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Sample records for constant load method

  1. Experimental study and finite element analysis based on equivalent load method for laser ultrasonic measurement of elastic constants.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu; Liu, Changsheng; Zhang, Fengpeng; Qiu, Zhaoguo

    2016-07-01

    The laser ultrasonic generation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave in an elastic plate is studied by experiment and finite element method. In order to eliminate the measurement error and the time delay of the experimental system, the linear fitting method of experimental data is applied. The finite element analysis software ABAQUS is used to simulate the propagation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave caused by laser excitation on a sheet metal sample surface. The equivalent load method is proposed and applied. The pulsed laser is equivalent to the surface load in time and space domain to meet the Gaussian profile. The relationship between the physical parameters of the laser and the load is established by the correction factor. The numerical solution is in good agreement with the experimental result. The simple and effective numerical and experimental methods for laser ultrasonic measurement of the elastic constants are demonstrated.

  2. Evaluation of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) for unsteady air loads prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appa, Kari; Smith, Michael J. C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capability of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) code to predict unsteady aerodynamic pressures, lift and moment distributions, and generalized forces for general wing-body configurations in supersonic flow. Stability derivatives are computed and correlated for the X-29 and an Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and a flutter analysis is carried out for a wing wind tunnel test example. Most results are shown to correlate well with test or published data. Although the emphasis of this paper is on evaluation, an improvement in the CPM code's handling of intersecting lifting surfaces is briefly discussed. An attractive feature of the CPM code is that it shares the basic data requirements and computational arrangements of the doublet lattice method. A unified code to predict unsteady subsonic or supersonic airloads is therefore possible.

  3. Limit case analysis of the "stable indenter velocity" method for obtaining creep stress exponents from constant load indentation creep tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J.; Dean, J.; Clyne, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    This study concerns a commonly-used procedure for evaluating the steady state creep stress exponent, n, from indentation data. The procedure involves monitoring the indenter displacement history under constant load and making the assumption that, once its velocity has stabilised, the system is in a quasi-steady state, with stage II creep dominating the behaviour. The stress and strain fields under the indenter are represented by "equivalent stress" and "equivalent strain rate" values. The estimate of n is then obtained as the gradient of a plot of the logarithm of the equivalent strain rate against the logarithm of the equivalent stress. Concerns have, however, been expressed about the reliability of this procedure, and indeed it has already been shown to be fundamentally flawed. In the present paper, it is demonstrated, using a very simple analysis, that, for a genuinely stable velocity, the procedure always leads to the same, constant value for n (either 1.0 or 0.5, depending on whether the tip shape is spherical or self-similar). This occurs irrespective of the value of the measured velocity, or indeed of any creep characteristic of the material. It is now clear that previously-measured values of n, obtained using this procedure, have varied in a more or less random fashion, depending on the functional form chosen to represent the displacement-time history and the experimental variables (tip shape and size, penetration depth, etc.), with little or no sensitivity to the true value of n.

  4. The load dependence of rate constants.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Sam

    2008-06-07

    As experimental techniques in biophysics have progressed at the single molecule level, there has been considerable interest in understanding how external mechanical influences (such as load) affect chemical reactions. The majority of biophysical studies investigating load-dependent kinetics use an equation where the rate constant exponentially depends on force, which is sometimes called Bell's equation. This equation requires the determination of two parameters that describe the potential energy-strain function: k(0), which is the reaction rate in the absence of load, and x(c), which is the difference in strain between the reactant and transition states. However, there have been theoretical studies based on Kramers' theory suggesting that the rate constant should have load-dependent pre-exponential terms and nonlinear load-dependent terms in the exponential. Kramers' theory requires an exact knowledge of the potential energy-strain function, which is in general not known for an experimental system. Here, we derive a general approximation of Kramers' theory where the potential energy-strain function is described by five parameters, which can, for small loads, be reduced to four-, three-, and finally to two parameters (Bell's equation). We then use an idealized physical system to validate our approximations to Kramers' theory and show how they can predict parameters of interest (such as k(0) and x(c)) better than Bell's equation. Finally, we show previously published experimental data that are not well fitted by Bell's equation but are adequately fitted by these more exact equations.

  5. Constant current load matches impedances of electronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. M.

    1970-01-01

    Constant current load with negative resistance characteristics actively compensates for impedance variations in circuit components. Through a current-voltage balancing operation the internal impedance of the diodes is maintained at a constant value. This constant current load circuit can be used in simple telemetry systems.

  6. Constant load and constant volume response of municipal solid waste in simple shear.

    PubMed

    Zekkos, Dimitrios; Fei, Xunchang

    2016-09-28

    Constant load and constant volume simple shear testing was conducted on relatively fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) from two landfills in the United States, one in Michigan and a second in Texas, at respective natural moisture content below field capacity. The results were assessed in terms of two failure strain criteria, at 10% and 30% shear strain, and two interpretations of effective friction angle. Overall, friction angle obtained assuming that the failure plane is horizontal and at 10% shear strain resulted in a conservative estimation of shear strength of MSW. Comparisons between constant volume and constant load simple shear testing results indicated significant differences in the shear response of MSW with the shear resistance in constant volume being lower than the shear resistance in constant load. The majority of specimens were nearly uncompacted during specimen preparation to reproduce the state of MSW in bioreactor landfills or in uncontrolled waste dumps. The specimens had identical percentage of <20mm material but the type of <20mm material was different. The <20mm fraction from Texas was finer and of high plasticity. MSW from Texas was overall weaker in both constant load and constant volume conditions compared to Michigan waste. The results of these tests suggest the possibility of significantly lower shear strength of MSW in bioreactor landfills where waste is placed with low compaction effort and constant volume, i.e., "undrained", conditions may occur. Compacted MSW specimens resulted in shear strength parameters that are higher than uncompacted specimens and closer to values reported in the literature. However, the normalized undrained shear strength in simple shear for uncompacted and compacted MSW was still higher than the normalized undrained shear strength reported in the literature for clayey and silty soils.

  7. Constant Power Allocation Methods for SC-FDMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pao, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Yung-Fang; Chang, Dah-Chung

    A simple suboptimal power allocation method is proposed for SC-FDMA systems. It is known that the performance of constant power-based allocation methods is close to that of optimal solutions. In this letter, by utilizing the waterfilling condition inequality derived for SC-FDMA systems, a threshold is set to select subcarriers for loading constant power to these selected subcarriers. It offers competitive performance as confirmed by the simulation results.

  8. Atomic force microscopy: Loading position dependence of cantilever spring constants and detector sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Edwards, Scott A.; Dagastine, Raymond R.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Stevens, Geoffrey W.; Grieser, Franz

    2007-11-01

    A simple and accurate experimental method is described for determining the effective cantilever spring constant and the detector sensitivity of atomic force microscopy cantilevers on which a colloidal particle is attached. By attaching large (approximately 85μm diameter) latex particles at various positions along the V-shaped cantilevers, we demonstrate how the normal and lateral spring constants as well as the sensitivity vary with loading position. Comparison with an explicit point-load theoretical model has also been used to verify the accuracy of the method.

  9. Atomic force microscopy: loading position dependence of cantilever spring constants and detector sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Edwards, Scott A; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz

    2007-11-01

    A simple and accurate experimental method is described for determining the effective cantilever spring constant and the detector sensitivity of atomic force microscopy cantilevers on which a colloidal particle is attached. By attaching large (approximately 85 microm diameter) latex particles at various positions along the V-shaped cantilevers, we demonstrate how the normal and lateral spring constants as well as the sensitivity vary with loading position. Comparison with an explicit point-load theoretical model has also been used to verify the accuracy of the method.

  10. Quantification of baseline pupillary response and task-evoked pupillary response during constant and incremental task load.

    PubMed

    Mosaly, Prithima R; Mazur, Lukasz M; Marks, Lawrence

    2017-02-15

    The methods employed to quantify the baseline pupil size and task-evoked pupillary response (TEPR) may affect the overall study results. To test this hypothesis, the objective of this study was to assess variability in baseline pupil size and TEPR during two basic working memory tasks: constant load of 3-letters memorisation-recall (10 trials), and incremental load memorisation-recall (two trials of each load level), using two commonly used methods (1) change from trail/load specific baseline, (2) change from constant baseline. Results indicated that there was a significant shift in baseline between the trails for constant load, and between the load levels for incremental load. The TEPR was independent of shifts in baseline using method 1 only for constant load, and method 2 only for higher levels of incremental load condition. These important findings suggest that the assessment of both the baseline and methods to quantify TEPR are critical in ergonomics application, especially in studies with small number of trials per subject per condition. Practitioner Summary: Quantification of TEPR can be affected by shifts in baseline pupil size that are most likely affected by non-cognitive factors when other external factors are kept constant. Therefore, quantification methods employed to compute both baseline and TEPR are critical in understanding the information processing of humans in practical ergonomics settings.

  11. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  12. Constant-load versus heart rate-targeted exercise - Responses of systolic intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, V. Q.; Spodick, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Various systolic intervals were measured prior to and during heart rate-targeted bicycle ergometer exercise. There were striking similarities within each matched exercise set for Q-Im, isovolumetric contraction time, preejection period (PEP), and PEP/left ventricular ejection time (LVET). LVET was significantly shorter for rate-targeted exercise. It is concluded that either constant-load or rate-targeted bicycle ergometry may be used with the choice of method determined by the purpose of the protocol, and that systolic intervals (except LVET) should not be much altered owing to the method chosen.

  13. Modeling a constant power load for nickel-hydrogen battery testing using SPICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearden, Douglas B.; Lollar, Louis F.; Nelms, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effort to design and model a constant power load for the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) nickel-hydrogen battery tests is described. The constant power load was designed for three different simulations on the batteries: life cycling, reconditioning, and capacity testing. A dc-dc boost converter was designed to act as this constant power load. A boost converter design was chosen because of the low test battery voltage (4 to 6 VDC) generated and the relatively high power requirement of 60 to 70 W. The SPICE model was shown to consistently predict variations in the actual circuit as various designs were attempted. It is concluded that the confidence established in the SPICE model of the constant power load ensures its extensive utilization in future efforts to improve performance in the actual load circuit.

  14. Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads with a constant vorticity contour free wake model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical method is presented which facilitates the study of isolated rotors with an improved approach to wake simulation. Vortex filaments are simulated along contours of constant sheet strength for the sheet of vorticity resulting from each rotor blade. Curved vortex elements comprise the filaments which can be distorted by the local velocity field. Called the Constant Vorticity Contour wake model, the approach permits the simulation of the blades' wakes corresponding to the full span of the rotor blade. The discretization of the wake of the rotor blade produces spacing and structure that are consistent with the spatial and temporal variations in the loading. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the blade is also included which introduces a finite-element structural model of the blade and consideration of the force and moment trim analysis. Results of the present version of the simulation, called RotorCRAFT, are found to correlate well with H-34 flight-test data.

  15. Method for loading resin beds

    DOEpatents

    Notz, Karl J.; Rainey, Robert H.; Greene, Charles W.; Shockley, William E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

  16. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    DOEpatents

    Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A; Ransom, Ray M

    2013-12-24

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system includes a load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage from the voltage source through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the load. Wherein, when the controller is in a constant voltage mode, the controller provides a constant voltage to the load, when the controller is in a constant current mode, the controller provides a constant current to the load, and when the controller is in a constant power mode, the controller provides a constant power to the load.

  17. On the Henry constant and isosteric heat at zero loading in gas phase adsorption.

    PubMed

    Do, D D; Nicholson, D; Do, H D

    2008-08-01

    The Henry constant and the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading are commonly used as indicators of the strength of the affinity of an adsorbate for a solid adsorbent. It is assumed that (i) they are observable in practice, (ii) the Van Hoff's plot of the logarithm of the Henry constant versus the inverse of temperature is always linear and the slope is equal to the heat of adsorption, and (iii) the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading is either constant or weakly dependent on temperature. We show in this paper that none of these three points is necessarily correct, first because these variables might not be observable since they are outside the range of measurability; second that the linearity of the Van Hoff plot breaks down at very high temperature, and third that the isosteric heat versus loading is a strong function of temperature. We demonstrate these points using Monte Carlo integration and Monte Carlo simulation of adsorption of various gases on a graphite surface. Another issue concerning the Henry constant is related to the way the adsorption excess is defined. The most commonly used equation is the one that assumes that the void volume is the volume extended all the way to a boundary passing through the centres of the outermost solid atoms. With this definition the Henry constant can become negative at high temperatures. Although adsorption at these temperatures may not be practical because of the very low value of the Henry constant, it is more useful to define the Henry constant in such a way that it is always positive at all temperatures. Here we propose the use of the accessible volume; the volume probed by the adsorbate when it is in nonpositive regions of the potential, to calculate the Henry constant.

  18. Effects of Varied Versus Constant Loading Zones on Muscular Adaptations in Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, B J; Contreras, B; Ogborn, D; Galpin, A; Krieger, J; Sonmez, G T

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a protocol employing a combination of loading zones vs. one employing a constant medium-repetition loading zone on muscular adaptations in resistance-trained men. 19 trained men (height=176.9±7.0 cm; body mass=83.1±11.8 kg; age=23.3±2.9 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a constant-rep resistance training (RT) routine (CONSTANT) that trained using 8-12 RM per set, or a varied-rep RT routine (VARIED) that trained with 2-4 RM per set on Day 1, 8-12 RM per set on Day 2, and 20-30 RM on Day 3 for 8 weeks. Results showed that both groups significantly increased markers of muscle strength, muscle thickness, and local muscular endurance, with no differences noted between groups. Effect sizes favored VARIED over CONSTANT condition for elbow flexor thickness (0.72 vs. 0.57), elbow extensor thickness (0.77 vs. 0.48), maximal bench press strength (0.80 vs. 0.57), and upper body muscle endurance (1.91 vs. 1.28). In conclusion, findings indicate that both varied and constant loading approaches can promote significant improvements in muscular adaptations in trained young men.

  19. Sensorimotor modulation differs with load type during constant finger force or position.

    PubMed

    Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Syo; Onishi, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    During submaximal isometric contraction, there are two different load types: production of a constant force against a rigid restraint (force task), and maintenance of position against a constant load (position task). Previous studies reported that the time to task failure during a fatigue task was twice as long in the force task compared with the position task. Sensory feedback processing may contribute to these differences. The purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of load types during static muscle contraction tasks on the gating effect, i.e., attenuation of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and the cortical silent period (cSP). Ten healthy subjects contracted their right first dorsal interosseus muscle by abducting their index finger for 90 s, to produce a constant force against a rigid restraint that was 20% of the maximum voluntary contraction (force task), or to maintain a constant position with 10° abduction of the metacarpophalangeal joint against the same load (position task). Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded from C3' by stimulating either the right ulnar or median nerve at the wrist while maintaining contraction. The cortical silent period (cSP) was also elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Reduction of the amplitude of the P45 component of SEPs was significantly larger during the position task than during the force task and under control rest conditions when the ulnar nerve, but not the median nerve, was stimulated. The position task had a significantly shorter cSP duration than the force task. These results suggest the need for more proprioceptive information during the position task than the force task. The shorter duration of the cSP during the position task may be attributable to larger amplitude of heteronymous short latency reflexes. Sensorimotor modulations may differ with load type during constant finger force or position tasks.

  20. Long Term Displacement Data of Woven Fabric Webbings Under Constant Load for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenner, Winfred S.; Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Lucy, Melvin H.; Grondin, Trevor A.; Whitley, Karen S.; Duncan, Quinton; Plant, James V.

    2014-01-01

    Inflatable modules for space applications offer weight and launch volume savings relative to current metallic modules. Limited data exist on the creep behavior of the restraint layer of inflatable modules. Long-term displacement and strain data of two high strength woven fabric webbings, Kevlar and Vectran, under constant load is presented. The creep behavior of webbings is required by designers to help determine service life parameters of inflatable modules. Four groups of different webbings with different loads were defined for this study. Group 1 consisted of 4K Kevlar webbings loaded to 33% ultimate tensile strength and 6K Vectran webbings loaded to 27% ultimate tensile strength, group 2 consisted of 6K Kevlar webbings loaded to 40% and 43% ultimate tensile strength, and 6K Vectran webbings loaded to 50% ultimate tensile strength, group 3 consisted of 6K Kevlar webbings loaded to 52% ultimate tensile strength and 6K Vectran webbings loaded to 60% ultimate tensile strength, and group 4 consisted of 12.5K Kevlar webbings loaded to 22% ultimate tensile strength, and 12.5K Vectran webbings loaded to 22% ultimate tensile strength. The uniquely designed test facility, hardware, displacement measuring devices, and test data are presented. Test data indicate that immediately after loading all webbings stretch an inch or more, however as time increases displacement values significantly decrease to fall within a range of several hundredth of an inch over the remainder of test period. Webbings in group 1 exhibit near constant displacements and strains over a 17-month period. Data acquisition was suspended after the 17th month, however webbings continue to sustain load without any local webbing damage as of the 21st month of testing. Webbings in group 2 exhibit a combination of initial constant displacement and subsequent increases in displacement rates over a 16-month period. Webbings in group 3 exhibit steady increases in displacement rates leading to webbing failure

  1. [Dichotomizing method applied to calculating equilibrium constant of dimerization system].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guo-zhong; Ye, Zhi-xiang

    2002-06-01

    The arbitrary trivariate algebraic equations are formed based on the combination principle. The univariata algebraic equation of equilibrium constant kappa for dimerization system is obtained through a series of algebraic transformation, and it depends on the properties of monotonic functions whether the equation is solvable or not. If the equation is solvable, equilibrium constant of dimerization system is obtained by dichotomy and its final equilibrium constant of dimerization system is determined according to the principle of error of fitting. The equilibrium constants of trisulfophthalocyanine and biosulfophthalocyanine obtained with this method are 47,973.4 and 30,271.8 respectively. The results are much better than those reported previously.

  2. Spectral Sensitivity Measured with Electroretinogram Using a Constant Response Method

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Fernando Allan de Farias; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Martins, Sonia Limara; Aguiar, Renata Genaro; de Souza, John Manuel; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2016-01-01

    A new method is presented to determine the retinal spectral sensitivity function S(λ) using the electroretinogram (ERG). S(λ)s were assessed in three different species of myomorph rodents, Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), Wistar rats (Ratus norvegicus), and mice (Mus musculus). The method, called AC Constant Method, is based on a computerized automatic feedback system that adjusts light intensity to maintain a constant-response amplitude to a flickering stimulus throughout the spectrum, as it is scanned from 300 to 700 nm, and back. The results are presented as the reciprocal of the intensity at each wavelength required to maintain a constant peak to peak response amplitude. The resulting S(λ) had two peaks in all three rodent species, corresponding to ultraviolet and M cones, respectively: 359 nm and 511 nm for mice, 362 nm and 493 nm for gerbils, and 362 nm and 502 nm for rats. Results for mouse and gerbil were similar to literature reports of S(λ) functions obtained with other methods, confirming that the ERG associated to the AC Constant-Response Method was effective to obtain reliable S(λ) functions. In addition, due to its fast data collection time, the AC Constant Response Method has the advantage of keeping the eye in a constant light adapted state. PMID:26800521

  3. Comparison of incremental and constant load tests of inspiratory muscle endurance in COPD.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Jenkins, S C; Philippe, D L; Shepherd, K L; Hillman, D R; Eastwood, P R

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relative value of incremental and constant load tests in detecting changes in inspiratory muscle endurance following high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (H-IMT) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In total, 16 subjects (11 males; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) 37.4+/-12.5%) underwent H-IMT. In addition, 17 subjects (11 males; FEV(1) 36.5+/-11.5%) underwent sham inspiratory muscle training (S-IMT). Training took place three times a week for 8 weeks. Baseline and post-training measurements were obtained of maximum threshold pressure sustained during an incremental load test (P(th,max)) and time breathing against a constant load (t(lim)). Breathing pattern was unconstrained. H-IMT increased P(th,max) and t(lim) relative to baseline and to any change seen following S-IMT. The effect size for P(th,max) was greater than for t(lim). Post-training tests were accompanied by changes in breathing pattern, including decreased duty cycle, which may have served to decrease inspiratory work and thereby contribute to the increase in P(th,max) and t(lim) in both groups. When assessing inspiratory muscle function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via tests in which the pattern of breathing is unconstrained, the current authors recommend incremental load tests be used in preference to constant load tests. However, to attribute changes in these tests to improvements in inspiratory muscle endurance, breathing pattern should be controlled.

  4. Constant and variable amplitude ultrasonic fatigue of 2024-T351 aluminium alloy at different load ratios.

    PubMed

    Mayer, H; Fitzka, M; Schuller, R

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic fatigue testing equipment is presented that is capable of performing constant amplitude (CA) and variable amplitude (VA) experiments at different constant load ratios. This equipment is used to study cyclic properties of aluminium alloy 2024-T351 in the high cycle fatigue (HCF) and very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime at load ratios R=-1 and R=0.5. CA loading does not reveal a fatigue limit below 10¹⁰ cycles. Cracks leading to VHCF failure start at broken constituent particles. Specimens that survived more than 10¹⁰ cycles at R=-1 contain non-propagating cracks of lengths below grain size. Resonance frequency and nonlinearity parameter β(rel) show changes of vibration properties of specimens at low fractions of their VHCF lifetime. VA lifetimes are measured in the HCF and VHCF regime and compared with Miner calculations. Damage sums decrease with decreasing load (and increasing mean lifetimes) and are lower for R=0.5 than R=-1.

  5. Experimental determination of micromachined discrete and continuous device spring constants using nanoindentation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. L.; Tay, Francis E.; Logeeswaran, V. J.; Zeng, Kaiyang; Shen, Lu; Chau, Fook S.

    2002-04-01

    A rapid and accurate static and quasi-static method for determining the out-of-plane spring constraints of cantilevers and a micromachined vibratory sensor is presented. In the past, much of the effort in nanoindentation application was to investigate the thin-film mechanical properties. In this paper, we have utilized the nanoindentation method to measure directly some micromachined device (e.g. microgyroscope) spring constants. The cantilevers and devices tested were fabricated using the MUMPS process and an SOI process (patent pending). Spring constants are determined using a commercial nanoindentation apparatus UMIS-2000 configured with both Berkovich and spherical indenter tip that can be placed onto the device with high accuracy. Typical load resolution is 20micrometers N to 0.5N and a displacement resolution of 0.05nm. Information was deduced from the penetration depth versus load curves during both loading and unloading.

  6. Stability Analysis of a Constant Power Load Serviced by a Buck Converter as the Source Impedance Varies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    electric ships, being aware of the stability issues associated with direct current (DC)-DC and DC-alternating current (AC) power converters and...problem here is that in MVDC shipboard power systems, the DC-DC converters are used to supply constant power to electrical loads, and these loads have...OF A CONSTANT POWER LOAD SERVICED BY A BUCK CONVERTER AS THE SOURCE IMPEDANCE VARIES by George J. Roth September 2012 Thesis Advisor

  7. Analyses of Fatigue and Fatigue-Crack Growth under Constant- and Variable-Amplitude Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the growth of small cracks have led to the observation that fatigue life of many engineering materials is primarily crack growth from micro-structural features, such as inclusion particles, voids, slip-bands or from manufacturing defects. This paper reviews the capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model to predict fatigue lives of metallic materials using small-crack theory under various loading conditions. Constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective stress-intensity factor range (delta K(sub eff)) under constant-amplitude loading. Modifications to the delta K(sub eff)-rate relations in the near-threshold regime were needed to fit measured small-crack growth rate behavior. The model was then used to calculate small- and large-crack growth rates, and to predict total fatigue lives, for notched and un-notched specimens under constant-amplitude and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were predicted using crack-growth relations and micro-structural features like those that initiated cracks in the fatigue specimens for most of the materials analyzed. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.

  8. Fatigue Analyses Under Constant- and Variable-Amplitude Loading Using Small-Crack Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Phillips, E. P.; Everett, R. A., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the growth of small cracks have led to the observation that fatigue life of many engineering materials is primarily "crack growth" from micro-structural features, such as inclusion particles, voids, slip-bands or from manufacturing defects. This paper reviews the capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model to predict fatigue lives of metallic materials using "small-crack theory" under various loading conditions. Constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective stress-intensity factor range (delta-Keff) under constant-amplitude loading. Modifications to the delta-Keff-rate relations in the near-threshold regime were needed to fit measured small-crack growth rate behavior. The model was then used to calculate small-and large-crack growth rates, and to predict total fatigue lives, for notched and un-notched specimens under constant-amplitude and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were predicted using crack-growth relations and micro-structural features like those that initiated cracks in the fatigue specimens for most of the materials analyzed. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.

  9. Enhancement of energy spectra through constant fraction timing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermis, Elif Ebru; Celiktas, Cuneyt

    2017-02-01

    The energy spectra of 137Cs, 60Co and 14C were achieved by using the spectrometers composed of different types of detectors. In this work, constant fraction timing method was used to enhance their energy spectra. Energy resolution values of 137Cs and 60Co gamma energy spectra were improved through this timing method. In addition, electronic noise appeared in the energy spectrum of 14C was discriminated through the timing method, leading to clear beta energy spectrum.

  10. Effect of Surface Impulsive Thermal Loads on Fatigue Behavior of Constant Volume Propulsion Engine Combustor Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    2004-01-01

    The development of advanced high performance constant-volume-combustion-cycle engines (CVCCE) requires robust design of the engine components that are capable of enduring harsh combustion environments under high frequency thermal and mechanical fatigue conditions. In this study, a simulated engine test rig has been established to evaluate thermal fatigue behavior of a candidate engine combustor material, Haynes 188, under superimposed CO2 laser surface impulsive thermal loads (30 to 100 Hz) in conjunction with the mechanical fatigue loads (10 Hz). The mechanical high cycle fatigue (HCF) testing of some laser pre-exposed specimens has also been conducted under a frequency of 100 Hz to determine the laser surface damage effect. The test results have indicated that material surface oxidation and creep-enhanced fatigue is an important mechanism for the surface crack initiation and propagation under the simulated CVCCE engine conditions.

  11. Measurement of Oil-Film Pressures in Journal Bearings under Constant and Variable Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buske, A.; Rolli, W.

    1949-01-01

    In a study of journal bearings, the measurement of the oil-film strength produces some significant information. A new instrument is described by means of which the pressure of the oil film in bearings (under constant or alternating load) can be measured and recorded. With this device, the pressure distribution in the lubricating film of a bearing bushing was measured (under different operating conditions on a journal bearing) in the pulsator-bearing-testing machine. These tests are described and discussed in the present report.

  12. Henry constant and isosteric heat at zero-loading for gas adsorption in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Do, D D; Do, H D; Wongkoblap, A; Nicholson, D

    2008-12-28

    The Henry constant and the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading in a carbon nanotube bundle are studied with Monte Carlo integration for the adsorption of gases over a range of temperatures. The spacing between nanotubes in a bundle is determined from the minimization of potential energy of interaction between these tubes. We study different tube configurations with bundles of 2, 3, 4 and 7 tubes. Depending on the configuration it is found that the spacing is of between 0.31 to 0.333 nm, and this falls within the range reported in the literature. The Henry constant has been carefully defined so that it will not become negative at high temperatures. This is done with the aid of accessible volume, rather than the usual absolute void volume. We show that linearity of the van't Hoff plot for the Henry constant is not strictly followed. Furthermore the slope of this plot is not equal to the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading, which is found to be a strong function of temperature. From the results we find that the Henry constant and the heat of adsorption depend on the tube configuration. In general the adsorption in the cusp interstices is strongest followed by that inside the tube and finally on the outer surface. However for very small tubes adsorption occurs inside the tube first. For molecules with orientation, the behaviour is even more interesting and the shape of the isosteric heat versus temperature depends on the degree of orientation, tube configuration and the domain of adsorption (interstices, inside the tube and on the outer surface).

  13. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  14. Bifurcation Analysis of a DC-DC Bidirectional Power Converter Operating with Constant Power Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano, Rony; Pagano, Daniel J.; Benadero, Luis; Ponce, Enrique

    Direct current (DC) microgrids (MGs) are an emergent option to satisfy new demands for power quality and integration of renewable resources in electrical distribution systems. This work addresses the large-signal stability analysis of a DC-DC bidirectional converter (DBC) connected to a storage device in an islanding MG. This converter is responsible for controlling the balance of power (load demand and generation) under constant power loads (CPLs). In order to control the DC bus voltage through a DBC, we propose a robust sliding mode control (SMC) based on a washout filter. Dynamical systems techniques are exploited to assess the quality of this switching control strategy. In this sense, a bifurcation analysis is performed to study the nonlinear stability of a reduced model of this system. The appearance of different bifurcations when load parameters and control gains are changed is studied in detail. In the specific case of Teixeira Singularity (TS) bifurcation, some experimental results are provided, confirming the mathematical predictions. Both a deeper insight in the dynamic behavior of the controlled system and valuable design criteria are obtained.

  15. VO2 kinetics of constant-load exercise following bed-rest-induced deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D. J.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise and recovery may be changed by alterations in work intensity, prior exercise, muscle group involvement, ambient conditions, posture, disease state, and level of physical conditioning. However, the effects of detraining on oxygen uptake kinetics have not been determined. The present investigation has the objective to determine the effects of deconditioning following seven days of continuous head-down bed rest on changes in steady-state oxygen uptake, O2 deficit, and recovery oxygen uptake during the performance of constant-load exercise. The obtained results may provide support for previous proposals that submaximal oxygen uptake was significantly reduced following bed rest. The major finding was that bed-rest deconditioning resulted in a reduction of total O2 transport/utilization capacity during the transient phase of upright but not supine exercise.

  16. Flotation kinetics: Methods for estimating distribution of rate constants

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Polat, M.

    1995-12-31

    Many models have been suggested in the past to obtain a satisfactory fit to flotation data. Of these, first-order kinetics models with a distribution of flotation rate constants are most common. A serious limitation of these models is that type of the distribution must be pre-supposed. Methods to overcome this limitation are discussed and a procedure is suggested for estimating the actual distribution of flotation rate constants. It is demonstrated that the classical first-order model fits the data well when applied to coal flotation in narrow size-specific gravity intervals. When applied to material which is fractionated on the basis of size alone, the use of three parameter models, which were modified from their two parameter analogs such as rectangular, sinusoidal, and triangular, gave most reliable results.

  17. A deflection formula for single-span beams of constant section subjected to combined axial and transverse loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Walter F

    1935-01-01

    In this paper there is presented a deflection formula for single-span beams of constant section subjected to combined axial and transverse loads of the types commonly encountered in airplane design. The form of the equation is obtainable by dimensional analysis. Tables and curves of the non dimensional coefficients are appended to facilitate the use of the formula. The equation is applied to the determination of the spring constant of a beam. Tables and curves are presented to show the variation of the spring constant with changes in the axial load and position along the beam.

  18. Storm size's effect on constant slope hydrograph separation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, S. A.; Clancy, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    The two main components that make up stream flow are baseflow and runoff. Baseflow is important as it maintains flows during times of low precipitation and dryness. Its abundance is also an indicator of habitat. Hydrograph separation techniques are one of the methods used to determine the amount of baseflow in a gauged stream. One widely used and relatively simple hydrograph separation technique is the constant slope method. A limitation of this method is the problem associated with finding the inflection point which is determined by the equation N=A0.2 where N is the number of days past the peak of the hydrograph and A is the watershed area. The equation does not perform equally well in all watersheds and for all storm sizes. The objective of this project is to determine how sensitive the equation is to storm size. To determine this sensitivity, twenty storms ranging in size from (0.01 to 1 cm) were identified in two similarly sized gauged watersheds: the Kickapoo at La Farge (266 sq mi) and Pecatonica (273 sq mi). Hydrograph separation was done manually using the constant slope method and compared to inflection point determination using curve fitting software and USGS HYSEP minimum flow hydrograph separation.

  19. Radio frequency power load and associated method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus includes a container and a fluid having an ion source therein, the fluid being contained in the container. Two conductors are immersed in the fluid. A radio frequency transmission system includes a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus includes a fluid having an ion source therein, and two conductors immersed in the fluid. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system includes the steps of: immersing two conductors of a radio frequency power load apparatus in a fluid having an ion source therein; and connecting the apparatus to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  20. A Straightforward Method to Determine Equilibrium Constants from Spectrophotometric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszei, E.; Takács, M. G.; Vizkeleti, B.

    2000-07-01

    Spectrophotometry provides reliable information on the equilibrium concentration in chemically reacting mixtures. However, the widely used traditional linearized models to determine the equilibrium constant from spectrophotometric data do not provide optimal information and unnecessarily complicate data evaluation for students. In this paper we show an easy and straightforward inference method, which makes use only of Beer's Law and an elementary mathematical treatment of the problem. Though the resulting parameter estimation is nonlinear with respect to the equilibrium constant, the commercial availability of many nonlinear parameter estimation software packages eliminates the need for the student to bother with either mathematical or numerical details. Adding a suitable spectral shape function to the model describing equilibrium further facilitates the use of the proposed method and makes it an easy task to determine the components' spectra from equilibrium measurements. Three practical examples are treated in detail in the online version. They illustrate how the method works at different complexity levels and are easy to install in undergraduate physical chemistry labs.

  1. Dynamics and stabilization of peak current-mode controlled buck converter with constant current load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Min-Rui; Zhou, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Kai-Tun; Li, Zhen-Hua

    2015-10-01

    The discrete iterative map model of peak current-mode controlled buck converter with constant current load (CCL), containing the output voltage feedback and ramp compensation, is established in this paper. Based on this model the complex dynamics of this converter is investigated by analyzing bifurcation diagrams and the Lyapunov exponent spectrum. The effects of ramp compensation and output voltage feedback on the stability of the converter are investigated. Experimental results verify the simulation and theoretical analysis. The stability boundary and chaos boundary are obtained under the theoretical conditions of period-doubling bifurcation and border collision. It is found that there are four operation regions in the peak current-mode controlled buck converter with CCL due to period-doubling bifurcation and border-collision bifurcation. Research results indicate that ramp compensation can extend the stable operation range and transfer the operating mode, and output voltage feedback can eventually eliminate the coexisting fast-slow scale instability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61371033), the Fok Ying-Tung Education Foundation for Young Teachers in the Higher Education Institutions of China (Grant No. 142027), the Sichuan Provincial Youth Science and Technology Fund, China (Grant Nos. 2014JQ0015 and 2013JQ0033), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. SWJTU11CX029).

  2. Superplastic deformation in carbonate apatite ceramics under constant compressive loading for near-net-shape production of bioresorbable bone substitutes.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Masanori; Wakamatsu, Nobukazu; Doi, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    To produce carbonate apatite (CAP) ceramics with the desired complex shapes using superplastic deformation, deformation behavior of CAP ceramics under constant loading as well as physical properties after deformation were evaluated. Sintered CAP ceramics were plastically deformed in an electric furnace attached to a universal hydraulic testing machine under a constant load. CAP ceramics subjected to an initial compressive pressure of 10 MPa showed an appreciable amount of plastic deformation at temperatures ranging from 720 to 800 degrees C. Plastic deformation increased with increasing temperature from about 10% to 70% after two hours of loading. X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM observation further revealed that some CAP crystals were elongated and aligned with the c-axis normal to the loading direction during superplastic deformation. It was thus concluded that a marked plastic deformation of about 70% at 800 degrees C would be sufficient for near-net-shape production of bioresorbable CAP bone substitutes with complex shapes.

  3. Radio Frequency Power Load and Associated Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, V. Karthik (Inventor); Freestone, Todd M. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus may include a container with an ionized fluid therein. The apparatus may include one conductor immersed in a fluid and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A radio frequency transmission system may include a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus may include a fluid having an ion source therein, one conductor immersed in a fluid, and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system may include constructing a waveguide with ionized fluid in a container and connecting the waveguide to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  4. The effect of shock loading on the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor at constant organic loading rate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The influences of organic loading disturbances on the process performance of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating potato-processing wastewater were investigated. For this purpose, while the reactor was operated at steady state conditions with organic loading rate of 5.5 kg COD/m3 · day, an instant acetate concentration increase (1 g/L) was introduced to the reactor. During the shock loading test of acetate, it was observed that the overall process performance was adversely affected by all the shock loading, however, the system reached steady state conditions less than 24 hours of operation indicating that thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor is resistant to shock loading and be capable of returning its normal conditions within a short time period. PMID:24872886

  5. Augmented supraspinal fatigue following constant-load cycling in the heat.

    PubMed

    Goodall, S; Charlton, K; Hignett, C; Prichard, J; Barwood, M; Howatson, G; Thomas, K

    2015-06-01

    The development of central fatigue is prominent following exercise-induced hyperthermia, but the contribution of supraspinal fatigue is not well understood. Seven endurance-trained cyclists (mean ± SD peak O2 uptake, 62.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) completed two high-intensity constant-load cycling trials (296 ± 34 W) to the limit of tolerance in a hot (34 °C, 20% relative humidity) and, on a separate occasion, for the same duration, a control condition (18 °C, 20% relative humidity). Core body temperature (Tc ) was measured throughout. Before and immediately after each trial, twitch responses to supramaximal femoral nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation were obtained from the knee extensors to assess neuromuscular and corticospinal function, respectively. Exercise time was 11.4 ± 2.6 min. Peak Tc was higher in the hot compared with control (38.36 ± 0.43 °C vs 37.86 ± 0.36 °C; P = 0.035). Post-exercise reductions in maximal voluntary contraction force (13 ± 9% vs 9 ± 5%), potentiated twitch force (16 ± 12% vs 21 ± 13%) and voluntary activation (9 ± 7% vs 7 ± 7%) were similar in hot and control trials, respectively. However, cortical voluntary activation declined more in the hot compared with the control (8 ± 3% vs 3 ± 2%; P = 0.001). Exercise-induced hyperthermia elicits significant central fatigue of which a large portion can be attributed to supraspinal fatigue. These data indicate that performance decrements in the heat might initially originate in the brain.

  6. Using a latent variable model with non-constant factor loadings to examine PM2.5 constituents related to secondary inorganic aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; O’Neill, Marie S.; Sánchez, Brisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Factor analysis is a commonly used method of modelling correlated multivariate exposure data. Typically, the measurement model is assumed to have constant factor loadings. However, from our preliminary analyses of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) PM2.5 fine speciation data, we have observed that the factor loadings for four constituents change considerably in stratified analyses. Since invariance of factor loadings is a prerequisite for valid comparison of the underlying latent variables, we propose a factor model that includes non-constant factor loadings that change over time and space using P-spline penalized with the generalized cross-validation (GCV) criterion. The model is implemented using the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and we select the multiple spline smoothing parameters by minimizing the GCV criterion with Newton’s method during each iteration of the EM algorithm. The algorithm is applied to a one-factor model that includes four constituents. Through bootstrap confidence bands, we find that the factor loading for total nitrate changes across seasons and geographic regions. PMID:27528825

  7. A quick method for the determination of inhibition constants.

    PubMed Central

    Waley, S G

    1982-01-01

    The inhibition constant Ki in the common case of competitive inhibition can be obtained by simple comparison of progress curves in the presence and in the absence of inhibitor. The difference between the times taken for the concentration of substrate to fall to the same value is used to obtain Ki. The procedure to use when the product inhibits is described. When there is mixed inhibition, reactions at different substrate concentrations are used to obtain both inhibition constants. PMID:7150236

  8. Nondestructive and noncontact method for determining the spring constant of rectangular cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Golovko, Dmytro S; Haschke, Thomas; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2007-04-01

    We present here an experimental setup and suggest an extension to the long existing added-mass method for the calibration of the spring constant of atomic force microscope cantilevers. Instead of measuring the resonance frequency shift that results from attaching particles of known masses to the end of cantilevers, we load them with water microdrops generated by a commercial inkjet dispenser. Such a device is capable of generating drops, and thus masses, of extremely reproducible size. This makes it an ideal tool for calibration tasks. Moreover, the major advantage of water microdrops is that they allow for a nearly contactless calibration: no mechanical micromanipulation of particles on cantilevers is required, neither for their deposition nor for removal. After some seconds the water drop is completely evaporated, and no residues are left on the cantilever surface or tip. We present two variants: we vary the size of the drops and deposit them at the free end of the cantilever, or we keep the size of the drops constant and vary their position along the cantilever. For the second variant, we implemented also numerical simulations. Spring constants measured by this method are comparable to results obtained by the thermal noise method, as we demonstrate for six different cantilevers.

  9. Nondestructive and noncontact method for determining the spring constant of rectangular cantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Golovko, Dmytro S.; Haschke, Thomas; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2007-04-15

    We present here an experimental setup and suggest an extension to the long existing added-mass method for the calibration of the spring constant of atomic force microscope cantilevers. Instead of measuring the resonance frequency shift that results from attaching particles of known masses to the end of cantilevers, we load them with water microdrops generated by a commercial inkjet dispenser. Such a device is capable of generating drops, and thus masses, of extremely reproducible size. This makes it an ideal tool for calibration tasks. Moreover, the major advantage of water microdrops is that they allow for a nearly contactless calibration: no mechanical micromanipulation of particles on cantilevers is required, neither for their deposition nor for removal. After some seconds the water drop is completely evaporated, and no residues are left on the cantilever surface or tip. We present two variants: we vary the size of the drops and deposit them at the free end of the cantilever, or we keep the size of the drops constant and vary their position along the cantilever. For the second variant, we implemented also numerical simulations. Spring constants measured by this method are comparable to results obtained by the thermal noise method, as we demonstrate for six different cantilevers.

  10. Comparison of thermic effects of constant and relative caloric loads in lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Segal, K R; Edaño, A; Blando, L; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1990-01-01

    Controversy regarding defective thermic effect of food (TEF) in obesity might be related to differences among studies in the caloric loads. To clarify further the role of blunted thermogenesis in obesity, responses to the same absolute caloric load (720 kcal) and a relative load, which was 35% of each subject's resting metabolic rate (RMR), were compared in 11 lean (L) and 11 obese (O) men. The relative load was slightly larger for O than L (752 +/- 27 vs 683 +/- 21 kcal; means +/- SEM, NS). TEF, calculated as 3-h postprandial minus fasting RMR, was greater for L than O for both the 720-kcal (69 +/- 4 vs 31 +/- 3 kcal/3 h, p less than 0.01) and relative loads (64 +/- 4 vs 37 +/- 3 kcal/3 h, p less than 0.01). For L, TEF was greater for the 720-kcal load than for the relative load whereas for O, TEF was greater for the relative than for the 720-kcal meal. However, expressed as a percent of the calories ingested, TEF for the absolute and relative meals was identical for each group, in both cases lower for O (4.2 +/- 0.4% vs. 4.7 +/- 0.3%) than for L (9.7 +/- 0.4% vs 9.3 +/- 0.8%); p less than 0.01. These results demonstrate the impact on thermogenesis of the basis on which the meal is dosed and provide further evidence for defective thermogenesis in obesity.

  11. Environmental Effects on Long Term Displacement Data of Woven Fabric Webbings Under Constant Load for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenner, WInfred S.; Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Duncan, Quinton; Plant, James

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of environmental temperature and humidity conditions on long-term creep displacement data of high strength Kevlar and VectranTM woven fabric webbings under constant load for inflatable structures is presented. The restraint layer of an inflatable structure for long-duration space exploration missions is designed to bear load and consists of an assembly of high strength webbings. Long-term creep displacement data of webbings can be utilized by designers to validate service life parameters of restraint layers of inflatable structures. Five groups of high-strength webbings were researched over a two year period. Each group had a unique webbing length, load rating, applied load, and test period. The five groups consisted of 1.) 6K Vectran webbings loaded to 49% ultimate tensile strength (UTS), 2.) 6K Vectran webbings loaded to 55% UTS, 3.) 12.5K Vectran webbings loaded to 22% UTS, 4.) 6K Kevlar webbings loaded to 40% and 43% UTS, and 5.) 6K Kevlar webbings loaded to 48% UTS. Results show that all webbing groups exhibit the initial two stages of three of a typical creep curve of an elastic material. Results also show that webbings exhibit unique local wave patterns over the duration of the test period. Data indicate that the local pattern is primarily generated by daily variations in relative humidity values within the test facility. Data indicate that after a three to six month period, where webbings reach a steady-state creep condition, an annual sinusoidal displacement pattern is exhibited, primarily due to variations in annual mean temperature values. Data indicates that variations in daily temperature values and annual mean humidity values have limited secondary effects on creep displacement behavior. Results show that webbings in groups 2 and 5 do not exhibit well defined annual displacement patterns because the magnitude of the applied loads cause large deformations, and data indicate that material yielding within a webbing

  12. Probabilistic Description of Fatigue Crack Growth Under Constant-and Variable-Amplitude Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    and software The control system has constructed around a IBM-PC. Machine control, data acquisition and storage, and output of results are affected...machine cyclic load and frequency are controlled through a 410 Digital Function Generator. The application software has been written in BASIC and its...and current voltaae ratio I Ueen crak length from previous1 and current voltage ratios and calibration equation Pn t ou t coun r and volt Determin

  13. Dielectric constant measurement probe assembly and apparatus and method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neel, Michael M.; Schiavone, Frank J.

    1992-10-01

    A dielectric constant measurement probe assembly includes a coaxial cable having an outer electrical conductor and a center electrical conductor extending within the outer conductor and terminating at an end portion which projects beyond an end portion of the outer conductor. An adapter member has a central passage receiving the coaxial cable with the outer conductor of the cable extending through the passage of the adapter member and projecting therefrom. An outer tube has a bore composed of first and second axial sections. The second bore section is smaller in diameter than the first bore section. The adapter member is inserted in the first bore section with the end portion of the coaxial cable outer conductor inserted into the second bore section and making electrical contact therewith such that the outer tube thus constitutes an extension of the outer conductor. A resonant rod is coupled with the end portion of the center conductor of the coaxial cable and an annular sleeve supports the resonant rod in the second bore section of the outer tube such that the rod constitutes an extension of the center conductor. The resonant rod and outer tube together define an open end of the coaxial cable such that the rod being capable of acting as a resonant structure upon energizing the coaxial cable produces fringing fields that protrude from the open end and penetrate a test sample disposed adjacent thereto.

  14. Study the Cyclic Plasticity Behavior of 508 LAS under Constant, Variable and Grid-Load-Following Loading Cycles for Fatigue Evaluation of PWR Components

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Barua, Bipul; Soppet, William K.; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2016-09-01

    This report provides an update of an earlier assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for components in light water reactors. This report is a deliverable in September 2016 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2016 report, we presented a detailed thermal-mechanical stress analysis model for simulating the stress-strain state of a reactor pressure vessel and its nozzles under grid-load-following conditions. In this report, we provide stress-controlled fatigue test data for 508 LAS base metal alloy under different loading amplitudes (constant, variable, and random grid-load-following) and environmental conditions (in air or pressurized water reactor coolant water at 300°C). Also presented is a cyclic plasticity-based analytical model that can simultaneously capture the amplitude and time dependency of the component behavior under fatigue loading. Results related to both amplitude-dependent and amplitude-independent parameters are presented. The validation results for the analytical/mechanistic model are discussed. This report provides guidance for estimating time-dependent, amplitude-independent parameters related to material behavior under different service conditions. The developed mechanistic models and the reported material parameters can be used to conduct more accurate fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components.

  15. Simultaneous determination of equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes by titration calorimetry: Methods, instruments, and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lee D; Fellingham, Gilbert W; Russell, Donald J

    2011-02-15

    Calorimetric methods have been used to determine equilibrium constants since 1937, but no comprehensive review of the various calorimeters and methods has been done previously. This article reports methods for quantitative comparison of the capabilities of calorimeters for simultaneous determination of equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes, for determining optimal experimental conditions, and for assessing the effects of systematic and random errors on the accuracy and precision of equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes determined by this method.

  16. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Brittle Materials with Finite Thickness Subjected to Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chio, S. R.; Gyekenyesi, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional, numerical analysis of slow crack growth (SCG) was performed for brittle materials with finite thickness subjected to constant stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") loading in flexure. The numerical solution showed that the conventional, simple, one-dimensional analytical solution can be used with a maximum error of about 5% in determining the SCG parameters of a brittle material with the conditions of a normalized thickness (a ratio of specimen thickness to initial crack size) T > 3.3 and of a SCG parameter n > 10. The change in crack shape from semicircular to elliptical configurations was significant particularly at both low stress rate and low T, attributed to predominant difference in stress intensity factor along the crack front. The numerical solution of SCG parameters was supported within the experimental range by the data obtained from constant stress-rate flexural testing for soda-lime glass microslides at ambient temperature.

  17. Analysis of a dc bus system with a nonlinear constant power load and its delayed feedback control.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Keiji; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Hara, Naoyuki

    2014-02-01

    This paper tackles a destabilizing problem of a direct-current (dc) bus system with constant power loads, which can be considered a fundamental problem of dc power grid networks. The present paper clarifies scenarios of the destabilization and applies the well-known delayed-feedback control to the stabilization of the destabilized bus system on the basis of nonlinear science. Further, we propose a systematic procedure for designing the delayed feedback controller. This controller can converge the bus voltage exactly on an unstable operating point without accurate information and can track it using tiny control energy even when a system parameter, such as the power consumption of the load, is slowly varied. These features demonstrate that delayed feedback control can be considered a strong candidate for solving the destabilizing problem.

  18. Apparatus and method for constant flow oxidizing of organic materials

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Nelson, Norvell; Steward, G. Anthony; Bryan, Garry H.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell. A reaction vessel provides an advantage of independent reaction temperature control and electrochemical cell temperature control. A separate or independent reaction vessel may be used without an ultrasonic mixer to oxidize gaseous phase organic materials.

  19. Dynamic stiffness method for space frames under distributed harmonic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumir, P. C.; Saha, D. C.; Sengupta, S.

    1992-10-01

    An exact dynamic equivalent load vector for space frames subjected to harmonic distributed loads has been derived using the dynamic stiffness approach. The Taylor's series expansion of the dynamic equivalent load vector has revealed that the static consistent equivalent load vector used in a 12 degree of freedom two-noded finite element for a space frame is just the first term of the series. The dynamic stiffness approach using the exact dynamic equivalent load vector requires discretization of a member subjected to distributed loads into only one element. The results of the dynamic stiffness method are compared with those of the finite element method for illustrative problems.

  20. Using the Constant Comparative Method in the Foreign Classroom: Shopping as a Social Problem in Romania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobes, Patrick C.; Aldea, Andra; Cernat, Constantin; Icolisan, Ioana-Minerva; Iordache, Gabriel; Lazeru, Sabastian; Stoica, Catalin; Tibil, Gheorghe; Udangiu, Eugenia

    1997-01-01

    Describes how the constant comparative method was introduced as a teaching and research tool at a Romanian university. Presents a four-step procedure for employing the constant comparative method. Suggests that the method may be well-suited for teaching sociology to small numbers of committed students in the foreign classroom. (DSK)

  1. Method of making tapered capillary tips with constant inner diameters

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Page, Jason S.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-02-17

    Methods of forming electrospray ionization emitter tips are disclosed herein. In one embodiment, an end portion of a capillary tube can be immersed into an etchant, wherein the etchant forms a concave meniscus on the outer surface of the capillary. Variable etching rates in the meniscus can cause an external taper to form. While etching the outer surface of the capillary wall, a fluid can be flowed through the interior of the capillary tube. Etching continues until the immersed portion of the capillary tube is completely etched away.

  2. Indirect methods for measuring variations of the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofia, S.

    1981-01-01

    The difference between the methods that measure delta S, and those that measure variations in the solar luminosity, delta L, is discussed. It is shown that the past practice of simply relating delta S to delta L by geometrical arguments is not valid because of anisotropy of the solar radiation. It is concluded that direct techniques prove the existence of short term variability that is fully explainable in terms of the passage of active regions (spots and faculae) on the face of the Sun. The obervations of changes in the solar diameter support the existence of structurally induced variations of the solar luminosity on timescales of tens of years, which are significant in the understanding of climatic variations.

  3. Ground reaction force comparison of controlled resistance methods to isoinertial loading of the squat exercise - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Paulus, David C; Reynolds, Michael C; Schilling, Brian K

    2010-01-01

    The ground reaction force during the concentric (raising) portion of the squat exercise was compared to that of isoinertial loading (free weights) for three pneumatically controlled resistance methods: constant resistance, cam force profile, and proportional force control based on velocity. Constant force control showed lower ground reaction forces than isoinertial loading throughout the range of motion (ROM). The cam force profile exhibited slightly greater ground reaction forces than isoinertial loading at 10 and 40% ROM with fifty-percent greater loading at 70% ROM. The proportional force control consistently elicited greater ground reaction force than isoinertial loading, which progressively ranged from twenty to forty percent increase over isoinertial loading except for being approximately equal at 85% ROM. Based on these preliminary results, the proportional control shows the most promise for providing loading that is comparable in magnitude to isoinertial loading. This technology could optimize resistance exercise for sport-specific training or as a countermeasure to atrophy during spaceflight.

  4. Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Philip

    2010-05-12

    Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

  5. A METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF SITE-SPECIFIC TAUTOMERIC AND ZWITTERIONIC MICROSPECIES EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a method for the individual measurement of simultaneously occurring, unimolecular, site-specific "microequilibrium" constants as in, for example, prototropic tautomerism and zwitterionic equilibria. Our method represents an elaboration of that of Nygren et al. (Anal. ...

  6. METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF SITE-SPECIFIC TAUTOMERIC AND ZWITTERIONIC MICROSPECIES EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a method for the individual measurement of simultaneously occurring, unimolecular, site-specific “microequilibrium” constants as in, for example, prototropic tautomerism and zwitterionic equilibria. Our method represents an elaboration of that of Nygren et al. (Anal. ...

  7. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  8. A Simple and Convenient Method of Multiple Linear Regression to Calculate Iodine Molecular Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    A new procedure using a student-friendly least-squares multiple linear-regression technique utilizing a function within Microsoft Excel is described that enables students to calculate molecular constants from the vibronic spectrum of iodine. This method is advantageous pedagogically as it calculates molecular constants for ground and excited…

  9. A New Method for Determining the Optical Constants of Highly Transparent Solids.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingcan; Wang, Chengchao; Zhao, Junming; Liu, Linhua

    2017-01-01

    Highly transparent substrates are of interest for a variety of applications, but it is difficult to measure their optical constants precisely, especially the absorption index in the transparent spectral region. In this paper, a combination technique (DOPTM-EM) using both the double optical pathlength transmission method (DOPTM) and the ellipsometry method (EM) is presented to obtain the optical constants of highly transparent substrates, which overcomes the deficiencies of both the two methods. The EM cannot give accurate result of optical constants when the absorption index is very weak. The DOPTM is suitable to retrieve the weak absorption index; however, two sets of solutions exist for the retrieved refractive index and absorption index, and only one is the true value that needs to be identified. In the DOPTM-EM, the optical constants are measured first by using the EM and set as the initial value in the gradient-based inverse method used in the DOPTM, which ensures only the true optical constants are retrieved. The new method simultaneously obtains the refractive index and the absorption index of highly transparent substrate without relying on the Kramers-Kronig relation. The optical constants of three highly transparent substrates (polycrystalline BaF2, CaF2, and MgF2) were experimentally determined within wavelength range from ultraviolet to infrared regions (0.2-14 µm). The presented method will facilitate the measurement of optical constants for highly transparent materials.

  10. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOEpatents

    Buescher, Jr., Brent J.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.

    1997-01-01

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

  11. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOEpatents

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  12. Statistical distribution and size effect of residual strength of quasibrittle materials after a period of constant load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salviato, Marco; Kirane, Kedar; Bazˇant, Zdeneˇk P.

    2014-03-01

    In preceding studies, the type of cumulative probability distribution functions (cdf) of strength and of static lifetime of quasibrittle structures, including their tails, was mathematically derived from atomistic scale arguments based on nano-scale cracks propagating by many small, activation energy-controlled, random breaks of atomic bonds in the nanostructure. It was shown that a quasibrittle structure (of positive geometry) must be modeled by a finite (rather than infinite) weakest-link model, and that the cdf of structural strength as well as lifetime varies from nearly Gaussian to Weibullian as a function of structure size and shape. Excellent agreement with the observed distributions of structural strength and static lifetime was demonstrated. Based on the same theoretical framework, the present paper formulates the statistics of the residual structural strength, which is the strength after the structure has been subjected to sustained loading. A strength degradation equation is derived based on Evans' law for static crack growth during sustained loading. It is shown that the rate of strength degradation is not constant but continuously increasing. The cdf of residual strength of one RVE is shown to be closely approximated by a graft of Weibull and Gaussian (normal) distributions. In the left tail, the cdf is a three-parameter Weibull distribution consisting of the (n+1)th power of the residual strength, where n is the exponent of the Evans law and the threshold is a function of the applied load and load duration. The finiteness of the threshold, which is typically very small, is a new feature of quasibrittle residual strength statistics, contrasting with the previously established absence of a threshold for strength and lifetime. Its cause is that there is a non-zero probability that some specimens fail during the static preloading, and thus are excluded from the statistics of the overload. The predictions of the theory are validated by available test data

  13. [A reflection interference method for determining optical constants and thickness of a thin solid film].

    PubMed

    Yang, P; Xu, Z; Xu, L

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we report a simple method for deducing optical constants and thickness from the reflection interference spectrum of a thin transparent film which is on a substrate of high reflection coefficient. When a light beam is incident on the surface of the film, the reflection light beams at the front and rear faces are coherent. We calculated the optical constants and thickness of the film from the reflection spectrum. This simple method makes a directly programmable calculation possible.

  14. Determination of rapid chlorination rate constants by a stopped-flow spectrophotometric competition kinetics method.

    PubMed

    Song, Dean; Liu, Huijuan; Qiang, Zhimin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Free chlorine is extensively used for water and wastewater disinfection nowadays. However, it still remains a big challenge to determine the rate constants of rapid chlorination reactions although competition kinetics and stopped-flow spectrophotometric (SFS) methods have been employed individually to investigate fast reaction kinetics. In this work, we proposed an SFS competition kinetics method to determine the rapid chlorination rate constants by using a common colorimetric reagent, N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD), as a reference probe. A kinetic equation was first derived to estimate the reaction rate constant of DPD towards chlorine under a given pH and temperature condition. Then, on that basis, an SFS competition kinetics method was proposed to determine directly the chlorination rate constants of several representative compounds including tetracycline, ammonia, and four α-amino acids. Although Cl2O is more reactive than HOCl, its contribution to the overall chlorination kinetics of the test compounds could be neglected in this study. Finally, the developed method was validated through comparing the experimentally measured chlorination rate constants of the selected compounds with those obtained or calculated from literature and analyzing with Taft's correlation as well. This study demonstrates that the SFS competition kinetics method can measure the chlorination rate constants of a test compound rapidly and accurately.

  15. Constant-load exercise decreases the serum concentration of myeloperoxidase in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD.

    PubMed

    Holz, Olaf; Roepcke, Stefan; Watz, Henrik; Tegtbur, Uwe; Lahu, Gezim; Hohlfeld, Jens M

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing demand for easily accessible biomarkers related to pathophysiological processes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Short-term intense exercise is known to increase the peripheral blood levels of cytokines. Therefore, we tested the potential and the repeatability of an exercise challenge to amplify seven serum biomarkers (interleukin 6 [IL6], C-reactive protein [CRP], myeloperoxidase [MPO], leukotriene B4, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and von Willebrand factor [VWF]) in smokers with and without COPD. Twenty-three smokers with moderate COPD (GOLD 2) and 23 sex- and age-matched healthy smokers underwent up to 30-minute submaximal, constant-load exercise (75% of maximum work load) on two occasions separated by 4 weeks (second challenge n=19/20). Serum samples were obtained before, 5 minutes after the start, at the end of exercise (maximum 30 minutes or until exhaustion), and after additional 20 minutes of rest. The median (interquartile range) exercise time until exhaustion in the two challenges was 10.0 (4.0) minutes and 10.0 (8.0) minutes in smokers with COPD and 22.0 (16.0) minutes and 26.5 (14.5) minutes in healthy smokers. The exercise challenge significantly increased the serum concentrations of IL6 and VWF, but decreased the concentrations of MPO. Healthy smokers showed a significantly greater increase (at the end of exercise compared to before exercise) in IL6 (P=0.01) and a larger decline (P=0.03) in MPO. The overall profile of the serum markers during the exercise challenge was shown to be repeatable in the second challenge. In summary, intense load exercise is capable of changing the concentration of inflammatory and endothelial function markers. Especially, the decline in the level of MPO, a marker closely related to cardiovascular risk, appears to be of clinical interest, as the exercise-induced decline might be related to the beneficial effects of physical activity

  16. Fatigue crack monitoring via load-differential guided wave methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Jun; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Chen, Xin; Michaels, Thomas E.

    2012-05-01

    Detection and localization of fatigue cracks is an important application for inspection and monitoring of civil, mechanical and aerospace structures, but assessment of such damage via ultrasonic guided waves can be problematic when cracks are tightly closed in the absence of applied tensile loads. Proposed here are load-differential methods, which compare signals at one load to those at another load at the same damage state. The main advantage of such methods is that cracks can be detected and localized by analyzing current signals obtained from different loading conditions without using baseline data from the damage-free state. The efficacy of the proposed load-differential imaging method is examined using fatigue test data where multiple cracks grow from a single through-hole. Data were acquired with a spatially distributed array of piezoelectric discs by recording ultrasonic signals as a function of applied uniaxial load at intervals throughout the fatigue test. Load-differential guided wave images are generated from residual signals via delay-and-sum imaging methods, and these images are evaluated in terms of their ability to detect and localize fatigue cracks.

  17. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF THE PSYCHOPHYSICAL METHODS OF LIMITS AND CONSTANT STIMULI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The method of limits (ML) and the method of constant stimuli (MCS) can be related on the basis of simple probability considerations. From the...determinations, etc., (c) preferred methods for comparisons within the ML and between the ML and the MCS, (d) incompatibility of present-day assumptions concerning the ML and the MCS. (Author)

  18. Free energy perturbation method for measuring elastic constants of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Abhijeet

    There is considerable interest in designing liquid crystals capable of yielding specific morphological responses in confined environments, including capillaries and droplets. The morphology of a liquid crystal is largely dictated by the elastic constants, which are difficult to measure and are only available for a handful of substances. In this work, a first-principles based method is proposed to calculate the Frank elastic constants of nematic liquid crystals directly from atomistic models. These include the standard splay, twist and bend deformations, and the often-ignored but important saddle-splay constant. The proposed method is validated using a well-studied Gay-Berne(3,5,2,1) model; we examine the effects of temperature and system size on the elastic constants in the nematic and smectic phases. We find that our measurements of splay, twist, and bend elastic constants are consistent with previous estimates for the nematic phase. We further outline the implementation of our approach for the saddle-splay elastic constant, and find it to have a value at the limits of the Ericksen inequalities. We then proceed to report results for the elastic constants commonly known liquid crystals namely 4-pentyl-4'-cynobiphenyl (5CB) using atomistic model, and show that the values predicted by our approach are consistent with a subset of the available but limited experimental literature.

  19. Muscle loading as a method to isolate the underlying tremor components in essential tremor and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Burne, John A; Blanche, Tim; Morris, John J

    2004-09-01

    Tremor is clinically evaluated and classified on the basis of its response to limb posture (resting, postural, and kinetic tremor), but the mechanisms underlying this powerful influence remain unclear and no satisfactory method exists to identify or quantify underlying tremor subtypes. Postural change is closely linked to changes in gravitational load. We therefore assessed the effect of changes in muscle load on essential tremor (ET) and parkinsonian tremor (PT) independently of postural change. A motor accurately delivered a series of constant (0.2-1.2 Nm) flexion and extension torques about the affected wrist while subjects maintained a constant wrist angle by isometrically contracting wrist flexors or extensors against the applied loads. Linear regression of tremulous electromyogram (EMG) spectral peak amplitude against the applied loads estimated the magnitudes of the load-dependent (LDT) and load-independent (LIT) tremor components. The amplitude of ET was linearly related to increase in gravitational load. It thus contained a large LDT component and a small or absent LIT component. Muscle loading revealed significant LDT and LIT components in PT. LIT was dominant at zero load (classic rest tremor) but both components were present during loading (classic postural tremor). Muscle loading more clearly identifies tremor subtypes than postural effects alone. The method could be applied in clinical and pathophysiological studies.

  20. Binding constant determination of uranyl-citrate complex by ACE using a multi-injection method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiding; Li, Linnan; Huang, Hexiang; Xu, Linnan; Li, Ze; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-04-01

    The binding constant determination of uranyl with small-molecule ligands such as citric acid could provide fundamental knowledge for a better understanding of the study of uranyl complexation, which is of considerable importance for multiple purposes. In this work, the binding constant of uranyl-citrate complex was determined by ACE. Besides the common single-injection method, a multi-injection method to measure the electrophoretic mobility was also applied. The BGEs used contained HClO4 and NaClO4 , with a pH of 1.98 ± 0.02 and ionic strength of 0.050 mol/L, then citric acid was added to reach different concentrations. The electrophoretic mobilities of the uranyl-citrate complex measured by both of the two methods were consistent, and then the binding constant was calculated by nonlinear fitting assuming that the reaction had a 1:1 stoichiometry and the complex was [(UO2 )(Cit)](-) . The binding constant obtained by the multi-injection method was log K = 9.68 ± 0.07, and that obtained by the single-injection method was log K = 9.73 ± 0.02. The results provided additional knowledge of the uranyl-citrate system, and they demonstrated that compared with other methods, ACE using the multi-injection method could be an efficient, fast, and simple way to determine electrophoretic mobilities and to calculate binding constants.

  1. A fluctuation method to calculate the third order elastic constants in crystalline solids

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zimu; Qu, Jianmin

    2015-05-28

    This paper derives exact expressions of the isothermal third order elastic constants (TOE) in crystalline solids in terms of the kinetic and potential energies of the system. These expressions reveal that the TOE constants consist of a Born component and a relaxation component. The Born component is simply the third derivative of the system's potential energy with respect to the deformation, while the relaxation component is related to the non-uniform rearrangements of the atoms when the system is subject to a macroscopic deformation. Further, based on the general expressions derived here, a direct (fluctuation) method of computing the isothermal TOE constants is developed. Numerical examples of using this fluctuation method are given to compute the TOE constants of single crystal iron.

  2. Dielectric constant of liquids confined in the extended nanospace measured by a streaming potential method.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Kyojiro; Kazoe, Yutaka; Mawatari, Kazuma; Tsukahara, Takehiko; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2015-02-03

    Understanding liquid structure and the electrical properties of liquids confined in extended nanospaces (10-1000 nm) is important for nanofluidics and nanochemistry. To understand these liquid properties requires determination of the dielectric constant of liquids confined in extended nanospaces. A novel dielectric constant measurement method has thus been developed for extended nanospaces using a streaming potential method. We focused on the nonsteady-state streaming potential in extended nanospaces and successfully measured the dielectric constant of liquids within them without the use of probe molecules. The dielectric constant of water was determined to be significantly reduced by about 3 times compared to that of the bulk. This result contributes key information toward further understanding of the chemistry and fluidics in extended nanospaces.

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling current in inductive loads such as large diameter coils

    DOEpatents

    Riveros, Carlos A.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling electric current in loads that are essentially inductive, such that sparking and "ringing" current problems are reduced or eliminated. The circuit apparatus employs a pair of solid state switches (each of which switch may be an array of connected or parallel solid state switching devices such as transistors) and means for controlling those switches such that a power supply supplying two d.c. voltages (e.g. positive 150 volts d.c. and negative 150 volts d.c.) at low resistance may be connected across an essentially inductive load (e.g. a 6 gauge wire loop one hundred meters in diameter) alternatively and such that the first solid state switch is turned off and the second is turned on such that both are not on at the same time but the first turned on and the other on in less time than the inductive time constant (L/R) so that the load is essentially always presented with a low resistance path across its input. In this manner a steady AC current may be delivered to the load at a frequency desired. Shut-off problems are avoided by gradually shortening the period of switching to less than the time constant so that the maximum energy contained in the inductive load is reduced to approximately zero and dissipated in the inherent resistance. The invention circuit may be employed by adjusting the timing of switching to deliver a desired waveform (such as sinusoidal) to the load.

  4. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  5. Developing an effective arterial stiffness monitoring system using the spring constant method and photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ching-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a fast and effective arterial stiffness monitoring system for diabetic patients using the spring constant method and photoplethysmography (PPG). The experimental group comprised 70 patients (4 type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and 66 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients); 23 participants suffered from atherosclerosis. All were subjected to the measurements of both the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and the spring constants evaluated using the PPG pulse as well as the radial pulse. The control group comprised 70 normal participants (39 men and 31 women) who did not have diabetes mellitus, with an age range of 40-84 years. All control group members were only subjected to the measurement by the spring constant method. For the experimental group, statistical analysis indicated a significantly high correlation between the spring constants computed using PPG and the radial pulse (p < 0.001, correlation coefficient =0.89). The result also showed a significant negative correlation between the cfPWV and the spring constant of PPG (p < 0.001, correlation coefficient = - 0.72); multivariate analysis similarly indicated a close relationship. In addition, we used Student's t test to examine the difference between the experimental and control groups for the spring constant of PPG. A P value less than 0.05 confirmed that the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. In the receiver operating characteristic curve, area under curve (=0.82) indicates a good discrimination, and a spring constant of PPG below 516 (g/s (2)) may imply a risk of arterial stiffness for diabetic patients. These findings imply that the spring constant of PPG could effectively identify normal versus abnormal characteristics of elasticity in normal and diabetic participants. As a result of some excellent characteristics in clinical monitoring, the spring constant computed using PPG shows the effectiveness and feasibility in the monitoring system of

  6. PSYCHOPHYSICAL METHODOLOGY I. COMPARISON OF THRESHOLDS OF THE METHOD OF LIMITS AND OF THE METHOD OF CONSTANT STIMULI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    On the basis of this assumption (a) the relationships between the method of limits and the method of constant stimuli are derived, (b) a procedure for...comparing data obtained by the two methods is recommended, (c) a procedure for comparing ascending and descending series within the method of limits is given. (Author)

  7. A Simple Method for the Consecutive Determination of Protonation Constants through Evaluation of Formation Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurek, Jozef; Nackiewicz, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    A simple method is presented for the consecutive determination of protonation constants of polyprotic acids based on their formation curves. The procedure is based on generally known equations that describe dissociation equilibria. It has been demonstrated through simulation that the values obtained through the proposed method are sufficiently…

  8. Comparison of 3 Methods for Computing Loading Rate during Running.

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Hobara, H; Kobayashi, Y; Heldoorn, T A; Mochimaru, M; Mizoguchi, H

    2016-12-01

    Tibial stress fractures are among the most common and potentially serious overuse injuries in runners. The fractures are thought to be related in part, to excessive loading variables, such as vertical average loading rate (VALR) and vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR). Although there are several methods for calculating loading rate in running, little is known about the differences between the results produced by these methods. The purpose of this study was to compare 3 previously published methods of calculating VALR and VILR during running. 9 male participants ran on a treadmill at 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 m/s. VALR and VILR were calculated from vertical ground reaction force using 3 methods that differed by the period over which the loading rates were calculated; foot strike to first peak (method A), from 20 to 80% of the time to first peak (method B), and over the first 50 ms after foot strike (method C). There were significant differences among methods with regard to VALR, but not VILR. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that VILR is preferable to VALR for consistent evaluation among methods, which make it more acceptable to make study comparisons.

  9. A novel load balancing method for hierarchical federation simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Xiao; Xiao, Tian-yuan

    2013-07-01

    In contrast with single HLA federation framework, hierarchical federation framework can improve the performance of large-scale simulation system in a certain degree by distributing load on several RTI. However, in hierarchical federation framework, RTI is still the center of message exchange of federation, and it is still the bottleneck of performance of federation, the data explosion in a large-scale HLA federation may cause overload on RTI, It may suffer HLA federation performance reduction or even fatal error. Towards this problem, this paper proposes a load balancing method for hierarchical federation simulation system based on queuing theory, which is comprised of three main module: queue length predicting, load controlling policy, and controller. The method promotes the usage of resources of federate nodes, and improves the performance of HLA simulation system with balancing load on RTIG and federates. Finally, the experiment results are presented to demonstrate the efficient control of the method.

  10. Short term load forecasting of anomalous load using hybrid soft computing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasyid, S. A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Mulyadi, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Load forecast accuracy will have an impact on the generation cost is more economical. The use of electrical energy by consumers on holiday, show the tendency of the load patterns are not identical, it is different from the pattern of the load on a normal day. It is then defined as a anomalous load. In this paper, the method of hybrid ANN-Particle Swarm proposed to improve the accuracy of anomalous load forecasting that often occur on holidays. The proposed methodology has been used to forecast the half-hourly electricity demand for power systems in the Indonesia National Electricity Market in West Java region. Experiments were conducted by testing various of learning rate and learning data input. Performance of this methodology will be validated with real data from the national of electricity company. The result of observations show that the proposed formula is very effective to short-term load forecasting in the case of anomalous load. Hybrid ANN-Swarm Particle relatively simple and easy as a analysis tool by engineers.

  11. Effects of loading methods on rabbit welfare and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, G; Vignola, G; Giammarco, M; Manetta, A C; Lambertini, L

    2010-05-01

    The effects of different loading methods on the welfare, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits of hybrid commercial rabbits were investigated. 384 male rabbits, 82 days old, were transported from the farm to the slaughterhouse. At the farm, 192 rabbits were loaded onto the truck smoothly (S) and 192 rabbits were loaded roughly (R). The S loading method consisted of carefully placing each rabbit into the transport crates. In the R method, the loading was hurriedly and carelessly executed by the transport operator, throwing each animal into the crates fixed on the truck. Live weight before and after transport as well as slaughter data were recorded for each rabbit, and a subset of 80 carcasses were evaluated for meat quality. Blood samples from 80 rabbits were analysed for haematological and biochemical parameters. A significant neutrophilia (P<0.001), lymphocytopaenia (P<0.001) and an increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P<0.01), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.001) and creatine kinase (CK) activities (P<0.001) were recorded in all rabbits after transport, independent of the loading method. A twofold increase in serum corticosterone concentration (6.23 vs. 14.88 ng/mL; P=0.001) was observed in all rabbits following transport. Results suggest that the stress parameters analysed were more influenced by transport and handling itself rather than by the different loading methods. The results showed that there was no adverse effect of loading method on carcass traits. Furthermore, the stress condition evidenced by haematological and biochemical parameters prior to slaughter did not affect meat quality.

  12. Linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-06-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and the variation of constants method. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  13. A Constructive Method for Computing Generalized Manley-Rowe Constants of Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashova, Elena; Tec, Loredana

    2013-10-01

    The Manley--Rowe constants of motion (MRC) are conservation laws written out for a dynamical system describing the time evolution of the amplitudes in resonant triad. In this paper we extend the concept of MRC to resonance clusters of any form yielding generalized Manley--Rowe constants (gMRC) and give a constructive method how to compute them. We also give details of a \\emph{Mathematica} implementation of this method. While MRC provide integrability of the underlying dynamical system, gMRC generally do not but may be used for qualitative and numerical study of dynamical systems describing generic resonance clusters.

  14. Spacecraft loads methodology - Transient vs. shock spectra method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Garba, J. A.; Trubert, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology for the establishment of spacecraft loads is strongly influenced by project constraints which include the cost, schedule and allowable weight. The most rigorous approach is the transient loads analysis which requires a composite mathematical model of the spacecraft and launch vehicle. The structural member loads for the entire composite structure are computed by applying the forcing functions, which represent various dynamic environments during the mission, to the composite model. Although this method ideally leads to a lightweight design, it is costly and time consuming due to complex interfaces involving many organizations. To reduce complexity and cost a shock spectra method has been used to design spacecraft structures. This method utilizes envelopes of shock spectra of launch vehicle accelerations obtained from analysis and/or flight measurements. Since only limited information on the launch vehicle model is involved in this process the design loads iteration cycle can be rapidly performed within the payload organization. In the present paper, these two methods will be evaluated by comparing the loads for several spacecraft. Flight measured loads will also be used in the evaluation.

  15. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOEpatents

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  16. Modified multi-load method for nonlinear source characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rämmal, Hans; Bodén, Hans

    2007-02-01

    Linear frequency domain prediction codes are useful for calculation of low-frequency sound transmission in duct and pipe systems. To calculate insertion loss of mufflers or the level of radiated sound information about the acoustic source is needed. The source model used in the low-frequency plane wave range is the linear time invariant one-port model. The acoustic source data is usually obtained from experimental tests where multi-load methods and especially the two-load method are most commonly used. The exhaust pulsations of for example an IC-engine are of high level, and the engine is not a perfectly linear and time invariant source. It is therefore of interest to develop source models and experimental techniques that try to take this nonlinearity into account. In this paper a modified version of the two-load method to improve the characterisation of nonlinear acoustic one-port sources has been developed and tested. Simulation results as well as experimental data from various source configurations for a modified compressor and experimental data from 6-cylinder turbocharged truck diesel engine were used to validate the method. The influence of parameters controlling the linearity of the system was investigated. The time-variance of the source model was varied and the accuracy of source characterisation results using the two-load method and the modified two-load method was evaluated.

  17. A Limited In-Flight Evaluation of the Constant Current Loop Strain Measurement Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olney, Candida D.; Collura, Joseph V.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, the Wheatstone bridge has been used successfully to measure electrical resistance and changes in that resistance. However, the inherent problem of varying lead wire resistance can cause errors when the Wheatstone bridge is used to measure strain in a flight environment. The constant current loop signal-conditioning card was developed to overcome that difficulty. This paper describes a limited evaluation of the constant current loop strain measurement method as used in the F-16XL ship 2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control flight project. Several identical strain gages were installed in close proximity on a shock fence which was mounted under the left wing of the F- 1 6XL ship 2. Two strain gage bridges were configured using the constant current loop, and two were configured using the Wheatstone bridge circuitry. Flight data comparing the output from the constant current loop configured gages to that of the Wheatstone bridges with respect to signal output, error, and noise are given. Results indicate that the constant current loop strain measurement method enables an increased output, unaffected by lead wire resistance variations, to be obtained from strain gages.

  18. An evaluation of methods for estimating decadal stream loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Casey J.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Holtschlag, David J.; Preston, Stephen D.; Crawford, Charles G.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2016-11-01

    Effective management of water resources requires accurate information on the mass, or load of water-quality constituents transported from upstream watersheds to downstream receiving waters. Despite this need, no single method has been shown to consistently provide accurate load estimates among different water-quality constituents, sampling sites, and sampling regimes. We evaluate the accuracy of several load estimation methods across a broad range of sampling and environmental conditions. This analysis uses random sub-samples drawn from temporally-dense data sets of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, and suspended-sediment concentration, and includes measurements of specific conductance which was used as a surrogate for dissolved solids concentration. Methods considered include linear interpolation and ratio estimators, regression-based methods historically employed by the U.S. Geological Survey, and newer flexible techniques including Weighted Regressions on Time, Season, and Discharge (WRTDS) and a generalized non-linear additive model. No single method is identified to have the greatest accuracy across all constituents, sites, and sampling scenarios. Most methods provide accurate estimates of specific conductance (used as a surrogate for total dissolved solids or specific major ions) and total nitrogen - lower accuracy is observed for the estimation of nitrate, total phosphorus and suspended sediment loads. Methods that allow for flexibility in the relation between concentration and flow conditions, specifically Beale's ratio estimator and WRTDS, exhibit greater estimation accuracy and lower bias. Evaluation of methods across simulated sampling scenarios indicate that (1) high-flow sampling is necessary to produce accurate load estimates, (2) extrapolation of sample data through time or across more extreme flow conditions reduces load estimate accuracy, and (3) WRTDS and methods that use a Kalman filter or smoothing to correct for departures between

  19. Alternate Methods in Refining the SLS Nozzle Plug Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbank, Scott; Allen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Numerical analysis has shown that the SLS nozzle environmental barrier (nozzle plug) design is inadequate for the prelaunch condition, which consists of two dominant loads: 1) the main engines startup pressure and 2) an environmentally induced pressure. Efforts to reduce load conservatisms included a dynamic analysis which showed a 31% higher safety factor compared to the standard static analysis. The environmental load is typically approached with a deterministic method using the worst possible combinations of pressures and temperatures. An alternate probabilistic approach, utilizing the distributions of pressures and temperatures, resulted in a 54% reduction in the environmental pressure load. A Monte Carlo simulation of environmental load that used five years of historical pressure and temperature data supported the results of the probabilistic analysis, indicating the probabilistic load is reflective of a 3-sigma condition (1 in 370 probability). Utilizing the probabilistic load analysis eliminated excessive conservatisms and will prevent a future overdesign of the nozzle plug. Employing a similar probabilistic approach to other design and analysis activities can result in realistic yet adequately conservative solutions.

  20. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  1. Use of the finite-element method for a dielectric-constant gas-thermometry experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandt, T.; Gaiser, C.; Fellmuth, B.; Haft, N.; Thiele-Krivoi, B.; Kuhn, A.

    2013-09-01

    The finite-element method is a well-established computational methodology for the numerical treatment of partial differential equations. It is primarily used for solving problems in applied engineering and science. In previous publications, we have shown that the method is suitable to solve problems in temperature metrology, for instance to predict temperature profiles and thermal equilibration processes in complex measurement setups. In this paper, the method is used for a primary thermometry experiment, namely dielectric-constant gas thermometry. Within the framework of an international project directed to the new definition of the base unit kelvin, measurements were performed at the triple point of water in order to determine the Boltzmann constant k. The finite-element method was used for the data evaluation in different ways: calculation of the effective compressibility of the measuring capacitor by describing the deformation of its electrodes under the influence of the pressure of the gas, the dielectric constant of which has to be determined; calculation of resonance frequencies for the determination of the elastic constants of the electrode material by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy; electrostatic simulations for calculating capacitance values; estimation of uncertainty components, which allowed to draw conclusions concerning the future reduction of uncertainty components.

  2. The lanthanum precipitation method. Part 2: quantification of the conditional interaction constant between technetium(IV) and humic substances.

    PubMed

    Geraedts, K; Maes, A

    2008-09-01

    The interaction between colloidal Tc(IV) species and colloidal Gorleben humic substances (HS) was quantified after application of the La-precipitation method on supernatant solutions obtained under various experimental conditions but at constant ionic strength of the Gorleben groundwater (0.04M). The determined interaction constant LogKHS (2.3+/-0.3) remained unchanged over a large range of Tc(IV) and HS concentrations and was independent of the pH of the original supernatant solution (pH range 6-10), Tc(IV)-HS loading (10(-3)-10(-6)molTcg(-1) HS) and the nature of the reducing surface (Magnetite, Pyrite and Gorleben sand) used for the pertechnetate reduction. The LogKHS value determined by the La-precipitation method is lower than the LogK value obtained from a previous study where the interaction between colloidal Tc(IV) species and Gorleben humic substances was quantified using a modified Schubert approach (2.6+/-0.3). The La-precipitation method allows to accurately determine the amount of Tc(IV) associated with HS but leads to a (small) overestimation of the free inorganic Tc(IV) species.

  3. Investigation of W-band dielectric constant of coals by free space method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Cheng-yan; Fan, Wei; Hu, Wei; Yang, Chuan-fa; Liu, Ling-yu; Chang, Tian-ying; Cui, Hong-liang

    2015-11-01

    The dielectric constant of Shandong anthracite coals of China was studied in the frequency range of 75~110 GHz (W-band), using the free space method for the first time. The measurement system is based on the Vector Network Analyzer of Agilent Technology and a VDI extension module with frequency range from 75 GHz to 110GHz. The dielectric constants of coals were calculated from the scattering parameters by implementing an algorithm. Correctness of the test results is verified by measuring the dielectric constant of air and timber. The dielectric constant of each selected coal with different moisture contents is investigated. It is found that both the real and imaginary parts of selected coals exhibit an apparent increasing trend with increasing water content of coals. The real part of coals with different water content varies from 2.61 to 4.97, and the imaginary part from 0.06 to 0.41 at the frequency of 110 GHz. We also obtained the diversification of the dielectric constant by increasing the frequency at the W-band. The real part of coals with different frequency varies from 3.85 to 3.91, and the imaginary part from 0.32 to 0.37 at W-band.

  4. Robust reconstruction of the rate constant distribution using the phase function method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yajun; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2006-12-01

    Many biological processes exhibit complex kinetic behavior that involves a nontrivial distribution of rate constants. Characterization of the rate constant distribution is often critical for mechanistic understandings of these processes. However, it is difficult to extract a rate constant distribution from data measured in the time domain. This is due to the numerical instability of the inverse Laplace transform, a long-standing mathematical challenge that has hampered data analysis in many disciplines. Here, we present a method that allows us to reconstruct the probability distribution of rate constants from decay data in the time domain, without fitting to specific trial functions or requiring any prior knowledge of the rate distribution. The robustness (numerical stability) of this reconstruction method is numerically illustrated by analyzing data with realistic noise and theoretically proved by the continuity of the transformations connecting the relevant function spaces. This development enhances our ability to characterize kinetics and dynamics of biological processes. We expect this method to be useful in a broad range of disciplines considering the prevalence of complex exponential decays in many experimental systems.

  5. Improved method for determination of optical constants of organic thin films from reflection and transmission measurements.

    PubMed

    Djurisić, A B; Fritz, T; Leo, K; Li, E H

    2000-03-01

    A new technique for determining the optical properties of organic thin films is presented. A detailed evaluation of the accuracy of the determined optical constants has been performed, and the best combination of measured values yielding the smallest errors in the index of refraction for realistic experimental uncertainties has been found. The proposed method utilizes the fact that optical constants are smooth continuous functions, which reduces the possibility of encountering multiple solutions. The method consists of two steps. In the first step the optical constants at all wavelengths and the film thickness are determined. In the second step the thickness and the imaginary part of the index of refraction are kept fixed while we reevaluate the real part of the index of refraction by using a different objective function with improved sensitivity to the refractive index. After verifying that the proposed method is capable of an accurate estimation of optical constants, we determine the index of refraction data of vanadyl-phthalocyanine in the visible spectral range.

  6. Fracture in Westerly granite under AE feedback and constant strain rate loading: Nucleation, quasi-static propagation, and the transition to unstable fracture propagation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, B.D.; Young, R.P.; Lockner, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    New observations of fracture nucleation are presented from three triaxial compression experiments on intact samples of Westerly granite, using Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring. By conducting the tests under different loading conditions, the fracture process is demonstrated for quasi-static fracture (under AE Feedback load), a slowly developing unstable fracture (loaded at a 'slow' constant strain rate of 2.5 ?? 10-6/s) and an unstable fracture that develops near instantaneously (loaded at a 'fast' constant strain rate of 5 ?? 10-5/s). By recording a continuous ultrasonic waveform during the critical period of fracture, the entire AE catalogue can be captured and the exact time of fracture defined. Under constant strain loading, three stages are observed: (1) An initial nucleation or stable growth phase at a rate of ??? 1.3 mm/s, (2) a sudden increase to a constant or slowly accelerating propagation speed of ??? 18 mm/s, and (3) unstable, accelerating propagation. In the ??? 100 ms before rupture, the high level of AE activity (as seen on the continuous record) prevented the location of discrete AE events. A lower bound estimate of the average propagation velocity (using the time-to-rupture and the existing fracture length) suggests values of a few m/s. However from a low gain acoustic record, we infer that in the final few ms, the fracture propagation speed increased to 175 m/s. These results demonstrate similarities between fracture nucleation in intact rock and the nucleation of dynamic instabilities in stick slip experiments. It is suggested that the ability to constrain the size of an evolving fracture provides a crucial tool in further understanding the controls on fracture nucleation. ?? Birkha??user Verlag, Basel, 2006.

  7. Measurement of piezoelectric constants of lanthanum-gallium tantalate crystal by X-ray diffraction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Blagov, A. E.; Marchenkov, N. V. Pisarevsky, Yu. V.; Prosekov, P. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-01-15

    A method for measuring piezoelectric constants of crystals of intermediate systems by X-ray quasi-multiple-wave diffraction is proposed and implemented. This technique makes it possible to determine the piezoelectric coefficient by measuring variations in the lattice parameter under an external electric field. This method has been approved, its potential is evaluated, and a comparison with high-resolution X-ray diffraction data is performed.

  8. Comparison of the constant and linear boundary element method for EEG and MEG forward modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C.; Chang, C.H.; Leahy, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    We present a comparison of boundary element methods for solving the forward problem in EEG and MEG. We use the method of weighted residuals and focus on the collocation and Galerkin forms for constant and linear basis functions. We also examine the effect of the isolated skull approach for reducing numerical errors due to the low conductivity of the skull. We demonstrate the improvement that a linear Galerkin approach may yield in solving the forward problem.

  9. Comparing the Performance of Two Dynamic Load Distribution Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kale, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    Parallel processing of symbolic computations on a message-passing multi-processor presents one challenge: To effectively utilize the available processors, the load must be distributed uniformly to all the processors. However, the structure of these computations cannot be predicted in advance. go, static scheduling methods are not applicable. In this paper, we compare the performance of two dynamic, distributed load balancing methods with extensive simulation studies. The two schemes are: the Contracting Within a Neighborhood (CWN) scheme proposed by us, and the Gradient Model proposed by Lin and Keller. We conclude that although simpler, the CWN is significantly more effective at distributing the work than the Gradient model.

  10. Calculation of equilibrium constants by matrix method for complexes of gold(III).

    PubMed

    Kudrev, A G

    2008-04-15

    A new matrix approach is proposed to calculate the equilibrium constants of ligands substitution in a metal ion inner coordination sphere with fixed binding sites positions. The proposed method allows to reduce the number of independent variables, necessary for the titration curves fitting without deterioration in the description accuracy. The square planar complexes [MY(4-n)X(n)] n=0-4 formation in solution model includes three independent variables K , omega(cis) and omega(trans) (K -equilibrium constant of replacement of first ligand, omega(cis), omega(trans)-parameters of mutual influence) as an alternative to four stepwise equilibrium constants and two microconstants. In the present investigation experimental spectrophotometric data published in the literature for system {Au(3+)-Cl(-)-Br(-)} were analysed. With the help of the proposed method the equilibrium constants of chloride by bromide ion substitution in internal coordination sphere of Au(III) are calculated K =50; omega(cis)=1.3; omega(trans)=0.7.

  11. Design Methods for Load-bearing Elements from Crosslaminated Timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilguts, A.; Serdjuks, D.; Goremikins, V.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-laminated timber is an environmentally friendly material, which possesses a decreased level of anisotropy in comparison with the solid and glued timber. Cross-laminated timber could be used for load-bearing walls and slabs of multi-storey timber buildings as well as decking structures of pedestrian and road bridges. Design methods of cross-laminated timber elements subjected to bending and compression with bending were considered. The presented methods were experimentally validated and verified by FEM. Two cross-laminated timber slabs were tested at the action of static load. Pine wood was chosen as a board's material. Freely supported beam with the span equal to 1.9 m, which was loaded by the uniformly distributed load, was a design scheme of the considered plates. The width of the plates was equal to 1 m. The considered cross-laminated timber plates were analysed by FEM method. The comparison of stresses acting in the edge fibres of the plate and the maximum vertical displacements shows that both considered methods can be used for engineering calculations. The difference between the results obtained experimentally and analytically is within the limits from 2 to 31%. The difference in results obtained by effective strength and stiffness and transformed sections methods was not significant.

  12. Force control compensation method with variable load stiffness and damping of the hydraulic drive unit force control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Ba, Kaixian; Yu, Bin; Cao, Yuan; Zhu, Qixin; Zhao, Hualong

    2016-05-01

    Each joint of hydraulic drive quadruped robot is driven by the hydraulic drive unit (HDU), and the contacting between the robot foot end and the ground is complex and variable, which increases the difficulty of force control inevitably. In the recent years, although many scholars researched some control methods such as disturbance rejection control, parameter self-adaptive control, impedance control and so on, to improve the force control performance of HDU, the robustness of the force control still needs improving. Therefore, how to simulate the complex and variable load characteristics of the environment structure and how to ensure HDU having excellent force control performance with the complex and variable load characteristics are key issues to be solved in this paper. The force control system mathematic model of HDU is established by the mechanism modeling method, and the theoretical models of a novel force control compensation method and a load characteristics simulation method under different environment structures are derived, considering the dynamic characteristics of the load stiffness and the load damping under different environment structures. Then, simulation effects of the variable load stiffness and load damping under the step and sinusoidal load force are analyzed experimentally on the HDU force control performance test platform, which provides the foundation for the force control compensation experiment research. In addition, the optimized PID control parameters are designed to make the HDU have better force control performance with suitable load stiffness and load damping, under which the force control compensation method is introduced, and the robustness of the force control system with several constant load characteristics and the variable load characteristics respectively are comparatively analyzed by experiment. The research results indicate that if the load characteristics are known, the force control compensation method presented in this

  13. CSF hydrodynamic studies in man. 1. Method of constant pressure CSF infusion.

    PubMed Central

    Ekstedt, J

    1977-01-01

    The constant pressure method for the study of the hydrodynamics of CSF is presented. By infusing artificial CSF at constant pressures and recording the resultant flow, it is possible to obtain information about the hydrodynamic conductance of the CSF outflow pathways. By lowering the infusion pressure below the pressure of the sagittal sinus all CSF produced can be collected and the CSF formation rate may thus be calculated. There is a rectilinear relationship between CSF pressure and the flow necessary to maintain the pressure. It is thus concluded that the arachnoidal villi, when once opened, are not further distended by pressure. This method makes possible indirect calculation of the pressure of the sagittal sinus and the pressure difference between the subarachnoid space and the sagittal sinus. Images PMID:864474

  14. Simulation of electric double-layer capacitors: evaluation of constant potential method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Laird, Brian; Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David; Asta, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Atomistic simulations can play an important role in understanding electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) at a molecular level. In such simulations, typically the electrode surface is modeled using fixed surface charges, which ignores the charge fluctuation induced by local fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work we evaluate an explicit treatment of charges, namely constant potential method (CPM)[1], in which the electrode charges are dynamically updated to maintain constant electrode potential. We employ a model system with a graphite electrode and a LiClO4/acetonitrile electrolyte, examined as a function of electrode potential differences. Using various molecular and macroscopic properties as metrics, we compare CPM simulations on this system to results using fixed surface charges. Specifically, results for predicted capacity, electric potential gradient and solvent density profile are identical between the two methods; However, ion density profiles and solvation structure yield significantly different results.

  15. A High Speed Calibration Method for Laser Positioner by Constant Velocity Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Hiroyuki

    This paper describes a high speed calibration method for laser positioner by scanning work area under constant velocity. Laser positioner consists of sinusoidal laser encoder, DC motor and the controller. The encoder has diffraction grating scale and laser optics. It generates sine and cosine outputs according to the travel distance. Qualities of the scale and the optics contribute to the fluctuation of output signal amplitude, DC offset and relative phase. First, the controller collects the output data under constant velocity of 4 samples per 1 sine wave length. The parameter can be estimated by simplified discrete Fourier transform method. Calibration data are collected every quarter sine wave length over all positioner work area. The result is stored in the table then referred by the controller in real time operation. Experiment results are also reported for HDD servo track writer application.

  16. Optimal error analysis of spectral methods with emphasis on non-constant coefficients and deformed geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maday, Yvon; Ronquist, Einar M.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical analysis of spectral methods when non-constant coefficients appear in the equation, either due to the original statement of the equations or to take into account the deformed geometry, is presented. Particular attention is devoted to the optimality of the discretization even for low values of the discretization parameter. The effect of some overintegration is also addressed, in order to possibly improve the accuracy of the discretization.

  17. Feedback control of torsion balance in measurement of gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method.

    PubMed

    Quan, Li-Di; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Wang, Yong-Ji; Luo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the feedback control system is of central importance in the measurement of the Newton's gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method. In this paper, a PID (Proportion-Integration-Differentiation) feedback loop is discussed in detail. Experimental results show that, with the feedback control activated, the twist angle of the torsion balance is limited to [Formula: see text] at the signal frequency of 2 mHz, which contributes a [Formula: see text] uncertainty to the G value.

  18. Novel Methods of Lipidic Nanoparticle Preparation and Drug Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitani, Y.

    2013-09-01

    In improving cancer chemotherapy, lipidic nanoparticle systems for drug delivery, such as liposomes and emulsions, have received much attention because they are capable of delivering their drug payload selectively to cancer cells and of circulating for a long period in the bloodstream. In addition, lipidic nanoparticles have been examined for use in gene delivery as a non-viral vector. Preparation methods of particles and drug loading methods are crucial for the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, which are the key aspects for pharmaceutical applications. This review describes new preparation methods for nanoparticles and a loading method for drugs using nanotechnology, including an evaluation of nanoparticles from the point of drug release for applications in cancer therapy and gene delivery.

  19. Evaluation and comparison of diffusion MR methods for measuring apparent transcytolemmal water exchange rate constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xin; Li, Hua; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Xie, Jingping; Gore, John C.; Xu, Junzhong

    2017-02-01

    Two diffusion-based approaches, CG (constant gradient) and FEXI (filtered exchange imaging) methods, have been previously proposed for measuring transcytolemmal water exchange rate constant kin, but their accuracy and feasibility have not been comprehensively evaluated and compared. In this work, both computer simulations and cell experiments in vitro were performed to evaluate these two methods. Simulations were done with different cell diameters (5, 10, 20 μm), a broad range of kin values (0.02-30 s-1) and different SNR's, and simulated kin's were directly compared with the ground truth values. Human leukemia K562 cells were cultured and treated with saponin to selectively change cell transmembrane permeability. The agreement between measured kin's of both methods was also evaluated. The results suggest that, without noise, the CG method provides reasonably accurate estimation of kin especially when it is smaller than 10 s-1, which is in the typical physiological range of many biological tissues. However, although the FEXI method overestimates kin even with corrections for the effects of extracellular water fraction, it provides reasonable estimates with practical SNR's and more importantly, the fitted apparent exchange rate AXR showed approximately linear dependence on the ground truth kin. In conclusion, either CG or FEXI method provides a sensitive means to characterize the variations in transcytolemmal water exchange rate constant kin, although the accuracy and specificity is usually compromised. The non-imaging CG method provides more accurate estimation of kin, but limited to large volume-of-interest. Although the accuracy of FEXI is compromised with extracellular volume fraction, it is capable of spatially mapping kin in practice.

  20. Evaluation and comparison of diffusion MR methods for measuring apparent transcytolemmal water exchange rate constant.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin; Li, Hua; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Xie, Jingping; Gore, John C; Xu, Junzhong

    2017-02-01

    Two diffusion-based approaches, CG (constant gradient) and FEXI (filtered exchange imaging) methods, have been previously proposed for measuring transcytolemmal water exchange rate constant kin, but their accuracy and feasibility have not been comprehensively evaluated and compared. In this work, both computer simulations and cell experiments in vitro were performed to evaluate these two methods. Simulations were done with different cell diameters (5, 10, 20μm), a broad range of kin values (0.02-30s(-1)) and different SNR's, and simulated kin's were directly compared with the ground truth values. Human leukemia K562 cells were cultured and treated with saponin to selectively change cell transmembrane permeability. The agreement between measured kin's of both methods was also evaluated. The results suggest that, without noise, the CG method provides reasonably accurate estimation of kin especially when it is smaller than 10s(-1), which is in the typical physiological range of many biological tissues. However, although the FEXI method overestimates kin even with corrections for the effects of extracellular water fraction, it provides reasonable estimates with practical SNR's and more importantly, the fitted apparent exchange rate AXR showed approximately linear dependence on the ground truth kin. In conclusion, either CG or FEXI method provides a sensitive means to characterize the variations in transcytolemmal water exchange rate constant kin, although the accuracy and specificity is usually compromised. The non-imaging CG method provides more accurate estimation of kin, but limited to large volume-of-interest. Although the accuracy of FEXI is compromised with extracellular volume fraction, it is capable of spatially mapping kin in practice.

  1. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOEpatents

    Perez, Richard

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  2. Acidic range titration of HEWL using a constant-pH molecular dynamics method.

    PubMed

    Machuqueiro, Miguel; Baptista, António M

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we present the first application to a protein of the stochastic constant-pH molecular dynamics (MD) method with the inclusion of proton tautomerism. The acidic titration of HEWL was performed under different conditions. Both generalized reaction field (GRF) and particle mesh Ewald (PME) methods were used in the treatment of the long range electrostatics and, even though the PME simulations revealed to be more stable, the better results were obtained using GRF (pK(a) RMSD of 0.82 for GRF and 1.13 for PME). The results using PME at different dielectric constants (2, 4, and 8) also revealed that there was no significant improvement in pK(a)'s prediction upon increasing the dielectric constant. The secondary structure analysis of HEWL revealed a remarkably stable protein in the acidic pH range. The beta-sheet strands (unlike the alpha-helices) seem to be destabilized upon pH decrease, suggesting that the beta-domain is less stable than the alpha-domain. The four principal alpha-helices were also ordered according to their stability in the acidic pH range and the results (4 < 1 < 2 approximately = 3) were consistent with the ones obtained in thermal denaturation studies.

  3. Field-induced phase transitions in chiral smectic liquid crystals studied by the constant current method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, Dhaouadi; R, Zgueb; O, Riahi; F, Trabelsi; T, Othman

    2016-05-01

    In ferroelectric liquid crystals, phase transitions can be induced by an electric field. The current constant method allows these transition to be quickly localized and thus the (E,T) phase diagram of the studied product can be obtained. In this work, we make a slight modification to the measurement principles based on this method. This modification allows the characteristic parameters of ferroelectric liquid crystal to be quantitatively measured. The use of a current square signal highlights a phenomenon of ferroelectric hysteresis with remnant polarization at null field, which points out an effect of memory in this compound.

  4. Efficient quantum-classical method for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: application to ozone formation.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Mikhail V; Babikov, Dmitri

    2012-05-14

    Efficient method is proposed for computing thermal rate constant of recombination reaction that proceeds according to the energy transfer mechanism, when an energized molecule is formed from reactants first, and is stabilized later by collision with quencher. The mixed quantum-classical theory for the collisional energy transfer and the ro-vibrational energy flow [M. Ivanov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144107 (2011)] is employed to treat the dynamics of molecule + quencher collision. Efficiency is achieved by sampling simultaneously (i) the thermal collision energy, (ii) the impact parameter, and (iii) the incident direction of quencher, as well as (iv) the rotational state of energized molecule. This approach is applied to calculate third-order rate constant of the recombination reaction that forms the (16)O(18)O(16)O isotopomer of ozone. Comparison of the predicted rate vs. experimental result is presented.

  5. Antioxidant study of quercetin and their metal complex and determination of stability constant by spectrophotometry method.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, R; Rajendran, M; Devapiriam, D

    2014-03-01

    Quercetin found chelate cadmium ions, scavenge free radicals produced by cadmium. Hence new complex, quercetin with cadmium was synthesised, and the synthesised complex structures were determined by UV-vis spectrophotometry, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis techniques (UV-vis, IR, TGA and DTA). The equilibrium stability constants of quercetin-cadmium complex were determined by Job's method. The determined stability constant value of quercetin-cadminum complex at pH 4.4 is 2.27×10(6) and at pH 7.4 is 7.80×10(6). It was found that the quercetin and cadmium ion form 1:1 complex in both pH 4.4 and pH 7.4. The structure of the compounds was elucidated on the basis of obtained results. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the free quercetin and quercetin-cadmium complexes were determined by DPPH and ABTS assays.

  6. The method of variation of constants and multiple time scales in orbital mechanics.

    PubMed

    Newman, William I; Efroimsky, Michael

    2003-06-01

    The method of variation of constants is an important tool used to solve systems of ordinary differential equations, and was invented by Euler and Lagrange to solve a problem in orbital mechanics. This methodology assumes that certain "constants" associated with a homogeneous problem will vary in time in response to an external force. It also introduces one or more constraint equations. We show that these constraints can be generalized in analogy to gauge theories in physics, and that different constraints can offer conceptual advances and methodological benefits to the solution of the underlying problem. Examples are given from linear ordinary differential equation theory and from orbital mechanics. However, a slow driving force in the presence of multiple time scales contained in the underlying (homogeneous) problem nevertheless requires special care, and this has strong implications to the analytic and numerical solutions of problems ranging from celestial mechanics to molecular dynamics. (c) 2003 American Institute of Physics.

  7. A Method to Analyze Tail Buffet Loads of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pototzky, Anthony S.; Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft designers commit significant resources to the design of aircraft in meeting performance goals. Despite fulfilling traditional design requirements, many fighter aircraft have encountered buffet loads when demonstrating their high angle-of-attack maneuver capabilities. As a result, during test or initial production phases of fighter development programs, many new designs are impacted, usually in a detrimental way, by resulting in reassessing designs or limiting full mission capability. These troublesome experiences usually stem from overlooking or completely ignoring the effects of buffet during the design phase of aircraft. Perhaps additional requirements are necessary that addresses effects of buffet in achieving best aircraft performance in fulfilling mission goals. This paper describes a reliable, fairly simple, but quite general buffet loads analysis method to use in the initial design phases of fighter-aircraft development. The method is very similar to the random gust load analysis that is now commonly available in a commercial code, which this analysis capability is based, with some key modifications. The paper describes the theory and the implementation of the methodology. The method is demonstrated on a JSF prototype example problem. The demonstration also serves as a validation of the method, since, in the paper, the analysis is shown to nearly match the flight data. In addition, the paper demonstrates how the analysis method can be used to assess candidate design concepts in determining a satisfactory final aircraft configuration.

  8. Application of the median method to estimate the kinetic constants of the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Pedro L; Astudillo-Castro, Carolina; Gajardo, Diego; Flores, Sebastián

    2017-04-07

    In 1974, Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden published the direct linear plot method, which used the median to estimate the Vmax and Km from a set of initial rates as a function of substrate concentrations. The robustness of this non-parametric method was clearly demonstrated by comparing it with the least-squares method. The authors commented that the method cannot readily be generalized to equations of more than two parameters. Unfortunately, this comment has been misread by other authors. Comments such as "this method cannot be extended directly to equations with more than two parameters" were found in some publications. In addition, recently, the most drastic comment was published: "this method cannot be applied for the analysis of substrate inhibition." Given all of these presumptions, we have been motivated to publish a demonstration of the contrary: the median method can be applied to more than two-parameter equations, using as an example, the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation. A computer algorithm was written to evaluate the effect of simulated experimental error of the initial rates on the estimation of Vmax, Km and KS. The error was assigned to different points of the experimental design. Four different KS/Km ratios were analyzed with the values 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000. The results indicated that the least-squares method was slightly better than the median method in terms of accuracy and variance. However, the presence of outliers affected the estimation of kinetic constants using the least-squares method more severely than the median method. The estimation of KS using the median method to estimate 1/KS was much better than the direct estimation of KS, causing a negative effect of non-linearity of KS in the kinetic equation. Considering that the median method is free from the assumptions of the least-squares method and the arbitrary assumptions implicit in the linearization methods to estimate the kinetic constants Vmax, Km and KS from the substrate

  9. Improved dynamic analysis method using load-dependent Ritz vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobedo-Torres, J.; Ricles, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic analysis of large space structures is important in order to predict their behavior under operating conditions. Computer models of large space structures are characterized by having a large number of degrees of freedom, and the computational effort required to carry out the analysis is very large. Conventional methods of solution utilize a subset of the eigenvectors of the system, but for systems with many degrees of freedom, the solution of the eigenproblem is in many cases the most costly phase of the analysis. For this reason, alternate solution methods need to be considered. It is important that the method chosen for the analysis be efficient and that accurate results be obtainable. It is important that the method chosen for the analysis be efficient and that accurate results be obtainable. The load dependent Ritz vector method is presented as an alternative to the classical normal mode methods for obtaining dynamic responses of large space structures. A simplified model of a space station is used to compare results. Results show that the load dependent Ritz vector method predicts the dynamic response better than the classical normal mode method. Even though this alternate method is very promising, further studies are necessary to fully understand its attributes and limitations.

  10. A test method for determining adhesion forces and Hamaker constants of cementitious materials using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lomboy, Gilson; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang Kejin; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2011-11-15

    A method for determining Hamaker constant of cementitious materials is presented. The method involved sample preparation, measurement of adhesion force between the tested material and a silicon nitride probe using atomic force microscopy in dry air and in water, and calculating the Hamaker constant using appropriate contact mechanics models. The work of adhesion and Hamaker constant were computed from the pull-off forces using the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts and Derjagin-Muller-Toropov models. Reference materials with known Hamaker constants (mica, silica, calcite) and commercially available cementitious materials (Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS)) were studied. The Hamaker constants of the reference materials obtained are consistent with those published by previous researchers. The results indicate that PC has a higher Hamaker constant than GGBFS. The Hamaker constant of PC in water is close to the previously predicted value C{sub 3}S, which is attributed to short hydration time ({<=} 45 min) used in this study.

  11. A method for computing association rate constants of atomistically represented proteins under macromolecular crowding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Sanbo; Cai, Lu; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    In cellular environments, two protein molecules on their way to form a specific complex encounter many bystander macromolecules. The latter molecules, or crowders, affect both the energetics of the interaction between the test molecules and the dynamics of their relative motion. In earlier work (Zhou and Szabo 1991 J. Chem. Phys. 95 5948-52), it has been shown that, in modeling the association kinetics of the test molecules, the presence of crowders can be accounted for by their energetic and dynamic effects. The recent development of the transient-complex theory for protein association in dilute solutions makes it possible to easily incorporate the energetic and dynamic effects of crowders. The transient complex refers to a late on-pathway intermediate, in which the two protein molecules have near-native relative separation and orientation, but have yet to form the many short-range specific interactions of the native complex. The transient-complex theory predicts the association rate constant as ka = ka0exp( - ΔG*el/kBT), where ka0 is the ‘basal’ rate constant for reaching the transient complex by unbiased diffusion, and the Boltzmann factors captures the influence of long-range electrostatic interactions between the protein molecules. Crowders slow down the diffusion, therefore reducing the basal rate constant (to kac0), and induce an effective interaction energy ΔGc. We show that the latter interaction energy for atomistic proteins in the presence of spherical crowders is ‘long’-ranged, allowing the association rate constant under crowding to be computed as kac = kac0exp[ - (ΔG*el + ΔG*c)/kBT]. Applications demonstrate that this computational method allows for realistic modeling of protein association kinetics under crowding.

  12. Competitive kinetics versus stopped flow method for determining the degradation rate constants of steroids by ozonation.

    PubMed

    López-López, Alberto; Flores-Payán, Valentín; León-Becerril, Elizabeth; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; Vallejo-Rodríguez, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    Steroids are classified as endocrine disrupting chemicals; they are persistent with low biodegradability and are hardly degraded by conventional methods. Ozonation process has been effective for steroids degradation and the determination of the kinetics is a fundamental aspect for the design and operation of the reactor. This study assessed two methods: competitive kinetics and stopped flow, for determining the degradation kinetics of two steroids, estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) in spiked water. Experiments were performed at pH 6, 21 °C, and using tertbutyl alcohol as scavenger of hydroxyl radicals; competitive kinetics method used sodium phenolate as reference compound. For the stopped flow, the experiments were performed in a BioLogic SFM-3000/S equipment. For both methods, the second order rate constants were in the order of 10(6) and 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for E2 and EE2 respectively. The competitive kinetics can be applied with assurance and reliability but needing an additional analysis method to measure the residual concentrations. Stopped flow method allows the evaluation of the degradation kinetics in milliseconds and avoids the use of additional analytical methodologies; this method allows determining the reaction times on line. The methods are applicable for degradation of other emerging contaminants or other steroids and could be applied in water treatment at industrial level. Finally, it is important to consider the resources available to implement the most appropriate method, either competitive kinetics or the stopped-flow method.

  13. Matching wind turbine rotors and loads: Computational methods for designers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, J. B.

    1983-04-01

    A comprehensive method for matching wind energy conversion system (WECS) rotors with the load characteristics of common electrical and mechanical applications was reported. A method was developed to convert the data into useful results: (1) from turbine efficiency and load torque characteristics, turbine power is predicted as a function of windspeed; (2) it is decided how turbine power is to be governed to insure safety of all components; (3) mechanical conversion efficiency comes into play to predict how useful delivered power varies with windspeed; (4) wind statistics are used to predict longterm energy output. Most systems are approximated by a graph and calculator approach. The method leads to energy predictions, and to insight into modeled processes. A computer program provides more sophisticated calculations where a highly unusual system is to be modeled, where accuracy is at a premium, or where error analysis is required. The analysis is fleshed out with in depth case studies for induction generator and inverter utility systems; battery chargers; resistance heaters; positive displacement pumps; including three different load compensation strategies; and centrifugal pumps with unregulated electric power transmission from turbine to pump.

  14. A new sensitive method of dissociation constants determination based on the isohydric solutions principle.

    PubMed

    Michałowski, Tadeusz; Pilarski, Bogusław; Asuero, Agustin G; Dobkowska, Agnieszka

    2010-10-15

    The paper provides a new formulation and analytical proposals based on the isohydric solutions concept. It is particularly stated that a mixture formed, according to titrimetric mode, from a weak acid (HX, C(0)mol/L) and a strong acid (HB, Cmol/L) solutions, assumes constant pH, independently on the volumes of the solutions mixed, provided that the relation C(0)=C+C(2)·10(pK(1)) is valid, where pK(1)=-log K(1), K(1) the dissociation constant for HX. The generalized formulation, referred to the isohydric solutions thus obtained, was extended also to more complex acid-base systems. Particularly in the (HX, HB) system, the titration occurs at constant ionic strength (I) value, not resulting from presence of a basal electrolyte. This very advantageous conjunction of the properties provides, among others, a new, very sensitive method for verification of pK(1) value. The new method is particularly useful for weak acids HX characterized by low pK(1) values. The method was tested experimentally on four acid-base systems (HX, HB), in aqueous and mixed-solvent media and compared with the literature data. Some useful (linear and hyperbolic) correlations were stated and applied for validation of pK(1) values. Finally, some practical applications of analytical interest of the isohydricity (pH constancy) principle as one formulated in this paper were enumerated, proving the usefulness of such a property which has its remote roots in the Arrhenius concept.

  15. Method of experimental determination of the kinetic constants in fast polymerization reactions in nonisothermal diffusion conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Prochukhan, Yu.A.; Berlin, A.A.; Enikolopyan, N.S.

    1986-09-01

    A new method for the experimental determination of the kinetic constants k/sub p/ and k/sub t/ in fast polymerization reactions on the example of cationic (under the effect of AlCl/sub 3/, BF/sub 3/, and other catalysts) liquid phase polymerization of isobutylene in a flow was suggested. The study of the macrokinetic features of low-temperature polymerization of isobutylene revealed the specific conditions of the occurrence of the process (quasi-ideal displacement) which are characterized by the relative constancy and uniformity of the distribution of the concentrations of the reacting substances along the flow section.

  16. Evaluation of the constant potential method in simulating electric double-layer capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhenxing; Laird, Brian B.; Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David L.; Asta, Mark

    2014-11-14

    A major challenge in the molecular simulation of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is the choice of an appropriate model for the electrode. Typically, in such simulations the electrode surface is modeled using a uniform fixed charge on each of the electrode atoms, which ignores the electrode response to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work, we evaluate and compare this Fixed Charge Method (FCM) with the more realistic Constant Potential Method (CPM), [S. K. Reed et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084704 (2007)], in which the electrode charges fluctuate in order to maintain constant electric potential in each electrode. For this comparison, we utilize a simplified LiClO{sub 4}-acetonitrile/graphite EDLC. At low potential difference (ΔΨ ⩽ 2 V), the two methods yield essentially identical results for ion and solvent density profiles; however, significant differences appear at higher ΔΨ. At ΔΨ ⩾ 4 V, the CPM ion density profiles show significant enhancement (over FCM) of “inner-sphere adsorbed” Li{sup +} ions very close to the electrode surface. The ability of the CPM electrode to respond to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte is seen to significantly lower the energy (and barrier) for the approach of Li{sup +} ions to the electrode surface.

  17. Evaluation of the constant potential method in simulating electric double-layer capacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenxing; Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David L; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian B

    2014-11-14

    A major challenge in the molecular simulation of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is the choice of an appropriate model for the electrode. Typically, in such simulations the electrode surface is modeled using a uniform fixed charge on each of the electrode atoms, which ignores the electrode response to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work, we evaluate and compare this Fixed Charge Method (FCM) with the more realistic Constant Potential Method (CPM), [S. K. Reed et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084704 (2007)], in which the electrode charges fluctuate in order to maintain constant electric potential in each electrode. For this comparison, we utilize a simplified LiClO4-acetonitrile/graphite EDLC. At low potential difference (ΔΨ ⩽ 2 V), the two methods yield essentially identical results for ion and solvent density profiles; however, significant differences appear at higher ΔΨ. At ΔΨ ⩾ 4 V, the CPM ion density profiles show significant enhancement (over FCM) of "inner-sphere adsorbed" Li(+) ions very close to the electrode surface. The ability of the CPM electrode to respond to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte is seen to significantly lower the energy (and barrier) for the approach of Li(+) ions to the electrode surface.

  18. Evaluation of the constant potential method in simulating electric double-layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David L.; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian B.

    2014-11-01

    A major challenge in the molecular simulation of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is the choice of an appropriate model for the electrode. Typically, in such simulations the electrode surface is modeled using a uniform fixed charge on each of the electrode atoms, which ignores the electrode response to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work, we evaluate and compare this Fixed Charge Method (FCM) with the more realistic Constant Potential Method (CPM), [S. K. Reed et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084704 (2007)], in which the electrode charges fluctuate in order to maintain constant electric potential in each electrode. For this comparison, we utilize a simplified LiClO4-acetonitrile/graphite EDLC. At low potential difference (ΔΨ ⩽ 2 V), the two methods yield essentially identical results for ion and solvent density profiles; however, significant differences appear at higher ΔΨ. At ΔΨ ⩾ 4 V, the CPM ion density profiles show significant enhancement (over FCM) of "inner-sphere adsorbed" Li+ ions very close to the electrode surface. The ability of the CPM electrode to respond to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte is seen to significantly lower the energy (and barrier) for the approach of Li+ ions to the electrode surface.

  19. Matching wind turbine rotors and loads: computational methods for designers

    SciTech Connect

    Seale, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    This report provides a comprehensive method for matching wind energy conversion system (WECS) rotors with the load characteristics of common electrical and mechanical applications. The user must supply: (1) turbine aerodynamic efficiency as a function of tipspeed ratio; (2) mechanical load torque as a function of rotation speed; (3) useful delivered power as a function of incoming mechanical power; (4) site average windspeed and, for maximum accuracy, distribution data. The description of the data includes governing limits consistent with the capacities of components. The report develops, a step-by-step method for converting the data into useful results: (1) from turbine efficiency and load torque characteristics, turbine power is predicted as a function of windspeed; (2) a decision is made how turbine power is to be governed (it may self-govern) to insure safety of all components; (3) mechanical conversion efficiency comes into play to predict how useful delivered power varies with windspeed; (4) wind statistics come into play to predict longterm energy output. Most systems can be approximated by a graph-and-calculator approach: Computer-generated families of coefficient curves provide data for algebraic scaling formulas. The method leads not only to energy predictions, but also to insight into the processes being modeled. Direct use of a computer program provides more sophisticated calculations where a highly unusual system is to be modeled, where accuracy is at a premium, or where error analysis is required. The analysis is fleshed out witn in-depth case studies for induction generator and inverter utility systems; battery chargers; resistance heaters; positive displacement pumps, including three different load-compensation strategies; and centrifugal pumps with unregulated electric power transmission from turbine to pump.

  20. Photometric method for determination of acidity constants through integral spectra analysis.

    PubMed

    Zevatskiy, Yuriy Eduardovich; Ruzanov, Daniil Olegovich; Samoylov, Denis Vladimirovich

    2015-04-15

    An express method for determination of acidity constants of organic acids, based on the analysis of the integral transmittance vs. pH dependence is developed. The integral value is registered as a photocurrent of photometric device simultaneously with potentiometric titration. The proposed method allows to obtain pKa using only simple and low-cost instrumentation. The optical part of the experimental setup has been optimized through the exclusion of the monochromator device. Thus it only takes 10-15 min to obtain one pKa value with the absolute error of less than 0.15 pH units. Application limitations and reliability of the method have been tested for a series of organic acids of various nature.

  1. Photometric method for determination of acidity constants through integral spectra analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zevatskiy, Yuriy Eduardovich; Ruzanov, Daniil Olegovich; Samoylov, Denis Vladimirovich

    2015-04-01

    An express method for determination of acidity constants of organic acids, based on the analysis of the integral transmittance vs. pH dependence is developed. The integral value is registered as a photocurrent of photometric device simultaneously with potentiometric titration. The proposed method allows to obtain pKa using only simple and low-cost instrumentation. The optical part of the experimental setup has been optimized through the exclusion of the monochromator device. Thus it only takes 10-15 min to obtain one pKa value with the absolute error of less than 0.15 pH units. Application limitations and reliability of the method have been tested for a series of organic acids of various nature.

  2. Block-Iterative Methods for 3D Constant-Coefficient Stencils on GPUs and Multicore CPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Bobby; Wang, Zhen; Berrill, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Block iterative methods are extremely important as smoothers for multigrid methods, as preconditioners for Krylov methods, and as solvers for diagonally dominant linear systems. Developing robust and efficient smoother algorithms suitable for current and evolving GPU and multicore CPU systems is a significant challenge. We address this issue in the case of constant-coefficient stencils arising in the solution of elliptic partial differential equations on structured 3D uniform and adaptively refined block structured grids. Robust, highly parallel implementations of block Jacobi and chaotic block Gauss-Seidel algorithms with exact inversion of the blocks are developed using different parallelization techniques. Experimental results for NVIDIA Fermi/Kepler GPUs and AMD multicore systems are presented.

  3. Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads

    DOEpatents

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2007-02-13

    A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the wind turbine and determining a yaw error of the wind turbine relative to the measured instantaneous wind direction. The method further includes comparing the yaw error to a yaw error trigger that has different values at different wind speeds and shutting down the wind turbine when the yaw error exceeds the yaw error trigger corresponding to the measured or estimated instantaneous wind speed.

  4. Photoconductivity of Low-Bandgap Polymer and Polymer: Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Studied by Constant Photocurrent Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malov, V. V.; Tameev, A. R.; Novikov, S. V.; Khenkin, M. V.; Kazanskii, A. G.; Vannikov, A. V.

    2015-08-01

    Optical and photoelectric properties of modern photosensitive polymers are of great interest due to their prospects for photovoltaic applications. In particular, an investigation of absorption and photoconductivity edge of these materials could provide valuable information. For these purpose we applied the constant photocurrent method which has proved its efficiency for inorganic materials. PCDTBT and PTB7 polymers were used as objects for the study as well as their blends with a fullerene derivative PC71BM. The measurements by constant photocurrent method (CPM) show that formation of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) in the blends increases photoconductivity and results in a redshift of the photocurrent edge in the doped polymers compared with that in the neat polymers. Obtained from CPM data, spectral dependences of absorption coefficient were approximated using Gaussian distribution of density-of-states within HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) bands. The approximation procedure allowed us to evaluate rather optical than electrical bandgaps for the studied materials. Moreover, spectra of polymer:PC71BM blends were fitted well by the sum of two Gaussian peaks which reveal both the transitions within the polymer and the transitions involving charge transfer states at the donor-acceptor interface in the BHJ.

  5. Comparison of analytical methods for calculation of wind loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minderman, Donald J.; Schultz, Larry L.

    1989-01-01

    The following analysis is a comparison of analytical methods for calculation of wind load pressures. The analytical methods specified in ASCE Paper No. 3269, ANSI A58.1-1982, the Standard Building Code, and the Uniform Building Code were analyzed using various hurricane speeds to determine the differences in the calculated results. The winds used for the analysis ranged from 100 mph to 125 mph and applied inland from the shoreline of a large open body of water (i.e., an enormous lake or the ocean) a distance of 1500 feet or ten times the height of the building or structure considered. For a building or structure less than or equal to 250 feet in height acted upon by a wind greater than or equal to 115 mph, it was determined that the method specified in ANSI A58.1-1982 calculates a larger wind load pressure than the other methods. For a building or structure between 250 feet and 500 feet tall acted upon by a wind rangind from 100 mph to 110 mph, there is no clear choice of which method to use; for these cases, factors that must be considered are the steady-state or peak wind velocity, the geographic location, the distance from a large open body of water, and the expected design life and its risk factor.

  6. A new method for determining the Hubble constant from sub-TeV gamma-ray observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salamon, M. H.; Stecker, F. W.; De Jager, O. C.

    1994-01-01

    The present uncertainty in the Hubble constant leaves unresolved questions regarding the age of the universe and related matters involving the amount and nature of the dark matter in the universe, consistency with the inflationary model of the universe, and the need for a cosmological constant. It is clear that a significantly precise determination of the Hubble constant by as many different methods as possible is crucial to our knowledge and understanding of the character of the universe. We propose here an entirely new method for determining the Hubble constant, based on measuring the extinction of high-energy gamma-rays emitted by detectable gamma-ray emitting blazars at various redshifts.

  7. Relativistic extended-coupled-cluster method for the magnetic hyperfine structure constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasmal, Sudip; Pathak, Himadri; Nayak, Malaya K.; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2015-02-01

    The article deals with the general implementation of the four-component spinor relativistic extended-coupled-cluster (ECC) method to calculate first-order property of atoms and molecules in their open-shell ground-state configuration. The implemented relativistic ECC is employed to calculate hyperfine structure constants of alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs), singly charged alkaline-earth-metal atoms (Be+ ,Mg+,Ca+, and Sr+), and molecules (BeH, MgF, and CaH). We have compared our ECC results with the calculations based on the restricted active space configuration interaction (RAS-CI) method. Our results are in better agreement with the available experimental values than those of the RAS-CI values.

  8. Constant-pH Hybrid Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics–Monte Carlo Simulation Method

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A computational method is developed to carry out explicit solvent simulations of complex molecular systems under conditions of constant pH. In constant-pH simulations, preidentified ionizable sites are allowed to spontaneously protonate and deprotonate as a function of time in response to the environment and the imposed pH. The method, based on a hybrid scheme originally proposed by H. A. Stern (J. Chem. Phys.2007, 126, 164112), consists of carrying out short nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (neMD) switching trajectories to generate physically plausible configurations with changed protonation states that are subsequently accepted or rejected according to a Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) criterion. To ensure microscopic detailed balance arising from such nonequilibrium switches, the atomic momenta are altered according to the symmetric two-ends momentum reversal prescription. To achieve higher efficiency, the original neMD–MC scheme is separated into two steps, reducing the need for generating a large number of unproductive and costly nonequilibrium trajectories. In the first step, the protonation state of a site is randomly attributed via a Metropolis MC process on the basis of an intrinsic pKa; an attempted nonequilibrium switch is generated only if this change in protonation state is accepted. This hybrid two-step inherent pKa neMD–MC simulation method is tested with single amino acids in solution (Asp, Glu, and His) and then applied to turkey ovomucoid third domain and hen egg-white lysozyme. Because of the simple linear increase in the computational cost relative to the number of titratable sites, the present method is naturally able to treat extremely large systems. PMID:26300709

  9. Constant-pH Hybrid Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics-Monte Carlo Simulation Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunjie; Roux, Benoît

    2015-08-11

    A computational method is developed to carry out explicit solvent simulations of complex molecular systems under conditions of constant pH. In constant-pH simulations, preidentified ionizable sites are allowed to spontaneously protonate and deprotonate as a function of time in response to the environment and the imposed pH. The method, based on a hybrid scheme originally proposed by H. A. Stern (J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 164112), consists of carrying out short nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (neMD) switching trajectories to generate physically plausible configurations with changed protonation states that are subsequently accepted or rejected according to a Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) criterion. To ensure microscopic detailed balance arising from such nonequilibrium switches, the atomic momenta are altered according to the symmetric two-ends momentum reversal prescription. To achieve higher efficiency, the original neMD-MC scheme is separated into two steps, reducing the need for generating a large number of unproductive and costly nonequilibrium trajectories. In the first step, the protonation state of a site is randomly attributed via a Metropolis MC process on the basis of an intrinsic pKa; an attempted nonequilibrium switch is generated only if this change in protonation state is accepted. This hybrid two-step inherent pKa neMD-MC simulation method is tested with single amino acids in solution (Asp, Glu, and His) and then applied to turkey ovomucoid third domain and hen egg-white lysozyme. Because of the simple linear increase in the computational cost relative to the number of titratable sites, the present method is naturally able to treat extremely large systems.

  10. Generalized methods and solvers for noise removal from piecewise constant signals. I. Background theory

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; Jones, Nick S.

    2011-01-01

    Removing noise from piecewise constant (PWC) signals is a challenging signal processing problem arising in many practical contexts. For example, in exploration geosciences, noisy drill hole records need to be separated into stratigraphic zones, and in biophysics, jumps between molecular dwell states have to be extracted from noisy fluorescence microscopy signals. Many PWC denoising methods exist, including total variation regularization, mean shift clustering, stepwise jump placement, running medians, convex clustering shrinkage and bilateral filtering; conventional linear signal processing methods are fundamentally unsuited. This paper (part I, the first of two) shows that most of these methods are associated with a special case of a generalized functional, minimized to achieve PWC denoising. The minimizer can be obtained by diverse solver algorithms, including stepwise jump placement, convex programming, finite differences, iterated running medians, least angle regression, regularization path following and coordinate descent. In the second paper, part II, we introduce novel PWC denoising methods, and comparisons between these methods performed on synthetic and real signals, showing that the new understanding of the problem gained in part I leads to new methods that have a useful role to play. PMID:22003312

  11. Generalized methods and solvers for noise removal from piecewise constant signals. I. Background theory.

    PubMed

    Little, Max A; Jones, Nick S

    2011-11-08

    Removing noise from piecewise constant (PWC) signals is a challenging signal processing problem arising in many practical contexts. For example, in exploration geosciences, noisy drill hole records need to be separated into stratigraphic zones, and in biophysics, jumps between molecular dwell states have to be extracted from noisy fluorescence microscopy signals. Many PWC denoising methods exist, including total variation regularization, mean shift clustering, stepwise jump placement, running medians, convex clustering shrinkage and bilateral filtering; conventional linear signal processing methods are fundamentally unsuited. This paper (part I, the first of two) shows that most of these methods are associated with a special case of a generalized functional, minimized to achieve PWC denoising. The minimizer can be obtained by diverse solver algorithms, including stepwise jump placement, convex programming, finite differences, iterated running medians, least angle regression, regularization path following and coordinate descent. In the second paper, part II, we introduce novel PWC denoising methods, and comparisons between these methods performed on synthetic and real signals, showing that the new understanding of the problem gained in part I leads to new methods that have a useful role to play.

  12. Extrapolation of Extreme and Fatigue Loads Using Probabilistic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, P. J.; Holley, W. E.; Butterfield, S. P.

    2004-11-01

    Probabilistic methods were used to determine the long-term extreme and fatigue loads of two different 1.5 MW wind turbine designs. Over the past decade, probabilistic methods for wind turbine design have acquired increasing levels of interest in both the research and industrial community. This interest has largely been driven by the desire to replace outdated empirical-based design models with more physically relevant models that can be accurately applied to the next generation of wind turbine designs. This study further extends previous works through further examination of moment-based probability methods, as well as the effects of using a joint distribution of mean wind speed and turbulence level, and the statistical uncertainty of moment-based methods, introducing refinements such as compensating for non-zero cyclic midpoints in fatigue calculations, application of a threshold technique and full integration of all probable operating conditions.

  13. Accurate mass replacement method for the sediment concentration measurement with a constant volume container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yunyun; Chen, Tianqin; Yan, Jun; Lei, Tingwu

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of sediment concentration in water is of great importance in soil erosion research and soil and water loss monitoring systems. The traditional weighing method has long been the foundation of all the other measuring methods and instrument calibration. The development of a new method to replace the traditional oven-drying method is of interest in research and practice for the quick and efficient measurement of sediment concentration, especially field measurements. A new method is advanced in this study for accurately measuring the sediment concentration based on the accurate measurement of the mass of the sediment-water mixture in the confined constant volume container (CVC). A sediment-laden water sample is put into the CVC to determine its mass before the CVC is filled with water and weighed again for the total mass of the water and sediments in the container. The known volume of the CVC, the mass of sediment-laden water, and sediment particle density are used to calculate the mass of water, which is replaced by sediments, therefore sediment concentration of the sample is calculated. The influence of water temperature was corrected by measuring water density to determine the temperature of water before measurements were conducted. The CVC was used to eliminate the surface tension effect so as to obtain the accurate volume of water and sediment mixture. Experimental results showed that the method was capable of measuring the sediment concentration from 0.5 up to 1200 kg m‑3. A good liner relationship existed between the designed and measured sediment concentrations with all the coefficients of determination greater than 0.999 and the averaged relative error less than 0.2%. All of these seem to indicate that the new method is capable of measuring a full range of sediment concentration above 0.5 kg m‑3 to replace the traditional oven-drying method as a standard method for evaluating and calibrating other methods.

  14. Sub-bandgap analysis of boron doped InSe single crystals by constant photocurrent method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacıoğlu, A.; Ertap, H.; Karabulut, M.; Mamedov, G. M.

    2014-11-01

    Sub-bandgap absorption properties of indium selenide doped with boron atoms within a range of [B] = 0-1.8 at.% have been investigated. From the absorption coefficient spectra measured by using constant photocurrent method (CPM) at 300 K, we observed that the disorder in the structure increases. The calculated Urbach parameters, quantifying the disorder, vary from 17 to 53 meV, as [B] is increased from 0 to 1 at.%. Also the calculated optical gaps decrease from 1.28 eV to 1.17 eV for the same range of [B]. From temperature dependent dark conductivity measurements, the characteristic activation energies are calculated to range from 0.25 to 0.18 eV for vertical (to c-axis) direction; to stay almost constant for parallel (c-axis) direction. At a temperature of 12 K, the absorption coefficient spectra by using CPM and the radiative recombination spectra by photoluminescence (PL) have been taken for the samples with [B] = 0 and 0.5 at.%. Three main PL bands are observed at photon energies of ∼1.24, 1.306 and 1.337 eV. The PL bands are interpreted by corresponding absorption bands detected at 12 K and at the photon energies of ∼1.24, ∼1.31 and ∼1.35 eV.

  15. A Method for Achieving Constant Rotation Rates in a Micro-Orthogonal Linkage System

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1999-05-12

    Silicon micromachine designs include engines that consist of orthog- onally oriented linear comb drive actuators mechanically connected to a rotating gear. These gears are as small as 50 {micro}m in diameter and can be driven at rotation rates exceeding 300,000 rpm. Generally, these en- gines will run with non-uniform rotation rates if the drive signals are not properly designed and maintained over a range of system parameters. We present a method for producing constant rotation rates in a micro-engine driven by an orthogonal linkage system. We show that provided the val- ues of certain masses, springs, damping factors, and lever arms are in the right proportions, the system behaves as though it were symmetrical. We will refer to systems built in this way as being quasi-symmetrical. We show that if a system is built quasi-symmetrically , then it is possible to achieve constant rotation rates even if one does not know the form of the friction function, or the value of the friction. We analyze this case in some detail.

  16. The composite method: An improved method for stream-water solute load estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aulenbach, Brent T.; Hooper, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    The composite method is an alternative method for estimating stream-water solute loads, combining aspects of two commonly used methods: the regression-model method (which is used by the composite method to predict variations in concentrations between collected samples) and a period-weighted approach (which is used by the composite method to apply the residual concentrations from the regression model over time). The extensive dataset collected at the outlet of the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW) near Atlanta, Georgia, USA, was used in data analyses for illustrative purposes. A bootstrap (subsampling) experiment (using the composite method and the PMRW dataset along with various fixed-interval and large storm sampling schemes) obtained load estimates for the 8-year study period with a magnitude of the bias of less than 1%, even for estimates that included the fewest number of samples. Precisions were always <2% on a study period and annual basis, and <2% precisions were obtained for quarterly and monthly time intervals for estimates that had better sampling. The bias and precision of composite-method load estimates varies depending on the variability in the regression-model residuals, how residuals systematically deviated from the regression model over time, sampling design, and the time interval of the load estimate. The regression-model method did not estimate loads precisely during shorter time intervals, from annually to monthly, because the model could not explain short-term patterns in the observed concentrations. Load estimates using the period-weighted approach typically are biased as a result of sampling distribution and are accurate only with extensive sampling. The formulation of the composite method facilitates exploration of patterns (trends) contained in the unmodelled portion of the load. Published in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Deterministic methods for multi-control fuel loading optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Fariz B. Abdul

    We have developed a multi-control fuel loading optimization code for pressurized water reactors based on deterministic methods. The objective is to flatten the fuel burnup profile, which maximizes overall energy production. The optimal control problem is formulated using the method of Lagrange multipliers and the direct adjoining approach for treatment of the inequality power peaking constraint. The optimality conditions are derived for a multi-dimensional multi-group optimal control problem via calculus of variations. Due to the Hamiltonian having a linear control, our optimal control problem is solved using the gradient method to minimize the Hamiltonian and a Newton step formulation to obtain the optimal control. We are able to satisfy the power peaking constraint during depletion with the control at beginning of cycle (BOC) by building the proper burnup path forward in time and utilizing the adjoint burnup to propagate the information back to the BOC. Our test results show that we are able to achieve our objective and satisfy the power peaking constraint during depletion using either the fissile enrichment or burnable poison as the control. Our fuel loading designs show an increase of 7.8 equivalent full power days (EFPDs) in cycle length compared with 517.4 EFPDs for the AP600 first cycle.

  18. Growth temperature effect on a-Si:H thin films studied by constant photocurrent method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadibhasme, N. A.; Dusane, R. O.

    2013-02-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films are synthesized by tuning different process parameters among which substrate temperature of film growth plays an important role in monitoring the device quality of the film. In this paper we have used the constant photocurrent method (CPM) to study the effect of growth temperature on the electronic and optical parameters of a-Si:H films at different photon energies. This technique primarily measures the absorption coefficient which is a result of different electronic transitions that contribute to the photocurrent. The nature of absorption coefficient changes with growth temperature that explicitly provides the information about the density of defect states present in the mid gap of a-Si:H.

  19. Determination of the Newtonian Gravitational Constant G with Time-of-Swing Method

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Jun; Liu Qi; Tu Liangcheng; Shao Chenggang; Liu Linxia; Yang Shanqing; Li Qing; Zhang Yating

    2009-06-19

    We present a new value of the Newtonian gravitational constant G by using the time-of-swing method. Several improvements greatly reduce the uncertainties: (1) measuring the anelasticity of the fiber directly; (2) using spherical source masses minimizes the effects of density inhomogeneity and eccentricities; (3) using a quartz block pendulum simplifies its vibration modes and minimizes the uncertainty of inertial moment; (4) setting the pendulum and source masses both in a vacuum chamber reduces the error of measuring the relative positions. By two individual experiments, we obtain G=6.673 49(18)x10{sup -11} m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} s{sup -2} with a standard uncertainty of about 2.6 parts in 10{sup 5}.

  20. Novel Characterization Method of Ions in Liquid Crystal Materials by Complex Dielectric Constant Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Atsushi; Tarumi, Kazuaki; Naemura, Shohei

    1999-03-01

    The frequency dependence of the complex dielectric constant of liquid crystal materials doped with tetra-n-butylammonium iodide (TBAI) is investigated in the low-frequency region, and the experimental results are analyzed in terms of space charge polarization. The contribution from an electric double layer is also taken into consideration in the analysis. By means of curve fitting utilizing theoretical expressions of the space charge polarization, five sets of diffusion coefficient and density values are obtained for mobile ions. It is confirmed by experiments on the temperature dependence that five kinds of ions follow Walden's rule, and verified from the viewpoint of ion radii that two of the five kinds of ions are TBA+ and I-. The frequency-dependent dielectric properties, which are characteristic of the behaviors of ions, can be well explained by this study and the analytical method introduced here is considered to be powerful for the evaluation of the attributes of mobile ions.

  1. A critical review of three methods used for the measurement of mercury (Hg2+)-dissolved organic matter stability constants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasper, J.D.; Aiken, G.R.; Ryan, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    Three experimental techniques - ion exchange, liquid-liquid extraction with competitive ligand exchange, and solid-phase extraction with competitive ligand exchange (CLE-SPE) - were evaluated as methods for determining conditional stability constants (K) for the binding of mercury (Hg2+) to dissolved organic matter (DOM). To determine the utility of a given method to measure stability constants at environmentally relevant experimental conditions, experimental results should meet three criteria: (1) the data must be experimentally valid, in that they were acquired under conditions that meet all the requirements of the experimental method, (2) the Hg:DOM ratio should be determined and it should fall within levels that are consistent with environmental conditions, and (3) the stability constants must fall within the detection window of the method. The ion exchange method was found to be limited by its detection window, which constrains the method to stability constants with log K values less than about 14. The liquid-liquid extraction method was found to be complicated by the ability of Hg-DOM complexes to partition into the organic phase. The CLE-SPE method was found to be the most suitable of these methods for the measurement of Hg-DOM stability constants. Stability constants for DOM isolates measured using the CLE-SPE method at environmentally relevant Hg:DOM ratios were log K = 25-30 (M-1). These values are consistent with the strong Hg2+ binding expected for reduced S-containing binding sites. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Constitutive law describing the strength degradation kinetics of fibre-reinforced composites subjected to constant amplitude cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, Alberto; Grassia, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    A two-parameter model based on strength degradation was developed and its predictive reliability was checked on a series of fatigue life and residual strength data available in the literature. The modelling approach explicitly accounts for the maximum cyclic stress, σ_{max}, and the stress ratio, R= σ_{min} /σ_{max}, and requires a limited number of experimental fatigue life data to predict the cycle-by-cycle strength degradation kinetics until the "sudden drop" of strength before catastrophic failure. Different loading conditions were analysed for a large variety of composites, including short-glass-fibre-reinforced polycarbonate, [±45]S glass/epoxy laminates, [±35]_{2S} graphite/epoxy laminates, AS4 carbon/epoxy 3k/E7K8 plain weave fabric with [45/-45/90/45/-45/45/-45/0/45/-45]S layup, and [CSM/fabric/(CSM/UD)2]S glass/polyester laminate. The modelling approach indicates that the fatigue life and the residual strength are related to the statistical distribution of the static strength.

  3. Sensitivity kernels for viscoelastic loading based on adjoint methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Attar, David; Tromp, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) allow for inferences to be made about mantle viscosity, ice sheet history and other related parameters. Typically, this inverse problem can be formulated as minimizing the misfit between the given observations and a corresponding set of synthetic data. When the number of parameters is large, solution of such optimization problems can be computationally challenging. A practical, albeit non-ideal, solution is to use gradient-based optimization. Although the gradient of the misfit required in such methods could be calculated approximately using finite differences, the necessary computation time grows linearly with the number of model parameters, and so this is often infeasible. A far better approach is to apply the `adjoint method', which allows the exact gradient to be calculated from a single solution of the forward problem, along with one solution of the associated adjoint problem. As a first step towards applying the adjoint method to the GIA inverse problem, we consider its application to a simpler viscoelastic loading problem in which gravitationally self-consistent ocean loading is neglected. The earth model considered is non-rotating, self-gravitating, compressible, hydrostatically pre-stressed, laterally heterogeneous and possesses a Maxwell solid rheology. We determine adjoint equations and Fréchet kernels for this problem based on a Lagrange multiplier method. Given an objective functional J defined in terms of the surface deformation fields, we show that its first-order perturbation can be written δ J = int _{MS}K_{η }δ ln η dV +int _{t0}^{t1}int _{partial M}K_{dot{σ }} δ dot{σ } dS dt, where δ ln η = δη/η denotes relative viscosity variations in solid regions MS, dV is the volume element, δ dot{σ } is the perturbation to the time derivative of the surface load which is defined on the earth model's surface ∂M and for times [t0, t1] and dS is the surface element on ∂M. The `viscosity

  4. Computational methods. [Calculation of dynamic loading to offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, H. . Inst. of Industrial Science)

    1993-02-01

    With regard to the computational methods for hydrodynamic forces, first identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology is discussed. Then general computational methods, the state of the arts and uncertainty on flow problems in offshore technology in which developed, developing and undeveloped problems are categorized and future works follow. Marine hydrodynamics consists of water surface and underwater fluid dynamics. Marine hydrodynamics covers, not only hydro, but also aerodynamics such as wind load or current-wave-wind interaction, hydrodynamics such as cavitation, underwater noise, multi-phase flow such as two-phase flow in pipes or air bubble in water or surface and internal waves, and magneto-hydrodynamics such as propulsion due to super conductivity. Among them, two key words are focused on as the identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology; they are free surface and vortex shedding.

  5. Investigation of prediction methods for the loads and stresses of Apollo type spacecraft parachutes. Volume 1: Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickey, F. E.; Mcewan, A. J.; Ewing, E. G.; Huyler, W. C., Jr.; Khajeh-Nouri, B.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis was conducted with the objective of upgrading and improving the loads, stress, and performance prediction methods for Apollo spacecraft parachutes. The subjects considered were: (1) methods for a new theoretical approach to the parachute opening process, (2) new experimental-analytical techniques to improve the measurement of pressures, stresses, and strains in inflight parachutes, and (3) a numerical method for analyzing the dynamical behavior of rapidly loaded pilot chute risers.

  6. New determination of the gravitational constant G with time-of-swing method

    SciTech Connect

    Tu Liangcheng; Li Qing; Wang Qinglan; Shao Chenggang; Yang Shanqing; Liu Linxia; Liu Qi; Luo Jun

    2010-07-15

    A new determination of the Newtonian gravitational constant G is presented by using a torsion pendulum with the time-of-swing method. Compared with our previous measurement with the same method, several improvements greatly reduced the uncertainties as follows: (i) two stainless steel spheres with more homogeneous density are used as the source masses instead of the cylinders used in the previous experiment, and the offset of the mass center from the geometric center is measured and found to be much smaller than that of the cylinders; (ii) a rectangular glass block is used as the main body of the pendulum, which has fewer vibration modes and hence improves the stability of the period and reduces the uncertainty of the moment of inertia; (iii) both the pendulum and source masses are placed in the same vacuum chamber to reduce the error of measuring the relative positions; (iv) changing the configurations between the ''near'' and ''far'' positions is remotely operated by using a stepper motor to lower the environmental disturbances; and (v) the anelastic effect of the torsion fiber is first measured directly by using two disk pendulums with the help of a high-Q quartz fiber. We have performed two independent G measurements, and the two G values differ by only 9 ppm. The combined value of G is (6.673 49{+-}0.000 18)x10{sup -11} m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} s{sup -2} with a relative uncertainty of 26 ppm.

  7. Novel method to calculate pulmonary compliance images in rodents from computed tomography acquired at constant pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Thomas; Castillo, Richard; Sanders, Kevin; Price, Roger; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cody, Dianna

    2006-03-01

    Our goal was to develop a method for generating high-resolution three-dimensional pulmonary compliance images in rodents from computed tomography (CT) images acquired at a series of constant pressures in ventilated animals. One rat and one mouse were used to demonstrate this technique. A pre-clinical GE flat panel CT scanner (maximum 31 line-pairs cm-1 resolution) was utilized for image acquisition. The thorax of each animal was imaged with breath-holds at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 cm H2O pressure in triplicate. A deformable image registration algorithm was applied to each pair of CT images to map corresponding tissue elements. Pulmonary compliance was calculated on a voxel by voxel basis using adjacent pairs of CT images. Triplicate imaging was used to estimate the measurement error of this technique. The 3D pulmonary compliance images revealed regional heterogeneity of compliance. The maximum total lung compliance measured 0.080 (±0.007) ml air per cm H2O per ml of lung and 0.039 (±0.004) ml air per cm H2O per ml of lung for the rat and mouse, respectively. In this study, we have demonstrated a unique method of quantifying regional lung compliance from 4 to 16 cm H2O pressure with sub-millimetre spatial resolution in rodents. Presented at the Third IASTED Int. Conf. on Biomechanics (Benidorm, Spain), 7-9 September 2005.

  8. Errors in the determination of the solar constant by the Langley method due to the presence of volcanic aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Schotland, R.M.; Hartman, J.E.

    1989-02-01

    The accuracy in the determination of the solar constant by means of the Langley method is strongly influenced by the spatial inhomogeneities of the atmospheric aerosol. Volcanos frequently inject aerosol into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. This paper evaluates the solar constant error that would occur if observations had been taken throughout the plume of El Chichon observed by NASA aircraft in the fall of 1982 and the spring of 1983. A lidar method is suggested to minimize this error. 15 refs.

  9. A Simple Method to Calculate the Temperature Dependence of the Gibbs Energy and Chemical Equilibrium Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy and important quantities such as Henry's law constants, activity coefficients, and chemical equilibrium constants is usually calculated by using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Although, this is a well-known approach and traditionally covered as part of any physical chemistry course, the required…

  10. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  11. Selecting boundary conditions in physiological strain analysis of the femur: Balanced loads, inertia relief method and follower load.

    PubMed

    Heyland, Mark; Trepczynski, Adam; Duda, Georg N; Zehn, Manfred; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Märdian, Sven

    2015-12-01

    Selection of boundary constraints may influence amount and distribution of loads. The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential of inertia relief and follower load to maintain the effects of musculoskeletal loads even under large deflections in patient specific finite element models of intact or fractured bone compared to empiric boundary constraints which have been shown to lead to physiological displacements and surface strains. The goal is to elucidate the use of boundary conditions in strain analyses of bones. Finite element models of the intact femur and a model of clinically relevant fracture stabilization by locking plate fixation were analyzed with normal walking loading conditions for different boundary conditions, specifically re-balanced loading, inertia relief and follower load. Peak principal cortex surface strains for different boundary conditions are consistent (maximum deviation 13.7%) except for inertia relief without force balancing (maximum deviation 108.4%). Influence of follower load on displacements increases with higher deflection in fracture model (from 3% to 7% for force balanced model). For load balanced models, follower load had only minor influence, though the effect increases strongly with higher deflection. Conventional constraints of fixed nodes in space should be carefully reconsidered because their type and position are challenging to justify and for their potential to introduce relevant non-physiological reaction forces. Inertia relief provides an alternative method which yields physiological strain results.

  12. Cold Expansion Effects on Cracked Fastener Holes Under Constant Amplitude and Spectrum Loading in the 2024-T351 Aluminum Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    An image of one of the lights is shown in Fig. 7. 2.1.3. Reaming and Polishing Equipment The holes were reamed using a standard 12 flute ...specimens were cold-expanded first and then reamed. The same eight flute reamer was used to ream each specimen. To set up the reaming, a specimen was...the bore of the hole. This method does, however, sometimes cause lines from the reamer flutes to be inscribed on the bore as shown in Fig. 27. These

  13. Method for Investigation of Frictional Properties at Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundin, K. G.; Åhrström, B. O.

    1999-05-01

    In the assessment of lubricant performance and also in various other contact applications it is of importance to know the frictional qualities of a surface. Under quasi-static conditions, normal and frictional forces are measured using force transducers but the task is more difficult when loads are transient. The experimental method presented in this paper is based on the analysis of propagating waves in a beam, due to an impact on the end surface. The impact is oblique and therefore a transverse as well as a normal force is generated. The normal force history is measured from the axial non-dispersive wave using strain gauges. Transverse force and bending moment both generate dispersive flexural waves. From the FFT of two transverse acceleration histories, the frictional force at the end of the rod is evaluated using beam theory. The relation between normal and frictional force histories displays the frictional properties at the impact. Preliminary results are presented.

  14. Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, C.R.

    1984-07-27

    In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

  15. Fast high-throughput method for the determination of acidity constants by capillary electrophoresis: I. Monoprotic weak acids and bases.

    PubMed

    Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí

    2009-04-24

    A new and fast method to determine acidity constants of monoprotic weak acids and bases by capillary zone electrophoresis based on the use of an internal standard (compound of similar nature and acidity constant as the analyte) has been developed. This method requires only two electrophoretic runs for the determination of an acidity constant: a first one at a pH where both analyte and internal standard are totally ionized, and a second one at another pH where both are partially ionized. Furthermore, the method is not pH dependent, so an accurate measure of the pH of the buffer solutions is not needed. The acidity constants of several phenols and amines have been measured using internal standards of known pK(a), obtaining a mean deviation of 0.05 pH units compared to the literature values.

  16. Automated Method for Estimating Nutation Time Constant Model Parameters for Spacecraft Spinning on Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Calculating an accurate nutation time constant (NTC), or nutation rate of growth, for a spinning upper stage is important for ensuring mission success. Spacecraft nutation, or wobble, is caused by energy dissipation anywhere in the system. Propellant slosh in the spacecraft fuel tanks is the primary source for this dissipation and, if it is in a state of resonance, the NTC can become short enough to violate mission constraints. The Spinning Slosh Test Rig (SSTR) is a forced-motion spin table where fluid dynamic effects in full-scale fuel tanks can be tested in order to obtain key parameters used to calculate the NTC. We accomplish this by independently varying nutation frequency versus the spin rate and measuring force and torque responses on the tank. This method was used to predict parameters for the Genesis, Contour, and Stereo missions, whose tanks were mounted outboard from the spin axis. These parameters are incorporated into a mathematical model that uses mechanical analogs, such as pendulums and rotors, to simulate the force and torque resonances associated with fluid slosh.

  17. A new method for measuring the oxygen diffusion constant and oxygen consumption rate of arteriolar walls.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Nobuhiko; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Ushiyama, Akira; Minamitani, Haruyuki

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen transport is believed to primarily occur via capillaries and depends on the oxygen tension gradient between the vessels and tissues. As blood flows along branching arterioles, the O(2) saturation drops, indicating either consumption or diffusion. The blood flow rate, the O(2) concentration gradient, and Krogh's O(2) diffusion constant (K) of the vessel wall are parameters affecting O(2)delivery. We devised a method for evaluating K of arteriolar wall in vivo using phosphorescence quenching microscopy to measure the partial pressure of oxygen in two areas almost simultaneously. The K value of arteriolar wall (inner diameter, 63.5 ± 11.9 μm; wall thickness, 18.0 ± 1.2 μm) was found to be 6.0 ± 1.2 × 10(-11) (cm(2)/s)(ml O(2)·cm(-3) tissue·mmHg(-1)). The arteriolar wall O(2) consumption rate (M) was 1.5 ± 0.1 (ml O(2)·100 cm(-3) tissue·min(-1)), as calculated using Krogh's diffusion equation. These results suggest that the arteriolar wall consumes a considerable proportion of the O(2) that diffuses through it.

  18. A program for calculating load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, L218 (LOADS). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. D.; Anderson, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The LOADS program L218, a digital computer program that calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; panel aerodynamic forces; net panel forces; shears and moments. Program usage and a brief description of the analysis used are presented. A description of the design and structure of the program to aid those who will maintain and/or modify the program in the future is included.

  19. Atomic force microscope cantilever spring constant evaluation for higher mode oscillations: A kinetostatic method

    SciTech Connect

    Tseytlin, Yakov M.

    2008-02-15

    Our previous study of the particle mass sensor has shown a large ratio (up to thousands) between the spring constants of a rectangular cantilever in higher mode vibration and at the static bending or natural mode vibration. This has been proven by us through the derived nodal point position equation. That solution is good for a cantilever with the free end in noncontact regime and the probe shifted from the end to an effective section and contacting a soft object. Our further research shows that the same nodal position equation with the proper frequency equations may be used for the same spring constant ratio estimation if the vibrating at higher mode cantilever's free end has a significant additional mass clamped to it or that end is in permanent contact with an elastic or hard measurand object (reference cantilever). However, in the latter case, the spring constant ratio is much smaller (in tens) than in other mentioned cases at equal higher (up to fourth) vibration modes. We also present the spring constant ratio for a vibrating at higher eigenmode V-shaped cantilever, which is now in wide use for atomic force microscopy. The received results on the spring constant ratio are in good (within a few percent) agreement with the theoretical and experimental data published by other researchers. The knowledge of a possible spring constant transformation is important for the proper calibration and use of an atomic force microscope with vibrating cantilever in the higher eigenmodes for measurement and imaging with enlarged resolution.

  20. Non-Condon equilibrium Fermi's golden rule electronic transition rate constants via the linearized semiclassical method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Geva, Eitan

    2016-06-28

    In this paper, we test the accuracy of the linearized semiclassical (LSC) expression for the equilibrium Fermi's golden rule rate constant for electronic transitions in the presence of non-Condon effects. We do so by performing a comparison with the exact quantum-mechanical result for a model where the donor and acceptor potential energy surfaces are parabolic and identical except for shifts in the equilibrium energy and geometry, and the coupling between them is linear in the nuclear coordinates. Since non-Condon effects may or may not give rise to conical intersections, both possibilities are examined by considering: (1) A modified Garg-Onuchic-Ambegaokar model for charge transfer in the condensed phase, where the donor-acceptor coupling is linear in the primary mode coordinate, and for which non-Condon effects do not give rise to a conical intersection; (2) the linear vibronic coupling model for electronic transitions in gas phase molecules, where non-Condon effects give rise to conical intersections. We also present a comprehensive comparison between the linearized semiclassical expression and a progression of more approximate expressions. The comparison is performed over a wide range of frictions and temperatures for model (1) and over a wide range of temperatures for model (2). The linearized semiclassical method is found to reproduce the exact quantum-mechanical result remarkably well for both models over the entire range of parameters under consideration. In contrast, more approximate expressions are observed to deviate considerably from the exact result in some regions of parameter space.

  1. Non-Condon equilibrium Fermi's golden rule electronic transition rate constants via the linearized semiclassical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiang; Geva, Eitan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we test the accuracy of the linearized semiclassical (LSC) expression for the equilibrium Fermi's golden rule rate constant for electronic transitions in the presence of non-Condon effects. We do so by performing a comparison with the exact quantum-mechanical result for a model where the donor and acceptor potential energy surfaces are parabolic and identical except for shifts in the equilibrium energy and geometry, and the coupling between them is linear in the nuclear coordinates. Since non-Condon effects may or may not give rise to conical intersections, both possibilities are examined by considering: (1) A modified Garg-Onuchic-Ambegaokar model for charge transfer in the condensed phase, where the donor-acceptor coupling is linear in the primary mode coordinate, and for which non-Condon effects do not give rise to a conical intersection; (2) the linear vibronic coupling model for electronic transitions in gas phase molecules, where non-Condon effects give rise to conical intersections. We also present a comprehensive comparison between the linearized semiclassical expression and a progression of more approximate expressions. The comparison is performed over a wide range of frictions and temperatures for model (1) and over a wide range of temperatures for model (2). The linearized semiclassical method is found to reproduce the exact quantum-mechanical result remarkably well for both models over the entire range of parameters under consideration. In contrast, more approximate expressions are observed to deviate considerably from the exact result in some regions of parameter space.

  2. Novel method of determination of the internal enzyme distribution within porous solid supports and the deactivation rate constant

    SciTech Connect

    Do, D.D.; Hossain, M.M.

    1986-04-01

    This article presents a method for determining the rate constant for deactivation and the internal distribution of immobilized enzyme. This method makes use of the parallel deactivation process in a diffusion-controlled regime, in which the internal activity profile behaves like a penetration front. This front basically traces through the initial active enzymatic profile, and one can determine the internal profile and the rate constant for deactivation from the experimentally observable bulk concentration versus time. This method is applied to the experimental data of the system of hydrogen peroxide-immobilized catalase on controlled pore glas and Si-Al particles. 26 references.

  3. A robust method for determining DNA binding constants using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Martin, L M

    1998-10-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE or CE) with on-line UV detection was utilized to measure the binding constants between purified calf thymus DNA and a library of designed tetrapeptides which had been constructed using unnatural amino acids with thiazole ring side chains. Mixtures containing a constant amount of a tetrapeptide, the neutral marker (mesityl oxide), and varying concentrations of DNA were prepared and equilibrated at 8 degreesC for 12 h. CE was then utilized to separate unbound tetrapeptides from the DNA-peptide complex. The UV absorbance of the peak representing unbound tetrapeptide decreased incrementally as a result of increasing the concentration of DNA in the equilibrium mixture. The absorbance of the peak corresponding to the unbound tetrapeptide was obtained directly from the electropherogram and used in the calculation of the DNA-peptide binding constants. The binding constant for each tetrapeptide to calf thymus DNA was obtained from the negative slope of a Scatchard plot and a comparison of the binding constants for different peptides showed that the tetrapeptides in the library have DNA-binding affinities ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) M-1.

  4. Load reduction test method of similarity theory and BP neural networks of large cranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruigang; Duan, Zhibin; Lu, Yi; Wang, Lei; Xu, Gening

    2016-01-01

    Static load tests are an important means of supervising and detecting a crane's lift capacity. Due to space restrictions, however, there are difficulties and potential danger when testing large bridge cranes. To solve the loading problems of large-tonnage cranes during testing, an equivalency test is proposed based on the similarity theory and BP neural networks. The maximum stress and displacement of a large bridge crane is tested in small loads, combined with the training neural network of a similar structure crane through stress and displacement data which is collected by a physics simulation progressively loaded to a static load test load within the material scope of work. The maximum stress and displacement of a crane under a static load test load can be predicted through the relationship of stress, displacement, and load. By measuring the stress and displacement of small tonnage weights, the stress and displacement of large loads can be predicted, such as the maximum load capacity, which is 1.25 times the rated capacity. Experimental study shows that the load reduction test method can reflect the lift capacity of large bridge cranes. The load shedding predictive analysis for Sanxia 1200 t bridge crane test data indicates that when the load is 1.25 times the rated lifting capacity, the predicted displacement and actual displacement error is zero. The method solves the problem that lifting capacities are difficult to obtain and testing accidents are easily possible when 1.25 times related weight loads are tested for large tonnage cranes.

  5. Running coupling constant of ten-flavor QCD with the Schroedinger functional method

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, M.; Uno, S.; Ishikawa, K.-I.; Osaki, Y.; Takeda, S.; Yamada, N.

    2011-04-01

    The walking technicolor theory attempts to realize electroweak symmetry breaking as the spontaneous chiral symmetry breakdown caused by the gauge dynamics with slowly varying gauge coupling constant and large mass anomalous dimension. Many-flavor QCD theories are candidates owning these features. We focus on the SU(3) gauge theory with ten flavors of massless fermions in the fundamental representation, and compute the gauge coupling constant in the Schroedinger functional scheme. Numerical simulation is performed with O(a)-unimproved lattice action, and the continuum limit is taken in linear in lattice spacing. We observe evidence that this theory possesses an infrared fixed point.

  6. Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Benett, William J.; Schumann, Daniel L.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Fitch, Joseph P.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SMP material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  7. An ultrasonic guided wave method to estimate applied biaxial loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fan; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Lee, Sang Jun

    2012-05-01

    Guided waves propagating in a homogeneous plate are known to be sensitive to both temperature changes and applied stress variations. Here we consider the inverse problem of recovering homogeneous biaxial stresses from measured changes in phase velocity at multiple propagation directions using a single mode at a specific frequency. Although there is no closed form solution relating phase velocity changes to applied stresses, prior results indicate that phase velocity changes can be closely approximated by a sinusoidal function with respect to angle of propagation. Here it is shown that all sinusoidal coefficients can be estimated from a single uniaxial loading experiment. The general biaxial inverse problem can thus be solved by fitting an appropriate sinusoid to measured phase velocity changes versus propagation angle, and relating the coefficients to the unknown stresses. The phase velocity data are obtained from direct arrivals between guided wave transducers whose direct paths of propagation are oriented at different angles. This method is applied and verified using sparse array data recorded during a fatigue test. The additional complication of the resulting fatigue cracks interfering with some of the direct arrivals is addressed via proper selection of transducer pairs. Results show that applied stresses can be successfully recovered from the measured changes in guided wave signals.

  8. A DESIGN METHOD FOR TRACKS AND ROADBEDS OF RAILROAD-CROSSING UNDER FREIGHT TRAIN LOADS AND FORKLIFT LOADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itou, Kazuki; Momoya, Yoshitsugu; Sekine, Etsuo

    In the current design method of asphalt pavement in freight container yard, a theoretical design method based on multilayered elastic analysis is applied. However, in a design of railroad-crossing existing in the yard, heavy wheel loads of forklift and viscosity of asphalt pavement is not considered. In this study, the method of identifying the stiffness coefficient of asphalt pavement with consideration on its viscoelasticity under the heavy loading, and the design of the railroad crossing corresponding to the heavy loading of the forklift are shown. The method of the new design of railroad-crossing by FEM using the stiffness coefficient set in consideration of viscoelasticity of the asphalt pavement and track structure corres ponding to traffic volume are shown.

  9. Precise and direct method for the measurement of the torsion spring constant of the atomic force microscopy cantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Jarząbek, D. M.

    2015-01-15

    A direct method for the evaluation of the torsional spring constants of the atomic force microscope cantilevers is presented in this paper. The method uses a nanoindenter to apply forces at the long axis of the cantilever and in the certain distance from it. The torque vs torsion relation is then evaluated by the comparison of the results of the indentations experiments at different positions on the cantilever. Next, this relation is used for the precise determination of the torsional spring constant of the cantilever. The statistical analysis shows that the standard deviation of the calibration measurements is equal to approximately 1%. Furthermore, a simple method for calibration of the photodetector’s lateral response is proposed. The overall procedure of the lateral calibration constant determination has the accuracy approximately equal to 10%.

  10. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR RELATING MACROSCOPIC TO MICROSCOPIC ACIDITY CONSTANTS WITH ZWITTERIONIC SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using the notation of Adams (1916. JACS, 38:1503), zwitterionic microscopic acidity constants defined by: ka = [H+] [+H3NRCOO-]/ [+H3NRCOOH]; kb = [H+] [H2NRCOOH]/ [+H3NRCOOH]; kc = [H+] [H2NRCOO-]/ [+H3NRCOO-]; and kd = [H+] [H2NRCOO-]/ [H2NRCOOH] are historically related to th...

  11. Reliability of time-to-exhaustion and selected psycho-physiological variables during constant-load cycling at the maximal lactate steady-state.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Hecksteden, Anne; Hammes, Daniel; Schumacher, Franck; Besenius, Eric; Sperlich, Billy; Meyer, Tim

    2017-02-01

    The maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) is frequently assessed for prescribing endurance exercise intensity. Knowledge of the intra-individual variability of the MLSS is important for practical application. To date, little is known about the reliability of time-to-exhaustion and physiological responses to exercise at MLSS. Twenty-one healthy men (age, 25.2 (SD 3.3) years; height, 1.83 (0.06) m; body mass, 78.9 (8.9) kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57.1 (10.7) mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 1 incremental exercise test, and 2 constant-load tests to determine MLSS intensity. Subsequently, 2 open-end constant-load tests (MLSS 1 and 2) at MLSS intensity (3.0 (0.7) W·kg(-1), 76% (10%) maximal oxygen uptake) were carried out. During the tests, blood lactate concentrations, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), variables of gas exchange, and core body temperature were determined. Time-to-exhaustion was 50.8 (14.0) and 48.2 (16.7) min in MLSS 1 and 2 (mean change: -2.6 (95% confidence interval: -7.8, 2.6)), respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) was high for time-to-exhaustion (24.6%) and for mean (4.8 (1.2) mmol·L(-1)) and end (5.4 (1.7) mmol·L(-1)) blood lactate concentrations (15.7% and 19.3%). The CV of mean exercise values for all other parameters ranged from 1.4% (core temperature) to 8.3% (ventilation). At termination, the CVs ranged from 0.8% (RPE) to 11.8% (breathing frequency). The low reliability of time-to-exhaustion and blood lactate concentration at MLSS indicates that the precise individual intensity prescription may be challenging. Moreover, the obtained data may serve as reference to allow for the separation of intervention effects from random variation in our sample.

  12. T-load microchannel array and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) T-load for planar microchannel arrays for electrophoresis, for example, which enables sample injection directly onto a plane perpendicular to the microchannels' axis, at their ends. This is accomplished by forming input wells that extend beyond the ends of the microchannel thereby eliminating the right angle connection from the input well into the end of the microchannel. In addition, the T-load input well eases the placement of electrode in or adjacent the well and thus enables very efficient reproducible electrokinetic (ek) injection. The T-load input well eliminates the prior input well/microchannel alignment concerns, since the input well can be drilled after the top and bottom microchannel plates are bonded together. The T-load input well may extend partially or entirely through the bottom microchannel plate which enables more efficient gel and solution flushing, and also enables placement of multiple electrodes to assist in the ek sample injection.

  13. Carbohydrate-Loading: A Safe and Effective Method of Improving Endurance Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeker, Richard T.; Israel, Richard G.

    Carbohydrate-loading prior to distance events is a common practice among endurance athletes. The purposes of this paper are to review previous research and to clarify misconceptions which may exist concerning carbohydrate-loading. The most effective method of carbohydrate-loading involves a training run of sufficient intensity and duration to…

  14. Measuring Cognitive Load: A Comparison of Self-Report and Physiological Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    This study explored three methods to measure cognitive load in a learning environment using four logic puzzles that systematically varied in level of intrinsic cognitive load. Participants' perceived intrinsic load was simultaneously measured with a self-report measure-a traditional subjective measure-and two objective, physiological measures…

  15. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  16. Effects of Constant Time Delay Procedure on the Halliwick's Method of Swimming Rotation Skills for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Konukman, Ferman; Birkan, Binyamin; Ozen, Arzu; Yanardag, Mehmet; Camursoy, Ilhan

    2010-01-01

    Effects of a constant time delay procedure on the Halliwick's method of swimming rotation skills (i.e., vertical and lateral rotation) for children with autism were investigated. A single subject multiple baseline model across behaviors with probe conditions was used. Participants were three boys, 8-9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week…

  17. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Thomas R.; Staples, Bruce A.; Murphy, Llewellyn P.

    1978-05-09

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

  18. Determination of aqueous acid-dissociation constants of aspartic acid using PCM/DFT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang-Aroon, Wichien; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya

    Determination of acid-dissociation constants, pKa, of aspartic acid in aqueous solution, using density functional theory calculations combined with the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and with integral-equation-formalism polarizable continuum model (IEFPCM) based on the UAKS and UAHF radii, was carried out. The computed pKa values derived from the CPCM and IEFPCM with UAKS cavity model of bare structures of the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)-optimized tetrahydrated structures of aspartic acid species are mostly close to the experimental pKa values.0

  19. Ellipsometric method for the measurement of temperature and optical constants of incandescent transition metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, George P.; Krishnan, Shankar; Hauge, Robert H.; Margrave, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a unique noncontact temperature measurement device utilizing rotating analyzer ellipsometry is described. The technique circumvents the necessity of spectral emissivity estimation by direct measurement concomitant with radiance brightness. Simultaneous determinations of dielectric constants and refractive indices allow changes in the physical and chemical state of a heated surface to be monitored. The results of optical property measurements at 633 nm as functions of temperature between 1000 and 2500 K for eight transition metals including Hf, Ir, Mo, Nb, Pd, Pt, Ta, and V are presented together with preliminary results of oxidation studies on iridium.

  20. Military Load Carriage: A Novel Method of Interface Pressure Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    investigating the effects of carried loads on interface pressures and have developed an extension methodology using the Tekscan pressure measurement system...the real time monitoring of the Tekscan software was used. One of the individual sensels was matched with a certain anatomical landmark on the

  1. A Simple Method for Estimation of Dielectric Constants and Polarizabilities of Nonpolar and Slightly Polar Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panuganti, Sai R.; Wang, Fei; Chapman, Walter G.; Vargas, Francisco M.

    2016-07-01

    Many of the liquids that are used as electrical insulators are nonpolar or slightly polar petroleum-derived hydrocarbons, such as the ones used for cable and/or transformer oils. In this work, semi-empirical expressions with no adjustable parameters for the dielectric constant and the polarizability of nonpolar and slightly polar hydrocarbons and their mixtures are proposed and validated. The expressions that were derived using the Vargas-Chapman One-Third rule require the mass density and the molecular weight of the substance of interest. The equations were successfully tested for various hydrocarbons and polymers with dipole moments <0.23 and densities from 500 to 1200 kg\\cdot hbox {m}^{-3}. The predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The proposed expressions eliminate the need of extensive experimental data and require less input parameters compared to existing correlations.

  2. Human cortical bone: Computer method for physical behavior at nano scale constant pressure assumption.

    PubMed

    Racila, M; Crolet, J M

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that long term behavior of implants depends on bone remodeling. In the absence of a model of this phenomenon, few numerical simulations take into account bone remodeling. Some laws have been proposed but they cannot be used in the essential area surrounding the implant. We propose a multi-scale approach: cortical bone is structured in a hierarchical way consisting of five levels. The cortical part of a given bone is made up of various areas having different physical properties adapted to locally existing conditions. A Bony Elementary Volume denotes the elementary part of such a zone which constitutes our first level. The other levels are in conformity with our previous studies: osteon, lamella, fibre and fibril. This latter is composed by collagen and hydroxyapatite (Hap) occurring in a viscous liquid containing mineral ions. Mathematical homogenisation theory is used to determine equivalent macroscopic properties of a BEV, knowing the physical properties of collagen and Hap and the architectural description of this bony structure. For improving the performance of our simulation software, a new behavior law has been introduced with no continuity between the various levels. The effect of the fluid at the nanoscopic scale is modeled by a constant pressure. Recent developments allow us to determine the magnitude of various entities at nanoscopic scale from information at the macroscopic level. Realized simulations show that the assumption of constant pressure is not sufficient to characterize the nanoscopic mechanical behaviour. This point needs a more complex model with the introduction of a coupling between structure and fluid. This aspect is in development.

  3. Methods and apparatus for rotor load control in wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2006-08-22

    A wind turbine having a rotor, at least one rotor blade, and a plurality of generators, of which a first generator is configured to provide power to an electric grid and a second generator is configured to provide power to the wind turbine during times of grid loss. The wind turbine is configured to utilize power provided by the second generator to reduce loads on the wind turbine during times of grid loss.

  4. Adjustments of pulmonary O2 uptake and muscle deoxygenation during ramp incremental exercise and constant-load moderate-intensity exercise in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gravelle, Braden M. R.; Murias, Juan M.; Spencer, Matthew D.; Paterson, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    The matching of muscle O2 delivery to O2 utilization can be inferred from the adjustments in muscle deoxygenation (Δ[HHb]) and pulmonary O2 uptake (V̇o2p). This study examined the adjustments of V̇o2p and Δ[HHb] during ramp incremental (RI) and constant-load (CL) exercise in adult males. Ten young adults (YA; age: 25 ± 5 yr) and nine older adults (OA; age: 70 ± 3 yr) completed two RI tests and six CL step transitions to a work rate (WR) corresponding to 1) 80% of the estimated lactate threshold (same relative WR) and 2) 50 W (same absolute WR). V̇o2p was measured breath by breath, and Δ[HHb] of the vastus lateralis was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Δ[HHb]-WR profiles were normalized from baseline (0%) to peak Δ[HHb] (100%) and fit using a sigmoid function. The sigmoid slope (d) was greater (P < 0.05) in OA (0.027 ± 0.01%/W) compared with YA (0.017 ± 0.01%/W), and the c/d value (a value corresponding to 50% of the amplitude) was smaller (P < 0.05) for OA (133 ± 40 W) than for YA (195 ± 51 W). No age-related differences in the sigmoid parameters were reported when WR was expressed as a percentage of peak WR. V̇o2p kinetics compared with Δ[HHb] kinetics for the 50-W transition were similar between YA and OA; however, Δ[HHb] kinetics during the transition to 80% of the lactate threshold were faster than V̇o2p kinetics in both groups. The greater reliance on O2 extraction displayed in OA during RI exercise suggests a lower O2 delivery-to-O2 utilization relationship at a given absolute WR compared with YA. PMID:22961268

  5. Method for Estimating Operational Loads on Aerospace Structures Using Span-Wisely Distributed Surface Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a new method for estimating operational loads (bending moments, shear loads, and torques) acting on slender aerospace structures using distributed surface strains (unidirectional strains). The surface strain-sensing stations are to be evenly distributed along each span-wise strain-sensing line. A depth-wise cross section of the structure along each strain-sensing line can then be considered as an imaginary embedded beam. The embedded beam was first evenly divided into multiple small domains with domain junctures matching the strain-sensing stations. The new method is comprised of two steps. The first step is to determine the structure stiffness (bending or torsion) using surface strains obtained from a simple bending (or torsion) loading case, for which the applied bending moment (or torque) is known. The second step is to use the strain-determined structural stiffness (bending or torsion), and a new set of surface strains induced by any other loading case to calculate the associated operational loads (bending moments, shear loads, or torques). Performance of the new method for estimating operational loads was studied in light of finite-element analyses of several example structures subjected to different loading conditions. The new method for estimating operational loads was found to be fairly accurate, and is very promising for applications to the flight load monitoring of flying vehicles with slender wings.

  6. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply

    DOEpatents

    Perez, Richard

    2000-01-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The renewable supply may comprise, for example, a photovoltaic power supply or a wind-based power supply.

  7. Accuracy and repeatability of a new method for measuring facet loads in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Derek C; Niosi, Christina A; Zhu, Qingan A; Oxland, Thomas R; Wilson, David R

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the repeatability and accuracy of a relatively new, resistance-based sensor (Tekscan 6900) for measuring lumbar spine facet loads, pressures, and contact areas in cadaver specimens. Repeatability of measurements in the natural facet joint was determined for five trials of four specimens loaded in pure moment (+/- 7.5 N m) flexibility tests in axial rotation and flexion-extension. Accuracy of load measurements in four joints was assessed by applying known compressive loads of 25, 50, and 100 N to the natural facet joint in a materials testing machine and comparing the known applied load to the measured load. Measurements of load were obtained using two different calibration approaches: linear and two-point calibrations. Repeatability for force, pressure, and area (average of standard deviation as a percentage of the mean for all trials over all specimens) was 4-6% for axial rotation and 7-10% for extension. Peak resultant force in axial rotation was 30% smaller when calculated using the linear calibration method. The Tekscan sensor overestimated the applied force by 18 +/- 9% (mean+/-standard deviation), 35 +/- 7% and 50 +/- 9% for compressive loads of 100, 50, and 25 N, respectively. The two-point method overestimated the loads by 35 +/- 16%, 45 +/- 7%, and 56 +/- 10% for the same three loads. Our results show that the Tekscan sensor is repeatable. However, the sensor measurement range is not optimal for the small loads transmitted by the facets and measurement accuracy is highly dependent on calibration protocol.

  8. A reverse Monte Carlo method for deriving optical constants of solids from reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da, B.; Sun, Y.; Mao, S. F.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jin, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tanuma, S.; Ding, Z. J.

    2013-06-01

    A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method is developed to obtain the energy loss function (ELF) and optical constants from a measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum by an iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation procedure. The method combines the simulated annealing method, i.e., a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters, surface and bulk excitation weighting factors, and band gap energy, with a conventional MC simulation of electron interaction with solids, which acts as a single step of MCMC sampling in this RMC method. To examine the reliability of this method, we have verified that the output data of the dielectric function are essentially independent of the initial values of the trial parameters, which is a basic property of a MCMC method. The optical constants derived for SiO2 in the energy loss range of 8-90 eV are in good agreement with other available data, and relevant bulk ELFs are checked by oscillator strength-sum and perfect-screening-sum rules. Our results show that the dielectric function can be obtained by the RMC method even with a wide range of initial trial parameters. The RMC method is thus a general and effective method for determining the optical properties of solids from REELS measurements.

  9. A reverse Monte Carlo method for deriving optical constants of solids from reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Da, B.; Sun, Y.; Ding, Z. J.; Mao, S. F.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jin, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tanuma, S.

    2013-06-07

    A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method is developed to obtain the energy loss function (ELF) and optical constants from a measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum by an iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation procedure. The method combines the simulated annealing method, i.e., a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters, surface and bulk excitation weighting factors, and band gap energy, with a conventional MC simulation of electron interaction with solids, which acts as a single step of MCMC sampling in this RMC method. To examine the reliability of this method, we have verified that the output data of the dielectric function are essentially independent of the initial values of the trial parameters, which is a basic property of a MCMC method. The optical constants derived for SiO{sub 2} in the energy loss range of 8-90 eV are in good agreement with other available data, and relevant bulk ELFs are checked by oscillator strength-sum and perfect-screening-sum rules. Our results show that the dielectric function can be obtained by the RMC method even with a wide range of initial trial parameters. The RMC method is thus a general and effective method for determining the optical properties of solids from REELS measurements.

  10. Real-time method and apparatus for measuring the decay-time constant of a fluorescing phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Beshears, David L.; Simpson, Marc L.; Cates, Michael R.; Allison, Steve W.

    1999-01-01

    A method for determining the decay-time constant of a fluorescing phosphor is provided, together with an apparatus for performing the method. The apparatus includes a photodetector for detecting light emitted by a phosphor irradiated with an excitation pulse and for converting the detected light into an electrical signal. The apparatus further includes a differentiator for differentiating the electrical signal and a zero-crossing discrimination circuit that outputs a pulse signal having a pulse width corresponding to the time period between the start of the excitation pulse and the time when the differentiated electrical signal reaches zero. The width of the output pulse signal is proportional to the decay-time constant of the phosphor.

  11. Calculation Method for Flight Limit Load of V-band Clamp Separation Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Takashi; Shi, Qinzhong

    A simplified calculation method for estimating a flight limit load of the V-band clamp separation shock was established. With this method, the flight limit load is estimated through addition of an appropriate envelope margin to the results acquired with the simplified analysis method proposed in our previous paper. The envelope margin used in the method was calculated based on the reviews on the differences observed between the results of a pyroshock test and the analysis. Using the derived envelope margin, a calculating formula of the flight limit load, which envelopes the actual pyroshock responses with a certain probability, was developed. Based on the formula, flight limit loads for several actual satellites were estimated and compared to the test results. The comparative results showed that the estimated flight limit loads appropriately envelope the test results, which confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. A generalized modal shock spectra method for spacecraft loads analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trubert, M.; Salama, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unlike the traditional shock spectra approach, the generalization presented in this paper permits elastic interaction between the spacecraft and launch vehicle in order to obtain accurate bounds on the spacecraft response and structural loads. In addition, the modal response from a previous launch vehicle transient analysis - with or without a dummy spacecraft - is exploited in order to define a modal impulse as a simple idealization of the actual forcing function. The idealized modal forcing function is then used to derive explicit expressions for an estimate of the bound on the spacecraft structural response and forces.

  13. Phonon dispersion relations of Sb2S3 and Bi2S3 using the supercell force-constant method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chee Kwan; Chua, Kun Ting Eddie; Liu, Yun

    2015-03-01

    We present a lattice dynamical study on the orthorhombic antimony sulphide (Sb2S3) and bismuth sulphide (Bi2S3) using the supercell force-constant method. We find that the slow decay of the interatomic force constants for these compounds in the Pnma setting critically demand the use of a large supercell of 2 × 4 × 2 that consists of 320 atoms. To enable a practical calculation the space group information is fully utilized where only inequivalent atoms within the primitive cell are displaced for the force calculations. The effect of Born effective charges is incorporated into the method. We compare our results with that obtained from the density-functional perturbation theory. We found that smaller supercells could lead to unphysical acoustic phonon softening and lifting of the degeneracies along high symmetry directions. Our results provide a proper guideline for the use of the supercell force-constant method: the supercell size must be carefully be tested along with other parameters such as the kinetic energy cutoff, the Brillouin zone sampling or the self-consistent convergence criteria.

  14. Manufacturing methods for machining spring ends parallel at loaded length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Patrick Thomas (Inventor); Benson, Dwayne M. (Inventor); Atkins, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A first end surface of a coiled compression spring at its relaxed length is machined to a plane transverse to the spring axis. The spring is then placed in a press structure having first and second opposed planar support surfaces, with the machined spring end surface bearing against the first support surface, the unmachined spring end surface bearing against a planar first surface of a lateral force compensation member, and an opposite, generally spherically curved surface of the compensation member bearing against the second press structure support surface. The spring is then compressed generally to its loaded length, and a circumferentially spaced series of marks, lying in a plane parallel to the second press structure support surface, are formed on the spring coil on which the second spring end surface lies. The spring is then removed from the press structure, and the second spring end surface is machined to the mark plane. When the spring is subsequently compressed to its loaded length the precisely parallel relationship between the machined spring end surfaces substantially eliminates undesirable lateral deflection of the spring.

  15. Dynamic load identification for stochastic structures based on Gegenbauer polynomial approximation and regularization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Xingsheng; Han, Xu; Jiang, Chao; Yu, Dejie

    2015-05-01

    Based on the Gegenbauer polynomial expansion theory and regularization method, an analytical method is proposed to identify dynamic loads acting on stochastic structures. Dynamic loads are expressed as functions of time and random parameters in time domain and the forward model of dynamic load identification is established through the discretized convolution integral of loads and the corresponding unit-pulse response functions of system. Random parameters are approximated through the random variables with λ-probability density function (PDFs) or their derivative PDFs. For this kind of random variables, Gegenbauer polynomial expansion is the unique correct choice to transform the problem of load identification for a stochastic structure into its equivalent deterministic system. Just via its equivalent deterministic system, the load identification problem of a stochastic structure can be solved by any available deterministic methods. With measured responses containing noise, the improved regularization operator is adopted to overcome the ill-posedness of load reconstruction and to obtain the stable and approximate solutions of certain inverse problems and the valid assessments of the statistics of identified loads. Numerical simulations demonstrate that with regard to stochastic structures, the identification and assessment of dynamic loads are achieved steadily and effectively by the presented method.

  16. Evaluation of Delamination Growth Characterization Methods Under Mode I Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable delamination characterization data for laminated composites are needed for input to analytical models of structures to predict delamination. The double-cantilevered beam (DCB) specimen is used with laminated composites to measure fracture toughness, G(sub Ic), delamination onset strain energy release rate, and growth rate data under cyclic loading. In the current study, DCB specimens of IM7/8552 graphite/epoxy supplied by two different manufacturers were tested in static and fatigue to compare the measured characterization data from the two sources, and to evaluate a proposed ASTM standard for generating Paris Law equations. Static results were used to generate compliance calibration constants for the fatigue data, and a delamination resistance curve, G(sub IR), which was used to determine the effects of fiber-bridging on delamination growth. Specimens were tested in fatigue at a cyclic G(sub Imax) level equal to 50, 40 or 30% of G(sub Ic), to determine a delamination onset curve and delamination growth rate. The delamination onset curve equations had similar exponents and the same trends. Delamination growth rate was calculated by fitting a Paris Law to the da/dN versus G(sub Imax) data. Both a 2-point and a 7-point data reduction method were used and the Paris Law equations were compared. To determine the effects of fiber-bridging, growth rate results were normalized by the delamination resistance curve for each material and compared to the non-normalized results. Paris Law exponents were found to decrease by 31% to 37% due to normalizing the growth data. Normalizing the data also greatly reduced the amount of scatter between the different specimens. Visual data records from the fatigue testing were used to calculate individual compliance calibration constants from the fatigue data for some of the specimens. The resulting da/dN versus G(sub Imax) plots showed much improved repeatability between specimens. Gretchen

  17. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  18. Evaluation of kinetic constants of biomolecular interaction on optical surface plasmon resonance sensor with Newton Iteration Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Guoliang; Hu, Jiandong; Hu, Fengjiang; Wei, Jianguang; Shi, Liang

    2010-10-01

    In the immunology, there are two important types of biomolecular interaction: antigens-antibodies and receptors-ligands. Monitoring the response rate and affinity of biomolecular interaction can help analyze the protein function, drug discover, genomics and proteomics research. Moreover the association rate constant and dissociation rate constant of receptors-ligands are the important parameters for the study of signal transmission between cells. Recent advances in bioanalyzer instruments have greatly simplified the measurement of the kinetics of molecular interactions. Non-destructive and real-time monitoring the response to evaluate the parameters between antigens and antibodies can be performed by using optical surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor technology. This technology provides a quantitative analysis that is carried out rapidly with label-free high-throughput detection using the binding curves of antigens-antibodies. Consequently, the kinetic parameters of interaction between antigens and antibodies can be obtained. This article presents a low cost integrated SPR-based bioanalyzer (HPSPR-6000) designed by ourselves. This bioanalyzer is mainly composed of a biosensor TSPR1K23, a touch-screen monitor, a microprocessor PIC24F128, a microflow cell with three channels, a clamp and a photoelectric conversion device. To obtain the kinetic parameters, sensorgrams may be modeled using one of several binding models provided with BIAevaluation software 3.0, SensiQ or Autolab. This allows calculation of the association rate constant (ka) and the dissociation rate constant (kd). The ratio of ka to kd can be used to estimate the equilibrium constant. Another kind is the analysis software OriginPro, which can process the obtained data by nonlinear fitting and then get some correlative parameters, but it can't be embedded into the bioanalyzer, so the bioanalyzer don't support the use of OriginPro. This paper proposes a novel method to evaluate the kinetic parameters

  19. Comparison of Iterative and Non-Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Load Calculation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of iterative and non-iterative strain-gage balance load calculation methods was compared using data from the calibration of a force balance. Two iterative and one non-iterative method were investigated. In addition, transformations were applied to balance loads in order to process the calibration data in both direct read and force balance format. NASA's regression model optimization tool BALFIT was used to generate optimized regression models of the calibration data for each of the three load calculation methods. This approach made sure that the selected regression models met strict statistical quality requirements. The comparison of the standard deviation of the load residuals showed that the first iterative method may be applied to data in both the direct read and force balance format. The second iterative method, on the other hand, implicitly assumes that the primary gage sensitivities of all balance gages exist. Therefore, the second iterative method only works if the given balance data is processed in force balance format. The calibration data set was also processed using the non-iterative method. Standard deviations of the load residuals for the three load calculation methods were compared. Overall, the standard deviations show very good agreement. The load prediction accuracies of the three methods appear to be compatible as long as regression models used to analyze the calibration data meet strict statistical quality requirements. Recent improvements of the regression model optimization tool BALFIT are also discussed in the paper.

  20. An Evaluation Method for the Bursting Characteristics of Coal Under the Effect of Loading Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haitao, Li; Hongwei, Zhou; Yaodong, Jiang; Hongwei, Wang

    2016-08-01

    Changes in loading rate can affect the strength performance and bursting characteristics of coal. Coal samples from the same source were subject to mechanical tests for multi-loading rates. These tests were carried out to determine changes in evaluation indicators for the law of bursting liability due to increases in the loading rate. The results show that indicators, including the uniaxial compressive strength and the bursting energy index, first increased and then decreased with the increase in loading rate. The value of the loading rate, which corresponds to the strength turning point, is named the "critical loading rate". The results of evaluating the bursting liability of coal (from the same source) show all the possibilities. The critical loading rate corresponds to the highest bursting liability. The "loading rate sensitivity" is proposed to describe the comprehensive response of the bursting characteristics to the loading rate. This index, combined with the scale conversion method, makes the field application of laboratory experimentation possible. This method for evaluating the bursting liability of coal under the effect of loading rate was systematically established and shows good applicability.

  1. Agreement between the force platform method and the combined method measurements of power output during the loaded countermovement jump.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Peter D; Lake, Jason P; Carden, Patrick J C; Smith, Neal A; Lauder, Mike A

    2016-01-01

    There are two perceived criterion methods for measuring power output during the loaded countermovement jump (CMJ): the force platform method and the combined method (force platform + optoelectronic motion capture system). Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to assess agreement between the force platform method and the combined method measurements of peak power and mean power output during the CMJ across a spectrum of loads. Forty resistance-trained team sport athletes performed maximal effort CMJ with additional loads of 0 (body mass only), 25, 50, 75 and 100% of body mass (BM). Bias was present for peak velocity, mean velocity, peak power and mean power at all loads investigated, and present for mean force up to 75% of BM. Peak velocity, mean velocity, peak power and mean power 95% ratio limits of agreement were clinically unacceptable at all loads investigated. The 95% ratio limits of agreement were widest at 0% of BM and decreased linearly as load increased. Therefore, the force platform method and the combined method cannot be used interchangeably for measuring power output during the loaded CMJ. As such, if power output is to be meaningfully investigated, a standardised method must be adopted.

  2. Fracture control method for composite tanks with load sharing liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bixler, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental program was based on the premise that the plastic sizing cycle, which each pressure vessel is subjected to prior to operation, acts as an effective proof test of the liner, screening out all flaws or cracks larger than a critical size. In doing so, flaw growth potential is available for cyclic operation at pressures less than the sizing pressure. Static fracture and cyclic life tests, involving laboratory type specimens and filament overwrapped tanks, were conducted on three liner materials: (1) 2219-T62 aluminum, (2) Inconel X750 STA, and (3) cryoformed 301 stainless steel. Variables included material condition, thickness, flaw size, flaw shape, temperature, sizing stress level, operating stress level and minimum-to-maximum operating stress ratio. From the empirical data base obtained, a procedure was established by which the service life of composite tanks with load sharing liners could be guaranteed with a high degree of confidence.

  3. An Improved Iterative Tikhonov Regularization Method for Solving the Dynamic Load Identification Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linjun; Cao, Huiping; Xie, Youxiang

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify multi-source dynamic loads acting on the practical engineering structure. In this study, we propose a new iterative Tikhonov regularization method (MITR) based on a new functional operator, and strictly prove its stability and definition from the mathematical theory. This inverse technology has been validated by numerical benchmarks and engineering example involving dynamic load identification. Numerical simulations indicate that the proposed method reduces the number of iterations and also can obtain more efficient and numerically stable approximation of the true loads compared with the iterative Tikhonov regularization method (ITR), which verifies the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Electrochemical Method of Making Porous Particles Using a Constant Current Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, Mauro (Inventor); Liu, Xuewu (Inventor); Cheng, Ming-Cheng (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided is a particle that includes a first porous region and a second porous region that differs from the first porous region. Also provided is a particle that has a wet etched porous region and that does have a nucleation layer associated with wet etching. Methods of making porous particles are also provided.

  5. Objective and subjective methods for quantifying training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Los Arcos, Asier; Yanci, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games and determine the relationship between heart rate (HR)-based training load and perceived exertion (RPE)-based training load methods among small-sided games bouts. HR-based measurements of training load included Edwards' training load and Stagno's training impulses (TRIMPMOD) while RPE-based training load measurements included cardiopulmonary (session RPEres) and muscular (session RPEmus) values. Data were collected from 12 wheelchair basketball players during five consecutive weeks. The total load for the small-sided games sessions was 67.5 ± 6.7 and 55.3 ± 12.5 AU in HR-based training load (Edwards' training load and TRIMPMOD), while the RPE-based training loads were 99.3 ± 26.9 (session RPEres) and 100.8 ± 31.2 AU (session RPEmus). Bout-to-bout analysis identified greater session RPEmus in the third [P < 0.05; effect size (ES) = 0.66, moderate] and fourth bouts (P < 0.05; ES = 0.64, moderate) than in the first bout, but other measures did not differ. Mean correlations indicated a trivial and small relationship among HR-based and RPE-based training loads. It is suggested that HR-based and RPE-based training loads provide different information, but these two methods could be complementary because one method could help us to understand the limitations of the other.

  6. Effects of loading methods on microstructure of diffusion welded joint of AZ31B/Cu with Ni interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S. M.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Du, C.; Hu, J.

    2017-02-01

    Diffusion brazing was carried out to weld AZ31B magnesium alloy and copper with Ni foil interlayer under different loading methods that are divided into intermittent gradient pressure, gradient pressure and constant pressure. The microstructure and element diffusion of welded joint were analyzed by SEM and EDS. The results show that the AZ31B/Cu can achieve good bonded joint composed of brazing seam zone and magnesium substrate grain boundary penetration zone at 500 °C for 20 min. The loading methods have great influence on the thickness of brazing seam zone, microstructure and α-Mg grain size of the welded joint. At intermittent gradient pressure, the brazing seam zone reaches the biggest width of 0.18 mm, and the microstructure of brazing seam zone is composed of Cu11Mg10Ni9, (α-Mg+Mg2Cu+Mg2Ni)eutectic structure and α-Mg. Under gradient pressure, the width of brazing seam zone reduces, and the microstructure of brazing seam zone is mainly dominated by (α-Mg+Mg2Cu+Mg2Ni)eutectic structure and Cu11Mg10Ni9 compounds closed magnesium matrix. When using constant pressure, the microstructure of joint is similar to that under intermittent gradient pressure, the brazing seam zone reaches the smallest width of 0.11 mm, and the size of α-Mg grains reduces.

  7. Determination of acidity constants of sparingly soluble drugs in aqueous solution by the internal standard capillary electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Joan Marc; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2014-12-01

    A set of 33 drugs with different solubilities, ranging from soluble to very insoluble, has been chosen in order to evaluate the performance of the internal standard CE method to determine acidity constants of compounds with limited solubility. The set of drugs tested in this work has been chosen as a function of their intrinsic solubility. For the most insoluble compounds, several analytical conditions to overcome the insolubility in aqueous buffers have been tested. This paper assesses the compound solubility limits for the IS-CE method in aqueous pKa determinations, and also compares the determined pKa s with the results from the literature data obtained by other methods. It is proved that IS-CE method determines acidity constants of sparingly soluble drugs in aqueous media (compounds with logS down to around -6), whereas other reference methods require the use of aqueous-organic solvent buffers and extrapolation procedures to obtain the aqueous pKa for the same compounds.

  8. Rapid and Inexpensive Method of Loading Fluorescent Dye into Pollen Tubes and Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Haiyong; Xing, Wenxi; Wu, Fenfen; Wang, Yongzhang

    2016-01-01

    The most direct technique for studying calcium, which is an essential element for pollen tube growth, is Ca2+ imaging. Because membranes are relatively impermeable, the loading of fluorescent Ca2+ probes into plant cells is a challenging task. Thus, we have developed a new method of loading fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester into cells that uses a cell lysis solution to improve the introduction of this fluorescent dye into pollen tubes. Using this method, the loading times were reduced to 15 min. Furthermore, loading did not have to be performed at low (4°C) temperatures and was successful at room temperature, and pluronic F-127 was not required, which would theoretically allow for the loading of an unlimited number of cells. Moreover, the method can also be used to fluorescently stain root hairs. PMID:27055240

  9. Methods and apparatus for reduction of asymmetric rotor loads in wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10

    A method for reducing load and providing yaw alignment in a wind turbine includes measuring displacements or moments resulting from asymmetric loads on the wind turbine. These measured displacements or moments are used to determine a pitch for each rotor blade to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading and a favorable yaw orientation to reduce pitch activity. Yaw alignment of the wind turbine is adjusted in accordance with the favorable yaw orientation and the pitch of each rotor blade is adjusted in accordance with the determined pitch to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading.

  10. Note: A novel method for in situ loading of gases via x-ray induced chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Park, Changyong; Liu, Yu; Galley, Martin; Robinson, John; Bhattacharya, Neelanjan

    2011-12-14

    We have developed and demonstrated a novel method to load oxygen in a sealed diamond anvil cell via the x-ray induced decomposition of potassium chlorate. By irradiating a pressurized sample of an oxidizer (KClO{sub 3}) with either monochromatic or white beam x-rays from the Advanced Photon Source at ambient temperature and variable pressure, we succeeded in creating a localized region of molecular oxygen surrounded by unreacted sample which was confirmed via Raman spectroscopy. We anticipate that this technique will be useful in loading even more challenging, difficult-to-load gases such as hydrogen and also to load multiple gases.

  11. Note: A novel method for in situ loading of gases via x-ray induced chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Park, Changyong; Liu, Yu; Galley, Martin; Robinson, John; Bhattacharya, Neelanjan

    2011-10-01

    We have developed and demonstrated a novel method to load oxygen in a sealed diamond anvil cell via the x-ray induced decomposition of potassium chlorate. By irradiating a pressurized sample of an oxidizer (KClO3) with either monochromatic or white beam x-rays from the Advanced Photon Source at ambient temperature and variable pressure, we succeeded in creating a localized region of molecular oxygen surrounded by unreacted sample which was confirmed via Raman spectroscopy. We anticipate that this technique will be useful in loading even more challenging, difficult-to-load gases such as hydrogen and also to load multiple gases.

  12. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    DOEpatents

    Perisic, Milun; Lawrence, Christopher P; Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2014-11-04

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system, for example, includes a first load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the first load. The controller may be further configured to, receive information on a second load electrically connected to the voltage source, determine an amount of reactive current to return to the voltage source such that a current drawn by the electrical system and the second load from the voltage source is substantially real, and provide the determined reactive current to the voltage source.

  13. Theoretical determination of chemical rate constants using novel time-dependent methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher E.

    1994-01-01

    The work completed within the grant period 10/1/91 through 12/31/93 falls primarily in the area of reaction dynamics using both quantum and classical mechanical methodologies. Essentially four projects have been completed and have been or are in preparation of being published. The majority of time was spent in the determination of reaction rate coefficients in the area of hydrocarbon fuel combustion reactions which are relevant to NASA's High Speed Research Program (HSRP). These reaction coefficients are important in the design of novel jet engines with low NOx emissions, which through a series of catalytic reactions contribute to the deterioration of the earth's ozone layer. A second area of research studied concerned the control of chemical reactivity using ultrashort (femtosecond) laser pulses. Recent advances in pulsed-laser technologies have opened up a vast new field to be investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The photodissociation of molecules adsorbed on surfaces using novel time-independent quantum mechanical methods was a third project. And finally, using state-of-the-art, high level ab initio electronic structure methods in conjunction with accurate quantum dynamical methods, the rovibrational energy levels of a triatomic molecule with two nonhydrogen atoms (HCN) were calculated to unprecedented levels of agreement between theory and experiment.

  14. Bone QUS measurement performed under loading condition, a more accuracy ultrasound method for osteoporosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengrui; Niu, Haijun; Fan, Yubo; Li, Deyu

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a worldwide health problem with enormous social and economic impact. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) method provides comprehensive information on bone mass, microstructure and mechanical properties of the bone. And the cheap, safe and portable ultrasound equipment is more suitable for public health monitoring. QUS measurement was normally performed on bone specimens without mechanical loading. But human bones are subjected to loading during routine daily activities, and physical loading leads to the changes of bone microstructure and mechanical properties. We hypothesized that bone QUS parameters measured under loading condition differ from those measured without loading because the microstructure of bone was changed when loading subjected to bone. Furthermore, when loading was subjected on bone, the loading-lead microstructure change of osteoporosis bone may larger than that of health bone. By considering the high relationship between bone microstructure and QUS parameters, the QUS parameters of osteoporosis bone may changed larger than that of health bone. So osteoporosis may be detected more effectively by the combination of QUS method and mechanical loading.

  15. Performance of wave function and density functional methods for water hydrogen bond spin-spin coupling constants.

    PubMed

    García de la Vega, J M; Omar, S; San Fabián, J

    2017-04-01

    Spin-spin coupling constants in water monomer and dimer have been calculated using several wave function and density functional-based methods. CCSD, MCSCF, and SOPPA wave functions methods yield similar results, specially when an additive approach is used with the MCSCF. Several functionals have been used to analyze their performance with the Jacob's ladder and a set of functionals with different HF exchange were tested. Functionals with large HF exchange appropriately predict (1) J O H , (2) J H H and (2h) J O O couplings, while (1h) J O H is better calculated with functionals that include a reduced fraction of HF exchange. Accurate functionals for (1) J O H and (2) J H H have been tested in a tetramer water model. The hydrogen bond effects on these intramolecular couplings are additive when they are calculated by SOPPA(CCSD) wave function and DFT methods. Graphical Abstract Evaluation of the additive effect of the hydrogen bond on spin-spin coupling constants of water using WF and DFT methods.

  16. Bayesian approach to color-difference models based on threshold and constant-stimuli methods.

    PubMed

    Brusola, Fernando; Tortajada, Ignacio; Lengua, Ismael; Jordá, Begoña; Peris, Guillermo

    2015-06-15

    An alternative approach based on statistical Bayesian inference is presented to deal with the development of color-difference models and the precision of parameter estimation. The approach was applied to simulated data and real data, the latter published by selected authors involved with the development of color-difference formulae using traditional methods. Our results show very good agreement between the Bayesian and classical approaches. Among other benefits, our proposed methodology allows one to determine the marginal posterior distribution of each random individual parameter of the color-difference model. In this manner, it is possible to analyze the effect of individual parameters on the statistical significance calculation of a color-difference equation.

  17. Enhancing the accuracy of the Fowler method for monitoring non-constant work functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, R.

    2016-04-01

    The Fowler method is a prominent non-invasive technique to determine the absolute work function of a surface based on the photoelectric effect. The evaluation procedure relies on the correlation of the photocurrent with the incident photon energy hν which is mainly dependent on the surface work function χ. Applying Fowler's theory of the photocurrent, the measurements can be fitted by the theoretical curve near the threshold hν⪆χ yielding the work function χ and a parameter A. The straightforward experimental implementation of the Fowler method is to use several particular photon energies, e.g. via interference filters. However, with a realization like that the restriction hν ≈ χ can easily be violated, especially when the work function of the material is decreasing during the measurements as, for instance, with coating or adsorption processes. This can lead to an overestimation of the evaluated work function value of typically some 0.1 eV, reaching up to more than 0.5 eV in an unfavorable case. A detailed analysis of the Fowler theory now reveals the background of that effect and shows that the fit-parameter A can be used to assess the accuracy of the determined value of χ conveniently during the measurements. Moreover, a scheme is introduced to quantify a potential overestimation and to perform a correction to χ to a certain extent. The issues are demonstrated exemplarily at the monitoring of the work function reduction of a stainless steel sample surface due to caesiation.

  18. Nonlinear ultrasonic imaging method for closed cracks using subtraction of responses at different external loads.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Yoshikazu; Horinouchi, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Makoto; Shintaku, Yohei; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    2011-08-01

    To improve the selectivity of closed cracks for objects other than cracks in ultrasonic imaging, we propose an extension of a novel imaging method, namely, subharmonic phased array for crack evaluation (SPACE) as well as another approach using the subtraction of responses at different external loads. By applying external static or dynamic loads to closed cracks, the contact state in the cracks varies, resulting in an intensity change of responses at cracks. In contrast, objects other than cracks are independent of external load. Therefore, only cracks can be extracted by subtracting responses at different loads. In this study, we performed fundamental experiments on a closed fatigue crack formed in an aluminum alloy compact tension (CT) specimen using the proposed method. We examined the static load dependence of SPACE images and the dynamic load dependence of linear phased array (PA) images by simulating the external loads with a servohydraulic fatigue testing machine. By subtracting the images at different external loads, we show that this method is useful in extracting only the intensity change of responses related to closed cracks, while canceling the responses of objects other than cracks.

  19. A method to find the 50-year extreme load during production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, René; Veldkamp, Dick

    2016-09-01

    An important yet difficult task in the design of wind turbines is to assess the extreme load behaviour, most notably finding the 50-year load. Where existing methods often focus on ways to extrapolate from small sample sizes, this paper proposes a different approach. It combines generating constrained gusts in turbulence fields, Delaunay tessellation to assign probabilities and a genetic algorithm to find the desired load in an efficient way. The individual parts of the method are verified and the results are compared to both crude Monte Carlo and importance sampling. We found that using a genetic algorithm is a promising approach to find the 50-year load, with only a small number of load cases (∼103) to be evaluated and requiring no user input but an appropriate fitness function.

  20. Non-linear effects in the determination of the gravitational constant by means of the swing time method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. T.

    1984-11-01

    Nonlinear effects on the experimental measurement of the gravitational constant by the swing-time method (Reich, 1852; Heyl and Chrzanowski, 1942; Luther and Towler, 1982) are evaluated analytically, extending the results of Cook and Chen (1982) and Chen et al. (1984) to treat both near and far positions of the pendulum for an attracting mass of arbitrary shape. Particular attention is given to the appearance of theta-squared terms in the far-position case, and the experimental conditions under which these nonlinear effects cancel each other are defined.

  1. A fresh look at linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  2. Positron annihilation and constant photocurrent method measurements on a-Si:H films: A comparative approach to defect identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordo, P. M.; Ferreira Marques, M. F.; Lopes Gil, C.; de Lima, A. P.; Lavareda, G.; Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Amaral, A.; Kajcsos, Zs.

    2007-02-01

    Defect structure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-films was studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), whereas the density of states below the Fermi level was measured by constant photocurrent method (CPM). Divacancies and large vacancy clusters were identified as the main defects present in these films, with relative concentrations strongly dependent on the rf-power. Correlation between PAS, CPM results and I( V) characteristics of solar cells suggests the creation of energy levels above the Fermi energy, not observable by CPM, related to large vacancy clusters.

  3. Acidity Constant (pKa ) Calculation of Large Solvated Dye Molecules: Evaluation of Two Advanced Molecular Dynamics Methods.

    PubMed

    De Meyer, Thierry; Ensing, Bernd; Rogge, Sven M J; De Clerck, Karen; Meijer, Evert Jan; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2016-11-04

    pH-Sensitive dyes are increasingly applied on polymer substrates for the creation of novel sensor materials. Recently, these dye molecules were modified to form a covalent bond with the polymer host. This had a large influence on the pH-sensitive properties, in particular on the acidity constant (pKa ). Obtaining molecular control over the factors that influence the pKa value is mandatory for the future intelligent design of sensor materials. Herein, we show that advanced molecular dynamics (MD) methods have reached the level at which the pKa values of large solvated dye molecules can be predicted with high accuracy. Two MD methods were used in this work: steered or restrained MD and the insertion/deletion scheme. Both were first calibrated on a set of phenol derivatives and afterwards applied to the dye molecule bromothymol blue. Excellent agreement with experimental values was obtained, which opens perspectives for using these methods for designing dye molecules.

  4. Method for decreasing radiation load in puva therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, K.

    1987-02-10

    An improved method is described for treating a psoriatic subject undergoing treatment with a psoralen in conjection with ultraviolet A radiation of from wavelength of 3200 to 4000 angstroms. The improved method comprises prior to initiation of the treatment, pretreating the subject for a period of from 4 to 10 days with an effective amount of an anti-psoriatic polyene compound, and thereafter initiating the treatment with a psoralen in conjunction with ultraviolet A radiation and continuing the treatment concurrently with the administration of the anti-psoriatic polyene compound.

  5. Evaluation of Stress Loaded Steel Samples Using Selected Electromagnetic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chady, T.

    2004-02-26

    In this paper the magnetic leakage flux and eddy current method were used to evaluate changes of materials' properties caused by stress. Seven samples made of ferromagnetic material with different level of applied stress were prepared. First, the leakage magnetic fields were measured by scanning the surface of the specimens with GMR gradiometer. Next, the same samples were evaluated using an eddy current sensor. A comparison between results obtained from both methods was carried out. Finally, selected parameters of the measured signal were calculated and utilized to evaluate level of the applied stress. A strong coincidence between amount of the applied stress and the maximum amplitude of the derivative was confirmed.

  6. An Ultrasonic Guided Wave Method to Estimate Applied Biaxial Loads (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    orientation are estimated from a sinusoidal fit of ultrasonic data collected from the same spatially distributed array that is being used to detect and...AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4361 AN ULTRASONIC GUIDED WAVE METHOD TO ESTIMATE APPLIED BIAXIAL LOADS (PREPRINT) Fan, Shi, Jennifer E. Michaels, and...Technical Paper 1 November 2011 – 1 November 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN ULTRASONIC GUIDED WAVE METHOD TO ESTIMATE APPLIED BIAXIAL LOADS (PREPRINT

  7. Effect of drying and loading methods on the release behavior of ciprofloxacin from starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Aimin; Li, Dong; Liu, Hongzhi; Adhikari, Benu; Wang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Drug loading into and release from starch nanoparticles (StNPs), one kind of novel biological macromolecule, were investigated. Two drying methods (spray and vacuum freeze drying) and drug loading methods (coating and adsorption) were used for evaluation. 40% (w/w) of ciprofloxacin was loaded using coating method while only 7% for adsorption method. Glass transition temperature (Tg) and melting point temperature (Tmp) of ciprofloxacin loaded starch nanoparticles varied from 40°C to 55°C and 125°C to 175°C. Particles using adsorption method had lower loading rate of ciprofloxacin, higher Tg, Tmp and release rate compared to using coating method. Tg and Tmp were not affected by these two drying methods. Release rate of ciprofloxacin was higher from freeze dried particles than from spray dried particles using coating method. For adsorption method, drying methods had not effect on the release rate. A double decay exponential model was able to fit the release data suitably well with coefficient of determination (R(2))>0.97.

  8. A program for calculating load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, L218 (LOADS). Volume 2: Supplemental system design and maintenance document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. R.; Miller, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The LOADS computer program L218 which calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: (1) translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; (2) panel aerodynamic forces; (3) net panel forces; and (4) shears, bending moments, and torsions.

  9. [Effect analysis on the two total load control methods for poisonous heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Firstly it should be made clear that implementation of source total load control for the first type of pollutants is necessary for environmental pollution control legislation and economic structure regulation. This kind of surveillance method has been more practical to be implemented since the Manual of the Industry Discharge Coefficient of First National Pollution Sources Investigation was published. The source total load control and water environment total load control are independent of each other and none of them is redundant, on the other side they can be complementary to each other. In the present, some local planning managers are blurring and confusing the contents and styles of the two surveillance methods. They just use the water total load control to manage all the pollutants, and source total load control is discarded, which results in the loss of control for the first type of pollutants especially for the drinking water source surveillance. There is a big difference between the water quality standards and the water environmental background concentration values for the first type of pollutants in the Environmental quality standard for surface water (GB 3838-88), which means that there are problems such as "relaxing the pollutant discharge permit" and "risk induced by valence state change". Taking an enterprise with 10t electrolytic lead production capacity as an example, there is a big difference between the allowable lead discharged loads by the two total load surveillance methods. In summary, it will bring a lot of harmful effects if the water total load control is implemented for the two types of pollutants, so the source total load control and water environmental total load control should be implemented strictly at the same time.

  10. A method for improving predictions of bed-load discharges to reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, V.L.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Bravo-Espinosa, M.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management options for mitigating the loss of reservoir water storage capacity to sedimentation depend on improved predictions of bed-load discharges into the reservoirs. Most predictions of bed-load discharges, however, are based on the assumption that the rates of bed-load sediment availability equal the transport capacity of the flow, ignoring the spatio-temporal variability of the sediment supply. This paper develops a semiquantitative method to characterize bed-load sediment transport in alluvial channels, assuming a channel reach is non-supply limited when the bed-load discharge of a given sediment particle-size class is functionally related to the energy that is available to transport that fraction of the total bed-load. The method was applied to 22 alluvial stream channels in the USA to determine whether a channel reach had a supply-limited or non-supply-limited bed-load transport regime. The non-supply-limited transport regime was further subdivided into two groups on the basis of statistical tests. The results indicated the pattern of bed-load sediment transport in alluvial channels depends on the complete spectrum of sediment particle sizes available for transport rather than individual particle-size fractions represented by one characteristic particle size. The application of the method developed in this paper should assist reservoir managers in selecting bed-load sediment transport equations to improve predictions of bed-load discharge in alluvial streams, thereby significantly increasing the efficiency of management options for maintaining the storage capacity of waterbodies. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Effects of Constant and Variable Accelerations on Crystals Grown onboard Spacecraft by the Method of Directional Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feonychev, A. I.; Dolgikh, G. A.

    2001-07-01

    The effect of constant and time-dependent accelerations (vibrations) on the melt flow and heat and mass transfer in the process of crystal growth by the method of directional crystallization (Bridgman method) onboard spacecraft is numerically investigated. The mathematical formulation of the problem and the technique to solve it numerically are given. The time-averaged flow arising under the action of vibrations in a nonisothermal fluid is investigated. With the help of a rational choice of dimensionless similitude parameters, a generalized dependence on the intensity of melt flow is obtained for the radial segregation of dopants. This dependence is invariant with respect to the type of motive power and thermal boundary conditions in the region of very small velocities of melt flow (“creeping” flow), which are characteristic for microgravity conditions. The allowable levels of constant accelerations, as well as the frequency dependences of tolerable vibrations, are obtained for five typical semiconductor materials: Ge(Ga), GaAs(Te), InSb(Te), Si(P), and Si(B). It is shown that the radial segregation of dopant is much more sensitive to microaccelerations than the axial one. In the region of small velocities, the latter is determined by the duration of the transition regime, which depends on certain physical properties of the melt. New problems that resulted from the investigations performed are discussed.

  12. A Method to Analyze and Optimize the Load Sharing of Split Path Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    1996-01-01

    Split-path transmissions are promising alternatives to the common planetary transmissions for rotorcraft. Heretofore, split-path designs proposed for or used in rotorcraft have featured load-sharing devices that add undesirable weight and complexity to the designs. A method was developed to analyze and optimize the load sharing in split-path transmissions without load-sharing devices. The method uses the clocking angle as a design parameter to optimize for equal load sharing. In addition, the clocking angle tolerance necessary to maintain acceptable load sharing can be calculated. The method evaluates the effects of gear-shaft twisting and bending, tooth bending, Hertzian deformations within bearings, and movement of bearing supports on load sharing. It was used to study the NASA split-path test gearbox and the U.S. Army's Comanche helicopter main rotor gearbox. Acceptable load sharing was found to be achievable and maintainable by using proven manufacturing processes. The analytical results compare favorably to available experimental data.

  13. Application of Classification Methods for Forecasting Mid-Term Power Load Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Minghao; Lee, Heon Gyu; Park, Jin Hyoung; Ryu, Keun Ho

    Currently an automated methodology based on data mining techniques is presented for the prediction of customer load patterns in long duration load profiles. The proposed approach in this paper consists of three stages: (i) data preprocessing: noise or outlier is removed and the continuous attribute-valued features are transformed to discrete values, (ii) cluster analysis: k-means clustering is used to create load pattern classes and the representative load profiles for each class and (iii) classification: we evaluated several supervised learning methods in order to select a suitable prediction method. According to the proposed methodology, power load measured from AMR (automatic meter reading) system, as well as customer indexes, were used as inputs for clustering. The output of clustering was the classification of representative load profiles (or classes). In order to evaluate the result of forecasting load patterns, the several classification methods were applied on a set of high voltage customers of the Korea power system and derived class labels from clustering and other features are used as input to produce classifiers. Lastly, the result of our experiments was presented.

  14. Method and apparatus for calibrating multi-axis load cells in a dexterous robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Platt, Jr., Robert J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A robotic system includes a dexterous robot having robotic joints, angle sensors adapted for measuring joint angles at a corresponding one of the joints, load cells for measuring a set of strain values imparted to a corresponding one of the load cells during a predetermined pose of the robot, and a host machine. The host machine is electrically connected to the load cells and angle sensors, and receives the joint angle values and strain values during the predetermined pose. The robot presses together mating pairs of load cells to form the poses. The host machine executes an algorithm to process the joint angles and strain values, and from the set of all calibration matrices that minimize error in force balance equations, selects the set of calibration matrices that is closest in a value to a pre-specified value. A method for calibrating the load cells via the algorithm is also provided.

  15. Convergent validity of a novel method for quantifying rowing training loads.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jacqueline; Rice, Anthony J; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Elite rowers complete rowing-specific and non-specific training, incorporating continuous and interval-like efforts spanning the intensity spectrum. However, established training load measures are unsuitable for use in some modes and intensities. Consequently, a new measure known as the T2minute method was created. The method quantifies load as the time spent in a range of training zones (time-in-zone), multiplied by intensity- and mode-specific weighting factors that scale the relative stress of different intensities and modes to the demands of on-water rowing. The purpose of this study was to examine the convergent validity of the T2minute method with Banister's training impulse (TRIMP), Lucia's TRIMP and Session-RPE when quantifying elite rowing training. Fourteen elite rowers (12 males, 2 females) were monitored during four weeks of routine training. Unadjusted T2minute loads (using coaches' estimates of time-in-zone) demonstrated moderate-to-strong correlations with Banister's TRIMP, Lucia's TRIMP and Session-RPE (rho: 0.58, 0.55 and 0.42, respectively). Adjusting T2minute loads by using actual time-in-zone data resulted in stronger correlations between the T2minute method and Banister's TRIMP and Lucia's TRIMP (rho: 0.85 and 0.81, respectively). The T2minute method is an appropriate in-field measure of elite rowing training loads, particularly when actual time-in-zone values are used to quantify load.

  16. Method and system employing graphical electric load categorization to identify one of a plurality of different electric load types

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yi; Du, Liang

    2016-09-13

    A system for different electric loads includes sensors structured to sense voltage and current signals for each of the different electric loads; a hierarchical load feature database having a plurality of layers, with one of the layers including a plurality of different load categories; and a processor. The processor acquires voltage and current waveforms from the sensors for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; maps a voltage-current trajectory to a grid including a plurality of cells, each of which is assigned a binary value of zero or one; extracts a plurality of different features from the mapped grid of cells as a graphical signature of the corresponding one of the different electric loads; derives a category of the corresponding one of the different electric loads from the database; and identifies one of a plurality of different electric load types for the corresponding one of the different electric loads.

  17. Single Vector Calibration System for Multi-Axis Load Cells and Method for Calibrating a Multi-Axis Load Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Peter A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A single vector calibration system is provided which facilitates the calibration of multi-axis load cells, including wind tunnel force balances. The single vector system provides the capability to calibrate a multi-axis load cell using a single directional load, for example loading solely in the gravitational direction. The system manipulates the load cell in three-dimensional space, while keeping the uni-directional calibration load aligned. The use of a single vector calibration load reduces the set-up time for the multi-axis load combinations needed to generate a complete calibration mathematical model. The system also reduces load application inaccuracies caused by the conventional requirement to generate multiple force vectors. The simplicity of the system reduces calibration time and cost, while simultaneously increasing calibration accuracy.

  18. Method for loading explosive laterally from a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. At least one void is excavated in the formation, leaving zones of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. An array of main blastholes is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and at least one explosive charge which is shaped for forming a high velocity gas jet is placed into a main blasthole with the axis of the gas jet extending transverse to the blasthole. The shaped charge is detonated for forming an auxiliary blasthole in the unfragmented formation adjacent a side wall of the main blasthole. The auxiliary blasthole extends laterally away from the main blasthole. Explosive is placed into the main blasthole and into the auxiliary blasthole and is detonated for explosively expanding formation towards the free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the in situ oil shale retort.

  19. Load balancing prediction method of cloud storage based on analytic hierarchy process and hybrid hierarchical genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiuze; Lin, Fan; Yang, Lvqing; Nie, Jing; Tan, Qian; Zeng, Wenhua; Zhang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous expansion of the cloud computing platform scale and rapid growth of users and applications, how to efficiently use system resources to improve the overall performance of cloud computing has become a crucial issue. To address this issue, this paper proposes a method that uses an analytic hierarchy process group decision (AHPGD) to evaluate the load state of server nodes. Training was carried out by using a hybrid hierarchical genetic algorithm (HHGA) for optimizing a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN). The AHPGD makes the aggregative indicator of virtual machines in cloud, and become input parameters of predicted RBFNN. Also, this paper proposes a new dynamic load balancing scheduling algorithm combined with a weighted round-robin algorithm, which uses the predictive periodical load value of nodes based on AHPPGD and RBFNN optimized by HHGA, then calculates the corresponding weight values of nodes and makes constant updates. Meanwhile, it keeps the advantages and avoids the shortcomings of static weighted round-robin algorithm.

  20. Development of a nonlinear vortex method. [steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads of highly sweptback wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, O. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of reliable nonlinear vortex methods for predicting the steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads of highly sweptback wings at large angles of attack. Abstracts of the papers, talks, and theses produced through this research are included. The modified nonlinear discrete vortex method and the nonlinear hybrid vortex method are highlighted.

  1. Stress analysis method for clearance-fit joints with bearing-bypass loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, R. A.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Within a multi-fastener joint, fastener holes may be subjected to the combined effects of bearing loads and loads that bypass the hole to be reacted elsewhere in the joint. The analysis of a joint subjected to search combined bearing and bypass loads is complicated by the usual clearance between the hole and the fastener. A simple analysis method for such clearance-fit joints subjected to bearing-bypass loading has been developed in the present study. It uses an inverse formulation with a linear elastic finite-element analysis. Conditions along the bolt-hole contact arc are specified by displacement constraint equations. The present method is simple to apply and can be implemented with most general purpose finite-element programs since it does not use complicated iterative-incremental procedures. The method was used to study the effects of bearing-bypass loading on bolt-hole contact angles and local stresses. In this study, a rigid, frictionless bolt was used with a plate having the properties of a quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminate. Results showed that the contact angle as well as the peak stresses around the hole and their locations were strongly influenced by the ratio of bearing and bypass loads. For single contact, tension and compression bearing-bypass loading had opposite effects on the contact angle. For some compressive bearing-bypass loads, the hole tended to close on the fastener leading to dual contact. It was shown that dual contact reduces the stress concentration at the fastener and would, therefore, increase joint strength in compression. The results illustrate the general importance of accounting for bolt-hole clearance and contact to accurately compute local bolt-hole stresses for combined bearings and bypass loading.

  2. Calculations of atomic magnetic nuclear shielding constants based on the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2017-04-07

    A new method for calculating nuclear magnetic resonance shielding constants of relativistic atoms based on the two-component (2c), spin-orbit coupling including Dirac-exact NESC (Normalized Elimination of the Small Component) approach is developed where each term of the diamagnetic and paramagnetic contribution to the isotropic shielding constant σiso is expressed in terms of analytical energy derivatives with regard to the magnetic field B and the nuclear magnetic moment . The picture change caused by renormalization of the wave function is correctly described. 2c-NESC/HF (Hartree-Fock) results for the σiso values of 13 atoms with a closed shell ground state reveal a deviation from 4c-DHF (Dirac-HF) values by 0.01%-0.76%. Since the 2-electron part is effectively calculated using a modified screened nuclear shielding approach, the calculation is efficient and based on a series of matrix manipulations scaling with (2M)(3) (M: number of basis functions).

  3. Are Fundamental Constants Really Constant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Dirac's classical conclusions, that the values of e2, M and m are constants and the quantity of G decreases with time. Evoked considerable interest among researchers and traces historical development by which further experimental evidence points out that both e and G are constant values. (PS)

  4. Improvements to a method for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of compressively loaded stiffened composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, Frederick

    1993-01-01

    The NLPAN computer code uses a finite-strip approach to the analysis of thin-walled prismatic composite structures such as stiffened panels. The code can model in-plane axial loading, transverse pressure loading, and constant through-the-thickness thermal loading, and can account for shape imperfections. The NLPAN code represents an attempt to extend the buckling analysis of the VIPASA computer code into the geometrically nonlinear regime. Buckling mode shapes generated using VIPASA are used in NLPAN as global functions for representing displacements in the nonlinear regime. While the NLPAN analysis is approximate in nature, it is computationally economical in comparison with finite-element analysis, and is thus suitable for use in preliminary design and design optimization. A comprehensive description of the theoretical approach of NLPAN is provided. A discussion of some operational considerations for the NLPAN code is included. NLPAN is applied to several test problems in order to demonstrate new program capabilities, and to assess the accuracy of the code in modeling various types of loading and response. User instructions for the NLPAN computer program are provided, including a detailed description of the input requirements and example input files for two stiffened-panel configurations.

  5. Dynamic load balancing for petascale quantum Monte Carlo applications: The Alias method

    SciTech Connect

    Sudheer, C. D.; Krishnan, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Kent, P. R. C.

    2013-02-01

    Diffusion Monte Carlo is the most accurate widely used Quantum Monte Carlo method for the electronic structure of materials, but it requires frequent load balancing or population redistribution steps to maintain efficiency and avoid accumulation of systematic errors on parallel machines. The load balancing step can be a significant factor affecting performance, and will become more important as the number of processing elements increases. We propose a new dynamic load balancing algorithm, the Alias Method, and evaluate it theoretically and empirically. An important feature of the new algorithm is that the load can be perfectly balanced with each process receiving at most one message. It is also optimal in the maximum size of messages received by any process. We also optimize its implementation to reduce network contention, a process facilitated by the low messaging requirement of the algorithm. Empirical results on the petaflop Cray XT Jaguar supercomputer at ORNL showing up to 30% improvement in performance on 120,000 cores. The load balancing algorithm may be straightforwardly implemented in existing codes. The algorithm may also be employed by any method with many near identical computational tasks that requires load balancing.

  6. Simple transfer calibration method for a Cimel Sun-Moon photometer: calculating lunar calibration coefficients from Sun calibration constants.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Kaitao; Li, Donghui; Yang, Jiuchun; Xu, Hua; Goloub, Philippe; Victori, Stephane

    2016-09-20

    The Cimel new technologies allow both daytime and nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Although the daytime AOD calibration protocols are well established, accurate and simple nighttime calibration is still a challenging task. Standard lunar-Langley and intercomparison calibration methods both require specific conditions in terms of atmospheric stability and site condition. Additionally, the lunar irradiance model also has some known limits on its uncertainty. This paper presents a simple calibration method that transfers the direct-Sun calibration constant, V0,Sun, to the lunar irradiance calibration coefficient, CMoon. Our approach is a pure calculation method, independent of site limits, e.g., Moon phase. The method is also not affected by the lunar irradiance model limitations, which is the largest error source of traditional calibration methods. Besides, this new transfer calibration approach is easy to use in the field since CMoon can be obtained directly once V0,Sun is known. Error analysis suggests that the average uncertainty of CMoon over the 440-1640 nm bands obtained with the transfer method is 2.4%-2.8%, depending on the V0,Sun approach (Langley or intercomparison), which is comparable with that of lunar-Langley approach, theoretically. In this paper, the Sun-Moon transfer and the Langley methods are compared based on site measurements in Beijing, and the day-night measurement continuity and performance are analyzed.

  7. Drug delivery formulations of ordered and nonordered mesoporous silica: comparison of three drug loading methods.

    PubMed

    Limnell, Tarja; Santos, Hélder A; Mäkilä, Ermei; Heikkilä, Teemu; Salonen, Jarno; Murzin, Dmitry Yu; Kumar, Narendra; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Hirvonen, Jouni

    2011-08-01

    A poorly soluble model drug, indomethacin (IMC), was loaded into two types of silica particles using three different loading methods. The loading efficiency and the extent/rate of drug release were evaluated. Widely used equipment in pharmaceutical laboratories, rotavapor and fluid bed, were used in the loading. The porous materials used were ordered mesoporous silica MCM-41 and nonordered silica gel Syloid 244 FP EU. The materials differ both in their pore properties and particle sizes. Tablets were successfully compressed from the IMC-loaded particles. Mechanical stability of the porous structures was studied with XRPD and nitrogen sorption after tableting and drug release was evaluated at pH 5.5 before and after tableting. The release of the poorly soluble IMC was faster from the Syloid than from the MCM-41, presumably due to the larger pore size and smaller particle size. Loading of IMC into the MCM-41 microparticles improved the drug dissolution, and blending the microparticles with pharmaceutical excipients improved the IMC release even further. The fast release was also maintained after tableting. Loading of IMC into the Syloid particles alone was sufficient to produce similar IMC release profiles, as in the case of MCM-41 with the excipients.

  8. Method for exciting inductive-resistive loads with high and controllable direct current

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Jr., Homer M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for transmitting dc power to a load circuit by applying a dc voltage from a standard waveform synthesizer to duration modulate a bipolar rectangular wave generator. As the amplitude of the dc voltage increases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses increase, and as the amplitude of the dc voltage decreases, the widths of the rectangular wave generator output pulses decrease. Thus, the waveform synthesizer selectively changes the durations of the rectangular wave generator bipolar output pulses so as to produce a rectangular wave ac carrier that is duration modulated in accordance with and in direct proportion to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. Thereupon, by transferring the carrier to the load circuit through an amplifier and a rectifier, the load current also corresponds directly to the voltage amplitude from the synthesizer. To this end, the rectified wave at less than 100% duty factor, amounts to a doubled frequency direct voltage pulse train for applying a direct current to the load, while the current ripple is minimized by a high L/R in the load circuit. In one embodiment, a power transmitting power amplifier means having a dc power supply is matched to the load circuit through a transformer for current magnification without sacrificing load current duration capability, while negative voltage and current feedback are provided in order to insure good output fidelity.

  9. BELFA: an integrated bridge loading truck for application of the advanced test method EXTRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwesinger, Peter; Thor, Bianca

    2001-08-01

    In Germany a research group from four universities has developed an advanced experimental supported objective condition assessment method for concrete bridges, called 'EXTRA'. This method is useable preferably in cases, where conventional assessment methods cannot be applied successfully. In the past more than 200 bridges and buildings were evaluated regarding their real actual load bearing capacity using this method. An authorized guideline for the practical use at concrete structures is available. Until now the process of mounting and dismantling the loading structure was the most time-consuming part of such a test and influenced testing costs and duration of traffic interruption decisive. This background and the technical conception for development and testing the truck prototype with a maximum total loading capacity of 150 t will be introduced. Main subjects are a brief characterization of EXTRA method, the truck structure, the hydraulic loading system, measurement equipment and control facilities as well as the loading regime and belonging on-line information controlling the structure response as main parts of the testing process. The concept of the future employment of such trucks and ideas for a co-operation of consulting offices, owners and authorities will be short discussed. First testing experiences and an outlook on further activities will be given. Acknowledgments finalize the contribution.

  10. Three Methods for Simulating Septic Loading in a Residential Watershed with HSPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Endreny, T. A.; Hassett, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    Suburban development in the New York City Croton water supply district has introduced new pollution sources and runoff flowpaths into the watershed, and ultimately has created new water quality management challenges. Nutrient loading from septic systems, or on-site wastewater systems, is one of the pollution concerns for receiving waters within the Croton supply area, and the Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) water quality model is being tested for optimal methods to simulate this distributed loading source. In the first method, HSPF utilizes the available nutrient simulation mechanism within the pervious subsurface and groundwater nutrients routine for residential land cover. In the second method, HSPF utilizes point source loading mechanisms into the receiving open water bodies (channels, lakes etc.) to reflect distributed septic systems effect. And in the third method, HSPF was adjusted to incorporate a new loading mechanism that handles septic system effects in the pervious land area. This research examines the benefits and constraints to management and scientific interpretation of each of the three septic loading simulation methods.

  11. Methods to model particulate matter clarification of unit operations subject to unsteady loadings.

    PubMed

    Spelman, David; Sansalone, John J

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater, and also wastewater unit operations (UOs) to a much lower extent, are subject to unsteady hydrodynamic and particulate matter (PM) fluxes. Simulating fully transient clarification of hetero-disperse PM requires much greater computational expense compared to steady simulations. An alternative to fully unsteady methods are stepwise steady (SS) methods which use stepwise steady flow transport and fate to approximate unsteady PM clarification of a UO during transient hydraulic loadings such as rainfall-runoff. The rationale is reduced computational effort for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) compared to simulating continuous unsteadiness of such events. An implicit solution stepwise steady (IS(3)) method is one approach which builds upon previous SS methods. The IS(3) method computes steady flows that are representative of unsteady PM transport throughout an unsteady loading. This method departs from some previous SS methods that assume PM fate can be simulated with an instantaneous clarifier (basin) influent flowrate coupled with a PM input. In this study, various SS methods were tested for basins of varying size and residence time to examine PM fate. Differences between SS methods were a function of turnover fraction indicating the role of unsteady flowrates on PM transport for larger basins of longer residence times. The breakpoint turnover fraction was between two and three. The IS(3) method best approximated unsteady behavior of larger basins. These methods identified limitations when utilizing standard event-based loading analysis for larger basins. For basins with a turnover fraction less than two, the majority of effluent PM did not originate from the event-based flow; originating from previous event loadings or existing storage. Inter- and multiple event processes and interactions, that are dependent on this inflow turnover fraction, are not accounted for by single event-based inflow models. Results suggest the use of long-term continuous

  12. A simple method of calculating lower-bound limit loads for axisymmetric thin shells

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.T.; Hamilton, R.; Shi, J.; Mackenzie, D.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, a simple method for calculating lower-bound limit loads for shells is presented, based on Ilyushin`s and Ivanov`s generalized yield criterion, respectively, and using the elastic compensation procedure. Several examples, including torispherical and conical ends, radial nozzles, and a skirted vessel, are examined using this method. The results are compared with previously published results.

  13. Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (CV) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.

  14. Acidity Constant (pK a) Calculation of Large Solvated Dye Molecules: Evaluation of Two Advanced Molecular Dynamics Methods

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Thierry; Ensing, Bernd; Rogge, Sven M. J.; De Clerck, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract pH‐Sensitive dyes are increasingly applied on polymer substrates for the creation of novel sensor materials. Recently, these dye molecules were modified to form a covalent bond with the polymer host. This had a large influence on the pH‐sensitive properties, in particular on the acidity constant (pK a). Obtaining molecular control over the factors that influence the pK a value is mandatory for the future intelligent design of sensor materials. Herein, we show that advanced molecular dynamics (MD) methods have reached the level at which the pK a values of large solvated dye molecules can be predicted with high accuracy. Two MD methods were used in this work: steered or restrained MD and the insertion/deletion scheme. Both were first calibrated on a set of phenol derivatives and afterwards applied to the dye molecule bromothymol blue. Excellent agreement with experimental values was obtained, which opens perspectives for using these methods for designing dye molecules. PMID:27570194

  15. Assessment of uncertainty in constructed wetland treatment performance and load estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Riku; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-06-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are commonly established to reduce pollution load from different sources. In environmental permits, the load remaining after CW purification is typically estimated through concentration and flow measurements. This load monitoring is often carried out using long water quality sampling intervals, which causes uncertainty in load estimation. In this study, a large suspended solids (SSs) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dataset was used to quantify the uncertainty in load estimation at the inlet and outlet of a CW with different sampling frequencies (sampling every 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks). A method to reduce the uncertainty by dividing the CW flow duration curve (FDC) into four equal categories and assigning mean/median concentration for each category according to the measured concentrations was also tested. The results showed that estimated SS load was associated with considerable uncertainty and that this uncertainty increased with lower sampling frequency. The FDC method was able to decrease the uncertainty, but much still remained, especially when concentrations of the measured variable showed great variation. In such cases, sensor technology might be a feasible option for further reducing the uncertainty.

  16. A probability density function discretization and approximation method for the dynamic load identification of stochastic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Xingsheng; Li, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Han, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Aiming at structures containing random parameters with multi-peak probability density functions (PDFs) or great variable coefficients, an analytical method of probability density function discretization and approximation (PDFDA) is proposed for dynamic load identification. Dynamic loads are expressed as the functions of time and random parameters in time domain and the forward model is established through the discretized convolution integral of loads and the corresponding unit-pulse response functions. The PDF of each random parameter is discretized into several subintervals and in each subinterval the original PDF curve is approximated via uniform distribution PDF with equal probability value. Then the joint distribution model is built and hence the equivalent deterministic equations are solved to identify unknown loads. Inverse analysis is operated separately at each variable in the joint distribution model through regularization because of noise-contaminated measured responses. In order to assess the accuracy of identified results, PDF curves and statistical properties of loads are achieved based on the specially assumed distributions of identified loads. Numerical simulations demonstrate the efficiency and superiority of the presented method.

  17. Method of determining load in anisotropic non-crystalline materials using energy flux deviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H. (Inventor); Kriz, Ronald D. (Inventor); Fitting, Dale W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic wave is applied to an anisotropic sample material in an initial direction and the intensity of the ultrasonic wave is measured on an opposite surface of the sample material by two adjacent receiving points located in an array of receiving points. A ratio is determined between the measured intensities of two adjacent receiving points, the ratio being indicative of an angle of flux deviation from the initial direction caused by an unknown applied load. This determined ratio is then compared to a plurality of ratios of a similarly tested, similar anisotropic reference material under a plurality of respective, known load conditions, whereby the load applied to the particular anisotropic sample material is determined. A related method is disclosed for determining the fiber orientation from known loads and a determined flux shift.

  18. A method for variable pressure load estimation in spur and helical gear pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battarra, M.; Mucchi, E.

    2016-08-01

    A systematic procedure is proposed to determine variable excitation loads coming from pressure evolution inside tooth spaces in external gear pumps. Pressure force and torque are estimated with respect to the angular position of the gears, taking into account the phenomena that occur during the meshing course. In particular, the paper proposes a general methodology aiming at determining pressure force and torque components along the three coordinate axes and suitable to be applied on both spur and helical gear configuration. Firstly, the method to calculate pressure loads acting on a single tooth space during a complete revolution is given, then the total pressure force and torque loading each gear is obtained. Particular attention is addressed on the description of the helical gear scenario. As an example, the method is applied to a tandem gear pump, characterized by the presence of two stages, one with spur gears and one with helical gears. An experimentally assessed model to calculate the pressure ripple inside the tandem pump is described and the proposed procedure for pressure load estimation is applied. Eventually, the pressure loads estimated with the present procedure are compared with other estimation methods already described in the literature. The comparison shows that the present methodology is able to describe a wider range of phenomena involved in the meshing evolution and to determine all the pressure force and torque components applied to helical gears. The method gives suitable results to study the balancing and the dynamic behavior of gear pumps.

  19. A cognition-based method to ease the computational load for an extended Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2014-12-03

    The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is the nonlinear model of a Kalman filter (KF). It is a useful parameter estimation method when the observation model and/or the state transition model is not a linear function. However, the computational requirements in EKF are a difficulty for the system. With the help of cognition-based designation and the Taylor expansion method, a novel algorithm is proposed to ease the computational load for EKF in azimuth predicting and localizing under a nonlinear observation model. When there are nonlinear functions and inverse calculations for matrices, this method makes use of the major components (according to current performance and the performance requirements) in the Taylor expansion. As a result, the computational load is greatly lowered and the performance is ensured. Simulation results show that the proposed measure will deliver filtering output with a similar precision compared to the regular EKF. At the same time, the computational load is substantially lowered.

  20. A video-based observation method to assess musculoskeletal load in kitchen work.

    PubMed

    Pehkonen, Irmeli; Ketola, Ritva; Ranta, Riikka; Takala, Esa-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new video-based observation method aimed to assess musculoskeletal load in kitchen work, aspects of its repeatability and validity, and problems confronted by the observers. Two pairs of researchers observed individually 117 video clips recorded in kitchens. Interobserver repeatability was assessed by computing the proportion of agreement and weighted kappa values (kappa(w)). Validity was analyzed by studying the distribution of the assessments over the rating scales and the ratings before and after the interventions, which were compared with expert assessments made from the same intervention targets. The proportion of agreement ranged from 57 to 88%. Interobserver repeatability based on weighted kappa values was mainly good to moderate. The method detected the changes in physical load due to the interventions. Direction of the changes corresponded with the expert assessments. Further development of the method is needed to assess the load on the hands and wrists.

  1. Empirical Method to Estimate Hydrogen Embrittlement of Metals as a Function of Hydrogen Gas Pressure at Constant Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    High pressure Hydrogen (H) gas has been known to have a deleterious effect on the mechanical properties of certain metals, particularly, the notched tensile strength, fracture toughness and ductility. The ratio of these properties in Hydrogen as compared to Helium or Air is called the Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement (HEE) Index, which is a useful method to classify the severity of H embrittlement and to aid in the material screening and selection for safety usage H gas environment. A comprehensive world-wide database compilation, in the past 50 years, has shown that the HEE index is mostly collected at two conveniently high H pressure points of 5 ksi and 10 ksi near room temperature. Since H embrittlement is directly related to pressure, the lack of HEE index at other pressure points has posed a technical problem for the designers to select appropriate materials at a specific H pressure for various applications in aerospace, alternate and renewable energy sectors for an emerging hydrogen economy. Based on the Power-Law mathematical relationship, an empirical method to accurately predict the HEE index, as a function of H pressure at constant temperature, is presented with a brief review on Sievert's law for gas-metal absorption.

  2. Statistical Comparison and Improvement of Methods for Combining Random and Harmonic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; McGhee, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Structures in many environments experience both random and harmonic excitation. A variety of closed-form techniques has been used in the aerospace industry to combine the loads resulting from the two sources. The resulting combined loads are then used to design for both yield ultimate strength and high cycle fatigue capability. This paper examines the cumulative distribution function (CDF) percentiles obtained using each method by integrating the joint probability density function of the sine and random components. A new Microsoft Excel spreadsheet macro that links with the software program Mathematics is then used to calculate the combined value corresponding to any desired percentile along with a curve fit to this value. Another Excel macro is used to calculate the combination using a Monte Carlo simulation. Unlike the traditional techniques, these methods quantify the calculated load value with a Consistent percentile. Using either of the presented methods can be extremely valuable in probabilistic design, which requires a statistical characterization of the loading. Also, since the CDF at high probability levels is very flat, the design value is extremely sensitive to the predetermined percentile; therefore, applying the new techniques can lower the design loading substantially without losing any of the identified structural reliability.

  3. Imaging-Based Methods for Non-invasive Assessment of Bone Properties Influenced by Mechanical Loading.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Norma J; Lorbergs, Amanda L

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the most common in vivo imaging-based research tools used to assess bone properties that are influenced by mechanical loading associated with exercise, habitual physical activity, or disease states. Bone is a complex metabolically active tissue that adapts to changes in mechanical loading by altering the amount and spatial organization of mineral. Method: Using a narrative review design, the authors provide an overview of bone biology and biomechanics to emphasize the importance of bone size scale, porosity, and degree of mineralization when interpreting measures acquired using quantitative ultrasound (QUS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and finite element analysis (FEA). For each imaging modality, basic imaging principles, typical outcome measures associated with changes in mechanical loading, and salient features for physiotherapists are described. Main Results: While each imaging modality has strengths and limitations, currently CT-based methods are best suited for determining the effects of mechanical loading on bone properties—particularly in the peripheral skeleton. Conclusions: Regardless of the imaging technology used, the physiotherapist must carefully consider the assumptions of the imaging-based method, the clinical context, the nature of the change in mechanical loading, and the expected time course for change in bone properties.

  4. Studies of New Multistory House Electrical Supply Load and Determination Methods Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budahs, Martins; Vanzovichs, Edvins; Zviedritis, Mareks

    2010-01-01

    A large amount of work has devoted to electric supply system load determination. Most of the load calculation methods and values of the appropriate factors were found many years ago and are outdated, for example, electric supply system for new many dwelling houses. At this time, there is changed not only value of loads but also its character - thus leaving the impact on the calculation methodology and factors values. Employers of Latvenergo Distribution Network are realized wide range of load inspection in more then 24 commercial buildings and dwelling houses over two years. The results are presented in the form of official instruction. This paper is continuing the ongoing theme and dedicating improving possibilities of the calculation methodology. Particular attention has paid to existing methods of load calculation, physical interpretation of factors and possible character changes in the range. The method is designed for design engineers and engineering staff, working with the maintenance and control of apartment buildings. The methodology is not applicable in buildings with electric heating and hot water.

  5. Estimating internal P loading in a deep water reservoir of northern China using three different methods.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lihuan; Zeng, Qinghui; Zhang, Wangshou; Li, Xuyong; Steinman, Alan D; Du, Xinzhong

    2016-09-01

    Much attention had been paid to reducing external loading of nutrients to improve water quality, while internal loading from sediment, which has been largely neglected, is also an important source for water eutrophication. The internal load in deep lakes or reservoirs is not easy to be detected and be quantified. In this study, three different methods (mass balance method, Fick's law, and regression equation) were combined to calculate the gross or/and net P release from sediment using limited data. Our results indicated that (1) the methods of mass balance and regression equation give similar results of sediment P release rate, with values of 0.889 and 0.902 mg m(2) d(-1), respectively, while the result of Fick's law was much lower (0.400 mg m(2) d(-1)); (2) Hot periods of sediment releasing were suggested to occur from March to April and from August to September, which correspond to periods of high risks of algae blooms. The remaining months of the year were shown as net nutrient retention; (3) for the whole region, Baihedam and Chaohekuqu were identified as zones with a higher possibility to release P from sediment. (4) P loading to the Miyun Reservoir was greater in the inflow than in the outflow, suggesting a portion of the inflow P load was retained in the water or sediment; hence, release of sediment P may continue to be a major source of phosphorus in the future.

  6. Statistical Evaluation and Improvement of Methods for Combining Random and Harmonic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. M.; McGhee, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    Structures in many environments experience both random and harmonic excitation. A variety of closed-form techniques has been used in the aerospace industry to combine the loads resulting from the two sources. The resulting combined loads are then used to design for both yield/ultimate strength and high- cycle fatigue capability. This Technical Publication examines the cumulative distribution percentiles obtained using each method by integrating the joint probability density function of the sine and random components. A new Microsoft Excel spreadsheet macro that links with the software program Mathematica to calculate the combined value corresponding to any desired percentile is then presented along with a curve tit to this value. Another Excel macro that calculates the combination using Monte Carlo simulation is shown. Unlike the traditional techniques. these methods quantify the calculated load value with a consistent percentile. Using either of the presented methods can be extremely valuable in probabilistic design, which requires a statistical characterization of the loading. Additionally, since the CDF at high probability levels is very flat, the design value is extremely sensitive to the predetermined percentile; therefore, applying the new techniques can substantially lower the design loading without losing any of the identified structural reliability.

  7. Dynamic load balancing for petascale quantum Monte Carlo applications: The Alias method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, C. D.; Krishnan, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Kent, P. R. C.

    2013-02-01

    Diffusion Monte Carlo is a highly accurate Quantum Monte Carlo method for electronic structure calculations of materials, but it requires frequent load balancing or population redistribution steps to maintain efficiency on parallel machines. This step can be a significant factor affecting performance, and will become more important as the number of processing elements increases. We propose a new dynamic load balancing algorithm, the Alias Method, and evaluate it theoretically and empirically. An important feature of the new algorithm is that the load can be perfectly balanced with each process receiving at most one message. It is also optimal in the maximum size of messages received by any process. We also optimize its implementation to reduce network contention, a process facilitated by the low messaging requirement of the algorithm: a simple renumbering of the MPI ranks based on proximity and a space filling curve significantly improves the MPI Allgather performance. Empirical results on the petaflop Cray XT Jaguar supercomputer at ORNL show up to 30% improvement in performance on 120,000 cores. The load balancing algorithm may be straightforwardly implemented in existing codes. The algorithm may also be employed by any method with many near identical computational tasks that require load balancing.

  8. Novel Method for Loading Microporous Ceramics Bone Grafts by Using a Directional Flow

    PubMed Central

    Seidenstuecker, Michael; Kissling, Steffen; Ruehe, Juergen; Suedkamp, Norbert P.; Mayr, Hermann O.; Bernstein, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a process for filling the pores of a β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic with interconnected porosity with an alginate hydrogel. For filling of the ceramics, solutions of alginate hydrogel precursors with suitable viscosity were chosen as determined by rheometry. For loading of the porous ceramics with the gel the samples were placed at the flow chamber and sealed with silicone seals. By using a vacuum induced directional flow, the samples were loaded with alginate solutions. The loading success was controlled by ESEM and fluorescence imaging using a fluorescent dye (FITC) for staining of the gel. After loading of the pores, the alginate is transformed into a hydrogel through crosslinking with CaCl2 solution. The biocompatibility of the obtained composite material was tested with a live dead cell staining by using MG-63 Cells. The loading procedure via vacuum assisted directional flow allowed complete filling of the pores of the ceramics within a few minutes (10 ± 3 min) while loading through simple immersion into the polymer solution or through a conventional vacuum method only gave incomplete filling. PMID:26703749

  9. Stress analysis method for clearance-fit joints with bearing-bypass loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, R. A.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A simple direct stress analysis method is proposed for a laminate with a clearance-fit fastener subjected to combined bearing and bypass loads in tension or compression, including bearing and bypass loads on bolt-hole contact and local stresses. The approach uses a linear-elastic finite element analysis with an inverse formulation; conditions along the bolt-hole interface are specified by constraint equations that limit nodal displacements to a circular arc corresponding to the bolt diameter. The application of the method to the analysis of the effects of bearing-bypass loading on bolt-hole contact angles and local stresses, with the plate material properties representing a quasi-isotropic T300/5208 graphite/epoxy laminate, is discussed.

  10. H-H, C-H, and C-C NMR spin-spin coupling constants calculated by the FP-INDO method for aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, S. A. T.; Memory, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The FP-INDO (finite perturbation-intermediate neglect of differential overlap) method is used to calculate the H-H, C-H, and C-C coupling constants in hertz for molecules of six different benzenoid hydrocarbons: benzene, naphthalene, biphenyl, anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. The calculations are based on both the actual and the average molecular geometries. It is found that only the actual molecular geometries can always yield the correct relative order of values for the H-H coupling constants. For the calculated C-C coupling constants, as for the calculated C-H coupling constants, the signs are positive (negative) for an odd (even) number of bonds connecting the two nuclei. Agreements between the calculated and experimental values of the coupling constants for all six molecules are comparable to those reported previously for other molecules.

  11. Dynamic Fracture Properties of Rocks Subjected to Static Pre-load Using Notched Semi-circular Bend Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rong; Li, Kang; Xia, Kaiwen; Lin, Yuliang; Yao, Wei; Lu, Fangyun

    2016-10-01

    A dynamic load superposed on a static pre-load is a key problem in deep underground rock engineering projects. Based on a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar test system, the notched semi-circular bend (NSCB) method is selected to investigate the fracture initiation toughness of rocks subjected to pre-load. In this study, a two-dimensional ANSYS finite element simulation model is developed to calculate the dimensionless stress intensity factor. Three groups of NSCB specimen are tested under a pre-load of 0, 37 and 74 % of the maximum static load and with the loading rate ranging from 0 to 60 GPa m1/2 s-1. The results show that under a given pre-load, the fracture initiation toughness of rock increases with the loading rate, resembling the typical rate dependence of materials. Furthermore, the dynamic rock fracture toughness decreases with the static pre-load at a given loading rate. The total fracture toughness, defined as the sum of the dynamic fracture toughness and initial stress intensity factor calculated from the pre-load, increases with the pre-load at a given loading rate. An empirical equation is used to represent the effect of loading rate and pre-load force, and the results show that this equation can depict the trend of the experimental data.

  12. Validation of analysis methods for assessing flawed piping subjected to dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.J.; Wolterman, R.L.; Wilkowski, G.M.; Kot, C.A.

    1994-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory and Battelle have jointly conducted a research program for the USNRC to evaluate the ability of current engineering analysis methods and one state-of-the-art analysis method to predict the behavior of circumferentially surface-cracked pipe system water-hammer experiment. The experimental data used in the evaluation were from the HDR Test Group E31 series conducted by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany. The incentive for this evaluation was that simplified engineering methods, as well as newer ``state-of-the-art`` fracture analysis methods, have been typically validated only with static experimental data. Hence, these dynamic experiments were of high interest. High-rate dynamic loading can be classified as either repeating, e.g., seismic, or nonrepeating, e.g., water hammer. Development of experimental data and validation of cracked pipe analyses under seismic loading (repeating dynamic loads) are being pursued separately within the NRC`s International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. This report describes developmental and validation efforts to predict crack stability under water hammer loading, as well as comparisons using currently used analysis procedures. Current fracture analysis methods use the elastic stress analysis loads decoupled from the fracture mechanics analysis, while state-of-the-art methods employ nonlinear cracked-pipe time-history finite element analyses. The results showed that the current decoupled methods were conservative in their predictions, whereas the cracked pipe finite element analyses were more accurate, yet slightly conservative. The nonlinear time-history cracked-pipe finite element analyses conducted in this program were also attractive in that they were done on a small Apollo DN5500 workstation, whereas other cracked-pipe dynamic analyses conducted in Europe on the same experiments required the use of a CRAY2 supercomputer, and were less accurate.

  13. Influence of load and carrying method on gait, specifically pelvic movement

    PubMed Central

    Hyung, Eun-Ju; Lee, Hyun-Ok; Kwon, Yu-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine how carrying methods and load affects pelvic movement while walking. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy subjects (age 20.68 ± 1.95 years, height 167.56 ± 8.46 cm, weight 60.25 ± 9.37 kg) volunteered. The items carried included a hand bag, shoulder bag, cross bag, and a back pack. The load weights were 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of body weight. G-Walk was used to record and analyze pelvic movement while the participants walked with different loads. [Results] In the case of hand bags and shoulder bags, pelvic tilt increased along with weight. In particular, when compared with the 0%, 5% and 10% load conditions, the 15% load of a hand bag induced a significant increase. Pelvic rotation showed a tendency to decrease as the weight increased. [Conclusion] Lateral pelvic tilt is thought to increase when the weight exceeds 15% of body weight, thereby resulting in decreased efficiency of gait. The pelvic rotation is thought to decrease as the weight increases, causing restricted upper limb movements. PMID:27512264

  14. A forward-angle-scattering method for the determination of optical constants and particle size distribution by collimated laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yatao; Qi, Hong; Yu, Xiaoying; Ruan, Liming

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a secondary optimization technique and forward-angle-scattering method to retrieve optical constants (or complex refractive indices) and particle size distribution (PSD) simultaneously. In this work, two continuous wave lasers of different wavelengths were applied to irradiate the participating samples, and the scattered light of samples with different acceptance angles was obtained. First, the scattered signals within different acceptance angles were calculated by solving the radiative transfer equation. Then, the complex refractive index and PSD were retrieved simultaneously by applying quantum particle swarm optimization. However, the estimated results of PSD were inaccurate. Thus, a secondary optimization, which using the directional radiative intensity as input, was performed to improve the accuracy of PSD based on the first optimization process. Four commonly used kinds of monomodal PSD functions, i.e., the Rosin-Rammler, standard Normal, Logarithmic Normal, and Junge distribution, were retrieved. All results showed that the proposed technique can estimate the complex refractive index and PSD accurately.

  15. The Effects of Presentation Method and Information Density on Visual Search Ability and Working Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ting-Wen; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of successive and simultaneous information presentation methods on learner's visual search ability and working memory load for different information densities. Since the processing of information in the brain depends on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the limited information processing capacity…

  16. A Method to Exchange Air Nitrogen Emission Reductions for Watershed Nitrogen Load Reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation of the method developed for the Chesapeake Bay Program to estimate changes in nitrogen loading to Chesapeake due to changes in Bay State state-level nitrogen oxide emissions to support air-water trading by the Bay States. Type for SticsUnder AMAD Application QAPP, QA...

  17. Stress corrosion evaluation of powder metallurgy aluminum alloy 7091 with the breaking load test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.

    1987-01-01

    The stress corrosion behavior of the P/M aluminum alloy 7091 is evaluated in two overaged heat treatment conditions, T7E69 and T7E70, using an accelerated test technique known as the breaking load test method. The breaking load data obtained in this study indicate that P/M 7091 alloy is highly resistant to stress corrosion in both longitudinal and transverse orientations at stress levels up to 90 percent of the material yield strength. The reduction in mean breaking stress as a result of corrosive attack is smallest for the more overaged T7E70 condition. Details of the test procedure are included.

  18. Method and apparatus for transferring and injecting rf energy from a generator to a resonant load

    DOEpatents

    Hoffert, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Improved apparatus and method are provided for the coherent amplification and injection of radio-frequency (rf) energy into a load cavity using a plurality of amplifier tubes. A plurality of strip line cavities (30, 32, 34, 36, 40, 42, 44) are laterally joined to define a continuous closed cavity (48), with an amplifier tube (50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64) mounted within each resonant strip cavity. Rf energy is injected into the continuous cavity (48) from a single input (70) for coherent coupling to all of the amplifier tubes for amplification and injection into the load cavity (76).

  19. Apparatuses and methods of determining if a person operating equipment is experiencing an elevated cognitive load

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Michael L.; Keller, Paul Edwin; Amaya, Ivan A.

    2015-06-16

    A method of, and apparatus for, determining if a person operating equipment is experiencing an elevated cognitive load, wherein the person's use of a device at a first time is monitored so as to set a baseline signature. Then, at a later time, the person's use of the device is monitored to determine the person's performance at the second time, as represented by a performance signature. This performance signature can then be compared against the baseline signature to predict whether the person is experiencing an elevated cognitive load.

  20. Method And Apparatus For Imparting Strength To Materials Using Sliding Loads

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Darcy Anne; Dawson, Daniel B.; Korellis, John S.

    1999-03-16

    A method of enhancing the strength of metals by affecting subsurface zones developed during the application of large sliding loads. Stresses which develop locally within the near surface zone can be many times larger than those predicted from the applied load and the friction coefficient. These stress concentrations arise from two sources: 1) asperity interactions and 2) local and momentary bonding between the two surfaces. By controlling these parameters more desirable strength characteristics can be developed in weaker metals to provide much greater strength to rival that of steel, for example.

  1. Method and apparatus for imparting strength to a material using sliding loads

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, D.A.; Dawson, D.B.; Korellis, J.S.

    1999-03-16

    A method of enhancing the strength of metals by affecting subsurface zones developed during the application of large sliding loads is disclosed. Stresses which develop locally within the near surface zone can be many times larger than those predicted from the applied load and the friction coefficient. These stress concentrations arise from two sources: (1) asperity interactions and (2) local and momentary bonding between the two surfaces. By controlling these parameters more desirable strength characteristics can be developed in weaker metals to provide much greater strength to rival that of steel, for example. 11 figs.

  2. Method and apparatus for imparting strength to a material using sliding loads

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Darcy Anne; Dawson, Daniel B.; Korellis, John S.

    1999-01-01

    A method of enhancing the strength of metals by affecting subsurface zones developed during the application of large sliding loads. Stresses which develop locally within the near surface zone can be many times larger than those predicted from the applied load and the friction coefficient. These stress concentrations arise from two sources: 1) asperity interactions and 2) local and momentary bonding between the two surfaces. By controlling these parameters more desirable strength characteristics can be developed in weaker metals to provide much greater strength to rival that of steel, for example.

  3. Semi-empirical spectrophotometric (SESp) method for the indirect determination of the ratio of cationic micellar binding constants of counterions X⁻ and Br⁻(K(X)/K(Br)).

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Niyaz; Yusof, Nor Saadah Mohd; Razak, Norazizah Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The semi-empirical spectrophotometric (SESp) method, for the indirect determination of ion exchange constants (K(X)(Br)) of ion exchange processes occurring between counterions (X⁻ and Br⁻) at the cationic micellar surface, is described in this article. The method uses an anionic spectrophotometric probe molecule, N-(2-methoxyphenyl)phthalamate ion (1⁻), which measures the effects of varying concentrations of inert inorganic or organic salt (Na(v)X, v = 1, 2) on absorbance, (A(ob)) at 310 nm, of samples containing constant concentrations of 1⁻, NaOH and cationic micelles. The observed data fit satisfactorily to an empirical equation which gives the values of two empirical constants. These empirical constants lead to the determination of K(X)(Br) (= K(X)/K(Br) with K(X) and K(Br) representing cationic micellar binding constants of counterions X and Br⁻). This method gives values of K(X)(Br) for both moderately hydrophobic and hydrophilic X⁻. The values of K(X)(Br), obtained by using this method, are comparable with the corresponding values of K(X)(Br), obtained by the use of semi-empirical kinetic (SEK) method, for different moderately hydrophobic X. The values of K(X)(Br) for X = Cl⁻ and 2,6-Cl₂C6H₃CO₂⁻, obtained by the use of SESp and SEK methods, are similar to those obtained by the use of other different conventional methods.

  4. KABAM Version 1.0 User's Guide and Technical Documentation - Appendix H - Methods for Estimating Metabolism Rate Constant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Appendix H of KABAM Version 1.0 documentation related to estimating the metabolism rate constant. KABAM is a simulation model used to predict pesticide concentrations in aquatic regions for use in exposure assessments.

  5. The wind-frequency allocation method on discharge loading of function zones.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Gao, Tingyao; Hu, Chenyan; Shi, Jiekuan

    2002-06-01

    This paper introduces a new allocation method on discharge loading of each function zone in a total emission control region. The wind frequency, the position of each district, and the pollutant's influence area were taken into account in this new method. The concept of "average downwind distance" was brought forward in this paper. The method here is more reasonable than the original method of area distribution, which was proposed by the "A-value" method in regulation of total emissions in China, by means of the simulation of annual average concentration in the total emission control region.

  6. Comparisons of several aerodynamic methods for application to dynamic loads analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, R. I.; Miller, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study are presented in which the applicability at subsonic speeds of several aerodynamic methods for predicting dynamic gust loads on aircraft, including active control systems, was examined and compared. These aerodynamic methods varied from steady state to an advanced unsteady aerodynamic formulation. Brief descriptions of the structural and aerodynamic representations and of the motion and load equations are presented. Comparisons of numerical results achieved using the various aerodynamic methods are shown in detail. From these results, aerodynamic representations for dynamic gust analyses are identified. It was concluded that several aerodynamic methods are satisfactory for dynamic gust analyses of configurations having either controls fixed or active control systems that primarily affect the low frequency rigid body aircraft response.

  7. Novel method to dynamically load cells in 3D-hydrogels culture for blast injury studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sory, David R.; Areias, Anabela C.; Overby, Darryl R.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    For at least a century explosive devices have been one of the most important causes of injuries in military conflicts as well as in terrorist attacks. Although significant experimental and modelling efforts have been focussed on blast injuries at the organ or tissue level, few studies have investigated the mechanisms of blast injuries at the cellular level. This paper introduces an in vitro method compatible with living cells to examine the effects of high stress and short-duration pulses relevant to blast loadings and blunt trauma. The experimental phase involves high strain-rate axial compression of cylindrical specimens within an hermetically sealed chamber made of biocompatible polymer. Numerical simulations were performed in order to verify the experimental loading conditions and to characterize the loading path within the sample. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding blast injury at the cellular level.

  8. An Estimation Method for Distribution System Load with Photovoltaic Power Generation based on ICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takayoshi; Ishigame, Atsushi; Genji, Takamu

    A large number of Dispersed Generations (DGs) are expected to be installed in distribution systems. Therefore the state estimation is important problem for stable and reliable system operation. However, it is difficult to estimate the total power of DGs connected to a load-side system from a metering spot on the distribution line because at the metering spot only a sum of the active-power from various loads and DGs can be measured. In this paper, we propose an estimation method for unknown DG-outputs connected to a distribution system. This method enables to estimate DG-outputs by analyzing a power flow data measured at one spot using independent component analysis (ICA). The estimation by ICA needs the same number of observations as estimations. However the observation spot is extremely limited in existing distribution system. So we propose an estimation method which enables to estimate DG-outputs and load-changes from only an observation by using known information of load power and a priori knowledge of insolation.

  9. Comparison of Two Parametric Methods to Estimate Pesticide Mass Loads in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saleh, D.K.; Lorenz, D.L.; Domagalski, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Mass loadings were calculated for four pesticides in two watersheds with different land uses in the Central Valley, California, by using two parametric models: (1) the Seasonal Wave model (SeaWave), in which a pulse signal is used to describe the annual cycle of pesticide occurrence in a stream, and (2) the Sine Wave model, in which first-order Fourier series sine and cosine terms are used to simulate seasonal mass loading patterns. The models were applied to data collected during water years 1997 through 2005. The pesticides modeled were carbaryl, diazinon, metolachlor, and molinate. Results from the two models show that the ability to capture seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations was affected by pesticide use patterns and the methods by which pesticides are transported to streams. Estimated seasonal loads compared well with results from previous studies for both models. Loads estimated by the two models did not differ significantly from each other, with the exceptions of carbaryl and molinate during the precipitation season, where loads were affected by application patterns and rainfall. However, in watersheds with variable and intermittent pesticide applications, the SeaWave model is more suitable for use on the basis of its robust capability of describing seasonal variation of pesticide concentrations. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Comparison of two parametric methods to estimate pesticide mass loads in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saleh, Dina K.; Lorenz, David L.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Mass loadings were calculated for four pesticides in two watersheds with different land uses in the Central Valley, California, by using two parametric models: (1) the Seasonal Wave model (SeaWave), in which a pulse signal is used to describe the annual cycle of pesticide occurrence in a stream, and (2) the Sine Wave model, in which first-order Fourier series sine and cosine terms are used to simulate seasonal mass loading patterns. The models were applied to data collected during water years 1997 through 2005. The pesticides modeled were carbaryl, diazinon, metolachlor, and molinate. Results from the two models show that the ability to capture seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations was affected by pesticide use patterns and the methods by which pesticides are transported to streams. Estimated seasonal loads compared well with results from previous studies for both models. Loads estimated by the two models did not differ significantly from each other, with the exceptions of carbaryl and molinate during the precipitation season, where loads were affected by application patterns and rainfall. However, in watersheds with variable and intermittent pesticide applications, the SeaWave model is more suitable for use on the basis of its robust capability of describing seasonal variation of pesticide concentrations.

  11. Analytical continuation in coupling constant method; application to the calculation of resonance energies and widths for organic molecules: Glycine, alanine and valine and dimer of formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, P.; Matejčík, Š.; Mach, P.; Urban, J.; Paidarová, I.; Horáček, J.

    2013-06-01

    The method of analytic continuation in the coupling constant (ACCC) in combination with use of the statistical Padé approximation is applied to the determination of resonance energy and width of some amino acids and formic acid dimer. Standard quantum chemistry codes provide accurate data which can be used for analytic continuation in the coupling constant to obtain the resonance energy and width of organic molecules with a good accuracy. The obtained results are compared with the existing experimental ones.

  12. An optimal hydropower contract load determination method considering both human and riverine ecosystem needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xin'an; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Cailing; Zhao, Yanwei

    2015-09-01

    In this research, a new method is developed to determine the optimal contract load for a hydropower reservoir, which is achieved by incorporating environmental flows into the determination process to increase hydropower revenues, while mitigating the negative impacts of hydropower generation on riverine ecosystems. In this method, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint of hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximization of mean annual revenue is set as the optimization objective. The contract load in each month and the associated reservoir operating parameters were simultaneously optimized by a genetic algorithm. The proposed method was applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The new method offers two advantages over traditional studies. First, it takes into account both the economic benefits and the ecological needs of riverine systems, rather than only the economic benefits, as in previous methods. Second, although many measures have been established to mitigate the negative ecological impacts of hydropower generation, few have been applied to the hydropower planning stage. Thus, since the contract load is an important planning parameter for hydropower generation, influencing both economic benefits and riverine ecosystem protection, this new method could provide guidelines for the establishment of river protection measures at the hydropower planning stage.

  13. Transspinal constant-current long-lasting stimulation: a new method to induce cortical and corticospinal plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Luke; Santora, Danielle; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroplasticity in response to stimulation and motor training is a well-established phenomenon. Transcutaneous stimulation of the spine is used mostly to alleviate pain, but it may also induce functional neuroplasticity, because the spinal cord serves as an integration center for descending and ascending neuronal signals. In this work, we examined whether long-lasting noninvasive cathodal (c-tsCCS) and anodal (a-tsCCS) transspinal constant-current stimulation over the thoracolumbar enlargement can induce cortical, corticospinal, and spinal neuroplasticity. Twelve healthy human subjects, blind to the stimulation protocol, were randomly assigned to 40 min of c-tsCCS or a-tsCCS. Before and after transspinal stimulation, we established the afferent-mediated motor evoked potential (MEP) facilitation and the subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-mediated flexor reflex facilitation. Recruitment input-output curves of MEPs and transspinal evoked potentials (TEPs) and postactivation depression of the soleus H reflex and TEPs was also established. We demonstrate that both c-tsCCS and a-tsCCS decrease the afferent-mediated MEP facilitation and alter the subthreshold TMS-mediated flexor reflex facilitation in a polarity-dependent manner. Both c-tsCCS and a-tsCCS increased the tibialis anterior MEPs recorded at 1.2 MEP resting threshold, intermediate, and maximal intensities and altered the recruitment input-output curve of TEPs in a muscle- and polarity-dependent manner. Soleus H-reflex postactivation depression was reduced after a-tsCCS and remained unaltered after c-tsCCS. No changes were found in the postactivation depression of TEPs after c-tsCCS or a-tsCCS. Our findings reveal that c-tsCCS and a-tsCCS have distinct effects on cortical and corticospinal excitability. This method can be utilized to induce targeted neuroplasticity in humans. PMID:26108955

  14. Outflow facility efficacy of five drugs in enucleated porcine eyes by a method of constant-pressure perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Shi, Hui-Min; Cong, Lin; Lu, Zhao-Zeng; Ye, Wen; Zhang, Yu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a technique that assesses the outflow facility (C) efficacy of five kinds of IOP-lowering drugs commonly used clinically in enucleated porcine Eyes. Eyes were perfused at 15 mmHg with GPBS first to establish the baseline outflow facility (C0). Then the anterior chamber contents were exchanged for GPBS with corresponding concentration eye drops (4.9×103 nM Brimonidine, 41.1 nM Latanoprost, 3.4×103 nM Levobunolol, 3.0×103 nM Brinzolamide, 8.3×103 nM Pilocarpine) in five groups (n = 6 each), while 6 eyes received GPBS alone as control. The mean stable facility obtained after drug administration (C1) was continuously recorded. The changes between C0 and C1 (ΔC = C1-C0) were analyzed. Finally, for drugs among the five experiment groups with statistical significance, the concentration was reduced 3 times, otherwise the drugs’ concentration was increased to 10 times to confirm its effectiveness further using the same methods (n = 6 each). We found that the average baseline outflow facility was 0.24±0.01 μl·min-1·mmHg-1. C increased significantly in Brimonidine and Latanoprost groups, even the concentration of Brimonidine and Latanoprost was decreased 3 times (P < 0.05). However, there was no significantly increase in Levobunolol, Brinzolamide, Pilocarpine and control group (P > 0.05), but when drugs’ concentration was increased to 10 times, the C value of Pilocarpine decreased significantly (P = 0.04). No significant washout effects in porcine eyes were observed. To conclude, outflow facility efficacy of five drugs in enucleated porcine eyes may provide a reference for clinical medicine. A constant-pressure perfusion technique should be useful to evaluate effect of pharmacologic agents or surgical manipulations on aqueous humor dynamics. PMID:26221257

  15. H-M bearing capacity of a modified suction caisson determined by using load-/displacement-controlled methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-kun; Gao, Yu-feng; Li, Da-yong; Mahfouz, Ali H.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a series of monotonically combined lateral loading tests to investigate the bearing capacity of the MSCs (modified suction caissons) in the saturated marine fine sand. The lateral loads were applied under load- and displacement-controlled methods at the loading eccentricity ratios of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5. Results show that, in the displacement-controlled test, the deflection-softening behavior of load-deflection curves for MSCs was observed, and the softening degree of the load-deflection response increased with the increasing external skirt length or the decreasing loading eccentricity. It was also found that the rotation center of the MSC at failure determined by the load-controlled method is slightly lower than that by the displacement-controlled method. The calculated MSC capacity based on the rotation center position in serviceability limit state is relatively conservative, compared with the calculated capacity based on the rotation center position in the ultimate limit state. In the limit state, the passive earth pressures opposite the loading direction under load- and displacement-controlled methods decrease by 46% and 74% corresponding to peak values, respectively; however, the passive earth pressures in the loading direction at failure only decrease by approximately 3% and 7%, compared with their peak values.

  16. Preparation and characterization of carvacrol loaded polyhydroxybutyrate nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation and dialysis methods.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Fatemeh; Shakeri, Shahryar; Hojjatoleslami, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    In this investigation, preparation of carvacrol loaded polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) nanoparticles was performed by nanoprecipitation and dialysis methods. PHB particles were obtained by nanoprecipitation method without and with low concentration of Tween 80 or pluronic as surfactant. Nano- and micro-sized particles were formed with trimodal distribution and large aggregates. Size and distribution of nanoparticles were decreased when concentration of Tween 80 was increased to 1% (v/v) in water as polar phase. PHB nanoparticles had narrow size (157 nm) with monomodal distribution. Nanoparticles, which were prepared by dialysis method had 140 nm in diameter with monomodal distribution. Carvacrol was used as a lipophilic drug and entrapped in optimized nanoparticles formulation by nanoprecipitation and dialysis methods. Entrapment efficacy was 21% and 11%, respectively. Morphology of PHB nanoparticles was spherical. The results of kinetic release study showed that carvacrol was released for at least 3 days. Release kinetic parameters showed a simple Fickian diffusion behavior for both formulations. Carvacrol loaded PHB nanoparticles had good dispersion into the agar medium and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This study describes the 1st work on loading of carvacrol into the PHB nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation and dialysis methods.

  17. Quantification of Training and Competition Loads in Endurance Sports: Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo

    2016-12-05

    Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration. Other methods in use in endurance sports include speed measurement and the measurement of power output, made possible by recent technological advances, such as power meters in cycling and triathlon. Among subjective methods of quantification the RPE stands out because of its wide use. Concurrent assessments of the various quantification methods allow researchers and practitioners to evaluate stress/recovery balance, adjust individual training programmes and determine the relationships between external load, internal load and athletes' performance. This brief review summarizes the most relevant external and internal workload quantification methods in endurance sports, and provides practical examples of their implementation to adjust the training programmes of elite athletes in accordance to their individualized stress/recovery balance.

  18. A Tail Buffet Loads Prediction Method for Aircraft at High Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pototzky, Anthony S.; Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft designers commit significant resources to the design of aircraft in meeting performance goals. Despite fulfilling traditional design requirements, many fighter aircraft have encountered buffet loads when demonstrating their high angle-of-attack maneuver capabilities. As a result, during test or initial production phases of fighter development programs, many new designs are impacted, usually in a detrimental way, by resulting in reassessing designs or limiting full mission capability. These troublesome experiences usually stem from overlooking or completely ignoring the effects of buffet during the design phase of aircraft. Perhaps additional requirements are necessary that addresses effects of buffet in achieving best aircraft performance in fulfilling mission goals. This paper describes a reliable, fairly simple, but quite general buffet loads analysis method to use in the initial design phases of fighter-aircraft development. The method is very similar to the random gust load analysis that is now commonly available in a commercial code, which this analysis capability is based, with some key modifications. The paper describes the theory and the implementation of the methodology. The method is demonstrated on a JSF prototype example problem. The demonstration also serves as a validation of the method, since, in the paper, the analysis is shown to nearly match the flight data. In addition, the paper demonstrates how the analysis method can be used to assess candidate design concepts in determining a satisfactory final aircraft configuration.

  19. Method to eliminate flux linkage DC component in load transformer for static transfer switch.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; Mao, Chengxiong; Lu, Jiming; Wang, Dan; Tian, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2 ~ 30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method.

  20. A mathematical method for quantifying in vivo mechanical behaviour of heel pad under dynamic load.

    PubMed

    Naemi, Roozbeh; Chatzistergos, Panagiotis E; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical behaviour of the heel pad, as a shock attenuating interface during a foot strike, determines the loading on the musculoskeletal system during walking. The mathematical models that describe the force deformation relationship of the heel pad structure can determine the mechanical behaviour of heel pad under load. Hence, the purpose of this study was to propose a method of quantifying the heel pad stress-strain relationship using force-deformation data from an indentation test. The energy input and energy returned densities were calculated by numerically integrating the area below the stress-strain curve during loading and unloading, respectively. Elastic energy and energy absorbed densities were calculated as the sum of and the difference between energy input and energy returned densities, respectively. By fitting the energy function, derived from a nonlinear viscoelastic model, to the energy density-strain data, the elastic and viscous model parameters were quantified. The viscous and elastic exponent model parameters were significantly correlated with maximum strain, indicating the need to perform indentation tests at realistic maximum strains relevant to walking. The proposed method showed to be able to differentiate between the elastic and viscous components of the heel pad response to loading and to allow quantifying the corresponding stress-strain model parameters.

  1. Method to Eliminate Flux Linkage DC Component in Load Transformer for Static Transfer Switch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2~30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method. PMID:25133255

  2. Training load quantification in elite swimmers using a modified version of the training impulse method.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Feriche, Belén; Calderón, Carmen; Iglesias, Xavier; Barrero, Anna; Chaverri, Diego; Schuller, Thorsten; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2015-01-01

    Prior reports have described the limitations of quantifying internal training loads using hear rate (HR)-based objective methods such as the training impulse (TRIMP) method, especially when high-intensity interval exercises are performed. A weakness of the TRIMP method is that it does not discriminate between exercise and rest periods, expressing both states into a single mean intensity value that could lead to an underestimate of training loads. This study was designed to compare Banister's original TRIMP method (1991) and a modified calculation procedure (TRIMPc) based on the cumulative sum of partial TRIMP, and to determine how each model relates to the session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE), a HR-independent training load indicator. Over four weeks, 17 elite swimmers completed 328 pool training sessions. Mean HR for the full duration of a session and partial values for each 50 m of swimming distance and rest period were recorded to calculate the classic TRIMP and the proposed variant (TRIMPc). The s-RPE questionnaire was self-administered 30 minutes after each training session. Both TRIMPc and TRIMP measures strongly correlated with s-RPE scores (r = 0.724 and 0.702, respectively; P < 0.001). However, TRIMPc was ∼ 9% higher on average than TRIMP (117 ± 53 vs. 107 ± 47; P < 0.001), with proportionally greater inter-method difference with increasing workload intensity. Therefore, TRIMPc appears to be a more accurate and appropriate procedure for quantifying training load, particularly when monitoring interval training sessions, since it allows weighting both exercise and recovery intervals separately for the corresponding HR-derived intensity.

  3. Method of up-front load balancing for local memory parallel processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul Thomas (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a parallel processing computer system with multiple processing units and shared memory, a method is disclosed for uniformly balancing the aggregate computational load in, and utilizing minimal memory by, a network having identical computations to be executed at each connection therein. Read-only and read-write memory are subdivided into a plurality of process sets, which function like artificial processing units. Said plurality of process sets is iteratively merged and reduced to the number of processing units without exceeding the balance load. Said merger is based upon the value of a partition threshold, which is a measure of the memory utilization. The turnaround time and memory savings of the instant method are functions of the number of processing units available and the number of partitions into which the memory is subdivided. Typical results of the preferred embodiment yielded memory savings of from sixty to seventy five percent.

  4. Methods of testing for endurance of structural elements using simulated acoustic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    ESDU 93027 discusses methods of testing structural elements, designed to represent features of the full-size structure, using random-amplitude narrowband loading to simulate response to acoustic loading. A wide range of element geometries is included with information on probable failure locations, typical sizes, and any inherent limitations. Mounting methods are considered with examples of multiple specimen tests to allow the scatter in fatigue life to be determined in minimum elapsed time. Guidance is provided on excitation requirements, the measurement and monitoring instrumentation, specimen tuning, and the assessment of structural damping and response linearity. The means of defining a failure are considered, with particular reference to composite structures, and the use of residual strength assessment is discussed. The application of the techniques to obtain endurance data at elevated temperature is addressed. Finally, guidance is included on the interpretation of the results.

  5. Elevated Temperature Primary Load Design Method Using Pseudo Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Peter; Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I

    2012-01-01

    A new primary load design method for elevated temperature service has been developed. Codification of the procedure in an ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III Code Case is being pursued. The proposed primary load design method is intended to provide the same margins on creep rupture, yielding and creep deformation for a component or structure that are implicit in the allowable stress data. It provides a methodology that does not require stress classification and is also applicable to a full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Use of elastic-perfectly plastic analysis based on allowable stress with corrections for constraint, steady state stress and creep ductility is described. This approach is intended to ensure that traditional primary stresses are the basis for design, taking into account ductility limits to stress re-distribution and multiaxial rupture criteria.

  6. Salt and cosolvent effects on ionic drug loading into microspheres using an O/W method.

    PubMed

    Al-Maaieh, A; Flanagan, D R

    2001-01-29

    Salt effects on aqueous solubility and microsphere entrapment efficiency of a model ionic drug (quinidine sulfate) were studied. Poly-D,L-lactic acid (PLA) microspheres were prepared using an O/W solvent evaporation method with various electrolytes added in different concentrations to the aqueous phase. Salts affect microsphere drug loading by changing the aqueous solubility of both the drug and the organic solvent (dichloromethane, DCM). Quinidine sulfate solubility was depressed by either a common ion effect (Na(2)SO(4)) or by formation of new, less soluble drug salts (e.g., bromide, perchlorate, thiocyanate) for which solubility products (K(sp)) were estimated. Inorganic salts depress DCM aqueous solubility to different extents as described by the Hofmeister series. NaClO(4) and NaSCN depressed drug solubility to the highest extent, resulting in microspheres with high drug loading (e.g., >90%). Other salts such as Na(2)SO(4) did not depress quinidine sulfate solubility to the same extent and did not improve loading. The use of a cosolvent (ethanol) in the organic phase improved microsphere drug loading and resulted in a uniform microsphere drug distribution with smooth release profiles.

  7. Determination of Rock Mass Modulus Using the Plate Loading Method at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Riggins, M.

    1999-08-02

    A suite of plate loading tests has recently been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Fielding of these in situ tests as well as other approaches undertaken for the determination of rock mass modulus are described. The various methodologies are evaluated and their data compared. Calculation by existing empirical methods and numerical modeling are compared to each other as well as to field data.

  8. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOEpatents

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  9. Using fundamental solutions in the scaled boundary finite element method to solve problems with concentrated loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Thu Hang; Deeks, Andrew J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper introduces a new technique for solving concentrated load problems in the scaled boundary finite element method (FEM). By employing fundamental solutions for the displacements and the stresses, the solution is computed as summation of a fundamental solution part and a regular part. The singularity at the point of load application is modelled exactly by the fundamental solution, and only the regular part, which enforces the boundary conditions of the domain onto the fundamental solution, needs to be approximated in the solution space of the scaled boundary FEM. Examples are provided illustrating that the new approach is much simpler to implement and more accurate than the method currently used for solving concentrated load problems with the scaled boundary method. In each illustration, solution convergence is examined. The relative error is described in terms of the scalar energy norm of the stress field. Mesh refinement is performed using p-refinement with high order element based on the Lobatto shape functions. The proposed technique is described for two-dimensional problems in this paper, but extension to any linear problem, for which fundamental solutions exist, is straightforward.

  10. Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for Loads on Wings in Lift-Generated Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1995-01-01

    A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by the use of measurements made in the 80 by 120 ft Wind Tunnel of the lift, rolling moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling-moment distributions the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering or following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts.

  11. Comparative studies of salinomycin-loaded nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation and single emulsion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Puyuan; Ren, Wei; Xin, Kai; Yang, Yang; Xie, Chen; Yang, Chenchen; Liu, Qin; Yu, Lixia; Jiang, Xiqun; Liu, Baorui; Li, Rutain; Wang, Lifeng

    2014-07-01

    To establish a satisfactory delivery system for the delivery of salinomycin (Sal), a novel, selective cancer stem cell inhibitor with prominent toxicity, gelatinase-responsive core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), were prepared by nanoprecipitation method (NR-NPs) and single emulsion method (SE-NPs). The gelatinase-responsive copolymer was prepared by carboxylation and double amination method. We studied the stability of NPs prepared by nanoprecipitation method with different proportions of F68 in aqueous phase to determine the best proportion used in our study. Then, the NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method with the best proportion of F68 and single emulsion method, and their physiochemical traits including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles were studied. The SE-NPs showed significant differences in particle size, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles compared to NR-NPs. The SE-NPs presented higher drug entrapment efficiency and superior stability than the NR-NPs. The drug release rate of SE-NPs was more sustainable than that of the NR-NPs, and in vivo experiment indicated that NPs could prominently reduce the toxicity of Sal. Our study demonstrates that the SE-NPs could be a satisfactory method for the preparation of gelatinase-responsive NPs for intelligent delivery of Sal.

  12. Comparative studies of salinomycin-loaded nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation and single emulsion method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To establish a satisfactory delivery system for the delivery of salinomycin (Sal), a novel, selective cancer stem cell inhibitor with prominent toxicity, gelatinase-responsive core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), were prepared by nanoprecipitation method (NR-NPs) and single emulsion method (SE-NPs). The gelatinase-responsive copolymer was prepared by carboxylation and double amination method. We studied the stability of NPs prepared by nanoprecipitation method with different proportions of F68 in aqueous phase to determine the best proportion used in our study. Then, the NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method with the best proportion of F68 and single emulsion method, and their physiochemical traits including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles were studied. The SE-NPs showed significant differences in particle size, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles compared to NR-NPs. The SE-NPs presented higher drug entrapment efficiency and superior stability than the NR-NPs. The drug release rate of SE-NPs was more sustainable than that of the NR-NPs, and in vivo experiment indicated that NPs could prominently reduce the toxicity of Sal. Our study demonstrates that the SE-NPs could be a satisfactory method for the preparation of gelatinase-responsive NPs for intelligent delivery of Sal. PMID:25147486

  13. Experimental validation of normalized uniform load surface curvature method for damage localization.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ho-Yeon; Sung, Seung-Hoon; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2015-10-16

    In this study, we experimentally validated the normalized uniform load surface (NULS) curvature method, which has been developed recently to assess damage localization in beam-type structures. The normalization technique allows for the accurate assessment of damage localization with greater sensitivity irrespective of the damage location. In this study, damage to a simply supported beam was numerically and experimentally investigated on the basis of the changes in the NULS curvatures, which were estimated from the modal flexibility matrices obtained from the acceleration responses under an ambient excitation. Two damage scenarios were considered for the single damage case as well as the multiple damages case by reducing the bending stiffness (EI) of the affected element(s). Numerical simulations were performed using MATLAB as a preliminary step. During the validation experiments, a series of tests were performed. It was found that the damage locations could be identified successfully without any false-positive or false-negative detections using the proposed method. For comparison, the damage detection performances were compared with those of two other well-known methods based on the modal flexibility matrix, namely, the uniform load surface (ULS) method and the ULS curvature method. It was confirmed that the proposed method is more effective for investigating the damage locations of simply supported beams than the two conventional methods in terms of sensitivity to damage under measurement noise.

  14. Decomposition of indoor ammonia with TiO 2-loaded cotton woven fabrics prepared by different textile finishing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yongchun; Bai, Zhipeng; Liu, Ruihua; Zhu, Tan

    Addition of urea-based antifreeze admixtures during cement mixing in construction of buildings has led to increasing indoor air pollution due to continuous transformation and emission of urea to gaseous ammonia in indoor concrete wall. In order to control ammonia pollution from indoor concrete wall, the aqueous dispersion was firstly prepared with nano-scale TiO 2 photocatalysts and dispersing agent, and then mixed with some textile additives to establish a treating bath or coating paste. Cotton woven fabrics were used as the support materials owing to their large surface area and large number of hydrophilic groups on their cellulose molecules and finished using padding and coating methods, respectively. Two TiO 2-loaded fabrics were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a specifically designed ammonia photocatalytic system consisting of a small environmental chamber and a reactor was used for assessing the performance of these TiO 2-loaded fabrics as the wall cloth or curtains used in house rooms in the future and some factors affecting ammonia decomposition are discussed. Furthermore, a design equation of surface catalytic kinetics was developed for describing the decomposition of ammonia in air stream. The results indicated that increasing dosage of the TiO 2 aqueous dispersion in treating bath or coating paste improved the ammonia decomposition. And ammonia was effectively removed at low ammonia concentration or gas flow rate. When relative humidity level was 45%, ammonia decomposition was remarkably enhanced. It is the fact that ammonia could be significantly decomposed in the presence of the TiO 2-padded cotton fabric. Whereas, the TiO 2-coated cotton fabric had the reduced photocatalytic decomposition of ammonia and high adsorption to ammonia owing to their acrylic binder layer. Finally, the reaction rate constant k and the adsorption equilibrium constant K values were determined through a

  15. A simple method for estimating equilibrium constants for serum testosterone binding resulting in an optimal free testosterone index for use in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Ross, H Alec; Meuleman, Eric J; Sweep, Fred C G J

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to evaluate equilibrium constants for testosterone (Te) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or albumin from serum free testosterone (FTe) measurements performed in a panel of 30 healthy elderly men by means of a near-reference method, i.e., symmetric dialysis (affinity constants: SHBG-Te, 1.13 x 10(9) L/mol; albumin-Te, 4.4 x 10(4) L/mol). Using these estimates, a free testosterone index (FTeI) was calculated from total Te and SHBG concentrations in a further 35 elderly men. This FTeI perfectly matches with actually measured free testosterone concentrations by symmetric dialysis in this second group, with a mean ratio index/measurement of 0.998+/-0.016 (SEM). The efficacy of the algorithm, which represents a simple alternative to previous cumbersome methods for estimation of equilibrium constants, is thereby demonstrated.

  16. Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for loads on wings in lift-generated wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, J.

    1994-01-01

    A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by use of measurements made in the 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel of the lift, rolling-moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling moment distributions are used to determine the accuracy of the vortex-lattice code. It was found that the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering of following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts. The increase in deviation of the computed from the measured loads with size of the following wing is attributed to the increase in distortion of the structure of the vortex wake as it approaches and passes the larger following wings.

  17. Modeling the impacts of alternative fertilization methods on nitrogen loading in rice production in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng; Sha, Zhimin; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Shuhang; Zhang, Hanlin; Li, Changsheng; Zhao, Qi; Cao, Linkui

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from paddy fields is an important source of agricultural non-point source pollution that leads to eutrophication of water bodies and degradation of water quality. The impacts of alternative N fertilizer management practices on N loading (N loss through runoff and leaching) from paddy fields in Shanghai were assessed using a process-based biogeochemical model, DNDC. The results indicated that the current fertilization rate in paddy fields of Shanghai (300kgN/ha) exceeds the actual rice demand and has led to substantial N loading of 1142±276kg. The combined application of urea at 150kgN/ha and organic manure at 100kgN/ha was identified as the best fertilization method for rice cultivation in Shanghai; this application maintained optimal rice yields and significantly reduced N loading to 714±151kg in comparison with the current fertilization rate. A sensitivity test was conducted with various input parameters, and the results indicated that fertilization, precipitation and soil properties were the most sensitive factors that regulate N loss from paddy fields. The variability of soil properties, especially SOC led to high uncertainties in the simulated results. Therefore, the local climate conditions and soil properties should be taken into account in the identification of the best management practice (BMP) for rice cultivation, given the high spatially heterogeneous N loading values across all towns used in the simulation. The DNDC model is an effective approach for simulating and predicting N loading in paddy fields under alternative agricultural management practices.

  18. Equilibrium Fermi's Golden Rule Charge Transfer Rate Constants in the Condensed Phase: The Linearized Semiclassical Method vs Classical Marcus Theory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Geva, Eitan

    2016-05-19

    In this article, we present a comprehensive comparison between the linearized semiclassical expression for the equilibrium Fermi's golden rule rate constant and the progression of more approximate expressions that lead to the classical Marcus expression. We do so within the context of the canonical Marcus model, where the donor and acceptor potential energy surface are parabolic and identical except for a shift in both the free energies and equilibrium geometries, and within the Condon region. The comparison is performed for two different spectral densities and over a wide range of frictions and temperatures, thereby providing a clear test for the validity, or lack thereof, of the more approximate expressions. We also comment on the computational cost and scaling associated with numerically calculating the linearized semiclassical expression for the rate constant and its dependence on the spectral density, temperature, and friction.

  19. Dual constant composition method and its application to studies of phase transformation and crystallization of mixed phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimpour, A.; Zhang, Jingwu; Nancollas, G. H.

    1991-08-01

    In a novel approach, a dual constant composition (DCC) technique has been developed for the investigation of concurrent dissolution and growth processes such as crystalline phase transformation, as well as growth of mixed crystalline phases. DCC utilizes two potentiostats and electrode sets to control simultaneous reactions in the same medium. The kinetics of concurrent dissolution or growth of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and the growth of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) were studied.

  20. Constant-energetics physical-space forcing methods for improved convergence to homogeneous-isotropic turbulence with application to particle-laden flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassenne, Maxime; Urzay, Javier; Park, George I.; Moin, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates control-based forcing methods for incompressible homogeneous-isotropic turbulence forced linearly in physical space which result in constant turbulent kinetic energy, constant turbulent dissipation (also constant enstrophy), or a combination of the two based on a least-squares error minimization. The methods consist of proportional controllers embedded in the forcing coefficients. During the transient, the controllers adjust the forcing coefficients such that the controlled quantity achieves very early a minimal relative error with respect to its target stationary value. Comparisons of these forcing methods are made with the non-controlled approaches of Rosales and Meneveau ["Linear forcing in numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence: Physical space implementations and convergence properties," Phys. Fluids 17, 095106 (2005)] and Carroll and Blanquart ["A proposed modification to Lundgren's physical space velocity forcing method for isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids 25, 105114 (2013)], using direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large-eddy simulations (LES). The results indicate that the proposed constant-energetics forcing methods shorten the transient period from a user-defined artificial flow field to Navier-Stokes turbulence while maintaining steadier statistics. Additionally, the proposed method of constant kinetic-energy forcing behaves more robustly in coarse LES when initial conditions are employed that favor the occurrence of subgrid-scale backscatter, whereas the other approaches fail to provide physical turbulent flow fields. For illustration, the proposed forcing methods are applied to dilute particle-laden homogeneous-isotropic turbulent flows; the results serve to highlight the influences of the forcing strategies on the disperse-phase statistics.

  1. Dual drug load and release behavior on ion-exchange fiber: influencing factors and prediction method for precise control of the loading amount.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Gao, Yanan; Liu, Tiaotiao; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Hongzhuo; Li, Sanming

    2015-01-01

    Ion-exchange fiber undergoes a stoichiometric exchange reaction and has large exchange capability, which makes it a promising candidate as a multiple drug carrier. Because combinatorial effects can act synergistically, additively or antagonistically depending on the ratio of the agents being combined, the objective of this study was to learn the dual drug loading of ion-exchange fiber and develop a mathematical method for precisely control of the loading amount. Atenolol and Gatifloxacin, with different loading behaviors into strong cationic ion-exchange fiber ZB-1, were used to build a representative of dual loading. Not suitable pH value of drug solutions could make simultaneous loading fail, while the change of drug solution volume hardly affected the equilibrium. Ion-exchange groups occupied by the drug which owned lower affinity to fiber could be grabbed by the higher affinity drug, indicating the existence of competition between drugs. Thermodynamic model was introduced to guide the loading prediction and a favorable relevance had been shown between determined and predicted data. The release behaviors of each drug from dual drug-fiber complex were similar to those from single drug-fiber complexes.

  2. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOEpatents

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1996-03-26

    A method is described for energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt.% phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably ``fully charged``. In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboards that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degrees. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort. 7 figs.

  3. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOEpatents

    Stovall, Therese K.; Tomlinson, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A method of energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt. % a phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably "fully charged". In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboard that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degree. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort.

  4. The breaking load method - Results and statistical modification from the ASTM interlaboratory test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvin, E. L.; Emptage, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    The breaking load test provides quantitative stress corrosion cracking data by determining the residual strength of tension specimens that have been exposed to corrosive environments. Eight laboratories have participated in a cooperative test program under the auspices of ASTM Committee G-1 to evaluate the new test method. All eight laboratories were able to distinguish between three tempers of aluminum alloy 7075. The statistical analysis procedures that were used in the test program do not work well in all situations. An alternative procedure using Box-Cox transformations shows a great deal of promise. An ASTM standard method has been drafted which incorporates the Box-Cox procedure.

  5. "Recognizing Numerical Constants"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The advent of inexpensive, high performance computer and new efficient algorithms have made possible the automatic recognition of numerically computed constants. In other words, techniques now exist for determining, within certain limits, whether a computed real or complex number can be written as a simple expression involving the classical constants of mathematics. In this presentation, some of the recently discovered techniques for constant recognition, notably integer relation detection algorithms, will be presented. As an application of these methods, the author's recent work in recognizing "Euler sums" will be described in some detail.

  6. Note: Loading method of molecular fluorine using x-ray induced chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravica, Michael; Sneed, Daniel; White, Melanie; Wang, Yonggang

    2014-08-01

    We have successfully loaded molecular fluorine into a diamond anvil cell at high pressure using the synchrotron x-ray induced decomposition of perfluorohexane (C6F14). "White" x-ray radiation from the Advanced Photon Source was used to initiate the chemical decomposition of C6F14, which resulted in the in situ production of F2 as verified via Raman spectroscopy. Due to the toxic nature of fluorine, this method will offer significant advantages in the ability to easily load a relatively nontoxic and inert substance into a chamber (such as a diamond anvil cell) that, when sealed with other reactants and irradiate with hard x-rays (>7 keV), releases highly reactive and toxic fluorine into the sample/reaction chamber to enable novel chemical synthesis under isolated and/or extreme conditions.

  7. A new method for loading Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) on adult Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Togashi, Katsumi

    2004-06-01

    A new method was developed for loading the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle, on the beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope. Postdiapause beetle larvae were sterilized with 70 and 99.9% aqueous ethanol and placed singly in flasks where B. xylophilus reproduced on the fungus Ophiostoma minus (Hedgcock) H. et P. Sydow that had been grown on autoclaved barley grain and Pinus densifiora Sieb. et Zucc. wood chips. The fungus produced a large nematode population that developed to a high proportion of third-stage dispersal juveniles that molted to the fourth-stage dispersal juveniles. The survival rate was 80%, and the mean nematode load was 10,096. It took a mean of 5 wk to obtain the nematode-infested beetles after the initiation of nematode rearing.

  8. Inrush Current Suppression Circuit and Method for Controlling When a Load May Be Fully Energized

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwerman, Paul (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A circuit and method for controlling when a load may be fully energized includes directing electrical current through a current limiting resistor that has a first terminal connected to a source terminal of a field effect transistor (FET), and a second terminal connected to a drain terminal of the FET. The gate voltage magnitude on a gate terminal of the FET is varied, whereby current flow through the FET is increased while current flow through the current limiting resistor is simultaneously decreased. A determination is made as to when the gate voltage magnitude on the gate terminal is equal to or exceeds a predetermined reference voltage magnitude, and the load is enabled to be fully energized when the gate voltage magnitude is equal to or exceeds the predetermined reference voltage magnitude.

  9. Note: Loading method of molecular fluorine using x-ray induced chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Pravica, Michael Sneed, Daniel; White, Melanie; Wang, Yonggang

    2014-08-15

    We have successfully loaded molecular fluorine into a diamond anvil cell at high pressure using the synchrotron x-ray induced decomposition of perfluorohexane (C{sub 6}F{sub 14}). “White” x-ray radiation from the Advanced Photon Source was used to initiate the chemical decomposition of C{sub 6}F{sub 14}, which resulted in the in situ production of F{sub 2} as verified via Raman spectroscopy. Due to the toxic nature of fluorine, this method will offer significant advantages in the ability to easily load a relatively nontoxic and inert substance into a chamber (such as a diamond anvil cell) that, when sealed with other reactants and irradiate with hard x-rays (>7 keV), releases highly reactive and toxic fluorine into the sample/reaction chamber to enable novel chemical synthesis under isolated and/or extreme conditions.

  10. Note: Loading method of molecular fluorine using x-ray induced chemistry.

    PubMed

    Pravica, Michael; Sneed, Daniel; White, Melanie; Wang, Yonggang

    2014-08-01

    We have successfully loaded molecular fluorine into a diamond anvil cell at high pressure using the synchrotron x-ray induced decomposition of perfluorohexane (C6F14). "White" x-ray radiation from the Advanced Photon Source was used to initiate the chemical decomposition of C6F14, which resulted in the in situ production of F2 as verified via Raman spectroscopy. Due to the toxic nature of fluorine, this method will offer significant advantages in the ability to easily load a relatively nontoxic and inert substance into a chamber (such as a diamond anvil cell) that, when sealed with other reactants and irradiate with hard x-rays (>7 keV), releases highly reactive and toxic fluorine into the sample/reaction chamber to enable novel chemical synthesis under isolated and/or extreme conditions.

  11. A Method for Source-load Allocation of Nutrients in Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, M. R.; James, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    Identification of pollutant sources is critical to solving water resource contamination problems. Non-point sources of agricultural pollution provide substantial challenges to quantifying and allocating the sources of contaminants to streams. A method is presented for identifying the spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus sources and allocating proportional responsibility for source-reduction. The method is applied to data at scales ranging from hydrologic regions (2-digit hydrologic accounting units) of the Mississippi drainage basin to the public land survey grid in two small (14-digit) watersheds. A mass balance of nutrient sources and losses is estimated using georeferenced data derived from national to local digital data bases. Nitrogen excess is estimated by balancing sources associated with inorganic fertilizer, manure, crop fixation, mineralization of organic matter, and atmospheric redeposition of ammonia with losses from crop harvest, plant senescence, denitrification, and volatilization of manure and inorganic fertilizer. Phosphorus sources from inorganic fertilizer and manure are balanced with losses due to crop harvest. Allocation in regional units allows targeting of major pollutant source areas while smaller aggregation areas define greater ranges of source-loads useful for specific allocation. Manure sources control the distribution of excess nutrients at many scales, particularly in watersheds with uniform cropping systems. Absolute values of excess N sources provide substantially different allocation patterns than proportional values of total source-loads. Selection of aggregation scale is critical to source-load allocation needed to define TMDLs, monitor loads, and establish water-quality remediation strategies. >http://www.nstl.gov/pubs/burkart/trends/index.html

  12. Development of Human Posture Simulation Method for Assessing Posture Angles and Spinal Loads

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Waters, Thomas; Werren, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Video-based posture analysis employing a biomechanical model is gaining a growing popularity for ergonomic assessments. A human posture simulation method of estimating multiple body postural angles and spinal loads from a video record was developed to expedite ergonomic assessments. The method was evaluated by a repeated measures study design with three trunk flexion levels, two lift asymmetry levels, three viewing angles and three trial repetitions as experimental factors. The study comprised two phases evaluating the accuracy of simulating self and other people’s lifting posture via a proxy of a computer-generated humanoid. The mean values of the accuracy of simulating self and humanoid postures were 12° and 15°, respectively. The repeatability of the method for the same lifting condition was excellent (~2°). The least simulation error was associated with side viewing angle. The estimated back compressive force and moment, calculated by a three dimensional biomechanical model, exhibited a range of 5% underestimation. The posture simulation method enables researchers to simultaneously quantify body posture angles and spinal loading variables with accuracy and precision comparable to on-screen posture matching methods. PMID:26361435

  13. A modified T-value method for selection of strain gages for measuring loads on a low aspect ratio wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, M. H.; Sheldon, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique which may be useful for selecting strain gages for use in load equations is described. The technique is an adaptation of the previously used T-value method and is applied to a multispar structure. The technique, called the modified T-value method, is used to reduce the number of strain gages used in a load equation from twelve to two. A parallel reduction is made by calculating relative equation accuracies from three applied load distributions. The equations developed from the modified T-value method proved to be accurate more consistently than the T-value method.

  14. Characterization of full set material constants of piezoelectric materials based on ultrasonic method and inverse impedance spectroscopy using only one sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiyang; Zheng, Limei; Jiang, Wenhua; Sahul, Raffi; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-09-01

    The most difficult task in the characterization of complete set material properties for piezoelectric materials is self-consistency. Because there are many independent elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants, several samples are needed to obtain the full set constants. Property variation from sample to sample often makes the obtained data set lack of self-consistency. Here, we present a method, based on pulse-echo ultrasound and inverse impedance spectroscopy, to precisely determine the full set physical properties of piezoelectric materials using only one small sample, which eliminated the sample to sample variation problem to guarantee self-consistency. The method has been applied to characterize the [001]C poled Mn modified 0.27Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.27PbTiO3 single crystal and the validity of the measured data is confirmed by a previously established method. For the inverse calculations using impedance spectrum, the stability of reconstructed results is analyzed by fluctuation analysis of input data. In contrast to conventional regression methods, our method here takes the full advantage of both ultrasonic and inverse impedance spectroscopy methods to extract all constants from only one small sample. The method provides a powerful tool for assisting novel piezoelectric materials of small size and for generating needed input data sets for device designs using finite element simulations.

  15. Characterization of full set material constants of piezoelectric materials based on ultrasonic method and inverse impedance spectroscopy using only one sample.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyang; Zheng, Limei; Jiang, Wenhua; Sahul, Raffi; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-09-14

    The most difficult task in the characterization of complete set material properties for piezoelectric materials is self-consistency. Because there are many independent elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants, several samples are needed to obtain the full set constants. Property variation from sample to sample often makes the obtained data set lack of self-consistency. Here, we present a method, based on pulse-echo ultrasound and inverse impedance spectroscopy, to precisely determine the full set physical properties of piezoelectric materials using only one small sample, which eliminated the sample to sample variation problem to guarantee self-consistency. The method has been applied to characterize the [001]C poled Mn modified 0.27Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.27PbTiO3 single crystal and the validity of the measured data is confirmed by a previously established method. For the inverse calculations using impedance spectrum, the stability of reconstructed results is analyzed by fluctuation analysis of input data. In contrast to conventional regression methods, our method here takes the full advantage of both ultrasonic and inverse impedance spectroscopy methods to extract all constants from only one small sample. The method provides a powerful tool for assisting novel piezoelectric materials of small size and for generating needed input data sets for device designs using finite element simulations.

  16. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul; Othman, Nadras; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.

  17. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    SciTech Connect

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul Othman, Nadras Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-07-22

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.

  18. Comparative study of the dynamic gravimetric and pulse chromatographic methods for the determination of Henry constants of adsorption for VOC zeolite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokerman, J.; Canet, X.; Mougin, P.; Limborg-Noetinger, S.; Frère, M.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a comparative study between a gravimetric apparatus operating under dynamic conditions and a pulse chromatographic device developed for the determination of Henry constants of adsorption for VOC-zeolite systems. In both cases, we provide a description of the experimental set-up and procedure, as well as a complete report on the treatment of the rough experimental data. The experimental errors are also discussed. The comparison work is based on the study of the adsorption of toluene on a NaY zeolite (Si/Al 2.43) for temperatures ranging from 503 to 623 K. The maximal discrepancy found between the experimental Henry constants was 15.0%. The pulse chromatographic method is only dedicated to high-temperature measurements. For low-temperature experiments, the rough data cannot be treated in an efficient way, and it is not possible to obtain reliable Henry constant values. The dynamic gravimetric method is not temperature limited. It is however time-consuming, especially when low-temperature measurements (not presented in this paper) are concerned. Both methods are complementary if the determination of Henry constants is required in a wide temperature range.

  19. Extraction Method Plays Critical Role in Antibacterial Activity of Propolis-Loaded Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Gabriel G; de Souza, Ronaldo O; Bozzi, Aline D; Poplawska, Malgorzata A; Devine, Declan M; Nugent, Michael J D

    2016-03-01

    Extracted propolis has been used for a long time as a remedy. However, if the release rate of propolis is not controlled, the efficacy is reduced. To overcome this issue, extracted propolis was added to a cryogel system. Propolis collected from southern Brazil was extracted using different methods and loaded at different concentrations into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylic acid hydrogels as carrier systems. The material properties were investigated with a focus on the propolis release profiles and the cryogel antibacterial properties against 4 different bacteria, namely: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas putida. Swelling studies indicated that the swelling of the hydrogel was inversely related to propolis content. In addition, propolis release studies indicated a decreased release rate with increased propolis loading. PVA and PVA/polyacrylic acid-loaded propolis were effective against all 4 bacteria studied. These results indicate that the efficacy of propolis can be enhanced by incorporation into hydrogel carrier systems and that hydrogels with higher concentrations of propolis can be considered for use as bactericide dressing.

  20. Optimal Scheduling Method of Controllable Loads in DC Smart Apartment Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoji, Tsubasa; Tahara, Hayato; Matayoshi, Hidehito; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2015-12-01

    From the perspective of global warming suppression and the depletion of energy resources, renewable energies, such as the solar collector (SC) and photovoltaic generation (PV), have been gaining attention in worldwide. Houses or buildings with PV and heat pumps (HPs) are recently being used in residential areas widely due to the time of use (TOU) electricity pricing scheme which is essentially inexpensive during middle-night and expensive during day-time. If fixed batteries and electric vehicles (EVs) can be introduced in the premises, the electricity cost would be even more reduced. While, if the occupants arbitrarily use these controllable loads respectively, power demand in residential buildings may fluctuate in the future. Thus, an optimal operation of controllable loads such as HPs, batteries and EV should be scheduled in the buildings in order to prevent power flow from fluctuating rapidly. This paper proposes an optimal scheduling method of controllable loads, and the purpose is not only the minimization of electricity cost for the consumers, but also suppression of fluctuation of power flow on the power supply side. Furthermore, a novel electricity pricing scheme is also suggested in this paper.

  1. Application of the lifting line vortex wake method to dynamic load case simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boorsma, K.; Hartvelt, M.; Orsi, L. M.

    2016-09-01

    Within the EU AVATAR project, the added benefit of using the vortex line method is researched by calculating aero-elastic response for a variety of IEC load cases. A comparison is made to BEM to identify differences. Results are presented for yawed flow, extreme transient shear, half wake and turbulent inflow conditions. In addition to that also a dynamic pitch step case is performed including a comparison to experimental data. The aerodynamic code used for this purpose allows to easily switch between BEM and vortex line models whilst keeping the external input the same. The comparison indicates that taking into account vortex wake models can yield a significantly different aero-elastic response compared to BEM models, often acting as a damper to fluctuations. As such estimated fatigue loads are reduced for selected load cases. Since the free vortex wake simulations come at a substantial increase of CPU-time, a hybrid approach prescribing the far wake is shown to offer a promising compromise.

  2. A method for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of compressively loaded prismatic composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, Frederick; Gurdal, Zafer; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A method was developed for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of the static response of thin-walled stiffened composite structures loaded in uniaxial or biaxial compression. The method is applicable to arbitrary prismatic configurations composed of linked plate strips, such as stiffened panels and thin-walled columns. The longitudinal ends of the structure are assumed to be simply supported, and geometric shape imperfections can be modeled. The method can predict the nonlinear phenomena of postbuckling strength and imperfection sensitivity which are exhibited by some buckling-dominated structures. The method is computer-based and is semi-analytic in nature, making it computationally economical in comparison to finite element methods. The method uses a perturbation approach based on the use of a series of buckling mode shapes to represent displacement contributions associated with nonlinear response. Displacement contributions which are of second order in the model amplitudes are incorported in addition to the buckling mode shapes. The principle of virtual work is applied using a finite basis of buckling modes, and terms through the third order in the model amplitudes are retained. A set of cubic nonlinear algebraic equations are obtained, from which approximate equilibrium solutions are determined. Buckling mode shapes for the general class of structure are obtained using the VIPASA analysis code within the PASCO stiffened-panel design code. Thus, subject to some additional restrictions in loading and plate anisotropy, structures which can be modeled with respect to buckling behavior by VIPASA can be analyzed with respect to nonlinear response using the new method. Results obtained using the method are compared with both experimental and analytical results in the literature. The configurations investigated include several different unstiffened and blade-stiffening panel configurations, featuring both homogeneous, isotropic materials, and laminated composite

  3. Novel method to load multiple genes onto a mammalian artificial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Anna; Fodor, Katalin; Praznovszky, Tünde; Tubak, Vilmos; Udvardy, Andor; Hadlaczky, Gyula; Katona, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian artificial chromosomes are natural chromosome-based vectors that may carry a vast amount of genetic material in terms of both size and number. They are reasonably stable and segregate well in both mitosis and meiosis. A platform artificial chromosome expression system (ACEs) was earlier described with multiple loading sites for a modified lambda-integrase enzyme. It has been shown that this ACEs is suitable for high-level industrial protein production and the treatment of a mouse model for a devastating human disorder, Krabbe's disease. ACEs-treated mutant mice carrying a therapeutic gene lived more than four times longer than untreated counterparts. This novel gene therapy method is called combined mammalian artificial chromosome-stem cell therapy. At present, this method suffers from the limitation that a new selection marker gene should be present for each therapeutic gene loaded onto the ACEs. Complex diseases require the cooperative action of several genes for treatment, but only a limited number of selection marker genes are available and there is also a risk of serious side-effects caused by the unwanted expression of these marker genes in mammalian cells, organs and organisms. We describe here a novel method to load multiple genes onto the ACEs by using only two selectable marker genes. These markers may be removed from the ACEs before therapeutic application. This novel technology could revolutionize gene therapeutic applications targeting the treatment of complex disorders and cancers. It could also speed up cell therapy by allowing researchers to engineer a chromosome with a predetermined set of genetic factors to differentiate adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into cell types of therapeutic value. It is also a suitable tool for the investigation of complex biochemical pathways in basic science by producing an ACEs with several genes from a signal transduction pathway of interest.

  4. Novel Method to Load Multiple Genes onto a Mammalian Artificial Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Anna; Fodor, Katalin; Praznovszky, Tünde; Tubak, Vilmos; Udvardy, Andor; Hadlaczky, Gyula; Katona, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian artificial chromosomes are natural chromosome-based vectors that may carry a vast amount of genetic material in terms of both size and number. They are reasonably stable and segregate well in both mitosis and meiosis. A platform artificial chromosome expression system (ACEs) was earlier described with multiple loading sites for a modified lambda-integrase enzyme. It has been shown that this ACEs is suitable for high-level industrial protein production and the treatment of a mouse model for a devastating human disorder, Krabbe’s disease. ACEs-treated mutant mice carrying a therapeutic gene lived more than four times longer than untreated counterparts. This novel gene therapy method is called combined mammalian artificial chromosome-stem cell therapy. At present, this method suffers from the limitation that a new selection marker gene should be present for each therapeutic gene loaded onto the ACEs. Complex diseases require the cooperative action of several genes for treatment, but only a limited number of selection marker genes are available and there is also a risk of serious side-effects caused by the unwanted expression of these marker genes in mammalian cells, organs and organisms. We describe here a novel method to load multiple genes onto the ACEs by using only two selectable marker genes. These markers may be removed from the ACEs before therapeutic application. This novel technology could revolutionize gene therapeutic applications targeting the treatment of complex disorders and cancers. It could also speed up cell therapy by allowing researchers to engineer a chromosome with a predetermined set of genetic factors to differentiate adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into cell types of therapeutic value. It is also a suitable tool for the investigation of complex biochemical pathways in basic science by producing an ACEs with several genes from a signal transduction pathway of interest. PMID:24454889

  5. Method and apparatus for controlling combustor temperature during transient load changes

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Chalfant, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus includes a fast acting air bypass valve connected in parallel with an air inlet to the combustor. A predetermined excess quantity of air is supplied from an air source to a series connected fuel cell and combustor. The predetermined excess quantity of air is provided in a sufficient amount to control the temperature of the combustor during start-up of the fuel processor when the load on the fuel cell is zero and to accommodate any temperature transients during operation of the fuel cell.

  6. Evaluation of a Brain Acetylcholinesterase Extraction Method and Kinetic Constants after Methyl-Paraoxon Inhibition in Three Brazilian Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, A. P.; Santos, C. R.; Sarcinelli, P. N.; Hauser-Davis, R. A.; Lopes, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important enzyme in the control of the neuronal action potential and sensitive to organophosphate inhibition. Brain fish AChE is less sensitive to organophosphate inhibition than AChE from terrestrial animals, although this sensitivity is variable among species and has not yet been fully evaluated in fish species. In this setting, inhibition kinetic constants for progressive irreversible inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase due to methyl-paraoxon exposure were determined in three fish species (Mugil liza, Genidens genidens and Lagocephalus laevigatus) and hen (Gallus domesticus). Enzyme extraction using a detergent was shown to be adequate, and samples presented activity inhibition in high substrate concentrations and suppression of inhibition by methyl-paraoxon in the presence of the substrate, similar to kinetic patterns from purified enzyme preparations. Catfish (G. genidens) AChE presented the highest sensitivity among the evaluated fish species (IC50 = 1031.20 nM ± 63.17) in comparison to M. liza and L. laevigatus (IC50: 2878.83 ± 421.94 and 2842.5 ± 144.63 nM respectively). The lower dissociation constant (Kd = 20.3 ± 2.95 μM) of catfish AChE showed greater enzyme affinity for methyl-paraoxon, explaining this species higher sensitivity to organophosphates. Hen AChE presented higher ki (900.57 ± 65.3 mM-1min-1) and, consequently, greater sensitivity to methyl-paraoxon, explained by a lower Kd (0.6 ± 0.13 μM). Furthermore, hen AChE did not differentiate between the propionylthiocholine and acetylthiocholine substrates, indicating easier access of methyl-paraoxon to the hen enzyme activity site. The results obtained herein indicate a suitable extraction of AChE and, despite different inhibition kinetic constants, demonstrate that fish AChE is less sensitive to methyl-paraoxon, probably due to reduced access to the catalytic center which provides greater enzyme substrate selectivity. PMID:27655611

  7. [Method to Calculate the Yield Load of Bone Plate in Four-point Bending Test].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaohang; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Jun; Wen, Yan

    2015-09-01

    This paper developed a calculation method to acquire the yield load P of bone plate during four-point bending test. This method is based on the displacement--force (δ-F) curve function f(M)(δ) obtained from the test, each slope of the curve was calculated using piecewise smooth function and the line segment in f(M)(δ) elastic deformation area was searched by setting the minimum slope T. Slope S was obtained through linear fit so as to build parallel displacement function f(L)(δ). Then, approximating intersection point of f(M)(δ) and f(L)(δ) was obtained through linear interpolation. Thus, yield load P was acquired. The method in the paper was loyal to YY/T 0342-2002 regulation and was liable to program calculation. The calculating process was nothing to do with whether the initial point during the test was preloaded or unloaded, and there was no need to correct the original point. In addition, T was set in an ideal fitting level guaranteed by the fitting coefficient of determination R2, and thus S was very close to the real value, and P was with a high accuracy.

  8. Proposition of group molar constants for sodium to calculate the partial solubility parameters of sodium salts using the van Krevelen group contribution method.

    PubMed

    Barra, J; Peña, M A; Bustamante, P

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study is to propose, for the first time, a set of group molar constants for sodium to calculate the partial solubility parameters of sodium salts. The values were estimated using the few experimental partial solubility parameters of acid/sodium salt series available either from the literature (benzoic acid/Na, ibuprofen acid/Na, diclofenac Na) or determined in this work (salicylic acid/Na, p-aminobenzoic acid/Na, diclofenac), the group contribution method of van Krevelen to calculate the partial parameters of the acids, and three reasonable hypothesis. The experimental method used is a modification of the extended Hansen approach based on a regression analysis of the solubility mole fraction of the drug lnX(2) against models including three- or four-partial solubility parameters of a series of pure solvents ranging from non-polar (heptane) to highly polar (water). The modified method combined with the four-parameter model provided the best results for both acids and sodium derivatives. The replacement of the acidic proton by sodium increased the dipolar and basic partial solubility parameters, whereas the dispersion parameter remained unaltered, thus increasing the overall total solubility parameter of the salt. The proposed group molar constants of sodium are consistent with the experimental results as sodium has a relatively low London dispersion molar constant (identical to that of -OH), a very high Keesom dipolar molar constant (identical to that of -NO(2), two times larger than that of -OH), and a very high hydrogen bonding molar constant (identical to that of -OH). The proposed values are: F((Na)d)=270 (J cm(3))(1/2) mol(-1); F((Na)p)=1030 (J cm(3))(1/2) mol(-1); U((Na)h)=17000 J mol(-1). Like the constants for the other groups, the group molar constants proposed for sodium are certainly not the exact values. However, they are believed to be a fair approximation of the impact of sodium on the partial solubility parameters and, therefore, can

  9. Extremely asymmetric diffraction as a method of determining magneto-optical constants for X-rays near absorption edges

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, M. A.; Repchenko, Yu. L.; Smekhova, A. G.; Dumesnil, K.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.

    2015-06-15

    The spectral dependence of the Bragg peak position under conditions of extremely asymmetric diffraction has been analyzed in the kinematical and dynamical approximations of the diffraction theory. Simulations have been performed for the L{sub 3} absorption edge of yttrium in a single-crystal YFe{sub 2} film; they have shown that the magneto-optical constants (or, equivalently, the dispersion corrections to the atomic scattering factor) for hard X-rays can be determined from this dependence. Comparison with the experimental data obtained for a Nb(4 nm)/YFe{sub 2}(40 nm〈110〉)/Fe(1.5 nm)/Nb(50 nm)/sapphire sample at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has been made.

  10. Measurement of optical constants of Si and SiO2 from reflection electron energy loss spectra using factor analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H.; Shinotsuka, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Iwai, H.; Tanuma, S.; Tougaard, S.

    2010-04-01

    The energy loss functions (ELFs) and optical constants of Si and SiO2 were obtained from quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) by a new approach. In order to obtain the ELF, which is directly related to the optical constants, we measured series of angular and energy dependent REELS spectra for Si and SiO2. The λ(E )K(ΔE) spectra, which are the product of the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) and the differential inverse IMFP, were obtained from the measured REELS spectra. We used the factor analysis (FA) method to analyze series of λ(E )K(ΔE) spectra for various emission angles at fixed primary beam energy to separate the surface-loss and bulk-loss components. The extracted bulk-loss components enable to obtain the ELFs of Si and SiO2, which are checked by oscillator strength-sum and perfect-screening-sum rules. The real part of the reciprocal of the complex dielectric function was determined by Kramers-Kronig analysis of the ELFs. Subsequently, the optical constants of Si and SiO2 were calculated. The resulting optical constants in terms of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient for Si and SiO2 are in good agreement with Palik's reference data. The results demonstrate the general applicability of FA as an efficient method to obtain the bulk ELF and to determine the optical properties from REELS measurements.

  11. Application of Newton's method to the postbuckling of rings under pressure loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, Gaylen A.

    1989-01-01

    The postbuckling response of circular rings (or long cylinders) is examined. The rings are subjected to four types of external pressure loadings; each type of pressure is defined by its magnitude and direction at points on the buckled ring. Newton's method is applied to the nonlinear differential equations of the exact inextensional theory for the ring problem. A zeroth approximation for the solution of the nonlinear equations, based on the mode shape corresponding to the first buckling pressure, is derived in closed form for each of the four types of pressure. The zeroth approximation is used to start the iteration cycle in Newton's method to compute numerical solutions of the nonlinear equations. The zeroth approximations for the postbuckling pressure-deflection curves are compared with the converged solutions from Newton's method and with similar results reported in the literature.

  12. A Scrutiny of the Equivalent Static Lateral Load Method of Design for Multistory Masonry Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Touqan, A. R.; Helou, S. H.

    2008-07-08

    Building structures with a soft storey are gaining widespread popularity in urban areas due to the scarcity of land and due to the pressing need for wide open spaces at the entrance level. In earthquake prone zones dynamic analysis based on the Equivalent Static Lateral Load method is attractive to the novice and the design codes leave the choice of the analysis procedure up to the discretion of the designer. The following is a comparison of the said method with the more elaborate Response Spectrum Method of analysis as they apply to a repertoire of different structural models. The results clearly show that the former provides similar results of response in structures with gradual change in storey stiffness; while it is over conservative for a bare frame structure. It is however less conservative for structures with a soft storey.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of acidity and tautomeric constants and hydrogen bonding strength for a new Schiff base using hard modeling and multivariate curve resolution alternative least squares methods.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Khajavi, Farzad; Khanmohammadi, Hamid

    2009-02-23

    The equilibria of a new Schiff base derived from 3,6-bis((aminoethyl)thio)pyridazine were studied spectrophotometrically with the aid of factor-analytical methods. Hard modeling program was used for determination of the acidity constants of the Schiff base in dimethylformamide (DMF)/water mixture (30:70 v/v). In this method acidity constant equations act as hard models and the score vectors obtained by decomposing of absorbance data matrix will be linear combinations of equilibrium concentrations of species that exist in the absorption matrix. Two rank annihilation factor analysis (TRAFA) was used as a standard method to investigate the accuracy of the method. The tautomerization constant, K(t), of the Schiff base solution in various DMF/water mixtures has also been determined using spectral variations of the Schiff base solutions in various volume ratios of water with the aid of evolving factor analysis (EFA) and multivariate curve resolution alternative least squares (MCR-ALS) methods. In addition the intramolecular hydrogen bonding strength and its related thermodynamic parameters have been determined using MCR-ALS and spectral variation of the Schiff base solutions in different temperatures.

  14. Investigation of various methods for heat load measurement of ITER prototype cryoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, N. D.; Sarkar, B.; Choukekar, K.; Bhattacharya, R.; Kumar, Uday

    2014-01-01

    The cold testing of ITER prototype cryoline (PTCL) is part of technical qualification procedure for multi process pipe ITER cryolines. The detailed plan has been developed for the warm and cold testing of PTCL, which includes pressure and leak test at room temperature followed by cooldown of all the process pipes of PTCL to nominal operating temperature using cold helium. The test infrastructure, which primarily includes 80 K system to supply helium at 30 grams per second (g/s), 6.5 bar and liquid helium Dewar of 5000 liter capacity to supply vapor helium at maximum 1.4 bar and 6 g/s in a controlled manner is at advanced stage of realization. The detailed scheme and methodology for PTCL heat load measurement at 4.5 K and 80 K temperature level using small flow rate and enthalpy difference has been already developed as Plan-A. However, in order to be sure on the measurement of Plan-A, it has been realized to develop back-up plan to ensure the correctness of the measurements. The in-built flexibility of the test infrastructure supports the back-up methods for heat load measurement of PTCL using the same infrastructure. The back-up methods foreseen as Plan-B includes (i) filling the process pipes with low temperature helium gas and evaluating time bound temperature increase and (ii) measuring temperature difference for various heater power using existing electric heaters and extrapolating the results. The present paper details both the plans for the heat load measurement at 4.5 K and 80 K temperature level including the comparison between the two.

  15. An approach for lacidipine loaded gastroretentive formulation prepared by different methods for gastroparesis in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Shaheen; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Singh, Devender; Ahmad, Riyaz; Manukonda, Venu; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Ahmad, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with various attempts to prepare a gastroretentive formulation of lacidipine for treating gastroparesis. High density sucrose beads were modified by coating with certain polymers, but unfortunately sustained release could not be achieved. Granules were prepared by wet granulation technology using different combinations of polymers and a release of the drug was observed. The method failed to release the drug as per desired specifications. Polymeric coating followed by wet granulation was thought to be a better process to sustain the dissolution rate. The release rate can be modified by the incorporation of different polymeric coatings, but the mucoadhesive potential of granules was only 4.23% which might be due to its large size and the presence of other ingredients. Further, the lacidipine loaded microparticles were prepared by different methods such as compression, ionic gelation with TPP, ionic gelation with TPP and glutaraldehyde, spray drying and coacervation techniques. The formulations were evaluated for average particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, % yield and mucoadhesive potential. The microparticles prepared by compression method using HPMC K4M and SCMC as mucoadhesive polymers and BaSO4 as high density diluent showed poor bioadhesion (8.3%) and poor release characteristics (100% in 120 min). Ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate yielded microspheres with poor mechanical strength. In order to improve its mechanical strength, TPP ionic gelation was combined with step-wise cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The additional solidification step to improve mechanical strength left this procedure tedious, time consuming and cytotoxic. Spray drying method gave a very low yield with 46.67% bioadhesion. The method using CaCl2 for ionotropic gelation showed the best results with regard to physical characteristics (well formed discrete, spherical surface microcapsule), particle size (88.57 ± 0.51), in vitro bioadhesion

  16. Hydrogen generation and utility load leveling system and the method therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, R.Z.; Hanrahan, R.J.; Gupta, A.K.

    1993-06-15

    A continuous method of providing load leveling and hydrogen and oxygen production from one system is described comprising the steps of: electrolyzing concentrated hydrohalic acid into hydrogen, halogen and dilute hydrohalic acid; photochemically and thermally reacting water with said halogen to produce hydrogen halide and oxygen; separating said oxygen from said hydrogen halide; and producing concentrated hydrohalic acids by solvating said hydrogen halide with dilute hydrohalic acid, wherein said system utilizes a cell having a charging current density and a discharging current density. A method of producing molecular hydrogen and halogens from hydrohalic acid in solution with transition metal halide complexes is described comprising: using photolytic energy to excite a transition metal halide complex in solution with a hydrohalic acid, causing a metal ion-ligand to be photochemically reduced to a lower oxidation state, and halide ions to be oxidized to molecular halogen; continuously removing said molecular halogen from the presence of the photolytic reaction; and using electrical energy to electrolyze said photochemically reduced, transition metal halide complexes in solution with said hydrohalic acid, causing said metal ion-ligand to be electrolytically oxidized to a higher oxidation state of that species, and hydrogen ions to be reduced to molecular hydrogen. A continuous load leveling and hydrogen and oxygen production system is described for accomplishing the above.

  17. Parallel implementation of the particle simulation method with dynamic load balancing: Toward realistic geodynamical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuichi, M.; Nishiura, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fully Lagrangian methods such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) have been widely used to solve the continuum and particles motions in the computational geodynamics field. These mesh-free methods are suitable for the problems with the complex geometry and boundary. In addition, their Lagrangian nature allows non-diffusive advection useful for tracking history dependent properties (e.g. rheology) of the material. These potential advantages over the mesh-based methods offer effective numerical applications to the geophysical flow and tectonic processes, which are for example, tsunami with free surface and floating body, magma intrusion with fracture of rock, and shear zone pattern generation of granular deformation. In order to investigate such geodynamical problems with the particle based methods, over millions to billion particles are required for the realistic simulation. Parallel computing is therefore important for handling such huge computational cost. An efficient parallel implementation of SPH and DEM methods is however known to be difficult especially for the distributed-memory architecture. Lagrangian methods inherently show workload imbalance problem for parallelization with the fixed domain in space, because particles move around and workloads change during the simulation. Therefore dynamic load balance is key technique to perform the large scale SPH and DEM simulation. In this work, we present the parallel implementation technique of SPH and DEM method utilizing dynamic load balancing algorithms toward the high resolution simulation over large domain using the massively parallel super computer system. Our method utilizes the imbalances of the executed time of each MPI process as the nonlinear term of parallel domain decomposition and minimizes them with the Newton like iteration method. In order to perform flexible domain decomposition in space, the slice-grid algorithm is used. Numerical tests show that our

  18. Determination of the acid dissociation constant of the biosurfactant monorhamnolipid in aqueous solution by potentiometric and spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Lebrón-Paler, Ariel; Pemberton, Jeanne E; Becker, Bridget A; Otto, William H; Larive, Cynthia K; Maier, Raina M

    2006-11-15

    The acid dissociation constant in water for a monorhamnolipid mixture extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 has been determined using potentiometry and two spectroscopic approaches at concentrations below and above the critical micelle concentration (cmc). Potentiometric titrations resulted in pKa values ranging from 4.28 +/- 0.16 to 5.50 +/- 0.06 depending on concentration. 1H NMR spectrochemical titrations at concentrations below the cmc revealed a pKa value of 4.39 +/- 0.06. ATR-FT-IR spectrochemical titrations on solutions well above the cmc gave a pKa value of 4.84 +/- 0.05. The value of 4.28 for the free rhamnolipid molecule for concentrations below the cmc differs markedly from that reported previously. However, the pKa of 5.50 for surface-adsorbed and solution aggregates correlates closely to that previously reported. Differences in these pKa values are rationalized in terms of the pH- and concentration-dependent aggregation behavior of rhamnolipids in aqueous solution.

  19. Evaluation of Ground Bearing Capacity Estimation Methods Based On Plate Loading Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gül, Yavuz; Ceylanoğlu, Atilla

    2016-10-01

    Within the scope of this study, bearing capacities were calculated based on eleven different estimation methods in literature, using some mass and material properties for different rock units (magnetite, syenite, serpentinite, limestone, clayey limestone and gypsum) encountered in three different open-pit mines (Sivas-Ulaş Open-Pit Celestite Mine, Divriği Open-Pit Iron Mine and Kangal Open-Pit Coal Mine) around Sivas in Turkey. Through regression analyses between estimated bearing capacity values and those that had been determined as a result of plate loading tests, bearing capacity estimation methods specified in the literature were assessed. Moreover, four different equations to be used in bearing capacity estimation were proposed.

  20. Characterisation of steel components under monotonic loading by means of image-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, J.; Pereira, J. C. R.; de Jesus, A. M. P.

    2014-02-01

    Ductile damage behaviour of S185 structural steel is determined by coupling numerical and experimental analyses. Monotonic experimental tests are carried out in five different specimen configurations. These mechanical tests are coupled with image-based methods for assessing displacement and strain fields over the gauge section. Three different ductile damage models proposed in the literature for monotonic loading are analysed. Their governing parameters are determined by comparing experimental and numerical mechanical responses. Measurements provided by digital image correlation and feature-tracking methods are used for calibrating and validating non-linear finite element modelling. Numerical analyses built in ANSYS are carried out to compute the necessary parameters (stress-strain and triaxiality histories) to calibrate Johnson-Cook (JC) and Kanvinde-Deierlein (KD) fracture criteria. Also, a calibration of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model is performed based on an explicit finite element analysis in ABAQUS.

  1. Stress analysis method for a clearance fit bolt under bearing loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crews, J. H., Jr.; Naik, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    In the present, simple analysis method for bolt hole clearance stresses in mechanically fastened joints, an inverse formulation is used with a finite element analysis. Conditions along the bolt hole contact arc are specified by displacement constraint equations. The method was applied to a single fastener clearance-fit joint with typical clearance values, for the cases of a rigid, frictionless bolt and a quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminate. Results indicate that the contact arc, as well as the peak stresses around the hole (and their locations), were strongly influenced by the clearance. After a minor initial nonlinearity, peak stresses varied linearly with applied load. Clearance levels are found to have only a minor influence on overall joint stiffness.

  2. Room-temperature and temperature-dependent QSRR modelling for predicting the nitrate radical reaction rate constants of organic chemicals using ensemble learning methods.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Basant, N; Mohan, D; Singh, K P

    2016-07-01

    Experimental determinations of the rate constants of the reaction of NO3 with a large number of organic chemicals are tedious, and time and resource intensive; and the development of computational methods has widely been advocated. In this study, we have developed room-temperature (298 K) and temperature-dependent quantitative structure-reactivity relationship (QSRR) models based on the ensemble learning approaches (decision tree forest (DTF) and decision treeboost (DTB)) for predicting the rate constant of the reaction of NO3 radicals with diverse organic chemicals, under OECD guidelines. Predictive powers of the developed models were established in terms of statistical coefficients. In the test phase, the QSRR models yielded a correlation (r(2)) of >0.94 between experimental and predicted rate constants. The applicability domains of the constructed models were determined. An attempt has been made to provide the mechanistic interpretation of the selected features for QSRR development. The proposed QSRR models outperformed the previous reports, and the temperature-dependent models offered a much wider applicability domain. This is the first report presenting a temperature-dependent QSRR model for predicting the nitrate radical reaction rate constant at different temperatures. The proposed models can be useful tools in predicting the reactivities of chemicals towards NO3 radicals in the atmosphere, hence, their persistence and exposure risk assessment.

  3. Mechanical scale and load cell underwater weighing: a comparison of simultaneous measurements and the reliability of methods.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jordan R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Walter, Ashley A; Smith, Abbie E; Stock, Matt S; Herda, Trent J; Sherk, Vanessa D; Young, Kaelin C; Lockwood, Christopher M; Kendall, Kristina L; Fukuda, David H; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Beck, Travis W; Esposito, Enrico N

    2011-03-01

    Both load cell and mechanical scale-based hydrostatic weighing (HW) systems are used for the measurement of underwater weight. However, there has been no direct comparison of the 2 methods. The purpose of the current investigation was to simultaneously compare a load cell and mechanical scale for use in HW. Twenty-seven men and women (mean ± SD, age: 22 ± 2 years) participated in the 2-day investigation. Each subject completed 2 HW assessments 24 hours apart. Single-day comparisons of all trials for both days revealed no significant difference between the mechanical scale and the load cell (mean difference < 0.016 kg, p > 0.05). True underwater weight values were not significantly different between methods for either days (mean difference < 0.014 kg, p > 0.05) and accounted for a mean difference in percent fat (%FAT) of <0.108%. The 95% limits of agreement indicated a maximum difference between methods of 0.53% FAT. Both methods produced similar reliability SEM values (mechanical SEM < 0.72%FAT, load cell SEM < 0.75%FAT). In conclusion, there was no difference between mechanical scale and load cell measurements of underwater weights and the added precision of the load cell only marginally (<0.16%FAT) improved day-to-day reliability. Either a mechanical scale or load cell can be used for HW with similar accuracy and reliability in young adults with a body mass index of 18.7-34.4 (5-25%FAT).

  4. Evaluation of Delamination Onset and Growth Characterization Methods under Mode I Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.

    2013-01-01

    Double-cantilevered beam specimens of IM7/8552 graphite/epoxy from two different manufacturers were tested in static and fatigue to compare the material characterization data and to evaluate a proposed ASTM standard for generating Paris Law equations for delamination growth. Static results were used to generate compliance calibration constants for reducing the fatigue data, and a delamination resistance curve, GIR, for each material. Specimens were tested in fatigue at different initial cyclic GImax levels to determine a delamination onset curve and the delamination growth rate. The delamination onset curve equations were similar for the two sources. Delamination growth rate was calculated by plotting da/dN versus GImax on a log-log scale and fitting a Paris Law. Two different data reduction methods were used to calculate da/dN. To determine the effects of fiber-bridging, growth results were normalized by the delamination resistance curves. Paris Law exponents decreased by 31% to 37% after normalizing the data. Visual data records from the fatigue tests were used to calculate individual compliance constants from the fatigue data. The resulting da/dN versus GImax plots showed improved repeatability for each source, compared to using averaged static data. The Paris Law expressions for the two sources showed the closest agreement using the individually fit compliance data.

  5. Application of the hybrid method with constant coefficients to solving the integro-differential equations of first order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdiyeva, Galina; Imanova, Mehriban; Ibrahimov, Vagif

    2012-11-01

    As is well known investigation of many processes of natural sciences reduce to the solving of initial value problem for integro-differential equations which are one of the priority areas of modern mathematics. To define the exact solution of such problems is not always possible. Therefore the scientists constructed approximate methods for solving them. There are a number of papers devoted to finding approximate solutions of integro-differential equations. Unlike at papers investigated, here the numerical solution of initial value problem for Volterra integro-differential equations by the hybrid methods, constructed concrete methods with the degree p ≤ 6 and suggested algorithm for using them.

  6. Diclofenac sodium-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by emulsion/solvent evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongfei; Jiang, Sunmin; Shen, Hong; Qin, Shan; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Qing; Li, Rui; Xu, Qunwei

    2011-06-01

    The preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) suffers from the drawback of poor incorporation of water-soluble drugs. The aim of this study was therefore to assess various formulation and process parameters to enhance the incorporation of a water-soluble drug (diclofenac sodium, DS) into SLNs prepared by the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency (EE) of DS was increased to approximately 100% by lowering the pH of dispersed phase. The EE of DS-loaded SLNs (DS-SLNs) had been improved by the existence of cosurfactants and increment of PVA concentration. Stabilizers and their combination with PEG 400 in the dispersed phase also resulted in higher EE and drug loading (DL). EE increased and DL decreased as the phospholipid/DS ratio became greater, while the amount of DS had an opposite effect. Ethanol turned out to be the ideal solvent making DS-SLNs. EE and DL of DS-SLNs were not affected by either the stirring speed or the viscosity of aqueous and dispersed phase. According to the investigations, drug solubility in dispersion medium played the most important role in improving EE.

  7. α-Tocopherol-loaded niosome prepared by heating method and its release behavior.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Ladan; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Bostan, Aram

    2017-04-15

    α-Tocopherol-loaded niosome was developed using modified heating method. The influence of surfactants (Span60 and Tween60) in different mole ratios, presence or absence of cholesterol (Chol) and dicetyl phosphate (DCP) as well as different concentration of α-tocopherol (α-TOC) on mean size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency (EE) was evaluated. The results showed that α-TOC loaded niosomes exhibited a small mean size (73.85±0.6-186±0.58nm), narrow size distribution and high EE (61.13±0.52-98.92±0.92). By decreasing the HLB, the EE and stability of the niosomes increased. The DCP and Chol improved the physicochemical properties of niosomes. 3:1 mole ratio of Span 60:Tween 60, 4mg/ml of α-TOC and 25:12.5:2.5 mole ratio of surfactant:Chol:DCP was the optimum formulation in the encapsulation of α-TOC applying niosome system. The niosomes had sustained release profile in the simulated gastric and intestinal fluid.

  8. Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Engler, Robert K.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently investigating alternative sorbents for the removal and immobilization of radioiodine from the gas streams in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. One of these new sorbents, Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels, shows great promise as a potential replacement for Ag-bearing mordenites because of its high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine. Moreover, a feasible consolidation of iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes this aerogel an attractive choice for sequestering radioiodine. This report provides a preliminary assessment of the methods that can be used to consolidate iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels into a final waste form. In particular, it focuses on experimental investigation of densification of as prepared Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels powders, with or without organic moiety and with or without sintering additive (colloidal silica), with three commercially available techniques: 1) hot uniaxial pressing (HUP), 2) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and 3) spark plasma sintering (SPS). The densified products were evaluated with helium gas pycnometer for apparent density, with the Archimedes method for apparent density and open porosity, and with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for the extent of densification and distribution of individual elements. The preliminary investigation of HUP, HIP, and SPS showed that these sintering methods can effectively consolidate powders of Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel into products of near-theoretical density. Also, removal of organic moiety and adding 5.6 mass% of colloidal silica to Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel powders before processing provided denser products. Furthermore, the ram travel data for SPS indicated that rapid consolidation of powders can be performed at temperatures below 950°C.

  9. Method for loading lipid like vesicles with drugs of other chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Mehlhorn, Rolf Joachim

    1998-01-01

    A method for accumulating drugs or other chemicals within synthetic, lipid-like vesicles by means of a pH gradient imposed on the vesicles just prior to use is described. The method is suited for accumulating molecules with basic or acid moieties which are permeable to the vesicles membranes in their uncharged form and for molecules that contain charge moieties that are hydrophobic ions and can therefore cross the vesicle membranes in their charged form. The method is advantageous over prior art methods for encapsulating biologically active materials within vesicles in that is achieves very high degrees of loading with simple procedures that are economical and require little technical expertise, furthermore kits which can be stored for prolonged periods prior to use without impairment of the capacity to achieve drug accumulation are described. A related application of the method consists of using this technology to detoxify animals that have been exposed to poisons with basic, weak acid or hydrophobic charge groups within their molecular structures.

  10. Method for loading lipid like vesicles with drugs of other chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Mehlhorn, R.J.

    1998-06-09

    A method for accumulating drugs or other chemicals within synthetic, lipid-like vesicles by means of a pH gradient imposed on the vesicles just prior to use is described. The method is suited for accumulating molecules with basic or acid moieties which are permeable to the vesicles membranes in their uncharged form and for molecules that contain charge moieties that are hydrophobic ions and can therefore cross the vesicle membranes in their charged form. The method is advantageous over prior art methods for encapsulating biologically active materials within vesicles in that is achieves very high degrees of loading with simple procedures that are economical and require little technical expertise, furthermore kits which can be stored for prolonged periods prior to use without impairment of the capacity to achieve drug accumulation are described. A related application of the method consists of using this technology to detoxify animals that have been exposed to poisons with basic, weak acid or hydrophobic charge groups within their molecular structures. 2 figs.

  11. Methods of determining loads and fiber orientations in anisotropic non-crystalline materials using energy flux deviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H. (Inventor); Kriz, Ronald D. (Inventor); Fitting, Dale W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An ultrasonic wave is applied to an anisotropic sample material in an initial direction and an angle of flux deviation of the ultrasonic wave front is measured from this initial direction. This flux deviation angle is induced by the unknown applied load. The flux shift is determined between this flux deviation angle and a previously determined angle of flux deviation of an ultrasonic wave applied to a similar anisotropic reference material under an initial known load condition. This determined flux shift is then compared to a plurality of flux shifts of a similarly tested, similar anisotropic reference material under a plurality of respective, known load conditions, whereby the load applied to the particular anisotropic sample material is determined. A related method is disclosed for determining the fiber orientation from known loads and a determined flux shift.

  12. Evaluation of scavenging rate constants of DOPA and tyrosine enantiomers against multiple reactive oxygen species and methyl radical as measured with ESR trapping method.

    PubMed

    Sueishi, Yoshimi; Takemoto, Tsubasa

    2015-04-15

    The scavenging rates of DOPA (dl- and l-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine) and Tyr (tyrosine (dl- and l-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)alanine)) against five reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methyl radical were measured with the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping method and the scavenging rate constants of DOPA and Tyr were determined. The scavenging rate constants for multiple active species increased in the order of O2(-)

  13. Dielectric Constant of Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelson, Kenneth S.; Ackmann, James J.

    1997-03-01

    We have used a finite element method to calculate the dielectric constant of a cubic array of spheres. Extensive calculations support preliminary conclusions reported previously (K. Mendelson and J. Ackmann, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 41), 657 (1996).. At frequencies below 100 kHz the real part of the dielectric constant (ɛ') shows oscillations as a function of the volume fraction of suspension. These oscillations disappear at low conductivities of the suspending fluid. Measurements of the dielectric constant (J. Ackmann, et al., Ann. Biomed. Eng. 24), 58 (1996). (H. Fricke and H. Curtis, J. Phys. Chem. 41), 729 (1937). are not sufficiently sensitive to show oscillations but appear to be consistent with the theoretical results.

  14. A Novel Method for the Preparation of Retinoic Acid-Loaded Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Errico, Cesare; Gazzarri, Matteo; Chiellini, Federica

    2009-01-01

    The goal of present work was to investigate the use of bioerodible polymeric nanoparticles as carriers of retinoic acid (RA), which is known to induce differentiation of several cell lines into neurons. A novel method, named “Colloidal-Coating”, has been developed for the preparation of nanoparticles based on a copolymer of maleic anhydride and butyl vinyl ether (VAM41) loaded with RA. Nanoparticles with an average diameter size of 70 nm and good morphology were prepared. The activity of the encapsulated RA was evaluated on SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, which are known to undergo inhibition of proliferation and neuronal differentiation upon treatment with RA. The activity of RA was not affected by the encapsulation and purification processes. PMID:19564952

  15. Modified Matrix Method for Calculating Steady-State Span Loading on Flexible Wings in Subsonic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gainer, Patrick A.; Aiken, William S., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    A method is presented for shortening the computations required to determine the steady-state span loading on flexible wings in subsonic flight. The method makes use of tables of downwash factors to find the necessary aerodynamic-influence coefficients for the application of lifting-line theory. Explicit matrix equations of equilibrium are converted into a matrix power series with a finite number of terms by utilizing certain characteristic properties of matrices. The number of terms in the series is determined by a trial-and-error process dependent upon the required accuracy of the solution. Spanwise distributions of angle of attack, airload, shear, bending moment, and pitching moment are readily obtained as functions of qm(sub R) where q denotes the dynamic pressure and mR denotes the lift-curve slope of a rigid wing. This method is intended primarily to make it practical to solve steady-state aeroelastic problems on the ordinary manually operated desk calculators, but the method is also readily adaptable to automatic computing equipment.

  16. [Improvement of method of determining fluoroscopy loading factor in digital angiographic x-ray system with a flat panel detector].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisaya; Kato, Kyoichi; Maruyama, Masahiro; Okada, Keigo; Miura, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Isao; Nitta, Masaru; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2010-07-20

    A catheterization study and treatment of coronary arteriopathy are performed by investigating the coronary artery from different angles to find the region to be treated. In doing so, our system always started from the initial value of the loading factor, using this only for the first time, and the system started from the last loading factor the second time and later, at all angles. Therefore, depending on the angle, the loading factor at the start of fluoroscopy sometimes became unstable, and it took time to stabilize. This made the starting image too dark (undershoot x-ray condition) or fogged by halation (overshoot x-ray condition). With the system manufacturer, we developed a tube voltage and tube current setting method for the initial value of the loading factor. We installed software which preset the loading factor at the start of fluoroscopy depending on the angle, and an auto memory function of the last loading factor for each angle. This function allows the system to control the tube voltage and tube current for any angle. As a result, the system can acquire a more stabilized image from the start of fluoroscopy. This method of determining the initial loading factor is an effective way to stabilize the fluoroscopy image quickly.

  17. Composite lamina compressive properties using the Wyoming combined loading compression test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Peter Mark

    The determination of lamina compressive strength and modulus using the Wyoming Combined Loading Compression (CLC) test method was investigated. In this test method an untabbed [90/0]ns cross-ply test coupon is tested in uniaxial compression using the CLC test fixture. The longitudinal modulus and strength of the 0°-plies are determined by applying a back-out factor, calculated using Classical Lamination Theory, to the measured longitudinal laminate modulus and strength. A parametric study revealed that specimen quality, load train alignment, and fixture dimensional tolerances have a large impact on the measured compressive properties. Thus, a significant amount of time was dedicated to developing specimen fabrication and testing procedures to minimize variations in the measured compressive properties. A comparative study of the CLC and IITRI test fixtures showed that the CLC test fixture is superior to the IITRI fixture in many ways. Although the compressive properties measured using these two fixtures are often statistically equivalent, the CLC test fixture is easier to use, less expensive to fabricate, and much less massive than the IITRI fixture. In a second portion of the comparative study, the 0°-ply compressive strength obtained using [90/0]ns cross-ply test specimens was compared to the 0°-ply compressive strength obtained using quasi-isotropic test specimens. This revealed that the 0°-ply compressive strength was independent of the laminate orientation. This "backed-out" 0°-ply compressive strength is then by definition the "design value" for the strength of the composite material in compression. The present study showed that valid "design values" for the compressive strength of laminated composite materials can be obtained using the CLC test method. This was verified by testing two classes of structural components in compression, filament-wound cylinders, and honeycomb sandwich beams. The compressive strength of the 0°-plies at failure in the

  18. Evaluation of Load Analysis Methods for NASAs GIII Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Josue; Miller, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), and FlexSys Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan) have collaborated to flight test the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flaps. These flaps were installed on a Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) GIII aircraft and tested at AFRC at various deflection angles over a range of flight conditions. External aerodynamic and inertial load analyses were conducted with the intention to ensure that the change in wing loads due to the deployed ACTE flap did not overload the existing baseline GIII wing box structure. The objective of this paper was to substantiate the analysis tools used for predicting wing loads at AFRC. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and distributed mass inertial models were developed for predicting the loads on the wing. The analysis tools included TRANAIR (full potential) and CMARC (panel) models. Aerodynamic pressure data from the analysis codes were validated against static pressure port data collected in-flight. Combined results from the CFD predictions and the inertial load analysis were used to predict the normal force, bending moment, and torque loads on the wing. Wing loads obtained from calibrated strain gages installed on the wing were used for substantiation of the load prediction tools. The load predictions exhibited good agreement compared to the flight load results obtained from calibrated strain gage measurements.

  19. The use of ultrasonic signals and optical method to estimate the damage of materials after fatigue loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishakin, V. V.; Mitenkov, F. M.; Klyushnikov, V. A.; Danilova, N. V.

    2010-12-01

    The influence of fatigue load of steels on parameters of ultrasonic and microplastic characteristics has been studied. A phenomenological theory, which connects process of damage accumulation (before appearance of crack) under fatigue loading with acoustic parameters and microplastic parameters, has been developed. Experimental studies showed that the combination of nondestructive methods of control (acoustical and optical) allows one to estimate the state of materials at an early stage of destruction in both low-cycle and high-cycle areas.

  20. Preparation method of ultra low platinum loading electrodes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuoka, Yuko; Uchida, Makoto; Sugawara, Yasushi

    1996-12-31

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) necessitates platinum (Pt) catalyst for its operating temperature. It is important to enhance the utilization of Pt for the cost. The reaction sites exist on the Pt Surface covered with perfluorosulfonate ionomer (PFSI) in PEFC. PFSI solution was usually impregnated into the catalyst layers to increase the contact areas. We proposed a preparation method of the M&E assembly which emphasized the colloid formation of the PFSI to optimize the network of PFSIs in the catalyst layer. After this work, we focused on the microstructure of the catalyst layer. We recently reported that the PFSI was distributed only in the pores formed between the agglomerates, and the reaction sites were therefore limited to that area. The results indicated that the PEFC system required a particular design compared with a conventional one with liquid electrolytes. We proposed novel structure and/or preparation methods of the catalyst layer to be key issues to get higher Pt utilization. We studied the effect of the carbon support on the cell performance. The performance was improved by an optimal carbon support: that has (i) a larger pore volume (0.04 to 1.0 {mu}m in diameter) able to be distributed the PFSI and (ii) smaller pore volume (< 8 nm in diameter) on the surface of the carbon primary particles. We report here the high dispersion method of the PFSI colloid to lower Pt loading with optimal carbon support.

  1. New Irradiation Method with Indocyanine Green-Loaded Nanospheres for Inactivating Periodontal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Fujimura, Takeki; Iwamura, Yuki; Yamamoto, Genta; Nishida, Eisaku; Ohno, Tasuku; Okada, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an adjunctive strategy for periodontitis treatments. However, use of aPDT for periodontal treatment is complicated by the difficulty in accessing morphologically complex lesions such as furcation involvement, which the irradiation beam (which is targeted parallel to the tooth axis into the periodontal pocket) cannot access directly. The aim of this study was to validate a modified aPDT method that photosensitizes indocyanine green-loaded nanospheres through the gingivae from outside the pocket using a diode laser. To establish this trans-gingival irradiation method, we built an in vitro aPDT model using a substitution for gingivae. Irradiation conditions and the cooling method were optimized before the bactericidal effects on Porphyromonas gingivalis were investigated. The permeable energy through the gingival model at irradiation conditions of 2 W output power in a 50% duty cycle was comparable with the transmitted energy of conventional irradiation. Intermittent irradiation with air cooling limited the temperature increase in the gingival model to 2.75 °C. The aPDT group showed significant bactericidal effects, with reductions in colony-forming units of 99.99% after 5 min of irradiation. This effect of aPDT against a periodontal pathogen demonstrates the validity of trans-gingival irradiation for periodontal treatment. PMID:28098777

  2. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-manometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment.

  3. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, T.J.

    1994-06-07

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment is disclosed. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-nanometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment. 10 figs.

  4. SI-traceable determination of the spring constant of a soft cantilever using the nanonewton force facility based on electrostatic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, V.; Belai, O.; Nies, D.; Buetefisch, S.; Mueller, M.; Ahbe, T.; Naparty, D.; Popadic, R.; Wolff, H.

    2016-08-01

    The PTB’s (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany) nanonewton force facility, first presented in work by Nesterov (2007 Meas. Sci. Technol. 18 360-6), Nesterov (2009 Meas. Sci. Technol. 20 084012) and Nesterov et al (2009 Metrologia 46 277-82), has been significantly improved and used to measure the stiffness of a cantilever. The facility is based on a disc pendulum with electrostatic reduction of its deflection and stiffness. In this paper, we will demonstrate that the facility is able to measure horizontal forces in the range below 1 μN with a resolution below 5 pN and an uncertainty below 2.7% for a measured force of 1 nN at a measurement duration of about 20 s. We will demonstrate the possibility of using this facility as a calibration device that can accurately determine spring constants of soft cantilevers (K ≲ 0.1 N m-1) with traceability to the SI units. The method and the results of measuring the spring constant of a soft cantilever (K  =  0.125 N m-1) in air, in a medium vacuum, in a high vacuum and in nitrogen are presented. We will show that a relative standard uncertainty of the spring constant calibration of better than 0.3% (measurement in a medium vacuum) and a repeatability of better than 0.04% are achieved.

  5. Optical Constants Determination of Samarium Holmium and Erbium in the 1.5-850 eV Spectral Range using a Transmittance Method

    SciTech Connect

    B Kjornrattanawanich; D Windt; J Seely

    2011-12-31

    The optical constants {beta} and {sigma} of the complex refractive index {tilde n} = 1 - {delta} + i{beta} of Sm, Ho, and Er were obtained in the 1.5-850 eV energy range using a transmittance method. Thin films of Sm, Ho, and Dr were deposited by magnetron sputtering, and transmittance was measured using synchrotron radiation using a high vacuum condition. All films were directly coated on Si photodiodes, which were used as coating substrates, as well as photon detectors. Si was used as capping layer while a thin W layer was used as barrier against interface diffusion between Si and the highly reactive rare earth elements. The constants {beta} were extracted from transmittance results, and the constants {sigma} were calculated based on measured {beta} values using the Kramers-Kronig formalism. Small deficiencies determined from the present data using the partial sum rules were partially attributed to the sputtered film densities that could be slightly lower than the bulk values.

  6. Optical constants determination of samarium, holmium, and erbium in the 1.5-850 eV spectral range using a transmittance method

    SciTech Connect

    Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Windt, David L.; Seely, John F.

    2010-11-01

    The optical constants {beta} and {delta} of the complex refractive index n{approx}=1-{delta}+i{beta} of Sm, Ho, and Er were obtained in the 1.5-850eV energy range using a transmittance method. Thin films of Sm, Ho, and Er were deposited by magnetron sputtering, and transmittance was measured using synchrotron radiation under a high vacuum condition. All films were directly coated on Si photodiodes, which were used as coating substrates, as well as photon detectors. Si was used as capping layer while a thin W layer was used as barrier against interface diffusion between Si and the highly reactive rare earth elements. The constants {beta} were extracted from transmittance results, and the constants {delta} were calculated based on measured {beta} values using the Kramers-Kronig formalism. Small deficiencies determined from the present data using the partial sum rules were partly attributed to the sputtered film densities that could be slightly lower than the bulk values.

  7. Using regression methods to estimate stream phosphorus loads at the Illinois River, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggard, B.E.; Soerens, T.S.; Green, W.R.; Richards, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    The development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) requires evaluating existing constituent loads in streams. Accurate estimates of constituent loads are needed to calibrate watershed and reservoir models for TMDL development. The best approach to estimate constituent loads is high frequency sampling, particularly during storm events, and mass integration of constituents passing a point in a stream. Most often, resources are limited and discrete water quality samples are collected on fixed intervals and sometimes supplemented with directed sampling during storm events. When resources are limited, mass integration is not an accurate means to determine constituent loads and other load estimation techniques such as regression models are used. The objective of this work was to determine a minimum number of water-quality samples needed to provide constituent concentration data adequate to estimate constituent loads at a large stream. Twenty sets of water quality samples with and without supplemental storm samples were randomly selected at various fixed intervals from a database at the Illinois River, northwest Arkansas. The random sets were used to estimate total phosphorus (TP) loads using regression models. The regression-based annual TP loads were compared to the integrated annual TP load estimated using all the data. At a minimum, monthly sampling plus supplemental storm samples (six samples per year) was needed to produce a root mean square error of less than 15%. Water quality samples should be collected at least semi-monthly (every 15 days) in studies less than two years if seasonal time factors are to be used in the regression models. Annual TP loads estimated from independently collected discrete water quality samples further demonstrated the utility of using regression models to estimate annual TP loads in this stream system.

  8. Development and implementation of a novel measure for quantifying training loads in rowing: the T2minute method.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jacqueline; Rice, Anthony J; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2014-04-01

    The systematic management of training requires accurate training load measurement. However, quantifying the training of elite Australian rowers is challenging because of (a) the multicenter, multistate structure of the national program; (b) the variety of training undertaken; and (c) the limitations of existing methods for quantifying the loads accumulated from varied training formats. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to develop a new measure for quantifying training loads in rowing (the T2minute method). Sport scientists and senior coaches at the National Rowing Center of Excellence collaborated to develop the measure, which incorporates training duration, intensity, and mode to quantify a single index of training load. To account for training at different intensities, the method uses standardized intensity zones (T zones) established at the Australian Institute of Sport. Each zone was assigned a weighting factor according to the curvilinear relationship between power output and blood lactate response. Each training mode was assigned a weighting factor based on whether coaches perceived it to be "harder" or "easier" than on-water rowing. A common measurement unit, the T2minute, was defined to normalize sessions in different modes to a single index of load; one T2minute is equivalent to 1 minute of on-water single scull rowing at T2 intensity (approximately 60-72% VO2max). The T2minute method was successfully implemented to support national training strategies in Australian high performance rowing. By incorporating duration, intensity, and mode, the T2minute method extends the concepts that underpin current load measures, providing 1 consistent system to quantify loads from varied training formats.

  9. Characteristics of PAHs in street dust of Beijing and the annual wash-off load using an improved load calculation method.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingxia; Song, Ningning; Yu, Yang; Yang, Zhifeng; Shen, Zhenyao

    2017-03-01

    A significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed in street dust ends up in runoff. Accordingly, evaluating the content, possible wash-off load and constituent risks associated with street dust is critical for urban runoff usage. Based on the PAH concentrations examined in this study, different risk assessment methods were applied and the differences among results were analyzed. An improved PAH wash-off calculation method was established and the annual PAH wash-off load was obtained. In addition, emission sources were diagnosed based on isomer ratios and PMF methods. The overall mean ΣPAHs (sum of 16 individual PAHs) concentration in the street dust was 3.70μg/g, with the highest mean concentrations found for main roads (5.18μg/g). Adjacent anthropogenic activities had a greater effect on pollution characteristics of street dust than land use types. The toxic risk order was park (0.64μg/g)>main road (0.57μg/g)>residence (0.32μg/g)>street (0.29μg/g)>commerce (0.23μg/g), while that of the ecological risk index was main road (1278)>street (920)>residence (904)>commerce (713)>park (195). Although the park sites had a high level of toxic risk, they showed low ecological risk because they had less dust mass per unit area, indicating a great difference in the risk evaluation results and the difference methods. Using different values for different magnitudes of the antecedent dry days, rainfall event amounts, and dust mass fraction of different size ranges, the average wash-off load of ΣPAHs from street dust was calculated to be 23kg per year in Beijing from 2000 to 2014 with an improved wash-off load calculation method. The main sources of PAHs in the street dust of Beijing's center were identified as gasoline emissions, diesel emissions, coal combustion and unburned petroleum.

  10. Testing the Bergerhoff method to determine the bulk deposition loads of 49 elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thöni, Lotti; Krieg, Fritz; Siewers, Ulrich

    The suitability of the simple and rather cheap Bergerhoff method for the determination of bulk deposition loads of 49 elements was tested. The method is suitable for the following elements: Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, In, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, V, W, Y and Zn provided that for some of these elements one does not get total recovery with HNO 3-digestion. This, nevertheless, supplies sufficient information for most concerns. Analytical problems were encountered for the following elements: U and Te concentrations in our samples were close to the blanks; P and Ta were highly variable within the sampling areas; B, Hf and Zr leached out of the glass of the digestion vessels; Hg is highly volatile. Field studies at three background sites in Switzerland, two on the northern side of the Alps and one in the southern Alps, showed higher burdens of element emissions in the latter, partly because of higher precipitation, and partly because of higher concentrations in the dust. An anthropogenic influence can be inferred for Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Sb, Te, W and Zn and probably also for As, P, S (with associated Se) and Sn.

  11. System and method of designing a load bearing layer of an inflatable vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A computer-implemented method is provided for designing a restraint layer of an inflatable vessel. The restraint layer is inflatable from an initial uninflated configuration to an inflated configuration and is constructed from a plurality of interfacing longitudinal straps and hoop straps. The method involves providing computer processing means (e.g., to receive user inputs, perform calculations, and output results) and utilizing this computer processing means to implement a plurality of subsequent design steps. The computer processing means is utilized to input the load requirements of the inflated restraint layer and to specify an inflated configuration of the restraint layer. This includes specifying a desired design gap between pairs of adjacent longitudinal or hoop straps, whereby the adjacent straps interface with a plurality of transversely extending hoop or longitudinal straps at a plurality of intersections. Furthermore, an initial uninflated configuration of the restraint layer that is inflatable to achieve the specified inflated configuration is determined. This includes calculating a manufacturing gap between pairs of adjacent longitudinal or hoop straps that correspond to the specified desired gap in the inflated configuration of the restraint layer.

  12. New Method to Prepare Mitomycin C Loaded PLA-Nanoparticles with High Drug Entrapment Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhenqing; Wei, Heng; Wang, Qian; Sun, Qian; Zhou, Chunxiao; Zhan, Chuanming; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2009-07-01

    The classical utilized double emulsion solvent diffusion technique for encapsulating water soluble Mitomycin C (MMC) in PLA nanoparticles suffers from low encapsulation efficiency because of the drug rapid partitioning to the external aqueous phase. In this paper, MMC loaded PLA nanoparticles were prepared by a new single emulsion solvent evaporation method, in which soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was employed to improve the liposolubility of MMC by formation of MMC-SPC complex. Four main influential factors based on the results of a single-factor test, namely, PLA molecular weight, ratio of PLA to SPC (wt/wt) and MMC to SPC (wt/wt), volume ratio of oil phase to water phase, were evaluated using an orthogonal design with respect to drug entrapment efficiency. The drug release study was performed in pH 7.2 PBS at 37 °C with drug analysis using UV/vis spectrometer at 365 nm. MMC-PLA particles prepared by classical method were used as comparison. The formulated MMC-SPC-PLA nanoparticles under optimized condition are found to be relatively uniform in size (594 nm) with up to 94.8% of drug entrapment efficiency compared to 6.44 μm of PLA-MMC microparticles with 34.5% of drug entrapment efficiency. The release of MMC shows biphasic with an initial burst effect, followed by a cumulated drug release over 30 days is 50.17% for PLA-MMC-SPC nanoparticles, and 74.1% for PLA-MMC particles. The IR analysis of MMC-SPC complex shows that their high liposolubility may be attributed to some weak physical interaction between MMC and SPC during the formation of the complex. It is concluded that the new method is advantageous in terms of smaller size, lower size distribution, higher encapsulation yield, and longer sustained drug release in comparison to classical method.

  13. A noncontacting method for material property determination for articular cartilage from osmotic loading.

    PubMed Central

    Narmoneva, D A; Wang, J Y; Setton, L A

    2001-01-01

    Articular cartilage is one of several biological tissues in which swelling effects are important in tissue mechanics and function, and may serve as an indicator of degenerative joint disease. This work presents a new approach to quantify swelling effects in articular cartilage, as well as to determine the material properties of cartilage from a simple free-swelling test. Samples of nondegenerate and degenerate human patellar cartilage were subjected to osmotic loading by equilibrating the tissue in solutions of varying osmolarity. The resulting swelling-induced strains were measured using a noncontacting optical method. A theoretical formulation of articular cartilage in a free-swelling configuration was developed based on an inhomogeneous, triphasic mechano-chemical model. Optimization of the model predictions to the experimental data was performed to determine two parameters descriptive of material stiffness at the surface and deeper cartilage layers, and a third parameter descriptive of thickness of the cartilage surface layer. These parameters were used to determine the thickness-averaged uniaxial modulus of cartilage, H(A). The obtained values for H(A) were similar to those for the tensile modulus of human cartilage reported in the literature. Degeneration resulted in an increase in thickness of the region of "apparent cartilage softening," and a decrease in the value for uniaxial modulus at this layer. These findings provide important evidence that collagen matrix disruption starts at the articular surface and progresses into the deeper layers with continued degeneration. These results suggest that the method provides a means to quantify the severity and depth of degenerative changes in articular cartilage. This method may also be used to determine material properties of cartilage in small joints in which conventional testing methods are difficult to apply. PMID:11720975

  14. Methods for estimating pressure and thermal loads induced by elevon deflections on hypersonic-vehicle surfaces with turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, L. G., II; Johnson, C. B.

    1981-01-01

    Empirical anaytic methods are presented for calculating thermal and pressure distributions in three-dimensional, shock-wave turbulent-boundary-layer, interaction-flow regions on the surface of controllable hypersonic aircraft and missiles. The methods, based on several experimental investigations, are useful and reliable for estimating both the extent and magnitude of the increased thermal and pressure loads on the vehicle surfaces.

  15. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY..., Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load... Std 112-2004 Test Method B, Input-Output With Loss Segregation, (incorporated by reference, see §...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY..., Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load... Winding (I2R), Core and Windage-Friction Losses, or (2) IEEE Standard 112-1996 Test Method B,...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY..., Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load... Winding (I2R), Core and Windage-Friction Losses, or (2) IEEE Standard 112-1996 Test Method B,...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY..., Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load..., (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15), or (2) IEEE Std 112-2004 Test Method B, Input-Output With...

  19. A generalized modal shock spectra method for spacecraft loads analysis. [internal loads in a spacecraft structure subjected to a dynamic launch environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trubert, M.; Salama, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unlike an earlier shock spectra approach, generalization permits an accurate elastic interaction between the spacecraft and launch vehicle to obtain accurate bounds on the spacecraft response and structural loads. In addition, the modal response from a previous launch vehicle transient analysis with or without a dummy spacecraft - is exploited to define a modal impulse as a simple idealization of the actual forcing function. The idealized modal forcing function is then used to derive explicit expressions for an estimate of the bound on the spacecraft structural response and forces. Greater accuracy is achieved with the present method over the earlier shock spectra, while saving much computational effort over the transient analysis.

  20. A multi-purpose method for analysis of spur gear tooth loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasuba, R.; Evans, J. W.; August, R.; Frater, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A large digitized approach was developed for the static and dynamic load analysis of spur gearing. An iterative procedure was used to calculate directly the "variable-variable" gear mesh stiffness as a function of transmitted load, gear tooth profile errors, gear tooth deflections and gear hub torsional deformation, and position of contacting profile points. The developed approach can be used to analyze the loads, Hertz stresses, and PV for the normal and high contrast ratio gearing, presently the modeling is limited to the condition that for a given gear all teeth have identical spacing and profiles (with or without surface imperfections). Certain types of simulated sinusoidal profile errors and pitting can cause interruptions of the gear mesh stiffness function and, thus, increase the dynamic loads in spur gearing. In addition, a finite element stress and mesh subprogram was developed for future introduction into the main program for calculating the gear tooth bending stresses under dynamic loads.

  1. The Elastic Constants for Wrought Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templin, R L; Hartmann, E C

    1945-01-01

    There are several constants which have been devised as numerical representations of the behavior of metals under the action of loadings which stress the metal within the range of elastic action. Some of these constants, such as Young's modulus of elasticity in tension and compression, shearing modulus of elasticity, and Poisson's ratio, are regularly used in engineering calculations. Precise tests and experience indicate that these elastic constants are practically unaffected by many of the factors which influence the other mechanical properties of materials and that a few careful determinations under properly controlled conditions are more useful and reliable than many determinations made under less favorable conditions. It is the purpose of this paper to outline the methods employed by the Aluminum Research Laboratories for the determination of some of these elastic constants, to list the values that have been determined for some of the wrought aluminum alloys, and to indicate the variations in the values that may be expected for some of the commercial products of these alloys.

  2. A degree-day method for residential heating load calculations specifically incorporating the utilization of solar gains

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.; Pratt, R.G.

    1990-09-01

    A simple and well known method of estimating residential heating loads is the variable base degree-day method, in which the steady-state heat loss rate (UA) is multiplied by the degree-days based from the balance temperature of the structure. The balance temperature is a function of the UA as well as the average rate of internal heat gains, reflecting the displacement of the heating requirements by these gains. Currently, the heat gains from solar energy are lumped with those from appliances to estimate an average rate over the day. This ignores the effects of the timing of the gains from solar energy, which are more highly concentrated during daytime hours, hence more frequently exceeding the required space heat and less utilizable than the gains from appliances. Simulations or specialized passive solar energy calculation methods have previously been required to account for this effect. This paper presents curves of the fraction of the absorbed solar energy utilized for displacement of space heat, developed by comparing heating loads calculated using a variable base degree-day method (ignoring solar gains) to heating loads from a large number of detailed DOE-2 simulations. The difference in the loads predicted by the two methods can be interpreted as the utilized solar gains. The solar utilization decreases as the thermal integrity increases, as expected, and the solar utilizations are similar across climates. They can be used to estimate the utilized fraction of the absorbed solar energy and, with the load predicted by the variable base degree-day calculation, form a modified degree-day method that closely reproduces the loads predicted by the DOE-2 simulation model and is simple enough for hand calculations. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Flow processes in overexpanded chemical rocket nozzles. Part 3: Methods for the aimed flow separation and side load reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Methods aimed at reduction of overexpansion and side load resulting from asymmetric flow separation for rocket nozzles with a high opening ratio are described. The methods employ additional measures for nozzles with a fixed opening ratio. The flow separation can be controlled by several types of nozzle inserts, the properties of which are discussed. Side loads and overexpansion can be reduced by adapting the shape of the nozzle and taking other additional measures for controlled separation of the boundary layer, such as trip wires.

  4. An efficient method for preliminary launcher/satellite coupled loads analysis by satellite developers using launcher user's manual data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrinidis, Constantinos; Fransen, Sebastiaan

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a method used over the years by the authors in performing preliminary launcher/satellite coupled loads analysis (CLA) using in an innovative manner the quasi-static design loads defined in the launcher user's manual (LUM). The rationale and the value of the approach are addressed first. Subsequently the use of the method is presented, and the results derived by satellite developers using the proposed preliminary launcher/satellite CLA are compared with preliminary or full CLA results performed by launcher authorities for a number of industrial satellite applications.

  5. Optimized design of thermo-mechanically loaded non-uniform bars by using a variational method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, P.; Saha, K. N.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper evaluates the axial strain and stress of a thermo-mechanically loaded non-uniform bar by using a numerical method based on a variational principle. The solutions are obtained up to the elastic limit of the material based on the assumptions that material properties are independent of temperature variation and plane cross-sections remain plane maintaining axisymmetry. This approximation is carried out by Galerkin's principle, using a linear combination of sets of orthogonal co-ordinate functions which satisfy prescribed boundary conditions. The solution algorithm is implemented with the help of MATLAB® computational simulation software. Some numerical results of thermoelastic field are presented and discussed for different bar materials such as mild steel, copper, aluminium alloy 6061 (Al alloy 6061), aluminium alloy 7075 (Al alloy 7075) and diamond. The effect of geometry parameters like aspect ratio, slenderness ratio and the type of taperness is investigated and the relevant results are obtained in dimensional form. The term bar used in this paper is in generic sense and hence the formulation is applicable for all one dimensional elements, e.g., rods, pipes, truss members, etc.

  6. Calculation of P,T-odd interaction constant of PbF using Z-vector method in the relativistic coupled-cluster framework.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Sudip; Pathak, Himadri; Nayak, Malaya K; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2015-08-28

    The effective electric field experienced by the unpaired electron in the ground state of PbF, which is a potential candidate in the search of electron electric dipole moment due to some special characteristics, is calculated using Z-vector method in the coupled cluster single- and double- excitation approximation with four component Dirac spinor. This is an important quantity to set the upper bound limit of the electron electric dipole moment. Further, we have calculated molecular dipole moment and parallel magnetic hyperfine structure constant (A‖) of (207)Pb in PbF to test the accuracy of the wavefunction obtained in the Z-vector method. The outcome of our calculations clearly suggests that the core electrons have significant contribution to the "atom in compound" properties.

  7. Mechanical load and physiological responses of four different resistance training methods in bench press exercise.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Sebastian; Wirtz, Nicolas; Yue, Zengyuan; Kleinöder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the mechanical impact and the corresponding physiological responses of 4 different and often practically applied resistance training methods (RTMs). Ten healthy male subjects (27.3 ± 3.2 years) experienced in resistance training performed 1 exhausting set of bench press exercise until exhaustion for each of the following RTMs: strength endurance (SE), fast force endurance (FFE), hypertrophy (HYP), and maximum strength (MAX). The RTMs were defined by different lifting masses and different temporal distributions of the contraction modes per repetition. Mean concentric power (P), total concentric work (W), and exercise time (EXTIME) were determined. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) was measured during exercise and for 30 minutes postexercise. Mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2, volume of consumed O2, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were calculated over 30 minutes of recovery. Maximum blood lactate concentration (LAmax) was also determined postexercise. The P was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for FFE and MAX compared with that for SE and HYP. The W was significantly higher for FFE than for all other RTMs (p < 0.01), and it was also lower for SE than for MAX (p < 0.05). EXTIME for SE was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than for all other RTMs, whereas EXTIME for MAX was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than for all other RTMs. Mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was significantly higher during FFE than during all other RTMs (p < 0.01). Consumed O2 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) during SE than for HYP and MAX, and it was also significantly higher for FFE and HYP compared with MAX (p < 0.05). The LAmax was significantly higher after FFE than after MAX (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in EPOC between all RTMs. The results indicate that FFE and MAX are adequate to train muscular power despite the discrepancy in the external load. Because FFE performance achieves the highest amount in mechanical

  8. The Hubble Constant.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Neal

    2015-01-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H0 values of around 72-74 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), with typical errors of 2-3 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67-68 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) and typical errors of 1-2 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  9. Evaluation of a method for comparing phosphorus loads from barnyards and croplands in Otter Creek Watershed, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wierl, Judy A.; Giddings, Elise M.P.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    1998-01-01

    Control of phosphorus from rural nonpoint sources is a major focus of current efforts to improve and protect water resources in Wisconsin and is recommended in almost every priority watershed plan prepared for the State's Nonpoint Source (NFS) Program. Barnyards and crop- lands usually are identified as the primary rural sources of phosphorus. Numerous questions have arisen about which of these two sources to control and about the method currently being used by the NFS program to compare phosphorus loads from barnyards and croplands. To evaluate the method, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, used phosphorus-load and sediment-load data from streams and phosphorus concentrations in soils from the Otter Creek Watershed (located in the Sheboygan River Basin: fig. 1) in conjunction with two computer-based models. 

  10. Successive ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication spectrophotometric method for determination of hydroquinone in complex mixture with its degradation products, tretinoin and methyl paraben.

    PubMed

    Elghobashy, Mohamed R; Bebawy, Lories I; Shokry, Rafeek F; Abbas, Samah S

    2016-03-15

    A sensitive and selective stability-indicating successive ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication (SRS-CM) spectrophotometric method was studied and developed for the spectrum resolution of five component mixture without prior separation. The components were hydroquinone in combination with tretinoin, the polymer formed from hydroquinone alkali degradation, 1,4 benzoquinone and the preservative methyl paraben. The proposed method was used for their determination in their pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. The zero order absorption spectra of hydroquinone, tretinoin, 1,4 benzoquinone and methyl paraben were determined at 293, 357.5, 245 and 255.2 nm, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 4.00-46.00, 1.00-7.00, 0.60-5.20, and 1.00-7.00 μg mL(-1) for hydroquinone, tretinoin, 1,4 benzoquinone and methyl paraben, respectively. The pharmaceutical formulation was subjected to mild alkali condition and measured by this method resulting in the polymerization of hydroquinone and the formation of toxic 1,4 benzoquinone. The proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The results obtained were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the reported method.

  11. Successive ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication spectrophotometric method for determination of hydroquinone in complex mixture with its degradation products, tretinoin and methyl paraben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elghobashy, Mohamed R.; Bebawy, Lories I.; Shokry, Rafeek F.; Abbas, Samah S.

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive and selective stability-indicating successive ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication (SRS-CM) spectrophotometric method was studied and developed for the spectrum resolution of five component mixture without prior separation. The components were hydroquinone in combination with tretinoin, the polymer formed from hydroquinone alkali degradation, 1,4 benzoquinone and the preservative methyl paraben. The proposed method was used for their determination in their pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. The zero order absorption spectra of hydroquinone, tretinoin, 1,4 benzoquinone and methyl paraben were determined at 293, 357.5, 245 and 255.2 nm, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 4.00-46.00, 1.00-7.00, 0.60-5.20, and 1.00-7.00 μg mL- 1 for hydroquinone, tretinoin, 1,4 benzoquinone and methyl paraben, respectively. The pharmaceutical formulation was subjected to mild alkali condition and measured by this method resulting in the polymerization of hydroquinone and the formation of toxic 1,4 benzoquinone. The proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The results obtained were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the reported method.

  12. Methods for Estimating Annual Wastewater Nutrient Loads in the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Gerard; Tervelt, Larinda; Donehoo, William

    2007-01-01

    This report describes an approach for estimating annual total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads from point-source dischargers in the southeastern United States. Nutrient load estimates for 2002 were used in the calibration and application of a regional nutrient model, referred to as the SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) watershed model. Loads from dischargers permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System were calculated using data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System database and individual state databases. Site information from both state and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency databases, including latitude and longitude and monitored effluent data, was compiled into a project database. For sites with a complete effluent-monitoring record, effluent-flow and nutrient-concentration data were used to develop estimates of annual point-source nitrogen and phosphorus loads. When flow data were available but nutrient-concentration data were missing or incomplete, typical pollutant-concentration values of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were used to estimate load. In developing typical pollutant-concentration values, the major factors assumed to influence wastewater nutrient-concentration variability were the size of the discharger (the amount of flow), the season during which discharge occurred, and the Standard Industrial Classification code of the discharger. One insight gained from this study is that in order to gain access to flow, concentration, and location data, close communication and collaboration are required with the agencies that collect and manage the data. In addition, the accuracy and usefulness of the load estimates depend on the willingness of the states and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance and review for at least a subset of the load estimates that may be problematic.

  13. Direct measurement of Urbach tail and gap state absorption in CuGaSe2 thin films by photothermal deflection spectroscopy and the constant photocurrent method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeder, A.; Marron, D. Fuertes; Rumberg, A.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.; Chu, V.; Conde, J. P.

    2002-09-01

    The applicability of photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) and the constant photocurrent method (CPM) to chemical vapor deposited and physical vapor deposited CuGaSe2 (CGSe) thin films is investigated. Process dependent variations in direct band-gap energies, Urbach tail widths, bulk and surface defect densities of the films are given as a function of composition. Differences in the PDS and CPM absorption spectra of more than one order of magnitude are found. Using the standard a-Si theory of PDS and CPM analysis, a two-layer system consisting of a defect-rich near-surface layer and a less defective bulk layer is found in device-quality films. Optical improvements due to the Ga+Se annealing step as a second stage of the growth process result in a reduced bulk defect density while the near-surface defect density remains unchanged.

  14. High-Speed Planning Method for Cooperative Logistics Networks using Mixed Integer Programming Model and Dummy Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoyama, Takashi; Kubota, Sen; Maekawa, Takuya; Komoda, Norihisa

    Adequate response performance is required for the planning of a cooperative logistic network covering multiple enterprises, because this process needs a human expert's evaluation from many aspects. To satisfy this requirement, we propose an accurate model based on mixed integer programming for optimizing cooperative logistics networks where “round transportation” exists together with “depot transportation” including lower limit constraints of loading ratio for round transportation vehicles. Furthermore, to achieve interactive response performance, a dummy load is introduced into the model instead of integer variables. The experimental result shows the proposed method obtains an accurate solution within interactive response time.

  15. Automated method for determination of dissolved organic carbon-water distribution constants of structurally diverse pollutants using pre-equilibrium solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ripszam, Matyas; Haglund, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a key role in determining the environmental fate of semivolatile organic environmental contaminants. The goal of the present study was to develop a method using commercially available hardware to rapidly characterize the sorption properties of DOC in water samples. The resulting method uses negligible-depletion direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Its performance was evaluated using Nordic reference fulvic acid and 40 priority environmental contaminants that cover a wide range of physicochemical properties. Two SPME fibers had to be used to cope with the span of properties, 1 coated with polydimethylsiloxane and 1 coated with polystyrene divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane, for nonpolar and semipolar contaminants, respectively. The measured DOC-water distribution constants showed reasonably good reproducibility (standard deviation ≤ 0.32) and good correlation (R(2)  = 0.80) with log octanol-water partition coefficients for nonpolar persistent organic pollutants. The sample pretreatment is limited to filtration, and the method is easy to adjust to different DOC concentrations. These experiments also utilized the latest SPME automation that largely decreases total cycle time (to 20 min or shorter) and increases sample throughput, which is advantageous in cases when many samples of DOC must be characterized or when the determinations must be performed quickly, for example, to avoid precipitation, aggregation, and other changes of DOC structure and properties. The data generated by this method are valuable as a basis for transport and fate modeling studies.

  16. Temporal upscaling of instantaneous evapotranspiration on clear-sky days using the constant reference evaporative fraction method with fixed or variable surface resistances at two cropland sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ronglin; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Xiaomin; Bi, Yuyun

    2017-01-01

    Surface evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of water and energy in land and atmospheric systems. This paper investigated whether using variable surface resistances in the reference ET estimates from the full-form Penman-Monteith (PM) equation could improve the upscaled daily ET estimates in the constant reference evaporative fraction (EFr, the ratio of actual to reference grass/alfalfa ET) method on clear-sky days using ground-based measurements. Half-hourly near-surface meteorological variables and eddy covariance (EC) system-measured latent heat flux data on clear-sky days were collected at two sites with different climatic conditions, namely, the subhumid Yucheng station in northern China and the arid Yingke site in northwestern China and were used as the model input and ground-truth, respectively. The results showed that using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-PM equation, the American Society of Civil Engineers-PM equation, and the full-form PM equation to estimate the reference ET in the constant EFr method produced progressively smaller upscaled daily ET at a given time from midmorning to midafternoon. Using all three PM equations produced the best results at noon at both sites regardless of whether the energy imbalance of the EC measurements was closed. When the EC measurements were not corrected for energy imbalance, using variable surface resistance in the full-form PM equation could improve the ET upscaling in the midafternoon, but worse results may occur in the midmorning to noon. Site-to-site and time-to-time variations were found in the performances of a given PM equation (with fixed or variable surface resistances) before and after the energy imbalance was closed.

  17. BDflex: A method for efficient treatment of molecular flexibility in calculating protein-ligand binding rate constants from Brownian dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greives, Nicholas; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-10-01

    A method developed by Northrup et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 80, 1517 (1984)], 10.1063/1.446900 for calculating protein-ligand binding rate constants (ka) from Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations has been widely used for rigid molecules. Application to flexible molecules is limited by the formidable computational cost to treat conformational fluctuations during the long BD simulations necessary for ka calculation. Here, we propose a new method called BDflex for ka calculation that circumvents this problem. The basic idea is to separate the whole space into an outer region and an inner region, and formulate ka as the product of kE and bar η _d, which are obtained by separately solving exterior and interior problems. kE is the diffusion-controlled rate constant for the ligand in the outer region to reach the dividing surface between the outer and inner regions; in this exterior problem conformational fluctuations can be neglected. bar η _d is the probability that the ligand, starting from the dividing surface, will react at the binding site rather than escape to infinity. The crucial step in reducing the determination of bar η _d to a problem confined to the inner region is a radiation boundary condition imposed on the dividing surface; the reactivity on this boundary is proportional to kE. By confining the ligand to the inner region and imposing the radiation boundary condition, we avoid multiple-crossing of the dividing surface before reaction at the binding site and hence dramatically cut down the total simulation time, making the treatment of conformational fluctuations affordable. BDflex is expected to have wide applications in problems where conformational fluctuations of the molecules are crucial for productive ligand binding, such as in cases where transient widening of a bottleneck allows the ligand to access the binding pocket, or the binding site is properly formed only after ligand entrance induces the closure of a lid.

  18. A method to characterize in vivo tendon force-strain relationship by combining ultrasonography, motion capture and loading rates.

    PubMed

    Gerus, Pauline; Rao, Guillaume; Berton, Eric

    2011-08-11

    The ultrasonography contributes to investigate in vivo tendon force-strain relationship during isometric contraction. In previous studies, different methods are available to estimate the tendon strain, using different loading rates and models to fit the tendon force-strain relationship. This study was aimed to propose a standard method to characterize the in vivo tendon force-strain relationship. We investigated the influence on the force-strain relationship for medialis gastrocnemius (MG) of (1) one method which takes into account probe and joint movements to estimate the instantaneous tendon length, (2) models used to fit the force-strain relationship for uniaxial test (polynomial vs. Ogden), and (3) the loading rate on tendon strain. Subjects performed ramp-up contraction during isometric contractions at two different target speeds: 1.5s and minimal time with ultrasound probe fixed over the muscle-tendon junction of the MG muscle. The used method requires three markers on ultrasound probe and a marker on calcaneum to take into account all movements, and was compared to the strain estimated using ultrasound images only. The method using ultrasound image only overestimated the tendon strain from 40% of maximal force. The polynomial model showed similar fitting results than the Ogden model (R²=0.98). A loading rate effect was found on tendon strain, showing a higher strain when loading rate decreases. The characterization of tendon force-strain relationship needs to be standardized by taking into account all movements to estimate tendon strain and controlling the loading rate. The polynomial model appears to be appropriate to represent the tendon force-strain relationship.

  19. Adjusting and positioning method with high displacement resolution for large-load worktable based on the invariable restoring force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingzhi; Sun, Tao; Gu, Wei; Wen, Zhongpu; Guo, Tenghui

    2015-02-01

    With the fast development of the advanced equipment manufacturing toward precision and ultra-precision trend, especially with the continuously improving of the aviation engine's performance, the problem of high displacement resolution for the large-load two-dimension adjusting and positioning worktable used for the aeroengine assembling become evident. A method was proposed which is based on the invariable restoring force, and the adjusting and positioning physical model was established. The experiment results indicate that under the occasion of a load with 508 kilogram, the worktable has got a displacement resolution of 0.3μm after using the improved method compared to 1.4μm of the traditional method. The improved method could meet the requirements of aviation engine assembling worktable.

  20. Characterization of Solid Polymers, Ceramic Gap Filler, and Closed-Cell Polymer Foam Using Low-Load Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    Various solid polymers, polymer-based composites, and closed-cell polymer foam are being characterized to determine their mechanical properties, using low-load test methods. The residual mechanical properties of these materials after environmental exposure or extreme usage conditions determines their value in aerospace structural applications. In this experimental study, four separate polymers were evaluated to measure their individual mechanical responses after thermal aging and moisture exposure by dynamic mechanical analysis. A ceramic gap filler, used in the gaps between the tiles on the Space Shuttle, was also tested, using dynamic mechanical analysis to determine material property limits during flight. Closed-cell polymer foam, used for the Space Shuttle External Tank insulation, was tested under low load levels to evaluate how the foam's mechanical properties are affected by various loading and unloading scenarios.

  1. Drug-loaded nano-microcapsules delivery system mediated by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction: A promising therapy method.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; DU, Lian Fang; Chen, Ming; Wang, Hang Hui; Xing, Ling Xi; Jing, Li Fang; Li, Yun Hua

    2013-07-01

    The nano-microcapsules drug delivery system is currently a promising method for the treatment of many types of diseases, particularly tumors. However, the drug delivery efficiency does not reach a satisfactory level to meet treatment demands. Therefore, the effectiveness of delivery needs to be improved. Based on the alterations in the structure and modification of nano-microcapsules, ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD), a safe physical targeted method, may increase tissue penetration and cell membrane permeability, aiding the drug-loaded nano-microcapsules ingress the interior of targeted tissues and cells. The effectiveness and exact mechanism of action of the drug-loaded nano-microcapsules delivery system mediated by UTMD have yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, the latest advancement in UTMD-mediated drug loaded nano-microcapsules system technology was reviewed and the hindrances of UTMD-mediated drug delivery were assessed, in combination with a prospective study. The findings suggested that the drug delivery efficiency of nano-microcapsules mediated by UTMD was distinctly improved. Thus, the UTMD-mediated drug-loaded nano-microcapsules delivery system may significantly improve the efficiency of drug delivery, which may be a promising new therapeutic method.

  2. An Inverse Interpolation Method Utilizing In-Flight Strain Measurements for Determining Loads and Structural Response of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkarayev, S.; Krashantisa, R.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    An important and challenging technology aimed at the next generation of aerospace vehicles is that of structural health monitoring. The key problem is to determine accurately, reliably, and in real time the applied loads, stresses, and displacements experienced in flight, with such data establishing an information database for structural health monitoring. The present effort is aimed at developing a finite element-based methodology involving an inverse formulation that employs measured surface strains to recover the applied loads, stresses, and displacements in an aerospace vehicle in real time. The computational procedure uses a standard finite element model (i.e., "direct analysis") of a given airframe, with the subsequent application of the inverse interpolation approach. The inverse interpolation formulation is based on a parametric approximation of the loading and is further constructed through a least-squares minimization of calculated and measured strains. This procedure results in the governing system of linear algebraic equations, providing the unknown coefficients that accurately define the load approximation. Numerical simulations are carried out for problems involving various levels of structural approximation. These include plate-loading examples and an aircraft wing box. Accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are discussed in detail. The experimental validation of the methodology by way of structural testing of an aircraft wing is also discussed.

  3. Avogadro's Number and Avogadro's Constant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses three possible methods of thinking about the implications of the definitions of the Avogadro constant and number. Indicates that there is only one way to arrive at a simple and standard conclusion. (CC)

  4. A Constant Pressure Bomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, F W

    1924-01-01

    This report describes a new optical method of unusual simplicity and of good accuracy suitable to study the kinetics of gaseous reactions. The device is the complement of the spherical bomb of constant volume, and extends the applicability of the relationship, pv=rt for gaseous equilibrium conditions, to the use of both factors p and v. The method substitutes for the mechanical complications of a manometer placed at some distance from the seat of reaction the possibility of allowing the radiant effects of reaction to record themselves directly upon a sensitive film. It is possible the device may be of use in the study of the photoelectric effects of radiation. The method makes possible a greater precision in the measurement of normal flame velocities than was previously possible. An approximate analysis shows that the increase of pressure and density ahead of the flame is negligible until the velocity of the flame approaches that of sound.

  5. Effects of scalding method and sequential tanks on broiler processing wastewater loadings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of scalding time and temperature, and sequential scalding tanks was evaluated based on impact to poultry processing wastewater (PPW) stream loading rates following the slaughter of commercially raised broilers. On 3 separate weeks (trials), broilers were obtained following feed withdrawa...

  6. Investigation of mechanical properties of twin gold crystal nanowires under uniaxial load by molecular dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Wei; Yang, Zai-Lin; Luo, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Twin gold crystal nanowires, whose loading direction is parallel to the twin boundary orientation, are simulated. We calculate the nanowires under tensile or compressive loads, different length nanowires, and different twin boundary nanowires respectively. The Young modulus of nanowires under compressive load is about twice that under tensile load. The compressive properties of twin gold nanowires are superior to their tensile properties. For different length nanowires, there is a critical value of length with respect to the mechanical properties. When the length of nanowire is greater than the critical value, its mechanical properties are sensitive to length. The twin boundary spacing hardly affects the mechanical properties. Project supported by the National Science and Technology Pillar Program, China (Grant No. 2015BAK17B06), the Earthquake Industry Special Science Research Foundation Project, China (Grant No. 201508026-02), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A201310), and the Scientific Research Starting Foundation for Post Doctorate of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. LBHQ13040).

  7. A method for estimation of historic contaminant loads using dated sediment cores

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dated sediment cores were used to assess the history of contaminant loads. The contaminant selected must be one that is not significantly remobilized by post depositional processes such as diagenesis. In addition, the core must be from an area with a high deposition rate and litt...

  8. Methods and models for the residential load management in distribution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina Garcia, Angel

    The main purpose of this thesis is the development of new tools to obtain and assess residential load control strategies. In this way, elemental load models to simulate electrical and thermal behaviors have been implemented and validated; an appropriate aggregation technique, based on kernel estimators, has been selected; and a load control strategy algorithm has been developed and applied on the air conditioning-heat pump individual loads, analyzing the control action effects from two viewpoints: customer (demand pattern changes, services...) and utility (resource optimization, profile demand modifications...). As a consequence, this integrated tool allows to know the flexibility degree of a specific residential demand profile, according to a target demand profile previously defined, by means of an optimum combination of forced connections and disconnections, taking into account the discomfort level maximum accepted by the customers. Electrical thermal storage appliances have also been studied. In this case, the day-valley periods are proposed as possible partial storage periods. This would involve to divide the actual storage periods into two partial periods, decreasing the thermal capacity necessities as well as the discharge period forecasts. A thermal study about this proposal has been developed, comparing the indoor temperatures in both cases. Finally, and taking into account the modifications suffered by the electrical market during these last years, the developed tools can be applied by utility and customer side, within an electrical sector (residential) which supposes around 25 per cent the total electrical demand.

  9. A computer program to obtain time-correlated gust loads for nonlinear aircraft using the matched-filter-based method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Perry, Boyd, III

    1994-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has, for several years, conducted research in the area of time-correlated gust loads for linear and nonlinear aircraft. The results of this work led NASA to recommend that the Matched-Filter-Based One-Dimensional Search Method be used for gust load analyses of nonlinear aircraft. This manual describes this method, describes a FORTRAN code which performs this method, and presents example calculations for a sample nonlinear aircraft model. The name of the code is MFD1DS (Matched-Filter-Based One-Dimensional Search). The program source code, the example aircraft equations of motion, a sample input file, and a sample program output are all listed in the appendices.

  10. Selection of Hidden Layer Neurons and Best Training Method for FFNN in Application of Long Term Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Navneet K.; Singh, Asheesh K.; Tripathy, Manoj

    2012-05-01

    For power industries electricity load forecast plays an important role for real-time control, security, optimal unit commitment, economic scheduling, maintenance, energy management, and plant structure planning etc. A new technique for long term load forecasting (LTLF) using optimized feed forward artificial neural network (FFNN) architecture is presented in this paper, which selects optimal number of neurons in the hidden layer as well as the best training method for the case study. The prediction performance of proposed technique is evaluated using mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of Thailand private electricity consumption and forecasted data. The results obtained are compared with the results of classical auto-regressive (AR) and moving average (MA) methods. It is, in general, observed that the proposed method is prediction wise more accurate.

  11. Array Processing and Forward Modeling Methods for the Analysis of Stiffened, Fluid-Loaded Cylindrical Shells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondaryk, Joseph E.

    This thesis investigates array processing and forward modeling methods for the analysis of experimental, structural acoustic data to understand wave propagation on fluid-loaded, elastic, cylindrical shells in the mid -frequency range, 2 < ka < 12. The transient, acoustic, in-plane, bistatic scattering response to wideband, plane waves at various angles of incidence was collected by a synthetic array for three shells, a finite, air-filled, empty thin shell, a duplicate shell stiffened with four unequally spaced ring-stiffeners and a duplicate ribbed shell augmented by resiliently-mounted, wave-bearing, internal structural elements. Array and signal processing techniques, including source deconvolution, array weighting, conventional focusing and the removal of the geometrically scattered contribution, are used to transform the collected data to a more easily interpreted representation. The resulting waveforms show that part of the transient, dynamic, structural response of the shell surface which is capable of radiating to the far field. Compressional membrane waves are directly observable in this representation and evidence of flexural membrane waves is present. Comparisons between the shells show energy compartmentalized by the ring stiffeners and coupled into the wave-bearing internals. Energy calculations show a decay rate of 30dB/msec due to radiation for the Empty shell but only 10dB/msec for the other shells at bow incidence. The Radon Transform is used to estimate the reflection coefficient of compressional waves at the shell endcap as 0.2. The measurement array does not provide enough resolution to allow use of this technique to determine the reflection, transmission and coupling coefficients at the ring stiffeners. Therefore, a forward modeling technique is used to further analyze the 0^ circ incidence case. This modeling couples a Transmission Line model of the shell with a Simulated Annealing approach to multi-dimensional, parameter estimation. This

  12. Application of acoustical methods for estimating water flow and constituent loads in Perdido Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, J.W.; Pittman, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Water flow and quality data were collected from December 1994 to September 1995 to evaluate variations in discharge, water quality, and chemical fluxes (loads) through Perdido Bay, Florida. Data were collected at a cross section parallel to the U.S. Highway 98 bridge. Discharges measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and computed from stage-area and velocity ratings varied roughly between + or - 10,000 cubic feet per second during a typical tidal cycle. Large reversals in flow direction occurred rapidly (less than 1 hour), and complete reversals (resulting in near peak net-upstream or downstream discharges) occurred within a few hours of slack water. Observations of simultaneous upstream and downstream flow (bidirectional flow) were quite common in the ADCP measurements, with opposing directions of flow occurring predominantly in vertical layers. Continuous (every 15 minutes) discharge data were computed for the period from August 18, 1995, to September 28, 1995, and filtered daily mean discharge values were computed for the period from August 19 to September 26, 1995. Data were not computed prior to August 18, 1995, either because of missing data or because the velocity rating was poorly defined (because of insufficient data) for the period prior to landfall of hurricane Erin (August 3, 1995). The results of the study indicate that acoustical techniques can yield useful estimates of continuous (instantaneous) discharge in Perdido Bay. Useful estimates of average daily net flow rates can also be obtained, but the accuracy of these estimates will be limited by small rating shifts that introduce bias into the instantaneous values that are used to compute the net flows. Instantaneous loads of total nitrogen ranged from -180 to 220 grams per second for the samples collected during the study, and instantaneous loads of total phosphorous ranged from -10 to 11 grams per second (negative loads indicate net upstream transport). The chloride concentrations

  13. Evaluation of Load Estimation Methods and Sampling Strategies by Confidence Intervals in Estimating Solute Flux from a Small Forested Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, A.; Tanakamaru, H.

    2008-12-01

    Total mass flux (load) from a catchment is a basic factor in evaluating chemical weathering or in TMDLs implementation. So far, many combinations of load estimation methods with sampling strategies were tested to obtain an unbiased flux estimate. To utilize such flux estimates in the political or scientific application, the information of uncertainty of flux estimates should also be provided. Giving the interval estimate of total flux may be a desirable solution to this situation. Total solute flux from a small, undisturbed forested catchment (12.8ha) during 10 months were calculated based on high-temporal resolution data and used in validation of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of flux estimates. Water quality data (sodium, potassium, and chloride concentration) were collected and measured every 15 minutes during 10 months in 2004 by the on-site monitoring system using FIP (flow injection potentiometry) method with ion-selective electrodes. Water quantity data (the flow rate data) were measured continuously by V-notch weir at the catchment outlet. Flux estimates and 95% CIs were calculated for three indices with 41 methods; sample average, flow- weighted average, the Beale ratio estimator, rating curve method with simple linear regression between flux and the flow rate, and nine regression models in the USGS Load Estimator (Loadest). Smearing estimates, MVUE estimates, and estimates by composite method were also evaluated concerning nine regression models in Load Estimator. Two sampling strategies were tested; periodical sampling (daily and weekly) and flow stratified sampling. After data were sorted in ascending order of the flow rate, five strata were configured so that each stratum contained same number of data in flow stratified sampling. The performance of these 95% CIs was evaluated by the rate of inclusion of true flux value within these CIs, which should be expected as 0.95. A simple bootstrap method was adopted to construct the CIs with 2,000 bootstrap

  14. Identification of Hb Constant Spring (HBA2: c.427T > C) by an Automated High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method.

    PubMed

    Wisedpanichkij, Raewadee; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee; Butthep, Punnee

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory investigation of hemoglobinopathies includes complete blood count (CBC), hemoglobin (Hb) typing by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DNA analysis. DNA analysis is the most reliable method but requires a manually laborious procedure and is time consuming. A more practical method of detecting abnormal Hbs is the HPLC technique, because it is more rapid and easier to interpret. Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS; HBA2: c.427T > C) is an abnormal variant that is labile and difficult to detect using conventional methods. To evaluate the efficiency of Hb CS determination by HPLC, blood samples from 578 subjects were analyzed using an automated cell analyzer for hematological parameters, automated HPLC for Hb identification, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for α-thalassemia (α-thal) and Hb CS confirmation. These included 169 normal, 119 heterozygous α-thal-2, 30 homozygous α-thal-2, 177 heterozygous α-thal-1, 59 heterozygous Hb CS, seven homozygous Hb CS and 17 compound heterozygous α-thal-2 and Hb CS subjects. The results showed that sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of Hb CS by HPLC were 93.78, 99.80, 98.73 and 99.00%, respectively. The mean of misdiagnosis value of the three groups of Hb CS subjects (total 83) was 6.02% (n = 5), with percentages for heterozygous Hb CS, homozygous Hb CS, and compound heterozygous α-thal-2 and Hb CS being 6.8, 0.0 and 5.9%, respectively. The HPLC method yielded good results, although it may also lead to misdiagnosis of Hb CS due to the relatively small amount and lability.

  15. The Hubble constant.

    PubMed Central

    Tully, R B

    1993-01-01

    Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars. PMID:11607391

  16. Evaluation of Dynamic Mechanical Loading as an Accelerated Test Method for Ribbon Fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, Nick; Silverman, Timothy J.; Wohlgemuth, John; Kurtz, Sarah; Inoue, Masanao; Sakurai, Keiichiro; Shioda, Tsuyoshi; Zenkoh, Hirofumi; Hirota, Kusato; Miyashita, Masanori; Tadanori, Tanahashi; Suzuki, Soh; Chen, Yifeng; Verlinden, Pierre J.

    2014-12-31

    Dynamic Mechanical Loading (DML) of photovoltaic modules is explored as a route to quickly fatigue copper interconnect ribbons. Results indicate that most of the interconnect ribbons may be strained through module mechanical loading to a level that will result in failure in a few hundred to thousands of cycles. Considering the speed at which DML may be applied, this translates into a few hours of testing. To evaluate the equivalence of DML to thermal cycling, parallel tests were conducted with thermal cycling. Preliminary analysis suggests that one +/-1 kPa DML cycle is roughly equivalent to one standard accelerated thermal cycle and approximately 175 of these cycles are equivalent to a 25-year exposure in Golden Colorado for the mechanism of module ribbon fatigue.

  17. Evaluation of Dynamic Mechanical Loading as an Accelerated Test Method for Ribbon Fatigue: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T. J.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shinoda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Hirota, K.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2015-04-07

    Dynamic Mechanical Loading (DML) of photovoltaic modules is explored as a route to quickly fatigue copper interconnect ribbons. Results indicate that most of the interconnect ribbons may be strained through module mechanical loading to a level that will result in failure in a few hundred to thousands of cycles. Considering the speed at which DML may be applied, this translates into a few hours o testing. To evaluate the equivalence of DML to thermal cycling, parallel tests were conducted with thermal cycling. Preliminary analysis suggests that one +/-1 kPa DML cycle is roughly equivalent to one standard accelerated thermal cycle and approximately 175 of these cycles are equivalent to a 25-year exposure in Golden Colorado for the mechanism of module ribbon fatigue.

  18. Composite load bearing outer skin for an arctic structure and a method for erecting same

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Birdy, J. N.; Watt, B. J.

    1985-08-27

    The load bearing outer skin contains an inner assembly and an outer assembly. Both the inner and outer assemblies include a skin plate member which is stiffened by stiffeners welded to one side of the skin plate member. The stiffeners are located at spaced intervals from each other and are disposed substantially perpendicular to the skin plate member. The inner and outer assembly are placed substantially parallel to each other to form a composite structure having an internal cavity defined by the inner and outer plates. The stiffeners of the inner assembly and the outer assembly are disposed in the cavity at a spaced relation to each other and extend partly into the cavity. A cementitious material substantially fills the cavity thereby completing the load bearing outer skin structure. The stiffeners may be flat steel plates or may have the profile of structural shapes such as angles or T's among others.

  19. Response spectrum method for extreme wave loading with higher order components of drag force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Tabeshpour Mohammad; Mani, Fatemi Dezfouli; Ali, Dastan Diznab Mohammad; Saied, Mohajernasab; Saied, Seif Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Response spectra of fixed offshore structures impacted by extreme waves are investigated based on the higher order components of the nonlinear drag force. In this way, steel jacket platforms are simplified as a mass attached to a light cantilever cylinder and their corresponding deformation response spectra are estimated by utilizing a generalized single degree of freedom system. Based on the wave data recorded in the Persian Gulf region, extreme wave loading conditions corresponding to different return periods are exerted on the offshore structures. Accordingly, the effect of the higher order components of the drag force is considered and compared to the linearized state for different sea surface levels. When the fundamental period of the offshore structure is about one third of the main period of wave loading, the results indicate the linearized drag term is not capable of achieving a reliable deformation response spectrum.

  20. Response spectrum method for extreme wave loading with higher order components of drag force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Tabeshpour Mohammad; Mani, Fatemi Dezfouli; Mohammad Ali, Dastan Diznab; Saied, Mohajernasab; Saied, Seif Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Response spectra of fixed offshore structures impacted by extreme waves are investigated based on the higher order components of the nonlinear drag force. In this way, steel jacket platforms are simplified as a mass attached to a light cantilever cylinder and their corresponding deformation response spectra are estimated by utilizing a generalized single degree of freedom system. Based on the wave data recorded in the Persian Gulf region, extreme wave loading conditions corresponding to different return periods are exerted on the offshore structures. Accordingly, the effect of the higher order components of the drag force is considered and compared to the linearized state for different sea surface levels. When the fundamental period of the offshore structure is about one third of the main period of wave loading, the results indicate the linearized drag term is not capable of achieving a reliable deformation response spectrum.

  1. A method for static and dynamic load analysis of standard and modified spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasuba, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mesh stiffness and dynamic load characteristics for several cases of the Normal Contract Ratio and High Contact ratio gearing. The considered contact ratios were grouped in the general range of 1.7,2.0, and 2.3. The HCR gearing is defined by contact ratios equal to or greater than 2.0. The HCR gearing is represented by a group of small pressure angle, fine pitch, and long addendum gearing.

  2. Improved Methods for Predicting Spectrum Loading Effects. Volume 1. Technical Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    prediction, 2219 -T851 aluminum , compres- 4 siv load acceleration, preliminary design, individual aircraft tracking 20. AOS 1W (Continue an revere side It...Recomnendations 80 REFERENCES 199 vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Title Page 1 Wide-Range Fatigue Crack-Growth-Rate Data of 2219 -T851 Aluminum Alloy at...Various Stress Ratios ............ ... 82 2 Coefficients Al (R) and A2 (R) in the Three-Component Model for 2219 -T851 Aluminum . ................. 82 3

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of sanguinarine liposomes prepared by a remote loading method with three different ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Ke, X; Bei, J H; Zhang, Y; Li, J

    2011-04-01

    Sanguinarine liposomes were prepared by a remote loading method using three different ammonium salts. A series of studies, including in vitro release, in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects and pharmacokinetics in rats, were conducted. The three liposomes showed pH-sensitive release characteristics in vitro, but there were obvious variations in their release profiles. Among the three liposomes, the liposomes made using ammonium citrate and phosphate possessed better anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo, compared with the liposome using ammonium sulfate. Pharmacokinetics test results in rats indicated that sanguinarine liposomes have notably elevated AUC (P<0.05) and markedly lower CL (P<0.05) compared with the solution, but there were no obvious differences between the three liposomes. The present study may be useful for better understanding and better choice of a suitable ammonium salt for the remote loading method.

  4. Comparison of Methods to Predict Lower Bound Buckling Loads of Cylinders Under Axial Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynie, Waddy T.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Results from a numerical study of the buckling response of two different orthogrid stiffened circular cylindrical shells with initial imperfections and subjected to axial compression are used to compare three different lower bound buckling load prediction techniques. These lower bound prediction techniques assume different imperfection types and include an imperfection based on a mode shape from an eigenvalue analysis, an imperfection caused by a lateral perturbation load, and an imperfection in the shape of a single stress-free dimple. The STAGS finite element code is used for the analyses. Responses of the cylinders for ranges of imperfection amplitudes are considered, and the effect of each imperfection is compared to the response of a geometrically perfect cylinder. Similar behavior was observed for shells that include a lateral perturbation load and a single dimple imperfection, and the results indicate that the predicted lower bounds are much less conservative than the corresponding results for the cylinders with the mode shape imperfection considered herein. In addition, the lateral perturbation technique and the single dimple imperfection produce response characteristics that are physically meaningful and can be validated via testing.

  5. Optimal Operation Method of Smart House by Controllable Loads based on Smart Grid Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoza, Akihiro; Uchida, Kosuke; Yona, Atsushi; Senju, Tomonobu

    2013-08-01

    From the perspective of global warming suppression and depletion of energy resources, renewable energy such as wind generation (WG) and photovoltaic generation (PV) are getting attention in distribution systems. Additionally, all electrification apartment house or residence such as DC smart house have increased in recent years. However, due to fluctuating power from renewable energy sources and loads, supply-demand balancing fluctuations of power system become problematic. Therefore, "smart grid" has become very popular in the worldwide. This article presents a methodology for optimal operation of a smart grid to minimize the interconnection point power flow fluctuations. To achieve the proposed optimal operation, we use distributed controllable loads such as battery and heat pump. By minimizing the interconnection point power flow fluctuations, it is possible to reduce the maximum electric power consumption and the electric cost. This system consists of photovoltaics generator, heat pump, battery, solar collector, and load. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, MATLAB is used in simulations.

  6. A Dynamic Discrete Dislocation Plasticity Method for the Dimulation of Plastic Relaxation under Shock Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrutxaga-Lerma, Benat; Sutton, Adrian; Eakins, Daniel; Balint, Daniel; Dini, Daniele

    2013-06-01

    This talk intends to offer some insight as to how Discrete Dislocation Plasticity (DDP) can be adapted to simulate plastic relaxation processes under weak shock loading and high strain rates. In those circumstances, dislocations are believed to be the main cause of plastic relaxation in crystalline solids. Direct simulation of dislocations as the dynamic agents of plastic relaxation in those cases remains a challenge. DDP, where dislocations are modelled as discrete discontinuities in elastic continuum media, is often unable to adequately simulate plastic relaxation because it treats dislocation motion quasi-statically, thus neglecting the time-dependent nature of the elastic fields and assuming that they instantaneously acquire the shape and magnitude predicted by elastostatics. Under shock loading, this assumption leads to several artefacts that can only be overcome with a fully time-dependent formulation of the elastic fields. In this talk one of such formulations for the creation, annihilation and arbitrary motion of straight edge dislocations will be presented. These solutions are applied in a two-dimensional model of time-dependent plastic relaxation under shock loading, and some relevant results will be presented. EPSRC CDT in Theory and Simulation of Materials

  7. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  8. Cosmological constant, fine structure constant and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hao; Zou, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we consider the cosmological constant model Λ ∝ α ^{-6}, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the hint of varying fine structure constant α was found in 1998. If Λ ∝ α ^{-6} is right, it means that the cosmological constant Λ should also be varying. Here, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant Λ ∝ α ^{-6}, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. Then we consider the observational constraints on these models by using the 293 Δ α /α data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars. We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the very narrow ranges of O(10^{-5}) typically. On the other hand, we can also view the varying cosmological constant model Λ ∝ α ^{-6} from another perspective, namely it can be equivalent to a model containing "dark energy" and "warm dark matter", but there is no interaction between them. We find that this is also fully consistent with the observational constraints on warm dark matter.

  9. Comparative Study of Defect Densities Evaluated by Electron Spin Resonance and Constant Photocurrent Method in Undoped and N-Doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Tatsuo; Shimada, Masaki; Kumeda, Minoru

    2002-05-01

    Different values are obtained for dangling-bond (DB) densities evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR) and the constant photocurrent method (CPM) in undoped and N-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films with various thicknesses during light-soakings using white light and red light. The origin of the difference was analyzed by taking into account the inhomogeneous distribution of photocreated DBs across the film thickness caused by the penetration depth of the light being less than the film thickness. The main cause of the difference in undoped a-Si:H was found to be the inhomogeneous distribution of photocreated DBs, whereas the main cause in N-doped a-Si:H was found to be the presence of a large amount of negatively charged DBs inactive to ESR. The presence of the thin near-surface layer with a high density of DBs blind to CPM also contributes to the difference between ESR and CPM DB densities both in undoped and N-doped a-Si:H.

  10. A Computer Simulation Method for the Calculation of Equilibrium Constants for the Formation of Physical Clusters of Molecules: Application to Small Water Clusters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    areas of chemical physics. First, the values of K 2and K 3are related to the second and third virial coefficients of the substance. Second , the theory of...equilibrium constants for dimer and trimer formation are simply related to the second and third virial coefficients . Here we discuss our choice of the Rn and...containment sphere at low temperatures. The equilibrium constant for dimer formation can be related to the second virial coefficient for the gas under

  11. Development of a new method for improving load turndown in fluidized bed combustors: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate a new concept in fluidized bed design that improves load turndown capability. This improvement is accomplished by independently controlling heat transfer and combustion in the combustor. The design consists of two fluidized beds, one central and one annular. The central bed serves as the combustion bed. The annular bed is fluidized separately from the combustion bed and its level of fluidization determine the overall heat transfer rate from the combustion bed to the surrounding water jacket. Early theoretical considerations suggested a load turndown exceeding ten was possible for this design. This research consisted of three major phases: development of a computational model to predict heat transfer in the two-bed combustor, heat transfer measurements in hot-and-cold flow models of the combustor, and combustion tests in an optimally designed combustor. The computation model was useful in selecting the design of the combustor. Annular bed width and particle sizes were chosen with the aid of the model. The heat transfer tests were performed to determine if the existing correlations for fluidized bed heat transfer coefficients were sufficiently accurate for high aspect ratio fluidized beds (such as the annular bed in the combustor). Combustion tests were performed in an optimally designed combustor. Three fuel forms were used: double screened, crushed coal, coal-water-limestone mixtures (CWLM), and coal-limestone briquettes. 18 refs., 30 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. The behaviour of reinforced concrete structure due to earthquake load using Time History analysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifuddin, M.; Panjaitan, M. A. R.; Ayuna, D.

    2017-02-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most dangerous, destructive and unpredictable natural hazards, which can leave everything up to a few hundred kilometres in complete destruction in seconds. Indonesia has a unique position as an earthquake prone country. It is the place of the interaction for three tectonic plates, namely the Indo-Australian, Eurasian and Pacific plates. Banda Aceh is one of the cities that located in earthquake-prone areas. Due to the vulnerable conditions of Banda Aceh some efforts have been exerted to reduce these unfavourable conditions. Many aspects have been addressed, starting from community awareness up to engineering solutions. One of them is all buildings that build in the city should be designed as an earthquake resistant building. The objectives of this research are to observe the response of a reinforced concrete structure due to several types of earthquake load, and to see the performance of the structure after earthquake loads applied. After Tsunami in 2004 many building has been build, one of them is a hotel building located at simpang lima. The hotel is made of reinforced concrete with a height of 34.95 meters with a total area of 8872.5 m2 building. So far this building was the tallest building in Banda Aceh.

  13. Effects of method of loading and specimen configuration on compressive strength of graphite/epoxy composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. K.; Lisagor, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Three test schemes were examined for testing graphite/epoxy (Narmco T300/5208) composite material specimens to failure in compression, including an adaptation of the IITRI "wedge grip" compression fixture, a face-supported-compression fixture, and an end-loaded-coupon fixture. The effects of specimen size, specimen support arrangement and method of load transfer on compressive behavior of graphite/epoxy were investigated. Compressive stress strain, strength, and modulus data obtained with the three fixtures are presented with evaluations showing the effects of all test parameters, including fiber orientation. The IITRI fixture has the potential to provide good stress/strain data to failure for unidirectional and quasi-isotropic laminates. The face supported fixture was found to be the most desirable for testing + or - 45 s laminates.

  14. Measurement of piezoelectric coefficients of lead zirconate titanate thin films by strain-monitoring pneumatic loading method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gun-Tae; Choi, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Fan, Huiqing; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2002-06-01

    A method to simultaneously measure the longitudinal (d33) and transverse (d31) piezoelectric coefficients of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film was developed. This system was based on the pneumatic loading method but was modified to monitor the radial strain when a pressurized gas was introduced into the chamber. The results of the bulk piezoelectric material measured by this system coincided with that measured by both the Berlincourt method and the resonance method. The effective d33 and the real d31 of the PZT thin film fabricated by the sol-gel multiple coating method, and poled at 300 kV/cm were 125 and -60 pC/N, respectively. The real d33 estimated upon considering the constraints by the silicon substrate was 180 pC/N.

  15. BDflex: A method for efficient treatment of molecular flexibility in calculating protein-ligand binding rate constants from Brownian dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Greives, Nicholas; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    A method developed by Northrup [J. Chem. Phys. 80, 1517 (1984)]10.1063/1.446900 for calculating protein-ligand binding rate constants (ka) from Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations has been widely used for rigid molecules. Application to flexible molecules is limited by the formidable computational cost to treat conformational fluctuations during the long BD simulations necessary for ka calculation. Here, we propose a new method called BDflex for ka calculation that circumvents this problem. The basic idea is to separate the whole space into an outer region and an inner region, and formulate ka as the product of kE and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}\\bar \\eta _{\\rm d}\\end{equation*} \\end{document}η¯d, which are obtained by separately solving exterior and interior problems. kE is the diffusion-controlled rate constant for the ligand in the outer region to reach the dividing surface between the outer and inner regions; in this exterior problem conformational fluctuations can be neglected. \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}\\bar \\eta _{\\rm d}\\end{equation*} \\end{document}η¯d is the probability that the ligand, starting from the dividing surface, will react at the binding site rather than escape to infinity. The crucial step in reducing the determination of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin

  16. K-nearest neighbors based methods for identification of different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong

    2016-03-01

    Gears are the most commonly used components in mechanical transmission systems. Their failures may cause transmission system breakdown and result in economic loss. Identification of different gear crack levels is important to prevent any unexpected gear failure because gear cracks lead to gear tooth breakage. Signal processing based methods mainly require expertize to explain gear fault signatures which is usually not easy to be achieved by ordinary users. In order to automatically identify different gear crack levels, intelligent gear crack identification methods should be developed. The previous case studies experimentally proved that K-nearest neighbors based methods exhibit high prediction accuracies for identification of 3 different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads. In this short communication, to further enhance prediction accuracies of existing K-nearest neighbors based methods and extend identification of 3 different gear crack levels to identification of 5 different gear crack levels, redundant statistical features are constructed by using Daubechies 44 (db44) binary wavelet packet transform at different wavelet decomposition levels, prior to the use of a K-nearest neighbors method. The dimensionality of redundant statistical features is 620, which provides richer gear fault signatures. Since many of these statistical features are redundant and highly correlated with each other, dimensionality reduction of redundant statistical features is conducted to obtain new significant statistical features. At last, the K-nearest neighbors method is used to identify 5 different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads. A case study including 3 experiments is investigated to demonstrate that the developed method provides higher prediction accuracies than the existing K-nearest neighbors based methods for recognizing different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads. Based on the new significant statistical

  17. A method for determining local elastoplastic stress and strain in metallurgically bonded notched laminates subjected to a loading cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, J. A.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A semianalytical method was developed for determining elastoplastic cyclic stresses and strains at notch roots in metallurgically bonded metal laminates. The method is based on the Neuber equation, which was used with an effective stress-strain curve for the laminate. It was applied to laminates containing a circular hole which were subjected to one cycle of reversed loading. The laminates consisted of two elasto-perfectly-plastic materials with different yield strengths and with either equal or different Young's moduli. A laminate of high-strength titanium alloy with alternate layers of commercially pure titanium was also analyzed. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparing the stresses and strains with those calculated from a finite-element analysis. The results estimated by the simple method based on the Neuber equation agreed closely with the results computed from the more elaborate finite-element analysis.

  18. An accurate method to predict the stress concentration in composite laminates with a circular hole under tensile loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, A.; Zuccarello, B.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents a theoretical-numerical hybrid method for determining the stresses distribution in composite laminates containing a circular hole and subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. The method is based upon an appropriate corrective function allowing a simple and rapid evaluation of stress distributions in a generic plate of finite width with a hole based on the theoretical stresses distribution in an infinite plate with the same hole geometry and material. In order to verify the accuracy of the method proposed, various numerical and experimental tests have been performed by considering different laminate lay-ups; in particular, the experimental results have shown that a combined use of the method proposed and the well-know point-stress criterion leads to reliable strength predictions for GFRP or CFRP laminates with a circular hole.

  19. On the Khinchin Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We prove known identities for the Khinchin constant and develop new identities for the more general Hoelder mean limits of continued fractions. Any of these constants can be developed as a rapidly converging series involving values of the Riemann zeta function and rational coefficients. Such identities allow for efficient numerical evaluation of the relevant constants. We present free-parameter, optimizable versions of the identities, and report numerical results.

  20. Low temperature SCR of NO with catalysts prepared by modified ACF loading Mn and Ce: effects of modification method.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Lu, Pei; Zhai, Yunbo; Li, Caiting; Chen, Ting; Qing, Renpeng; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a higher NOx conversion ratio in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) at low temperature is challenging. In this work, pure activated carbon fibres (ACFs) were modified with different ratios of H2O (g), NaOH, CO2 and HNO3, respectively (named as modified ACF). The chemical and physical properties of modified ACFs were identified by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy methods. The NOx conversion ratio of ACF was improved from 56.1% to 82.4% at 80°C after modification with 30% (mass ratio) NaOH. These modified ACFs were further loaded with the mixture of MnO2 and CeO2 in the form of metal salt solutions (named as Mn0.5Ce0.5O2/modified ACF). The NOx conversion ratio of 30% SHACF remained similar at 80°C but was increased from 60.0% to 98.5% at 360°C after loading with Mn and Ce, which showed the best performance in SCR of NOx at low temperature. It could be seen that ACF delivered higher performance in low temperature SCR after being modified with the aforementioned reactants and further loading with metals. Based on chemical and physical characterization and the performance of the catalysts, the reasons for different performances of these catalysts in low temperature SCR are discussed.

  1. An extended field method solution for a pulse loaded thin plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, B. K.; Starkey, N. B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with a new extension of a weighted residual method of analysis called the extended field method. The extended field method is applied for the first time to the problem of the transient vibration of a uniformly thin elastic plate. Numerical results have been obtained which validate the analysis procedure and show better solution convergence than is obtainable by standard methods of analysis for the same number of degrees of freedom. Further studies are necessary to obtain still better convergence.

  2. Development of a novel ophthalmic ciclosporin A-loaded nanosuspension using top-down media milling methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hoon; Jang, Sun Woo; Han, Sang Dug; Hwang, Hyung Don; Choi, Han-Gon

    2011-07-01

    To develop a novel ciclosporin A (CsA)-loaded nanosuspension causing less ocular irritation, a range of nanosuspensions was prepared with various polymers using a media milling method. The effects of polymer, milling time, milling speed and bead material on the particle size of the nanosuspension were investigated. Stability and irritation tests in rabbits' eyes were then performed comparing the nanosuspension with a commercial product. Of the nanosuspensions prepared with various polymers, that with PVA showed no creaming or sedimentation phenomena and gave the smallest particles of about 530 nm. The particle size decreased abruptly as the milling time increased to 2 h and then hardly decreased further. As the milling speed was increased, the particle size of CsA in the nanosuspension also increased. Nanosuspensions prepared with zirconia beads gave significantly finer particles than those with polystyrene beads. In particular, the CsA-loaded nanosuspension with a CsA/PVA/water weight ratio of 0.5/1/100 prepared using the top-down media milling method with zirconia beads of 300 microm diameter at 1000 rpm for 2 h gave a minimum particle size of about 530 nm. This nansuspension was physcally and chemically stable for at least two months. In the Draize test, both this nanosuspension and the commercial product gave very slight ocular irritation. However, in the Schirmer tear test, this nanosuspension caused less irritation to the rabbits' eyes compared to the commercial product. Thus, the CsA-loaded nanosuspension prepared with PVA and water using the top-down media milling method could be a promising candidate for causing less ocular irritation.

  3. Data on annual total nitrogen loads and watershed characteristics used to develop a method to estimate the total nitrogen loads in small streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kronholm, Scott C.; Capel, Paul D.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This USGS Data Release represents the data used to develop multiple linear regression models for estimating the loads of total nitrogen in small streams. Recursive partitioning and random forest regression were used to assess 85 geospatial, environmental, and watershed variables across 636 small (less than 585 square kilometers) watersheds to determine which variables are fundamentally important to the estimation of annual loads of total nitrogen. These data support the following publication: Kronholm, S.C., Capel, P.D., and Terziotti, Silvia, 2016, Statistically extracted fundamental watershed variables for estimating the loads of total nitrogen in small streams: Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 10 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10666-016-9525-3.

  4. A stable numerical solution method in-plane loading of nonlinear viscoelastic laminated orthotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the tremendous growth in the development of advanced materials, such as fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials, a new numerical method is developed to analyze and predict the time-dependent properties of these materials. Basic concepts in viscoelasticity, laminated composites, and previous viscoelastic numerical methods are presented. A stable numerical method, called the nonlinear differential equation method (NDEM), is developed to calculate the in-plane stresses and strains over any time period for a general laminate constructed from nonlinear viscoelastic orthotropic plies. The method is implemented in an in-plane stress analysis computer program, called VCAP, to demonstrate its usefulness and to verify its accuracy. A number of actual experimental test results performed on Kevlar/epoxy composite laminates are compared to predictions calculated from the numerical method.

  5. A Novel Preparation Method for Camptothecin (CPT) Loaded Folic Acid Conjugated Dextran Tumor-Targeted Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Xiuhua; Jiang, Ru; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Dongmei; Li, Yong; Zu, Baishi; Sun, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, folic-dextran-camptothecin (Fa-DEX-CPT) tumor-targeted nanoparticles were produced with a supercritical antisolvent (SAS) technique by using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent and carbon dioxide as an antisolvent. A factorial design was used to reveal the effect of various process parameters on the mean particle size (MPS) and morphology of the particles formed. Under the optimum operation conditions, Fa-DEX-CPT nanoparticles with a MPS of 182.21 nm were obtained. Drug encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency were 62.13% and 36.12%, respectively. It was found that the concentrations of the camptothecin (CPT) and dextran solution had a major influence upon morphology and shape of the final product. In addition, the samples were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) with the purpose of developing a suitable targeted drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:21845075

  6. The constraint method: A new finite element technique. [applied to static and dynamic loads on plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C.; Szabo, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    An approch to the finite element method which utilizes families of conforming finite elements based on complete polynomials is presented. Finite element approximations based on this method converge with respect to progressively reduced element sizes as well as with respect to progressively increasing orders of approximation. Numerical results of static and dynamic applications of plates are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. Comparisons are made with plate elements in NASTRAN and the high-precision plate element developed by Cowper and his co-workers. Some considerations are given to implementation of the constraint method into general purpose computer programs such as NASTRAN.

  7. Fundamental Physical Constants

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 121 CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants (Web, free access)   This site, developed in the Physics Laboratory at NIST, addresses three topics: fundamental physical constants, the International System of Units (SI), which is the modern metric system, and expressing the uncertainty of measurement results.

  8. Method for simultaneous measurement of mass loading and fluid property changes using a quartz crystal microbalance

    DOEpatents

    Granstaff, Victoria E.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    A method, using a quartz crystal microbalance, to obtain simultaneous measurement of solid mass accumulation and changes in liquid density-viscosity product. The simultaneous real-time measurements of electrical parameters yields that changes in surface mass can be differentiated from changes in solution properties. Two methods to obtain the admittance/frequency data are employed.

  9. Method for simultaneous measurement of mass loading and fluid property changes using a quartz crystal microbalance

    DOEpatents

    Granstaff, V.E.; Martin, S.J.

    1993-04-13

    A method is described, using a quartz crystal microbalance, to obtain simultaneous measurement of solid mass accumulation and changes in liquid density-viscosity product. The simultaneous real-time measurements of electrical parameters yields that changes in surface mass can be differentiated from changes in solution properties. Two methods to obtain the admittance/frequency data are employed.

  10. Method for loading lipsomes with ionizable phosphorylated hydrophobic compounds, pharmaceutical preparations and a method for administering the preparations

    DOEpatents

    Mehlhorn, R.J.

    1998-10-27

    A method of entrapping ionizable compounds, preferably phosphorylated hydrophobic compounds, into liposomes having transmembrane gradients is disclosed. The procedures involve forming liposomes in an acidic medium or a basic medium, adding to the acidic medium a cationic compound or to the basic medium an anionic compound and then adding a base to the cationic-containing medium or an acid to the anionic-containing medium, thereby inducing the ionizable compound into the liposomes` internal aqueous phase. The compound-entrapped liposomes prepared in accordance with the disclosed methods may be used as pharmaceutical preparations. Methods of administering such pharmaceutical preparations are also disclosed. 2 figs.

  11. Method for loading lipsomes with ionizable phosphorylated hydrophobic compounds, pharmaceutical preparations and a method for administering the preparations

    DOEpatents

    Mehlhorn, Rolf Joachim

    1998-10-27

    A method of entrapping ionizable compounds, preferably phosphorylated hydrophobic compounds, into liposomes having transmembrane gradients is disclosed. The procedures involve forming liposomes in an acidic medium or a basic medium, adding to the acidic medium a cationic compound or to the basic medium an anionic compound and then adding a base to the cationic-containing medium or an acid to the anionic-containing medium, thereby inducing the ionizable compound into the liposomes' internal aqueous phase. The compound-entrapped liposomes prepared in accordance with the disclosed methods may be used as pharmaceutical preparations. Methods of administering such pharmaceutical preparations are also disclosed.

  12. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PESTICIDE LOADS AND TRENDS IN THE CENTRAL VALLEY, CALIFORNIA: CALCULATED USING TWO PARAMETRIC METHODS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, D.; Domagalski, J. L.; Johnson, H. M.; Lorenz, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Mass loading and trends in concentration were calculated for four pesticides in two watersheds with different land uses in the Central Valley, California, by using two parametric models: (1) the Seasonal Wave model (SeaWave), in which a pulse signal is used to describe the annual cycle of pesticide occurrence in a stream; and, (2) the Sine Wave model (SineWave), in which first-order Fourier series sine and cosine terms are used to simulate seasonal loading patterns. The models were applied to data for water years 1997 through 2005 provided by the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The pesticides considered in this study were carbaryl, diazinon, metolachlor, and molinate. Data were analyzed for two seasons: precipitation season (October through March), and the irrigation season (April through September). Results from the two models show that the ability to capture seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations was affected by pesticide use patterns and the methods by which pesticides are transported to streams. When compared with results from previous studies, both models well estimated seasonal loads and trends in concentrations. It is important to point out that loads estimated by the two models did not differ substantially from each other, with the exceptions of carbaryl and molinate during the precipitation season, where loads were affected by application patterns and precipitation. At the same time, trends in pesticide concentrations over time, as estimated by both models, were nearly identical indicating that either model can be used equally for calculating trends in concentrations. However, in watersheds where pesticides are applied in specific patterns— involving multiple applications of various amounts—the SeaWave model might be a better model to use due to its robust capability to describe seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations. As a case study, trends in pesticide concentrations for streams in the Central Valley were

  13. Computation of maximum gust loads in nonlinear aircraft using a new method based on the matched filter approach and numerical optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pototzky, Anthony S.; Heeg, Jennifer; Perry, Boyd, III

    1990-01-01

    Time-correlated gust loads are time histories of two or more load quantities due to the same disturbance time history. Time correlation provides knowledge of the value (magnitude and sign) of one load when another is maximum. At least two analysis methods have been identified that are capable of computing maximized time-correlated gust loads for linear aircraft. Both methods solve for the unit-energy gust profile (gust velocity as a function of time) that produces the maximum load at a given location on a linear airplane. Time-correlated gust loads are obtained by re-applying this gust profile to the airplane and computing multiple simultaneous load responses. Such time histories are physically realizable and may be applied to aircraft structures. Within the past several years there has been much interest in obtaining a practical analysis method which is capable of solving the analogous problem for nonlinear aircraft. Such an analysis method has been the focus of an international committee of gust loads specialists formed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration and was the topic of a panel discussion at the Gust and Buffet Loads session at the 1989 SDM Conference in Mobile, Alabama. The kinds of nonlinearities common on modern transport aircraft are indicated. The Statical Discrete Gust method is capable of being, but so far has not been, applied to nonlinear aircraft. To make the method practical for nonlinear applications, a search procedure is essential. Another method is based on Matched Filter Theory and, in its current form, is applicable to linear systems only. The purpose here is to present the status of an attempt to extend the matched filter approach to nonlinear systems. The extension uses Matched Filter Theory as a starting point and then employs a constrained optimization algorithm to attack the nonlinear problem.

  14. Extended Lattice Boltzmann Method with Application to Predict Aerodynamic Loads of Long Span Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tiancheng; Liu, Gao; Li, Yi; Ge, Yaojun

    2010-05-01

    The lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, a new conceptual approach to solve the fluid dynamics problem, is presented at first. The turbulence model is incorporated into the normal LB equation to simulate turbulence flow in the form of turbulence relaxation time determined by the nonequilibrium particle distribution function and Smagorinsky model. The total relaxation time is defined as the contribution of molecule viscosity and turbulence eddy viscosity. The aerodynamic forces on bridge girders are predicted by present LB method and the analysis of flow state is performed. The validity of LB method is verified through comparing the present results with the available experimental data and those obtained from the solutions of Navier-Stockes equation like Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and discrete vortex method (DVM).

  15. Comparison of analog and digital correlation methods suitable for ultrasonic structural health and load monitoring based on high temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkelbach, Gerhard; Grill, Wolfgang

    2012-04-01

    Ultrasonic load and structural health monitoring schemes, based on high temporal resolution of the transport times of ultrasound, have lately been refined such that the achievable temporal resolution can reach 1 ps even for center frequencies in the lower MHz-regime. Whereas this technique was initiated with signal processing based on digitization and subsequent correlation by software controlled digital processing of the data, equipment has lately been designed and manufactured, allowing rather universal processing of low level analog signals by analog based correlations, employing digital references converted to respective analog signals. The signal and data processing schemes are presented and illustrated with experimental results. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed, including the limiting effects concerning restrictions given by technological and theoretical aspects. Basic features are demonstrated based on the actually developed and adapted instrumentation including software based operations for both principles of signal and data processing. Even though these methods are also used in ultrasonic imaging, the range of applications presented here focuses dominantly on ultrasonic structural health and load monitoring with bulk and guided acoustic waves.

  16. Asymptotic method for analysis of a conical shell under local loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerubailo, B. V.; Ol'shanskii, V. P.

    2007-06-01

    Differential equations of the general theory describing the stress-strain state of conical shells are very complicated, and when computing the exact solution of the problem by analytic methods one encounters severe or even so far insurmountable difficulties. Therefore, in the present paper we develop an approach based on the method of asymptotic synthesis of the stressed state, which has already proved efficient when solving similar problems for cylindrical shells [1, 2]. We essentially use the fourth-order differential equations obtained by Kan [3], which describe the ground state and the boundary effect. Earlier, such equations have already been used to solve problems concerning force and thermal actions on weakly conical shells [4-6]. By applying the asymptotic synthesis method to these equations, we manage to obtain sufficiently accurate closed-form solutions.

  17. The reactions CHnD4-n+OH-->P and CH4+OD-->CH3+HOD as a test of current direct dynamics multicoefficient methods to determine variational transition state rate constants. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masgrau, Laura; González-Lafont, Àngels; Lluch, José M.

    2001-09-01

    In this paper we have carried out a test of current multilevel electronic structure methods to give accurate rate constants for the reactions CHnD4-n+OH→P and for the reaction of methane with OD. These multilevel methods are single-point energy techniques designed as general parametrizations for extrapolation to the full configuration interaction limit and, in some cases, to attain also the infinite basis set limit. By means of variational transition state theory including multidimensional tunneling corrections, the rate constants for these reactions, over a wide range of temperatures, have been computed using two recently developed multicoefficient schemes for extrapolating correlated electronic structure calculations: multicoefficient scaling all correlation (MCSAC) and multicoefficient correlation methods (MCCM). For comparison purposes, we have also evaluated the same rate constants using two other multilevel extrapolation techniques, namely, the multicoefficient quadratic configuration interaction (MC-QCISD) method and the complete basis set extrapolation model for free radicals (CBS-RAD). Two dual-level direct dynamics techniques have been employed within the scheme of variational transition state theory: the interpolated single-point energy corrections (ISPE) and the interpolated optimized corrections (IOC), with the purpose to analyze the importance of correcting a low level potential energy surface with the optimizations of the stationary points carried out at the highest computational level affordable. We have shown that the so-called MCCM-CCSD(T)-1sc multilevel scheme provides the best results for the set of reactions studied. A slight difference from the experimental rate constants still persists, specially at the lowest temperatures, although we think that the best theoretical rate constants of the present paper are accurate enough for most of the practical applications. However, the kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) are not so well reproduced because

  18. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.; Lloyd, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  19. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  20. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W.; Huei-Ho, Chuen; Brown, Gilbert M.; Hurlbut, Charles

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.