowl-feed polished Cer-Vit sample was measured at nine wavelengths and five angles of incidence from 15 to 85 deg. Optical constants were derived by the reflectance-vs-angle-of-incidence method and compared to previously reported values for ultralow-expansion fused silica and several other glasses. Surface-roughness corrections of the reflectance data and optical constants are discussed.
Konrad, Andreas; Budini, Francesco; Tilp, Markus
2017-08-01
Static stretching induces acute structural changes of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) that are related to the intensity or duration of stretching. It has been reported that stretching with a constant torque (CT) leads to greater joint range of motion changes than stretching with a constant angle (CA). Whether or not this difference is due to different structural changes of the MTUs of the lower leg and ankle plantar flexors is not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of single CA and CT stretching on various muscle and tendon mechanical properties. Seventeen young, healthy volunteers were tested on two separate days using either CT or CA stretching (4 × 30 s each). Before and after stretching, dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM), passive resistive torque (PRT), and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer. Ultrasonography of the medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement allowed us to determine the length changes in the tendon and muscle, respectively, and hence to calculate their stiffness. Maximum dorsiflexion increased while PRT, muscle-tendon stiffness, and muscle stiffness decreased following both CA and CT stretching. There was a greater increase in RoM following CT stretching compared to CA stretching. Moreover, the decline in PRT was greater during CT stretching compared to CA stretching. As expected, several functional adaptations (RoM, PRT) were different between CT and CA stretching due to the higher intensity of CT stretching. However, no structural differences in the adaptations to the stretching modalities could be detected. We suggest that the different functional adaptations between CA and CT stretching are the consequence of different adaptations in the perception of stretch and pain.
Vishnuganth, M A; Remya, Neelancherry; Kumar, Mathava; Selvaraju, N
2017-05-04
Carbofuran (CBF) removal in a continuous-flow photocatalytic reactor with granular activated carbon supported titanium dioxide (GAC-TiO 2 ) catalyst was investigated. The effects of feed flow rate, TiO 2 concentration and addition of supplementary oxidants on CBF removal were investigated. The central composite design (CCD) was used to design the experiments and to estimate the effects of feed flow rate and TiO 2 concentration on CBF removal. The outcome of CCD experiments demonstrated that reactor performance was influenced mainly by feed flow rate compared to TiO 2 concentration. A second-order polynomial model developed based on CCD experiments fitted the experimental data with good correlation (R 2 ∼ 0.964). The addition of 1 mL min -1 hydrogen peroxide has shown complete CBF degradation and 76% chemical oxygen demand removal under the following operating conditions of CBF ∼50 mg L -1 , TiO 2 ∼5 mg L -1 and feed flow rate ∼82.5 mL min -1 . Rate constant of the photodegradation process was also calculated by applying the kinetic data in pseudo-first-order kinetics. Four major degradation intermediates of CBF were identified using GC-MS analysis. As a whole, the reactor system and GAC-TiO 2 catalyst used could be constructive in cost-effective CBF removal with no impact to receiving environment through getaway of photocatalyst.
Numerical results on the transcendence of constants involving pi, e, and Euler's constant
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, David H.
1988-01-01
The existence of simple polynomial equations (integer relations) for the constants e/pi, e + pi, log pi, gamma (Euler's constant), e exp gamma, gamma/e, gamma/pi, and log gamma is investigated by means of numerical computations. The recursive form of the Ferguson-Fourcade algorithm (Ferguson and Fourcade, 1979; Ferguson, 1986 and 1987) is implemented on the Cray-2 supercomputer at NASA Ames, applying multiprecision techniques similar to those described by Bailey (1988) except that FFTs are used instead of dual-prime-modulus transforms for multiplication. It is shown that none of the constants has an integer relation of degree eight or less with coefficients of Euclidean norm 10 to the 9th or less.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Emami, Leila; Sharghi, Hashem
2010-01-01
The acidity constants of some newly synthesized Schiff base derivatives were determined by hard-model based multivariate data analysis of the spectrophotometric data in the course of pH-metric titration in 50% (v/v) methanol-water binary solvent. The employed data analysis method was also able to extract the pure spectra and pH-dependent concentration profiles of the acid-base species. The molecules that possess different substituents (both electron donating and withdrawing) on the ortho-, meta- and para-positions of one of the phenyl ring showed variable acidity constants ranging from 8.77 to 11.07 whereas the parent molecule had an acidity constant of 10.25. To investigate the quantitative effects of changing of substitution pattern on the acidity constant, a quantitative structure-property relation analysis was conducted using substituent constants and molecular descriptor. Some models with high statistical quality (measured by cross-validation Q2) were obtained. It was found that the acidity constant of the studied molecules in the methanol-water mixed solvent not only is affected by electronic features of the solutes but also by the lipophilic interaction between methanol part of solvent and the deprotonated solutes.
Cosmological constant problem and renormalized vacuum energy density in curved background
Kohri, Kazunori; Matsui, Hiroki, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: matshiro@post.kek.jp
The current vacuum energy density observed as dark energy ρ{sub dark}≅ 2.5×10{sup −47} GeV{sup 4} is unacceptably small compared with any other scales. Therefore, we encounter serious fine-tuning problem and theoretical difficulty to derive the dark energy. However, the theoretically attractive scenario has been proposed and discussed in literature: in terms of the renormalization-group (RG) running of the cosmological constant, the vacuum energy density can be expressed as ρ{sub vacuum}≅ m {sup 2} H {sup 2} where m is the mass of the scalar field and rather dynamical in curved spacetime. However, there has been no rigorous proof to derivemore » this expression and there are some criticisms about the physical interpretation of the RG running cosmological constant. In the present paper, we revisit the RG running effects of the cosmological constant and investigate the renormalized vacuum energy density in curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the vacuum energy density described by ρ{sub vacuum}≅ m {sup 2} H {sup 2} appears as quantum effects of the curved background rather than the running effects of cosmological constant. Comparing to cosmological observational data, we obtain an upper bound on the mass of the scalar fields to be smaller than the Planck mass, m ∼< M {sub Pl}.« less
Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galloway, C. W.
1982-01-01
Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.
Ehrensberger, Mark T; Gilbert, Jeremy L
2010-05-01
The measurement of electrochemical impedance is a valuable tool to assess the electrochemical environment that exists at the surface of metallic biomaterials. This article describes the development and validation of a new technique, potential step impedance analysis (PSIA), to assess the electrochemical impedance of materials whose interface with solution can be modeled as a simplified Randles circuit that is modified with a constant phase element. PSIA is based upon applying a step change in voltage to a working electrode and analyzing the subsequent current transient response in a combined time and frequency domain technique. The solution resistance, polarization resistance, and interfacial capacitance are found directly in the time domain. The experimental current transient is numerically transformed to the frequency domain to determine the constant phase exponent, alpha. This combined time and frequency approach was tested using current transients generated from computer simulations, from resistor-capacitor breadboard circuits, and from commercially pure titanium samples immersed in phosphate buffered saline and polarized at -800 mV or +1000 mV versus Ag/AgCl. It was shown that PSIA calculates equivalent admittance and impedance behavior over this range of potentials when compared to standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This current transient approach characterizes the frequency response of the system without the need for expensive frequency response analyzers or software. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Construction of Lines of Constant Density and Constant Refractive Index for Ternary Liquid Mixtures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tasic, Aleksandar Z.; Djordjevic, Bojan D.
1983-01-01
Demonstrates construction of density constant and refractive index constant lines in triangular coordinate system on basis of systematic experimental determinations of density and refractive index for both homogeneous (single-phase) ternary liquid mixtures (of known composition) and the corresponding binary compositions. Background information,…
Determination of Acidity Constants by Gradient Flow-Injection Titration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Conceicao, Antonio C. L.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.
2006-01-01
A three-hour laboratory experiment, designed for an advanced undergraduate course in instrumental analysis that illustrates the application of the gradient chamber flow-injection titration (GCFIT) method with spectrophotometric detection to determine acidity constants is presented. The procedure involves the use of an acid-base indicator to obtain…
López-Vallejo, Fabian; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Suárez-Ortiz, Gloria Alejandra; Hernández-Rojas, Adriana C; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio
2011-08-05
A protocol for stereochemical analysis, based on the systematic comparison between theoretical and experimental vicinal (1)H-(1)H NMR coupling constants, was developed and applied to a series of flexible compounds (1-8) derived from the 6-heptenyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one framework. The method included a broad conformational search, followed by geometry optimization at the DFT B3LYP/DGDZVP level, calculation of the vibrational frequencies, thermochemical parameters, magnetic shielding tensors, and the total NMR spin-spin coupling constants. Three scaling factors, depending on the carbon atom hybridizations, were found for the (1)H-C-C-(1)H vicinal coupling constants: f((sp3)-(sp3)) = 0.910, f((sp3)-(sp2)) = 0.929, and f((sp2)-(sp2))= 0.977. A remarkable correlation between the theoretical (J(pre)) and experimental (1)H-(1)H NMR (J(exp)) coupling constants for spicigerolide (1), a cytotoxic natural product, and some of its synthetic stereoisomers (2-4) demonstrated the predictive value of this approach for the stereochemical assignment of highly flexible compounds containing multiple chiral centers. The stereochemistry of two natural 6-heptenyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-ones (14 and 15) containing diverse functional groups in the heptenyl side chain was also analyzed by application of this combined theoretical and experimental approach, confirming its reliability. Additionally, a geometrical analysis for the conformations of 1-8 revealed that weak hydrogen bonds substantially guide the conformational behavior of the tetraacyloxy-6-heptenyl-2H-pyran-2-ones.
Constant-pH molecular dynamics using stochastic titration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baptista, António M.; Teixeira, Vitor H.; Soares, Cláudio M.
2002-09-01
A new method is proposed for performing constant-pH molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, that is, MD simulations where pH is one of the external thermodynamic parameters, like the temperature or the pressure. The protonation state of each titrable site in the solute is allowed to change during a molecular mechanics (MM) MD simulation, the new states being obtained from a combination of continuum electrostatics (CE) calculations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of protonation equilibrium. The coupling between the MM/MD and CE/MC algorithms is done in a way that ensures a proper Markov chain, sampling from the intended semigrand canonical distribution. This stochastic titration method is applied to succinic acid, aimed at illustrating the method and examining the choice of its adjustable parameters. The complete titration of succinic acid, using constant-pH MD simulations at different pH values, gives a clear picture of the coupling between the trans/gauche isomerization and the protonation process, making it possible to reconcile some apparently contradictory results of previous studies. The present constant-pH MD method is shown to require a moderate increase of computational cost when compared to the usual MD method.
Comparative analysis of reflective sheeting.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1981-01-01
A comparative analysis was made of the initial brightness of seibulite brand super engineering grade and scotchlite brand high intensity grade reflective sheeting under road conditions. Overhead and ground-mounted guide signs were analyzed. Human fac...
A Chemogenomic Analysis of Ionization Constants - Implications for Drug Discovery
Manallack, David T.; Prankerd, Richard J.; Nassta, Gemma C.; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I.; Chalmers, David K.
2013-01-01
Chemogenomics methods seek to characterize the interaction between drugs and biological systems and are an important guide for the selection of screening compounds. The acid/base character of drugs has a profound influence on their affinity for the receptor, on their absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) profile and the way the drug can be formulated. In particular, the charge state of a molecule greatly influences its lipophilicity and biopharmaceutical characteristics. This study investigates the acid/base profile of human small molecule drugs, chemogenomics datasets and screening compounds including a natural products set. We estimate the ionization constants (pKa values) of these compounds and determine the identity of the ionizable functional groups in each set. We find substantial differences in acid/base profiles of the chemogenomic classes. In many cases, these differences can be linked to the nature of the target binding site and the corresponding functional groups needed for recognition of the ligand. Clear differences are also observed between the acid/base characteristics of drugs and screening compounds. For example, the proportion of drugs containing a carboxylic acid was 20%, in stark contrast to a value of 2.4% for the screening set sample. The proportion of aliphatic amines was 27% for drugs and only 3.4% for screening compounds. This suggests that there is a mismatch between commercially available screening compounds and the compounds that are likely to interact with a given chemogenomic target family. Our analysis provides a guide for the selection of screening compounds to better target specific chemogenomic families with regard to the overall balance of acids, bases and pKa distributions. PMID:23303535
The observational constraint on constant-roll inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Qing
2018-07-01
We discuss the constant-roll inflation with constant ɛ2 and constant \\bar η . By using the method of Bessel function approximation, the analytical expressions for the scalar and tensor power spectra, the scalar and tensor spectral tilts, and the tensor to scalar ratio are derived up to the first order of ɛ1. The model with constant ɛ2 is ruled out by the observations at the 3σ confidence level, and the model with constant \\bar η is consistent with the observations at the 1σ confidence level. The potential for the model with constant \\bar η is also obtained from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Although the observations constrain the constant-roll inflation to be the slow-roll inflation, the n s- r results from the constant-roll inflation are not the same as those from the slow-roll inflation even when \\bar η 0.01.
Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.
1962-01-01
The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.
Decay constants of the charmed tensor mesons at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azizi, K.; Sundu, H.; Türkan, A.; Veliev, E. Veli
2016-01-01
Investigation of the thermal properties of the mesons with higher spin is one of the important problems in the hadron physics. At finite temperature, the Lorentz invariance is broken by the choice of a preferred frame of reference and some new operators appear in the Wilson expansion. Taking into account these additional operators, we calculate the thermal two-point correlation function for D2*(2460 ) and Ds2 *(2573 ) tensor mesons. In order to perform the numerical analysis, we use the fermionic part of the energy density obtained both from lattice QCD and Chiral perturbation theory. We also use the temperature dependent continuum threshold and show that the values of the decay constants decrease considerably near to the critical temperature compared to their values in the vacuum. Our results at zero temperature are in good consistency with predictions of other nonperturbative models.
MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION RATE CONSTANTS OF STRUCTURALLY DIVERSE MAN-MADE CHEMICALS
To assist in estimating microbially mediated transformation rates of man-made chemicals from their chemical structures, all second order rate constants that have been measured under conditions that make the values comparable have been extracted from the literature and combined wi...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
2002-01-01
The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on advanced structural ceramics tested under constant stress and cyclic stress loading at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation between the time to failure and applied stress (or maximum applied stress in cyclic loading) was very reasonable for most of the materials studied. It was also found that life prediction for cyclic stress loading from data of constant stress loading in the exponential formulation was in good agreement with the experimental data, resulting in a similar degree of accuracy as compared with the power-law formulation. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.
Connecting Fundamental Constants
Di Mario, D.
2008-05-29
A model for a black hole electron is built from three basic constants only: h, c and G. The result is a description of the electron with its mass and charge. The nature of this black hole seems to fit the properties of the Planck particle and new relationships among basic constants are possible. The time dilation factor in a black hole associated with a variable gravitational field would appear to us as a charge; on the other hand the Planck time is acting as a time gap drastically limiting what we are able to measure and its dimension willmore » appear in some quantities. This is why the Planck time is numerically very close to the gravitational/electric force ratio in an electron: its difference, disregarding a {pi}{radical}(2) factor, is only 0.2%. This is not a coincidence, it is always the same particle and the small difference is between a rotating and a non-rotating particle. The determination of its rotational speed yields accurate numbers for many quantities, including the fine structure constant and the electron magnetic moment.« less
Chen, Jun; Bai, Lian-Yang; Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Run-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Ping
2014-01-01
Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIPuv possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIPFIR radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot’s of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high-and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), and mercury analyzer (MA). Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%–94.8%), higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%–97.1% and 94.4%–101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively. PMID:24398982
Constant curvature surfaces of the supersymmetric ℂP{sup N−1} sigma model
Delisle, L., E-mail: delisle@dms.umontreal.ca; Hussin, V., E-mail: hussin@dms.umontreal.ca; Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7
2015-02-15
Constant curvature surfaces are constructed from the finite action solutions of the supersymmetric ℂP{sup N−1} sigma model. It is shown that there is a unique holomorphic solution which leads to constant curvature surfaces: the generalized Veronese curve. We give a general criterion to construct non-holomorphic solutions of the model. We extend our analysis to general supersymmetric Grassmannian models.
How fundamental are fundamental constants?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duff, M. J.
2015-01-01
I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, ?. For example, the standard model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers or scales? they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as ?, c, G, e and k ?, are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense, only dimensionless constants are 'fundamental'. Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental 'constants' of nature is operationally well defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as ? or ? on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might disagree depending on their apparatus. All these confusions disappear if one asks only unit-independent questions. We provide a selection of opposing opinions in the literature and respond accordingly.
The vibrational dependence of dissociative recombination: Rate constants for N{sub 2}{sup +}
Guberman, Steven L., E-mail: slg@sci.org
Dissociative recombination rate constants are reported with electron temperature dependent uncertainties for the lowest 5 vibrational levels of the N{sub 2}{sup +} ground state. The rate constants are determined from ab initio calculations of potential curves, electronic widths, quantum defects, and cross sections. At 100 K electron temperature, the rate constants overlap with the exception of the third vibrational level. At and above 300 K, the rate constants for excited vibrational levels are significantly smaller than that for the ground level. It is shown that any experimentally determined total rate constant at 300 K electron temperature that is smaller thanmore » 2.0 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup 3}/s is likely to be for ions that have a substantially excited vibrational population. Using the vibrational level specific rate constants, the total rate constant is in very good agreement with that for an excited vibrational distribution found in a storage ring experiment. It is also shown that a prior analysis of a laser induced fluorescence experiment is quantitatively flawed due to the need to account for reactions with unknown rate constants. Two prior calculations of the dissociative recombination rate constant are shown to be inconsistent with the cross sections upon which they are based. The rate constants calculated here contribute to the resolution of a 30 year old disagreement between modeled and observed N{sub 2}{sup +} ionospheric densities.« less
The Effects of Varied versus Constant High-, Medium-, and Low-Preference Stimuli on Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wine, Byron; Wilder, David A.
2009-01-01
The purpose of the current study was to compare the delivery of varied versus constant high-, medium-, and low-preference stimuli on performance of 2 adults on a computer-based task in an analogue employment setting. For both participants, constant delivery of the high-preference stimulus produced the greatest increases in performance over…
The transmembrane gradient of the dielectric constant influences the DPH lifetime distribution.
Konopásek, I; Kvasnicka, P; Amler, E; Kotyk, A; Curatola, G
1995-11-06
The fluorescence lifetime distribution of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and 1-[4-(trimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) in egg-phosphatidylcholine liposomes was measured in normal and heavy water. The lower dielectric constant (by approximately 12%) of heavy water compared with normal water was employed to provide direct evidence that the drop of the dielectric constant along the membrane normal shifts the centers of the distribution of both DPH and TMA-DPH to higher values and sharpens the widths of the distribution. The profile of the dielectric constant along the membrane normal was not found to be a linear gradient (in contrast to [1]) but a more complex function. Presence of cholesterol in liposomes further shifted the center of the distributions to higher value and sharpened them. In addition, it resulted in a more gradient-like profile of the dielectric constant (i.e. linearization) along the normal of the membrane. The effect of the change of dielectric constant on the membrane proteins is discussed.
Time constant determination for electrical equivalent of biological cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Dutta-Gupta, Shourya; Kumar, Ravi; Tewari, Abhishek; Basu, Bikramjit
2009-04-01
The electric field interactions with biological cells are of significant interest in various biophysical and biomedical applications. In order to study such important aspect, it is necessary to evaluate the time constant in order to estimate the response time of living cells in the electric field (E-field). In the present study, the time constant is evaluated by considering the hypothesis of electrical analog of spherical shaped cells and assuming realistic values for capacitance and resistivity properties of cell/nuclear membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. In addition, the resistance of cytoplasm and nucleoplasm was computed based on simple geometrical considerations. Importantly, the analysis on the basis of first principles shows that the average values of time constant would be around 2-3 μs, assuming the theoretical capacitance values and the analytically computed resistance values. The implication of our analytical solution has been discussed in reference to the cellular adaptation processes such as atrophy/hypertrophy as well as the variation in electrical transport properties of cellular membrane/cytoplasm/nuclear membrane/nucleoplasm.
Formulas for the elastic constants of plates with integral waffle-like stiffening
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dow, Norris R; Libove, Charles; Hubka, Ralph E
1954-01-01
Formulas are derived for the fifteen elastic constants associated with bending, stretching, twisting, and shearing of plates with closely spaced integral ribbing in a variety of configurations and proportions. In the derivation the plates are considered, conceptually, as more uniform orthotropic plates somewhat on the order of plywood. The constants, which include the effectiveness of the ribs for resisting deformations other than bending and stretching in their longitudinal directions, are defined in terms of four coefficients, and theoretical and experimental methods for the evaluation of these coefficients are discussed. Four of the more important elastic constants are predicted by these formulas and are compared with test results. Good correlation is obtained. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massa, Enrico; Nicolaus, Arnold
2011-04-01
This issue of Metrologia collects papers about the results of an international research project aimed at the determination of the Avogadro constant, NA, by counting the atoms in a silicon crystal highly enriched with the isotope 28Si. Fifty years ago, Egidi [1] thought about realizing an atomic mass standard. In 1965, Bonse and Hart [2] operated the first x-ray interferometer, thus paving the way to the achievement of Egidi's dream, and soon Deslattes et al [3] completed the first counting of the atoms in a natural silicon crystal. The present project, outlined by Zosi [4] in 1983, began in 2004 by combining the experiences and capabilities of the BIPM, INRIM, IRMM, NIST, NPL, NMIA, NMIJ and PTB. The start signal, ratified by a memorandum of understanding, was a contract for the production of a silicon crystal highly enriched with 28Si. The enrichment process was undertaken by the Central Design Bureau of Machine Building in St Petersburg. Subsequently, a polycrystal was grown in the Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod and a 28Si boule was grown and purified by the Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung in Berlin. Isotope enrichment made it possible to apply isotope dilution mass spectroscopy, to determine the Avogadro constant with unprecedented accuracy, and to fulfil Egidi's dream. To convey Egidi's 'fantasy' into practice, two 28Si kilogram prototypes shaped as quasi-perfect spheres were manufactured by the Australian Centre for Precision Optics; their isotopic composition, molar mass, mass, volume, density and lattice parameter were accurately determined and their surfaces were chemically and physically characterized at the atomic scale. The paper by Andreas et al reviews the work carried out; it collates all the findings and illustrates how Avogadro's constant was obtained. Impurity concentration and gradients in the enriched crystal were measured by infrared spectroscopy and taken into
Embedded Hyperchaotic Generators: A Comparative Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadoudi, Said; Tanougast, Camel; Azzaz, Mohamad Salah; Dandache, Abbas
In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of FPGA implementation performances, in terms of throughput and resources cost, of five well known autonomous continuous hyperchaotic systems. The goal of this analysis is to identify the embedded hyperchaotic generator which leads to designs with small logic area cost, satisfactory throughput rates, low power consumption and low latency required for embedded applications such as secure digital communications between embedded systems. To implement the four-dimensional (4D) chaotic systems, we use a new structural hardware architecture based on direct VHDL description of the forth order Runge-Kutta method (RK-4). The comparative analysis shows that the hyperchaotic Lorenz generator provides attractive performances compared to that of others. In fact, its hardware implementation requires only 2067 CLB-slices, 36 multipliers and no block RAMs, and achieves a throughput rate of 101.6 Mbps, at the output of the FPGA circuit, at a clock frequency of 25.315 MHz with a low latency time of 316 ns. Consequently, these good implementation performances offer to the embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generator the advantage of being the best candidate for embedded communications applications.
Non Lyapunov stability of a constant spatially developing 2-D gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan; Tanasie, Loredana
2017-01-01
Different types of stabilities (global, local) and instabilities (global absolute, local convective) of the constant spatially developing 2-D gas flow are analyzed in a particular phase space of continuously differentiable functions, endowed with the usual algebraic operations and the topology generated by the uniform convergence on the plane. For this purpose the Euler equations linearized at the constant flow are used. The Lyapunov stability analysis was presented in [1] and this paper is a continuation of [1].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yongquan, Han
2016-10-01
The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan
Three-Wire Thermocouple: Frequency Response in Constant Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forney, L. J.; Fralick, G. C.
1995-01-01
Theory and experimental measurements are compared with a novel three-wire thermocouple. Signals from three wires of unequal diameters are recorded from the thermocouple suspended in constant flow with a periodic temperature fluctuation. It is demonstrated that the reconstructed signal from the three-wire thermocouple requires no compensation for omega less than or equal to 5(omega(sub 1)), where omega(sub 1) is the natural frequency of the smaller wire. The latter result represents a significant improvement compared to previous work with two-wire thermocouples. A correction factor has also been derived to account for wires of arbitrary diameter.
Three-wire Thermocouple: Frequency Response in Constant Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forney, L. J.; Fralick, G. C.
1995-01-01
Theory and experimental measurements are compared with a novel three-wire thermocouple. Signals from three wires of unequal diameters arc recorded from the thermocouple suspended in constant flow with a periodic temperature fluctuation. It is demonstrated that the reconstructed signal from the three-wire thermocouple requires no compensation for omega less than or equal to 5(sub omega1), where omega, is the natural frequency of the smaller wire. The latter result represents a significant improvement compared to previous work with two-wire thermocouples. A correction factor has also been derived to account for wires of arbitrary diameter.
Microwave Spectrum, Structure, and Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling Constants of 1-Bromo-1-fluoroethane.
Tatamitani; Kuwano; Fuchigami; Oe; Ogata
1999-08-01
The microwave spectrum of 1-bromo-1-fluoroethane, CHBrF-CH(3) and CHBrF-CH(2)D ((79/81)Br), has been studied for the first time from 8 to 41 GHz. A least-squares analysis of the observed a- and b-type transition frequencies gave rotational and centrifugal distortion constants and components of the bromine nuclear quadrupole coupling constant tensor in the principal axes system as follows: A = 8979.428(5) MHz, B = 2883.898(3) MHz, C = 2310.535(3) MHz, Delta(J) = 0.74(2) kHz, Delta(JK) = 2.49(3) kHz, Delta(K) = 5.3(5) kHz, delta(J) = 0.146(1) kHz, delta(K) = 2.75(4) kHz, chi(aa) = 493.49(29) MHz, chi(bb) - chi(cc) = -38.89(11) MHz, and ||chi(ab) || = 161.8(28) MHz for the CH(79)BrF-CH(3) species; A = 8979.257(5) MHz, B = 2859.072(3) MHz, C = 2294.572(3), Delta(J) = 0.76(2) kHz, Delta(JK) = 2.51(3) kHz, Delta(K) = 4.5(4) kHz, delta(J) = 0.145(1) kHz, delta(K) = 2.70(4) kHz, chi(aa) = 412.42(27) MHz, chi(bb) - chi(cc) = -32.56 (11) MHz, and ||chi(ab) || = 133.3(3) MHz for the CH(81)BrF-CH(3) species. The structural parameters are calculated from the 24 observed rotational constants, and electronic properties of the carbon-bromine bond in 1-bromo-1-fluoroethane are evaluated from the observed nuclear quadrupole coupling constants. These molecular properties are compared with those of other related molecules. The molecular structure of 1-bromo-1-fluoroethane is found to be very close to that of 1,1-difluoroethane except for the C-Br bond. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Microwave Spectrum, Structure, and Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling Constants of 1-Bromo-1-fluoroethane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatamitani, Yoshio; Kuwano, Susumu; Fuchigami, Kiyokatu; Oe, Sumio; Ogata, Teruhiko
1999-08-01
The microwave spectrum of 1-bromo-1-fluoroethane, CHBrF-CH3 and CHBrF-CH2D (79/81Br), has been studied for the first time from 8 to 41 GHz. A least-squares analysis of the observed a- and b-type transition frequencies gave rotational and centrifugal distortion constants and components of the bromine nuclear quadrupole coupling constant tensor in the principal axes system as follows: A = 8979.428(5) MHz, B = 2883.898(3) MHz, C = 2310.535(3) MHz, ΔJ = 0.74(2) kHz, ΔJK = 2.49(3) kHz, ΔK = 5.3(5) kHz, δJ = 0.146(1) kHz, δK = 2.75(4) kHz, χaa = 493.49(29) MHz, χbb - χcc = -38.89(11) MHz, and ‖χab‖ = 161.8(28) MHz for the CH79BrF-CH3 species; A = 8979.257(5) MHz, B = 2859.072(3) MHz, C = 2294.572(3), ΔJ = 0.76(2) kHz, ΔJK = 2.51(3) kHz, ΔK = 4.5(4) kHz, δJ = 0.145(1) kHz, δK = 2.70(4) kHz, χaa = 412.42(27) MHz, χbb - χcc = -32.56 (11) MHz, and ‖χab‖ = 133.3(3) MHz for the CH81BrF-CH3 species. The structural parameters are calculated from the 24 observed rotational constants, and electronic properties of the carbon-bromine bond in 1-bromo-1-fluoroethane are evaluated from the observed nuclear quadrupole coupling constants. These molecular properties are compared with those of other related molecules. The molecular structure of 1-bromo-1-fluoroethane is found to be very close to that of 1,1-difluoroethane except for the C-Br bond.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arsad, Roslah; Shaari, Siti Nabilah Mohd; Isa, Zaidi
2017-11-01
Determining stock performance using financial ratio is challenging for many investors and researchers. Financial ratio can indicate the strengths and weaknesses of a company's stock performance. There are five categories of financial ratios namely liquidity, efficiency, leverage, profitability and market ratios. It is important to interpret the ratio correctly for proper financial decision making. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and DuPont analysis Models. The study is conducted in 2015 involving 116 consumer products companies listed in Bursa Malaysia. The estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis computes the efficiency scores and ranks the companies accordingly. The Alirezaee and Afsharian's method of analysis based Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) where Constant Return to Scale (CRS) is employed. The DuPont analysis is a traditional tool for measuring the operating performance of companies. In this study, DuPont analysis is used to evaluate three different aspects such as profitability, efficiency of assets utilization and financial leverage. Return on Equity (ROE) is also calculated in DuPont analysis. This study finds that both analysis models provide different rankings of the selected samples. Hypothesis testing based on Pearson's correlation, indicates that there is no correlation between rankings produced by DEA and DuPont analysis. The DEA ranking model proposed by Alirezaee and Asharian is unstable. The method cannot provide complete ranking because the values of Balance Index is equal and zero.
Larson-Miller Constant of Heat-Resistant Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamura, Manabu; Abe, Fujio; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu
2013-06-01
Long-term rupture data for 79 types of heat-resistant steels including carbon steel, low-alloy steel, high-alloy steel, austenitic stainless steel, and superalloy were analyzed, and a constant for the Larson-Miller (LM) parameter was obtained in the current study for each material. The calculated LM constant, C, is approximately 20 for heat-resistant steels and alloys except for high-alloy martensitic steels with high creep resistance, for which C ≈ 30 . The apparent activation energy was also calculated, and the LM constant was found to be proportional to the apparent activation energy with a high correlation coefficient, which suggests that the LM constant is a material constant possessing intrinsic physical meaning. The contribution of the entropy change to the LM constant is not small, especially for several martensitic steels with large values of C. Deformation of such martensitic steels should accompany a large entropy change of 10 times the gas constant at least, besides the entropy change due to self-diffusion.
Le Saux, Thomas; Hisamoto, Hideaki; Terabe, Shigeru
2006-02-03
Measurement of binding constant by chip electrophoresis is a very promising technique for the high throughput screening of non-covalent interactions. Among the different electrophoretic methods available that yield the binding parameters, continuous frontal analysis is the most appropriate for a transposition from capillary electrophoresis (CE) to microchip electrophoresis. Implementation of this methodology in microchip was exemplified by the measurement of inclusion constants of 2-naphtalenesulfonate and neutral phenols (phenol, 4-chlorophenol and 4-nitrophenol) into beta-cyclodextrin by competitive assays. The issue of competitor choice is discussed in relation to its appropriateness for proper monitoring of the interaction.
Constant potential pulse polarography
Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.
1976-01-01
The new technique of constant potential pulse polarography, In which all pulses are to be the same potential, is presented theoretically and evaluated experimentally. The response obtained is in the form of a faradaic current wave superimposed on a constant capacitative component. Results obtained with a computer-controlled system exhibit a capillary response current similar to that observed In normal pulse polarography. Calibration curves for Pb obtained using a modified commercial pulse polarographic instrument are in good accord with theoretical predictions.
Elastic constants and pressure derivative of elastic constants of Si1-xGex solid solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jivani, A. R.; Baria, J. K.; Vyas, P. S.; Jani, A. R.
2013-02-01
Elastic properties of Si1-xGex solid solution with arbitrary (atomic) concentration (x) are studied using the pseudo-alloy atom model based on the pseudopotential theory and on the higher-order perturbation scheme with the application of our own proposed model potential. We have used local-field correction function proposed by Sarkar et al to study Si-Ge system. The Elastic constants and pressure derivatives of elastic constants of the solid solution is investigated with different concentration x of Ge. It is found in the present study that the calculated numerical values of the aforesaid physical properties of Si-Ge system are function of x. The elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) decrease linearly with increase in concentration x and pressure derivative of elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) increase with the concentration x of Ge. This study provides better set of theoretical results for such solid solution for further comparison either with theoretical or experimental results.
Present status of astronomical constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, T.
Given was the additional information to the previous report on the recent progress in the determinations of astronomical constants (Fukushima 2000). First noted was the revision of LG as 6.969290134×10-10 based on the proposal to shift its status from a primary to a defining constant (Petit 2000). Next focused was the significant update of the correction to the current precession constant, Δp, based on the recent LLR-based determination (Chapront et al. 2000) as -0.3164+/-0.0030"/cy. By combining this and the equal weighted average of VLBI determinations (Mathews et al. 2000; Petrov 2000; Shirai and Fukushima 2000; Vondrak and Ron 2000) as -0.2968+/-0.0043"/cy, we derived the best estimate of precession constant as p = 5028.790+/-0.005"/cy. Also redetermined were some other quantities related to the precession formula; namely the offsets of Celestial Ephemeris Pole of the International Celestial Reference System as &Deltaψ0sinɛ0 = (-17.0+/-0.3) mas and Δɛ0 = (-5.1+/-0.3) mas. As a result, the obliquity of the ecliptic at the epoch J2000.0 was estimated as ɛ0 = 23°26'21."4059+/-0."0003. As a summary, presented was the (revised) IAU 2000 File of Current Best Estimates of astronomical constants, which is to replace the former 1994 version (Standish 1995).
Graviton fluctuations erase the cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wetterich, C.
2017-10-01
Graviton fluctuations induce strong non-perturbative infrared renormalization effects for the cosmological constant. The functional renormalization flow drives a positive cosmological constant towards zero, solving the cosmological constant problem without the need to tune parameters. We propose a simple computation of the graviton contribution to the flow of the effective potential for scalar fields. Within variable gravity, with effective Planck mass proportional to the scalar field, we find that the potential increases asymptotically at most quadratically with the scalar field. The solutions of the derived cosmological equations lead to an asymptotically vanishing cosmological "constant" in the infinite future, providing for dynamical dark energy in the present cosmological epoch. Beyond a solution of the cosmological constant problem, our simplified computation also entails a sizeable positive graviton-induced anomalous dimension for the quartic Higgs coupling in the ultraviolet regime, substantiating the successful prediction of the Higgs boson mass within the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity.
Current observations with a decaying cosmological constant allow for chaotic cyclic cosmology
Ellis, George F.R.; Platts, Emma; Weltman, Amanda
2016-04-01
We use the phase plane analysis technique of Madsen and Ellis [1] to consider a universe with a true cosmological constant as well as a cosmological 'constant' that is decaying. Time symmetric dynamics for the inflationary era allows eternally bouncing models to occur. Allowing for scalar field dynamic evolution, we find that if dark energy decays in the future, chaotic cyclic universes exist provided the spatial curvature is positive. This is particularly interesting in light of current observations which do not yet rule out either closed universes or possible evolution of the cosmological constant. We present only a proof ofmore » principle, with no definite claim on the physical mechanism required for the present dark energy to decay.« less
Halsøy, Kathrine; Kondratiev, Timofey; Tveita, Torkjel; Bjertnaes, Lars J
2016-01-01
Victims of severe accidental hypothermia are prone to fluid extravasation but rarely develop lung edema. We hypothesize that combined hypothermia-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a concomitant fall in cardiac output protect the lungs against edema development. Our aim was to explore in hypothermic-isolated blood-perfused rat lungs whether perfusion at constant pressure influences fluid filtration differently from perfusion at constant flow. Isolated blood-perfused rat lungs were hanging freely in a weight transducer for measuring weight changes (ΔW). Fluid filtration coefficient (Kfc), was determined by transiently elevating left atrial pressure (Pla) by 5.8 mmHg two times each during normothermia (37°C) and during hypothermia (15°C). The lung preparations were randomized to two groups. One group was perfused with constant flow (Constant flow group) and the other group with constant pulmonary artery pressure (Constant PPA group). Microvascular pressure (Pmv) was determined before and during elevation of Pla (ΔPmv) by means of the double occlusion technique. Kfc was calculated with the formula Kfc = ΔW/ΔPmv/min. All Kfc values were normalized to predicted lung weight (P LW ), which was based on body weight (BW) according to the formula: P LW = 0.0053 BW - 0.48 and presented as Kfc PLW in mg/min/mmHg/g. At cessation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid/perfusate protein concentration (B/P) ratio was determined photometrically. Data were analyzed with parametric or non-parametric tests as appropriate. p < 0.05 considered as significant. Perfusate flow remained constant in the Constant flow group, but was more than halved during hypothermia in the Constant PPA group concomitant with a more fold increase in PVR. In the Constant flow group, Kfc PLW and B/P ratio increased significantly by more than 10-fold during hypothermia concerted by visible signs of edema in the trachea. Hemoglobin and hematocrit increased within
Coupling constant for N*(1535)N{rho}
Xie Jujun; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; Wilkin, Colin
2008-05-15
The value of the N*(1535)N{rho} coupling constant g{sub N*N{rho}} derived from the N*(1535){yields}N{rho}{yields}N{pi}{pi} decay is compared with that deduced from the radiative decay N*(1535){yields}N{gamma} using the vector-meson-dominance model. On the basis of an effective Lagrangian approach, we show that the values of g{sub N*N{rho}} extracted from the available experimental data on the two decays are consistent, though the error bars are rather large.
Garrigosa, Anna Maria; Gusmão, Rui; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel
2007-10-15
The use of phase sensitive alternating current polarography (ACP) for the evaluation of complex formation constants of systems where electrodic adsorption is present has been proposed. The applicability of the technique implies the previous selection of the phase angle where contribution of capacitive current is minimized. This is made using Multivariate Curve Resolution by Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) in the analysis of ACP measurements at different phase angles. The method is checked by the study of the complexation of Cd by polymethacrylic (PMA) and polygalacturonic (PGA) acids, and the optimal phase angles have been ca. -10 degrees for Cd-PMA and ca. -15 degrees for Cd-PGA systems. The goodness of phase sensitive ACP has been demonstrated comparing the determined complex formation constants with those obtained by reverse pulse polarography, a technique that minimizes the electrode adsorption effects on the measured currents.
Discovery and Analysis of Intersecting Datasets: JMARS as a Comparative Science Platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Dickenshied, S.; Anwar, S.; Noss, D.
2014-12-01
A great deal can be discovered from comparing and studying a chosen region or area on a planetary body. In this age, science has an enormous amount of instruments and data to study from; often the first obstacle can be finding the right information. Developed at Arizona State University, Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS), enables users to easily find and study related datasets. JMARS supports a long list of planetary bodies in our solar system, including Earth, the Moon, Mars, and other planets, satellites, and asteroids. Within JMARS a user can start with a particular area and search for all datasets that have images/information intersecting that region of interest. Once a user has found data they are interested in comparing, they can view the image at once and see the numeric information at that location. This information can be analyzed in a few powerful ways. If the dataset of interest varies with time but the location stays constant, then the user may want to compare specific locations through time. This can be done the Investigate Tool in JMARS. Users can create a Data Spike and the information at that point will be plotted through time. If the region does not have a temporal dataset, then a different method would be suitable and involves a profile line. Also using the Investigate Tool, a user can create a Data Profile (a line which can contain as many vertices as necessary) and all numeric data underneath the line will be plotted on one graph for easy comparison. This can be used to compare differences between similar datasets - perhaps the same measurement but from different instruments - or to find correlations from one dataset to another. A third form of analysis is planned for future development. This method involves entire areas (polygons). Sampling of the different data sources beneath an area can reveal statistics like maximum, minimum, and average values, and standard deviation. These values can be compared to other data
Asympotics with positive cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonga, Beatrice; Ashtekar, Abhay; Kesavan, Aruna
2014-03-01
Since observations to date imply that our universe has a positive cosmological constant, one needs an extension of the theory of isolated systems and gravitational radiation in full general relativity from the asymptotically flat to asymptotically de Sitter space-times. In current definitions, one mimics the boundary conditions used in asymptotically AdS context to conclude that the asymptotic symmetry group is the de Sitter group. However, these conditions severely restricts radiation and in fact rules out non-zero flux of energy, momentum and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves. Therefore, these formulations of asymptotically de Sitter space-times are uninteresting beyond non-radiative spacetimes. The situation is compared and contrasted with conserved charges and fluxes at null infinity in asymptotically flat space-times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oki, Sae; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.
2018-01-01
System design of a thermoelectric (TE) power generation module is pursued in order to improve the TE performance. Square truncated pyramid shaped P-N pairs of TE elements are connected electronically in series in the open space between two flat insulator boards. The performance of the TE module consisting of 2-paired elements is numerically simulated using commercial software and original TE programs. Assuming that the heat radiating into the hot surface is regulated, i.e., the amount of heat from the hot surface to the cold one is steadily constant, as it happens for solar radiation heating, the performance is significantly improved by changing the shape and the alignment pattern of the elements. When the angle θ between the edge and the base is smaller than 72°, and when the cold surface is kept at a constant temperature, two patterns in particular, amongst the 17 studied, show the largest TE power and efficiency. In comparison to other geometries, the smarter square truncated pyramid shape can provide higher performance using a large cold bath and constant heat transfer by heat radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oki, Sae; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.
2018-06-01
System design of a thermoelectric (TE) power generation module is pursued in order to improve the TE performance. Square truncated pyramid shaped P-N pairs of TE elements are connected electronically in series in the open space between two flat insulator boards. The performance of the TE module consisting of 2-paired elements is numerically simulated using commercial software and original TE programs. Assuming that the heat radiating into the hot surface is regulated, i.e., the amount of heat from the hot surface to the cold one is steadily constant, as it happens for solar radiation heating, the performance is significantly improved by changing the shape and the alignment pattern of the elements. When the angle θ between the edge and the base is smaller than 72°, and when the cold surface is kept at a constant temperature, two patterns in particular, amongst the 17 studied, show the largest TE power and efficiency. In comparison to other geometries, the smarter square truncated pyramid shape can provide higher performance using a large cold bath and constant heat transfer by heat radiation.
Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control
Schlienger, M.E.
1996-10-22
A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an electrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable. 1 fig.
Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control
Schlienger, Max E.
1996-01-01
A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an eletrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable.
The constant region affects antigen binding of antibodies to DNA by altering secondary structure.
Xia, Yumin; Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Casadevall, Arturo; Putterman, Chaim
2013-11-01
We previously demonstrated an important role of the constant region in the pathogenicity of anti-DNA antibodies. To determine the mechanisms by which the constant region affects autoantibody binding, a panel of isotype-switch variants (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b) was generated from the murine PL9-11 IgG3 autoantibody. The affinity of the PL9-11 antibody panel for histone was measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine wavelength shifts of the antibody panel upon binding to DNA and histone. Finally, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to measure changes in secondary structure. SPR analysis revealed significant differences in histone binding affinity between members of the PL9-11 panel. The wavelength shifts of tryptophan fluorescence emission were found to be dependent on the antibody isotype, while circular dichroism analysis determined that changes in antibody secondary structure content differed between isotypes upon antigen binding. Thus, the antigen binding affinity is dependent on the particular constant region expressed. Moreover, the effects of antibody binding to antigen were also constant region dependent. Alteration of secondary structures influenced by constant regions may explain differences in fine specificity of anti-DNA antibodies between antibodies with similar variable regions, as well as cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies with non-DNA antigens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimada, Kazuhiro
2018-03-01
We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the crystal structure, elastic and piezoelectric properties, and spontaneous polarization of orthorhombic M2O3 (M = Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y) with Pna21 space group based on density functional theory. The lattice parameters, full elastic stiffness constants, piezoelectric stress and strain constants, and spontaneous polarization are successfully predicted. Comparison with available experimental and computational results indicates the validity of our computational results. Detailed analysis of the results clarifies the difference in the bonding character and the origin of the strong piezoelectric response and large spontaneous polarization.
Evaluation of constant current alternating current iontophoresis for transdermal drug delivery.
Yan, Guang; Li, S Kevin; Higuchi, William I
2005-12-10
Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that alternating current (AC) iontophoresis can significantly decrease skin electric resistance and enhance the transport of charged permeants across skin. Flux variability of neutral permeants during AC iontophoresis was also found to be less than that of conventional direct current (DC) iontophoresis. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate flux enhancement of constant current AC transdermal iontophoresis and compare the AC flux with that of constant current DC iontophoresis. Iontophoresis studies of AC amplitude of 1, 2, and 5 mA were conducted in side-by-side diffusion cells with donor solution of 0.015, 0.15, and 1.0 M tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride and receiver solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) using human epidermal membrane (HEM). Conventional constant current DC iontophoresis of 0.2 mA was also performed under similar conditions. TEA and mannitol were the model permeants. The following are the major findings in the present study. The flux of TEA increased proportionally with the AC current for all three TEA chloride concentrations and at the AC frequency used in the present study. When the permeant and its counter ion were the only ionic species in the donor chamber, the fluxes during DC iontophoresis were weakly dependent of its donor concentration. The fluxes of TEA during constant current AC iontophoresis were moderately related to the donor concentration with the highest TEA flux observed under the 1.0 M TEA chloride condition although the relationship between flux and donor concentration was not linear. A trend of decreasing electroosmotic transport with increasing donor TEA chloride concentration was observed with significant sample-to-sample variability during DC iontophoresis. Mannitol permeability was also observed to decrease with increasing TEA chloride concentration in the donor under the AC conditions, but data variability under AC was significantly smaller than that
New perspectives on constant-roll inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicciarella, Francesco; Mabillard, Joel; Pieroni, Mauro
2018-01-01
We study constant-roll inflation using the β-function formalism. We show that the constant rate of the inflaton roll is translated into a first order differential equation for the β-function which can be solved easily. The solutions to this equation correspond to the usual constant-roll models. We then construct, by perturbing these exact solutions, more general classes of models that satisfy the constant-roll equation asymptotically. In the case of an asymptotic power law solution, these corrections naturally provide an end to the inflationary phase. Interestingly, while from a theoretical point of view (in particular in terms of the holographic interpretation) these models are intrinsically different from standard slow-roll inflation, they may have phenomenological predictions in good agreement with present cosmological data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolejko, Krzysztof
2018-05-01
The measurements of the Hubble constant reveal a tension between high-redshift (CMB) and low-redshift (distance ladder) constraints. So far neither observational systematics nor new physics has been successfully implemented to explain away this tension. This paper presents a new solution to the Hubble constant problem. The solution is based on the Simsilun simulation (relativistic simulation of the large scale structure of the Universe) with the ray-tracing algorithm implemented. The initial conditions for the Simsilun simulation were set up as perturbations around the Λ CDM model. However, unlike in the standard cosmological model (i.e., Λ CDM model +perturbations ), within the Simsilun simulation relativistic and nonlinear evolution of cosmic structures lead to the phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature, where the mean spatial curvature evolves from the spatial flatness of the early Universe towards the slightly curved present-day Universe. Consequently, the present-day expansion rate is slightly faster compared to the spatially flat Λ CDM model. The results of the ray-tracing analysis show that the Universe which starts with initial conditions consistent with the Planck constraints should have the Hubble constant H0=72.5 ±2.1 km s-1 Mpc-1 . When the Simsilun simulation was rerun with no inhomogeneities imposed, the Hubble constant inferred within such a homogeneous simulation was H0=68.1 ±2.0 km s-1 Mpc-1 . Thus, the inclusion of nonlinear relativistic evolution that leads to the emergence of the spatial curvature can explain why the low-redshift measurements favor higher values compared to the high-redshift constraints and alleviate the tension between the CMB and distance ladder measurements of the Hubble constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wijaya Sunu, Putu; Made Rasta, I.; Anakottapary, Daud Simon; Made Suarta, I.; Cipta Santosa, I. D. M.
2018-01-01
The aims of this study to compares the performance characteristics of a water chiller air conditioning simulation equipped with thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) with those of a capillary tube. Water chiller system filled with the same charge of refrigerant. Comparative analyses were performed based on coefficient of performance (COP) and performance parameter of the refrigeration system, carried out at medium cooling load level with the ambient temperature of 29-31°C, constant compressor speed and fixed chilled water volume flowrate at 15 lpm. It was shown that the TEV system showed better energy consumption compared to that of capillary tube. From the coefficient of performance perspective, the thermostatic expansion valve system showed higher COP (± 21.4%) compared to that of capillary tube system.
Theoretical microwave spectral constants for C2N, C2N/+/, and C3H
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, S.
1980-01-01
Theoretical microwave spectral constants have been computed for C2N, C3H, and C2N(+). For C2N these are compared with values obtained from optical data. Calculated hyperfine constants are also presented for HNC, DNC, and HCNH(+). The possibility of observing these species in dense interstellar clouds is discussed.
Accurate Measurements of the Dielectric Constant of Seawater at L Band
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lang, Roger; Zhou, Yiwen; Utku, Cuneyt; Le Vine, David
2016-01-01
This paper describes measurements of the dielectric constant of seawater at a frequency of 1.413 GHz, the center of the protected band (i.e., passive use only) used in the measurement of sea surface salinity from space. The objective of the measurements is to accurately determine the complex dielectric constant of seawater as a function of salinity and temperature. A resonant cylindrical microwave cavity in transmission mode has been employed to make the measurements. The measurements are made using standard seawater at salinities of 30, 33, 35, and 38 practical salinity units over a range of temperatures from 0 degree C to 35 degree C in 5 degree C intervals. Repeated measurements have been made at each temperature and salinity. Mean values and standard deviations are then computed. The total error budget indicates that the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant have a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.3 over the range of salinities and temperatures considered. The measurements are compared with the dielectric constants obtained from the model functions of Klein and Swift and those of Meissner and Wentz. The biggest differences occur at low and high temperatures.
Zhai, Peng; Yang, Longshu; Guo, Xiao; Wang, Zhe; Guo, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaoqi; Zhu, Huaiqiu
2017-10-02
During the past decade, the development of high throughput nucleic sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis techniques have enabled the characterization of microbial communities through metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics data. To reveal the diversity of microbial communities and interactions between living conditions and microbes, it is necessary to introduce comparative analysis based upon integration of all four types of data mentioned above. Comparative meta-omics, especially comparative metageomics, has been established as a routine process to highlight the significant differences in taxon composition and functional gene abundance among microbiota samples. Meanwhile, biologists are increasingly concerning about the correlations between meta-omics features and environmental factors, which may further decipher the adaptation strategy of a microbial community. We developed a graphical comprehensive analysis software named MetaComp comprising a series of statistical analysis approaches with visualized results for metagenomics and other meta-omics data comparison. This software is capable to read files generated by a variety of upstream programs. After data loading, analyses such as multivariate statistics, hypothesis testing of two-sample, multi-sample as well as two-group sample and a novel function-regression analysis of environmental factors are offered. Here, regression analysis regards meta-omic features as independent variable and environmental factors as dependent variables. Moreover, MetaComp is capable to automatically choose an appropriate two-group sample test based upon the traits of input abundance profiles. We further evaluate the performance of its choice, and exhibit applications for metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics samples. MetaComp, an integrative software capable for applying to all meta-omics data, originally distills the influence of living environment on microbial community by regression analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.
1976-01-01
An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.
Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco
2015-01-01
A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.
Jackson, Neal
2015-01-01
I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H 0 values of around 72-74 km s -1 Mpc -1 , with typical errors of 2-3 km s -1 Mpc -1 . This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67-68 km s -1 Mpc -1 and typical errors of 1-2 km s -1 Mpc -1 . The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.
Relativistic problems on astronomical constants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Jinhe; Huang, Tianyi
1999-06-01
The fact that modern astronomical observational technique has made rapid progress and the 1PN approximation of general relativity has been extensively applied in celestial mechanics and astrometry, makes it is necessary to investigate and examine the system of astronomical constants carefully and rigorously in the relativistic framework. The mass of a celestial body in the solar system should be defined as its BD mass that changes relatively in an amount less than 10-19 and could be considered as a constant. The equations satisfied by the gravitational potentials are not Poisson equations anymore but depend on the choice of the coordinate gauge. Therefore the gravitational potentials cannot be expanded in the traditional harmonics. It is neccessary to choose the coordinate gauge and take BD multipole moments as astronomical constants. The obliquity of the ecliptic has been determined in high precision and it would be neccessary to give a conventional definition of the 1PN ecliptic. A relativistic definition of the geoid is important and left to be discussed. The astronomical constants that relate the units of time and length have been clearly defined but need to be clarified to avoid their misuse.
Wege, H A; Holgado-Terriza, J A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A
2002-05-15
A new constant pressure pendant-drop penetration surface balance has been developed combining a pendant-drop surface balance, a rapid-subphase-exchange technique, and a fuzzy logic control algorithm. Beside the determination of insoluble monolayer compression-expansion isotherms, it allows performance of noninvasive kinetic studies of the adsorption of surfactants added to the new subphase onto the free surface and of the adsorption/penetration/reaction of the former onto/into/with surface layers, respectively. The interfacial pressure pi is a fundamental parameter in these studies: by working at constant pi one controls the height of the energy barrier to adsorption/penetration and can select different regimes and steps of the adsorption/penetration process. In our device a solution drop is formed at the tip of a coaxial double capillary, connected to a double microinjector. Drop profiles are extracted from digital drop micrographs and fitted to the equation of capillarity, yielding pi, the drop volume V, and the interfacial area A. pi is varied changing V (and hence A) with the microinjector. Control is based on a case-adaptable modulated fuzzy-logic PID algorithm able to maintain constant pi (or A) under a wide range of experimental conditions. The drop subphase liquid can be exchanged quantitatively by the coaxial capillaries. The adsorption/penetration/reaction kinetics at constant pi are then studied monitoring A(t), i.e., determining the relative area change necessary at each instant to compensate the pressure variation due to the interaction of the surfactant in the subsurface with the surface layer. A fully Windows-integrated program manages the whole setup. Examples of experimental protein adsorption and monolayer penetration kinetics are presented.
Robinson, H.P.; Potter, Elinor
1971-03-01
This collection of mathematical data consists of two tables of decimal constants arranged according to size rather than function, a third table of integers from 1 to 1000, giving some of their properties, and a fourth table listing some infinite series arranged according to increasing size of the coefficients of the terms. The decimal values of Tables I and II are given to 20 D.
New constraints on time-dependent variations of fundamental constants using Planck data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hart, Luke; Chluba, Jens
2018-02-01
Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) today allow us to answer detailed questions about the properties of our Universe, targeting both standard and non-standard physics. In this paper, we study the effects of varying fundamental constants (i.e. the fine-structure constant, αEM, and electron rest mass, me) around last scattering using the recombination codes COSMOREC and RECFAST++. We approach the problem in a pedagogical manner, illustrating the importance of various effects on the free electron fraction, Thomson visibility function and CMB power spectra, highlighting various degeneracies. We demonstrate that the simpler RECFAST++ treatment (based on a three-level atom approach) can be used to accurately represent the full computation of COSMOREC. We also include explicit time-dependent variations using a phenomenological power-law description. We reproduce previous Planck 2013 results in our analysis. Assuming constant variations relative to the standard values, we find the improved constraints αEM/αEM, 0 = 0.9993 ± 0.0025 (CMB only) and me/me, 0 = 1.0039 ± 0.0074 (including BAO) using Planck 2015 data. For a redshift-dependent variation, αEM(z) = αEM(z0) [(1 + z)/1100]p with αEM(z0) ≡ αEM, 0 at z0 = 1100, we obtain p = 0.0008 ± 0.0025. Allowing simultaneous variations of αEM(z0) and p yields αEM(z0)/αEM, 0 = 0.9998 ± 0.0036 and p = 0.0006 ± 0.0036. We also discuss combined limits on αEM and me. Our analysis shows that existing data are not only sensitive to the value of the fundamental constants around recombination but also its first time derivative. This suggests that a wider class of varying fundamental constant models can be probed using the CMB.
Carter constant and angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Sajal; Nayak, K. Rajesh
We investigate the Carter-like constant in the case of a particle moving in a nonrelativistic dipolar potential. This special case is a missing link between the Carter constant in stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes (SASS) such as Kerr solution and its possible Newtonian counterpart. We use this system to carry over the definition of angular momentum from the Newtonian mechanics to the relativistic SASS.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Sung H.; Salem, J. A.; Nemeth, N. N.
1998-01-01
High-temperature slow-crack-growth behaviour of hot-pressed silicon carbide was determined using both constant-stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") and constant-stress ("static fatigue") testing in flexure at 1300 C in air. Slow crack growth was found to be a governing mechanism associated with failure of the material. Four estimation methods such as the individual data, the Weibull median, the arithmetic mean and the median deviation methods were used to determine the slow crack growth parameters. The four estimation methods were in good agreement for the constant-stress-rate testing with a small variation in the slow-crack-growth parameter, n, ranging from 28 to 36. By contrast, the variation in n between the four estimation methods was significant in the constant-stress testing with a somewhat wide range of n= 16 to 32.
A summary of the Planck constant determinations using the NRC Kibble balance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, B. M.; Sanchez, C. A.; Green, R. G.; Liard, J. O.
2017-06-01
We present a summary of the Planck constant determinations using the NRC watt balance, now referred to as the NRC Kibble balance. The summary includes a reanalysis of the four determinations performed in late 2013, as well as three new determinations performed in 2016. We also present a number of improvements and modifications to the experiment resulting in lower noise and an improved uncertainty analysis. As well, we present a systematic error that had been previously unrecognized and we have quantified its correction. The seven determinations, using three different nominal masses and two different materials, are reanalysed in a manner consistent with that used by the CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants (TGFC) and includes a comprehensive assessment of correlations. The result is a Planck constant of 6.626 070 133(60) ×10-34 Js and an inferred value of the Avogadro constant of 6.022 140 772(55) ×1023 mol-1. These fractional uncertainties of less than 10-8 are the smallest published to date.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stevens, F W
1924-01-01
This report describes a new optical method of unusual simplicity and of good accuracy suitable to study the kinetics of gaseous reactions. The device is the complement of the spherical bomb of constant volume, and extends the applicability of the relationship, pv=rt for gaseous equilibrium conditions, to the use of both factors p and v. The method substitutes for the mechanical complications of a manometer placed at some distance from the seat of reaction the possibility of allowing the radiant effects of reaction to record themselves directly upon a sensitive film. It is possible the device may be of use in the study of the photoelectric effects of radiation. The method makes possible a greater precision in the measurement of normal flame velocities than was previously possible. An approximate analysis shows that the increase of pressure and density ahead of the flame is negligible until the velocity of the flame approaches that of sound.
None
1963-07-01
This second edition is based on data available on March 15, 1961. Sections on constants necessary for the interpretation of experimental data and on digital computer programs for reactor design and reactor physics have been added. 1344 references. (D.C.W.)
Systematics of constant roll inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2018-02-01
We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.
Inflation with a constant rate of roll
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2015-09-01
We consider an inflationary scenario where the rate of inflaton roll defined by ̈phi/H dot phi remains constant. The rate of roll is small for slow-roll inflation, while a generic rate of roll leads to the interesting case of 'constant-roll' inflation. We find a general exact solution for the inflaton potential required for such inflaton behaviour. In this model, due to non-slow evolution of background, the would-be decaying mode of linear scalar (curvature) perturbations may not be neglected. It can even grow for some values of the model parameter, while the other mode always remains constant. However, this always occurs for unstable solutions which are not attractors for the given potential. The most interesting particular cases of constant-roll inflation remaining viable with the most recent observational data are quadratic hilltop inflation (with cutoff) and natural inflation (with an additional negative cosmological constant). In these cases even-order slow-roll parameters approach non-negligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime.
Inflation with a constant rate of roll
Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi, E-mail: motohashi@kicp.uchicago.edu, E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2015-09-01
We consider an inflationary scenario where the rate of inflaton roll defined by {sup ··}φ/H φ-dot remains constant. The rate of roll is small for slow-roll inflation, while a generic rate of roll leads to the interesting case of 'constant-roll' inflation. We find a general exact solution for the inflaton potential required for such inflaton behaviour. In this model, due to non-slow evolution of background, the would-be decaying mode of linear scalar (curvature) perturbations may not be neglected. It can even grow for some values of the model parameter, while the other mode always remains constant. However, this always occurs formore » unstable solutions which are not attractors for the given potential. The most interesting particular cases of constant-roll inflation remaining viable with the most recent observational data are quadratic hilltop inflation (with cutoff) and natural inflation (with an additional negative cosmological constant). In these cases even-order slow-roll parameters approach non-negligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime.« less
Local Elastic Constants for Epoxy-Nanotube Composites from Molecular Dynamics Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frankland, S. J. V.; Gates, T. S.
2007-01-01
A method from molecular dynamics simulation is developed for determining local elastic constants of an epoxy/nanotube composite. The local values of C11, C33, K12, and K13 elastic constants are calculated for an epoxy/nanotube composite as a function of radial distance from the nanotube. While the results possess a significant amount of statistical uncertainty resulting from both the numerical analysis and the molecular fluctuations during the simulation, the following observations can be made. If the size of the region around the nanotube is increased from shells of 1 to 6 in thickness, then the scatter in the data reduces enough to observe trends. All the elastic constants determined are at a minimum 20 from the center of the nanotube. The C11, C33, and K12 follow similar trends as a function of radial distance from the nanotube. The K13 decreases greater distances from the nanotube and becomes negative which may be a symptom of the statistical averaging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Liguo; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Wenwu
2016-10-01
Although the self-consistency of the full matrix material constants of a piezoelectric sample obtained by the resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy technique can be guaranteed because all constants come from the same sample, it is a great challenge to determine the constants of a piezoelectric sample with strong anisotropy because it might not be possible to identify enough resonance modes from the resonance spectrum. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a strategy to use two samples of similar geometries to increase the number of easy identifiable modes. Unlike the IEEE resonance methods, sample-to-sample variation here is negligible because the two samples have almost the same dimensions, cut from the same specimen and poled under the same conditions. Using this method, we have measured the full matrix constants of a [011]c poled 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystal, which has 17 independent constants. The self-consistency of the obtained results is checked by comparing the calculated elastic stiffness constants c33 D , c44 D , and c55 D with those directly measured ones using the ultrasonic pulse-echo method.
A new variable interval schedule with constant hazard rate and finite time range.
Bugallo, Mehdi; Machado, Armando; Vasconcelos, Marco
2018-05-27
We propose a new variable interval (VI) schedule that achieves constant probability of reinforcement in time while using a bounded range of intervals. By sampling each trial duration from a uniform distribution ranging from 0 to 2 T seconds, and then applying a reinforcement rule that depends linearly on trial duration, the schedule alternates reinforced and unreinforced trials, each less than 2 T seconds, while preserving a constant hazard function. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bown, R. L.; Winans, L. C.
1975-01-01
Results are presented of a study to show the effect of selecting a constant inertial attitude during the fuel dissipation phase of a return-to-launch-site abort. Results are also presented which show that the selection of the constant inertial attitude will affect the arrival point on the range-velocity target line. An alternate selection of the inertial attitude will provide control over the trajectory shape.
A Limited In-Flight Evaluation of the Constant Current Loop Strain Measurement Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olney, Candida D.; Collura, Joseph V.
1997-01-01
For many years, the Wheatstone bridge has been used successfully to measure electrical resistance and changes in that resistance. However, the inherent problem of varying lead wire resistance can cause errors when the Wheatstone bridge is used to measure strain in a flight environment. The constant current loop signal-conditioning card was developed to overcome that difficulty. This paper describes a limited evaluation of the constant current loop strain measurement method as used in the F-16XL ship 2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control flight project. Several identical strain gages were installed in close proximity on a shock fence which was mounted under the left wing of the F- 1 6XL ship 2. Two strain gage bridges were configured using the constant current loop, and two were configured using the Wheatstone bridge circuitry. Flight data comparing the output from the constant current loop configured gages to that of the Wheatstone bridges with respect to signal output, error, and noise are given. Results indicate that the constant current loop strain measurement method enables an increased output, unaffected by lead wire resistance variations, to be obtained from strain gages.
Modification of the erythrocyte membrane dielectric constant by alcohols.
Orme, F W; Moronne, M M; Macey, R I
1988-08-01
Aliphatic alcohols are found to stimulate the transmembrane fluxes of a hydrophobic cation (tetraphenylarsonium, TPA) and anion (AN-12) 5-20 times in red blood cells. The results are analyzed using the Born-Parsegian equation (Parsegian, A., 1969, Nature (London) 221:844-846), together with the Clausius-Mossotti equation to calculate membrane dielectric energy barriers. Using established literature values of membrane thickness, native membrane dielectric constant, TPA ionic radius, and alcohol properties (partition coefficient, molar volume, dielectric constant), the TPA permeability data is predicted remarkably well by theory. If the radius of AN-12 is taken as 1.9 A, its permeability in the presence of butanol is also described by our analysis. Further, the theory quantitatively accounts for the data of Gutknecht and Tosteson (Gutknecht, J., Tosteson, D.C., 1970, J. Gen. Physiol. 55:359-374) covering alcohol-induced conductivity changes of 3 orders of magnitude in artificial bilayers. Other explanations including perturbations of membrane fluidity, surface charge, membrane thickness, and dipole potential are discussed. However, the large magnitude of the stimulation, the more pronounced effect on smaller ions, and the acceleration of both anions and cations suggest membrane dielectric constant change as the primary basis of alcohol effects.
Constant-roll (quasi-)linear inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karam, A.; Marzola, L.; Pappas, T.; Racioppi, A.; Tamvakis, K.
2018-05-01
In constant-roll inflation, the scalar field that drives the accelerated expansion of the Universe is rolling down its potential at a constant rate. Within this framework, we highlight the relations between the Hubble slow-roll parameters and the potential ones, studying in detail the case of a single-field Coleman-Weinberg model characterised by a non-minimal coupling of the inflaton to gravity. With respect to the exact constant-roll predictions, we find that assuming an approximate slow-roll behaviour yields a difference of Δ r = 0.001 in the tensor-to-scalar ratio prediction. Such a discrepancy is in principle testable by future satellite missions. As for the scalar spectral index ns, we find that the existing 2-σ bound constrains the value of the non-minimal coupling to ξphi ~ 0.29–0.31 in the model under consideration.
Equivalent refractive-index structure constant of non-Kolmogorov turbulence.
Li, Yujie; Zhu, Wenyue; Wu, Xiaoqing; Rao, Ruizhong
2015-09-07
The relationship between the non-Kolmogorov refractive-index structure constant and the Kolmogorov refractive-index structure constant is derived by using the refractive-index structure function and the variance of refractive-index fluctuations. It shows that the non-Kolmogorov structure constant is proportional to the Kolmogorov structure constant and the scaling factor depends on the outer scale and the spectral power law. For a fixed Kolmogorov structure constant, the non-Kolmogorov structure constant increases with a increasing outer scale for the power law less than 11/3, the trend is opposite for the power law greater than 11/3. This equivalent relation provides a way of obtaining the non-Kolmogorov structure constant by using the Kolmogorov structure constant.
Constant amplitude and post-overload fatigue crack growth behavior in PM aluminum alloy AA 8009
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, A. P.
1992-01-01
A recently developed, rapidly solidified, powder metallurgy, dispersion strengthened aluminum alloy, AA 8009, was fatigue tested at room temperature in lab air. Constant amplitude/constant delta kappa and single spike overload conditions were examined. High fatigue crack growth rates and low crack closure levels compared to typical ingot metallurgy aluminum alloys were observed. It was proposed that minimal crack roughness, crack path delection, and limited slip reversibility, resulting from ultra-fine microstructure, were responsible for the relatively poor da/dN-delta kappa performance of AA 8009 as compared to that of typical IM aluminum alloys.
Constant amplitude and post-overload fatigue crack growth behavior in PM aluminum alloy AA 8009
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, A. P.
1991-01-01
A recently developed, rapidly solidified, powder metallurgy, dispersion strengthened aluminum alloy, AA 8009, was fatigue tested at room temperature in lab air. Constant amplitude/constant delta kappa and single spike overload conditions were examined. High fatigue crack growth rates and low crack closure levels compared to typical ingot metallurgy aluminum alloys were observed. It was proposed that minimal crack roughness, crack path deflection, and limited slip reversibility, resulting from ultra-fine microstructure, were responsible for the relatively poor da/dN-delta kappa performance of AA 8009 as compared to that of typical IM aluminum alloys.
Systematic harmonic power laws inter-relating multiple fundamental constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakeres, Donald; Buckhanan, Wayne; Andrianarijaona, Vola
2017-01-01
Power laws and harmonic systems are ubiquitous in physics. We hypothesize that 2, π, the electron, Bohr radius, Rydberg constant, neutron, fine structure constant, Higgs boson, top quark, kaons, pions, muon, Tau, W, and Z when scaled in a common single unit are all inter-related by systematic harmonic powers laws. This implies that if the power law is known it is possible to derive a fundamental constant's scale in the absence of any direct experimental data of that constant. This is true for the case of the hydrogen constants. We created a power law search engine computer program that randomly generated possible positive or negative powers searching when the product of logical groups of constants equals 1, confirming they are physically valid. For 2, π, and the hydrogen constants the search engine found Planck's constant, Coulomb's energy law, and the kinetic energy law. The product of ratios defined by two constants each was the standard general format. The search engine found systematic resonant power laws based on partial harmonic fraction powers of the neutron for all of the constants with products near 1, within their known experimental precision, when utilized with appropriate hydrogen constants. We conclude that multiple fundamental constants are inter-related within a harmonic power law system.
Determination of the dispersion constant in a constrained vapor bubble thermosyphon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dasgupta, Sunando; Plawsky, Joel L.; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.
1995-01-01
The isothermal profiles of the extended meniscus in a quartz cuvette were measured in a gravitational field using an image analyzing interferometer which is based on computer enhanced video microscopy of the naturally occurring interference fringes. The experimental results for heptane and pentane menisci were analyzed using the extended Young Laplace Equation. These isothermal results characterized the interfacial force field in-siru at the start of the heat transfer experiments by quantifying the dispersion constant, which is a function of the liquid-solid system and cleaning procedures. The experimentally obtained values of the disjoining pressure and the dispersion constants were compared to that predicted from the DLP theory and good agreements were obtained. The measurements are critical to the subsequent non-isothermal experiments because one of the major variables in the heat sink capability of the Constrained Vapor Bubble Thermosyphon, CVBT, is the dispersion constant. In all previous studies of micro heat pipes the value of the dispersion constant has been 'estimated'. One of the major advantages of the current glass cell is the ability to view the extended meniscus at all times. Experimentally, we find that the extended Young-Laplace Equation is an excellent model for the force field at the solid-liquid-vapor interfaces.
Does 'anchor sleep' entrain circadian rhythms? Evidence from constant routine studies.
Minors, D S; Waterhouse, J M
1983-01-01
Experiments have been performed in an isolation unit to investigate the effects of abnormal sleep-waking schedules upon circadian rhythms of renal excretion and deep-body temperature. In confirmation of previous work, nychthemeral rhythms appeared to be 'anchored' to a 24 h period if 4 h sleep was taken regularly each day, even though another 4 h was taken irregularly. The endogenous components were investigated by assessing circadian rhythmicity under constant routine conditions, that is, when rhythmic influences in the environment and sleep-waking pattern had been minimized. Analysis of the constant routine data indicated the presence of a rhythmic component which had been stabilized to a period of 24 h by the 'anchor sleep'. In addition, a delayed component was also present. The starting time of the constant routines produced a direct effect upon the rhythms, which was presumed to result from removing the 'masking' effect that sleep normally exerts upon rhythms. There was some evidence that the relative importance of the masking effect and the delayed component depended upon the variable under consideration. The implications of these findings, in terms of the effects of anchor sleep, the presence of more than one internal clock and the usefulness of constant routines, are discussed. PMID:6663508
A hundred years with the cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grøn, Øyvind G.
2018-07-01
The main points in the history of the cosmological constant are briefly discussed. As a conceptual background, useful for teaching of physics at an elementary college and university level, Newton’s theory formulated locally in terms of the Poisson equation is presented, and it is shown how it is modified by the introduction of the cosmological constant. The different physical interpretations of the cosmological constant, as introduced by Einstein in 1917 and interpreted by Lemaître in 1934, are presented. Energy conservation in an expanding universe dominated by vacuum energy is discussed. The connection between the cosmological constant and the quantum mechanical vacuum energy is mentioned, together with the problem that a quantum mechanical calculation of the density of the vacuum energy gives a vastly too large value of the cosmological constant. The article is concluded by reviewing a solution of this problem that was presented on May 11, 2017.
CRITICA: coding region identification tool invoking comparative analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Badger, J. H.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)
1999-01-01
Gene recognition is essential to understanding existing and future DNA sequence data. CRITICA (Coding Region Identification Tool Invoking Comparative Analysis) is a suite of programs for identifying likely protein-coding sequences in DNA by combining comparative analysis of DNA sequences with more common noncomparative methods. In the comparative component of the analysis, regions of DNA are aligned with related sequences from the DNA databases; if the translation of the aligned sequences has greater amino acid identity than expected for the observed percentage nucleotide identity, this is interpreted as evidence for coding. CRITICA also incorporates noncomparative information derived from the relative frequencies of hexanucleotides in coding frames versus other contexts (i.e., dicodon bias). The dicodon usage information is derived by iterative analysis of the data, such that CRITICA is not dependent on the existence or accuracy of coding sequence annotations in the databases. This independence makes the method particularly well suited for the analysis of novel genomes. CRITICA was tested by analyzing the available Salmonella typhimurium DNA sequences. Its predictions were compared with the DNA sequence annotations and with the predictions of GenMark. CRITICA proved to be more accurate than GenMark, and moreover, many of its predictions that would seem to be errors instead reflect problems in the sequence databases. The source code of CRITICA is freely available by anonymous FTP (rdp.life.uiuc.edu in/pub/critica) and on the World Wide Web (http:/(/)rdpwww.life.uiuc.edu).
Comparison of TID Effects in Space-Like Variable Dose Rates and Constant Dose Rates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Richard D.; McClure, Steven S.; Rax, Bernard G.; Evans, Robin W.; Jun, Insoo
2008-01-01
The degradation of the LM193 dual voltage comparator has been studied at different TID dose rate profiles, including several different constant dose rates and a variable dose rate that simulates the behavior of a solar flare. A comparison of results following constant dose rate vs. variable dose rates is made to explore how well the constant dose rates used for typical part testing predict the performance during a simulated space-like mission. Testing at a constant dose rate equal to the lowest dose rate seen during the simulated flare provides an extremely conservative estimate of the overall amount of degradation. A constant dose rate equal to the average dose rate is also more conservative than the variable rate. It appears that, for this part, weighting the dose rates by the amount of total dose received at each rate (rather than the amount of time at each dose rate) results in an average rate that produces an amount of degradation that is a reasonable approximation to that received by the variable rate.
Frontier production function estimates for steam electric generation: a comparative analysis
Kopp, R.J.; Smith, V.K.
1980-04-01
The performance of three frontier steam electric generation estimators is compared in terms of the consideration given to new production technologies and their technical efficiency. The Cobb-Douglas, constant elasticity of substitution, and translog production functions are examined, using the Aigner-Chu linear programming, the sophisticated Aigner-Lovell-Schmidt stochastic frontier, and the direct method of adjusted ordinary least squares frontier estimators. The use of Cobb-Douglas specification is judged to have narrowed the perceived difference between competing estimators. The choice of frontier estimator is concluded to have a greater effect on the plant efficiency than functional form. 19 references. (DCK)
Automated Microwave Dielectric Constant Measurement
1987-03-01
IJSWC TR 86-46 AD.-A 184 182 AUTOMATED MICROWAVE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT MEASUREMENT SYTIEM BY B. C. GLANCY A. KRALL PESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT...NO0. NO. ACCESSION NO. Silver Spring, Maryland 20903-500061152N ZROO1 ZRO131 R1AA29 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) AUTOMATED MICROWAVE ...constants as a funct on of microwave frequency has been simplified using an automated testing apparatus. This automated procedure is based on the use of a
Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
2011-01-01
The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are…
Reports on Astronomical Constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
Recent progress in the determination of astronomical constants is reviewed. By using the latest numerical integration of LC (Irwin and Fukushima, 1999) and the latest value of the geoidal potential W0 (Groten, 1999), we reestimated the general relativistic scale constants as LC = 1.480~826~867~4 × 10-8 ± 1.4 × 10-17, LG = 6.969~290~13 × 10-10 ± 6 × 10-18, and LB = 1.550~519~767~5 × 10-8 ± 2.0 × 10-17. Presented is a proposal to fix the numerical value of LG as the above in order to remove the geophysical ambiguity in its evaluation in the future. Next focused upon is the correction to the IAU 1976 Precession (Lieske et al., 1977). By simply averaging the latest VLBI-based determinations (Mathews et al., 2000; Petrov, 2000; Shirai and Fukushima, 2000; Vondrak and Ron, 2000) and the latest LLR-based determinations (Chapront et al., 1999), we obtained the best estimates of precession-related quantities at J2000.0: the general precession in longitude, p = 5~028.78 ± 0.03 ''/cy; obliquity of the ecliptic, ɛ0 = 23o26'21.''405~6 ± 0.''0005; and the pole offsets of the CEP of ICRS, Δ ψ0 sin ɛ0 = (-17.5 ± 0.8) mas, and Δ ɛ0 = (-5.2 ± 0.4) mas. After quoting the latest determination of mass of Pluto-Charon system (Tholen and Buie, 1997) and the recent change of G (Mohr and Taylor, 1999), proposed is a draft IAU 2000 File of Current Best Estimates of Astronomical Constants to replace the former 1994 version (Standish, 1995). It may even supplant the IAU 1976 System of Astronomical Constants (Duncombe et al., 1977), subject to discussion at this General Assembly.
Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi
2013-01-01
Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P . solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai’s linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P . solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P . solenopsis . The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P . solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P . solenopsis on its host plants. PMID:24086597
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca
2013-01-01
A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…
Howard University: A Comparative Fiscal Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Inman, Deborah; And Others
This report presents a fiscal analysis of Howard University (District of Columbia) including: (1) general education revenues; (2) education and general expenditures; and (3) faculty salaries. The study compared Howard University to four different groups of higher education institutions: similar private institutions with hospitals; public…
Estimated Mid-Infrared (200-2000 cm-1) Optical Constants of Some Silica Polymorphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glotch, Timothy; Rossman, G. R.; Michalski, J. R.
2006-09-01
We use Lorentz-Lorenz dispersion analysis to model the mid-infrared (200-2000 cm-1) optical constants, of opal-A, opal-CT, and tridymite. These minerals, which are all polymorphs of silica (SiO2), are potentially important in the analysis of thermal emission spectra acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) and Mars Exploration Rover Mini-TES instruments in orbit and on the surface of Mars as well as emission spectra acquired by telescopes of planetary disks and dust and debris clouds in young solar systems. Mineral samples were crushed, washed, and sieved and emissivity spectra of the >100; μm size fraction were acquired at Arizona State University's emissivity spectroscopy laboratory. Therefore, the spectra and optical constants are representative of all crystal orientations. Ideally, emissivity or reflectance measurements of single polished crystals or fine powders pressed to compact disks are used for the determination of mid-infrared optical constants. Measurements of these types of surfaces eliminate or minimize multiple reflections, providing a specular surface. Our measurements, however, likely produce a reasonable approximation of specular emissivity or reflectance, as the minimum particle size is greater than the maximum wavelength of light measured. Future work will include measurement of pressed disks of powdered samples in emission and reflection, and when possible, small single crystals under an IR reflectance microscope, which will allow us to assess the variability of spectra and optical constants under different sample preparation and measurement conditions.
Investigation of the frequency response of constant voltage anemometers in turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi Hassanlouei, Atabak
A commercially available anemometer system considered as a prototype, the constant voltage anemometer (CVA), is presented and its working principle is studied and analyzed. We detail the different procedures and corrections that have to be applied to voltage signals to deduce corresponding velocity signals, including the effect of the thermal inertia of the sensor. Results are compared to another anemometer system widely used in research and industry, the constant temperature anemometer (CTA), for validation requirements. Measurements are performed in the turbulent region of a subsonic axisymmetric jet and include mean velocities, root-mean-square (rms) values of velocity fluctuations and power spectral densities. In the same range of operation, we show that the two instruments give similar results. The CVA anemometer slightly underestimates the rms velocity values given by the CTA anemometer which is attributed to a non-linear effect. We show that the cut-off frequency of the CVA system is higher than the more commonly used CTA system, and that the electronic noise level is lower. The constant voltage anemometer is thus an excellent alternative to the constant temperature anemometer for low turbulent flows with rich frequency content, such as supersonic and hypersonic flows.
Protein dielectric constants determined from NMR chemical shift perturbations.
Kukic, Predrag; Farrell, Damien; McIntosh, Lawrence P; García-Moreno E, Bertrand; Jensen, Kristine Steen; Toleikis, Zigmantas; Teilum, Kaare; Nielsen, Jens Erik
2013-11-13
Understanding the connection between protein structure and function requires a quantitative understanding of electrostatic effects. Structure-based electrostatic calculations are essential for this purpose, but their use has been limited by a long-standing discussion on which value to use for the dielectric constants (ε(eff) and ε(p)) required in Coulombic and Poisson-Boltzmann models. The currently used values for ε(eff) and ε(p) are essentially empirical parameters calibrated against thermodynamic properties that are indirect measurements of protein electric fields. We determine optimal values for ε(eff) and ε(p) by measuring protein electric fields in solution using direct detection of NMR chemical shift perturbations (CSPs). We measured CSPs in 14 proteins to get a broad and general characterization of electric fields. Coulomb's law reproduces the measured CSPs optimally with a protein dielectric constant (ε(eff)) from 3 to 13, with an optimal value across all proteins of 6.5. However, when the water-protein interface is treated with finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann calculations, the optimal protein dielectric constant (ε(p)) ranged from 2 to 5 with an optimum of 3. It is striking how similar this value is to the dielectric constant of 2-4 measured for protein powders and how different it is from the ε(p) of 6-20 used in models based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation when calculating thermodynamic parameters. Because the value of ε(p) = 3 is obtained by analysis of NMR chemical shift perturbations instead of thermodynamic parameters such as pK(a) values, it is likely to describe only the electric field and thus represent a more general, intrinsic, and transferable ε(p) common to most folded proteins.
Study on the stability of adrenaline and on the determination of its acidity constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corona-Avendaño, S.; Alarcón-Angeles, G.; Rojas-Hernández, A.; Romero-Romo, M. A.; Ramírez-Silva, M. T.
2005-01-01
In this work, the results are presented concerning the influence of time on the spectral behaviour of adrenaline (C 9H 13NO 3) (AD) and of the determination of its acidity constants by means of spectrophotometry titrations and point-by-point analysis, using for the latter freshly prepared samples for each analysis at every single pH. As the catecholamines are sensitive to light, all samples were protected against it during the course of the experiments. Each method rendered four acidity constants corresponding each to the four acid protons belonging to the functional groups present in the molecule; for the point-by-point analysis the values found were: log β 1=38.25±0.21 , log β 2=29.65±0.17 , log β 3=21.01±0.14 , log β 4=11.34±0.071 .
Walking at non-constant speeds: mechanical work, pendular transduction, and energy congruity.
Balbinot, G
2017-05-01
Although almost half of all walking bouts in urban environments consist of less than 12 consecutive steps and several day-to-day gait activities contain transient gait responses, in most studies gait analysis is performed at steady-state. This study aimed to analyze external (W ext ) and internal mechanical work (W int ), pendulum-like mechanics, and elastic energy usage during constant and non-constant speeds. The mechanical work, pendular transduction, and energy congruity (an estimate of storage and release of elastic energy) during walking were computed using two force platforms. We found that during accelerating gait (+NCS) energy recovery is maintained, besides extra W + ext , for decelerating gait (-NCS) poor energy recovery was counterbalanced by W - ext and C% predominance. We report an increase in elastic energy usage with speed (4-11%). Both W - ext and %C suggests that elastic energy usage is higher at faster speeds and related to -NCS (≈20% of elastic energy usage). This study was the first to show evidences of elastic energy usage during constant and non-constant speeds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loh, C. W.
1980-03-01
A method was developed for determining equilibrium constants, heat of reaction, and change in free energy and entropy during a 1:1 complex formation in solutions. The measurements were carried out on ternary systems containing two interacting solutes in an inert solvent. The procedures was applied to the investigation of hydrogen bond complex formations in two mixtures systems, phenol and pyridine in carbon tetrachloride, and 4, 5, 6, 7-tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazole (TTFB) and alkyl acetate in styrene. The first mixture system was studied in order to compare the results with those obtained by other methods. Results for the second mixture system indicated strong association between molecules of TTFB and alkyl acetate and suggested that the blocking of valinomycin-mediated bilayer membrane conductance by substituted benzimidazoles was due to competition for a limited number of adsorption sites on the membrane surface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeMore, W.B.
1996-01-01
Relative rate experiments are used to measure rate constants and temperature dependencies of the reactions of OH with CH3F (41), CH2FCl (31), CH2BrCl (30B1), CH2Br2 (3OB2), CHBr3 (2OB3), CF2BrCHFCl (123aBl(alpha)), and CF2ClCHCl2 (122). Rate constants for additional compounds of these types are estimated using an empirical rate constant estimation method which is based on measured rate constants for a wide range of halocarbons. The experimental data are combined with the estimated and previously reported rate constants to illustrate the effects of F, Cl, and Br substitution on OH rate constants for a series of 19 halomethanes and 25 haloethanes. Application of the estimation technique is further illustrated for some higher hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), including CHF2CF2CF2CF2H (338pcc), CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3 (43-10mee), CF3CH2CH2CF3 (356ffa), CF3CH2CF2CH2CF3 (458mfcf), CF3CH2CHF2 (245fa), and CF3CH2CF2CH3 (365mfc). The predictions are compared with literature data for these compounds.
Stability of aerosol droplets in Bessel beam optical traps under constant and pulsed external forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Hartweg, Sebastian; Cremer, Johannes; Chasovskikh, Egor; Signorell, Ruth
2015-04-01
We report on the dynamics of aerosol droplets in optical traps under the influence of additional constant and pulsed external forces. Experimental results are compared with simulations of the three-dimensional droplet dynamics for two types of optical traps, the counter-propagating Bessel beam (CPBB) trap and the quadruple Bessel beam (QBB) trap. Under the influence of a constant gas flow (constant external force), the QBB trap is found to be more stable compared with the CPBB trap. By contrast, under pulsed laser excitation with laser pulse durations of nanoseconds (pulsed external force), the type of trap is of minor importance for the droplet stability. It typically needs pulsed laser forces that are several orders of magnitude higher than the optical forces to induce escape of the droplet from the trap. If the droplet strongly absorbs the pulsed laser light, these escape forces can be strongly reduced. The lower stability of absorbing droplets is a result of secondary thermal processes that cause droplet escape.
David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Hartweg, Sebastian; Cremer, Johannes; Chasovskikh, Egor; Signorell, Ruth
2015-04-21
We report on the dynamics of aerosol droplets in optical traps under the influence of additional constant and pulsed external forces. Experimental results are compared with simulations of the three-dimensional droplet dynamics for two types of optical traps, the counter-propagating Bessel beam (CPBB) trap and the quadruple Bessel beam (QBB) trap. Under the influence of a constant gas flow (constant external force), the QBB trap is found to be more stable compared with the CPBB trap. By contrast, under pulsed laser excitation with laser pulse durations of nanoseconds (pulsed external force), the type of trap is of minor importance for the droplet stability. It typically needs pulsed laser forces that are several orders of magnitude higher than the optical forces to induce escape of the droplet from the trap. If the droplet strongly absorbs the pulsed laser light, these escape forces can be strongly reduced. The lower stability of absorbing droplets is a result of secondary thermal processes that cause droplet escape.
National Launch System comparative economic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prince, A.
1992-01-01
Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.
Ogwu, A. A.; Okpalugo, T. I. T.; Nanotechnology Institute, School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland
We have carried out investigations aimed at understanding the mechanism responsible for a water contact angle increase of up to ten degrees and a decrease in dielectric constant in silicon modified hydrogenated amorphous carbon films compared to unmodified hydrogenated amorphous carbon films. Our investigations based on surface chemical constituent analysis using Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), SIMS, FTIR, contact angle / surface energy measurements and spectroscopic ellipsometry suggests the presence of hydrophobic chemical entities on the surface of the films. This observation is consistent with earlier theoretical plasma chemistry predictions and observed Raman peak shifts in the films. Thesemore » surface hydrophobic entities also have a lower polarizability than the bonds in the un-modified films thereby reducing the dielectric constant of the silicon modified films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Ellipsometric dielectric constant measurement is directly related to the surface energy through Hamaker's constant. Our current finding is expected to be of benefit to understanding stiction, friction and lubrication in areas that range from nano-tribology to microfluidics.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogwu, A. A.; Okpalugo, T. I. T.; McLaughlin, J. A. D.
2012-09-01
We have carried out investigations aimed at understanding the mechanism responsible for a water contact angle increase of up to ten degrees and a decrease in dielectric constant in silicon modified hydrogenated amorphous carbon films compared to unmodified hydrogenated amorphous carbon films. Our investigations based on surface chemical constituent analysis using Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), SIMS, FTIR, contact angle / surface energy measurements and spectroscopic ellipsometry suggests the presence of hydrophobic chemical entities on the surface of the films. This observation is consistent with earlier theoretical plasma chemistry predictions and observed Raman peak shifts in the films. These surface hydrophobic entities also have a lower polarizability than the bonds in the un-modified films thereby reducing the dielectric constant of the silicon modified films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Ellipsometric dielectric constant measurement is directly related to the surface energy through Hamaker's constant. Our current finding is expected to be of benefit to understanding stiction, friction and lubrication in areas that range from nano-tribology to microfluidics.
Comparative Genome Analysis of Enterobacter cloacae
Liu, Wing-Yee; Wong, Chi-Fat; Chung, Karl Ming-Kar; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching
2013-01-01
The Enterobacter cloacae species includes an extremely diverse group of bacteria that are associated with plants, soil and humans. Publication of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting endophytic E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 provided an opportunity to perform the first comparative genome analysis between strains of this dynamic species. Examination of the pan-genome of E. cloacae showed that the conserved core genome retains the general physiological and survival genes of the species, while genomic factors in plasmids and variable regions determine the virulence of the human pathogenic E. cloacae strain; additionally, the diversity of fimbriae contributes to variation in colonization and host determination of different E. cloacae strains. Comparative genome analysis further illustrated that E. cloacae strains possess multiple mechanisms for antagonistic action against other microorganisms, which involve the production of siderophores and various antimicrobial compounds, such as bacteriocins, chitinases and antibiotic resistance proteins. The presence of Type VI secretion systems is expected to provide further fitness advantages for E. cloacae in microbial competition, thus allowing it to survive in different environments. Competition assays were performed to support our observations in genomic analysis, where E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 demonstrated antagonistic activities against a wide range of plant pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. PMID:24069314
Soil-moisture constants and their variation
Walter M. Broadfoot; Hubert D. Burke
1958-01-01
"Constants" like field capacity, liquid limit, moisture equivalent, and wilting point are used by most students and workers in soil moisture. These constants may be equilibrium points or other values that describe soil moisture. Their values under specific soil and cover conditions have been discussed at length in the literature, but few general analyses and...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armstrong, Hannah; Boese, Matthew; Carmichael, Cody; Dimich, Hannah; Seay, Dylan; Sheppard, Nathan; Beekman, Matt
2017-01-01
Maximum thermoelectric energy conversion efficiencies are calculated using the conventional "constant property" model and the recently proposed "cumulative/average property" model (Kim et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:8205, 2015) for 18 high-performance thermoelectric materials. We find that the constant property model generally predicts higher energy conversion efficiency for nearly all materials and temperature differences studied. Although significant deviations are observed in some cases, on average the constant property model predicts an efficiency that is a factor of 1.16 larger than that predicted by the average property model, with even lower deviations for temperature differences typical of energy harvesting applications. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the conventional dimensionless figure of merit ZT obtained from the constant property model, while not applicable for some materials with strongly temperature-dependent thermoelectric properties, remains a simple yet useful metric for initial evaluation and/or comparison of thermoelectric materials, provided the ZT at the average temperature of projected operation, not the peak ZT, is used.
Ab initio calculation of hyperfine splitting constants of molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohta, K.; Nakatsuji, H.; Hirao, K.; Yonezawa, T.
1980-08-01
Hyperfine splitting (hfs) constants of molecules, methyl, ethyl, vinyl, allyl, cyclopropyl, formyl, O3-, NH2, NO2, and NF2 radicals have been calculated by the pseudo-orbital (PO) theory, the unrestricted HF (UHF), projected UHF (PUHF) and single excitation (SE) CI theories. The pseudo-orbital (PO) theory is based on the symmetry-adapted-cluster (SAC) expansion proposed previously. Several contractions of the Gaussian basis sets of double-zeta accuracy have been examined. The UHF results were consistently too large to compare with experiments and the PUHF results were too small. For molecules studied here, the PO theory and SECI theory gave relatively close results. They were in fair agreement with experiments. The first-order spin-polarization self-consistency effect, which was shown to be important for atoms, is relatively small for the molecules. The present result also shows an importance of eliminating orbital-transformation dependence from conventional first-order perturbation calculations. The present calculations have explained well several important variations in the experimental hfs constants.
Semiclassical Calculation of Reaction Rate Constants for Homolytical Dissociations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cardelino, Beatriz H.
2002-01-01
There is growing interest in extending organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) to III-V materials that exhibit large thermal decomposition at their optimum growth temperature, such as indium nitride. The group III nitrides are candidate materials for light-emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers operating into the blue and ultraviolet regions. To overcome decomposition of the deposited compound, the reaction must be conducted at high pressures, which causes problems of uniformity. Microgravity may provide the venue for maintaining conditions of laminar flow under high pressure. Since the selection of optimized parameters becomes crucial when performing experiments in microgravity, efforts are presently geared to the development of computational OMCVD models that will couple the reactor fluid dynamics with its chemical kinetics. In the present study, we developed a method to calculate reaction rate constants for the homolytic dissociation of III-V compounds for modeling OMCVD. The method is validated by comparing calculations with experimental reaction rate constants.
2D constant-loss taper for mode conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horth, Alexandre; Kashyap, Raman; Quitoriano, Nathaniel J.
2015-03-01
Proposed in this manuscript is a novel taper geometry, the constant-loss taper (CLT). This geometry is derived with 1D slabs of silicon embedded in silicon dioxide using coupled-mode theory (CMT). The efficiency of the CLT is compared to both linear and parabolic tapers using CMT and 2D finite-difference time-domain simulations. It is shown that over a short 2D, 4.45 μm long taper the CLT's mode conversion efficiency is ~90% which is 10% and 18% more efficient than a 2D parabolic or linear taper, respectively.
Bîrlea, Sinziana I; Corley, Gavin J; Bîrlea, Nicolae M; Breen, Paul P; Quondamatteo, Fabio; OLaighin, Gearóid
2009-01-01
We propose a new method for extracting the electrical properties of human skin based on the time constant analysis of its exponential response to impulse stimulation. As a result of this analysis an adjacent finding has arisen. We have found that stratum corneum electroporation can be detected using this analysis method. We have observed that a one time-constant model is appropriate for describing the electrical properties of human skin at low amplitude applied voltages (<30V), and a two time-constant model best describes skin electrical properties at higher amplitude applied voltages (>30V). Higher voltage amplitudes (>30V) have been proven to create pores in the skin's stratum corneum which offer a new, lower resistance, pathway for the passage of current through the skin. Our data shows that when pores are formed in the stratum corneum they can be detected, in-vivo, due to the fact that a second time constant describes current flow through them.
Network Analysis in Comparative Social Sciences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vera, Eugenia Roldan; Schupp, Thomas
2006-01-01
This essay describes the pertinence of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for the social sciences in general, and discusses its methodological and conceptual implications for comparative research in particular. The authors first present a basic summary of the theoretical and methodological assumptions of SNA, followed by a succinct overview of its…
Comparative analysis and visualization of multiple collinear genomes
2012-01-01
Background Genome browsers are a common tool used by biologists to visualize genomic features including genes, polymorphisms, and many others. However, existing genome browsers and visualization tools are not well-suited to perform meaningful comparative analysis among a large number of genomes. With the increasing quantity and availability of genomic data, there is an increased burden to provide useful visualization and analysis tools for comparison of multiple collinear genomes such as the large panels of model organisms which are the basis for much of the current genetic research. Results We have developed a novel web-based tool for visualizing and analyzing multiple collinear genomes. Our tool illustrates genome-sequence similarity through a mosaic of intervals representing local phylogeny, subspecific origin, and haplotype identity. Comparative analysis is facilitated through reordering and clustering of tracks, which can vary throughout the genome. In addition, we provide local phylogenetic trees as an alternate visualization to assess local variations. Conclusions Unlike previous genome browsers and viewers, ours allows for simultaneous and comparative analysis. Our browser provides intuitive selection and interactive navigation about features of interest. Dynamic visualizations adjust to scale and data content making analysis at variable resolutions and of multiple data sets more informative. We demonstrate our genome browser for an extensive set of genomic data sets composed of almost 200 distinct mouse laboratory strains. PMID:22536897
High-temperature langatate elastic constants and experimental validation up to 900 degrees C.
Davulis, Peter M; da Cunha, Mauricio Pereira
2010-01-01
This paper reports on a set of langatate (LGT) elastic constants extracted from room temperature to 1100 degrees C using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy techniques and an accompanying assessment of these constants at high temperature. The evaluation of the constants employed SAW device measurements from room temperature to 900 degrees C along 6 different LGT wafer orientations. Langatate parallelepipeds and wafers were aligned, cut, ground, and polished, and acoustic wave devices were fabricated at the University of Maine facilities along specific orientations for elastic constant extraction and validation. SAW delay lines were fabricated on LGT wafers prepared at the University of Maine using 100-nm platinumrhodium- zirconia electrodes capable of withstanding temperatures up to 1000 degrees C. The numerical predictions based on the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy high-temperature constants were compared with SAW phase velocity, fractional frequency variation, and temperature coefficients of delay extracted from SAW delay line frequency response measurements. In particular, the difference between measured and predicted fractional frequency variation is less than 2% over the 25 degrees C to 900 degrees C temperature range and within the calculated and measured discrepancies. Multiple temperature-compensated orientations at high temperature were predicted and verified in this paper: 4 of the measured orientations had turnover temperatures (temperature coefficient of delay = 0) between 200 and 420 degrees C, and 2 had turnover temperatures below 100 degrees C. In summary, this work reports on extracted high-temperature elastic constants for LGT up to 1100 degrees C, confirmed the validity of those constants by high-temperature SAW device measurements up to 900 degrees C, and predicted and identified temperature-compensated LGT orientations at high temperature.
Initial implementation of a comparative data analysis ontology.
Prosdocimi, Francisco; Chisham, Brandon; Pontelli, Enrico; Thompson, Julie D; Stoltzfus, Arlin
2009-07-03
Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species) are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: "Operational Taxonomic Units" (OTUs), representing the entities to be compared; "character-state data" representing the observations compared among OTUs; "phylogenetic tree", representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and "transitions", the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL), we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO). CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc.) that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.
Comparative genome analysis in the integrated microbial genomes (IMG) system.
Markowitz, Victor M; Kyrpides, Nikos C
2007-01-01
Comparative genome analysis is critical for the effective exploration of a rapidly growing number of complete and draft sequences for microbial genomes. The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system (img.jgi.doe.gov) has been developed as a community resource that provides support for comparative analysis of microbial genomes in an integrated context. IMG allows users to navigate the multidimensional microbial genome data space and focus their analysis on a subset of genes, genomes, and functions of interest. IMG provides graphical viewers, summaries, and occurrence profile tools for comparing genes, pathways, and functions (terms) across specific genomes. Genes can be further examined using gene neighborhoods and compared with sequence alignment tools.
Statistical correlation analysis for comparing vibration data from test and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, T. G.; Strang, R. F.; Purves, L. R.; Hershfeld, D. J.
1986-01-01
A theory was developed to compare vibration modes obtained by NASTRAN analysis with those obtained experimentally. Because many more analytical modes can be obtained than experimental modes, the analytical set was treated as expansion functions for putting both sources in comparative form. The dimensional symmetry was developed for three general cases: nonsymmetric whole model compared with a nonsymmetric whole structural test, symmetric analytical portion compared with a symmetric experimental portion, and analytical symmetric portion with a whole experimental test. The theory was coded and a statistical correlation program was installed as a utility. The theory is established with small classical structures.
Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.
2007-01-01
Estimation of representative hydrographs from design storms, which are known as design hydrographs, provides for cost-effective, riskmitigated design of drainage structures such as bridges, culverts, roadways, and other infrastructure. During 2001?07, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation, investigated runoff hydrographs, design storms, unit hydrographs,and watershed-loss models to enhance design hydrograph estimation in Texas. Design hydrographs ideally should mimic the general volume, peak, and shape of observed runoff hydrographs. Design hydrographs commonly are estimated in part by unit hydrographs. A unit hydrograph is defined as the runoff hydrograph that results from a unit pulse of excess rainfall uniformly distributed over the watershed at a constant rate for a specific duration. A time-distributed, watershed-loss model is required for modeling by unit hydrographs. This report develops a specific time-distributed, watershed-loss model known as an initial-abstraction, constant-loss model. For this watershed-loss model, a watershed is conceptualized to have the capacity to store or abstract an absolute depth of rainfall at and near the beginning of a storm. Depths of total rainfall less than this initial abstraction do not produce runoff. The watershed also is conceptualized to have the capacity to remove rainfall at a constant rate (loss) after the initial abstraction is satisfied. Additional rainfall inputs after the initial abstraction is satisfied contribute to runoff if the rainfall rate (intensity) is larger than the constant loss. The initial abstraction, constant-loss model thus is a two-parameter model. The initial-abstraction, constant-loss model is investigated through detailed computational and statistical analysis of observed rainfall and runoff data for 92 USGS streamflow-gaging stations (watersheds) in Texas with contributing drainage areas from 0.26 to 166 square miles. The analysis is
Averaging of elastic constants for polycrystals
Blaschke, Daniel N.
2017-10-13
Many materials of interest are polycrystals, i.e., aggregates of single crystals. Randomly distributed orientations of single crystals lead to macroscopically isotropic properties. Here in this paper, we briefly review strategies of calculating effective isotropic second and third order elastic constants from the single crystal ones. Our main emphasis is on single crystals of cubic symmetry. Specifically, the averaging of third order elastic constants has not been particularly successful in the past, and discrepancies have often been attributed to texturing of polycrystals as well as to uncertainties in the measurement of elastic constants of both poly and single crystals. While thismore » may well be true, we also point out here shortcomings in the theoretical averaging framework.« less
Cosmological Constant: A Lesson from Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finazzi, Stefano; Liberati, Stefano; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2012-02-01
The cosmological constant is one of the most pressing problems in modern physics. We address this issue from an emergent gravity standpoint, by using an analogue gravity model. Indeed, the dynamics of the emergent metric in a Bose-Einstein condensate can be described by a Poisson-like equation with a vacuum source term reminiscent of a cosmological constant. The direct computation of this term shows that in emergent gravity scenarios this constant may be naturally much smaller than the naive ground-state energy of the emergent effective field theory. This suggests that a proper computation of the cosmological constant would require a detailed understanding about how Einstein equations emerge from the full microscopic quantum theory. In this light, the cosmological constant appears as a decisive test bench for any quantum or emergent gravity scenario.
Cosmological constant: a lesson from Bose-Einstein condensates.
Finazzi, Stefano; Liberati, Stefano; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2012-02-17
The cosmological constant is one of the most pressing problems in modern physics. We address this issue from an emergent gravity standpoint, by using an analogue gravity model. Indeed, the dynamics of the emergent metric in a Bose-Einstein condensate can be described by a Poisson-like equation with a vacuum source term reminiscent of a cosmological constant. The direct computation of this term shows that in emergent gravity scenarios this constant may be naturally much smaller than the naive ground-state energy of the emergent effective field theory. This suggests that a proper computation of the cosmological constant would require a detailed understanding about how Einstein equations emerge from the full microscopic quantum theory. In this light, the cosmological constant appears as a decisive test bench for any quantum or emergent gravity scenario.
Fletcher, Mary H.
1960-01-01
The dye 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid, has shown promise as a reagent for the determination of zirconium. As the literature contains very little information about this dye, basic data pertinent to its use as a reagent were determined. The sulfonic acid group and all three of the hydroxy groups show acidic characteristics. Apparent dissociation constants were determined for the three more labile protons and the approximate order of magnitude for the fourth constant was estimated. Absorption spectra for the different ionization species are given. A curve is also included which shows the fraction of dye in the different ionization forms at acidities from 10.35M hydrochloric acid to pH 11.9. A sixth dye species was found in 1.0 to 8.4M potassium hydroxide solutions, but its nature is unknown.
Artifacts correction for T1rho imaging with constant amplitude spin-lock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Weitian
2017-01-01
T1rho imaging with constant amplitude spin-lock is prone to artifacts in the presence of B1 RF and B0 field inhomogeneity. Despite significant technological progress, improvements on the robustness of constant amplitude spin-lock are necessary in order to use it for routine clinical practice. This work proposes methods to simultaneously correct for B1 RF and B0 field inhomogeneity in constant amplitude spin-lock. By setting the maximum B1 amplitude of the excitation adiabatic pulses equal to the expected constant amplitude spin-lock frequency, the spins become aligned along the effective field throughout the spin-lock process. This results in T1rho-weighted images free of artifacts, despite the spatial variation of the effective field caused by B1 RF and B0 field inhomogeneity. When the pulse is long, the relaxation effect during the adiabatic half passage may result in a non-negligible error in the mono-exponential relaxation model. A two-acquisition approach is presented to solve this issue. Simulation, phantom, and in-vivo scans demonstrate the proposed methods achieve superior image quality compared to existing methods, and that the two-acquisition method is effective in resolving the relaxation effect during the adiabatic half passage.
Sursyakova, Viktoria V; Burmakina, Galina V; Rubaylo, Anatoly I
2016-08-01
The influence of analyte concentration when compared with the concentration of a charged ligand in background electrolyte (BGE) on the measured values of electrophoretic mobilities and stability constants (association, binding or formation constants) is studied using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and a dynamic mathematical simulator of CE. The study is performed using labile complexes (with fast kinetics) of iron (III) and 5-sulfosalicylate ions (ISC) as an example. It is shown that because the ligand concentration in the analyte zone is not equal to that in BGE, considerable changes in the migration times and electrophoretic mobilities are observed, resulting in systematic errors in the stability constant values. Of crucial significance is the slope of the dependence of the electrophoretic mobility decrease on the ligand equilibrium concentration. Without prior information on this dependence to accurately evaluate the stability constants for similar systems, the total ligand concentration must be at least >50-100 times higher than the total concentration of analyte. Experimental ISC peak fronting and the difference between the direction of the experimental pH dependence of the electrophoretic mobility decrease and the mathematical simulation allow assuming the presence of capillary wall interaction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik
2013-01-01
An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software.
Rural and Urban Crashes: A Comparative Analysis
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
1996-08-01
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's National Center for Statistics : and Analysis (NCSA) recently completed a study comparing the characteristics of : crashes occurring in rural areas to the characteristics of crashes occurring in : urba...
Simple constant-current-regulated power supply
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Priebe, D. H. E.; Sturman, J. C.
1977-01-01
Supply incorporates soft-start circuit that slowly ramps current up to set point at turn-on. Supply consists of full-wave rectifier, regulating pass transistor, current feedback circuit, and quad single-supply operational-amplifier circuit providing control. Technique is applicable to any system requiring constant dc current, such as vacuum tube equipment, heaters, or battery charges; it has been used to supply constant current for instrument calibration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osborne, David; Lawson, Patrick; Adams, Nigel
2014-01-01
Following the arrival of Cassini at Titan in 2004, the Titan atmosphere has been shown to contain large complex polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons. Since Cassini has provided a great deal of data, there exists a need for kinetic rate data to help with modeling this atmosphere. One type of kinetic data needed is electron-ion dissociative recombination (e-IDR) rate constants. These data are not readily available for larger compounds, such as naphthalene, or oxygen containing compounds, such as 1,4 dioxane or furan. Here, the rate constants for naphthalene, 1,4 dioxane, and furan have been measured and their temperature dependencies are determined when possible, using the University of Georgia's Variable Temperature Flowing Afterglow. The rate constants are compared with those previously published for other compounds; these show trends which illustrate the effects which multi-rings and oxygen heteroatoms substitutions have upon e-IDR rate constants.
Definition and Measurement of Selection Bias: From Constant Ratio to Constant Difference
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cahan, Sorel; Gamliel, Eyal
2006-01-01
Despite its intuitive appeal and popularity, Thorndike's constant ratio (CR) model for unbiased selection is inherently inconsistent in "n"-free selection. Satisfaction of the condition for unbiased selection, when formulated in terms of success/acceptance probabilities, usually precludes satisfaction by the converse probabilities of…
Ratios of Vector and Pseudoscalar B Meson Decay Constants in the Light-Cone Quark Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhiman, Nisha; Dahiya, Harleen
2018-05-01
We study the decay constants of pseudoscalar and vector B meson in the framework of light-cone quark model. We apply the variational method to the relativistic Hamiltonian with the Gaussian-type trial wave function to obtain the values of β (scale parameter). Then with the help of known values of constituent quark masses, we obtain the numerical results for the decay constants f_P and f_V, respectively. We compare our numerical results with the existing experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sorensen, E
1940-01-01
The conventional axial blowers operate on the high-pressure principle. One drawback of this type of blower is the relatively low pressure head, which one attempts to overcome with axial blowers producing very high pressure at a given circumferential speed. The Schicht constant-pressure blower affords pressure ratios considerably higher than those of axial blowers of conventional design with approximately the same efficiency.
Shindey, Radhika; Varma, Vishwanath; Nikhil, K L; Sharma, Vijay Kumar
2017-01-01
Organisms are believed to have evolved circadian clocks as adaptations to deal with cyclic environmental changes, and therefore it has been hypothesized that evolution in constant environments would lead to regression of such clocks. However, previous studies have yielded mixed results, and evolution of circadian clocks under constant conditions has remained an unsettled topic of debate in circadian biology. In continuation of our previous studies, which reported persistence of circadian rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster populations evolving under constant light, here we intended to examine whether circadian clocks and the associated properties evolve differently under constant light and constant darkness. In this regard, we assayed activity-rest, adult emergence and oviposition rhythms of D. melanogaster populations which have been maintained for over 19 years (~330 generations) under three different light regimes - constant light (LL), light-dark cycles of 12:12 h (LD) and constant darkness (DD). We observed that while circadian rhythms in all the three behaviors persist in both LL and DD stocks with no differences in circadian period, they differed in certain aspects of the entrained rhythms when compared to controls reared in rhythmic environment (LD). Interestingly, we also observed that DD stocks have evolved significantly higher robustness or power of free-running activity-rest and adult emergence rhythms compared to LL stocks. Thus, our study, in addition to corroborating previous results of circadian clock evolution in constant light, also highlights that, contrary to the expected regression of circadian clocks, rearing in constant darkness leads to the evolution of more robust circadian clocks which may be attributed to an intrinsic adaptive advantage of circadian clocks and/or pleiotropic functions of clock genes in other traits.
Favazza, Christopher P.; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.
2015-01-01
Objective To compare computed tomography dose and noise arising from use of an automatic exposure control (AEC) system designed to maintain constant image noise as patient size varies with clinically accepted technique charts and AEC systems designed to vary image noise. Materials and Methods A model was developed to describe tube current modulation as a function of patient thickness. Relative dose and noise values were calculated as patient width varied for AEC settings designed to yield constant or variable noise levels and were compared to empirically derived values used by our clinical practice. Phantom experiments were performed in which tube current was measured as a function of thickness using a constant-noise-based AEC system and the results were compared with clinical technique charts. Results For 12-, 20-, 28-, 44-, and 50-cm patient widths, the requirement of constant noise across patient size yielded relative doses of 5%, 14%, 38%, 260%, and 549% and relative noises of 435%, 267%, 163%, 61%, and 42%, respectively, as compared with our clinically used technique chart settings at each respective width. Experimental measurements showed that a constant noise–based AEC system yielded 175% relative noise for a 30-cm phantom and 206% relative dose for a 40-cm phantom compared with our clinical technique chart. Conclusions Automatic exposure control systems that prescribe constant noise as patient size varies can yield excessive noise in small patients and excessive dose in obese patients compared with clinically accepted technique charts. Use of noise-level technique charts and tube current limits can mitigate these effects. PMID:25938214
Favazza, Christopher P; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James M; McCollough, Cynthia H
2015-01-01
To compare computed tomography dose and noise arising from use of an automatic exposure control (AEC) system designed to maintain constant image noise as patient size varies with clinically accepted technique charts and AEC systems designed to vary image noise. A model was developed to describe tube current modulation as a function of patient thickness. Relative dose and noise values were calculated as patient width varied for AEC settings designed to yield constant or variable noise levels and were compared to empirically derived values used by our clinical practice. Phantom experiments were performed in which tube current was measured as a function of thickness using a constant-noise-based AEC system and the results were compared with clinical technique charts. For 12-, 20-, 28-, 44-, and 50-cm patient widths, the requirement of constant noise across patient size yielded relative doses of 5%, 14%, 38%, 260%, and 549% and relative noises of 435%, 267%, 163%, 61%, and 42%, respectively, as compared with our clinically used technique chart settings at each respective width. Experimental measurements showed that a constant noise-based AEC system yielded 175% relative noise for a 30-cm phantom and 206% relative dose for a 40-cm phantom compared with our clinical technique chart. Automatic exposure control systems that prescribe constant noise as patient size varies can yield excessive noise in small patients and excessive dose in obese patients compared with clinically accepted technique charts. Use of noise-level technique charts and tube current limits can mitigate these effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandusschoten, D.; Dejager, P. A.; Vanas, H.
Heterogeneous (bio)systems are often characterized by several water-containing compartments that differ in relaxation time values and diffusion constants. Because of the relatively small differences among these diffusion constants, nonoptimal measuring conditions easily lead to the conclusion that a single diffusion constant suffices to describe the water mobility in a heterogeneous (bio)system. This paper demonstrates that the combination of a T2 measurement and diffusion measurements at various echo times (TE), based on the PFG MSE sequence, enables the accurate determination of diffusion constants which are less than a factor of 2 apart. This new method gives errors of the diffusion constant below 10% when two fractions are present, while the standard approach of a biexponential fit to the diffusion data in identical circumstances gives larger (>25%) errors. On application of this approach to water in apple parenchyma tissue, the diffusion constant of water in the vacuole of the cells ( D = 1.7 × 10 -9 m 2/s) can be distinguished from that of the cytoplasm ( D = 1.0 × 10 -9 m 2/s). Also, for mung bean seedlings, the cell size determined by PFG MSE measurements increased from 65 to 100 μm when the echo time increased from 150 to 900 ms, demonstrating that the interpretation of PFG SE data used to investigate cell sizes is strongly dependent on the T2 values of the fractions within the sample. Because relaxation times are used to discriminate the diffusion constants, we propose to name this approach diffusion analysis by relaxation- time- separated (DARTS) PFG NMR.
Stability of aerosol droplets in Bessel beam optical traps under constant and pulsed external forces
David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Hartweg, Sebastian
We report on the dynamics of aerosol droplets in optical traps under the influence of additional constant and pulsed external forces. Experimental results are compared with simulations of the three-dimensional droplet dynamics for two types of optical traps, the counter-propagating Bessel beam (CPBB) trap and the quadruple Bessel beam (QBB) trap. Under the influence of a constant gas flow (constant external force), the QBB trap is found to be more stable compared with the CPBB trap. By contrast, under pulsed laser excitation with laser pulse durations of nanoseconds (pulsed external force), the type of trap is of minor importance formore » the droplet stability. It typically needs pulsed laser forces that are several orders of magnitude higher than the optical forces to induce escape of the droplet from the trap. If the droplet strongly absorbs the pulsed laser light, these escape forces can be strongly reduced. The lower stability of absorbing droplets is a result of secondary thermal processes that cause droplet escape.« less
rCAD: A Novel Database Schema for the Comparative Analysis of RNA.
Ozer, Stuart; Doshi, Kishore J; Xu, Weijia; Gutell, Robin R
2011-12-31
Beyond its direct involvement in protein synthesis with mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA, RNA is now being appreciated for its significance in the overall metabolism and regulation of the cell. Comparative analysis has been very effective in the identification and characterization of RNA molecules, including the accurate prediction of their secondary structure. We are developing an integrative scalable data management and analysis system, the RNA Comparative Analysis Database (rCAD), implemented with SQL Server to support RNA comparative analysis. The platformagnostic database schema of rCAD captures the essential relationships between the different dimensions of information for RNA comparative analysis datasets. The rCAD implementation enables a variety of comparative analysis manipulations with multiple integrated data dimensions for advanced RNA comparative analysis workflows. In this paper, we describe details of the rCAD schema design and illustrate its usefulness with two usage scenarios.
rCAD: A Novel Database Schema for the Comparative Analysis of RNA
Ozer, Stuart; Doshi, Kishore J.; Xu, Weijia; Gutell, Robin R.
2013-01-01
Beyond its direct involvement in protein synthesis with mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA, RNA is now being appreciated for its significance in the overall metabolism and regulation of the cell. Comparative analysis has been very effective in the identification and characterization of RNA molecules, including the accurate prediction of their secondary structure. We are developing an integrative scalable data management and analysis system, the RNA Comparative Analysis Database (rCAD), implemented with SQL Server to support RNA comparative analysis. The platformagnostic database schema of rCAD captures the essential relationships between the different dimensions of information for RNA comparative analysis datasets. The rCAD implementation enables a variety of comparative analysis manipulations with multiple integrated data dimensions for advanced RNA comparative analysis workflows. In this paper, we describe details of the rCAD schema design and illustrate its usefulness with two usage scenarios. PMID:24772454
Space Shuttle astrodynamical constants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cockrell, B. F.; Williamson, B.
1978-01-01
Basic space shuttle astrodynamic constants are reported for use in mission planning and construction of ground and onboard software input loads. The data included here are provided to facilitate the use of consistent numerical values throughout the project.
Comparative study of Sperm Motility Analysis System and conventional microscopic semen analysis
KOMORI, KAZUHIKO; ISHIJIMA, SUMIO; TANJAPATKUL, PHANU; FUJITA, KAZUTOSHI; MATSUOKA, YASUHIRO; TAKAO, TETSUYA; MIYAGAWA, YASUSHI; TAKADA, SHINGO; OKUYAMA, AKIHIKO
2006-01-01
Background and Aim: Conventional manual sperm analysis still shows variations in structure, process and outcome although World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines present an appropriate method for sperm analysis. In the present study a new system for sperm analysis, Sperm Motility Analysis System (SMAS), was compared with manual semen analysis based on WHO guidelines. Materials and methods: Samples from 30 infertility patients and 21 healthy volunteers were subjected to manual microscopic analysis and SMAS analysis, simultaneously. We compared these two methods with respect to sperm concentration and percent motility. Results: Sperm concentrations obtained by SMAS (Csmas) and manual microscopic analyses on WHO guidelines (Cwho) were strongly correlated (Cwho = 1.325 × Csmas; r = 0.95, P < 0.001). If we excluded subjects with Csmas values >30 × 106 sperm/mL, the results were more similar (Cwho = 1.022 × Csmas; r = 0.81, P < 0.001). Percent motility obtained by SMAS (Msmas) and manual analysis on WHO guidelines (Mwho) were strongly correlated (Mwho = 1.214 × Msmas; r = 0.89, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The data indicate that the results of SMAS and those of manual microscopic sperm analyses based on WHO guidelines are strongly correlated. SMAS is therefore a promising system for sperm analysis. (Reprod Med Biol 2006; 5: 195–200) PMID:29662398
Chazin, W J; Rance, M; Chollet, A; Leupin, W
1991-01-01
The dodecadeoxynucleotide duplex d-(GCATTAATGC)2 has been prepared with all adenine bases replaced by 2-NH2-adenine. This modified duplex has been characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Complete sequence-specific 1H resonance assignments have been obtained by using a variety of 2D NMR methods. Multiple quantum-filtered and multiple quantum experiments have been used to completely assign all sugar ring protons, including 5'H and 5'H resonances. The assignments form the basis for a detailed comparative analysis of the 1H NMR parameters of the modified and parent duplex. The structural features of both decamer duplexes in solution are characteristic of the B-DNA family. The spin-spin coupling constants in the sugar rings and the relative spatial proximities of protons in the bases and sugars (as determined from the comparison of corresponding nuclear Overhauser effects) are virtually identical in the parent and modified duplexes. Thus, substitution by this adenine analogue in oligonucleotides appears not to disturb the global or local conformation of the DNA duplex. PMID:1945828
Measuring the RC time constant with Arduino
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, N. S. A.
2016-11-01
In this work we use the Arduino UNO R3 open source hardware platform to assemble an experimental apparatus for the measurement of the time constant of an RC circuit. With adequate programming, the Arduino is used as a signal generator, a data acquisition system and a basic signal visualisation tool. Theoretical calculations are compared with direct observations from an analogue oscilloscope. Data processing and curve fitting is performed on a spreadsheet. The results obtained for the six RC test circuits are within the expected interval of values defined by the tolerance of the components. The hardware and software prove to be adequate to the proposed measurements and therefore adaptable to a laboratorial teaching and learning context.
Artés, Juan M; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Sanz, Fausto; Gorostiza, Pau
2011-03-22
We present a method to measure directly and at the single-molecule level the distance decay constant that characterizes the rate of electron transfer (ET) in redox proteins. Using an electrochemical tunneling microscope under bipotentiostatic control, we obtained current−distance spectroscopic recordings of individual redox proteins confined within a nanometric tunneling gap at a well-defined molecular orientation. The tunneling current decays exponentially, and the corresponding decay constant (β) strongly supports a two-step tunneling ET mechanism. Statistical analysis of decay constant measurements reveals differences between the reduced and oxidized states that may be relevant to the control of ET rates in enzymes and biological electron transport chains.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Towner, Robert L.; Band, Jonathan L.
2012-01-01
An analysis technique was developed to compare and track mode shapes for different Finite Element Models. The technique may be applied to a variety of structural dynamics analyses, including model reduction validation (comparing unreduced and reduced models), mode tracking for various parametric analyses (e.g., launch vehicle model dispersion analysis to identify sensitivities to modal gain for Guidance, Navigation, and Control), comparing models of different mesh fidelity (e.g., a coarse model for a preliminary analysis compared to a higher-fidelity model for a detailed analysis) and mode tracking for a structure with properties that change over time (e.g., a launch vehicle from liftoff through end-of-burn, with propellant being expended during the flight). Mode shapes for different models are compared and tracked using several numerical indicators, including traditional Cross-Orthogonality and Modal Assurance Criteria approaches, as well as numerical indicators obtained by comparing modal strain energy and kinetic energy distributions. This analysis technique has been used to reliably identify correlated mode shapes for complex Finite Element Models that would otherwise be difficult to compare using traditional techniques. This improved approach also utilizes an adaptive mode tracking algorithm that allows for automated tracking when working with complex models and/or comparing a large group of models.
Parameter identification of material constants in a composite shell structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martinez, David R.; Carne, Thomas G.
1988-01-01
One of the basic requirements in engineering analysis is the development of a mathematical model describing the system. Frequently comparisons with test data are used as a measurement of the adequacy of the model. An attempt is typically made to update or improve the model to provide a test verified analysis tool. System identification provides a systematic procedure for accomplishing this task. The terms system identification, parameter estimation, and model correlation all refer to techniques that use test information to update or verify mathematical models. The goal of system identification is to improve the correlation of model predictions with measured test data, and produce accurate, predictive models. For nonmetallic structures the modeling task is often difficult due to uncertainties in the elastic constants. A finite element model of the shell was created, which included uncertain orthotropic elastic constants. A modal survey test was then performed on the shell. The resulting modal data, along with the finite element model of the shell, were used in a Bayes estimation algorithm. This permitted the use of covariance matrices to weight the confidence in the initial parameter values as well as confidence in the measured test data. The estimation procedure also employed the concept of successive linearization to obtain an approximate solution to the original nonlinear estimation problem.
The Conformal Factor and the Cosmological Constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giddings, Steven B.
The issue of the conformal factor in quantum gravity is examined for Lorentzian signature spacetimes. In Euclidean signature, the “wrong” sign of the conformal action makes the path integral undefined, but in Lorentzian signature this sign is tied to the instability of gravity and once this is accounted for the path integral should be well-defined. In this approach it is not obvious that the Baum-Hawking-Coleman mechanism for suppression of the cosmological constant functions. It is conceivable that since the multiuniverse system exhibits an instability for positive cosmological constant, the dynamics should force the system to zero cosmological constant.
Synergic effects of 10°/s constant rotation and rotating background on visual cognitive processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Siyang; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Niu, Dongbin
In previous studies we have found that constant low-speed rotation facilitated the auditory cognitive process and constant velocity rotation background sped up the perception, recognition and assessment process of visual stimuli. In the condition of constant low-speed rotation body is exposed into a new physical state. In this study the variations of human brain's cognitive process under the complex condition of constant low-speed rotation and visual rotation backgrounds with different speed were explored. 14 university students participated in the ex-periment. EEG signals were recorded when they were performing three different cognitive tasks with increasing mental load, that is no response task, selective switch responses task and selec-tive mental arithmetic task. Rotary chair was used to create constant low-speed10/srotation. Four kinds of background were used in this experiment, they were normal black background and constant 30o /s, 45o /s or 60o /s rotating simulated star background. The P1 and N1 compo-nents of brain event-related potentials (ERP) were analyzed to detect the early visual cognitive processing changes. It was found that compared with task performed under other backgrounds, the posterior P1 and N1 latencies were shortened under 45o /s rotating background in all kinds of cognitive tasks. In the no response task, compared with task performed under black back-ground, the posterior N1 latencies were delayed under 30o /s rotating background. In the selec-tive switch responses task and selective mental arithmetic task, compared with task performed under other background, the P1 latencies were lengthened under 60o /s rotating background, but the average amplitudes of the posterior P1 and N1 were increased. It was suggested that under constant 10/s rotation, the facilitated effect of rotating visual background were changed to an inhibited one in 30o /s rotating background. Under vestibular new environment, not all of the rotating backgrounds
Dynamical approach to the cosmological constant.
Mukohyama, Shinji; Randall, Lisa
2004-05-28
We consider a dynamical approach to the cosmological constant. There is a scalar field with a potential whose minimum occurs at a generic, but negative, value for the vacuum energy, and it has a nonstandard kinetic term whose coefficient diverges at zero curvature as well as the standard kinetic term. Because of the divergent coefficient of the kinetic term, the lowest energy state is never achieved. Instead, the cosmological constant automatically stalls at or near zero. The merit of this model is that it is stable under radiative corrections and leads to stable dynamics, despite the singular kinetic term. The model is not complete, however, in that some reheating is required. Nonetheless, our approach can at the very least reduce fine-tuning by 60 orders of magnitude or provide a new mechanism for sampling possible cosmological constants and implementing the anthropic principle.
Maulina, Hervin; Santoso, Iman, E-mail: iman.santoso@ugm.ac.id; Subama, Emmistasega
2016-04-19
The extraction of the dielectric constant of nanostructured graphene on SiC substrates from spectroscopy ellipsometry measurement using the Gauss-Newton inversion (GNI) method has been done. This study aims to calculate the dielectric constant and refractive index of graphene by extracting the value of ψ and Δ from the spectroscopy ellipsometry measurement using GNI method and comparing them with previous result which was extracted using Drude-Lorentz (DL) model. The results show that GNI method can be used to calculate the dielectric constant and refractive index of nanostructured graphene on SiC substratesmore faster as compared to DL model. Moreover, the imaginary partmore » of the dielectric constant values and coefficient of extinction drastically increases at 4.5 eV similar to that of extracted using known DL fitting. The increase is known due to the process of interband transition and the interaction between the electrons and electron-hole at M-points in the Brillouin zone of graphene.« less
CloVR-Comparative: automated, cloud-enabled comparative microbial genome sequence analysis pipeline.
Agrawal, Sonia; Arze, Cesar; Adkins, Ricky S; Crabtree, Jonathan; Riley, David; Vangala, Mahesh; Galens, Kevin; Fraser, Claire M; Tettelin, Hervé; White, Owen; Angiuoli, Samuel V; Mahurkar, Anup; Fricke, W Florian
2017-04-27
The benefit of increasing genomic sequence data to the scientific community depends on easy-to-use, scalable bioinformatics support. CloVR-Comparative combines commonly used bioinformatics tools into an intuitive, automated, and cloud-enabled analysis pipeline for comparative microbial genomics. CloVR-Comparative runs on annotated complete or draft genome sequences that are uploaded by the user or selected via a taxonomic tree-based user interface and downloaded from NCBI. CloVR-Comparative runs reference-free multiple whole-genome alignments to determine unique, shared and core coding sequences (CDSs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Output includes short summary reports and detailed text-based results files, graphical visualizations (phylogenetic trees, circular figures), and a database file linked to the Sybil comparative genome browser. Data up- and download, pipeline configuration and monitoring, and access to Sybil are managed through CloVR-Comparative web interface. CloVR-Comparative and Sybil are distributed as part of the CloVR virtual appliance, which runs on local computers or the Amazon EC2 cloud. Representative datasets (e.g. 40 draft and complete Escherichia coli genomes) are processed in <36 h on a local desktop or at a cost of <$20 on EC2. CloVR-Comparative allows anybody with Internet access to run comparative genomics projects, while eliminating the need for on-site computational resources and expertise.
Osborne, David; Lawson, Patrick; Adams, Nigel, E-mail: ngadams@uga.edu
Following the arrival of Cassini at Titan in 2004, the Titan atmosphere has been shown to contain large complex polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons. Since Cassini has provided a great deal of data, there exists a need for kinetic rate data to help with modeling this atmosphere. One type of kinetic data needed is electron-ion dissociative recombination (e-IDR) rate constants. These data are not readily available for larger compounds, such as naphthalene, or oxygen containing compounds, such as 1,4 dioxane or furan. Here, the rate constants for naphthalene, 1,4 dioxane, and furan have been measured and their temperature dependencies are determined when possible,more » using the University of Georgia's Variable Temperature Flowing Afterglow. The rate constants are compared with those previously published for other compounds; these show trends which illustrate the effects which multi-rings and oxygen heteroatoms substitutions have upon e-IDR rate constants.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeh, Jeanne A.; Bonilla, Melvin M.; Su, Eleanor J.; Padua, Michael V.; Anderson, Rachel V.; Zeh, David W.
2014-01-01
Recent theory suggests that global warming may be catastrophic for tropical ectotherms. Although most studies addressing temperature effects in ectotherms utilize constant temperatures, Jensen's inequality and thermal stress considerations predict that this approach will underestimate warming effects on species experiencing daily temperature fluctuations in nature. Here, we tested this prediction in a neotropical pseudoscorpion. Nymphs were reared in control and high-temperature treatments under a constant daily temperature regime, and results compared to a companion fluctuating-temperature study. At constant temperature, pseudoscorpions outperformed their fluctuating-temperature counterparts. Individuals were larger, developed faster, and males produced more sperm, and females more embryos. The greatest impact of temperature regime involved short-term, adult exposure, with constant temperature mitigating high-temperature effects on reproductive traits. Our findings demonstrate the importance of realistic temperature regimes in climate warming studies, and suggest that exploitation of microhabitats that dampen temperature oscillations may be critical in avoiding extinction as tropical climates warm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moharana, Srikanta; Mahaling, Ram Naresh
2017-07-01
The Silver (Ag)-Graphene oxide (GO)-Poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) composites were prepared by solution casting techniques and their dielectric properties were measured. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray analysis (XRD) confirmed that Ag layers were formed on the surface of the Graphene oxide sheets and homogeneously dispersed into the PVDF-HFP matrix. The result showed that the incorporation of Ag-GO nanoparticles greatly improved the dielectric constant value nearly about 65 at 100 Hz, which is comparatively much higher than that of pure PVDF-HFP. Furthermore, the dielectric loss of the composite remained at a low level (<0.1 at 100 Hz). A percolation threshold of 1.5 vol% of Ag-GO was calculated and explained accordingly. The composite having high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss might be used as dielectric materials for electronic capacitors.
Evaluation of constant-Weber-number scaling for icing tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, David N.
1996-01-01
Previous studies showed that for conditions simulating an aircraft encountering super-cooled water droplets the droplets may splash before freezing. Other surface effects dependent on the water surface tension may also influence the ice accretion process. Consequently, the Weber number appears to be important in accurately scaling ice accretion. A scaling method which uses a constant-Weber-number approach has been described previously; this study provides an evaluation of this scaling method. Tests are reported on cylinders of 2.5 to 15-cm diameter and NACA 0012 airfoils with chords of 18 to 53 cm in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The larger models were used to establish reference ice shapes, the scaling method was applied to determine appropriate scaled test conditions using the smaller models, and the ice shapes were compared. Icing conditions included warm glaze, horn glaze and mixed. The smallest size scaling attempted was 1/3, and scale and reference ice shapes for both cylinders and airfoils indicated that the constant-Weber-number scaling method was effective for the conditions tested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tampubolon, Marojahan; Pamungkas, Laskar; Hsieh, Yao Ching; Chiu, Huang Jen
2018-04-01
This paper presents the implementation of Constant Voltage (CV) and Constant Current (CC) control for a wireless charger system. A battery charging system needs these control modes to ensure the safety of the battery and the effectiveness of the charging system. Here, the wireless charger system does not employ any post-regulator stage to control the output voltage and output current of the charger. But, it uses a variable frequency control incorporated with a conventional PI control. As a result, the size and the weight of the system are reduced. This paper discusses the brief review of the SS-WPT, control strategy and implementation of the CV and CC control. Experimental hardware with 2kW output power has been performed and tested. The results show that the proposed CV and CC control method works well with the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yupeng; Ding, Ding
2017-09-01
Benefiting from the high spectral efficiency and low peak-to-average power ratio, constant envelope orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique in coherent optical communication. Polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) has been employed as an effective way to double the transmission capacity in the commercial 100 Gb/s PDM-QPSK system. We investigated constant envelope OFDM together with PDM. Simulation results show that the acceptable maximum launch power into the fiber improves 10 and 6 dB for 80- and 320-km transmission, respectively (compared with the conventional PDM OFDM system). The maximum reachable distance of the constant envelope OFDM system is able to reach 800 km, and even 1200 km is reachable if an ideal erbium doped fiber amplifier is employed.
Nonintrinsic origin of the colossal dielectric constants in Ca Cu3 Ti4 O12
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunkenheimer, P.; Fichtl, R.; Ebbinghaus, S. G.; Loidl, A.
2004-11-01
The dielectric properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 , a material showing colossal values of the dielectric constant, were investigated over a broad temperature and frequency range extending up to 1.3GHz . A detailed equivalent-circuit analysis of the results and two crucial experiments, employing different types of contacts and varying the sample thickness were performed. The results provide clear evidence that the apparently high values of the dielectric constant in CaCu3Ti4O12 are nonintrinsic and due to electrode polarization effects. The intrinsic properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 are characterized by charge transport via hopping of localized charge carriers and a relatively high dielectric constant of the order of 100.
McCormick, Frank; Gupta, Anil; Bruce, Ben; Harris, Josh; Abrams, Geoff; Wilson, Hillary; Hussey, Kristen; Cole, Brian J.
2014-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the subjective, objective, and radiographic healing outcomes of single-row (SR), double-row (DR), and transosseous equivalent (TOE) suture techniques for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Materials and Methods: A retrospective comparative analysis of arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs by one surgeon from 2004 to 2010 at minimum 2-year followup was performed. Cohorts were matched for age, sex, and tear size. Subjective outcome variables included ASES, Constant, SST, UCLA, and SF-12 scores. Objective outcome variables included strength, active range of motion (ROM). Radiographic healing was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Mann — Whitney and Kruskal — Wallis tests with significance, and the Fisher exact probability test <0.05. Results: Sixty-three patients completed the study requirements (20 SR, 21 DR, 22 TOE). There was a clinically and statistically significant improvement in outcomes with all repair techniques (ASES mean improvement P = <0.0001). The mean final ASES scores were: SR 83; (SD 21.4); DR 87 (SD 18.2); TOE 87 (SD 13.2); (P = 0.73). There was a statistically significant improvement in strength for each repair technique (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between techniques across all secondary outcome assessments: ASES improvement, Constant, SST, UCLA, SF-12, ROM, Strength, and MRI re-tear rates. There was a decrease in re-tear rates from single row (22%) to double-row (18%) to transosseous equivalent (11%); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Compared to preoperatively, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, using SR, DR, or TOE techniques, yielded a clinically and statistically significant improvement in subjective and objective outcomes at a minimum 2-year follow-up. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic level 3. PMID:24926159
Dielectric-constant gas thermometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaiser, Christof; Zandt, Thorsten; Fellmuth, Bernd
2015-10-01
The principles, techniques and results from dielectric-constant gas thermometry (DCGT) are reviewed. Primary DCGT with helium has been used for measuring T-T90 below the triple point of water (TPW), where T is the thermodynamic temperature and T90 is the temperature on the international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90), and, in an inverse regime with T as input quantity, for determining the Boltzmann constant at the TPW. Furthermore, DCGT allows the determination of several important material properties including the polarizability of neon and argon as well as the virial coefficients of helium, neon, and argon. With interpolating DCGT (IDCGT), the ITS-90 has been approximated in the temperature range from 4 K to 25 K. An overview and uncertainty budget for each of these applications of DCGT is provided, accompanied by corroborating evidence from the literature or, for IDCGT, a CIPM key comparison.
An Analysis of the Tensor Dielectric Constant of Sea Ice at Microwave Frequencies.
1985-10-01
36.8 > t a -43.2 0 C (5) is convenient. The above equations for p in the range t > -22.9 0 C were first published by Frankenstein and Garner [12). III...Em 0 (6) for the mean electric field propagating in the medium. Here ko is the free space propagation constant, K. the quasi-static dielectric tensor...C. Essen- " tially identical results were found for the real part of the dielectric con- stant whether the polarization of the electric field was
Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik
2013-01-01
An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software. PMID:24282389
When is the growth index constant?
Polarski, David; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Giacomini, Hector, E-mail: david.polarski@umontpellier.fr, E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru, E-mail: hector.giacomini@lmpt.univ-tours.fr
The growth index γ is an interesting tool to assess the phenomenology of dark energy (DE) models, in particular of those beyond general relativity (GR). We investigate the possibility for DE models to allow for a constant γ during the entire matter and DE dominated stages. It is shown that if DE is described by quintessence (a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity), this behaviour of γ is excluded either because it would require a transition to a phantom behaviour at some finite moment of time, or, in the case of tracking DE at the matter dominated stage, because themore » relative matter density Ω {sub m} appears to be too small. An infinite number of solutions, with Ω {sub m} and γ both constant, are found with w {sub DE} = 0 corresponding to Einstein-de Sitter universes. For all modified gravity DE models satisfying G {sub eff} ≥ G , among them the f ( R ) DE models suggested in the literature, the condition to have a constant w {sub DE} is strongly violated at the present epoch. In contrast, DE tracking dust-like matter deep in the matter era, but with Ω {sub m} <1, requires G {sub eff} > G and an example is given using scalar-tensor gravity for a range of admissible values of γ. For constant w {sub DE} inside GR, departure from a quasi-constant value is limited until today. Even a large variation of w {sub DE} may not result in a clear signature in the change of γ. The change however is substantial in the future and the asymptotic value of γ is found while its slope with respect to Ω {sub m} (and with respect to z ) diverges and tends to −∞.« less
A New Physical Constant And Its Importance To Energy Production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angus, Andrew
2003-03-01
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new physical constant symbolized by the Greek letter lambda. This paper explains how the new physical constant was derived. This paper also explains the significance of the new physical constant as an alternative explanation to Einstein's Law of Photoelectric Effect. The new physical constant leads to a deeper understanding of the nature of the photon. Furthermore, this new physical constant leads us to the existence of two types of photon, the Planck photon and the Angus photon. Finally, the author also explains the importance of this new physical constant in energy production.
On multisoliton solutions of the constant astigmatism equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hlaváč, Adam
2015-09-01
We introduce an algebraic formula producing infinitely many exact solutions of the constant astigmatism equation {z}{yy}+{(1/z)}{xx}+2=0 from a given seed. A construction of corresponding surfaces of constant astigmatism is then a matter of routine. As a special case, we consider multisoliton solutions of the constant astigmatism equation defined as counterparts of famous multisoliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation. A few particular examples are surveyed as well.
Polynomial Expressions for Estimating Elastic Constants From the Resonance of Circular Plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salem, Jonathan A.; Singh, Abhishek
2005-01-01
Two approaches were taken to make convenient spread sheet calculations of elastic constants from resonance data and the tables in ASTM C1259 and E1876: polynomials were fit to the tables; and an automated spread sheet interpolation routine was generated. To compare the approaches, the resonant frequencies of circular plates made of glass, hardened maraging steel, alpha silicon carbide, silicon nitride, tungsten carbide, tape cast NiO-YSZ, and zinc selenide were measured. The elastic constants, as calculated via the polynomials and linear interpolation of the tabular data in ASTM C1259 and E1876, were found comparable for engineering purposes, with the differences typically being less than 0.5 percent. Calculation of additional v values at t/R between 0 and 0.2 would allow better curve fits. This is not necessary for common engineering purposes, however, it might benefit the testing of emerging thin structures such as fuel cell electrolytes, gas conversion membranes, and coatings when Poisson s ratio is less than 0.15 and high precision is needed.
Constant- q data representation in Neutron Compton scattering on the VESUVIO spectrometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senesi, R.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.
2008-09-01
Standard data analysis on the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS is carried out within the Impulse Approximation framework, making use of the West scaling variable y. The experiments are performed using the time-of-flight technique with the detectors positioned at constant scattering angles. Line shape analysis is routinely performed in the y-scaling framework, using two different (and equivalent) approaches: (1) fitting the parameters of the recoil peaks directly to fixed-angle time-of-flight spectra; (2) transforming the time-of-flight spectra into fixed-angle y spectra, referred to as the Neutron Compton Profiles, and then fitting the line shape parameters. The present work shows that scattering signals from different fixed-angle detectors can be collected and rebinned to obtain Neutron Compton Profiles at constant wave vector transfer, q, allowing for a suitable interpretation of data in terms of the dynamical structure factor, S(q,ω). The current limits of applicability of such a procedure are discussed in terms of the available q-range and relative uncertainties for the VESUVIO experimental set up and of the main approximations involved.
Details of the 1998 Watt Balance Experiment Determining the Planck Constant
Steiner, Richard; Newell, David; Williams, Edwin
2005-01-01
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) watt balance experiment completed a determination of Planck constant in 1998 with a relative standard uncertainty of 87 × 10−9 (k = 1), concurrently with an upper limit on the drift rate of the SI kilogram mass standard. A number of other fundamental physical constants with uncertainties dominated by this result are also calculated. This paper focuses on the details of the balance apparatus, the measurement and control procedures, and the reference calibrations. The alignment procedures are also described, as is a novel mutual inductance measurement procedure. The analysis summary discusses the data noise sources and estimates for the Type B uncertainty contributions to the uncertainty budget. Much of this detail, some historical progression, and a few recent findings have not been included in previous papers reporting the results of this experiment. PMID:27308100
New Tests for Variations of the Fine Structure Constant
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prestage, John D.
1995-01-01
We describe a new test for possible variations of the fine structure constant, by comparisons of rates between clocks based on hyperfine transitions in alkali atomos with different atomic number Z. H- maser, Cs and Hg+ clocks have a different dependence on ia relativistic contributions of order (Z. Recent H-maser vs Hg+ clock comparison data improves laboratory limits on a time variation by 100-fold to giveFuture laser cooled clocks (Be+, Rb, Cs, Hg+, etc.), when compared, will yield the most senstive of all tests for.
40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Constant volume sampler calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.519-90 Constant volume sampler calibration. (a) The CVS (Constant Volume Sampler) is calibrated using an accurate flowmeter and restrictor...
40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Constant volume sampler calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.519-90 Constant volume sampler calibration. (a) The CVS (Constant Volume Sampler) is calibrated using an accurate flowmeter and restrictor...
40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Constant volume sampler calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.519-90 Constant volume sampler calibration. (a) The CVS (Constant Volume Sampler) is calibrated using an accurate flowmeter and restrictor...
40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Constant volume sampler calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.519-90 Constant volume sampler calibration. (a) The CVS (Constant Volume Sampler) is calibrated using an accurate flowmeter and restrictor...
40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Constant volume sampler calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.519-90 Constant volume sampler calibration. (a) The CVS (Constant Volume Sampler) is calibrated using an accurate flowmeter and restrictor...
Rate Constants and Mechanisms of Protein–Ligand Binding
Pang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Huan-Xiang
2017-01-01
Whereas protein–ligand binding affinities have long-established prominence, binding rate constants and binding mechanisms have gained increasing attention in recent years. Both new computational methods and new experimental techniques have been developed to characterize the latter properties. It is now realized that binding mechanisms, like binding rate constants, can and should be quantitatively determined. In this review, we summarize studies and synthesize ideas on several topics in the hope of providing a coherent picture of and physical insight into binding kinetics. The topics include microscopic formulation of the kinetic problem and its reduction to simple rate equations; computation of binding rate constants; quantitative determination of binding mechanisms; and elucidation of physical factors that control binding rate constants and mechanisms. PMID:28375732
Comparability of river suspended-sediment sampling and laboratory analysis methods
Groten, Joel T.; Johnson, Gregory D.
2018-03-06
Accurate measurements of suspended sediment, a leading water-quality impairment in many Minnesota rivers, are important for managing and protecting water resources; however, water-quality standards for suspended sediment in Minnesota are based on grab field sampling and total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis methods that have underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment in rivers compared to U.S. Geological Survey equal-width-increment or equal-discharge-increment (EWDI) field sampling and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) laboratory analysis methods. Because of this underrepresentation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, collected concurrent grab and EWDI samples at eight sites to compare results obtained using different combinations of field sampling and laboratory analysis methods.Study results determined that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis results were biased substantially low compared to EWDI sampling and SSC laboratory analysis results, respectively. Differences in both field sampling and laboratory analysis methods caused grab and TSS methods to be biased substantially low. The difference in laboratory analysis methods was slightly greater than field sampling methods.Sand-sized particles had a strong effect on the comparability of the field sampling and laboratory analysis methods. These results indicated that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods fail to capture most of the sand being transported by the stream. The results indicate there is less of a difference among samples collected with grab field sampling and analyzed for TSS and concentration of fines in SSC. Even though differences are present, the presence of strong correlations between SSC and TSS concentrations provides the opportunity to develop site specific relations to address transport processes not captured by grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uddin, M. Maruf; Fuad, Muzaddid-E.-Zaman; Rahaman, Md. Mashiur; Islam, M. Rabiul
2017-12-01
With the rapid decrease in the cost of computational infrastructure with more efficient algorithm for solving non-linear problems, Reynold's averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS) based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used widely now-a-days. As a preliminary evaluation tool, CFD is used to calculate the hydrodynamic loads on offshore installations, ships, and other structures in the ocean at initial design stages. Traditionally, wedges have been studied more than circular cylinders because cylinder section has zero deadrise angle at the instant of water impact, which increases with increase of submergence. In Present study, RaNS based commercial code ANSYS Fluent is used to simulate the water entry of a circular section at constant velocity. It is seen that present computational results were compared with experiment and other numerical method.
YersiniaBase: a genomic resource and analysis platform for comparative analysis of Yersinia.
Tan, Shi Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Mutha, Naresh Vr; Heydari, Hamed; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Choo, Siew Woh
2015-01-16
Yersinia is a Gram-negative bacteria that includes serious pathogens such as the Yersinia pestis, which causes plague, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica. The remaining species are generally considered non-pathogenic to humans, although there is evidence that at least some of these species can cause occasional infections using distinct mechanisms from the more pathogenic species. With the advances in sequencing technologies, many genomes of Yersinia have been sequenced. However, there is currently no specialized platform to hold the rapidly-growing Yersinia genomic data and to provide analysis tools particularly for comparative analyses, which are required to provide improved insights into their biology, evolution and pathogenicity. To facilitate the ongoing and future research of Yersinia, especially those generally considered non-pathogenic species, a well-defined repository and analysis platform is needed to hold the Yersinia genomic data and analysis tools for the Yersinia research community. Hence, we have developed the YersiniaBase, a robust and user-friendly Yersinia resource and analysis platform for the analysis of Yersinia genomic data. YersiniaBase has a total of twelve species and 232 genome sequences, of which the majority are Yersinia pestis. In order to smooth the process of searching genomic data in a large database, we implemented an Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX)-based real-time searching system in YersiniaBase. Besides incorporating existing tools, which include JavaScript-based genome browser (JBrowse) and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), YersiniaBase also has in-house developed tools: (1) Pairwise Genome Comparison tool (PGC) for comparing two user-selected genomes; (2) Pathogenomics Profiling Tool (PathoProT) for comparative pathogenomics analysis of Yersinia genomes; (3) YersiniaTree for constructing phylogenetic tree of Yersinia. We ran analyses based on the tools and genomic data in YersiniaBase and the
Olive, Keith A.; School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455; Peloso, Marco
2011-02-15
We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of themore » constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.« less
Diffusion constant of slowly rotating black three-brane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoozad, Z.; Sadeghi, J.
2018-01-01
In this paper, we take the slowly rotating black three-brane background and perturb it by introducing a vector gauge field. We find the components of the gauge field through Maxwell equations and Bianchi identities. Using currents and some ansatz we find Fick's first law at long wavelength regime. An interesting result for this non-trivial supergravity background is that the diffusion constant on the stretched horizon which emerges from Fick's first law is a complex constant. The pure imaginary part of the diffusion constant appears because the black three-brane has angular momentum. By taking the static limit of the corresponding black brane the well known diffusion constant will be recovered. On the other hand, from the point of view of the Fick's second law, we have the dispersion relation ω = - iDq2 and we found a damping of hydrodynamical flow in the holographically dual theory. Existence of imaginary term in the diffusion constant introduces an oscillating propagation of the gauge field in the dual field theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shindey, Radhika; Varma, Vishwanath; Nikhil, K. L.; Sharma, Vijay Kumar
2016-10-01
Robustness is considered to be an important feature of biological systems which may evolve when the functionality of a trait is associated with higher fitness across multiple environmental conditions. Thus, the ability to maintain stable biological phenotypes across environments is thought to be of adaptive value. Previously, we have reported higher intrinsic activity levels (activity levels of free-running rhythm in constant darkness) and power of rhythm (as assessed by amplitude of the periodogram) in Drosophila melanogaster populations (stocks) reared in constant darkness (DD stocks) as compared to those reared in constant light (LL stocks) and 12:12-h light-dark cycles (LD stocks) for over 19 years (˜330 generations). In the current study, we intended to examine whether the enhanced levels of activity observed in DD stocks persist under various environments such as photoperiods, ambient temperatures, non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles, and semi-natural conditions (SN). We found that DD stocks largely retain their phenotype of enhanced activity levels across most of the above-mentioned environments suggesting the evolution of robust circadian clocks in DD stocks. Furthermore, we compared the peak activity levels of the three stocks across different environmental conditions relative to their peaks in constant darkness and found that the change in peak activity levels upon entrainment was not significantly different across the three stocks for any of the examined environmental conditions. This suggests that the enhancement of activity levels in DD stocks is not due to differential sensitivity to environment. Thus, these results suggest that rearing in constant darkness (DD) leads to evolution of robust circadian clocks suggesting a possible adaptive value of possessing such rhythms under constant dark environments.
Shindey, Radhika; Varma, Vishwanath; Nikhil, K L; Sharma, Vijay Kumar
2016-10-01
Robustness is considered to be an important feature of biological systems which may evolve when the functionality of a trait is associated with higher fitness across multiple environmental conditions. Thus, the ability to maintain stable biological phenotypes across environments is thought to be of adaptive value. Previously, we have reported higher intrinsic activity levels (activity levels of free-running rhythm in constant darkness) and power of rhythm (as assessed by amplitude of the periodogram) in Drosophila melanogaster populations (stocks) reared in constant darkness (DD stocks) as compared to those reared in constant light (LL stocks) and 12:12-h light-dark cycles (LD stocks) for over 19 years (∼330 generations). In the current study, we intended to examine whether the enhanced levels of activity observed in DD stocks persist under various environments such as photoperiods, ambient temperatures, non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles, and semi-natural conditions (SN). We found that DD stocks largely retain their phenotype of enhanced activity levels across most of the above-mentioned environments suggesting the evolution of robust circadian clocks in DD stocks. Furthermore, we compared the peak activity levels of the three stocks across different environmental conditions relative to their peaks in constant darkness and found that the change in peak activity levels upon entrainment was not significantly different across the three stocks for any of the examined environmental conditions. This suggests that the enhancement of activity levels in DD stocks is not due to differential sensitivity to environment. Thus, these results suggest that rearing in constant darkness (DD) leads to evolution of robust circadian clocks suggesting a possible adaptive value of possessing such rhythms under constant dark environments.
Calculation of individual isotope equilibrium constants for geochemical reactions
Thorstenson, D.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.
2004-01-01
Theory is derived from the work of Urey (Urey H. C. [1947] The thermodynamic properties of isotopic substances. J. Chem. Soc. 562-581) to calculate equilibrium constants commonly used in geochemical equilibrium and reaction-transport models for reactions of individual isotopic species. Urey showed that equilibrium constants of isotope exchange reactions for molecules that contain two or more atoms of the same element in equivalent positions are related to isotope fractionation factors by ?? = (Kex)1/n, where n is the number of atoms exchanged. This relation is extended to include species containing multiple isotopes, for example 13C16O18O and 1H2H18O. The equilibrium constants of the isotope exchange reactions can be expressed as ratios of individual isotope equilibrium constants for geochemical reactions. Knowledge of the equilibrium constant for the dominant isotopic species can then be used to calculate the individual isotope equilibrium constants. Individual isotope equilibrium constants are calculated for the reaction CO2g = CO2aq for all species that can be formed from 12C, 13C, 16O, and 18O; for the reaction between 12C18 O2aq and 1H218Ol; and among the various 1H, 2H, 16O, and 18O species of H2O. This is a subset of a larger number of equilibrium constants calculated elsewhere (Thorstenson D. C. and Parkhurst D. L. [2002] Calculation of individual isotope equilibrium constants for implementation in geochemical models. Water-Resources Investigation Report 02-4172. U.S. Geological Survey). Activity coefficients, activity-concentration conventions for the isotopic variants of H2O in the solvent 1H216Ol, and salt effects on isotope fractionation have been included in the derivations. The effects of nonideality are small because of the chemical similarity of different isotopic species of the same molecule or ion. The temperature dependence of the individual isotope equilibrium constants can be calculated from the temperature dependence of the fractionation
Diffusion Monte Carlo method for evaluating Hamaker constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maezono, Ryo; Hongo, Kenta
We evaluated Hamaker's constants for Si6H12 (CHS) to investigate its wettability, which is industrially useful but no references available. The constant is fundamental for wettability, but not directly accessible by experiments. Ab initio estimations are therefore in demand, and surely give an impact for broader fields such as tribology where the wettability plays an important role. The evaluation of binding curves itself could be a big challenge if it is applied to a practical molecule such as CHS, because highly accurate descriptions of electron correlations in vdW bindings get tough for such larger sizes with anisotropy. We applied DMC to overcome this difficulty, showing a new direction for wettability issues. Since ab intio estimations rely on simple assumptions such as additivity (and hence we denote it as Aadd), it would include biases. Taking a benzene as a benchmark, we compared Aadd evaluated from several available binding curves with other reported AL (estimations based on Lifshitz theory). By the comparison, we get trends of biases in Aa dd due to non-additivity and anisotropy because AL is expected to capture these effects to some extent in macroscopic manner. The expected trends here surprisingly well explain the series of results for CHS.
Hamaker constants of iron oxide nanoparticles.
Faure, Bertrand; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Bergström, Lennart
2011-07-19
The Hamaker constants for iron oxide nanoparticles in various media have been calculated using Lifshitz theory. Expressions for the dielectric responses of three iron oxide phases (magnetite, maghemite, and hematite) were derived from recently published optical data. The nonretarded Hamaker constants for the iron oxide nanoparticles interacting across water, A(1w1) = 33 - 39 zJ, correlate relatively well with previous reports, whereas the calculated values in nonpolar solvents (hexane and toluene), A(131) = 9 - 29 zJ, are much lower than the previous estimates, particularly for magnetite. The magnitude of van der Waals interactions varies significantly between the studied phases (magnetite < maghemite < hematite), which highlights the importance of a thorough characterization of the particles. The contribution of magnetic dispersion interactions for particle sizes in the superparamagnetic regime was found to be negligible. Previous conjectures related to colloidal stability and self-assembly have been revisited on the basis of the new Lifshitz values of the Hamaker constants.
Thermal Modelling Analysis of Spiral Wound Supercapacitor under Constant-Current Cycling
Wang, Kai; Li, Liwei; Yin, Huaixian; Zhang, Tiezhu; Wan, Wubo
2015-01-01
A three-dimensional modelling approach is used to study the effects of operating and ambient conditions on the thermal behaviour of the spiral wound supercapacitor. The transient temperature distribution during cycling is obtained by using the finite element method with an implicit predictor-multicorrector algorithm. At the constant current of 2A, the results show that the maximum temperature appears in core area. After 5 cycles, the maximum temperature is 34.5°C, while in steady state, it’s up to 42.5°C. This paper further studies the relationship between the maximum temperature and charge-discharge current. The maximum temperature will be more than 60°C after 5 cycles at the current of 4A, and cooling measurements should be taken at that time. It can provide thoughts on inner temperature field distribution and structure design of the spiral wound supercapacitor in working process. PMID:26444687
Dielectric constant of liquid alkanes and hydrocarbon mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sen, A. D.; Anicich, V. G.; Arakelian, T.
1992-01-01
The complex dielectric constants of n-alkanes with two to seven carbon atoms have been measured. The measurements were conducted using a slotted-line technique at 1.2 GHz and at atmospheric pressure. The temperature was varied from the melting point to the boiling point of the respective alkanes. The real part of the dielectric constant was found to decrease with increasing temperature and correlate with the change in the molar volume. An upper limit to all the loss tangents was established at 0.001. The complex dielectric constants of a few mixtures of liquid alkanes were also measured at room temperature. For a pentane-octane mixture the real part of the dielectric constant could be explained by the Clausius-Mosotti theory. For the mixtures of n-hexane-ethylacetate and n-hexane-acetone the real part of the dielectric constants could be explained by the Onsager theory extended to mixtures. The dielectric constant of the n-hexane-acetone mixture displayed deviations from the Onsager theory at the highest fractions of acetone. The dipole moments of ethylacetate and acetone were determined for dilute mixtures using the Onsager theory and were found to be in agreement with their accepted gas-phase values. The loss tangents of the mixtures exhibited a linear relationship with the volume fraction for low concentrations of the polar liquids.
Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik R; Comber, Mike; Mayer, Philipp
2017-05-01
During simulation-type biodegradation tests, volatile chemicals will continuously partition between water phase and headspace. This study addressed how (1) this partitioning affects test results and (2) can be accounted for by combining equilibrium partition and dynamic biodegradation models. An aqueous mixture of 9 (semi)volatile chemicals was first generated using passive dosing and then diluted with environmental surface water producing concentrations in the ng/L to μg/L range. After incubation for 2 h to 4 weeks, automated Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relatively to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Biodegradation rate constants relating to the chemical in the water phase, k water , were generally a factor 1 to 11 times higher than biodegradation rate constants relating to the total mass of chemical in the test system, k system , with one exceptional factor of 72 times for a long chain alkane. True water phase degradation rate constants were found (i) more appropriate for risk assessment than test system rate constants, (ii) to facilitate extrapolation to other air-water systems and (iii) to be better defined input parameters for aquatic exposure and fate models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; ...
2017-10-16
On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817—a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO–Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source. This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities, resulting in the identificationof an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first ‘multi-messenger’ astronomical observation. Such observationsmore » enable GW170817 to be used as a ‘standard siren’ (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic ‘distance ladder’: the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. Furthermore, this value is consistent with existing measurements, while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitational-wave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.« less
A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.
On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817—a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO–Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source. This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities, resulting in the identificationof an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first ‘multi-messenger’ astronomical observation. Such observationsmore » enable GW170817 to be used as a ‘standard siren’ (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic ‘distance ladder’: the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. Furthermore, this value is consistent with existing measurements, while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitational-wave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.« less
A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant.
2017-11-02
On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817-a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO-Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source. This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities, resulting in the identification of an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first 'multi-messenger' astronomical observation. Such observations enable GW170817 to be used as a 'standard siren' (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic 'distance ladder': the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. This value is consistent with existing measurements, while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitational-wave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.
A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aultoneal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Chatziioannou, K.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dálya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; da Silva Costa, C. F.; Datrier, L. E. H.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; de, S.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; de Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; de Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; Derosa, R. T.; de Rossi, C.; Desalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; di Fiore, L.; di Giovanni, M.; di Girolamo, T.; di Lieto, A.; di Pace, S.; di Palma, I.; di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. 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D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steer, D.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Foley, R. J.; Coulter, D. A.; Drout, M. R.; Kasen, D.; Kilpatrick, C. D.; Madore, B. F.; Murguia-Berthier, A.; Pan, Y.-C.; Piro, A. L.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rest, A.; Rojas-Bravo, C.; Shappee, B. J.; Siebert, M. R.; Simon, J. D.; Ulloa, N.; Annis, J.; Soares-Santos, M.; Brout, D.; Scolnic, D.; Diehl, H. T.; Frieman, J.; Berger, E.; Alexander, K. D.; Allam, S.; Balbinot, E.; Blanchard, P.; Butler, R. E.; Chornock, R.; Cook, E. R.; Cowperthwaite, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Drout, M. R.; Durret, F.; Eftekhari, T.; Finley, D. A.; Fong, W.; Fryer, C. L.; García-Bellido, J.; Gill, M. S. S.; Gruendl, R. A.; Hanna, C.; Hartley, W.; Herner, K.; Huterer, D.; Kasen, D.; Kessler, R.; Li, T. S.; Lin, H.; Lopes, P. A. A.; Lourenço, A. C. C.; Margutti, R.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, J. L.; Matheson, T.; Medina, G. E.; Metzger, B. D.; Muñoz, R. R.; Muir, J.; Nicholl, M.; Nugent, P.; Palmese, A.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Quataert, E.; Sako, M.; Sauseda, M.; Schlegel, D. J.; Secco, L. F.; Smith, N.; Sobreira, F.; Stebbins, A.; Villar, V. A.; Vivas, A. K.; Wester, W.; Williams, P. K. G.; Yanny, B.; Zenteno, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, C.; Depoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Estrada, J.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Hartley, W. G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Kent, S.; Krause, E.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Troxel, M. A.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.; Haislip, J. B.; Kouprianov, V. V.; Reichart, D. E.; Tartaglia, L.; Sand, D. J.; Valenti, S.; Yang, S.; Arcavi, Iair; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Poznanski, Dovi; Vasylyev, Sergiy; Tanvir, N. R.; Levan, A. J.; Hjorth, J.; Cano, Z.; Copperwheat, C.; de Ugarte-Postigo, A.; Evans, P. A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; González-Fernández, C.; Greiner, J.; Irwin, M.; Lyman, J.; Mandel, I.; McMahon, R.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J. P.; Perley, D. A.; Pian, E.; Palazzi, E.; Rol, E.; Rosetti, S.; Rosswog, S.; Rowlinson, A.; Schulze, S.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Thöne, C. C.; Ulaczyk, K.; Watson, D.; Wiersema, K.; Lipunov, V. M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V. G.; Tyurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Vlasenko, D.; Gorbunov, I.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Saffe, C.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Budnev, N. M.; Gress, O.; Yurkov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.
2017-11-01
On 17 August 2017, the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors observed the gravitational-wave event GW170817—a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst (GRB 170817A) was detected within a region of the sky consistent with the LIGO-Virgo-derived location of the gravitational-wave source. This sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities, resulting in the identification of an optical transient signal within about ten arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993. This detection of GW170817 in both gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves represents the first ‘multi-messenger’ astronomical observation. Such observations enable GW170817 to be used as a ‘standard siren’ (meaning that the absolute distance to the source can be determined directly from the gravitational-wave measurements) to measure the Hubble constant. This quantity represents the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Here we report a measurement of the Hubble constant that combines the distance to the source inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity inferred from measurements of the redshift using the electromagnetic data. In contrast to previous measurements, ours does not require the use of a cosmic ‘distance ladder’: the gravitational-wave analysis can be used to estimate the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales directly, without the use of intermediate astronomical distance measurements. We determine the Hubble constant to be about 70 kilometres per second per megaparsec. This value is consistent with existing measurements, while being completely independent of them. Additional standard siren measurements from future gravitational-wave sources will enable the Hubble constant to be constrained to high precision.
Theoretical Discussion of Electron Transport Rate Constant at TCNQ / Ge and TiO2 System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-agealy, Hadi J. M.; Alshafaay, B.; Hassooni, Mohsin A.; Ashwiekh, Ahmed M.; Sadoon, Abbas K.; Majeed, Raad H.; Ghadhban, Rawnaq Q.; Mahdi, Shatha H.
2018-05-01
We have been studying and estimation the electronic transport constant at TCNQ / Ge and Tio2 interface by means of tunneling potential (TP), transport energy reorientation (TER), driving transition energy DTE and coupling coefficient constant. A simple quantum model for the transition processes was adapted to estimation and analysis depending on the quantum state for donor state |α D > and acceptor stated |α A > and assuming continuum levels of the system. Evaluation results were performed for the surfaces of Ge and Tio2 as best as for multilayer TCNQ. The results show an electronic transfer feature for electronic TCNQ density of states and a semiconductor behavior. The electronic rate constant result for both systems shows a good tool to election system in applied devices. All these results indicate the
Temperature Dependence Of Elastic Constants Of Polymers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simha, Robert; Papazoglou, Elisabeth
1989-01-01
Two papers extend theory of elastic constants of disordered solids to finite temperatures below glass-transition temperatures. First paper, entitled "Elastic Constants of Disordered Solids II: Temperature Dependence," applies to cryogenic temperatures. Second paper, entitled "Theory of Thermoelastic Properties for Polymer Glasses," develops unified treatment for static compressional and elongational properties at temperatures up to glass-transition temperatures.
Bi-stable dendrite in constant electric field: a model analysis.
Baginskas, A; Gutman, A; Svirskis, G
1993-03-01
Some neurons possess dendritic persistent inward current, which is activated during depolarization. Dendrites can be stably depolarized, i.e. they are bi-stable if the net current is inward. A proper method to show the existence of dendritic bi-stability is putting the neuron into the electric field to induce transmembrane potential changes along the dendrites. Here we present analytical and computer simulation of the bi-stable dendrite in the d.c. field. A prominent jump to a depolarization plateau can be seen in the soma upon initial hyperpolarization of its membrane. If a considerable portion of dendrites are parallel to the field it is impossible to switch off the depolarization plateau by changing the direction and the strength of the electric field. There is nothing similar in neurons with ohmic dendrites. The results of the simulation conform to the experimental observations in turtle motoneurons [Hounsgaard J. and Kiehn O. (1993) J. Physiol., Lond. (in press)]; comparison of the theoretical and the experimental results makes semi-quantitative estimation of some electrical parameters of dendrites possible. We propose modifications of the experiment which enable one to measure dendritic length constants and other parameters of stained neurons.
QSPR prediction of the hydroxyl radical rate constant of water contaminants.
Borhani, Tohid Nejad Ghaffar; Saniedanesh, Mohammadhossein; Bagheri, Mehdi; Lim, Jeng Shiun
2016-07-01
In advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), the aqueous hydroxyl radical (HO) acts as a strong oxidant to react with organic contaminants. The hydroxyl radical rate constant (kHO) is important for evaluating and modelling of the AOPs. In this study, quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) method is applied to model the hydroxyl radical rate constant for a diverse dataset of 457 water contaminants from 27 various chemical classes. The constricted binary particle swarm optimization and multiple-linear regression (BPSO-MLR) are used to obtain the best model with eight theoretical descriptors. An optimized feed forward neural network (FFNN) is developed to investigate the complex performance of the selected molecular parameters with kHO. Although the FFNN prediction results are more accurate than those obtained using BPSO-MLR, the application of the latter is much more convenient. Various internal and external validation techniques indicate that the obtained models could predict the logarithmic hydroxyl radical rate constants of a large number of water contaminants with less than 4% absolute relative error. Finally, the above-mentioned proposed models are compared to those reported earlier and the structural factors contributing to the AOP degradation efficiency are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cosmological constant in scale-invariant theories
Foot, Robert; Kobakhidze, Archil; Volkas, Raymond R.
2011-10-01
The incorporation of a small cosmological constant within radiatively broken scale-invariant models is discussed. We show that phenomenologically consistent scale-invariant models can be constructed which allow a small positive cosmological constant, providing certain relation between the particle masses is satisfied. As a result, the mass of the dilaton is generated at two-loop level. Another interesting consequence is that the electroweak symmetry-breaking vacuum in such models is necessarily a metastable ''false'' vacuum which, fortunately, is not expected to decay on cosmological time scales.
[Comparative analysis of Andean and Caribbean region health systems].
Gómez-Camelo, Diana
2005-01-01
Carrying out a comparative analysis of Andean and Caribbean health systems contributing towards the general panorama of Andean and Caribbean region health care system experience. This study was aimed at carrying out a comparative analysis of health systems in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic and Cuba between 1990 and 2004. Documentary information from secondary sources was used. Reform and changes during the aforementioned period were compared, as well as the systems' current configurations. Described typologies were used for studying the health systems. Different organisational designs were found for the systems: a national health system (NHS), segmented systems and systems based on mandatory insurance. The trend of reforms introduced in the 1990s and current proposals in almost all systems are directed towards adopting mandatory insurance via a basic packet of services and strengthening competition in providing services through a public and private mix. The organisation and structure of most systems studied have introduced and continue to introduce changes in line with international guidelines. The generality of these structures means that efforts must still be made to adopt designs strengthening them as instruments improving populations' quality of life. Comparative analysis is a tool leading to studying health systems and producing information which can nourish debate regarding current sector reform. This work took shape during the first approach to a comparative study of Andean region and Caribbean health systems.
Theoretical rate constants of super-exchange hole transfer and thermally induced hopping in DNA.
Shimazaki, Tomomi; Asai, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Koichi
2005-01-27
Recently, the electronic properties of DNA have been extensively studied, because its conductivity is important not only to the study of fundamental biological problems, but also in the development of molecular-sized electronics and biosensors. We have studied theoretically the reorganization energies, the activation energies, the electronic coupling matrix elements, and the rate constants of hole transfer in B-form double-helix DNA in water. To accommodate the effects of DNA nuclear motions, a subset of reaction coordinates for hole transfer was extracted from classical molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories of DNA in water and then used for ab initio quantum chemical calculations of electron coupling constants based on the generalized Mulliken-Hush model. A molecular mechanics (MM) method was used to determine the nuclear Franck-Condon factor. The rate constants for two types of mechanisms of hole transfer-the thermally induced hopping (TIH) and the super-exchange mechanisms-were determined based on Marcus theory. We found that the calculated matrix elements are strongly dependent on the conformations of the nucleobase pairs of hole-transferable DNA and extend over a wide range of values for the "rise" base-step parameter but cluster around a particular value for the "twist" parameter. The calculated activation energies are in good agreement with experimental results. Whereas the rate constant for the TIH mechanism is not dependent on the number of A-T nucleobase pairs that act as a bridge, the rate constant for the super-exchange process rapidly decreases when the length of the bridge increases. These characteristic trends in the calculated rate constants effectively reproduce those in the experimental data of Giese et al. [Nature 2001, 412, 318]. The calculated rate constants were also compared with the experimental results of Lewis et al. [Nature 2000, 406, 51].
Heating Analysis in Constant-pressure Hydraulic System based on Energy Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chao; Xu, Cong; Mao, Xuyao; Li, Bin; Hu, Junhua; Liu, Yiou
2017-12-01
Hydraulic systems are widely used in industrial applications, but the problem of heating has become an important reason to restrict the promotion of hydraulic technology. The high temperature, will seriously affect the operation of the hydraulic system, even cause stuck and other serious failure. Based on the analysis of the heat damage of the hydraulic system, this paper gives the reasons for this problem, and it is showed by the application that the energy analysis can accurately locate the main reasons for the heating of the hydraulic system, which can give strong practical guidance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kahwa, I. A.
1984-01-01
Discusses a graphical procedure which allows the distribution constant of iodine to be determined simultaneously with the trihalide anion stability constant. In addition, the procedure extends the experimental chemistry from distribution equilibria to important thermodynamic and bonding features. Advantages of using the procedure are also…
Flows of the Tycho Crater type, comparative analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bratkov, Yury
Some embeddings of the Tycho Crater type flow or, more generally, of the Tycho Butterfly type flow, are demonstrated, and comparative analysis is given. Additionally, identity of the Earthen World Ocean and the Moon Global Ocean is demonstrated. Supersonic flows (jets, shock waves, Mach stems) are comparatively studied [1]. References: [1] Bratkov Yu.N., Caspian Seas, http://viXra.org/abs/1211.0067, 12 Nov 2012
Regularizing cosmological singularities by varying physical constants
Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Marosek, Konrad, E-mail: mpdabfz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl, E-mail: k.marosek@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl
2013-02-01
Varying physical constant cosmologies were claimed to solve standard cosmological problems such as the horizon, the flatness and the Λ-problem. In this paper, we suggest yet another possible application of these theories: solving the singularity problem. By specifying some examples we show that various cosmological singularities may be regularized provided the physical constants evolve in time in an appropriate way.
The method of constant stimuli is inefficient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Andrew B.; Fitzhugh, Andrew
1990-01-01
Simpson (1988) has argued that the method of constant stimuli is as efficient as adaptive methods of threshold estimation and has supported this claim with simulations. It is shown that Simpson's simulations are not a reasonable model of the experimental process and that more plausible simulations confirm that adaptive methods are much more efficient that the method of constant stimuli.
OPE, charm-quark mass, and decay constants of D and Ds mesons from QCD sum rules
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2011-01-01
We present a sum-rule extraction of the decay constants of the charmed mesons D and Ds from the two-point correlator of pseudoscalar currents. First, we compare the perturbative expansion for the correlator and the decay constant performed in terms of the pole and the running MS¯ masses of the charm quark. The perturbative expansion in terms of the pole mass shows no signs of convergence whereas reorganizing this very expansion in terms of the MS¯ mass leads to a distinct hierarchy of the perturbative expansion. Furthermore, the decay constants extracted from the pole-mass correlator turn out to be considerably smaller than those obtained by means of the MS¯-mass correlator. Second, making use of the OPE in terms of the MS¯ mass, we determine the decay constants of both D and Ds mesons with an emphasis on the uncertainties in these quantities related both to the input QCD parameters and to the limited accuracy of the method of sum rules. PMID:21949465
Zubrienė, Asta; Matulienė, Jurgita; Baranauskienė, Lina; Jachno, Jelena; Torresan, Jolanta; Michailovienė, Vilma; Cimmperman, Piotras; Matulis, Daumantas
2009-01-01
The analysis of tight protein-ligand binding reactions by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and thermal shift assay (TSA) is presented. The binding of radicicol to the N-terminal domain of human heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90αN) and the binding of ethoxzolamide to human carbonic anhydrase (hCAII) were too strong to be measured accurately by direct ITC titration and therefore were measured by displacement ITC and by observing the temperature-denaturation transitions of ligand-free and ligand-bound protein. Stabilization of both proteins by their ligands was profound, increasing the melting temperature by more than 10 ºC, depending on ligand concentration. Analysis of the melting temperature dependence on the protein and ligand concentrations yielded dissociation constants equal to 1 nM and 2 nM for Hsp90αN-radicicol and hCAII-ethoxzolamide, respectively. The ligand-free and ligand-bound protein fractions melt separately, and two melting transitions are observed. This phenomenon is especially pronounced when the ligand concentration is equal to about half the protein concentration. The analysis compares ITC and TSA data, accounts for two transitions and yields the ligand binding constant and the parameters of protein stability, including the Gibbs free energy and the enthalpy of unfolding. PMID:19582223
Genome-wide comparative analysis of four Indian Drosophila species.
Mohanty, Sujata; Khanna, Radhika
2017-12-01
Comparative analysis of multiple genomes of closely or distantly related Drosophila species undoubtedly creates excitement among evolutionary biologists in exploring the genomic changes with an ecology and evolutionary perspective. We present herewith the de novo assembled whole genome sequences of four Drosophila species, D. bipectinata, D. takahashii, D. biarmipes and D. nasuta of Indian origin using Next Generation Sequencing technology on an Illumina platform along with their detailed assembly statistics. The comparative genomics analysis, e.g. gene predictions and annotations, functional and orthogroup analysis of coding sequences and genome wide SNP distribution were performed. The whole genome of Zaprionus indianus of Indian origin published earlier by us and the genome sequences of previously sequenced 12 Drosophila species available in the NCBI database were included in the analysis. The present work is a part of our ongoing genomics project of Indian Drosophila species.
Simulation of electric double-layer capacitors: evaluation of constant potential method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhenxing; Laird, Brian; Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David; Asta, Mark
2014-03-01
Atomistic simulations can play an important role in understanding electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) at a molecular level. In such simulations, typically the electrode surface is modeled using fixed surface charges, which ignores the charge fluctuation induced by local fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work we evaluate an explicit treatment of charges, namely constant potential method (CPM)[1], in which the electrode charges are dynamically updated to maintain constant electrode potential. We employ a model system with a graphite electrode and a LiClO4/acetonitrile electrolyte, examined as a function of electrode potential differences. Using various molecular and macroscopic properties as metrics, we compare CPM simulations on this system to results using fixed surface charges. Specifically, results for predicted capacity, electric potential gradient and solvent density profile are identical between the two methods; However, ion density profiles and solvation structure yield significantly different results.
Examination of Effective Dielectric Constants Derived from Non-Spherical Melting Hydrometeor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, L.; Meneghini, R.
2009-04-01
radar measurements from melting hydrometeors, it is necessary to move away from the restriction that the melting particles are spherical. In this study, our primary focus is on the derivation of the effective dielectric constants of non-spherical particles that are mixtures of ice and water. The computational model for the ice-water particle is described by a collection of 128x128x128 cubic cells of identical size. Because of the use of such a high-resolution model, the particles can be described accurately not only with regard to shape but with respect to structure as well. The Cartesian components of the mean internal electric field of particles, which are used to infer the effective dielectric constants, are calculated at each cell by the use of the Conjugate Gradient-Fast Fourier Transform (CG-FFT) numerical method. In this work we first check the validity of derived effective dielectric constant from a non-spherical mixed phase particle by comparing the polarimetric scattering parameters of an ice-water spheroid obtained from the CGFFT to those computed from the T-matrix for a homogeneous particle with the same geometry as that of the mixed phase particle (such as size, shape and orientation) and with an effective dielectric constant derived from the internal field of the mixed-phase particle. The accuracy of the effective dielectric constant can be judged by whether the scattering parameters of interest can accurately reproduce those of the exact solution, i.e., the T-matrix results. The purpose of defining an effective dielectric constant is to reduce the complexity of the scattering calculations in the sense that the effective dielectric constant, once obtained, may be applicable to a range of particle sizes, shapes and orientations. Conversely, if a different effective dielectric constant is needed for each particle size or shape, then its utility would be marginal. Having verified that the effective dielectric constant defined for a particular particle with a
More exact solutions of the constant astigmatism equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hlaváč, Adam
2018-01-01
By using Bäcklund transformation for the sine-Gordon equation, new periodic exact solutions of the constant astigmatism equation zyy +(1 / z) xx + 2 = 0 are generated from a seed which corresponds to Lipschitz surfaces of constant astigmatism.
Scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with negative coupling constant
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smalley, L. L.; Eby, P. B.
1976-01-01
The possibility of a Brans-Dicke scalar-tensor gravitation theory with a negative coupling constant is considered. The admissibility of a negative-coupling theory is investigated, and a simplified cosmological solution is obtained which allows a negative derivative of the gravitation constant. It is concluded that a Brans-Dicke theory with a negative coupling constant can be a viable alternative to general relativity and that a large negative value for the coupling constant seems to bring the original scalar-tensor theory into close agreement with perihelion-precession results in view of recent observations of small solar oblateness.
Quasar populations in a cosmological constant-dominated flat universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malhotra, Sangeeta; Turner, Edwin L.
1995-01-01
Most physical properties derived for quasars, as single entities or as a population, depend upon the cosmology assumed. In this paper, we calculate the quasar luminosity function and some related quantities for a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda (Lambda = 0.9, Omega = 0.1) and compare them with those deduced for a flat universe with zero cosmological constant (Lambda = 0, Omega = 1). We use the ATT quasar survey data (Boyle et al. 1990) as input in both cases. The data are fitted well by a pure luminosity evolution model for both the cosmologies but with different evolutionary parameters. From the luminosity function, we predict (extrapolate) a greater number of quasars at faint apparent magnitudes (twice the number at B = 24, z is less than 2.2) for the Lambda-dominated universe. This population of faint quasars at high redshift would result in a higher incidence of gravitational lensing. The total luminosity of the quasar population and the total mass tied up in black hole remnants of quasars is not sensitive to the cosmology. However, for a Lambda cosmology, this mass is tied up in fewer but more massive black holes.
On determining dose rate constants spectroscopically.
Rodriguez, M; Rogers, D W O
2013-01-01
To investigate several aspects of the Chen and Nath spectroscopic method of determining the dose rate constants of (125)I and (103)Pd seeds [Z. Chen and R. Nath, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 6089-6104 (2010)] including the accuracy of using a line or dual-point source approximation as done in their method, and the accuracy of ignoring the effects of the scattered photons in the spectra. Additionally, the authors investigate the accuracy of the literature's many different spectra for bare, i.e., unencapsulated (125)I and (103)Pd sources. Spectra generated by 14 (125)I and 6 (103)Pd seeds were calculated in vacuo at 10 cm from the source in a 2.7 × 2.7 × 0.05 cm(3) voxel using the EGSnrc BrachyDose Monte Carlo code. Calculated spectra used the initial photon spectra recommended by AAPM's TG-43U1 and NCRP (National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements) Report 58 for the (125)I seeds, or TG-43U1 and NNDC(2000) (National Nuclear Data Center, 2000) for (103)Pd seeds. The emitted spectra were treated as coming from a line or dual-point source in a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the dose rate constant. The TG-43U1 definition of the dose rate constant was used. These calculations were performed using the full spectrum including scattered photons or using only the main peaks in the spectrum as done experimentally. Statistical uncertainties on the air kerma/history and the dose rate/history were ≤0.2%. The dose rate constants were also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of the full seed model. The ratio of the intensity of the 31 keV line relative to that of the main peak in (125)I spectra is, on average, 6.8% higher when calculated with the NCRP Report 58 initial spectrum vs that calculated with TG-43U1 initial spectrum. The (103)Pd spectra exhibit an average 6.2% decrease in the 22.9 keV line relative to the main peak when calculated with the TG-43U1 rather than the NNDC(2000) initial spectrum. The measured values from three different investigations are
Wang, Hua; Fang, Yan; Wang, Lipeng; Zhu, Wenjuan; Ji, Haipeng; Wang, Haiying; Xu, Shiqing; Sima, Yanghu
2014-09-01
Ambient temperature plays a large role in insect growth, development and even their distribution. The elucidation of the associated molecular mechanism that underlies the effect of constant high temperature will enables us to further understand the stress responses. We constructed four digital gene expression libraries from the fat body of female and male Bombyx mori. Differential gene expression was analyzed after constant high temperature treatment. The results showed that there were significant changes to the gene expression in the fat body after heat treatment, especially in binding, catalytic, cellular and metabolic processes. Constant high temperature may induce more traditional cryoprotectants, such as glycerol, glycogen, sorbitol and lipids, to protect cells from damage, and induce heat oxidative stress in conjunction with the heat shock proteins. The data also indicated a difference between males and females. The heat shock protein-related genes were up-regulated in both sexes but the expression of Hsp25.4 and DnaJ5 were down-regulated in the male fat body of B. mori. This is the first report of such a result. Constant high temperature also affected the expression of other functional genes and differences were observed between male and female fat bodies in the expression of RPS2, RPL37A and MREL. These findings provide abundant data on the effect of high temperature on insects at the molecular level. The data will also be beneficial to the study of differences between the sexes, manifested in variations in gene expression under high temperature.
Beauty vector meson decay constants from QCD sum rules
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; D. V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow
We present the outcomes of a very recent investigation of the decay constants of nonstrange and strange heavy-light beauty vector mesons, with special emphasis on the ratio of any such decay constant to the decay constant of the corresponding pseudoscalar meson, by means of Borel-transformed QCD sum rules. Our results suggest that both these ratios are below unity.
Constant Switching Frequency DTC for Matrix Converter Fed Speed Sensorless Induction Motor Drive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mir, Tabish Nazir; Singh, Bhim; Bhat, Abdul Hamid
2018-05-01
The paper presents a constant switching frequency scheme for speed sensorless Direct Torque Control (DTC) of Matrix Converter fed Induction Motor Drive. The use of matrix converter facilitates improved power quality on input as well as motor side, along with Input Power Factor control, besides eliminating the need for heavy passive elements. Moreover, DTC through Space Vector Modulation helps in achieving a fast control over the torque and flux of the motor, with added benefit of constant switching frequency. A constant switching frequency aids in maintaining desired power quality of AC mains current even at low motor speeds, and simplifies input filter design of the matrix converter, as compared to conventional hysteresis based DTC. Further, stator voltage estimation from sensed input voltage, and subsequent stator (and rotor) flux estimation is done. For speed sensorless operation, a Model Reference Adaptive System is used, which emulates the speed dependent rotor flux equations of the induction motor. The error between conventionally estimated rotor flux (reference model) and the rotor flux estimated through the adaptive observer is processed through PI controller to generate the rotor speed estimate.
Optical constants of concentrated aqueous ammonium sulfate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Remsberg, E. E.
1973-01-01
Using experimental data obtained from applying spectroscopy to a 39-wt-% aqueous ammonium sulfate solution, it is shown that, even though specific aerosol optical constants appear quite accurate, spectral variations may exist as functions of material composition or concentration or both. Prudent users of optical constant data must then include liberal data error estimates when performing calculations or in interpreting spectroscopic surveys of collected aerosol material.
Evaluating the risks of clinical research: direct comparative analysis.
Rid, Annette; Abdoler, Emily; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S; Wendler, David
2014-09-01
Many guidelines and regulations allow children and adolescents to be enrolled in research without the prospect of clinical benefit when it poses minimal risk. However, few systematic methods exist to determine when research risks are minimal. This situation has led to significant variation in minimal risk judgments, raising concern that some children are not being adequately protected. To address this concern, we describe a new method for implementing the widely endorsed "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. This standard defines research risks as minimal when they do not exceed the risks posed by daily life activities or routine examinations. This study employed a conceptual and normative analysis, and use of an illustrative example. Different risks are composed of the same basic elements: Type, likelihood, and magnitude of harm. Hence, one can compare the risks of research and the risks of daily life by comparing the respective basic elements with each other. We use this insight to develop a systematic method, direct comparative analysis, for implementing the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. The method offers a way of evaluating research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities, such as the risk of experiencing anxiety, stress, or other psychological harm. We thus illustrate how direct comparative analysis can be applied in practice by using it to evaluate whether the anxiety induced by a respiratory CO2 challenge poses minimal or greater than minimal risks in children and adolescents. Direct comparative analysis is a systematic method for applying the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk to research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities. It thereby offers a method to protect children and adolescents in research, while ensuring that important studies are not blocked because of unwarranted concerns about research risks.
Stebner, A. P.; Brown, D. W.; Brinson, L. C.
2013-05-27
Polycrystalline, monoclinic nickel-titanium specimens were subjected to tensile and compressive deformations while neutron diffraction spectra were recorded in situ. Using these data, orientation-specific and macroscopic Young's moduli are determined from analysis of linear-elastic deformation exhibited by 13 unique orientations of monoclinic lattices and their relationships to each macroscopic stress and strain. Five of 13 elastic compliance constants are also identified: s{sub 11} = 1.15, s{sub 15} = -1.10, s{sub 22} = 1.34, s{sub 33} = 1.06, s{sub 35} = -1.54, all Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} GPa{sup -1}. Through these results, recent atomistic calculations of monoclinic nickel-titanium elastic constants are validated.
Constant-flow ventilation in canine experimental pulmonary emphysema.
Hachenberg, T; Wendt, M; Meyer, J; Struckmeier, O; Lawin, P
1989-07-01
The efficacy of constant-flow ventilation (CFV) was investigated in eight mongrel dogs before (control-phase) and after development of papain-induced panlobular emphysema (PLE-phase). For CFV, heated, humidified and oxygen-enriched air was continuously delivered via two catheters positioned within each mainstem bronchus at flow rates (V) of 0.33, 0.5 and 0.66 l/s. Data obtained during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) served as reference. In the control-phase, Pao2 was lower (P less than or equal to 0.05) and alveolo-arterial O2 difference (P(A-a)O2) was higher (P less than or equal to 0.01) during CFV at all flow rates when compared with IPPV. This may be due to inhomogeneities of intrapulmonary gas distribution and increased ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) mismatching. Paco2 and V showed a hyperbolic relationship; constant normocapnia (5.3 kPa) was achieved at 0.48 +/- 0.21 l/s (V53). Development of PLE resulted in an increase of functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV) and static compliance (Cstat) (P less than or equal to 0.05). PaO2 had decreased and P(A-a)O2 had increased (P less than or equal to 0.05), indicating moderate pulmonary dysfunction. Oxygenation during CFV was not significantly different in the PLE-phase when compared with the control-phase. Paco2 and V showed a hyperbolic relationship and V5.3 was even lower than in the control-group (0.42 +/- 0.13 l/s). In dogs with emphysematous lungs CFV maintains sufficient gas exchange. This may be due to preferential ventilation of basal lung units, thereby counterbalancing the effects of impaired lung morphometry and increased airtrapping. Conventional mechanical ventilation is more effective in terms of oxygenation and CO2-elimination.
The aquatic animals' transcriptome resource for comparative functional analysis.
Chou, Chih-Hung; Huang, Hsi-Yuan; Huang, Wei-Chih; Hsu, Sheng-Da; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Liu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Yu-Hung; Liu, Yu-Chen; Huang, Wei-Yun; Lee, Meng-Lin; Chen, Yi-Chang; Huang, Hsien-Da
2018-05-09
Aquatic animals have great economic and ecological importance. Among them, non-model organisms have been studied regarding eco-toxicity, stress biology, and environmental adaptation. Due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing techniques, large amounts of RNA-seq data for aquatic animals are publicly available. However, currently there is no comprehensive resource exist for the analysis, unification, and integration of these datasets. This study utilizes computational approaches to build a new resource of transcriptomic maps for aquatic animals. This aquatic animal transcriptome map database dbATM provides de novo assembly of transcriptome, gene annotation and comparative analysis of more than twenty aquatic organisms without draft genome. To improve the assembly quality, three computational tools (Trinity, Oases and SOAPdenovo-Trans) were employed to enhance individual transcriptome assembly, and CAP3 and CD-HIT-EST software were then used to merge these three assembled transcriptomes. In addition, functional annotation analysis provides valuable clues to gene characteristics, including full-length transcript coding regions, conserved domains, gene ontology and KEGG pathways. Furthermore, all aquatic animal genes are essential for comparative genomics tasks such as constructing homologous gene groups and blast databases and phylogenetic analysis. In conclusion, we establish a resource for non model organism aquatic animals, which is great economic and ecological importance and provide transcriptomic information including functional annotation and comparative transcriptome analysis. The database is now publically accessible through the URL http://dbATM.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/ .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, J.; Dean, J.; Clyne, T. W.
2017-02-01
This study concerns a commonly-used procedure for evaluating the steady state creep stress exponent, n, from indentation data. The procedure involves monitoring the indenter displacement history under constant load and making the assumption that, once its velocity has stabilised, the system is in a quasi-steady state, with stage II creep dominating the behaviour. The stress and strain fields under the indenter are represented by "equivalent stress" and "equivalent strain rate" values. The estimate of n is then obtained as the gradient of a plot of the logarithm of the equivalent strain rate against the logarithm of the equivalent stress. Concerns have, however, been expressed about the reliability of this procedure, and indeed it has already been shown to be fundamentally flawed. In the present paper, it is demonstrated, using a very simple analysis, that, for a genuinely stable velocity, the procedure always leads to the same, constant value for n (either 1.0 or 0.5, depending on whether the tip shape is spherical or self-similar). This occurs irrespective of the value of the measured velocity, or indeed of any creep characteristic of the material. It is now clear that previously-measured values of n, obtained using this procedure, have varied in a more or less random fashion, depending on the functional form chosen to represent the displacement-time history and the experimental variables (tip shape and size, penetration depth, etc.), with little or no sensitivity to the true value of n.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaghary, Wafaa A.; Mowaka, Shereen; Hassan, Mostafa A.; Ayoub, Bassam M.
2017-11-01
Different simple spectrophotometric methods were developed for simultaneous determination of alogliptin and metformin manipulating their ratio spectra with successful application on recently approved combination, Kazano® tablets. Spiking was implemented to detect alogliptin in spite of its low contribution in the pharmaceutical formulation as low quantity in comparison to metformin. Linearity was acceptable over the concentration range of 2.5-25.0 μg/mL and 2.5-15.0 μg/mL for alogliptin and metformin, respectively using derivative ratio, ratio subtraction coupled with extended ratio subtraction and spectrum subtraction coupled with constant multiplication. The optimized methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and proved to be accurate for assay of the investigated drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage form.
A high-performance constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watmuff, Jonathan H.
1994-01-01
A high-performance constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer has been designed based on a system theory analysis that can be extended to arbitrary order. A motivating factor behind the design was to achieve the highest possible frequency response while ensuring overall system stability. Based on these considerations, the design of the circuit and the selection of components is discussed in depth. Basic operating instructions are included in an operator's guide. The analysis is used to identify operating modes, observed in all anemometers, that are misleading in the sense that the operator can be deceived by interpreting an erroneous frequency response. Unlike other anemometers, this instrument provides front panel access to all the circuit parameters which affect system stability and frequency response. Instructions are given on how to identify and avoid these rather subtle and undesirable operating modes by appropriate adjustment of the controls. Details, such as fabrication drawings and a parts list, are provided to enable others to construct the instrument.
Direct Measurement of Equilibrium Constants for High-Affinity Hemoglobins
Kundu, Suman; Premer, Scott A.; Hoy, Julie A.; Trent, James T.; Hargrove, Mark S.
2003-01-01
The biological functions of heme proteins are linked to their rate and affinity constants for ligand binding. Kinetic experiments are commonly used to measure equilibrium constants for traditional hemoglobins comprised of pentacoordinate ligand binding sites and simple bimolecular reaction schemes. However, kinetic methods do not always yield reliable equilibrium constants with more complex hemoglobins for which reaction mechanisms are not clearly understood. Furthermore, even where reaction mechanisms are clearly understood, it is very difficult to directly measure equilibrium constants for oxygen and carbon monoxide binding to high-affinity (KD ≪ 1 μM) hemoglobins. This work presents a method for direct measurement of equilibrium constants for high-affinity hemoglobins that utilizes a competition for ligands between the "target" protein and an array of "scavenger" hemoglobins with known affinities. This method is described for oxygen and carbon monoxide binding to two hexacoordinate hemoglobins: rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and Synechocystis hemoglobin. Our results demonstrate that although these proteins have different mechanisms for ligand binding, their affinities for oxygen and carbon monoxide are similar. Their large affinity constants for oxygen, 285 and ∼100 μM−1 respectively, indicate that they are not capable of facilitating oxygen transport. PMID:12770899
Size-dependent Hamaker constants for silver and gold nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinchuk, Pavlo; Jiang, Ke
2015-08-01
Hamaker-Lifshitz constants are material specific constants that are used to calculate van der Waals interaction forces between small particles in solution. Typically, these constants are size-independent and material specific. According to the Lifshitz theory, the Hamaker-Lifshitz constants can be calculated by taking integrals that include the dielectric permittivity, as a function of frequency, of the interacting particles and the medium around particles. The dielectric permittivity of interacting metal nanoparticles can be calculated using the Drude model, which is based on the assumption of motion of free conducting electrons. For bulk metals, the Drude model does not predict any sizedependence of the dielectric permittivity. However, the conducting electrons in small noble metal nanoparticles (R ~ 10nm) exhibit surface scattering, which changes the complex permittivity function. In this work, we show theoretically that scattering of the free conducting electrons inside silver and gold nanoparticles with the size of 1 - 50 nm leads to size-dependent dielectric permittivity and Hamaker-Lifshitz constants. We calculate numerically the Hamaker-Lifshitz constants for silver and gold nanoparticles with different diameters. The results of the study might be of interests for understanding colloidal stability of metal nanoparticles.
Non-minimally coupled varying constants quantum cosmologies
Balcerzak, Adam, E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl
We consider gravity theory with varying speed of light and varying gravitational constant. Both constants are represented by non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We examine the cosmological evolution in the near curvature singularity regime. We find that at the curvature singularity the speed of light goes to infinity while the gravitational constant vanishes. This corresponds to the Newton's Mechanics limit represented by one of the vertex of the Bronshtein-Zelmanov-Okun cube [1,2]. The cosmological evolution includes both the pre-big-bang and post-big-bang phases separated by the curvature singularity. We also investigate the quantum counterpart of the considered theory and find the probability ofmore » transition of the universe from the collapsing pre-big-bang phase to the expanding post-big-bang phase.« less
Zhan, Yu; Liu, Changsheng; Zhang, Fengpeng; Qiu, Zhaoguo
2016-07-01
The laser ultrasonic generation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave in an elastic plate is studied by experiment and finite element method. In order to eliminate the measurement error and the time delay of the experimental system, the linear fitting method of experimental data is applied. The finite element analysis software ABAQUS is used to simulate the propagation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave caused by laser excitation on a sheet metal sample surface. The equivalent load method is proposed and applied. The pulsed laser is equivalent to the surface load in time and space domain to meet the Gaussian profile. The relationship between the physical parameters of the laser and the load is established by the correction factor. The numerical solution is in good agreement with the experimental result. The simple and effective numerical and experimental methods for laser ultrasonic measurement of the elastic constants are demonstrated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Negative Dielectric Constant Material Based on Ion Conducting Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)
2017-01-01
Metamaterials or artificial negative index materials (NIMs) have generated great attention due to their unique and exotic electromagnetic properties. One exemplary negative dielectric constant material, which is an essential key for creating the NIMs, was developed by doping ions into a polymer, a protonated poly (benzimidazole) (PBI). The doped PBI showed a negative dielectric constant at megahertz (MHz) frequencies due to its reduced plasma frequency and an induction effect. The magnitude of the negative dielectric constant and the resonance frequency were tunable by doping concentration. The highly doped PBI showed larger absolute magnitude of negative dielectric constant at just above its resonance frequency than the less doped PBI.
Negative Dielectric Constant Material Based on Ion Conducting Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Metamaterials or artificial negative index materials (NIMs) have generated great attention due to their unique and exotic electromagnetic properties. One exemplary negative dielectric constant material, which is an essential key for creating the NIMs, was developed by doping ions into a polymer, a protonated poly(benzimidazole) (PBI). The doped PBI showed a negative dielectric constant at megahertz (MHz) frequencies due to its reduced plasma frequency and an induction effect. The magnitude of the negative dielectric constant and the resonance frequency were tunable by doping concentration. The highly doped PBI showed larger absolute magnitude of negative dielectric constant at just above its resonance frequency than the less doped PBI.
A simple cosmology with a varying fine structure constant.
Sandvik, Håvard Bunes; Barrow, John D; Magueijo, João
2002-01-21
We investigate the cosmological consequences of a theory in which the electric charge e can vary. In this theory the fine structure "constant," alpha, remains almost constant in the radiation era, undergoes a small increase in the matter era, but approaches a constant value when the universe starts accelerating because of a positive cosmological constant. This model satisfies geonuclear, nucleosynthesis, and cosmic microwave background constraints on time variation in alpha, while fitting the observed accelerating Universe and evidence for small alpha variations in quasar spectra. It also places specific restrictions on the nature of the dark matter. Further tests, involving stellar spectra and Eötvös experiments, are proposed.
Li, Yang-yang; Zhao, Kai; Ren, Jian-hua; Ding, Yan-ling; Wu, Li-li
2014-01-01
Soil salinity is a global problem, especially in developing countries, which affects the environment and productivity of agriculture areas. Salt has a significant effect on the complex dielectric constant of wet soil. However, there is no suitable model to describe the variation in the backscattering coefficient due to changes in soil salinity content. The purpose of this paper is to use backscattering models to understand behaviors of the backscattering coefficient in saline soils based on the analysis of its dielectric constant. The effects of moisture and salinity on the dielectric constant by combined Dobson mixing model and seawater dielectric constant model are analyzed, and the backscattering coefficient is then simulated using the AIEM. Simultaneously, laboratory measurements were performed on ground samples. The frequency effect of the laboratory results was not the same as the simulated results. The frequency dependence of the ionic conductivity of an electrolyte solution is influenced by the ion's components. Finally, the simulated backscattering coefficients measured from the dielectric constant with the AIEM were analyzed using the extracted backscattering coefficient from the RADARSAT-2 image. The results show that RADARSAT-2 is potentially able to measure soil salinity; however, the mixed pixel problem needs to be more thoroughly considered.
Determination of the Boltzmann constant by dielectric-constant gas thermometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fellmuth, Bernd; Fischer, Joachim; Gaiser, Christof; Jusko, Otto; Priruenrom, Tasanee; Sabuga, Wladimir; Zandt, Thorsten
2011-10-01
Within an international project directed to the new definition of the base unit kelvin, the Boltzmann constant k has been determined by dielectric-constant gas thermometry at PTB. In the pressure range from about 1 MPa to 7 MPa, 11 helium isotherms have been measured at the triple point of water (TPW) by applying a new special experimental setup consisting of a large-volume thermostat, a vacuum-isolated measuring system, stainless-steel 10 pF cylindrical capacitors, an autotransformer ratio capacitance bridge, a high-purity gas-handling system including a mass spectrometer, and traceably calibrated special pressure balances with piston-cylinder assemblies having effective areas of 2 cm2. The value of k has been deduced from the linear, ideal-gas term of an appropriate virial expansion fitted to the combined isotherms. A detailed uncertainty budget has been established by performing Monte Carlo simulations. The main uncertainty components result from the measurement of pressure and capacitance as well as the influence of the effective compressibility of the measuring capacitor and impurities contained in the helium gas. The combination of the results obtained at the TPW (kTPW = 1.380 654 × 10-23 J K-1, relative standard uncertainty 9.2 parts per million) with data measured earlier at low temperatures (21 K to 27 K, kLT = 1.380 657 × 10-23 J K-1, 15.9 parts per million) has yielded a value of k = 1.380 655 × 10-23 J K-1 with uncertainty of 7.9 parts per million.
Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2006-08-01
A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion
On the Kolmogorov constant in stochastic turbulence models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinz, Stefan
2002-11-01
The Kolmogorov constant is fundamental in stochastic models of turbulence. To explain the reasons for observed variations of this quantity, it is calculated for two flows by various methods and data. Velocity fluctuations are considered as the sum of contributions due to anisotropy, acceleration fluctuations and stochastic forcing that is controlled by the Kolmogorov constant. It is shown that the effects of anisotropy and acceleration fluctuations are responsible for significant variations of the Kolmogorov constant. It is found near 2 for flows where anisotropy and acceleration fluctuations contribute to the energy budget, and near 6 if such contributions disappear.
Procedures for determining MATMOD-4V material constants
Lowe, T.C.
1993-11-01
The MATMOD-4V constitutive relations were developed from the original MATMOD model to extend the range of nonelastic deformation behaviors represented to include transient phenomena such as strain softening. Improvements in MATMOD-4V increased the number of independent material constants and the difficulty in determining their values. Though the constitutive relations are conceptually simple, their form and procedures for obtaining their constants can be complex. This paper reviews in detail the experiments, numerical procedures, and assumptions that have been used to determine a complete set of MATMOD-4V constants for high purity aluminum.
Sriram, V; Gururaj, G; Razzak, J A; Naseer, R; Hyder, A A
2016-08-01
Strengthened emergency medical services (EMS) are urgently required in South Asia to reduce needless death and disability. Several EMS models have been introduced in India and Pakistan, and research on these models can facilitate improvements to EMS in the region. Our objective was to conduct a cross-case comparative analysis of three EMS organizations in India and Pakistan - GVK EMRI, Aman Foundation and Rescue 1122 - in order to draw out similarities and differences in their models. Case study methodology was used to systematically explore the organizational models of GVK EMRI (Karnataka, India), Aman Foundation (Karachi, Pakistan), and Rescue 1122 (Punjab, Pakistan). Qualitative methods - interviews, document review and non-participant observation - were utilized, and using a process of constant comparison, data were analysed across cases according to the WHO health system 'building blocks'. Emergent themes under each health system 'building block' of service delivery, health workforce, medical products and technology, health information systems, leadership and governance, and financing were described. Cross-cutting issues not applicable to any single building block were further identified. This cross-case comparison, the first of its kind in low- and middle-income countries, highlights key innovations and lessons, and areas of further research across EMS organizations in India, Pakistan and other resource-poor settings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The GMO Sumrule and the πNN Coupling Constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ericson, T. E. O.; Loiseau, B.; Thomas, A. W.
The isovector GMO sumrule for forward πN scattering is critically evaluated using the precise π-p and π-d scattering lengths obtained recently from pionic atom measurements. The charged πNN coupling constant is then deduced with careful analysis of systematic and statistical sources of uncertainties. This determination gives directly from data gc2(GMO)/4π = 14.17±0.09 (statistic) ±0.17 (systematic) or fc2/ 4π=0.078(11). This value is half-way between that of indirect methods (phase-shift analyses) and the direct evaluation from from backward np differential scattering cross sections (extrapolation to pion pole). From the π-p and π-d scattering lengths our analysis leads also to accurate values for (1/2)(aπ-p+aπ-n) and (1/2) (aπ-p-aπ-n).
Complex dielectric constants for selected near-millimeter-wave materials at 245 GHz
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dutta, J. M.; Jones, C. R.; Dave, H.
1986-01-01
A double-beam instrument developed in this laboratory has been used to measure the complex dielectric constant of selected materials at 245 GHz. It is reported here the results for crystalline quartz, fused silica (Spectrosil WF and Dynasil 4000), beryllia (iso-pressed), boron nitride (hot-pressed), and a nickel ferrite (Trans-Tech 2-111). Results are compared with the data obtained by other researchers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Qiming
2004-07-01
The development of high dielectric constant polymers as active materials in high-performance devices is one of the challenges in polymeric electronics and opto-electronics such as flexible thin-film capacitors, memory devices and microactuators for deformable micromirror technology. A group of poly(vinylidene fluoridetrifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) based high-dielectric-constant fluoroterpolymers have been developed, which have high room-temperature dielectric constant (K>60) and very high strain level and high energy density. The longitudinal and transverse strain of these materials can reach about -7% and 4.5%, respectively, and the elastic energy density is around 1.1 J/cm^3 under a high electric field of 150 MV/m. The influence on the electromechanical properties of copolymerizing poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) with a third monomer, chlorofluoroethylene (CFE), was investigated. It was found that increasing the CFE content from 0 to 8.5% slowly converts the ferroelectric structure of the copolymer to a relaxor ferroelectric system. This allows for a greatly decreased polarization and dielectric hysteresis and a much higher strain. Above 8.5%, increased CFE content substantially degrades the bulk crystallinity and the Young's modulus. These terpolymers have the potential to achieve above 10 J/cm^3 whole capacity energy density, which makes them good candidates for applications in pulse power capacitors. An all-polymer percolative composite by the combination of conductive polyaniline particles (K>10^5) within a fluoroterpolymer matrix, is introduced which exhibits very high dielectric constant (>7,000). The experimental results show that the dielectric behavior of this new class of percolative composites follows the prediction of the percolation theory and the analysis of the conductive percolation phenomena. The very high dielectric constant of the all-polymer composites which are also very flexible and possess elastic modulus not very
Re-evaluation of constant versus varied punishers using empirically derived consequences.
Toole, Lisa M; DeLeon, Iser G; Kahng, SungWoo; Ruffin, Geri E; Pletcher, Carrie A; Bowman, Lynn G
2004-01-01
Charlop, Burgio, Iwata, and Ivancic [J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 21 (1988) 89] demonstrated that varied punishment procedures produced greater or more consistent reductions of problem behavior than a constant punishment procedure. More recently, Fisher and colleagues [Res. Dev. Disabil. 15 (1994) 133; J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 27 (1994) 447] developed a systematic methodology for predicting the efficacy of various punishment procedures. Their procedure identified reinforcers and punishers (termed "empirically derived consequences" or EDC) that, when used in combination, reduced the destructive behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities who displayed automatically maintained destructive behavior. The current investigation combines these two lines of research by comparing the effects of constant versus varied punishers on the self-injury of two individuals with developmental disabilities. The punishing stimuli were selected via the procedures described by Fisher et al. and were predicted to be at varying levels of effectiveness. The varied presentation of punishers resulted in enhanced suppressive effects over the constant presentation of a punisher for one of two individuals, but only in comparison to a single stimulus predicted to be minimally effective. Even then, the differences were small. These results suggest that the additive effects of varied punishment are negligible if clinicians use stimuli predicted to be effective and are discussed in terms of the conditions under which stimulus variation could potentially enhance the effects of punishers.
Projection rule for complex-valued associative memory with large constant terms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitahara, Michimasa; Kobayashi, Masaki
Complex-valued Associative Memory (CAM) has an inherent property of rotation invariance. Rotation invariance produces many undesirable stable states and reduces the noise robustness of CAM. Constant terms may remove rotation invariance, but if the constant terms are too small, rotation invariance does not vanish. In this paper, we eliminate rotation invariance by introducing large constant terms to complex-valued neurons. We have to make constant terms sufficiently large to improve the noise robustness. We introduce a parameter to control the amplitudes of constant terms into projection rule. The large constant terms are proved to be effective by our computer simulations.
Getting through to circadian oscillators: why use constant routines?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duffy, Jeanne F.; Dijk, Derk-Jan
2002-01-01
Overt 24-h rhythmicity is composed of both exogenous and endogenous components, reflecting the product of multiple (periodic) feedback loops with a core pacemaker at their center. Researchers attempting to reveal the endogenous circadian (near 24-h) component of rhythms commonly conduct their experiments under constant environmental conditions. However, even under constant environmental conditions, rhythmic changes in behavior, such as food intake or the sleep-wake cycle, can contribute to observed rhythmicity in many physiological and endocrine variables. Assessment of characteristics of the core circadian pacemaker and its direct contribution to rhythmicity in different variables, including rhythmicity in gene expression, may be more reliable when such periodic behaviors are eliminated or kept constant across all circadian phases. This is relevant for the assessment of the status of the circadian pacemaker in situations in which the sleep-wake cycle or food intake regimes are altered because of external conditions, such as in shift work or jet lag. It is also relevant for situations in which differences in overt rhythmicity could be due to changes in either sleep oscillatory processes or circadian rhythmicity, such as advanced or delayed sleep phase syndromes, in aging, or in particular clinical conditions. Researchers studying human circadian rhythms have developed constant routine protocols to assess the status of the circadian pacemaker in constant behavioral and environmental conditions, whereas this technique is often thought to be unnecessary in the study of animal rhythms. In this short review, the authors summarize constant routine methodology and what has been learned from constant routines and argue that animal and human circadian rhythm researchers should (continue to) use constant routines as a step on the road to getting through to central and peripheral circadian oscillators in the intact organism.
Economic Load Dispatch Using Adaptive Social Acceleration Constant Based Particle Swarm Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, N. K.; Nangia, Uma; Jain, Jyoti
2018-04-01
In this paper, an Adaptive Social Acceleration Constant based Particle Swarm Optimization (ASACPSO) has been developed which uses the best value of social acceleration constant (Csg). Three formulations of Csg have been used to search for the best value of Csg. These three formulations led to the development of three algorithms-ALDPSO, AELDPSO-I and AELDPSO-II which were implemented for Economic Load Dispatch of IEEE 5 bus, 14 bus and 30 bus systems. The best value of Csg was selected based on the minimum number of Kounts i.e. number of function evaluations required to minimize the function. This value of Csg was directly used in basic PSO algorithm which led to the development of ASACPSO algorithm. ASACPSO was found to converge faster and give more accurate results compared to BPSO for IEEE 5, 14 and 30 bus systems.
On the mass of static metrics with positive cosmological constant: I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borghini, Stefano; Mazzieri, Lorenzo
2018-06-01
In this paper we prove a new uniqueness result for the de Sitter solution. Our theorem is based on a new notion of mass, whose well-posedness is discussed and established in the realm of static spacetimes with positive cosmological constant that are bounded by Killing horizons. This new definition is formulated in terms of the surface gravities of the Killing horizons and agrees with the usual notion when the Schwarzschild–de Sitter solutions are considered. A positive mass statement is also shown to hold in this context. The corresponding rigidity statement coincides with the above mentioned characterization of the de Sitter solution as the only static vacuum metric with zero mass. Finally, exploiting some particular features of our formalism, we show how the same analysis can be fruitfully employed to treat the case of negative cosmological constant, leading to a new uniqueness theorem for the anti-de Sitter spacetime, which holds under a very feeble assumption on the asymptotic behavior of the solution.
Bernatowicz, Piotr; Nowakowski, Michał; Dodziuk, Helena; Ejchart, Andrzej
2006-08-01
Association constants in weak molecular complexes can be determined by analysis of chemical shifts variations resulting from changes of guest to host concentration ratio. In the regime of very fast exchange, i.e., when exchange rate is several orders of magnitude larger than the Larmor angular frequency difference of the observed resonance in free and complexed molecule, the apparent position of averaged resonance is a population-weighted mean of resonances of particular forms involved in the equilibrium. The assumption of very fast exchange is often, however, tacitly admitted in literature even in cases where the process of interest is much slower than required. We show that such an unjustified simplification may, under certain circumstances, lead to significant underestimation of association constant and, in consequence, to non-negligible errors in Gibbs free energy under determination. We present a general method, based on iterative numerical NMR line shape analysis, which allows one for the compensation of chemical exchange effects, and delivers both the correct association constants and the exchange rates. The latter are not delivered by the other mentioned method. Practical application of our algorithm is illustrated by the case of camphor-alpha-cyclodextrin complexes.
Variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landau, S. J.; Vucetich, H.
La variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales es un problema que ha motivado numerosos trabajos teóricos y experimentales desde la hipótesis de los grandes números de Dirac en 1937. Entre los métodos experimentales y observacionales para establecer restricciones sobre la variación de las constantes fundamentes es importante mencionar: comparación entre relojes atómicos[1], métodos geofísicos[2][3], análisis de sistemas de absorción en quasares[4][5][6] y cotas provenientes de la nucleosíntesis primordial[7]. En un trabajo reciente[5], se reportó una significativa variación en la constante de estructura fina. Intentos de unificar las cuatro interacciones fundamentales dieron como resultado teorías con múltiples dimensiones como las teorías de Kaluza-Klein y teorías de supercuerdas. Estas teorías proporcionan un marco teórico natural para el estudio de la variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales. A su vez, un modelo sencillo para estudiar la variación de la constante de estructura fina, fue propuesto en [8], a partir de premisas muy generales como ser covarianza, invarianza de gauge, causalidad y invarianza ante reversiones temporales en el electromagnetismo. Diferentes versiones de las teorías antes mencionadas coinciden en predecir variaciones temporales de las constantes fundamentales pero difieren en la forma de esta variación[9][10]. De esta manera, las restricciones establecidas experimentalmente sobre la variación de las constantes fundamentales pueden ser una herramienta importante para testear estas diferentes teorías. En este trabajo, utilizamos las cotas provenientes de diversas técnicas experimentales, para testear si las mismas son consistentes con alguna de las teorías antes mencionadas. En particular, establecemos cotas sobre la variación de los parámentros libres de las diferentes teorías como por ejemplo el radio de las dimensiones extras en las teorías tipo Kaluza-Klein.
Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Ning; Bousso, Raphael; Jordan, Stephen; Lackey, Brad
2017-11-01
Denef and Douglas have observed that in certain landscape models the problem of finding small values of the cosmological constant is a large instance of a problem that is hard for the complexity class NP (Nondeterministic Polynomial-time). The number of elementary operations (quantum gates) needed to solve this problem by brute force search exceeds the estimated computational capacity of the observable Universe. Here we describe a way out of this puzzling circumstance: despite being NP-hard, the problem of finding a small cosmological constant can be attacked by more sophisticated algorithms whose performance vastly exceeds brute force search. In fact, in some parameter regimes the average-case complexity is polynomial. We demonstrate this by explicitly finding a cosmological constant of order 10-120 in a randomly generated 1 09-dimensional Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Kachru landscape.
A Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and Constant Time Delay Procedures in Teaching State Capitals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Head, Kenneth David; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.; Ault, Melinda Jones
2011-01-01
This investigation compared the effectiveness and efficiency of constant time delay (CTD) and simultaneous prompting (SP) procedures in teaching discrete social studies facts to 4 high school students with learning and behavior disorders using an adapted alternating treatments design nested within a multiple probe design. The results indicated…
Song, Yunpeng; Wu, Sen; Xu, Linyan; Fu, Xing
2015-01-01
Measurement of force on a micro- or nano-Newton scale is important when exploring the mechanical properties of materials in the biophysics and nanomechanical fields. The atomic force microscope (AFM) is widely used in microforce measurement. The cantilever probe works as an AFM force sensor, and the spring constant of the cantilever is of great significance to the accuracy of the measurement results. This paper presents a normal spring constant calibration method with the combined use of an electromagnetic balance and a homemade AFM head. When the cantilever presses the balance, its deflection is detected through an optical lever integrated in the AFM head. Meanwhile, the corresponding bending force is recorded by the balance. Then the spring constant can be simply calculated using Hooke’s law. During the calibration, a feedback loop is applied to control the deflection of the cantilever. Errors that may affect the stability of the cantilever could be compensated rapidly. Five types of commercial cantilevers with different shapes, stiffness, and operating modes were chosen to evaluate the performance of our system. Based on the uncertainty analysis, the expanded relative standard uncertainties of the normal spring constant of most measured cantilevers are believed to be better than 2%. PMID:25763650
Song, Yunpeng; Wu, Sen; Xu, Linyan; Fu, Xing
2015-03-10
Measurement of force on a micro- or nano-Newton scale is important when exploring the mechanical properties of materials in the biophysics and nanomechanical fields. The atomic force microscope (AFM) is widely used in microforce measurement. The cantilever probe works as an AFM force sensor, and the spring constant of the cantilever is of great significance to the accuracy of the measurement results. This paper presents a normal spring constant calibration method with the combined use of an electromagnetic balance and a homemade AFM head. When the cantilever presses the balance, its deflection is detected through an optical lever integrated in the AFM head. Meanwhile, the corresponding bending force is recorded by the balance. Then the spring constant can be simply calculated using Hooke's law. During the calibration, a feedback loop is applied to control the deflection of the cantilever. Errors that may affect the stability of the cantilever could be compensated rapidly. Five types of commercial cantilevers with different shapes, stiffness, and operating modes were chosen to evaluate the performance of our system. Based on the uncertainty analysis, the expanded relative standard uncertainties of the normal spring constant of most measured cantilevers are believed to be better than 2%.
Jonker, Michiel T O; Muijs, Barry
2010-06-01
With increasing ionic strength, the aqueous solubility and activity of organic chemicals are altered. This so-called salting-out effect causes the hydrophobicity of the chemicals to be increased and sorption in the marine environment to be more pronounced than in freshwater systems. The process can be described with empirical salting-out or Setschenow constants, which traditionally are determined by comparing aqueous solubilities in freshwater and saline water. Aqueous solubilities of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) however are difficult to determine, which might partly explain the limited size of the existing data base on Setschenow constants for these chemicals. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach for determining the constants, which is based on the use of solid phase micro extraction (SPME) fibers. Partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to SPME fibers increased about 1.7 times when going from de-ionized water to seawater. From the log-linear relationship between SPME fiber-water partition coefficients and ionic strength, Setschenow constants were derived, which measured on average 0.35 L mol(-1). These values agreed with literature values existing for some of the investigated PAHs and were independent of solute hydrophobicity or molar volume. Based on the present data, SPME seems to be a convenient and suitable alternative technique to determine Setschenow constants for HOCs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilsz, Jolanta
2015-01-01
The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…
Rate constants for the reactions of OH with CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, and CH3Br
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, K.-J.; Demore, W. B.
1994-01-01
Rate constants for the reactions of OH with CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, and CH3Br have been measured by a relative rate technique in which the reaction rate of each compound was compared to that of HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) and (for CH2Cl2) HFC-161 (CH3CH2F). Using absolute rate constants for HFC-152a and HFC-161, which we have determined relative to those for CH4, CH3CCl3, and C2H6, temperature dependent rate constants of both compounds were derived. The derived rate constant for CH3Br is in good agreement with recent absolute measurements. However, for the chloromethanes all the rate constants are lower at atmospheric temperatures than previously reported, especially for CH2Cl2 where the present rate constant is about a factor of 1.6 below the JPL 92-20 value. The new rate constant appears to resolve a discrepancy between the observed atmospheric concentrations and those calculated from the previous rate constant and estimated release rates.
The constant displacement scheme for tracking particles in heterogeneous aquifers
Wen, X.H.; Gomez-Hernandez, J.J.
1996-01-01
Simulation of mass transport by particle tracking or random walk in highly heterogeneous media may be inefficient from a computational point of view if the traditional constant time step scheme is used. A new scheme which adjusts automatically the time step for each particle according to the local pore velocity, so that each particle always travels a constant distance, is shown to be computationally faster for the same degree of accuracy than the constant time step method. Using the constant displacement scheme, transport calculations in a 2-D aquifer model, with nature log-transmissivity variance of 4, can be 8.6 times fastermore » than using the constant time step scheme.« less
Constant-current control method of multi-function electromagnetic transmitter.
Xue, Kaichang; Zhou, Fengdao; Wang, Shuang; Lin, Jun
2015-02-01
Based on the requirements of controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric, DC resistivity, and induced polarization, a constant-current control method is proposed. Using the required current waveforms in prospecting as a standard, the causes of current waveform distortion and current waveform distortion's effects on prospecting are analyzed. A cascaded topology is adopted to achieve 40 kW constant-current transmitter. The responsive speed and precision are analyzed. According to the power circuit of the transmitting system, the circuit structure of the pulse width modulation (PWM) constant-current controller is designed. After establishing the power circuit model of the transmitting system and the PWM constant-current controller model, analyzing the influence of ripple current, and designing an open-loop transfer function according to the amplitude-frequency characteristic curves, the parameters of the PWM constant-current controller are determined. The open-loop transfer function indicates that the loop gain is no less than 28 dB below 160 Hz, which assures the responsive speed of the transmitting system; the phase margin is 45°, which assures the stabilization of the transmitting system. Experimental results verify that the proposed constant-current control method can keep the control error below 4% and can effectively suppress load change caused by the capacitance of earth load.
Constant-current control method of multi-function electromagnetic transmitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Kaichang; Zhou, Fengdao; Wang, Shuang; Lin, Jun
2015-02-01
Based on the requirements of controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric, DC resistivity, and induced polarization, a constant-current control method is proposed. Using the required current waveforms in prospecting as a standard, the causes of current waveform distortion and current waveform distortion's effects on prospecting are analyzed. A cascaded topology is adopted to achieve 40 kW constant-current transmitter. The responsive speed and precision are analyzed. According to the power circuit of the transmitting system, the circuit structure of the pulse width modulation (PWM) constant-current controller is designed. After establishing the power circuit model of the transmitting system and the PWM constant-current controller model, analyzing the influence of ripple current, and designing an open-loop transfer function according to the amplitude-frequency characteristic curves, the parameters of the PWM constant-current controller are determined. The open-loop transfer function indicates that the loop gain is no less than 28 dB below 160 Hz, which assures the responsive speed of the transmitting system; the phase margin is 45°, which assures the stabilization of the transmitting system. Experimental results verify that the proposed constant-current control method can keep the control error below 4% and can effectively suppress load change caused by the capacitance of earth load.
Sturtevant, Blake T; Davulis, Peter M; da Cunha, Mauricio Pereira
2009-04-01
This work reports on the determination of langatate elastic and piezoelectric constants and their associated temperature coefficients employing 2 independent methods, the pulse echo overlap (PEO) and a combined resonance technique (CRT) to measure bulk acoustic wave (BAW) phase velocities. Details on the measurement techniques are provided and discussed, including the analysis of the couplant material in the PEO technique used to couple signal to the sample, which showed to be an order of magnitude more relevant than the experimental errors involved in the data extraction. At room temperature, elastic and piezoelectric constants were extracted by the PEO and the CRT methods and showed results consistent to within a few percent for the elastic constants. Both raw acquired data and optimized constants, based on minimization routines applied to all the modes involved in the measurements, are provided and discussed. Comparison between the elastic constants and their temperature behavior with the literature reveals the recent efforts toward the consistent growth and characterization of LGT, in spite of significant variations (between 1 and 30%) among the constants extracted by different groups at room temperature. The density, dielectric permittivity constants, and respective temperature coefficients used in this work have also been independently determined based on samples from the same crystal boule. The temperature behavior of the BAW modes was extracted using the CRT technique, which has the advantage of not relying on temperature dependent acoustic couplants. Finally, the extracted temperature coefficients for the elastic and piezoelectric constants between room temperature and 120 degrees C are reported and discussed in this work.
An almost trivial gauge theory in the limit of infinite gauge coupling constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaptanoglu, S.
A local SU(2) gauge theory with one multiplet of scalars in the adjoint representation is considered. In the limit of infinite gauge coupling constant Yang-Mills fields become auxiliary and the action possesses a larger invariance than the usual gauge invariance; hence, the system develops a richer structure of constraints. The constraint analysis is carried out.
Dynamics of NAD-metabolism: everything but constant.
Opitz, Christiane A; Heiland, Ines
2015-12-01
NAD, as well as its phosphorylated form, NADP, are best known as electron carriers and co-substrates of various redox reactions. As such they participate in approximately one quarter of all reactions listed in the reaction database KEGG. In metabolic pathway analysis, the total amount of NAD is usually assumed to be constant. That means that changes in the redox state might be considered, but concentration changes of the NAD moiety are usually neglected. However, a growing number of NAD-consuming reactions have been identified, showing that this assumption does not hold true in general. NAD-consuming reactions are common characteristics of NAD(+)-dependent signalling pathways and include mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation of proteins, NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation by sirtuins and the formation of messenger molecules such as cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid (NA)-ADP (NAADP). NAD-consuming reactions are thus involved in major signalling and gene regulation pathways such as DNA-repair or regulation of enzymes central in metabolism. All known NAD(+)-dependent signalling processes include the release of nicotinamide (Nam). Thus cellular NAD pools need to be constantly replenished, mostly by recycling Nam to NAD(+). This process is, among others, regulated by the circadian clock, causing complex dynamic changes in NAD concentration. As disturbances in NAD homoeostasis are associated with a large number of diseases ranging from cancer to diabetes, it is important to better understand the dynamics of NAD metabolism to develop efficient pharmacological invention strategies to target this pathway. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.
Three-body interactions and the elastic constants of hcp solid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Hinde, Robert J.
2017-09-01
The effect of three-body interactions on the elastic properties of hexagonal close packed solid 4He is investigated using variational path integral (VPI) Monte Carlo simulations. The solid's nonzero elastic constants are calculated, at T = 0 K and for a range of molar volumes from 7.88 cm3/mol to 20.78 cm3/mol, from the bulk modulus and the three pure shear constants C0, C66, and C44. Three-body interactions are accounted for using our recently reported perturbative treatment based on the nonadditive three-body potential of Cencek et al. Previous studies have attempted to account for the effect of three-body interactions on the elastic properties of solid 4He; however, these calculations have treated zero point motions using either the Einstein or Debye approximations, which are insufficient in the molar volume range where solid 4He is characterized as a quantum solid. Our VPI calculations allow for a more accurate treatment of the zero point motions which include atomic correlation. From these calculations, we find that agreement with the experimental bulk modulus is significantly improved when three-body interactions are considered. In addition, three-body interactions result in non-negligible differences in the calculated pure shear constants and nonzero elastic constants, particularly at higher densities, where differences of up to 26.5% are observed when three-body interactions are included. We compare to the available experimental data and find that our results are generally in as good or better agreement with experiment as previous theoretical investigations.
Spectroscopic Constants and Line Positions for TiO Singlet States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bittner, Dror M.; Bernath, Peter F.
2018-06-01
A consistent set of spectroscopic constants for the a1Δ, d1Σ+, b1Π, c1Φ, and f1Δ states of 48Ti16O has been determined from analysis of the b1Π–a1Δ, b1Π–d1Σ+, c1Φ–a1Δ, and f1Δ–a1Δ systems. Three Fourier transform emission spectra have been used for the analysis. New bands of the b1Π–a1Δ and c1Φ–a1Δ systems have been fitted. The first analysis of the c1Φ–a1Δ system using Fourier transform spectra is also provided. Extensive and improved line positions are measured. TiO is prominent in the spectra of oxygen-rich cool stellar objects and may be present in hot-Jupiter exoplanet atmospheres.
A novel frame-level constant-distortion bit allocation for smooth H.264/AVC video quality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Li; Zhuang, Xinhua
2009-01-01
It is known that quality fluctuation has a major negative effect on visual perception. In previous work, we introduced a constant-distortion bit allocation method [1] for H.263+ encoder. However, the method in [1] can not be adapted to the newest H.264/AVC encoder directly as the well-known chicken-egg dilemma resulted from the rate-distortion optimization (RDO) decision process. To solve this problem, we propose a new two stage constant-distortion bit allocation (CDBA) algorithm with enhanced rate control for H.264/AVC encoder. In stage-1, the algorithm performs RD optimization process with a constant quantization QP. Based on prediction residual signals from stage-1 and target distortion for smooth video quality purpose, the frame-level bit target is allocated by using a close-form approximations of ratedistortion relationship similar to [1], and a fast stage-2 encoding process is performed with enhanced basic unit rate control. Experimental results show that, compared with original rate control algorithm provided by H.264/AVC reference software JM12.1, the proposed constant-distortion frame-level bit allocation scheme reduces quality fluctuation and delivers much smoother PSNR on all testing sequences.
Off Axis Growth of Strontium Titanate Films with High Dielectric Constant Tuning and Low Loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kampangkeaw, Satreerat
2002-03-01
Using off-axis pulsed laser deposition, we have grown strontium titanate (STO) films on neodymium gallate (NGO) and lanthanum aluminate (LAO) substrates. We measured the film dielectric constant and loss tangent as a function of temperature in the 10kHz to 1 MHz frequency range. We found that the loss is less than 0.01 We also obtained a figure of merit from the relative variation of the dielectric constant divided by the loss tangent. The obtained figured of merit at 35K and 1MHz is about 1000 comparable to bulk values. The dielectric constant of these films can be changed by a factor of 4-8 in the presence of a DC electric field up to 5V/μm. The films show significant variations of dielectric properties grown on different substrates at different locations respect to the axis of the plume. The STO films on LAO having high dielectric constant and dielectric tuning were grown in region near the center of the plume. On the other hand, STO on NGO shows this effect only on the films grown far from the plume axis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattei, G.; Ahluwalia, A.
2018-04-01
We introduce a new function, the apparent elastic modulus strain-rate spectrum, E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ), for the derivation of lumped parameter constants for Generalized Maxwell (GM) linear viscoelastic models from stress-strain data obtained at various compressive strain rates ( \\dot{ɛ}). The E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ) function was derived using the tangent modulus function obtained from the GM model stress-strain response to a constant \\dot{ɛ} input. Material viscoelastic parameters can be rapidly derived by fitting experimental E_{app} data obtained at different strain rates to the E_{app} ( \\dot{ɛ} ) function. This single-curve fitting returns similar viscoelastic constants as the original epsilon dot method based on a multi-curve global fitting procedure with shared parameters. Its low computational cost permits quick and robust identification of viscoelastic constants even when a large number of strain rates or replicates per strain rate are considered. This method is particularly suited for the analysis of bulk compression and nano-indentation data of soft (bio)materials.
Microfabricated microengine with constant rotation rate
Romero, Louis A.; Dickey, Fred M.
1999-01-01
A microengine uses two synchronized linear actuators as a power source and converts oscillatory motion from the actuators into constant rotational motion via direct linkage connection to an output gear or wheel. The microengine provides output in the form of a continuously rotating output gear that is capable of delivering drive torque at a constant rotation to a micromechanism. The output gear can have gear teeth on its outer perimeter for directly contacting a micromechanism requiring mechanical power. The gear is retained by a retaining means which allows said gear to rotate freely. The microengine is microfabricated of polysilicon on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication.
Cosmological constant implementing Mach principle in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namavarian, Nadereh; Farhoudi, Mehrdad
2016-10-01
We consider the fact that noticing on the operational meaning of the physical concepts played an impetus role in the appearance of general relativity (GR). Thus, we have paid more attention to the operational definition of the gravitational coupling constant in this theory as a dimensional constant which is gained through an experiment. However, as all available experiments just provide the value of this constant locally, this coupling constant can operationally be meaningful only in a local area. Regarding this point, to obtain an extension of GR for the large scale, we replace it by a conformal invariant model and then, reduce this model to a theory for the cosmological scale via breaking down the conformal symmetry through singling out a specific conformal frame which is characterized by the large scale characteristics of the universe. Finally, we come to the same field equations that historically were proposed by Einstein for the cosmological scale (GR plus the cosmological constant) as the result of his endeavor for making GR consistent with the Mach principle. However, we declare that the obtained field equations in this alternative approach do not carry the problem of the field equations proposed by Einstein for being consistent with Mach's principle (i.e., the existence of de Sitter solution), and can also be considered compatible with this principle in the Sciama view.
Semiconductor photoelastic constants measured by light scattering in superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, J.; Sapriel, J.; Brugger, H.
1989-03-01
The technique for the measurement of the photoelastic constants that is based on light scattering (Raman and Brillouin) by superlattice acoustic phonons is refined and applied to Ga1-xAlxAs and Si1-xGex materials. The photoelastic constants of Ga1-xAlxAs with respect to GaAs and those of Si0.5Ge0.5 with respect to Si are measured as a function of the wavelength of the laser excitation. One finds that the photoelastic constant of Ga1-xAlxAs undergoes a nonlinear variation with the aluminum concentration x and that the ratio of the photoelastic constants of Si0.5Ge0.5 and Si varies strongly as a function of laser wavelength.
Anharmonic Potential Constants and Their Dependence Upon Bond Length
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Herschbach, D. R.; Laurie, V. W.
1961-01-01
Empirical study of cubic and quartic vibrational force constants for diatomic molecules shows them to be approximately exponential functions of internuclear distance. A family of curves is obtained, determined by the location of the bonded atoms in rows of the periodic table. Displacements between successive curves correspond closely to those in Badger's rule for quadratic force constants (for which the parameters are redetermined to accord with all data now available). Constants for excited electronic and ionic states appear on practically the same curves as those for the ground states. Predictions based on the diatomic correlations agree with the available cubic constants for bond stretching in polyatomic molecules, regardless of the type of bonding involved. Implications of these regularities are discussed. (auth)
A model for solar constant secular changes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schatten, Kenneth H.
1988-01-01
In this paper, contrast models for solar active region and global photospheric features are used to reproduce the observed Active Cavity Radiometer and Earth Radiation Budget secular trends in reasonably good fashion. A prediction for the next decade of solar constant variations is made using the model. Secular trends in the solar constant obtained from the present model support the view that the Maunder Minimum may be related to the Little Ice Age of the 17th century.
On determining dose rate constants spectroscopically
Rodriguez, M.; Rogers, D. W. O.
2013-01-15
Purpose: To investigate several aspects of the Chen and Nath spectroscopic method of determining the dose rate constants of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds [Z. Chen and R. Nath, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 6089-6104 (2010)] including the accuracy of using a line or dual-point source approximation as done in their method, and the accuracy of ignoring the effects of the scattered photons in the spectra. Additionally, the authors investigate the accuracy of the literature's many different spectra for bare, i.e., unencapsulated {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd sources. Methods: Spectra generated by 14 {sup 125}I and 6 {sup 103}Pd seedsmore » were calculated in vacuo at 10 cm from the source in a 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 0.05 cm{sup 3} voxel using the EGSnrc BrachyDose Monte Carlo code. Calculated spectra used the initial photon spectra recommended by AAPM's TG-43U1 and NCRP (National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements) Report 58 for the {sup 125}I seeds, or TG-43U1 and NNDC(2000) (National Nuclear Data Center, 2000) for {sup 103}Pd seeds. The emitted spectra were treated as coming from a line or dual-point source in a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the dose rate constant. The TG-43U1 definition of the dose rate constant was used. These calculations were performed using the full spectrum including scattered photons or using only the main peaks in the spectrum as done experimentally. Statistical uncertainties on the air kerma/history and the dose rate/history were Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.2%. The dose rate constants were also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of the full seed model. Results: The ratio of the intensity of the 31 keV line relative to that of the main peak in {sup 125}I spectra is, on average, 6.8% higher when calculated with the NCRP Report 58 initial spectrum vs that calculated with TG-43U1 initial spectrum. The {sup 103}Pd spectra exhibit an average 6.2% decrease in the 22.9 keV line relative to the main peak
Evaluating the Risks of Clinical Research: Direct Comparative Analysis
Abdoler, Emily; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S.; Wendler, David
2014-01-01
Abstract Objectives: Many guidelines and regulations allow children and adolescents to be enrolled in research without the prospect of clinical benefit when it poses minimal risk. However, few systematic methods exist to determine when research risks are minimal. This situation has led to significant variation in minimal risk judgments, raising concern that some children are not being adequately protected. To address this concern, we describe a new method for implementing the widely endorsed “risks of daily life” standard for minimal risk. This standard defines research risks as minimal when they do not exceed the risks posed by daily life activities or routine examinations. Methods: This study employed a conceptual and normative analysis, and use of an illustrative example. Results: Different risks are composed of the same basic elements: Type, likelihood, and magnitude of harm. Hence, one can compare the risks of research and the risks of daily life by comparing the respective basic elements with each other. We use this insight to develop a systematic method, direct comparative analysis, for implementing the “risks of daily life” standard for minimal risk. The method offers a way of evaluating research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities, such as the risk of experiencing anxiety, stress, or other psychological harm. We thus illustrate how direct comparative analysis can be applied in practice by using it to evaluate whether the anxiety induced by a respiratory CO2 challenge poses minimal or greater than minimal risks in children and adolescents. Conclusions: Direct comparative analysis is a systematic method for applying the “risks of daily life” standard for minimal risk to research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities. It thereby offers a method to protect children and adolescents in research, while ensuring that important studies are not blocked because of unwarranted concerns about
The Hubble Constant from Supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Abhijit; Macri, Lucas M.
The decades-long quest to obtain a precise and accurate measurement of the local expansion rate of the universe (the Hubble Constant or H0) has greatly benefited from the use of supernovae (SNe). Starting from humble beginnings (dispersions of ˜ 0.5 mag in the Hubble flow in the late 1960s/early 1970s), the increasingly more sophisticated understanding, classification, and analysis of these events turned type Ia SNe into the premiere choice for a secondary distance indicator by the early 1990s. While some systematic uncertainties specific to SNe and to Cepheid-based distances to the calibrating host galaxies still contribute to the H0 error budget, the major emphasis over the past two decades has been on reducing the statistical uncertainty by obtaining ever-larger samples of distances to SN hosts. Building on early efforts with the first-generation instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope, recent observations with the latest instruments on this facility have reduced the estimated total uncertainty on H0 to 2.4 % and shown a path to reach a 1 % measurement by the end of the decade, aided by Gaia and the James Webb Space Telescope.
The contrasting roles of Planck's constant in classical and quantum theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyer, Timothy H.
2018-04-01
We trace the historical appearance of Planck's constant in physics, and we note that initially the constant did not appear in connection with quanta. Furthermore, we emphasize that Planck's constant can appear in both classical and quantum theories. In both theories, Planck's constant sets the scale of atomic phenomena. However, the roles played in the foundations of the theories are sharply different. In quantum theory, Planck's constant is crucial to the structure of the theory. On the other hand, in classical electrodynamics, Planck's constant is optional, since it appears only as the scale factor for the (homogeneous) source-free contribution to the general solution of Maxwell's equations. Since classical electrodynamics can be solved while taking the homogenous source-free contribution in the solution as zero or non-zero, there are naturally two different theories of classical electrodynamics, one in which Planck's constant is taken as zero and one where it is taken as non-zero. The textbooks of classical electromagnetism present only the version in which Planck's constant is taken to vanish.
Religious Education in Russia: A Comparative and Critical Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blinkova, Alexandra; Vermeer, Paul
2018-01-01
RE in Russia has been recently introduced as a compulsory regular school subject during the last year of elementary school. The present study offers a critical analysis of the current practice of Russian RE by comparing it with RE in Sweden, Denmark and Britain. This analysis shows that Russian RE is ambivalent. Although it is based on a…
Increased Accuracy in the Measurement of the Dielectric Constant of Seawater at 1.413 GHz
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, Y.; Lang R.; Drego, C.; Utku, C.; LeVine, D.
2012-01-01
This paper describes the latest results for the measurements of the dielectric constant at 1.413 GHz by using a resonant cavity technique. The purpose of these measurements is to develop an accurate relationship for the dependence of the dielectric constant of sea water on temperature and salinity which is needed by the Aquarius inversion algorithm to retrieve salinity. Aquarius is the major instrument on the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory, a NASA/CONAE satellite mission launched in June of20ll with the primary mission of measuring global sea surface salinity to an accuracy of 0.2 psu. Aquarius measures salinity with a 1.413 GHz radiometer and uses a scatterometer to compensate for the effects of surface roughness. The core part of the seawater dielectric constant measurement system is a brass microwave cavity that is resonant at 1.413 GHz. The seawater is introduced into the cavity through a capillary glass tube having an inner diameter of 0.1 mm. The change of resonance frequency and the cavity Q value are used to determine the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of seawater introduced into the thin tube. Measurements are automated with the help of software developed at the George Washington University. In this talk, new results from measurements made since September 2010 will be presented for salinities 30, 35 and 38 psu with a temperature range of O C to 350 C in intervals of 5 C. These measurements are more accurate than earlier measurements made in 2008 because of a new method for measuring the calibration constant using methanol. In addition, the variance of repeated seawater measurements has been reduced by letting the system stabilize overnight between temperature changes. The new results are compared to the Kline Swift and Meissner Wentz model functions. The importance of an accurate model function will be illustrated by using these model functions to invert the Aquarius brightness temperature to get the salinity values. The salinity values
Measurement of the decay constant f(Ds+) using D(s+)-->l+ nu.
Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Lopez, A; Mehrabyan, S; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F
2007-08-17
We measure the decay constant f(Ds+) using the D(s+)-->l+ nu channel, where the l+ designates either a mu+ or a tau+, when the tau+ -->pi+ nu. Using both measurements we find f(Ds+)=274+/-13+/-7 MeV. Combining with our previous determination of f(D+), we compute the ratio f(Ds+)/f(D+)=1.23+/-0.11+/-0.04. We compare with theoretical estimates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlosser, Herbert
1992-01-01
In this note we present two expressions relating the cohesive energy, E(sub coh), and the zero pressure isothermal bulk modulus, B(sub 0), of the alkali halides. Ag halides and TI halides, with the nearest neighbor distances, d(sub nn). First, we show that the product E(sub coh)d(sub 0) within families of halide crystals with common crystal structure is to a good approximation constant, with maximum rms deviation of plus or minus 2%. Secondly, we demonstrate that within families of halide crystals with a common cation and common crystal structure the product B(sub 0)d(sup 3.5)(sub nn) is a good approximation constant, with maximum rms deviation of plus or minus 1.36%.
Atomic Clocks and Variations of the FIne Structure Constant
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute
1995-01-01
We describe a new test for possible variations of the fine structure constant alpha by comparisons of rates between clocks based on hyperfine transitions in alkali atoms with different atomic number Z. H-maser, Cs, and Hg(+) clocks have a different dependence on alpha via relativistic contributions of order (Z-alpha)(sup 2). Recent H-maser vs Hg(+) clock comparison data improve laboratory limits on a time variation by 100-fold to give dot-alpha less than or equal to 3.7 x 10(exp -14)/yr. Future laser cooled clocks (Be(+), Rb, Cs, Hg(+), etc.), when compared, will yield the most sensitive of all tests for dot-alpha/alpha.
Golden Gate National Recreation Area: Alcatraz Island Ferry Comparability Analysis.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2007-08-31
This report presents a summary of an analysis comparing the ferry operated between San Francisco and Alcatraz Island with : similar water transportation services. The analysis was performed to assist the National Park Service in determining the rates...
Measuring Boltzmann's Constant with Carbon Dioxide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan
2013-01-01
In this paper we present two experiments to measure Boltzmann's constant--one of the fundamental constants of modern-day physics, which lies at the base of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The experiments use very basic theory, simple equipment and cheap and safe materials yet provide very precise results. They are very easy and…
Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek
2015-06-01
Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) are sympatric pests of many greenhouse and field crops in Korea. We compared the influence of constant (27.3°C) and fluctuating temperatures (23.8-31.5°C, with an average of 27.3°C) on the life table characteristics of F. occidentalis and F. intonsa held at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h and 45±5% relative humidity. The development times of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa were significantly affected by temperature fluctuation, species, and sex. The development time from egg to adult of F. intonsa was shorter than that for F. occidentalis at both constant and fluctuating temperatures. Survival of immature life stages was higher under fluctuating than constant temperature for both thrips species. The total and daily production of first instars was higher in F. intonsa (90.4 and 4.2 at constant temperature, and 95.7 and 3.9 at fluctuating temperatures) than that of F. occidentalis (58.7 and 3.3 at constant temperature, and 60.5 and 3.1 at fluctuating temperatures) under both constant and fluctuating temperatures. The percentage of female offspring was greater in F. intonsa (72.1-75.7%) than in F. occidentalis (57.4-58.7%) under both temperature regimes. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was higher at constant temperature than at fluctuating temperature for both thrips species. F. intonsa had a higher rm value (0.2146 and 0.2004) than did F. occidentalis (0.1808 and 0.1733), under both constant and fluctuating temperatures, respectively. The biological response of F. occidentalis and F. intonsa to constant and fluctuating temperature was found to be interspecifically different, and F. intonsa may have higher pest potential than F. occidentalis based on the life table parameters we are reporting first here. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Konikow, Leonard F.; Sanford, W.E.; Campbell, P.J.
1997-01-01
In a solute-transport model, if a constant-concentration boundary condition is applied at a node in an active flow field, a solute flux can occur by both advective and dispersive processes. The potential for advective release is demonstrated by reexamining the Hydrologic Code Intercomparison (HYDROCOIN) project case 5 problem, which represents a salt dome overlain by a shallow groundwater system. The resulting flow field includes significant salinity and fluid density variations. Several independent teams simulated this problem using finite difference or finite element numerical models. We applied a method-of-characteristics model (MOCDENSE). The previous numerical implementations by HYDROCOIN teams of a constant-concentration boundary to represent salt release by lateral dispersion only (as stipulated in the original problem definition) was flawed because this boundary condition allows the release of salt into the flow field by both dispersion and advection. When the constant-concentration boundary is modified to allow salt release by dispersion only, significantly less salt is released into the flow field. The calculated brine distribution for case 5 depends very little on which numerical model is used, as long as the selected model is solving the proper equations. Instead, the accuracy of the solution depends strongly on the proper conceptualization of the problem, including the detailed design of the constant-concentration boundary condition. The importance and sensitivity to the manner of specification of this boundary does not appear to have been recognized previously in the analysis of this problem.
Optimal Server Scheduling to Maintain Constant Customer Waiting Times
1988-12-01
I I• I I I I I LCn CN OPTIMAL SERVER SCHEDUUNG TO MAINTAIN CONSTANT CUSTOMER WAITING TIMES THESIS Thomas J. Frey Captain UISAF AFIT/GOR/ENS/88D-7...hw bees appsewlf in ple rtan. cd = , ’ S 087 AFIT/GORMENS/8D-7 OPTIMAL SERVER SCHEDUUNG TO MAINTAIN~ CONSTANT CUSTOMER WAITING TIMES THESIS Thomas j...CONSTANT CUSTOMER WAITING TIMES THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University In
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panmand, Rajendra P.; Kumar, Ganapathy; Mahajan, Satish M.; Kulkarni, Milind V.; Amalnerkar, D. P.; Kale, Bharat B.; Gosavi, Suresh. W.
2011-02-01
We report optical studies with magneto-optic properties of Bi2S3 quantum dot/wires-glass nanocomposite. The size of the Q-dot was observed to be in the range 3-15 nm along with 11 nm Q-wires. Optical study clearly demonstrated the size quantization effect with drastic band gap variation with size. Faraday rotation tests on the glass nanocomposites show variation in Verdet constant with Q-dot size. Bi2S3 Q-dot/wires glass nanocomposite demonstrated 190 times enhanced Verdet constant compared to the host glass. Prima facie observations exemplify the significant enhancement in Verdet constant of Q-dot glass nanocomposites and will have potential application in magneto-optical devices.
Optimal plane change during constant altitude hypersonic flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mease, K. D.; Vinh, N. X.; Kuo, S. H.
1988-01-01
Future spacecraft operating in the vicinity of the earth may have resort to the atmosphere as an aid in effecting orbital change. While a previous treatment of this technique chose constant altitude, speed, and angle-of-attack values in order to maximize the plane change for a fixed amount of propellant consumption during hypersonic flight, the former two parameters are presently released from the constraint of constancy. The general characteristics of the optimal controls are described on the basis of the domain of maneuverability, and numerical solutions are obtained for several specific cases. Under the condition of constant-altitude flight, it is generally not optimal to fly at constant angle-of-attack.
Compilation of Henry's law constants, version 3.99
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sander, R.
2014-11-01
Many atmospheric chemicals occur in the gas phase as well as in liquid cloud droplets and aerosol particles. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the distribution between the phases. According to Henry's law, the equilibrium ratio between the abundances in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase is constant for a dilute solution. Henry's law constants of trace gases of potential importance in environmental chemistry have been collected and converted into a uniform format. The compilation contains 14775 values of Henry's law constants for 3214 species, collected from 639 references. It is also available on the internet at http://www.henrys-law.org.
Zaghary, Wafaa A; Mowaka, Shereen; Hassan, Mostafa A; Ayoub, Bassam M
2017-11-05
Different simple spectrophotometric methods were developed for simultaneous determination of alogliptin and metformin manipulating their ratio spectra with successful application on recently approved combination, Kazano® tablets. Spiking was implemented to detect alogliptin in spite of its low contribution in the pharmaceutical formulation as low quantity in comparison to metformin. Linearity was acceptable over the concentration range of 2.5-25.0μg/mL and 2.5-15.0μg/mL for alogliptin and metformin, respectively using derivative ratio, ratio subtraction coupled with extended ratio subtraction and spectrum subtraction coupled with constant multiplication. The optimized methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and proved to be accurate for assay of the investigated drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harlapur, M. D.; Mallapur, D. G.; Udupa, K. Rajendra
2018-04-01
In the current study, an experimental analysis of volumetric wear behaviour and mechanical properties of aluminium (Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni) alloy in as cast and 1Hr homogenized with T6 heat treatment is carried out at constant load. Pin-on-disc apparatus was used to carry out sliding wear test. Mechanical properties such as tensile, hardness and compression test on as-cast and 1 hr homogenized samples are measured. Universal testing machine was used to conduct the tensile and compressive test at room temperature. Brinell hardness tester was used to conduct the hardness test. The scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the worn-out wear surfaces. Wear results and mechanical properties shows that 1Hr homogenized Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy samples with T6 treated had better volumetric wear resistance, hardness, tensile and compressive strength as compared to as cast samples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moriyoshi, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Shigemi; Enomoto, Yoshiteru
Knock phenomenon in SI engines is regarded as an auto-ignition of unburned end-gas, and it has been widely examined by using rapid compression machines (RCM), shock-tubes or test engines. Recent researches point out the importance of the low temperature chemical reaction and the negative temperature coefficient (NTC). To investigate the effects, analyses of instantaneous local gas temperature, flow visualization and gaseous pressure were conducted in this study. As measurements using real engines are too difficult to analyze, the authors aimed to make measurements using a constant volume vessel under knock conditions where propagating flame exists during the induction time of auto-ignition. Adopting the two-wire thermocouple method enabled us to measure the instantaneous local gas temperature until the moment when the flame front passes by. High-speed images inside the unburned region were also recorded simultaneously using an endoscope. As a result, it was found that when knock occurs, the auto-ignition initiation time seems slightly early compared to the results without knock. This causes a higher volume ratio of unburned mixture and existence of many hot spots and stochastically leads to an initiation of knock.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Cheng
High performance soft electronic materials are key elements in advanced electronic devices for broad range applications including capacitors, actuators, artificial muscles and organs, smart materials and structures, microelectromechanical (MEMS) and microfluidic devices, acoustic devices and sensors. This thesis exploits new approaches to improve the electromechanical response and dielectric response of these materials. By making use of novel material phenomena such as large anisotropy in dipolar response in liquid crystals (LCs) and all-organic composites in which high dielectric constant organic solids and conductive polymers are either physically blended into or chemically grafted to a polymer matrix, we demonstrate that high dielectric constant and high electromechanical conversion efficiency comparable to that in ceramic materials can be achieved. Nano-composite approach can also be utilized to improve the performance of the electronic electroactive polymers (EAPs) and composites, for example, exchange coupling between the fillers and matrix with very large dielectric contrast can lead to significantly enhance the dielectric response as well as electromechanical response when the heterogeneity size of the composite is comparable to the exchange length. In addition to the dielectric composites, in which high dielectric constant fillers raise the dielectric constant of composites, conductive percolation can also lead to high dielectric constant in polymeric materials. An all-polymer percolative composite is introduced which exhibits very high dielectric constant (>7,000). The flexible all-polymer composites with a high dielectric constant make it possible to induce a high electromechanical response under a much reduced electric field in the field effect electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators (a strain of 2.65% with an elastic energy density of 0.18 J/cm3 can be achieved under a field of 16 V/mum). Agglomeration of the particles can also be effectively prevented
Our Universe from the cosmological constant
Barrau, Aurélien; Linsefors, Linda, E-mail: Aurelien.Barrau@cern.ch, E-mail: linda.linsefors@lpsc.in2p3.fr
The issue of the origin of the Universe and of its contents is addressed in the framework of bouncing cosmologies, as described for example by loop quantum gravity. If the current acceleration is due to a true cosmological constant, this constant is naturally conserved through the bounce and the Universe should also be in a (contracting) de Sitter phase in the remote past. We investigate here the possibility that the de Sitter temperature in the contracting branch fills the Universe with radiation that causes the bounce and the subsequent inflation and reheating. We also consider the possibility that this givesmore » rise to a cyclic model of the Universe and suggest some possible tests.« less
Planck's Constant as a Natural Unit of Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quincey, Paul
2013-01-01
The proposed revision of SI units would embed Planck's constant into the definition of the kilogram, as a fixed constant of nature. Traditionally, Planck's constant is not readily interpreted as the size of something physical, and it is generally only encountered by students in the mathematics of quantum physics. Richard Feynman's…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farrugia, C. J.; Burlaga, L. F.; Osherovich, V. A.; Lepping, R. P.
1992-01-01
We contrast two different solutions of the constant alpha, force-free MHD equation, both of which have been suggested as models for magnetic clouds: a solution in cylindrical coordinates and one in spherical coordinates. In line with the observation that magnetic clouds expand, we generalize these static models and construct their expanding counterparts. We find that expansion introduces in both cases a large asymmetry in the field strength signature which is in the same sense as that seen the the data, i.e. towards the leading edge of the cloud. We then do a least squares fit of the respective models to one-spacecraft data on a magnetic cloud. We find that the fitting routine converges in both cases. However, while purely formally we cannot distinguish between the two models using data from one spacecraft, the field components in the 'spherical' model have features not compatible with data on magnetic clouds.
COGNAT: a web server for comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods.
Klimchuk, Olesya I; Konovalov, Kirill A; Perekhvatov, Vadim V; Skulachev, Konstantin V; Dibrova, Daria V; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y
2017-11-22
In prokaryotic genomes, functionally coupled genes can be organized in conserved gene clusters enabling their coordinated regulation. Such clusters could contain one or several operons, which are groups of co-transcribed genes. Those genes that evolved from a common ancestral gene by speciation (i.e. orthologs) are expected to have similar genomic neighborhoods in different organisms, whereas those copies of the gene that are responsible for dissimilar functions (i.e. paralogs) could be found in dissimilar genomic contexts. Comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods facilitates the prediction of co-regulated genes and helps to discern different functions in large protein families. We intended, building on the attribution of gene sequences to the clusters of orthologous groups of proteins (COGs), to provide a method for visualization and comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods of evolutionary related genes, as well as a respective web server. Here we introduce the COmparative Gene Neighborhoods Analysis Tool (COGNAT), a web server for comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods. The tool is based on the COG database, as well as the Pfam protein families database. As an example, we show the utility of COGNAT in identifying a new type of membrane protein complex that is formed by paralog(s) of one of the membrane subunits of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase of type 1 (COG1009) and a cytoplasmic protein of unknown function (COG3002). This article was reviewed by Drs. Igor Zhulin, Uri Gophna and Igor Rogozin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Webb, John K.
2017-06-01
A new and automated method is presented for the analysis of high-resolution absorption spectra. Three established numerical methods are unified into one `artificial intelligence' process: a genetic algorithm (Genetic Voigt Profile FIT, gvpfit); non-linear least-squares with parameter constraints (vpfit); and Bayesian model averaging (BMA). The method has broad application but here we apply it specifically to the problem of measuring the fine structure constant at high redshift. For this we need objectivity and reproducibility. gvpfit is also motivated by the importance of obtaining a large statistical sample of measurements of Δα/α. Interactive analyses are both time consuming and complex and automation makes obtaining a large sample feasible. In contrast to previous methodologies, we use BMA to derive results using a large set of models and show that this procedure is more robust than a human picking a single preferred model since BMA avoids the systematic uncertainties associated with model choice. Numerical simulations provide stringent tests of the whole process and we show using both real and simulated spectra that the unified automated fitting procedure out-performs a human interactive analysis. The method should be invaluable in the context of future instrumentation like ESPRESSO on the VLT and indeed future ELTs. We apply the method to the zabs = 1.8389 absorber towards the zem = 2.145 quasar J110325-264515. The derived constraint of Δα/α = 3.3 ± 2.9 × 10-6 is consistent with no variation and also consistent with the tentative spatial variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al.
Comparative Analysis of Vertebrate Diurnal/Circadian Transcriptomes
Boyle, Greg; Richter, Kerstin; Priest, Henry D.; Traver, David; Mockler, Todd C.; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Kay, Steve A.
2017-01-01
From photosynthetic bacteria to mammals, the circadian clock evolved to track diurnal rhythms and enable organisms to anticipate daily recurring changes such as temperature and light. It orchestrates a broad spectrum of physiology such as the sleep/wake and eating/fasting cycles. While we have made tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the circadian clock mechanism and how it is synchronized with the environment, we still have rudimentary knowledge regarding its connection to help regulate diurnal physiology. One potential reason is the sheer size of the output network. Diurnal/circadian transcriptomic studies are reporting that around 10% of the expressed genome is rhythmically controlled. Zebrafish is an important model system for the study of the core circadian mechanism in vertebrate. As Zebrafish share more than 70% of its genes with human, it could also be an additional model in addition to rodent for exploring the diurnal/circadian output with potential for translational relevance. Here we performed comparative diurnal/circadian transcriptome analysis with established mouse liver and other tissue datasets. First, by combining liver tissue sampling in a 48h time series, transcription profiling using oligonucleotide arrays and bioinformatics analysis, we profiled rhythmic transcripts and identified 2609 rhythmic genes. The comparative analysis revealed interesting features of the output network regarding number of rhythmic genes, proportion of tissue specific genes and the extent of transcription factor family expression. Undoubtedly, the Zebrafish model system will help identify new vertebrate outputs and their regulators and provides leads for further characterization of the diurnal cis-regulatory network. PMID:28076377
Is There a Cosmological Constant?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kochanek, Christopher; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The grant contributed to the publication of 18 refereed papers and 5 conference proceedings. The primary uses of the funding have been for page charges, travel for invited talks related to the grant research, and the support of a graduate student, Charles Keeton. The refereed papers address four of the primary goals of the proposal: (1) the statistics of radio lenses as a probe of the cosmological model (#1), (2) the role of spiral galaxies as lenses (#3), (3) the effects of dust on statistics of lenses (#7, #8), and (4) the role of groups and clusters as lenses (#2, #6, #10, #13, #15, #16). Four papers (#4, #5, #11, #12) address general issues of lens models, calibrations, and the relationship between lens galaxies and nearby galaxies. One considered cosmological effects in lensing X-ray sources (#9), and two addressed issues related to the overall power spectrum and theories of gravity (#17, #18). Our theoretical studies combined with the explosion in the number of lenses and the quality of the data obtained for them is greatly increasing our ability to characterize and understand the lens population. We can now firmly conclude both from our study of the statistics of radio lenses and our survey of extinctions in individual lenses that the statistics of optically selected quasars were significantly affected by extinction. However, the limits on the cosmological constant remain at lambda < 0.65 at a 2-sigma confidence level, which is in mild conflict with the results of the Type la supernova surveys. We continue to find that neither spiral galaxies nor groups and clusters contribute significantly to the production of gravitational lenses. The lack of group and cluster lenses is strong evidence for the role of baryonic cooling in increasing the efficiency of galaxies as lenses compared to groups and clusters of higher mass but lower central density. Unfortunately for the ultimate objective of the proposal, improved constraints on the cosmological constant, the next
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monroe, Charles; Newman, John
2005-01-01
This simple example demonstrates the physical significance of similarity solutions and the utility of dimensional and asymptotic analysis of partial differential equations. A procedure to determine the existence of similarity solutions is proposed and subsequently applied to transient constant-flux heat transfer. Short-time expressions follow from…
Vacuum-Assisted, Constant-Force Exercise Device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hansen, Christopher P.; Jensen, Scott
2006-01-01
The vacuum-assisted, constant-force exercise device (VAC-FED) has been proposed to fill a need for a safe, reliable exercise machine that would provide constant loads that could range from 20 to 250 lb (0.09 to 1.12 kN) with strokes that could range from 6 to 36 in. (0.15 to 0.91 m). The VAC-FED was originally intended to enable astronauts in microgravity to simulate the lifting of free weights, but it could just as well be used on Earth for simulated weight lifting and other constant-force exercises. Because the VAC-FED would utilize atmospheric/vacuum differential pressure instead of weights to generate force, it could weigh considerably less than either a set of free weights or a typical conventional exercise machine based on weights. Also, the use of atmospheric/ vacuum differential pressure to generate force would render the VAC-FED inherently safer, relative to free weights and to conventional exercise machines that utilize springs to generate forces. The overall function of the VAC-FED would be to generate a constant tensile force in an output cable, which would be attached to a bar, handle, or other exercise interface. The primary force generator in the VAC-FED would be a piston in a cylinder. The piston would separate a volume vented to atmosphere at one end of the cylinder from an evacuated volume at the other end of the cylinder (see figure). Hence, neglecting friction at the piston seals, the force generated would be nearly constant equal to the area of the piston multiplied by the atmospheric/vacuum differential pressure. In the vented volume in the cylinder, a direct-force cable would be looped around a pulley on the piston, doubling the stroke and halving the tension. One end of the direct-force cable would be anchored to a cylinder cap; the other end of the direct-force cable would be wrapped around a variable-ratio pulley that would couple tension to the output cable. As its name suggests, the variable-ratio pulley would contain a mechanism that
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
2002-01-01
The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on glass and advanced structural ceramics in constant stress rate and preload testing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation of strength versus the log of the stress rate was very reasonable for most of the materials. Also, the preloading technique was determined equally applicable to the case of slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n greater than 30 for both the power-law and exponential formulations. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important SCG parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.
Isotope shift constant and nuclear charge model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Z.; Redi, O.; Stroke, H. H.
1992-04-01
We use the method of Zimmermann [Z. Phys. A 321 (1985) 23-30], which he used to calculate the isotope shift constant for a uniform nuclear charge distribution, to obtain it for a diffuse nuclear charge model. The two models give results that differ slightly on the level of precision of current experiments. The same parameters are used to calculate the model sensitivity of the contributions to the isotope shifts of higher moments of the nuclear charge distribution as formulated by Seltzer [Phys. Rev. 188 (1969) 1916-1919]. These are found to be essentially model independent. Tables are given of the numerical calculations. Nous employons la méthode de Zimmermann [Z. Phys. A 321 (1985) 23-30], qu'il avait utilisé dans un calcul de la constante du déplacement isotopique pour une distribution de charge uniforme, pour l'obtenir avec un modèle de charge nucléaire avec forme quasi-trapézoïdale. Les deux modèles donnent des résultats dont la difference excède de peu la précision des mesures actuelles. Les mêmes paramètres sont utilisés pour comparer la dépendance aux deux modèles de la contribution au déplacement isotopique des moments plus élevés de la distribution de la charge nucléaire dans la formulation de Seltzer [Phys. Rev. 188 (1969) 1916-1919]. On trouve que ces contributions sont essentiellement indépendantes du modèle. Des tables de calculs numériques sont présentées.
Measurement of the Decay Constant fDs+ Using Ds+→l+ν
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Khalil, S.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Naik, P.; Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Pivarski, J.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Schwarthoff, H.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Cawlfield, C.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Kim, D.; Lowrey, N.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Smith, A.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Ernst, J.; Ecklund, K. M.; Severini, H.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Aquines, O.; Lopez, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J.; Huang, G. S.; Miller, D. H.; Pavlunin, V.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.
2007-08-01
We measure the decay constant fDs+ using the Ds+→ℓ+ν channel, where the ℓ+ designates either a μ+ or a τ+, when the τ+→π+ν¯. Using both measurements we find fDs+=274±13±7MeV. Combining with our previous determination of fD+, we compute the ratio fDs+/fD+=1.23±0.11±0.04. We compare with theoretical estimates.
Temperature and size-dependent Hamaker constants for metal nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, K.; Pinchuk, P.
2016-08-01
Theoretical values of the Hamaker constant have been calculated for metal nanoparticles using Lifshitz theory. The theory describes the Hamaker constant in terms of the permittivity of the interacting bodies. Metal nanoparticles exhibit an internal size effect that alters the dielectric permittivity of the particle when its size falls below the mean free path of the conducting electrons. This size dependence of the permittivity leads to size-dependence of the Hamaker constant for metal nanoparticles. Additionally, the electron damping and the plasma frequency used to model the permittivity of the particle exhibit temperature-dependence, which lead to temperature dependence of the Hamaker constant. In this work, both the size and temperature dependence for gold, silver, copper, and aluminum nanoparticles is demonstrated. The results of this study might be of interest for studying the colloidal stability of nanoparticles in solution.
Temperature and size-dependent Hamaker constants for metal nanoparticles.
Jiang, K; Pinchuk, P
2016-08-26
Theoretical values of the Hamaker constant have been calculated for metal nanoparticles using Lifshitz theory. The theory describes the Hamaker constant in terms of the permittivity of the interacting bodies. Metal nanoparticles exhibit an internal size effect that alters the dielectric permittivity of the particle when its size falls below the mean free path of the conducting electrons. This size dependence of the permittivity leads to size-dependence of the Hamaker constant for metal nanoparticles. Additionally, the electron damping and the plasma frequency used to model the permittivity of the particle exhibit temperature-dependence, which lead to temperature dependence of the Hamaker constant. In this work, both the size and temperature dependence for gold, silver, copper, and aluminum nanoparticles is demonstrated. The results of this study might be of interest for studying the colloidal stability of nanoparticles in solution.
Fundamental Insight on Developing Low Dielectric Constant Polyimides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simpson, J. O.; SaintClair, A. K.
1997-01-01
Thermally stable, durable, insulative polyimides are in great demand for the fabrication of microelectronic devices. In this investigation dielectric and optical properties have been studied for several series of aromatic polyimides. The effect of polarizability, fluorine content, and free volume on dielectric constant was examined. In general, minimizing polarizability, maximizing free volume and fluorination all lowered dielectric constants in the polyimides studied.
Do migratory flight paths of raptors follow constant geographical or geomagnetic courses?
Thorup, K.; Fuller, M.; Alerstam, T.; Hake, M.; Kjellen, N.; Strandberg, R.
2006-01-01
We tested whether routes of raptors migrating over areas with homogeneous topography follow constant geomagnetic courses more or less closely than constant geographical courses. We analysed the routes taken over land of 45 individual raptors tracked by satellite-based radiotelemetry: 25 peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, on autumn migration between North and South America, and seven honey buzzards, Pernis apivorus, and 13 ospreys, Pandion haliaetus, on autumn migration between Europe and Africa. Overall, migration directions showed a better agreement with constant geographical than constant geomagnetic courses. Tracks deviated significantly from constant geomagnetic courses, but were not significantly different from geographical courses. After we removed movements directed far from the mean direction, which may not be migratory movements, migration directions still showed a better agreement with constant geographical than constant geomagnetic courses, but the directions of honey buzzards and ospreys were not significantly different from constant geomagnetic courses either. That migration routes of raptors followed by satellite telemetry are in closer accordance with constant geographical compass courses than with constant geomagnetic compass courses may indicate that geographical (e.g. based on celestial cues) rather than magnetic compass mechanisms are of dominating importance for the birds' long-distance orientation.
Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí
2009-04-24
A new and fast method to determine acidity constants of monoprotic weak acids and bases by capillary zone electrophoresis based on the use of an internal standard (compound of similar nature and acidity constant as the analyte) has been developed. This method requires only two electrophoretic runs for the determination of an acidity constant: a first one at a pH where both analyte and internal standard are totally ionized, and a second one at another pH where both are partially ionized. Furthermore, the method is not pH dependent, so an accurate measure of the pH of the buffer solutions is not needed. The acidity constants of several phenols and amines have been measured using internal standards of known pK(a), obtaining a mean deviation of 0.05 pH units compared to the literature values.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, S. D.; Fedors, R. F.; Schwarzl, F.; Moacanin, J.; Landel, R. F.
1981-01-01
A theoretical analysis of the tensile stress-strain relation of elastomers at constant strain rate is presented which shows that the time and the stress effect are separable if the experimental time scale coincides with a segment of the relaxation modulus that can be described by a single power law. It is also shown that time-strain separability is valid if the strain function is linearly proportional to the Cauchy strain, and that when time-strain separability holds, two strain-dependent quantities can be obtained experimentally. In the case where time and strain effect are not separable, superposition can be achieved only by using temperature and strain-dependent shift factors.
Measurement of Hubble constant: non-Gaussian errors in HST Key Project data
Singh, Meghendra; Gupta, Shashikant; Pandey, Ashwini
2016-08-01
Assuming the Central Limit Theorem, experimental uncertainties in any data set are expected to follow the Gaussian distribution with zero mean. We propose an elegant method based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic to test the above; and apply it on the measurement of Hubble constant which determines the expansion rate of the Universe. The measurements were made using Hubble Space Telescope. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties in the above measurement are non-Gaussian.
Can compactifications solve the cosmological constant problem?
Hertzberg, Mark P.; Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139; Masoumi, Ali
2016-06-30
Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant Λ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at Λ=0. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain Λ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain whymore » Λ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cosmological constant to zero. We also show that the fundamental Planck mass is being sent to zero, and so the central problem is trivially avoided by removing high energy physics altogether. On the other hand, by including various large mass scales from particle physics with a high fundamental Planck mass, one is faced with a real problem, whose only known solution involves accidental cancellations in a landscape.« less
Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Gyunghee; Park, Jae H
2009-03-01
A group of small ventrolateral neurons (s-LN(v)'s) are the principal pacemaker for circadian locomotor rhythmicity of Drosophila melanogaster, and the pigment-dispersing factor (Pdf) neuropeptide plays an essential role as a clock messenger within these neurons. In our comparative studies on Pdf-associated circadian rhythms, we found that daily locomotor activity patterns of D. virilis were significantly different from those of D. melanogaster. Activities of D. virilis adults were mainly restricted to the photophase under light:dark cycles and subsequently became arrhythmic or weakly rhythmic in constant conditions. Such activity patterns resemble those of Pdf(01) mutant of D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, endogenous D. virilis Pdf (DvPdf) expression was not detected in the s-LN(v)-like neurons in the adult brains, implying that the Pdf(01)-like behavioral phenotypes of D. virilis are attributed in part to the lack of DvPdf in the s-LN(v)-like neurons. Heterologous transgenic analysis showed that cis-regulatory elements of the DvPdf transgene are capable of directing their expression in all endogenous Pdf neurons including s-LN(v)'s, as well as in non-Pdf clock neurons (LN(d)'s and fifth s-LN(v)) in a D. melanogaster host. Together these findings suggest a significant difference in the regulatory mechanisms of Pdf transcription between the two species and such a difference is causally associated with species-specific establishment of daily locomotor activity patterns.
Comparative study of standard space and real space analysis of quantitative MR brain data.
Aribisala, Benjamin S; He, Jiabao; Blamire, Andrew M
2011-06-01
To compare the robustness of region of interest (ROI) analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain data in real space with analysis in standard space and to test the hypothesis that standard space image analysis introduces more partial volume effect errors compared to analysis of the same dataset in real space. Twenty healthy adults with no history or evidence of neurological diseases were recruited; high-resolution T(1)-weighted, quantitative T(1), and B(0) field-map measurements were collected. Algorithms were implemented to perform analysis in real and standard space and used to apply a simple standard ROI template to quantitative T(1) datasets. Regional relaxation values and histograms for both gray and white matter tissues classes were then extracted and compared. Regional mean T(1) values for both gray and white matter were significantly lower using real space compared to standard space analysis. Additionally, regional T(1) histograms were more compact in real space, with smaller right-sided tails indicating lower partial volume errors compared to standard space analysis. Standard space analysis of quantitative MRI brain data introduces more partial volume effect errors biasing the analysis of quantitative data compared to analysis of the same dataset in real space. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Degravitation of the cosmological constant in bigravity
Platscher, Moritz; Smirnov, Juri, E-mail: moritz.platscher@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: juri.smirnov@mpi-hd.mpg.de
2017-03-01
In this article the phenomenon of degravitation of the cosmological constant is studied in the framework of bigravity. It is demonstrated that despite a sizable value of the cosmological constant its gravitational effect can be only mild. The bigravity framework is chosen for this demonstration as it leads to a consistent, ghost-free theory of massive gravity. We show that degravitation takes place in the limit where the physical graviton is dominantly a gauge invariant metric combination. We present and discuss several phenomenological consequences expected in this regime.
Inclusive jet cross section and strong coupling constant measurements at CMS
Cerci, Salim, E-mail: Salim.Cerci@cern.ch
2016-03-25
The probes which are abundantly produced in high energetic proton-proton (pp) collisions at the LHC are called jets. Events with jets can be described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of parton-parton scattering. The inclusive jet cross section in pp collision is the fundamental quantity which can be measured and predicted within the framework of perturbative QCD (pQCD). The strong coupling constant α{sub S} which can be determined empirically in the limit of massless quarks, is the single parameter in QCD. The jet measurements can also be used to determine strong coupling constant α{sub S} and parton density functions (PDFs).more » The recent jet measurements which are performed with the data collected by the CMS detector at different center-of-mass energies and down to very low transverse momentum p{sub T} are presented. The measurements are compared to Monte Carlo predictions and perturbative calculations up to next-to-next-to leading order. Finally, the precision jet measurements give further insight into the QCD dynamics.« less
Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation
Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki
2012-06-06
Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spentmore » fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.« less
Elastic Constants of Ni-Mn-Ga Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys
Stipcich, M.; Manosa, L.; Planes, A.
2004-01-01
We have measured the adiabatic second order elastic constants of two Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory crystals with different martensitic transition temperatures, using ultrasonic methods. The temperature dependence of the elastic constants has been followed across the ferromagnetic transition and down to the martensitic transition temperature. Within experimental errors no noticeable change in any of the elastic constants has been observed at the Curie point. The temperature dependence of the shear elastic constant C' has been found to be very different for the two alloys. Such a different behavior is in agreement with recent theoretical predictions for systems undergoing multi-stage structuralmore » transitions.« less
Erel, Suat; Şimşek, İbrahim Engin; Özkan, Hüseyin
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to analyze the validity and reliability of the Turkish version (ICOAP-TR) of the intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain (ICOAP) questionnaire in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Thirty-eight volunteer patients diagnosed with knee OA answered the questionnaire twice with an interval of 2-4 days. The reliability of the measurement was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intraclass correlation (ICC) for test-retest reliability. Criterion validity was tested against the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score and visual analog scale (VAS) designed to assess the perceived discomfort rated by the patient. Test-retest reliability was found to be ICC=0.942 for total score, 0.902 for constant pain subscale, and 0.945 for intermittent pain subscale. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach's alpha and was found to be 0.970 for total score, 0.948 for constant pain subscale, and 0.972 for intermittent pain subscale. For criterion validity, the correlation between the total score of ICOAP-TR and WOMAC pain subscale was r=0.779 (p<0.05), and correlation between total score of ICOAP-TR and VAS was r=0.570 (p<0.05). The ICOAP-TR is a reliable and valid instrument to be used with patients with knee OA.
Fluctuations, ghosts, and the cosmological constant
Hirayama, T.; Holdom, B.
2004-12-15
For a large region of parameter space involving the cosmological constant and mass parameters, we discuss fluctuating spacetime solutions that are effectively Minkowskian on large time and distance scales. Rapid, small amplitude oscillations in the scale factor have a frequency determined by the size of a negative cosmological constant. A field with modes of negative energy is required. If it is gravity that induces a coupling between the ghostlike and normal fields, we find that this results in stochastic rather than unstable behavior. The negative energy modes may also permit the existence of Lorentz invariant fluctuating solutions of finite energymore » density. Finally we consider higher derivative gravity theories and find oscillating metric solutions in these theories without the addition of other fields.« less
LAMMPS Implementation of Constant Energy Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD-E)
2014-03-01
LAMMPS Implementation of Constant Energy Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD-E) by James P. Larentzos, John K. Brennan, Joshua D. Moore, and...MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-6863 March 2014 LAMMPS Implementation of Constant Energy Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD-E) James P...13 September 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LAMMPS Implementation of Constant Energy Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD-E) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stock, M.
2013-02-01
Since 1889 the international prototype of the kilogram has served as the definition of the unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI). It is the last material artefact to define a base unit of the SI, and it influences several other base units. This situation is no longer acceptable in a time of ever increasing measurement precision. It is therefore planned to redefine the unit of mass by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant. At the same time three other base units, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole, will be redefined. As a first step, the kilogram redefinition requires a highly accurate determination of the Planck constant in the present SI system, with a relative uncertainty of the order of 1 part in 108. The most promising experiment for this purpose, and for the future realization of the kilogram, is the watt balance. It compares mechanical and electrical power and makes use of two macroscopic quantum effects, thus creating a relationship between a macroscopic mass and the Planck constant. In this paper the background for the choice of the Planck constant for the kilogram redefinition is discussed and the role of the Planck constant in physics is briefly reviewed. The operating principle of watt balance experiments is explained and the existing experiments are reviewed. An overview is given of all presently available experimental determinations of the Planck constant, and it is shown that further investigation is needed before the redefinition of the kilogram can take place. This article is based on a lecture given at the International School of Physics ‘Enrico Fermi’, Course CLXXXV: Metrology and Physical Constants, held in Varenna on 17-27 July 2012. It will also be published in the proceedings of the school, edited by E Bava, M Kühne and A M Rossi (IOS Press, Amsterdam and SIF, Bologna).
Simple Model with Time-Varying Fine-Structure ``Constant''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berman, M. S.
2009-10-01
Extending the original version written in colaboration with L.A. Trevisan, we study the generalisation of Dirac's LNH, so that time-variation of the fine-structure constant, due to varying electrical and magnetic permittivities is included along with other variations (cosmological and gravitational ``constants''), etc. We consider the present Universe, and also an inflationary scenario. Rotation of the Universe is a given possibility in this model.
Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn
2014-03-01
In extensions of general relativity and in theories aiming at unifying gravity with the forces of the Standard Model, the value of the ''fundamental constants'' is often determined by the vacuum expectation value of new fields, which may thus change in different backgrounds. Variations of fundamental constants with respect to the values measured today in laboratories on Earth are expected to be more evident on cosmological timescales and/or in strong gravitational fields. In this paper, I show that the analysis of the Kα iron line observed in the X-ray spectrum of black holes can potentially be used to probe themore » fine structure constant α in gravitational potentials relative to Earth of Δφ ≈ 0.1. At present, systematic effects not fully under control prevent to get robust and stringent bounds on possible variations of the value of α with this technique, but the fact that current data can be fitted with models based on standard physics already rules out variations of the fine structure constant larger than some percent.« less
Comparative optical analysis of cylindrical solar concentrators.
Durán, J C; Nicolás, R O
1987-02-01
A comparison of the intensity distribution in the receiver plane for five different types of cylindrical concentrators is made. To this end, our previous 2-D optical analysis for nonperfect concentrators with plane receivers is used. Values of the local and mean concentration factors for a characteristic set of parameters of each concentrator are obtained and compared. The results show that the cylindrical-parabolic concentrator attains the highest concentration factors among the concentrators considered.
Multilevel Sequential Monte Carlo Samplers for Normalizing Constants
Moral, Pierre Del; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody J. H.; ...
2017-08-24
This article considers the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) approximation of ratios of normalizing constants associated to posterior distributions which in principle rely on continuum models. Therefore, the Monte Carlo estimation error and the discrete approximation error must be balanced. A multilevel strategy is utilized to substantially reduce the cost to obtain a given error level in the approximation as compared to standard estimators. Two estimators are considered and relative variance bounds are given. The theoretical results are numerically illustrated for two Bayesian inverse problems arising from elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). The examples involve the inversion of observations of themore » solution of (i) a 1-dimensional Poisson equation to infer the diffusion coefficient, and (ii) a 2-dimensional Poisson equation to infer the external forcing.« less
A Portable, Arbitrary Waveform, Multichannel Constant Current Electrotactile Stimulator
Cornman, Jesse; Akhtar, Aadeel; Bretl, Timothy
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the design and performance of a portable, arbitrary waveform, multichannel constant current electrotactile stimulator that costs less than $30 in components. The stimulator consists of a stimulation controller and power supply that are less than half the size of a credit card and can produce ±15 mA at ±150 V. The design is easily extensible to multiple independent channels that can receive an arbitrary waveform input from a digital-to-analog converter, drawing only 0.9 W/channel (lasting 4–5 hours upon continuous stimulation using a 9 V battery). Finally, we compare the performance of our stimulator to similar stimulators both commercially available and developed in research. PMID:29250302