Science.gov

Sample records for constantly evolving field

  1. Constant fields and constant gradients in open ionic channels.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D P; Barcilon, V; Eisenberg, R S

    1992-01-01

    Ions enter cells through pores in proteins that are holes in dielectrics. The energy of interaction between ion and charge induced on the dielectric is many kT, and so the dielectric properties of channel and pore are important. We describe ionic movement by (three-dimensional) Nemst-Planck equations (including flux and net charge). Potential is described by Poisson's equation in the pore and Laplace's equation in the channel wall, allowing induced but not permanent charge. Asymptotic expansions are constructed exploiting the long narrow shape of the pore and the relatively high dielectric constant of the pore's contents. The resulting one-dimensional equations can be integrated numerically; they can be analyzed when channels are short or long (compared with the Debye length). Traditional constant field equations are derived if the induced charge is small, e.g., if the channel is short or if the total concentration gradient is zero. A constant gradient of concentration is derived if the channel is long. Plots directly comparable to experiments are given of current vs voltage, reversal potential vs. concentration, and slope conductance vs. concentration. This dielectric theory can easily be tested: its parameters can be determined by traditional constant field measurements. The dielectric theory then predicts current-voltage relations quite different from constant field, usually more linear, when gradients of total concentration are imposed. Numerical analysis shows that the interaction of ion and channel can be described by a mean potential if, but only if, the induced charge is negligible, that is to say, the electric field is spatially constant. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:1376159

  2. (In)validity of the constant field and constant currents assumptions in theories of ion transport.

    PubMed Central

    Syganow, A; von Kitzing, E

    1999-01-01

    Constant electric fields and constant ion currents are often considered in theories of ion transport. Therefore, it is important to understand the validity of these helpful concepts. The constant field assumption requires that the charge density of permeant ions and flexible polar groups is virtually voltage independent. We present analytic relations that indicate the conditions under which the constant field approximation applies. Barrier models are frequently fitted to experimental current-voltage curves to describe ion transport. These models are based on three fundamental characteristics: a constant electric field, negligible concerted motions of ions inside the channel (an ion can enter only an empty site), and concentration-independent energy profiles. An analysis of those fundamental assumptions of barrier models shows that those approximations require large barriers because the electrostatic interaction is strong and has a long range. In the constant currents assumption, the current of each permeating ion species is considered to be constant throughout the channel; thus ion pairing is explicitly ignored. In inhomogeneous steady-state systems, the association rate constant determines the strength of ion pairing. Among permeable ions, however, the ion association rate constants are not small, according to modern diffusion-limited reaction rate theories. A mathematical formulation of a constant currents condition indicates that ion pairing very likely has an effect but does not dominate ion transport. PMID:9929480

  3. Multiphoton amplitude in a constant background field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Corradini, Olindo; Kim, Sang Pyo; Schubert, Christian

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, we present our recent compact master formulas for the multiphoton amplitudes of a scalar propagator in a constant background field using the worldline fomulation of quantum field theory. The constant field has been included nonperturbatively, which is crucial for strong external fields. A possible application is the scattering of photons by electrons in a strong magnetic field, a process that has been a subject of great interest since the discovery of astrophysical objects like radio pulsars, which provide evidence that magnetic fields of the order of 1012G are present in nature. The presence of a strong external field leads to a strong deviation from the classical scattering amplitudes. We explicitly work out the Compton scattering amplitude in a magnetic field, which is a process of potential relevance for astrophysics. Our final result is compact and suitable for numerical integration.

  4. The 'E' factor -- evolving endodontics.

    PubMed

    Hunter, M J

    2013-03-01

    Endodontics is a constantly developing field, with new instruments, preparation techniques and sealants competing with trusted and traditional approaches to tooth restoration. Thus general dental practitioners must question and understand the significance of these developments before adopting new practices. In view of this, the aim of this article, and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference & Exhibition, is to provide an overview of endodontic methods and constantly evolving best practice. The presentation will review current preparation techniques, comparing rotary versus reciprocation, and question current trends in restoration of the endodontically treated tooth.

  5. Boson mapping techniques applied to constant gauge fields in QCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Peter Otto; Lopez, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Pairs of coordinates and derivatives of the constant gluon modes are mapped to new gluon-pair fields and their derivatives. Applying this mapping to the Hamiltonian of constant gluon fields results for large coupling constants into an effective Hamiltonian which separates into one describing a scalar field and another one for a field with spin two. The ground state is dominated by pairs of gluons coupled to color and spin zero with slight admixtures of color zero and spin two pairs. As color group we used SU(2).

  6. Biofabrication: reappraising the definition of an evolving field.

    PubMed

    Groll, Jürgen; Boland, Thomas; Blunk, Torsten; Burdick, Jason A; Cho, Dong-Woo; Dalton, Paul D; Derby, Brian; Forgacs, Gabor; Li, Qing; Mironov, Vladimir A; Moroni, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Makoto; Shu, Wenmiao; Takeuchi, Shoji; Vozzi, Giovanni; Woodfield, Tim B F; Xu, Tao; Yoo, James J; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-08

    Biofabrication is an evolving research field that has recently received significant attention. In particular, the adoption of Biofabrication concepts within the field of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine has grown tremendously, and has been accompanied by a growing inconsistency in terminology. This article aims at clarifying the position of Biofabrication as a research field with a special focus on its relation to and application for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Within this context, we propose a refined working definition of Biofabrication, including Bioprinting and Bioassembly as complementary strategies within Biofabrication.

  7. The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H.

    2017-04-01

    We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.

  8. SiO maser polarization in evolved stars: magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpin, F.; Baudry, A.; Thum, C.; Morris, D.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    The maser theory still needs to be improved, in particular in terms of polarization. The study of the maser geometry inside the circumstellar envelopes can also be achieved through polarization studies (e.g., VLBI observations). But the most exciting point is the determination of the magnetic field that can be made from polarization measurements: this is definitively a new field of investigation for these evolved objects. The magnetic field probably plays an important role in the AGB star's life and can be a major factor (magnetic rotator theory) on the origin of the high mass loss rates observed in evolved objects. Measurement of the magnetic field is thus essential to study the mass loss mechanisms and also the Alfven waves. During its transition most quasi spherical AGB stars (i.e. envelopes) become complicated aspherical objects. This shaping is well explained by the Interacting Stellar Winds theory (Kwok works), but the ISW model fails to reproduce very complicated structures with jets and ansae. A new model (Magnetized Wind Blown Bubble theory) was thus developed by Blackman et al. (2001) and A. Franck: a weak toroidal magnetic field, embedded in the stellar wind, acts as a collimating agent (cf. Garcia-Segura 1997) and can produce such structures. Three molecules can show polarized maser emission in the circumstellar envelopes: - OH traces the envelope far from the central star (1000-10000 AU) - H2O at intermediate distances (a few 100 AU) - SiO in the inner circumstellar layers (5-10 AU) Measurement of the polarization rate of the maser radiation emitted by these molecules can give us the averaged value B// of the magnetic field along the line of sight (for a single dish observation). We present here the first complete study of the SiO maser polarization in a large sample of evolved stars (more than 100). The 4 Stokes parameters I, U, Q, V were simultaneously measured with the polarimeter on the IRAM-30m telescope. From the Stokes parameters values we

  9. Directed Field Ionization: A Genetic Algorithm for Evolving Electric Field Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xinyue; Rowley, Zoe A.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2017-04-01

    When an ionizing electric field pulse is applied to a Rydberg atom, the electron's amplitude traverses many avoided crossings among the Stark levels as the field increases. The resulting superposition determines the shape of the time resolved field ionization spectrum at a detector. An engineered electric field pulse that sweeps back and forth through avoided crossings can control the phase evolution so as to determine the electron's path through the Stark map. In the region of n = 35 in rubidium there are hundreds of potential avoided crossings; this yields a large space of possible pulses. We use a genetic algorithm to search this space and evolve electric field pulses to direct the ionization of the Rydberg electron in rubidium. We present the algorithm along with a comparison of simulated and experimental results. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1607335 and No. 1607377 and used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number OCI-1053575.

  10. A mapping closure for turbulent scalar mixing using a time-evolving reference field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girimaji, Sharath S.

    1992-01-01

    A general mapping-closure approach for modeling scalar mixing in homogeneous turbulence is developed. This approach is different from the previous methods in that the reference field also evolves according to the same equations as the physical scalar field. The use of a time-evolving Gaussian reference field results in a model that is similar to the mapping closure model of Pope (1991), which is based on the methodology of Chen et al. (1989). Both models yield identical relationships between the scalar variance and higher-order moments, which are in good agreement with heat conduction simulation data and can be consistent with any type of epsilon(phi) evolution. The present methodology can be extended to any reference field whose behavior is known. The possibility of a beta-pdf reference field is explored. The shortcomings of the mapping closure methods are discussed, and the limit at which the mapping becomes invalid is identified.

  11. A slowly evolving host moves first in symbiotic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damore, James; Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Symbiotic relationships, both parasitic and mutualistic, are ubiquitous in nature. Understanding how these symbioses evolve, from bacteria and their phages to humans and our gut microflora, is crucial in understanding how life operates. Often, symbioses consist of a slowly evolving host species with each host only interacting with its own sub-population of symbionts. The Red Queen hypothesis describes coevolutionary relationships as constant arms races with each species rushing to evolve an advantage over the other, suggesting that faster evolution is favored. Here, we use a simple game theoretic model of host- symbiont coevolution that includes population structure to show that if the symbionts evolve much faster than the host, the equilibrium distribution is the same as it would be if it were a sequential game where the host moves first against its symbionts. For the slowly evolving host, this will prove to be advantageous in mutualisms and a handicap in antagonisms. The model allows for symbiont adaptation to its host, a result that is robust to changes in the parameters and generalizes to continuous and multiplayer games. Our findings provide insight into a wide range of symbiotic phenomena and help to unify the field of coevolutionary theory.

  12. Nonlinear conductivity of a holographic superconductor under constant electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hua Bi; Tian, Yu; Fan, Zheyong; Chen, Chiang-Mei

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of a two-dimensional superconductor under a constant electric field E is studied by using the gauge-gravity correspondence. The pair breaking current induced by E first increases to a peak value and then decreases to a constant value at late times, where the superconducting gap goes to zero, corresponding to a normal conducting phase. The peak value of the current is found to increase linearly with respect to the electric field. Moreover, the nonlinear conductivity, defined as an average of the conductivity in the superconducting phase, scales as ˜E-2 /3 when the system is close to the critical temperature Tc, which agrees with predictions from solving the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. Away from Tc, the E-2 /3 scaling of the conductivity still holds when E is large.

  13. Evolving Digital Ecological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Aaron P.; Ofria, Charles

    2013-01-01

    “It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities” [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms) that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism). Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks) that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved). PMID:23533370

  14. Small field axion inflation with sub-Planckian decay constant

    SciTech Connect

    Kadota, Kenji; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Oikawa, Akane

    2016-10-10

    We study an axion inflation model recently proposed within the framework of type IIB superstring theory, where we pay a particular attention to a sub-Planckian axion decay constant. Our axion potential can lead to the small field inflation with a small tensor-to-scalar ratio, and a typical reheating temperature can be as low as GeV.

  15. Exact Electromagnetic Fields Produced by a Finite Wire with Constant Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, J. L.; Campos, I.; Aquino, N.

    2008-01-01

    We solve exactly the problem of calculating the electromagnetic fields produced by a finite wire with a constant current, by using two methods: retarded potentials and Jefimenko's formalism. One result in this particular case is that the usual Biot-Savart law of magnetostatics gives the correct magnetic field of the problem. We also show…

  16. Magnetic field in IRC+10216 and other C-rich evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthu, A.; Herpin, F.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Baudry, A.; Lèbre, A.; Paubert, G.

    2017-07-01

    Context. During the transition from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to planetary nebulae (PN), the circumstellar geometry and morphology change dramatically. Another characteristic of this transition is the high mass-loss rate, that can be partially explained by radiation pressure and a combination of various factors, such as the stellar pulsation, the dust grain condensation, and opacity in the upper atmosphere. The magnetic field can also be one of the main ingredients that shapes the stellar upper atmosphere and envelope. Aims: Our main goal is to investigate for the first time the spatial distribution of the magnetic field in the envelope of IRC+10216. More generally we intend to determine the magnetic field strength in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of C-rich evolved stars, compare this field with previous studies for O-rich stars, and constrain the variation of the magnetic field with r the distance to the star's centre. Methods: We use spectropolarimetric observations of the Stokes V parameter, collected with Xpol on the IRAM-30 m radiotelescope, observing the Zeeman effect in seven hyperfine components of the CN J = 1-0 line. We use the Crutcher et al. (1996, ApJ, 456, 217) method to estimate the magnetic field. For the first time, the instrumental contamination is investigated, through dedicated studies of the power patterns in Stokes V and I in detail. Results: For C-rich evolved stars, we derive a magnetic field strength (B) between 1.6 and 14.2 mG while B is estimated to be 6 mG for the proto-PN (PPN) AFGL618, and an upper value of 8 mG is found for the PN NGC 7027. These results are consistent with a decrease of B as 1/r in the environment of AGB objects, that is, with the presence of a toroidal field. But this is not the case for PPN and PN stars. Our map of IRC+10216 suggests that the magnetic field is not homogeneously strong throughout or aligned with the envelope and that the morphology of the CN emission might have changed with time.

  17. Noninvasive valve monitor using constant magnetic and/or DC electromagnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Casada, D.A.; Haynes, H.D.

    1993-08-17

    One or more sources of steady magnetic field are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. The constant magnetic field is transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. A magnetic field detector carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the magnetic field at its location. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, there is an alteration in the magnetic field in the valve, and a consequent change in the detected magnetic field. Changes in the detected signal provide an indication of the position and motion of the valve internals.

  18. Noninvasive valve monitor using constant magnetic and/or DC electromagnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Casada, Donald A.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1993-01-01

    One or more sources of steady magnetic field are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. The constant magnetic field is transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. A magnetic field detector carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the magnetic field at its location. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, there is an alteration in the magnetic field in the valve, and a consequent change in the detected magnetic field. Changes in the detected signal provide an indication of the position and motion of the valve internals.

  19. Periodic Inclusion—Matrix Microstructures with Constant Field Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping; James, Richard D.; Leo, Perry H.

    2007-04-01

    We find a class of special microstructures consisting of a periodic array of inclusions, with the special property that constant magnetization (or eigenstrain) of the inclusion implies constant magnetic field (or strain) in the inclusion. The resulting inclusions, which we term E-inclusions, have the same property in a finite periodic domain as ellipsoids have in infinite space. The E-inclusions are found by mapping the magnetostatic or elasticity equations to a constrained minimization problem known as a free-boundary obstacle problem. By solving this minimization problem, we can construct families of E-inclusions with any prescribed volume fraction between zero and one. In two dimensions, our results coincide with the microstructures first introduced by Vigdergauz,[1,2] while in three dimensions, we introduce a numerical method to calculate E-inclusions. E-inclusions extend the important role of ellipsoids in calculations concerning phase transformations and composite materials.

  20. Magnetically modified bioсells in constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, E. G.; Panina, L. K.; Kolikov, V. A.; Bogomolova, E. V.; Snetov, V. N.; Cherepkova, I. A.; Kiselev, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell' size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  1. Hyperfine field, electric field gradient, quadrupole coupling constant and magnetic properties of challenging actinide digallide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sajid; Yazdani-Kachoei, M.; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we explore the structural and magnetic properties as well as electric field gradient (EFG), hyperfine field (HFF) and quadrupole coupling constant in actinide digallide AcGa2 (Ac = U, Np, Pu) using LDA, GGA, LDA+U, GGA+U and hybrid functional with Wu-Cohen Generalized Gradient approximation HF-WC. Relativistic effects of the electrons are considered by including spin-orbit coupling. The comparison of the calculated structural parameters and magnetic properties with the available experimental results confirms the consistency and hence effectiveness of our theoretical tools. The calculated magnetic moments demonstrate that UGa2 and NpGa2 are ferromagnetic while PuGa2 is antiferromagnetic in nature. The EFG of AcGa2 is reported for the first time. The HFF, EFG and quadrupole coupling constant in AcGa2 (Ac = U, Np, Pu) are mainly originated from f-f and p-p contributions of Ac atom and p-p contribution of Ga atom.

  2. Elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials in the phase-field crystal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Le; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Zhirong

    2018-04-01

    A general procedure is developed to investigate the elastic response and calculate the elastic constants of stressed and unstressed materials through continuum field modeling, particularly the phase-field crystal (PFC) models. It is found that for a complete description of system response to elastic deformation, the variations of all the quantities of lattice wave vectors, their density amplitudes (including the corresponding anisotropic variation and degeneracy breaking), the average atomic density, and system volume should be incorporated. The quantitative and qualitative results of elastic constant calculations highly depend on the physical interpretation of the density field used in the model, and also importantly, on the intrinsic pressure that usually pre-exists in the model system. A formulation based on thermodynamics is constructed to account for the effects caused by constant pre-existing stress during the homogeneous elastic deformation, through the introducing of a generalized Gibbs free energy and an effective finite strain tensor used for determining the elastic constants. The elastic properties of both solid and liquid states can be well produced by this unified approach, as demonstrated by an analysis for the liquid state and numerical evaluations for the bcc solid phase. The numerical calculations of bcc elastic constants and Poisson's ratio through this method generate results that are consistent with experimental conditions, and better match the data of bcc Fe given by molecular dynamics simulations as compared to previous work. The general theory developed here is applicable to the study of different types of stressed or unstressed material systems under elastic deformation.

  3. Field-evolved resistance to λ-cyhalothrin in the lady beetle Eriopis connexa.

    PubMed

    Costa, P M G; Torres, J B; Rondelli, V M; Lira, R

    2018-06-01

    Natural enemies are exposed to insecticide sprays for herbivorous species and may evolve field resistance to insecticides. Natural enemies selected for resistance in the field, however, are welcome for pest control. The susceptibility of 20 populations of Eriopis connexa from various crop ecosystems to λ-cyhalothrin was tested. Three bioassays were conducted: (i) topical treatment with lethal dose (LD)50 previously determined for populations considered standard for susceptibility (LD50S) and for resistance (LD50R) to λ-cyhalothrin at technical grade; (ii) dose-mortality assay to calculate the LD for populations exhibiting significant survival to the LD50R; and (iii) determination of survival when exposed to dried residues at field rates. Among the 20 tested populations, seven populations did not survive or survival rates were lower than 10% when treated with LD50R; three populations survived >20%, but lower than 50%; while ten populations exhibited equal or greater survival rates compared with the 50% expected survival for the LD50R. Thus, these ten populations were subjected to dose-mortality response, and the LD50 values varied from 0.046 to 5.44 µg a.i./insect with resistance ratio of 8.52- to 884.08-folds. Adults from these ten populations that were ranked as resistant according to the LD50R exhibited survival from 44.5 to 100% exposed to the lowest and from 38.8 to 100% exposed to the highest field rates of λ-cyhalothrin, respectively. Otherwise, the remaining ten populations ranked as susceptible according to the LD50R showed survival from 3.3 to 56% exposed to the lowest and from 0 to 17.7% exposed to the highest field rates of λ-cyhalothrin, respectively. Therefore, 50% of the tested E. connexa populations exhibited field-evolved resistance to λ-cyhalothrin and the use of a discriminatory LD50 for resistance matched the survival obtained when exposed to the insecticide field rates.

  4. Fitness costs associated with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-02-01

    Increasing adoption of transgenic crops expressing cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) represents an augmented risk for development of insect resistance. While fitness costs can greatly influence the rate of resistance evolution, most available data related to Bt resistance have been obtained from laboratory-selected insect strains. In this article, we test the existence of fitness costs associated with high levels of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize event TC1507 in a strain of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) originated from maize fields in Puerto Rico. Fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda were evaluated by comparing biological performance to susceptible insects when reared on meridic diet, maize or soybean leaf tissue, or cotton reproductive tissues. Parameters monitored included larval survival, larval and pupal weights, developmental time (larval and pupal), adult longevity, reproductive traits (fecundity and fertility), and sex ratio. We found that all monitored parameters were influenced to a similar extent by the host, independently of susceptibility to Bt maize. The only parameter that significantly differed between strains for all hosts was a longer larval developmental period in resistant S. frugiperda, which resulted in emergence asynchrony between susceptible and resistant adults. To test the relevance of fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda, we performed a selection experiment to monitor the stability of resistance in a heterogeneous strain through 12 generations of rearing on meridic diet. Our data demonstrate lack of fitness costs relevant to stability of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize and help explain reported stability of field-evolved resistance in Puerto Rican populations of S. frugiperda.

  5. Transport equations for low-energy solar particles in evolving interplanetary magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Two new forms of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation are derived for the transport of low-energy solar energetic particles in an evolving interplanetary magnetic field, carried by a variable radial solar wind. An idealized solution suggests that the 'invariant' anisotropy direction reported by Allum et al. (1974) may be explained within the conventional theoretical framework. The equations may be used to relate studies of solar particle propagation to solar wind transients, and vice versa.

  6. Regularizing cosmological singularities by varying physical constants

    SciTech Connect

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Marosek, Konrad, E-mail: mpdabfz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl, E-mail: k.marosek@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2013-02-01

    Varying physical constant cosmologies were claimed to solve standard cosmological problems such as the horizon, the flatness and the Λ-problem. In this paper, we suggest yet another possible application of these theories: solving the singularity problem. By specifying some examples we show that various cosmological singularities may be regularized provided the physical constants evolve in time in an appropriate way.

  7. On parasupersymmetric oscillators and relativistic vector mesons in constant magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debergh, Nathalie; Beckers, Jules

    1995-01-01

    Johnson-Lippmann considerations on oscillators and their connection with the minimal coupling schemes are visited in order to introduce a new Sakata-Taketani equation describing vector mesons in interaction with a constant magnetic field. This new proposal, based on a specific parasupersymmetric oscillator-like system, is characterized by real energies as opposed to previously pointed out relativistic equations corresponding to this interacting context.

  8. Fast backprojection-based reconstruction of spectral-spatial EPR images from projections with the constant sweep of a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Komarov, Denis A; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce a procedure for the reconstruction of spectral-spatial EPR images using projections acquired with the constant sweep of a magnetic field. The application of a constant field-sweep and a predetermined data sampling rate simplifies the requirements for EPR imaging instrumentation and facilitates the backprojection-based reconstruction of spectral-spatial images. The proposed approach was applied to the reconstruction of a four-dimensional numerical phantom and to actual spectral-spatial EPR measurements. Image reconstruction using projections with a constant field-sweep was three times faster than the conventional approach with the application of a pseudo-angle and a scan range that depends on the applied field gradient. Spectral-spatial EPR imaging with a constant field-sweep for data acquisition only slightly reduces the signal-to-noise ratio or functional resolution of the resultant images and can be applied together with any common backprojection-based reconstruction algorithm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. DFT calculations for anharmonic force field and spectroscopic constants of YC2 and its 13C isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanliang; Wang, Meishan; Yang, Chuanlu; Ma, Xiaoguang; Li, Jing

    2018-02-01

    The construction of the complete third and the semi-diagonal quartic force fields including the anharmonicity of the ground state (X˜2A1) for yttrium dicarbide (YC2) is carried out employing the vibrational second-order perturbation theory (VPT2) in combination with the density functional theory (DFT). The equilibrium geometries optimization, anharmonic force field and vibrational spectroscopic constants of YC2 are calculated by B3LYP, B3PW91 and B3P86 methods. Aug-cc-pVnZ (n = D, T, Q) and cc-pVnZ-PP (n = D, T, Q) basis sets are chosen for C and Y atoms, respectively. The calculated geometry parameters of YC2 agree well with the corresponding experimental and previous theoretical results. The bonding characters of Ysbnd C2 or Csbnd C are discussed. Based on the optimized equilibrium geometries, the spectroscopic constants and anharmonic force field of YC2 are calculated. Comparing with the spectroscopic constants of YC2 derived from the experiment, the calculated results show that the B3PW91 and B3P86 methods are superior to B3LYP for YC2. The Coriolis coupling constants, cubic and quartic force constants of YC2 are reasonably predicted. Besides, the spectroscopic constants and anharmonic force field of Y13C2 (X˜2A1) and Y13CC (X˜2A‧) are calculated for the first time, which are expected to guide the high resolution experimental work for YC2 and its 13C isotopologues.

  10. Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodina, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

  11. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize are susceptible to Bt pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-10-01

    Field-evolved resistance to maize event TC1507 expressing the Cry1Fa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was detected in populations of Spodoptera frugiperda from Puerto Rico. We tested for cross-resistance to purified Cry1A toxins and commercial Bt pesticides in susceptible (Benzon) and TC1507-resistant (456) strains of S. frugiperda. Larvae from the 456 strain exhibited cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins, while no differences in susceptibility to XenTari WG and DiPel ES pesticides were detected. These data support cross-resistance to toxins that share binding sites with Cry1Fa and no cross-resistance to Bt pesticides in S. frugiperda with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm

    PubMed Central

    Gassmann, Aaron J.; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L.; Keweshan, Ryan S.; Dunbar, Mike W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crops engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are planted on millions of hectares annually, reducing the use of conventional insecticides and suppressing pests. However, the evolution of resistance could cut short these benefits. A primary pest targeted by Bt maize in the United States is the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Methodology/Principal Findings We report that fields identified by farmers as having severe rootworm feeding injury to Bt maize contained populations of western corn rootworm that displayed significantly higher survival on Cry3Bb1 maize in laboratory bioassays than did western corn rootworm from fields not associated with such feeding injury. In all cases, fields experiencing severe rootworm feeding contained Cry3Bb1 maize. Interviews with farmers indicated that Cry3Bb1 maize had been grown in those fields for at least three consecutive years. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of years Cry3Bb1 maize had been grown in a field and the survival of rootworm populations on Cry3Bb1 maize in bioassays. However, there was no significant correlation among populations for survival on Cry34/35Ab1 maize and Cry3Bb1 maize, suggesting a lack of cross resistance between these Bt toxins. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of field-evolved resistance to a Bt toxin by the western corn rootworm and by any species of Coleoptera. Insufficient planting of refuges and non-recessive inheritance of resistance may have contributed to resistance. These results suggest that improvements in resistance management and a more integrated approach to the use of Bt crops may be necessary. PMID:21829470

  13. Constantly evolving safety assessment protocols for GM foods.

    PubMed

    Sesikeran, B; Vasanthi, Siruguri

    2008-01-01

    he introduction of GM foods has led to the evolution of a food safety assessment paradigm that establishes safety of the GM food relative to its conventional counterpart. The GM foods currently approved and marketed in several countries have undergone extensive safety testing under a structured safety assessment framework evolved by international organizations like FAO, WHO, Codex and OECD. The major elements of safety assessment include molecular characterization of inserted genes and stability of the trait, toxicity and allergenicity potential of the expressed substances, compositional analysis, potential for gene transfer to gut microflora and unintentional effects of the genetic modification. As more number and type of food crops are being brought under the genetic modification regime, the adequacy of existing safety assessment protocols for establishing safety of these foods has been questioned. Such crops comprise GM crops with higher agronomic vigour, nutritional or health benefit/ by modification of plant metabolic pathways and those expressing bioactive substances and pharmaceuticals. The safety assessment challenges of these foods are the potential of the methods to detect unintentional effects with higher sensitivity and rigor. Development of databases on food compositions, toxicants and allergens is currently seen as an important aid to development of safety protocols. With the changing global trends in genetic modification technology future challenge would be to develop GM crops with minimum amount of inserted foreign DNA so as to reduce the burden of complex safety assessments while ensuring safety and utility of the technology.

  14. Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in a Constant Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adorno, T. C.; Pereira, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    The method of integrals of motion is used to construct families of generalized coherent states of a nonrelativistic spinless charged particle in a constant electric field. Families of states, differing in the values of their standard deviations at the initial time, are obtained. Depending on the initial values of the standard deviations, and also on the electric field, it turns out to be possible to identify some families with semiclassical states.

  15. Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.

    1999-07-27

    A cavity structure is disclosed having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam. 16 figs.

  16. Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yoon W.; Kustom, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    A cavity structure having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam.

  17. Quantum oscillator on CP{sup n} in a constant magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bellucci, Stefano; Nersessian, Armen; Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Brothers St., 2, Yerevan, 375036

    2004-10-15

    We construct the quantum oscillator interacting with a constant magnetic field on complex projective spaces CP{sup N}, as well as on their noncompact counterparts, i.e., the N-dimensional Lobachewski spaces L{sub N}. We find the spectrum of this system and the complete basis of wave functions. Surprisingly, the inclusion of a magnetic field does not yield any qualitative change in the energy spectrum. For N>1 the magnetic field does not break the superintegrability of the system, whereas for N=1 it preserves the exact solvability of the system. We extend these results to the cones constructed over CP{sup N} and L{sub N},more » and perform the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation of these systems to the three dimensional Coulomb-like systems.« less

  18. Dielectric constant of ionic solutions: a field-theory approach.

    PubMed

    Levy, Amir; Andelman, David; Orland, Henri

    2012-06-01

    We study the variation of the dielectric response of a dielectric liquid (e.g. water) when a salt is added to the solution. Employing field-theoretical methods, we expand the Gibbs free energy to first order in a loop expansion and calculate self-consistently the dielectric constant. We predict analytically the dielectric decrement which depends on the ionic strength in a complex way. Furthermore, a qualitative description of the hydration shell is found and is characterized by a single length scale. Our prediction fits rather well a large range of concentrations for different salts using only one fit parameter related to the size of ions and dipoles.

  19. Bi-stable dendrite in constant electric field: a model analysis.

    PubMed

    Baginskas, A; Gutman, A; Svirskis, G

    1993-03-01

    Some neurons possess dendritic persistent inward current, which is activated during depolarization. Dendrites can be stably depolarized, i.e. they are bi-stable if the net current is inward. A proper method to show the existence of dendritic bi-stability is putting the neuron into the electric field to induce transmembrane potential changes along the dendrites. Here we present analytical and computer simulation of the bi-stable dendrite in the d.c. field. A prominent jump to a depolarization plateau can be seen in the soma upon initial hyperpolarization of its membrane. If a considerable portion of dendrites are parallel to the field it is impossible to switch off the depolarization plateau by changing the direction and the strength of the electric field. There is nothing similar in neurons with ohmic dendrites. The results of the simulation conform to the experimental observations in turtle motoneurons [Hounsgaard J. and Kiehn O. (1993) J. Physiol., Lond. (in press)]; comparison of the theoretical and the experimental results makes semi-quantitative estimation of some electrical parameters of dendrites possible. We propose modifications of the experiment which enable one to measure dendritic length constants and other parameters of stained neurons.

  20. High-dielectric-constant polymers as high-energy-density (HED) field effect actuator and capacitor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Qiming

    2004-07-01

    The development of high dielectric constant polymers as active materials in high-performance devices is one of the challenges in polymeric electronics and opto-electronics such as flexible thin-film capacitors, memory devices and microactuators for deformable micromirror technology. A group of poly(vinylidene fluoridetrifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) based high-dielectric-constant fluoroterpolymers have been developed, which have high room-temperature dielectric constant (K>60) and very high strain level and high energy density. The longitudinal and transverse strain of these materials can reach about -7% and 4.5%, respectively, and the elastic energy density is around 1.1 J/cm^3 under a high electric field of 150 MV/m. The influence on the electromechanical properties of copolymerizing poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) with a third monomer, chlorofluoroethylene (CFE), was investigated. It was found that increasing the CFE content from 0 to 8.5% slowly converts the ferroelectric structure of the copolymer to a relaxor ferroelectric system. This allows for a greatly decreased polarization and dielectric hysteresis and a much higher strain. Above 8.5%, increased CFE content substantially degrades the bulk crystallinity and the Young's modulus. These terpolymers have the potential to achieve above 10 J/cm^3 whole capacity energy density, which makes them good candidates for applications in pulse power capacitors. An all-polymer percolative composite by the combination of conductive polyaniline particles (K>10^5) within a fluoroterpolymer matrix, is introduced which exhibits very high dielectric constant (>7,000). The experimental results show that the dielectric behavior of this new class of percolative composites follows the prediction of the percolation theory and the analysis of the conductive percolation phenomena. The very high dielectric constant of the all-polymer composites which are also very flexible and possess elastic modulus not very

  1. Double gauge invariance and covariantly-constant vector fields in Weyl geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassandrov, Vladimir V.; Rizcallah, Joseph A.

    2014-08-01

    The wave equation and equations of covariantly-constant vector fields (CCVF) in spaces with Weyl nonmetricity turn out to possess, in addition to the canonical conformal-gauge, a gauge invariance of another type. On a Minkowski metric background, the CCVF system alone allows us to pin down the Weyl 4-metricity vector, identified herein with the electromagnetic potential. The fundamental solution is given by the ordinary Lienard-Wiechert field, in particular, by the Coulomb distribution for a charge at rest. Unlike the latter, however, the magnitude of charge is necessarily unity, "elementary", and charges of opposite signs correspond to retarded and advanced potentials respectively, thus establishing a direct connection between the particle/antiparticle asymmetry and the "arrow of time".

  2. A Hybrid Constant and Oscillatory Field Ion Mobility Analyzer in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakaran Nair Syamala Amma, Aneesh; Hamid, Ahme

    2018-02-28

    Ion mobility (IM) spectrometry is becoming an important approach for analyzing molecular ions in the gas phase with applications that span a multitude of scientific areas. There are a variety of IM-based approaches that utilize either constant or oscillatory electric fields. Here, we explore the combination of constant and oscillatory fields applied in a single device to affect the separation and filtering of ions based on their mobilities. The mobility analyzer allows confining and manipulating ions utilizing a combination of radio frequency (RF), direct current (DC) fields, and traveling waves (TW) in a structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) module.more » In this work, we have investigated theoretically and experimentally the concept for continuous filtering of ions based on their mobilities where ions are mobility separated and selected by a combination of TW and constant fields providing opposing forces on the ions. The SLIM module was composed of two surfaces with mirror-image arrays of electrodes and had two regions where the different TW and opposing DC fields could be applied. By appropriately choosing the DC gradient and TW parameters for the two sections, it is possible to transmit ions of a selected mobility while filtering out others. The filtering capabilities are determined by the applied DC gradient and the TW parameters, such as frequency, amplitude and the TW sequence (i.e., the duty cycle of the traveling wave). The effect of different parameters on the sensitivity and the IM resolution of the device have been investigated.« less

  3. A Hybrid Constant and Oscillatory Field Ion Mobility Analyzer Using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakaran, Aneesh; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.

    Ion mobility (IM) spectrometry is becoming an important approach for analyzing molecular ions in the gas phase with applications that span a multitude of scientific areas. There are a variety of IM-based approaches that utilize either constant or oscillatory electric fields. Here, we explore the combination of constant and oscillatory fields applied in a single device to affect the separation and filtering of ions based on their mobilities. The mobility analyzer allows confining and manipulating ions utilizing a combination of radio frequency (RF), direct current (DC) fields, and traveling waves (TW) in a structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) module.more » In this work, we have investigated theoretically and experimentally the concept for continuous filtering of ions based on their mobilities where ions are mobility separated and selected by a combination of TW and constant fields providing opposing forces on the ions. The SLIM module was composed of two surfaces with mirror-image arrays of electrodes and had two regions where the different TW and opposing DC fields could be applied. By appropriately choosing the DC gradient and TW parameters for the two sections, it is possible to transmit ions of a selected mobility while filtering out others. The filtering capabilities are determined by the applied DC gradient and the TW parameters, such as frequency, amplitude and the TW sequence (i.e., the duty cycle of the traveling wave). The effect of different parameters on the sensitivity and the IM resolution of the device have been investigated.« less

  4. Disgust: Evolved Function and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tybur, Joshua M.; Lieberman, Debra; Kurzban, Robert; DeScioli, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Interest in and research on disgust has surged over the past few decades. The field, however, still lacks a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the evolved function or functions of disgust. Here we present such a framework, emphasizing 2 levels of analysis: that of evolved function and that of information processing. Although there is…

  5. Nonlinear multidimensional cosmological models with form fields: Stabilization of extra dimensions and the cosmological constant problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, U.; Moniz, P.; Zhuk, A.

    2003-08-01

    We consider multidimensional gravitational models with a nonlinear scalar curvature term and form fields in the action functional. In our scenario it is assumed that the higher dimensional spacetime undergoes a spontaneous compactification to a warped product manifold. Particular attention is paid to models with quadratic scalar curvature terms and a Freund-Rubin-like ansatz for solitonic form fields. It is shown that for certain parameter ranges the extra dimensions are stabilized. In particular, stabilization is possible for any sign of the internal space curvature, the bulk cosmological constant, and of the effective four-dimensional cosmological constant. Moreover, the effective cosmological constant can satisfy the observable limit on the dark energy density. Finally, we discuss the restrictions on the parameters of the considered nonlinear models and how they follow from the connection between the D-dimensional and the four-dimensional fundamental mass scales.

  6. Do the Constants of Nature Couple to Strong Gravitational Fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preval, Simon P.; Barstow, Martin A.; Holberg, Jay B.; Barrow, John; Berengut, Julian; Webb, John; Dougan, Darren; Hu, Jiting

    2015-06-01

    Recently, white dwarf stars have found a new use in the fundamental physics community. Many prospective theories of the fundamental interactions of Nature allow traditional constants, like the fine structure constant α, to vary in some way. A study by Berengut et al. (2013) used the Fe/Ni v line measurements made by Preval et al. (2013) from the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B, in an attempt to detect any variation in α. It was found that the Fe v lines indicated an increasing alpha, whereas the Ni v lines indicated a decreasing alpha. Possible explanations for this could be misidentification of the lines, inaccurate atomic data, or wavelength dependent distortion in the spectrum. We examine the first two cases by using a high S/N reference spectrum from the hot sdO BD+28°4211 to calibrate the Fe/Ni v atomic data. With this new data, we re-evaluate the work of Berengut et al. (2013) to derive a new constraint on the variation of alpha in a gravitational field.

  7. Inflation with a smooth constant-roll to constant-roll era transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study canonical scalar field models, with a varying second slow-roll parameter, that allow transitions between constant-roll eras. In the models with two constant-roll eras, it is possible to avoid fine-tunings in the initial conditions of the scalar field. We mainly focus on the stability of the resulting solutions, and we also investigate if these solutions are attractors of the cosmological system. We shall calculate the resulting scalar potential and, by using a numerical approach, we examine the stability and attractor properties of the solutions. As we show, the first constant-roll era is dynamically unstable towards linear perturbations, and the cosmological system is driven by the attractor solution to the final constant-roll era. As we demonstrate, it is possible to have a nearly scale-invariant power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations in some cases; however, this is strongly model dependent and depends on the rate of the final constant-roll era. Finally, we present, in brief, the essential features of a model that allows oscillations between constant-roll eras.

  8. Scalar field and time varying cosmological constant in f(R,T) gravity for Bianchi type-I universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. P.; Bishi, Binaya K.; Sahoo, P. K.

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we have analysed the behaviour of scalar field and cosmological constant in $f(R,T)$ theory of gravity. Here, we have considered the simplest form of $f(R,T)$ i.e. $f(R,T)=R+2f(T)$, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $T$ is the trace of the energy momentum tensor and explored the spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Locally Rotationally Symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I cosmological model. It is assumed that the Universe is filled with two non-interacting matter sources namely scalar field (normal or phantom) with scalar potential and matter contribution due to $f(R,T)$ action. We have discussed two cosmological models according to power law and exponential law of the volume expansion along with constant and exponential scalar potential as sub models. Power law models are compatible with normal (quintessence) and phantom scalar field whereas exponential volume expansion models are compatible with only normal (quintessence) scalar field. The values of cosmological constant in our models are in agreement with the observational results. Finally, we have discussed some physical and kinematical properties of both the models.

  9. Influence of a constant magnetic field on thrombocytes. [delay of blood coagulation time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerova, Y. A.

    1974-01-01

    In an experiment on white mice it was found that a constant electromagnetic field with strength of 250-275 oersteds is biologically active at an exposure of 55 minutes. Qualitative and morphological changes in thrombocytes 1-3 days following exposure reduced their numbers, prolonged blood coagulation time and increased the number of leucocytes.

  10. The electromagnetic pendulum in quickly changing magnetic field of constant intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodyukov, F. F.; Shepeljavyi, A. I.

    2018-05-01

    The Lagrange-Maxwell equations for the pendulum in the form of a conductive frame, which is suspended in a uniform sinusoidal electromagnetic field of constant intensity, are obtained. The procedure for obtaining simplified mathematical models by a traditional method of separating fast and slow motions with subsiquent averaging a fast time is used. It is shown that this traditional approach may lead to inappropriate mathematical models. Suggested ways on how this can be avoided for the case are considered. The main statements by numerical experiments are illustrated.

  11. Cooling achieved by rotating an anisotropic superconductor in a constant magnetic field: A new perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Phan, Manh-Huong; Mandrus, David

    2016-12-01

    A new type of rotary coolers based on the temperature change (ΔT rot) of an anisotropic superconductor when rotated in a constant magnetic field is proposed.We show that at low temperature the Sommerfeld coefficient (B,Θ) of a single crystalline superconductor, such as MgB 2 and NbS 2, sensitively depends on the applied magnetic field (B) and the orientation of the crystal axis (Θ), which is related to the electronic entropy (S E) and temperature (T) via the expression: S E = T. A simple rotation of the crystal from one axis to one another in a constant magnetic field resultsmore » in a change in and hence S E: ΔSE = ΔγT. A temperature change -ΔT rot ~ 0.94 K from a bath temperature of 2.5 K is achieved by simply rotating the single crystal MgB2 by 90° with respect to the c-axis direction in a fixed field of 2 T. ΔT rot can be tuned by adjusting the strength of B within a wide magnetic field range. Our study paves the way for development of new materials and cryogenic refrigerators that are potentially more energy-efficient, simplified, and compact.« less

  12. Cooling achieved by rotating an anisotropic superconductor in a constant magnetic field: A new perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Manh-Huong; Mandrus, David

    A new type of rotary coolers based on the temperature change (ΔT rot) of an anisotropic superconductor when rotated in a constant magnetic field is proposed.We show that at low temperature the Sommerfeld coefficient (B,Θ) of a single crystalline superconductor, such as MgB 2 and NbS 2, sensitively depends on the applied magnetic field (B) and the orientation of the crystal axis (Θ), which is related to the electronic entropy (S E) and temperature (T) via the expression: S E = T. A simple rotation of the crystal from one axis to one another in a constant magnetic field resultsmore » in a change in and hence S E: ΔSE = ΔγT. A temperature change -ΔT rot ~ 0.94 K from a bath temperature of 2.5 K is achieved by simply rotating the single crystal MgB2 by 90° with respect to the c-axis direction in a fixed field of 2 T. ΔT rot can be tuned by adjusting the strength of B within a wide magnetic field range. Our study paves the way for development of new materials and cryogenic refrigerators that are potentially more energy-efficient, simplified, and compact.« less

  13. Constraining possible variations of the fine structure constant in strong gravitational fields with the Kα iron line

    SciTech Connect

    Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn

    2014-03-01

    In extensions of general relativity and in theories aiming at unifying gravity with the forces of the Standard Model, the value of the ''fundamental constants'' is often determined by the vacuum expectation value of new fields, which may thus change in different backgrounds. Variations of fundamental constants with respect to the values measured today in laboratories on Earth are expected to be more evident on cosmological timescales and/or in strong gravitational fields. In this paper, I show that the analysis of the Kα iron line observed in the X-ray spectrum of black holes can potentially be used to probe themore » fine structure constant α in gravitational potentials relative to Earth of Δφ ≈ 0.1. At present, systematic effects not fully under control prevent to get robust and stringent bounds on possible variations of the value of α with this technique, but the fact that current data can be fitted with models based on standard physics already rules out variations of the fine structure constant larger than some percent.« less

  14. Particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection with a non-uniform guide field

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, F., E-mail: fw237@st-andrews.ac.uk; Neukirch, T., E-mail: tn3@st-andrews.ac.uk; Harrison, M. G.

    Results are presented of a first study of collisionless magnetic reconnection starting from a recently found exact nonlinear force-free Vlasov–Maxwell equilibrium. The initial state has a Harris sheet magnetic field profile in one direction and a non-uniform guide field in a second direction, resulting in a spatially constant magnetic field strength as well as a constant initial plasma density and plasma pressure. It is found that the reconnection process initially resembles guide field reconnection, but that a gradual transition to anti-parallel reconnection happens as the system evolves. The time evolution of a number of plasma parameters is investigated, and themore » results are compared with simulations starting from a Harris sheet equilibrium and a Harris sheet plus constant guide field equilibrium.« less

  15. Cosmological dynamics with non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycyna, Orest; Szydłowski, Marek, E-mail: orest.hrycyna@ncbj.gov.pl, E-mail: marek.szydlowski@uj.edu.pl

    2015-11-01

    Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate global behaviour of the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model in gravitational theory with a non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function. We show that the system can be reduced to an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system and additionally is equipped with an invariant manifold corresponding to an accelerated expansion of the universe. Using this invariant manifold we find an exact solution of the reduced dynamics. We investigate all solutions for all admissible initial conditions using theory of dynamical systems to obtain a classification of all evolutional paths. The right-hand sides of themore » dynamical system depend crucially on the value of the non-minimal coupling constant therefore we study bifurcation values of this parameter under which the structure of the phase space changes qualitatively. We found a special bifurcation value of the non-minimal coupling constant which is distinguished by dynamics of the model and may suggest some additional symmetry in matter sector of the theory.« less

  16. H0, q0 and the local velocity field. [Hubble and deceleration constants in Big Bang expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to find a systematic deviation from linearity for distances that are under the control of the Virgo cluster, and to determine the value of the mean random motion about the systematic flow, in order to improve the measurement of the Hubble and the deceleration constants. The velocity-distance relation for large and intermediate distances is studied, and type I supernovae are calibrated relatively as distance indicators and absolutely to obtain a new value for the Hubble constant. Methods of determining the deceleration constant are assessed, including determination from direct measurement, mean luminosity density, virgocentric motion, and the time scale test. The very local velocity field is investigated, and a solution is preferred with a random peculiar radial velocity of very nearby field galaxies of 90-100 km/s, and a Virgocentric motion of the local group of 220 km/s, leading to an underlying expansion rate of 55, in satisfactory agreement with the global value.

  17. Increased dielectric constant in the water treated by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field and its possible biological implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xun

    2011-12-01

    Water is the most abundant compound on the surface of the Earth, and can be considered to be the most important molecule in living systems. Water plays a variety of cellular functions, being the solvent of most biological molecules, a substrate and product of enzymatic catalysis, an important component of macromolecules, and more. Because of importance of water in life, many physical and chemical treatments were invented to improve the quality of drinking water. Among them, the treatment with electromagnetic field is a well-known, but much debatable physical method. Although electromagnetic field has been utilized for treating water for 80 years, many reports on beneficial biological effect of electromagnetic field-treated water were either anecdotal or less convincing. To explore if there is any physical base for understanding possible biological effects of electromagnetic field-treated water, dielectric relaxation spectra of deionized water treated with an extremely low frequency electromagnetic (ELFEM) field were measured and compared with that of untreated water. It was surprisingly found that the dielectric constant of the ELFEM field-treated water was 3.7% higher than the control over the frequency range of 1-10 GHz, which indicates a higher molecular polarization occurs in the ELFEM field-treated water. Electrostatic and thermodynamic analysis shows that proteins or other biomacromolecules would have more reduced free energy when they are hydrated in high dielectric constant water. Since free energy is of crucial importance for stability of proteins, protein folding and its conformational change, as well as catalytic activity of enzymes, the free energy reduction of the biomacromolecules hydrated with higher dielectric constant water may be responsible for many possible biological effects of electromagnetic field treated water.

  18. Influence of a constant and variable magnetic field on the coagulation of human blood in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degen, I. L.; Plaksenko, V. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of constant and varying magnetic fields on the coagulation of the blood was studied in experiments performed in vitro and vivo. In the in vitro tests it was found that a constant magnetic field with a strength of 100 or 200 oersteds influences the coagulation of the blood, retarding it in some cases and speeding up the coagulation time in others. In the in vivo studies, both retarding and accelerating effects were likewise observed with respect to the coagulation of the blood, but the nature of the change was a function of the background. A normalizing effect of the magnetic field on the coagulation of the blood was observed.

  19. Evolving cell models for systems and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongqing; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; Heeb, Stephan; Cámara, Miguel; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2010-03-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology for the automated design of cell models for systems and synthetic biology. Our modelling framework is based on P systems, a discrete, stochastic and modular formal modelling language. The automated design of biological models comprising the optimization of the model structure and its stochastic kinetic constants is performed using an evolutionary algorithm. The evolutionary algorithm evolves model structures by combining different modules taken from a predefined module library and then it fine-tunes the associated stochastic kinetic constants. We investigate four alternative objective functions for the fitness calculation within the evolutionary algorithm: (1) equally weighted sum method, (2) normalization method, (3) randomly weighted sum method, and (4) equally weighted product method. The effectiveness of the methodology is tested on four case studies of increasing complexity including negative and positive autoregulation as well as two gene networks implementing a pulse generator and a bandwidth detector. We provide a systematic analysis of the evolutionary algorithm's results as well as of the resulting evolved cell models.

  20. Inflation, the Higgs field and the resolution of the Cosmological Constant Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martini, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation, the ”inflaton”, is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of the Weyl’s differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. Within this novel dynamical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU(2) L ⊗ U(1) Y as well as on the conformal groups of spacetime Weyl’s transformations is analyzed within the framework of a general-relativistic, co-covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An ”Effective Cosmological Potential”: Veff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: {V}{{Λ }}\\equiv {M}{{Λ }}2 via the ”mass reduction parameter”: \\zeta \\equiv \\sqrt{\\frac{|{V}eff|}{|{V}{{Λ }}|}}, a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a ”free parameter” by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the geometrical mean: {M}H\\propto \\sqrt{{M}eff× {M}P} of the Planck mass, MP and of the mass {M}eff\\equiv \\sqrt{|{V}eff|} which accounts for the measured Cosmological Constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The experimental result obtained by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at CERN in the year 2012: MH = 125.09(GeV/c 2) leads by our theory to a value: Meff ~ 3.19 · 10-6(eV/c 2). The peculiar mathematical structure of Veff offers a clue towards the resolution of a most intriguing puzzle of modern quantum field theory, the ”Cosmological Constant Paradox”.

  1. The varying cosmological constant: a new approximation to the Friedmann equations and universe model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztaş, Ahmet M.; Dil, Emre; Smith, Michael L.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the time-dependent nature of the cosmological constant, Λ, of the Einstein Field Equation (EFE). Beginning with the Einstein-Hilbert action as our fundamental principle we develop a modified version of the EFE allowing the value of Λ to vary as a function of time, Λ(t), indirectly, for an expanding universe. We follow the evolving Λ presuming four-dimensional space-time and a flat universe geometry and present derivations of Λ(t) as functions of the Hubble constant, matter density, and volume changes which can be traced back to the radiation epoch. The models are more detailed descriptions of the Λ dependence on cosmological factors than previous, allowing calculations of the important parameters, Ωm and Ωr, to deep lookback times. Since we derive these without the need for extra dimensions or other special conditions our derivations are useful for model evaluation with astronomical data. This should aid resolution of several difficult problems of astronomy such as the best value for the Hubble constant at present and at recombination.

  2. Evolution of circadian rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster populations reared in constant light and dark regimes for over 330 generations.

    PubMed

    Shindey, Radhika; Varma, Vishwanath; Nikhil, K L; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Organisms are believed to have evolved circadian clocks as adaptations to deal with cyclic environmental changes, and therefore it has been hypothesized that evolution in constant environments would lead to regression of such clocks. However, previous studies have yielded mixed results, and evolution of circadian clocks under constant conditions has remained an unsettled topic of debate in circadian biology. In continuation of our previous studies, which reported persistence of circadian rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster populations evolving under constant light, here we intended to examine whether circadian clocks and the associated properties evolve differently under constant light and constant darkness. In this regard, we assayed activity-rest, adult emergence and oviposition rhythms of D. melanogaster populations which have been maintained for over 19 years (~330 generations) under three different light regimes - constant light (LL), light-dark cycles of 12:12 h (LD) and constant darkness (DD). We observed that while circadian rhythms in all the three behaviors persist in both LL and DD stocks with no differences in circadian period, they differed in certain aspects of the entrained rhythms when compared to controls reared in rhythmic environment (LD). Interestingly, we also observed that DD stocks have evolved significantly higher robustness or power of free-running activity-rest and adult emergence rhythms compared to LL stocks. Thus, our study, in addition to corroborating previous results of circadian clock evolution in constant light, also highlights that, contrary to the expected regression of circadian clocks, rearing in constant darkness leads to the evolution of more robust circadian clocks which may be attributed to an intrinsic adaptive advantage of circadian clocks and/or pleiotropic functions of clock genes in other traits.

  3. Three Dimensional Distribution of Sensitive Field and Stress Field Inversion of Force Sensitive Materials under Constant Current Excitation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuanfeng; Liu, Min; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2018-02-28

    Force sensitive conductive composite materials are functional materials which can be used as the sensitive material of force sensors. However, the existing sensors only use one-dimensional electrical properties of force sensitive conductive materials. Even in tactile sensors, the measurement of contact pressure is achieved by large-scale arrays and the units of a large-scale array are also based on the one-dimensional electrical properties of force sensitive materials. The main contribution of this work is to study the three-dimensional electrical properties and the inversion method of three-dimensional stress field of a force sensitive material (conductive rubber), which pushes the application of force sensitive material from one dimensional to three-dimensional. First, the mathematical model of the conductive rubber current field distribution under a constant force is established by the effective medium theory, and the current field distribution model of conductive rubber with different geometry, conductive rubber content and conductive rubber relaxation parameters is deduced. Secondly, the inversion method of the three-dimensional stress field of conductive rubber is established, which provides a theoretical basis for the design of a new tactile sensor, three-dimensional stress field and space force based on force sensitive materials.

  4. Graviton fluctuations erase the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2017-10-01

    Graviton fluctuations induce strong non-perturbative infrared renormalization effects for the cosmological constant. The functional renormalization flow drives a positive cosmological constant towards zero, solving the cosmological constant problem without the need to tune parameters. We propose a simple computation of the graviton contribution to the flow of the effective potential for scalar fields. Within variable gravity, with effective Planck mass proportional to the scalar field, we find that the potential increases asymptotically at most quadratically with the scalar field. The solutions of the derived cosmological equations lead to an asymptotically vanishing cosmological "constant" in the infinite future, providing for dynamical dark energy in the present cosmological epoch. Beyond a solution of the cosmological constant problem, our simplified computation also entails a sizeable positive graviton-induced anomalous dimension for the quartic Higgs coupling in the ultraviolet regime, substantiating the successful prediction of the Higgs boson mass within the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity.

  5. The urban watershed continuum: evolving spatial and temporal dimensions

    Treesearch

    Sujay S. Kaushal; Kenneth T. Belt

    2012-01-01

    Urban ecosystems are constantly evolving, and they are expected to change in both space and time with active management or degradation. An urban watershed continuum framework recognizes a continuum of engineered and natural hydrologic flowpaths that expands hydrologic networks in ways that are seldom considered. It recognizes that the nature of hydrologic connectivity...

  6. Non-singular spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant: IV. Stationary black hole solutions with matter fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chruściel, Piotr T.; Delay, Erwann; Klinger, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We use an elliptic system of equations with complex coefficients for a set of complex-valued tensor fields as a tool to construct infinite-dimensional families of non-singular stationary black holes, real-valued Lorentzian solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton-scalar fields-Yang–Mills–Higgs–Chern–Simons-f(R) equations with a negative cosmological constant. The families include an infinite-dimensional family of solutions with the usual AdS conformal structure at conformal infinity.

  7. Relativistic force field: parametric computations of proton-proton coupling constants in (1)H NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A

    2014-09-05

    Spin-spin coupling constants in (1)H NMR carry a wealth of structural information and offer a powerful tool for deciphering molecular structures. However, accurate ab initio or DFT calculations of spin-spin coupling constants have been very challenging and expensive. Scaling of (easy) Fermi contacts, fc, especially in the context of recent findings by Bally and Rablen (Bally, T.; Rablen, P. R. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 4818), offers a framework for achieving practical evaluation of spin-spin coupling constants. We report a faster and more precise parametrization approach utilizing a new basis set for hydrogen atoms optimized in conjunction with (i) inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) molecular geometries, (ii) inexpensive 4-31G basis set for carbon atoms in fc calculations, and (iii) individual parametrization for different atom types/hybridizations, not unlike a force field in molecular mechanics, but designed for the fc's. With the training set of 608 experimental constants we achieved rmsd <0.19 Hz. The methodology performs very well as we illustrate with a set of complex organic natural products, including strychnine (rmsd 0.19 Hz), morphine (rmsd 0.24 Hz), etc. This precision is achieved with much shorter computational times: accurate spin-spin coupling constants for the two conformers of strychnine were computed in parallel on two 16-core nodes of a Linux cluster within 10 min.

  8. Influence of a constant magnetic field on the fibrinogen-fibrin system. [in blood coagulation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matskevichene, V. B.; Platonova, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of a constant magnetic field with a strength of 2500 oersteds on the fibrinogen-fibrin system was studied in the organism of healthy rabbits with exposure times of 1 and 5 hours. The results obtained indicate disruptions in the stage of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and an increase in the amount of fibrinogen.

  9. THE ONSET OF ELECTRICAL BREAKDOWN IN DUST LAYERS: II. EFFECTIVE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT AND LOCAL FIELD ENHANCEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Part 1 of the work has shown that electrical breakdown in dust layers obeys Paschen's Law, but occurs at applied field values which appear too small to initiate the breakdown. In this paper the authors show how an effective dielectric constant characterizing the dust layer can be...

  10. The enduring legacy of the “constant-field equation” in membrane ion transport

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In 1943, David Goldman published a seminal paper in The Journal of General Physiology that reported a concise expression for the membrane current as a function of ion concentrations and voltage. This body of work was, and still is, the theoretical pillar used to interpret the relationship between a cell’s membrane potential and its external and/or internal ionic composition. Here, we describe from an historical perspective the theory underlying the constant-field equation and its application to membrane ion transport. PMID:28931632

  11. Non-polarizable force field of water based on the dielectric constant: TIP4P/ε.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Azcatl, Raúl; Alejandre, José

    2014-02-06

    The static dielectric constant at room temperature and the temperature of maximum density are used as target properties to develop, by molecular dynamics simulations, the TIP4P/ε force field of water. The TIP4P parameters are used as a starting point. The key step, to determine simultaneously both properties, is to perform simulations at 240 K where a molecular dipole moment of minimum density is found. The minimum is shifted to larger values of μ as the distance between the oxygen atom and site M, lOM, decreases. First, the parameters that define the dipole moment are adjusted to reproduce the experimental dielectric constant and then the Lennard-Jones parameters are varied to match the temperature of maximum density. The minimum on density at 240 K allows understanding why reported TIP4P models fail to reproduce the temperature of maximum density, the dielectric constant, or both properties. The new model reproduces some of the thermodynamic and transport anomalies of water. Additionally, the dielectric constant, thermodynamics, and dynamical and structural properties at different temperatures and pressures are in excellent agreement with experimental data. The computational cost of the new model is the same as that of the TIP4P.

  12. Field-theoretic simulations of block copolymer nanocomposites in a constant interfacial tension ensemble.

    PubMed

    Koski, Jason P; Riggleman, Robert A

    2017-04-28

    Block copolymers, due to their ability to self-assemble into periodic structures with long range order, are appealing candidates to control the ordering of functionalized nanoparticles where it is well-accepted that the spatial distribution of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix dictates the resulting material properties. The large parameter space associated with block copolymer nanocomposites makes theory and simulation tools appealing to guide experiments and effectively isolate parameters of interest. We demonstrate a method for performing field-theoretic simulations in a constant volume-constant interfacial tension ensemble (nVγT) that enables the determination of the equilibrium properties of block copolymer nanocomposites, including when the composites are placed under tensile or compressive loads. Our approach is compatible with the complex Langevin simulation framework, which allows us to go beyond the mean-field approximation. We validate our approach by comparing our nVγT approach with free energy calculations to determine the ideal domain spacing and modulus of a symmetric block copolymer melt. We analyze the effect of numerical and thermodynamic parameters on the efficiency of the nVγT ensemble and subsequently use our method to investigate the ideal domain spacing, modulus, and nanoparticle distribution of a lamellar forming block copolymer nanocomposite. We find that the nanoparticle distribution is directly linked to the resultant domain spacing and is dependent on polymer chain density, nanoparticle size, and nanoparticle chemistry. Furthermore, placing the system under tension or compression can qualitatively alter the nanoparticle distribution within the block copolymer.

  13. Field-induced phase transitions in chiral smectic liquid crystals studied by the constant current method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, Dhaouadi; R, Zgueb; O, Riahi; F, Trabelsi; T, Othman

    2016-05-01

    In ferroelectric liquid crystals, phase transitions can be induced by an electric field. The current constant method allows these transition to be quickly localized and thus the (E,T) phase diagram of the studied product can be obtained. In this work, we make a slight modification to the measurement principles based on this method. This modification allows the characteristic parameters of ferroelectric liquid crystal to be quantitatively measured. The use of a current square signal highlights a phenomenon of ferroelectric hysteresis with remnant polarization at null field, which points out an effect of memory in this compound.

  14. The Evolving Role of Field and Laboratory Seismic Measurements in Geotechnical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokoe, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    The geotechnical engineering has been faced with the problem of characterizing geological materials for site-specific design in the built environment since the profession began. When one of the design requirements included determining the dynamic response of important and critical facilities to earthquake shaking or other types of dynamic loads, seismically-based measurements in the field and laboratory became important tools for direct characterization of the stiffnesses and energy dissipation (material damping) of these materials. In the 1960s, field seismic measurements using small-strain body waves were adapted from exploration geophysics. At the same time, laboratory measurements began using dynamic, torsional, resonant-column devices to measure shear stiffness and material damping in shear. The laboratory measurements also allowed parameters such as material type, confinement state, and nonlinear straining to be evaluated. Today, seismic measurements are widely used and evolving because: (1) the measurements have a strong theoretical basis, (2) they can be performed in the field and laboratory, thus forming an important link between these measurements, and (3) in recent developments in field testing involving surface waves, they are noninvasive which makes them cost effective in comparison to other methods. Active field seismic measurements are used today over depths ranging from about 5 to 1000 m. Examples of shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles evaluated using boreholes, penetrometers, suspension logging, and Rayleigh-type surface waves are presented. The VS measurements were performed in materials ranging from uncemented soil to unweathered rock. The coefficients of variation (COVs) in the VS profiles are generally less than 0.15 over sites with surface areas of 50 km2 or more as long as material types are not laterally mixed. Interestingly, the largest COVs often occur around layer boundaries which vary vertically. It is also interesting to observe how the

  15. Developing Collective Learning Extension for Rapidly Evolving Information System Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Nitin; Ahmed, Faysal

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapidly evolving Information System (IS) technologies, instructors find themselves stuck in the constant game of catching up. On the same hand students find their skills obsolete almost as soon as they graduate. As part of IS curriculum and education, we need to emphasize more on teaching the students "how to learn" while keeping…

  16. Determination of Hamaker constants of polymeric nanoparticles in organic solvents by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Noskov, Sergey; Scherer, Christian; Maskos, Michael

    2013-01-25

    Interaction forces between all objects are either of repulsive or attractive nature. Concerning attractive interactions, the determination of dispersion forces are of special interest since they appear in all colloidal systems and have a crucial influence on the properties and processes in these systems. One possibility to link theory and experiment is the description of the London-Van der Waals forces in terms of the Hamaker constant, which leads to the challenging problem of calculating the van der Waals interaction energies between colloidal particles. Hence, the determination of a Hamaker constant for a given material is needed when interfacial phenomena such as adhesion are discussed in terms of the total potential energy between particles and substrates. In this work, the asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF-FFF) in combination with a Newton algorithm based iteration process was used for the determination of Hamaker constants of different nanoparticles in toluene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cosmological constant is a conserved charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyavsky, Dmitry; Hajian, Kamal

    2018-06-01

    Cosmological constant can always be considered as the on-shell value of a top form in gravitational theories. The top form is the field strength of a gauge field, and the theory enjoys a gauge symmetry. We show that cosmological constant is the charge of the global part of the gauge symmetry, and is conserved irrespective of the dynamics of the metric and other fields. In addition, we introduce its conjugate chemical potential, and prove the generalized first law of thermodynamics which includes variation of cosmological constant as a conserved charge. We discuss how our new term in the first law is related to the volume–pressure term. In parallel with the seminal Wald entropy, this analysis suggests that pressure can also be considered as a conserved charge.

  18. Force Field Benchmark of Organic Liquids: Density, Enthalpy of Vaporization, Heat Capacities, Surface Tension, Isothermal Compressibility, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Dielectric Constant.

    PubMed

    Caleman, Carl; van Maaren, Paul J; Hong, Minyan; Hub, Jochen S; Costa, Luciano T; van der Spoel, David

    2012-01-10

    The chemical composition of small organic molecules is often very similar to amino acid side chains or the bases in nucleic acids, and hence there is no a priori reason why a molecular mechanics force field could not describe both organic liquids and biomolecules with a single parameter set. Here, we devise a benchmark for force fields in order to test the ability of existing force fields to reproduce some key properties of organic liquids, namely, the density, enthalpy of vaporization, the surface tension, the heat capacity at constant volume and pressure, the isothermal compressibility, the volumetric expansion coefficient, and the static dielectric constant. Well over 1200 experimental measurements were used for comparison to the simulations of 146 organic liquids. Novel polynomial interpolations of the dielectric constant (32 molecules), heat capacity at constant pressure (three molecules), and the isothermal compressibility (53 molecules) as a function of the temperature have been made, based on experimental data, in order to be able to compare simulation results to them. To compute the heat capacities, we applied the two phase thermodynamics method (Lin et al. J. Chem. Phys.2003, 119, 11792), which allows one to compute thermodynamic properties on the basis of the density of states as derived from the velocity autocorrelation function. The method is implemented in a new utility within the GROMACS molecular simulation package, named g_dos, and a detailed exposé of the underlying equations is presented. The purpose of this work is to establish the state of the art of two popular force fields, OPLS/AA (all-atom optimized potential for liquid simulation) and GAFF (generalized Amber force field), to find common bottlenecks, i.e., particularly difficult molecules, and to serve as a reference point for future force field development. To make for a fair playing field, all molecules were evaluated with the same parameter settings, such as thermostats and barostats

  19. Force Field Benchmark of Organic Liquids: Density, Enthalpy of Vaporization, Heat Capacities, Surface Tension, Isothermal Compressibility, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Dielectric Constant

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of small organic molecules is often very similar to amino acid side chains or the bases in nucleic acids, and hence there is no a priori reason why a molecular mechanics force field could not describe both organic liquids and biomolecules with a single parameter set. Here, we devise a benchmark for force fields in order to test the ability of existing force fields to reproduce some key properties of organic liquids, namely, the density, enthalpy of vaporization, the surface tension, the heat capacity at constant volume and pressure, the isothermal compressibility, the volumetric expansion coefficient, and the static dielectric constant. Well over 1200 experimental measurements were used for comparison to the simulations of 146 organic liquids. Novel polynomial interpolations of the dielectric constant (32 molecules), heat capacity at constant pressure (three molecules), and the isothermal compressibility (53 molecules) as a function of the temperature have been made, based on experimental data, in order to be able to compare simulation results to them. To compute the heat capacities, we applied the two phase thermodynamics method (Lin et al. J. Chem. Phys.2003, 119, 11792), which allows one to compute thermodynamic properties on the basis of the density of states as derived from the velocity autocorrelation function. The method is implemented in a new utility within the GROMACS molecular simulation package, named g_dos, and a detailed exposé of the underlying equations is presented. The purpose of this work is to establish the state of the art of two popular force fields, OPLS/AA (all-atom optimized potential for liquid simulation) and GAFF (generalized Amber force field), to find common bottlenecks, i.e., particularly difficult molecules, and to serve as a reference point for future force field development. To make for a fair playing field, all molecules were evaluated with the same parameter settings, such as thermostats and barostats

  20. Stability and the Evolvability of Function in a Model Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Jesse D.; Wilke, Claus O.; Arnold, Frances H.; Adami, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    Functional proteins must fold with some minimal stability to a structure that can perform a biochemical task. Here we use a simple model to investigate the relationship between the stability requirement and the capacity of a protein to evolve the function of binding to a ligand. Although our model contains no built-in tradeoff between stability and function, proteins evolved function more efficiently when the stability requirement was relaxed. Proteins with both high stability and high function evolved more efficiently when the stability requirement was gradually increased than when there was constant selection for high stability. These results show that in our model, the evolution of function is enhanced by allowing proteins to explore sequences corresponding to marginally stable structures, and that it is easier to improve stability while maintaining high function than to improve function while maintaining high stability. Our model also demonstrates that even in the absence of a fundamental biophysical tradeoff between stability and function, the speed with which function can evolve is limited by the stability requirement imposed on the protein. PMID:15111394

  1. Numerical study of magnetic nanofluids flow in the round channel located in the constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryazhnikov, Maxim; Guzei, Dmitriy; Minakov, Andrey; Rodionova, Tatyana

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the study of ferromagnetic nanoparticles behaviour in the constant magnetic field is carried out. For numerical simulation we have used Euler-Lagrange two-component approach. Using numerical simulation we have studied the growth of deposition of nanoparticles on the channel walls depending on the Reynolds number and the position of the magnet. The flow pattern, the concentration field and the trajectory of nanoparticles as a function of the Reynolds number were obtained. The good qualitative and quantitative agreement between numerical simulation and experiments was shown.

  2. Evolution of the eye transcriptome under constant darkness in Sinocyclocheilus cavefish.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanwei; Braasch, Ingo; Phillips, Jennifer B; Lin, Xiwen; Titus, Tom; Zhang, Chunguang; Postlethwait, John H

    2013-07-01

    In adaptating to perpetual darkness, cave species gradually lose eyes and body pigmentation and evolve alternatives for exploring their environments. Although troglodyte features evolved independently many times in cavefish, we do not yet know whether independent evolution of these characters involves common genetic mechanisms. Surface-dwelling and many cave-dwelling species make the freshwater teleost genus Sinocyclocheilus an excellent model for studying the evolution of adaptations to life in constant darkness. We compared the mature retinal histology of surface and cave species in Sinocyclocheilus and found that adult cavefish showed a reduction in the number and length of photoreceptor cells. To identify genes and genetic pathways that evolved in constant darkness, we used RNA-seq to compare eyes of surface and cave species. De novo transcriptome assemblies were developed for both species, and contigs were annotated with gene ontology. Results from cave-dwelling Sinocyclocheilus revealed reduced transcription of phototransduction and other genes important for retinal function. In contrast to the blind Mexican tetra cavefish Astyanax mexicanus, our results on morphologies and gene expression suggest that evolved retinal reduction in cave-dwelling Sinocyclocheilus occurs in a lens-independent fashion by the reduced proliferation and downregulation of transcriptional factors shown to have direct roles in retinal development and maintenance, including cone-rod homeobox (crx) and Wnt pathway members. These results show that the independent evolution of retinal degeneration in cavefish can occur by different developmental genetic mechanisms.

  3. Evolution of the Eye Transcriptome under Constant Darkness in Sinocyclocheilus Cavefish

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanwei; Braasch, Ingo; Phillips, Jennifer B.; Lin, Xiwen; Titus, Tom; Zhang, Chunguang; Postlethwait, John H.

    2013-01-01

    In adaptating to perpetual darkness, cave species gradually lose eyes and body pigmentation and evolve alternatives for exploring their environments. Although troglodyte features evolved independently many times in cavefish, we do not yet know whether independent evolution of these characters involves common genetic mechanisms. Surface-dwelling and many cave-dwelling species make the freshwater teleost genus Sinocyclocheilus an excellent model for studying the evolution of adaptations to life in constant darkness. We compared the mature retinal histology of surface and cave species in Sinocyclocheilus and found that adult cavefish showed a reduction in the number and length of photoreceptor cells. To identify genes and genetic pathways that evolved in constant darkness, we used RNA-seq to compare eyes of surface and cave species. De novo transcriptome assemblies were developed for both species, and contigs were annotated with gene ontology. Results from cave-dwelling Sinocyclocheilus revealed reduced transcription of phototransduction and other genes important for retinal function. In contrast to the blind Mexican tetra cavefish Astyanax mexicanus, our results on morphologies and gene expression suggest that evolved retinal reduction in cave-dwelling Sinocyclocheilus occurs in a lens-independent fashion by the reduced proliferation and downregulation of transcriptional factors shown to have direct roles in retinal development and maintenance, including cone-rod homeobox (crx) and Wnt pathway members. These results show that the independent evolution of retinal degeneration in cavefish can occur by different developmental genetic mechanisms. PMID:23612715

  4. Diffusion constant of slowly rotating black three-brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoozad, Z.; Sadeghi, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we take the slowly rotating black three-brane background and perturb it by introducing a vector gauge field. We find the components of the gauge field through Maxwell equations and Bianchi identities. Using currents and some ansatz we find Fick's first law at long wavelength regime. An interesting result for this non-trivial supergravity background is that the diffusion constant on the stretched horizon which emerges from Fick's first law is a complex constant. The pure imaginary part of the diffusion constant appears because the black three-brane has angular momentum. By taking the static limit of the corresponding black brane the well known diffusion constant will be recovered. On the other hand, from the point of view of the Fick's second law, we have the dispersion relation ω = - iDq2 and we found a damping of hydrodynamical flow in the holographically dual theory. Existence of imaginary term in the diffusion constant introduces an oscillating propagation of the gauge field in the dual field theory.

  5. Possible evolution of a bouncing universe in cosmological models with non-minimally coupled scalar fields

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeeva, Ekaterina O.; Vernov, Sergey Yu.; Skugoreva, Maria A.

    2016-12-01

    We explore dynamics of cosmological models with bounce solutions evolving on a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker background. We consider cosmological models that contain the Hilbert-Einstein curvature term, the induced gravity term with a negative coupled constant, and even polynomial potentials of the scalar field. Bounce solutions with non-monotonic Hubble parameters have been obtained and analyzed. The case when the scalar field has the conformal coupling and the Higgs-like potential with an opposite sign is studied in detail. In this model the evolution of the Hubble parameter of the bounce solution essentially depends on the sign of the cosmological constant.

  6. Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a discretized complex scalar field evolving in time

    DOE PAGES

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Guo, Hanqi; Peterka, Tom; ...

    2016-02-19

    In type-II superconductors, the dynamics of magnetic flux vortices determine their transport properties. In the Ginzburg-Landau theory, vortices correspond to topological defects in the complex order parameter field. Earlier, we introduced a method for extracting vortices from the discretized complex order parameter field generated by a large-scale simulation of vortex matter. With this method, at a fixed time step, each vortex [simplistically, a one-dimensional (1D) curve in 3D space] can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field. Here we extend this method as a function of time as well. A vortex now corresponds to a 2Dmore » space-time sheet embedded in 4D space time that can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field over both space and time. Vortices that interact by merging or splitting correspond to disappearance and appearance of holes in the connected graph in the time direction. This method of tracking vortices, which makes no assumptions about the scale or behavior of the vortices, can track the vortices with a resolution as good as the discretization of the temporally evolving complex scalar field. In addition, even details of the trajectory between time steps can be reconstructed from the connected graph. With this form of vortex tracking, the details of vortex dynamics in a model of a superconducting materials can be understood in greater detail than previously possible.« less

  7. Change in fibrinolytic activity under the influence of a constant magnetic field. [blood coagulation normilization in heart patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yepishina, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    The fibrinolytic activity of plasma changes under the influence of a constant magnetic field (CMF) with a strength of 250 or 2500 oersteds. CMF shows a tendency toward normalization of fibrinolytic processes in the presence of pathological disturbances in fibrinolysis activation.

  8. Evolvable mathematical models: A new artificial Intelligence paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grouchy, Paul

    We develop a novel Artificial Intelligence paradigm to generate autonomously artificial agents as mathematical models of behaviour. Agent/environment inputs are mapped to agent outputs via equation trees which are evolved in a manner similar to Symbolic Regression in Genetic Programming. Equations are comprised of only the four basic mathematical operators, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as input and output variables and constants. From these operations, equations can be constructed that approximate any analytic function. These Evolvable Mathematical Models (EMMs) are tested and compared to their Artificial Neural Network (ANN) counterparts on two benchmarking tasks: the double-pole balancing without velocity information benchmark and the challenging discrete Double-T Maze experiments with homing. The results from these experiments show that EMMs are capable of solving tasks typically solved by ANNs, and that they have the ability to produce agents that demonstrate learning behaviours. To further explore the capabilities of EMMs, as well as to investigate the evolutionary origins of communication, we develop NoiseWorld, an Artificial Life simulation in which interagent communication emerges and evolves from initially noncommunicating EMM-based agents. Agents develop the capability to transmit their x and y position information over a one-dimensional channel via a complex, dialogue-based communication scheme. These evolved communication schemes are analyzed and their evolutionary trajectories examined, yielding significant insight into the emergence and subsequent evolution of cooperative communication. Evolved agents from NoiseWorld are successfully transferred onto physical robots, demonstrating the transferability of EMM-based AIs from simulation into physical reality.

  9. Constant-roll (quasi-)linear inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, A.; Marzola, L.; Pappas, T.; Racioppi, A.; Tamvakis, K.

    2018-05-01

    In constant-roll inflation, the scalar field that drives the accelerated expansion of the Universe is rolling down its potential at a constant rate. Within this framework, we highlight the relations between the Hubble slow-roll parameters and the potential ones, studying in detail the case of a single-field Coleman-Weinberg model characterised by a non-minimal coupling of the inflaton to gravity. With respect to the exact constant-roll predictions, we find that assuming an approximate slow-roll behaviour yields a difference of Δ r = 0.001 in the tensor-to-scalar ratio prediction. Such a discrepancy is in principle testable by future satellite missions. As for the scalar spectral index ns, we find that the existing 2-σ bound constrains the value of the non-minimal coupling to ξphi ~ 0.29–0.31 in the model under consideration.

  10. The protective effect of a constant magnetic field. [reduction of molecular cell pathology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sosunov, A. V.; Tripuzov, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    The protective effect of a constant magnetic field sharply reduced spontaneous lysis of E. coli cells when subjected to ultraviolet radiation. A protective effect of a CMF was found in a study of tissue cultures of normally growing cells (kidney epithelium) and cancer cells (cells from a cancer of the larynx). The protective effect of a CMF is also seen in a combined exposure of tissue cultures to X-rays and CMF energy (strength of the CMF was 2000 oersteds with a gradient of 500 oersteds/cm). The data obtained are of interest to experimental oncology (development of new methods of treating malignant tumors).

  11. Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.

  12. Coupling time constants of striated and copper-plated coated conductors and the potential of striation to reduce shielding-current-induced fields in pancake coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki; Tominaga, Naoki; Toyomoto, Ryuki; Nishimoto, Takuma; Sogabe, Yusuke; Yamano, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Hisaki

    2018-07-01

    The shielding-current-induced field is a serious concern for the applications of coated conductors to magnets. The striation of the coated conductor is one of the countermeasures, but it is effective only after the decay of the coupling current, which is characterised with the coupling time constant. In a non-twisted striated coated conductor, the coupling time constant is determined primarily by its length and the transverse resistance between superconductor filaments, because the coupling current could flow along its entire length. We measured and numerically calculated the frequency dependences of magnetisation losses in striated and copper-plated coated conductors with various lengths and their stacks at 77 K and determined their coupling time constants. Stacked conductors simulate the turns of a conductor wound into a pancake coil. Coupling time constants are proportional to the square of the conductor length. Stacking striated coated conductors increases the coupling time constants because the coupling currents in stacked conductors are coupled to one another magnetically to increase the mutual inductances for the coupling current paths. We carried out the numerical electromagnetic field analysis of conductors wound into pancake coils and determined their coupling time constants. They can be explained by the length dependence and mutual coupling effect observed in stacked straight conductors. Even in pancake coils with practical numbers of turns, i.e. conductor lengths, the striation is effective to reduce the shielding-current-induced fields for some dc applications.

  13. Maintaining evolvability.

    PubMed

    Crow, James F

    2008-12-01

    Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy

  14. Evolution of scalar fields surrounding black holes on compactified constant mean curvature hypersurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Manuel D.; Sarbach, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Motivated by the goal for high accuracy modeling of gravitational radiation emitted by isolated systems, recently, there has been renewed interest in the numerical solution of the hyperboloidal initial value problem for Einstein's field equations in which the outer boundary of the numerical grid is placed at null infinity. In this article, we numerically implement the tetrad-based approach presented by Bardeen, Sarbach, and Buchman [Phys. Rev. D 83, 104045 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.104045] for a spherically symmetric, minimally coupled, self-gravitating scalar field. When this field is massless, the evolution system reduces to a regular, first-order symmetric hyperbolic system of equations for the conformally rescaled scalar field which is coupled to a set of singular elliptic constraints for the metric coefficients. We show how to solve this system based on a numerical finite-difference approximation, obtaining stable numerical evolutions for initial black hole configurations which are surrounded by a spherical shell of scalar field, part of which disperses to infinity and part of which is accreted by the black hole. As a nontrivial test, we study the tail decay of the scalar field along different curves, including one along the marginally trapped tube, one describing the world line of a timelike observer at a finite radius outside the horizon, and one corresponding to a generator of null infinity. Our results are in perfect agreement with the usual power-law decay discussed in previous work. This article also contains a detailed analysis for the asymptotic behavior and regularity of the lapse, conformal factor, extrinsic curvature and the Misner-Sharp mass function along constant mean curvature slices.

  15. Applying a Bayesian Approach to Identification of Orthotropic Elastic Constants from Full Field Displacement Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogu, C.; Yin, W.; Haftka, R.; Ifju, P.; Molimard, J.; Le Riche, R.; Vautrin, A.

    2010-06-01

    A major challenge in the identification of material properties is handling different sources of uncertainty in the experiment and the modelling of the experiment for estimating the resulting uncertainty in the identified properties. Numerous improvements in identification methods have provided increasingly accurate estimates of various material properties. However, characterizing the uncertainty in the identified properties is still relatively crude. Different material properties obtained from a single test are not obtained with the same confidence. Typically the highest uncertainty is associated with respect to properties to which the experiment is the most insensitive. In addition, the uncertainty in different properties can be strongly correlated, so that obtaining only variance estimates may be misleading. A possible approach for handling the different sources of uncertainty and estimating the uncertainty in the identified properties is the Bayesian method. This method was introduced in the late 1970s in the context of identification [1] and has been applied since to different problems, notably identification of elastic constants from plate vibration experiments [2]-[4]. The applications of the method to these classical pointwise tests involved only a small number of measurements (typically ten natural frequencies in the previously cited vibration test) which facilitated the application of the Bayesian approach. For identifying elastic constants, full field strain or displacement measurements provide a high number of measured quantities (one measurement per image pixel) and hence a promise of smaller uncertainties in the properties. However, the high number of measurements represents also a major computational challenge in applying the Bayesian approach to full field measurements. To address this challenge we propose an approach based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the full fields in order to drastically reduce their dimensionality. POD is

  16. Bottom-up driven involuntary auditory evoked field change: constant sound sequencing amplifies but does not sharpen neural activity.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Stracke, Henning; Lagemann, Lothar; Pantev, Christo

    2010-01-01

    The capability of involuntarily tracking certain sound signals during the simultaneous presence of noise is essential in human daily life. Previous studies have demonstrated that top-down auditory focused attention can enhance excitatory and inhibitory neural activity, resulting in sharpening of frequency tuning of auditory neurons. In the present study, we investigated bottom-up driven involuntary neural processing of sound signals in noisy environments by means of magnetoencephalography. We contrasted two sound signal sequencing conditions: "constant sequencing" versus "random sequencing." Based on a pool of 16 different frequencies, either identical (constant sequencing) or pseudorandomly chosen (random sequencing) test frequencies were presented blockwise together with band-eliminated noises to nonattending subjects. The results demonstrated that the auditory evoked fields elicited in the constant sequencing condition were significantly enhanced compared with the random sequencing condition. However, the enhancement was not significantly different between different band-eliminated noise conditions. Thus the present study confirms that by constant sound signal sequencing under nonattentive listening the neural activity in human auditory cortex can be enhanced, but not sharpened. Our results indicate that bottom-up driven involuntary neural processing may mainly amplify excitatory neural networks, but may not effectively enhance inhibitory neural circuits.

  17. Tensions inherent in the evolving role of the infection preventionist.

    PubMed

    Conway, Laurie J; Raveis, Victoria H; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Uchida, May; Stone, Patricia W; Larson, Elaine L

    2013-11-01

    The role of infection preventionists (IPs) is expanding in response to demands for quality and transparency in health care. Practice analyses and survey research have demonstrated that IPs spend a majority of their time on surveillance and are increasingly responsible for prevention activities and management; however, deeper qualitative aspects of the IP role have rarely been explored. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of in-depth interviews with 19 IPs at hospitals throughout the United States to describe the current IP role, specifically the ways that IPs effect improvements and the facilitators and barriers they face. The narratives document that the IP role is evolving in response to recent changes in the health care landscape and reveal that this progression is associated with friction and uncertainty. Tensions inherent in the evolving role of the IP emerged from the interviews as 4 broad themes: (1) expanding responsibilities outstrip resources, (2) shifting role boundaries create uncertainty, (3) evolving mechanisms of influence involve trade-offs, and (4) the stress of constant change is compounded by chronic recurring challenges. Advances in implementation science, data standardization, and training in leadership skills are needed to support IPs in their evolving role. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil-moisture constants and their variation

    Treesearch

    Walter M. Broadfoot; Hubert D. Burke

    1958-01-01

    "Constants" like field capacity, liquid limit, moisture equivalent, and wilting point are used by most students and workers in soil moisture. These constants may be equilibrium points or other values that describe soil moisture. Their values under specific soil and cover conditions have been discussed at length in the literature, but few general analyses and...

  19. Fluctuations, ghosts, and the cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, T.; Holdom, B.

    2004-12-15

    For a large region of parameter space involving the cosmological constant and mass parameters, we discuss fluctuating spacetime solutions that are effectively Minkowskian on large time and distance scales. Rapid, small amplitude oscillations in the scale factor have a frequency determined by the size of a negative cosmological constant. A field with modes of negative energy is required. If it is gravity that induces a coupling between the ghostlike and normal fields, we find that this results in stochastic rather than unstable behavior. The negative energy modes may also permit the existence of Lorentz invariant fluctuating solutions of finite energymore » density. Finally we consider higher derivative gravity theories and find oscillating metric solutions in these theories without the addition of other fields.« less

  20. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the two-phase flow field at gas-evolving electrodes: numerical and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Lin; Sun, Ze; Lu, Gui-Min; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2018-05-01

    Gas-evolving vertical electrode system is a typical electrochemical industrial reactor. Gas bubbles are released from the surfaces of the anode and affect the electrolyte flow pattern and even the cell performance. In the current work, the hydrodynamics induced by the air bubbles in a cold model was experimentally and numerically investigated. Particle image velocimetry and volumetric three-component velocimetry techniques were applied to experimentally visualize the hydrodynamics characteristics and flow fields in a two-dimensional (2D) plane and a three-dimensional (3D) space, respectively. Measurements were performed at different gas rates. Furthermore, the corresponding mathematical model was developed under identical conditions for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The experimental measurements were compared with the numerical results based on the mathematical model. The study of the time-averaged flow field, three velocity components, instantaneous velocity and turbulent intensity indicate that the numerical model qualitatively reproduces liquid motion. The 3D model predictions capture the flow behaviour more accurately than the 2D model in this study.

  1. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the two-phase flow field at gas-evolving electrodes: numerical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-Lin; Sun, Ze; Lu, Gui-Min; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2018-05-01

    Gas-evolving vertical electrode system is a typical electrochemical industrial reactor. Gas bubbles are released from the surfaces of the anode and affect the electrolyte flow pattern and even the cell performance. In the current work, the hydrodynamics induced by the air bubbles in a cold model was experimentally and numerically investigated. Particle image velocimetry and volumetric three-component velocimetry techniques were applied to experimentally visualize the hydrodynamics characteristics and flow fields in a two-dimensional (2D) plane and a three-dimensional (3D) space, respectively. Measurements were performed at different gas rates. Furthermore, the corresponding mathematical model was developed under identical conditions for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The experimental measurements were compared with the numerical results based on the mathematical model. The study of the time-averaged flow field, three velocity components, instantaneous velocity and turbulent intensity indicate that the numerical model qualitatively reproduces liquid motion. The 3D model predictions capture the flow behaviour more accurately than the 2D model in this study.

  2. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the two-phase flow field at gas-evolving electrodes: numerical and experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gui-Min; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2018-01-01

    Gas-evolving vertical electrode system is a typical electrochemical industrial reactor. Gas bubbles are released from the surfaces of the anode and affect the electrolyte flow pattern and even the cell performance. In the current work, the hydrodynamics induced by the air bubbles in a cold model was experimentally and numerically investigated. Particle image velocimetry and volumetric three-component velocimetry techniques were applied to experimentally visualize the hydrodynamics characteristics and flow fields in a two-dimensional (2D) plane and a three-dimensional (3D) space, respectively. Measurements were performed at different gas rates. Furthermore, the corresponding mathematical model was developed under identical conditions for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The experimental measurements were compared with the numerical results based on the mathematical model. The study of the time-averaged flow field, three velocity components, instantaneous velocity and turbulent intensity indicate that the numerical model qualitatively reproduces liquid motion. The 3D model predictions capture the flow behaviour more accurately than the 2D model in this study. PMID:29892347

  3. The Far-Field Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Tod

    1995-07-01

    We request deep, near-IR (F814W) WFPC2 images of five nearby Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) to calibrate the BCG Hubble diagram by the Surface Brightness Fluctuation (SBF) method. Lauer & Postman (1992) show that the BCG Hubble diagram measured out to 15,000 km s^-1 is highly linear. Calibration of the Hubble diagram zeropoint by SBF will thus yield an accurate far-field measure of H_0 based on the entire volume within 15,000 km s^-1, thus circumventing any strong biases caused by local peculiar velocity fields. This method of reaching the far field is contrasted with those using distance ratios between Virgo and Coma, or any other limited sample of clusters. HST is required as the ground-based SBF method is limited to <3,000 km s^-1. The high spatial resolution of HST allows precise measurement of the SBF signal at large distances, and allows easy recognition of globular clusters, background galaxies, and dust clouds in the BCG images that must be removed prior to SBF detection. The proposing team developed the SBF method, the first BCG Hubble diagram based on a full-sky, volume-limited BCG sample, played major roles in the calibration of WFPC and WFPC2, and are conducting observations of local galaxies that will validate the SBF zeropoint (through GTO programs). This work uses the SBF method to tie both the Cepheid and Local Group giant-branch distances generated by HST to the large scale Hubble flow, which is most accurately traced by BCGs.

  4. Formation of ZnO at zinc oxidation by near- and supercritical water under the constant electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, A. V.; Sokol, M. Ya.; Shatrova, A. V.; Fedyaeva, O. N.; Vostrikov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The work has detected an influence of a constant electric field (up to E = 300 kV/m) on the structure of a nanocrystalline layer of zinc oxide, formed on the surface of a planar zinc anode in water under supercritical (673 K and 23 MPa) and near-critical (673 K and 17. 5 MPa) conditions. The effect of an increase of zinc oxidation rate with an increase in E is observed under supercritical conditions and is absent at near-critical ones. Increase in the field strength leads to the formation of a looser structure in the inner part of the zinc oxide layer.

  5. Relaxing the cosmological constant: a proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberte, Lasma; Creminelli, Paolo; Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Pirtskhalava, David; Trincherini, Enrico

    2016-12-01

    We propose a technically natural scenario whereby an initially large cosmological constant (c.c.) is relaxed down to the observed value due to the dynamics of a scalar evolving on a very shallow potential. The model crucially relies on a sector that violates the null energy condition (NEC) and gets activated only when the Hubble rate becomes sufficiently small — of the order of the present one. As a result of NEC violation, this low-energy universe evolves into inflation, followed by reheating and the standard Big Bang cosmology. The symmetries of the theory force the c.c. to be the same before and after the NEC-violating phase, so that a late-time observer sees an effective c.c. of the correct magnitude. Importantly, our model allows neither for eternal inflation nor for a set of possible values of dark energy, the latter fixed by the parameters of the theory.

  6. Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Dively, Galen P

    2017-06-01

    Increased temperature anomaly during the twenty-first century coincides with the proliferation of transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) to express insecticidal Cry proteins. Increasing temperatures profoundly affect insect life histories and agricultural pest management. However, the implications of climate change on Bt crop-pest interactions and insect resistance to Bt crops remains unexamined. We analysed the relationship of temperature anomaly and Bt adoption with field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab Bt sweet corn in a major pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Increased Bt adoption during 1996-2016 suppressed H. zea populations, but increased temperature anomaly buffers population reduction. Temperature anomaly and its interaction with elevated selection pressure from high Bt acreage probably accelerated the Bt-resistance development. Helicoverpa zea damage to corn ears, kernel area consumed, mean instars and proportion of late instars in Bt varieties increased with Bt adoption and temperature anomaly, through additive or interactive effects. Risk of Bt-resistant H. zea spreading is high given extensive Bt adoption, and the expected increase in overwintering and migration. Our study highlights the challenges posed by climate change for Bt biotechnology-based agricultural pest management, and the need to incorporate evolutionary processes affected by climate change into Bt-resistance management programmes.

  7. Constant Head Evaluation of Full Scale Soil Absorption Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, S. P.

    2001-05-01

    Design loading rates for septic tank effluent in trenches of various designs with different geometry and media has been debated for decades. The role of bottom and sidewall is a hot topic with many opinion by experts in the field of agricultural and environmental engineering. Research institutions have conducted numerous studies and developed procedures for measuring both test systems and fundamental of soil hydraulics. Falling head tests have been used more recently to evaluate mature test cells and evaluate both sidewall and basal absorption, (Keys et al). The proposed paper will discuss the design and testing of a constant head permeameter. Testing this equipment and developing the test protocol followed the application of the procedure to on a number of residential systems in both sandy and clay loam soil. Results from this testing showed the relability step that must be taken to successfully use this equipment. Result of the testing show the variability and consistency of absorption, the changes in absorption when systems are flooded above their equilibrium condition and the longer-term changes that occur when trenches are rested in a warm climate. More recent application of the test procedure evaluated affects of head and increased depth sidewall on absorption rates when the effluent level in the trenches was raised. Future modification of the test equipment and procedure by integrating a data logger will permits more exact recording of dose cycles and improved estimate of soil absorption efficiency over time.

  8. Magnetic Fields in Evolved Stars: Imaging the Polarized Emission of High-frequency SiO Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Franco-Hernández, R.

    2011-02-01

    We present Submillimeter Array observations of high-frequency SiO masers around the supergiant VX Sgr and the semi-regular variable star W Hya. The J = 5-4, v = 128SiO and v = 029SiO masers of VX Sgr are shown to be highly linearly polarized with a polarization from ~5% to 60%. Assuming the continuum emission peaks at the stellar position, the masers are found within ~60 mas of the star, corresponding to ~100 AU at a distance of 1.57 kpc. The linear polarization vectors are consistent with a large-scale magnetic field, with position and inclination angles similar to that of the dipole magnetic field inferred in the H2O and OH maser regions at much larger distances from the star. We thus show for the first time that the magnetic field structure in a circumstellar envelope can remain stable from a few stellar radii out to ~1400 AU. This provides further evidence supporting the existence of large-scale and dynamically important magnetic fields around evolved stars. Due to a lack of parallactic angle coverage, the linear polarization of masers around W Hya could not be determined. For both stars, we observed the 28SiO and 29SiO isotopologues and find that they have a markedly different distributions and that they appear to avoid each other. Additionally, emission from the SO 55-44 line was imaged for both sources. Around W Hya, we find a clear offset between the red- and blueshifted SO emission. This indicates that W Hya is likely host to a slow bipolar outflow or a rotating disk-like structure.

  9. Exact Green's function method of solar force-free magnetic-field computations with constant alpha. I - Theory and basic test cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Hilton, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions to the solar force-free magnetic-field boundary-value problem are obtained for constant alpha in Cartesian geometry by a Green's function approach. The uniqueness of the physical problem is discussed. Application of the exact results to practical solar magnetic-field calculations is free of series truncation errors and is at least as economical as the approximate methods currently in use. Results of some test cases are presented.

  10. Evolvable Hardware for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason; Globus, Al; Hornby, Gregory; Larchev, Gregory; Kraus, William

    2004-01-01

    This article surveys the research of the Evolvable Systems Group at NASA Ames Research Center. Over the past few years, our group has developed the ability to use evolutionary algorithms in a variety of NASA applications ranging from spacecraft antenna design, fault tolerance for programmable logic chips, atomic force field parameter fitting, analog circuit design, and earth observing satellite scheduling. In some of these applications, evolutionary algorithms match or improve on human performance.

  11. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn

    PubMed Central

    Dively, Galen P.; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    sweet corn provide strong evidence of field-evolved resistance in H. zea populations to multiple Cry toxins. The high adoption rate of Bt field corn and cotton, along with the moderate dose expression of Cry1Ab and related Cry toxins in these crops, and decreasing refuge compliance probably contributed to the evolution of resistance. Our results have important implications for resistance monitoring, refuge requirements and other regulatory policies, cross-resistance issues, and the sustainability of the pyramided Bt technology. PMID:28036388

  12. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Dively, Galen P; Venugopal, P Dilip; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996-2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010-2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab-event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2-event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt sweet corn provide strong evidence of field-evolved resistance in H

  13. Tachyon constant-roll inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Saaidi, Kh.; Golanbari, T.

    2018-04-01

    The constant-roll inflation is studied where the inflaton is taken as a tachyon field. Based on this approach, the second slow-roll parameter is taken as a constant which leads to a differential equation for the Hubble parameter. Finding an exact solution for the Hubble parameter is difficult and leads us to a numerical solution for the Hubble parameter. On the other hand, since in this formalism the slow-roll parameter η is constant and could not be assumed to be necessarily small, the perturbation parameters should be reconsidered again which, in turn, results in new terms appearing in the amplitude of scalar perturbations and the scalar spectral index. Utilizing the numerical solution for the Hubble parameter, we estimate the perturbation parameter at the horizon exit time and compare it with observational data. The results show that, for specific values of the constant parameter η , we could have an almost scale-invariant amplitude of scalar perturbations. Finally, the attractor behavior for the solution of the model is presented, and we determine that the feature could be properly satisfied.

  14. Metallomics - An Interdisciplinary and Evolving Field

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2007-09-14

    In an editorial earlier this year (JAAS, 22, 111, 2007), we opined that metallomics, the study of metals in biological systems, would be an increasingly important topic in elemental analysis in general and for this journal in particular . This issue of the journal, co-edited by the two of us, is a second special issue covering the subject of Metallomics (the first issue was JAAS, 19/1, 2004). The present issue is comprised of technique, application, and perspective papers that address this emerging field of study and show how atomic spectrometry is contributing to the understanding of biological systems. The subjectsmore » covered range from metal binding in plants through investigations of metal and metalloids in samples of biological fluids to the study of food supplements and drug interactions in cells. The issue includes two Critical Reviews. Yuxi Gao and colleagues discuss advanced nuclear analytical techniques for the emerging field of metalloproteomics. While Laura Liermann and her colleagues consider how micro-organisms extract metals from minerals in the environment for utilization in metabolic processes. The content of some of these papers stretches the traditional boundaries and scope of this journal, as echoed by the reviewers of some of the papers. This discussion about scope requires perhaps further debate. However, it is our view that while the Journal must remain true to its core aims, it must also strive to accommodate and motivate a wider authorship and readership. Metallomics is a field that transcends biology and microbiology, biochemistry, clinical chemistry, environmental chemistry, geochemistry, and yes, atomic spectroscopy. If JAAS aspires to be a leading force in metallomics, the Journal must expand its horizons beyond traditional analytical spectroscopy per se. Accordingly, in this special issue you will find papers that have a heavy clinical emphasis, which speak to complementary (non-atomic) spectroscopic techniques, and that provide

  15. Constant load and constant volume response of municipal solid waste in simple shear.

    PubMed

    Zekkos, Dimitrios; Fei, Xunchang

    2017-05-01

    Constant load and constant volume simple shear testing was conducted on relatively fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) from two landfills in the United States, one in Michigan and a second in Texas, at respective natural moisture content below field capacity. The results were assessed in terms of two failure strain criteria, at 10% and 30% shear strain, and two interpretations of effective friction angle. Overall, friction angle obtained assuming that the failure plane is horizontal and at 10% shear strain resulted in a conservative estimation of shear strength of MSW. Comparisons between constant volume and constant load simple shear testing results indicated significant differences in the shear response of MSW with the shear resistance in constant volume being lower than the shear resistance in constant load. The majority of specimens were nearly uncompacted during specimen preparation to reproduce the state of MSW in bioreactor landfills or in uncontrolled waste dumps. The specimens had identical percentage of <20mm material but the type of <20mm material was different. The <20mm fraction from Texas was finer and of high plasticity. MSW from Texas was overall weaker in both constant load and constant volume conditions compared to Michigan waste. The results of these tests suggest the possibility of significantly lower shear strength of MSW in bioreactor landfills where waste is placed with low compaction effort and constant volume, i.e., "undrained", conditions may occur. Compacted MSW specimens resulted in shear strength parameters that are higher than uncompacted specimens and closer to values reported in the literature. However, the normalized undrained shear strength in simple shear for uncompacted and compacted MSW was still higher than the normalized undrained shear strength reported in the literature for clayey and silty soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cosmological constant implementing Mach principle in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namavarian, Nadereh; Farhoudi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    We consider the fact that noticing on the operational meaning of the physical concepts played an impetus role in the appearance of general relativity (GR). Thus, we have paid more attention to the operational definition of the gravitational coupling constant in this theory as a dimensional constant which is gained through an experiment. However, as all available experiments just provide the value of this constant locally, this coupling constant can operationally be meaningful only in a local area. Regarding this point, to obtain an extension of GR for the large scale, we replace it by a conformal invariant model and then, reduce this model to a theory for the cosmological scale via breaking down the conformal symmetry through singling out a specific conformal frame which is characterized by the large scale characteristics of the universe. Finally, we come to the same field equations that historically were proposed by Einstein for the cosmological scale (GR plus the cosmological constant) as the result of his endeavor for making GR consistent with the Mach principle. However, we declare that the obtained field equations in this alternative approach do not carry the problem of the field equations proposed by Einstein for being consistent with Mach's principle (i.e., the existence of de Sitter solution), and can also be considered compatible with this principle in the Sciama view.

  17. The essential spectrum of Schrödinger operators with asymptotically constant magnetic fields on the Poincaré upper-half plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inahama, Yuzuru; Shirai, Shin-ichi

    2003-01-01

    We study the essential spectrum of the magnetic Schrödinger operators on the Poincaré upper-half plane and establish a hyperbolic analog of Iwatsuka's result [J. Math. Kyoto Univ. 23(3), 475-480 (1983)] on the stability of the essential spectrum under perturbations from constant magnetic fields.

  18. Spinor Field Nonlinearity and Space-Time Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Bijan

    2018-03-01

    , though the isotropy of space-time can be attained for a large proportionality constant. As far as evolution is concerned, depending on the sign of coupling constant the model allows both accelerated and oscillatory mode of expansion. A negative coupling constant leads to an oscillatory mode of expansion, whereas a positive coupling constant generates expanding Universe with late time acceleration. Both deceleration parameter and EoS parameter in this case vary with time and are in agreement with modern concept of space-time evolution. In case of a Bianchi type-I space-time the non-diagonal components lead to three different possibilities. In case of a full BI space-time we find that the spinor field nonlinearity and the massive term vanish, hence the spinor field Lagrangian becomes massless and linear. In two other cases the space-time evolves into either LRSBI or FRW Universe. If we consider a locally rotationally symmetric BI( LRSBI) model, neither the mass term nor the spinor field nonlinearity vanishes. In this case depending on the sign of coupling constant we have either late time accelerated mode of expansion or oscillatory mode of evolution. In this case for an expanding Universe we have asymptotical isotropization. Finally, in case of a FRW model neither the mass term nor the spinor field nonlinearity vanishes. Like in LRSBI case we have either late time acceleration or cyclic mode of evolution. These findings allow us to conclude that the spinor field is very sensitive to the gravitational one.

  19. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  20. 3D level set methods for evolving fronts on tetrahedral meshes with adaptive mesh refinement

    DOE PAGES

    Morgan, Nathaniel Ray; Waltz, Jacob I.

    2017-03-02

    The level set method is commonly used to model dynamically evolving fronts and interfaces. In this work, we present new methods for evolving fronts with a specified velocity field or in the surface normal direction on 3D unstructured tetrahedral meshes with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The level set field is located at the nodes of the tetrahedral cells and is evolved using new upwind discretizations of Hamilton–Jacobi equations combined with a Runge–Kutta method for temporal integration. The level set field is periodically reinitialized to a signed distance function using an iterative approach with a new upwind gradient. We discuss themore » details of these level set and reinitialization methods. Results from a range of numerical test problems are presented.« less

  1. PyEvolve: a toolkit for statistical modelling of molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Andrew; Vedagiri, Vivek; Lang, Edward; Lawrence, Cath; Wakefield, Matthew J; Isaev, Alexander; Huttley, Gavin A

    2004-01-05

    Examining the distribution of variation has proven an extremely profitable technique in the effort to identify sequences of biological significance. Most approaches in the field, however, evaluate only the conserved portions of sequences - ignoring the biological significance of sequence differences. A suite of sophisticated likelihood based statistical models from the field of molecular evolution provides the basis for extracting the information from the full distribution of sequence variation. The number of different problems to which phylogeny-based maximum likelihood calculations can be applied is extensive. Available software packages that can perform likelihood calculations suffer from a lack of flexibility and scalability, or employ error-prone approaches to model parameterisation. Here we describe the implementation of PyEvolve, a toolkit for the application of existing, and development of new, statistical methods for molecular evolution. We present the object architecture and design schema of PyEvolve, which includes an adaptable multi-level parallelisation schema. The approach for defining new methods is illustrated by implementing a novel dinucleotide model of substitution that includes a parameter for mutation of methylated CpG's, which required 8 lines of standard Python code to define. Benchmarking was performed using either a dinucleotide or codon substitution model applied to an alignment of BRCA1 sequences from 20 mammals, or a 10 species subset. Up to five-fold parallel performance gains over serial were recorded. Compared to leading alternative software, PyEvolve exhibited significantly better real world performance for parameter rich models with a large data set, reducing the time required for optimisation from approximately 10 days to approximately 6 hours. PyEvolve provides flexible functionality that can be used either for statistical modelling of molecular evolution, or the development of new methods in the field. The toolkit can be used

  2. Evolved stars as complex chemical laboratories - the quest for gaseous chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrien Els Decin, Leen

    2015-08-01

    At the end of their life, most stars lose a large fraction of their mass through a stellar wind. The stellar winds of evolved (super)giant stars are the dominant suppliers for the pristine building blocks of the interstellar medium (ISM). Crucial to the understanding of the chemical life cycle of the ISM is hence a profound insight in the chemical and physical structure governing these stellar winds.These winds are really unique chemical laboratories in which currently more than 70 different molecules and 15 different dust species are detected. Several chemical processes such as neutral-neutral and ion-molecule gas-phase reactions, dust nucleation and growth, and photo-processes determine the chemical content of these winds. However, gas-phase and dust-nucleation chemistry for astronomical environments still faces many challenges. One should realize that only ˜15% of the rate coefficients for gas-phase reactions considered to occur in (inter/circum)stellar regions at temperatures (T) below 300K have been subject to direct laboratory determinations and that the temperature dependence of the rate constants is often not known; only ˜2% have rate constants at T<200K and less than 0.5% at T<100 K. For stellar wind models, an important bottleneck occurs among the reactions involving silicon- and sulfur-bearing species, for which only a few have documented reaction rates. Often, researchers are implementing ‘educated guesses’ for these unknown rates, sometimes forcing the network to yield predictions concurring with (astronomical) observations. Large uncertainties are inherent in this type of ‘optimized’ chemical schemes.Thanks to an ERC-CoG grant, we are now in the position to solve some riddles involved in understanding the gas-phase chemistry in evolved stars. In this presentation, I will demonstrate the need for accurate temperature-dependent gas-phase reaction rate constants and will present our new laboratory equipment built to measure the rate constants

  3. The ratio of B-field and dB/dt time constants from time-domain electromagnetic data: a new tool for estimating size and conductivity of mineral deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kun; Mungall, James E.; Smith, Richard S.

    2013-09-01

    A discrete conductive sphere model in which current paths are constrained to a single planar orientation (the `dipping sphere') is used to calculate the secondary response from Geotech Ltd's VTEM airborne time domain electromagnetic (EM) system. In addition to calculating the time constants of the B-field and dB/dt responses, we focus on the time-constant ratio at a late time interval and compare numerical results with several field examples. For very strong conductors with conductivity above a critical value, both the B-field and dB/dt responses show decreasing values as the conductivity increases. Therefore response does not uniquely define conductivity. However, calculation of time constants for the decay removes the ambiguity and allows discrimination of high and low conductivity targets. A further benefit is gained by comparing the time constants of the B-field and dB/dt decays, which co-vary systematically over a wide range of target conductance. An advantage of calculating time constant ratios is that the ratios are insensitive to the dip and the depth of the targets and are stable across the conductor. Therefore we propose to use their ratio rτ=τB/τdB/dt as a tool to estimate the size and conductivity of mineral deposits. Using the VTEM base frequency, the magnitude of rτ reaches a limiting value of 1.32 for the most highly conductive targets. Interpretations become more complicated in the presence of conductive overburden, which appears to cause the limiting value of rτ to increase to 2 or more.

  4. A layered microchip conductance detector with through-layer access to detection fields and high sensitivity to dielectric constant.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Y; Dhirani, A-A

    2011-04-01

    The present study explores a novel apertured microchip conductance detector (AMCD) that is sensitive to dielectric constant. Fashioned on silicon oxide/silicon using optical microlithography, the detector has novel parallel-plate geometry with a top mesh electrode, a middle apertured insulator, and a bottom conducting electrode. This monolithic apertured architecture is planar and may be provided with a thin insulator layer enabling large capacitances, while the top mesh electrode and middle apertured-insulator enable access to regions of the capacitor where electric fields are strong. Hence, the detector is sensitive yet mechanically robust. To test its response, the AMCD was immersed in various solvents, namely water, methanol, acetonitrile, and hexanes. Its response was found to vary in proportion to the solvents' respective dielectric constants. The AMCD was also able to distinguish quantitatively the presence of various molecules in solution, including molecules with chromophores [such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)] in methanol and those without chrompohores [such as polyethylene glycol 200 Daltons (PEG200)] in methanol or water. The universal nature of dielectric constant and the microchip detector's sensitivity point to a wide range of potential applications. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  5. Elastic constants and pressure derivative of elastic constants of Si1-xGex solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jivani, A. R.; Baria, J. K.; Vyas, P. S.; Jani, A. R.

    2013-02-01

    Elastic properties of Si1-xGex solid solution with arbitrary (atomic) concentration (x) are studied using the pseudo-alloy atom model based on the pseudopotential theory and on the higher-order perturbation scheme with the application of our own proposed model potential. We have used local-field correction function proposed by Sarkar et al to study Si-Ge system. The Elastic constants and pressure derivatives of elastic constants of the solid solution is investigated with different concentration x of Ge. It is found in the present study that the calculated numerical values of the aforesaid physical properties of Si-Ge system are function of x. The elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) decrease linearly with increase in concentration x and pressure derivative of elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) increase with the concentration x of Ge. This study provides better set of theoretical results for such solid solution for further comparison either with theoretical or experimental results.

  6. Transient times in linear metabolic pathways under constant affinity constraints.

    PubMed

    Lloréns, M; Nuño, J C; Montero, F

    1997-10-15

    In the early seventies, Easterby began the analytical study of transition times for linear reaction schemes [Easterby (1973) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 293, 552-558]. In this pioneer work and in subsequent papers, a state function (the transient time) was used to measure the period before the stationary state, for systems constrained to work under both constant and variable input flux, was reached. Despite the undoubted usefulness of this quantity to describe the time-dependent features of these kinds of systems, its application to the study of chemical reactions under other constraints is questionable. In the present work, a generalization of these magnitudes to linear metabolic pathways functioning under a constant-affinity constraint is carried out. It is proved that classical definitions of transient times do not reflect the actual properties of the transition to the steady state in systems evolving under this restriction. Alternatively, a more adequate framework for interpretation of the transient times for systems with both constant and variable input flux is suggested. Within this context, new definitions that reflect more accurately the transient characteristics of constant affinity systems are stated. Finally, the meaning of these transient times is discussed.

  7. Towards Evolving Electronic Circuits for Autonomous Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Haith, Gary L.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris

    2000-01-01

    The relatively new field of Evolvable Hardware studies how simulated evolution can reconfigure, adapt, and design hardware structures in an automated manner. Space applications, especially those requiring autonomy, are potential beneficiaries of evolvable hardware. For example, robotic drilling from a mobile platform requires high-bandwidth controller circuits that are difficult to design. In this paper, we present automated design techniques based on evolutionary search that could potentially be used in such applications. First, we present a method of automatically generating analog circuit designs using evolutionary search and a circuit construction language. Our system allows circuit size (number of devices), circuit topology, and device values to be evolved. Using a parallel genetic algorithm, we present experimental results for five design tasks. Second, we investigate the use of coevolution in automated circuit design. We examine fitness evaluation by comparing the effectiveness of four fitness schedules. The results indicate that solution quality is highest with static and co-evolving fitness schedules as compared to the other two dynamic schedules. We discuss these results and offer two possible explanations for the observed behavior: retention of useful information, and alignment of problem difficulty with circuit proficiency.

  8. Corrections for a constant radial magnetic field in the muon \\varvec{g}-2 and electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silenko, Alexander J.

    2017-10-01

    We calculate the corrections for constant radial magnetic field in muon {g}-2 and electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings. While the correction is negligible for the current generation of {g}-2 experiments, it affects the upcoming muon electric-dipole-moment experiment at Fermilab.

  9. Einstein-Cartan Gravity with Torsion Field Serving as an Origin for the Cosmological Constant or Dark Energy Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.

    2016-09-01

    We analyse the Einstein-Cartan gravity in its standard form { R }=R+{{ K }}2, where { R } {and} R are the Ricci scalar curvatures in the Einstein-Cartan and Einstein gravity, respectively, and {{ K }}2 is the quadratic contribution of torsion in terms of the contorsion tensor { K }. We treat torsion as an external (or background) field and show that its contribution to the Einstein equations can be interpreted in terms of the torsion energy-momentum tensor, local conservation of which in a curved spacetime with an arbitrary metric or an arbitrary gravitational field demands a proportionality of the torsion energy-momentum tensor to a metric tensor, a covariant derivative of which vanishes owing to the metricity condition. This allows us to claim that torsion can serve as an origin for the vacuum energy density, given by the cosmological constant or dark energy density in the universe. This is a model-independent result that may explain the small value of the cosmological constant, which is a long-standing problem in cosmology. We show that the obtained result is valid also in the Poincaré gauge gravitational theory of Kibble, where the Einstein-Hilbert action can be represented in the same form: { R }=R+{{ K }}2.

  10. Passive turbulent flamelet propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashurst, William T.; Ruetsch, G. R.; Lund, T. S.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze results of a premixed constant density flame propagating in three-dimensional turbulence, where a flame model developed by Kerstein, et al. (1988) has been used. Simulations with constant and evolving velocity fields are used, where peculiar results were obtained from the constant velocity field runs. Data from the evolving flow runs with various flame speeds are used to determine two-point correlations of the fluctuating scalar field and implications for flamelet modeling are discussed.

  11. Connecting Fundamental Constants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Mario, D.

    2008-05-29

    A model for a black hole electron is built from three basic constants only: h, c and G. The result is a description of the electron with its mass and charge. The nature of this black hole seems to fit the properties of the Planck particle and new relationships among basic constants are possible. The time dilation factor in a black hole associated with a variable gravitational field would appear to us as a charge; on the other hand the Planck time is acting as a time gap drastically limiting what we are able to measure and its dimension willmore » appear in some quantities. This is why the Planck time is numerically very close to the gravitational/electric force ratio in an electron: its difference, disregarding a {pi}{radical}(2) factor, is only 0.2%. This is not a coincidence, it is always the same particle and the small difference is between a rotating and a non-rotating particle. The determination of its rotational speed yields accurate numbers for many quantities, including the fine structure constant and the electron magnetic moment.« less

  12. The Newton constant and gravitational waves in some vector field adjusting mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Santillán, Osvaldo P.; Scornavacche, Marina, E-mail: firenzecita@hotmail.com, E-mail: marina.scorna@hotmail.com

    At the present, there exist some Lorentz breaking scenarios which explain the smallness of the cosmological constant at the present era [1]–[2]. An important aspect to analyze is the propagation of gravitational waves and the screening or enhancement of the Newton constant G {sub N} in these models. The problem is that the Lorentz symmetry breaking terms may induce an unacceptable value of the Newton constant G {sub N} or introduce longitudinal modes in the gravitational wave propagation. Furthermore this breaking may spoil the standard dispersion relation ω= ck . In [3] the authors have presented a model suggesting thatmore » the behavior of the gravitational constant is correct for asymptotic times. In the present work, an explicit checking is made and we finally agree with these claims. Furthermore, it is suggested that the gravitational waves are also well behaved for large times. In the process, some new models with the same behavior are obtained, thus enlarging the list of possible adjustment mechanisms.« less

  13. A Markovian model of evolving world input-output network

    PubMed Central

    Isacchini, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    The initial theoretical connections between Leontief input-output models and Markov chains were established back in 1950s. However, considering the wide variety of mathematical properties of Markov chains, so far there has not been a full investigation of evolving world economic networks with Markov chain formalism. In this work, using the recently available world input-output database, we investigated the evolution of the world economic network from 1995 to 2011 through analysis of a time series of finite Markov chains. We assessed different aspects of this evolving system via different known properties of the Markov chains such as mixing time, Kemeny constant, steady state probabilities and perturbation analysis of the transition matrices. First, we showed how the time series of mixing times and Kemeny constants could be used as an aggregate index of globalization. Next, we focused on the steady state probabilities as a measure of structural power of the economies that are comparable to GDP shares of economies as the traditional index of economies welfare. Further, we introduced two measures of systemic risk, called systemic influence and systemic fragility, where the former is the ratio of number of influenced nodes to the total number of nodes, caused by a shock in the activity of a node, and the latter is based on the number of times a specific economic node is affected by a shock in the activity of any of the other nodes. Finally, focusing on Kemeny constant as a global indicator of monetary flow across the network, we showed that there is a paradoxical effect of a change in activity levels of economic nodes on the overall flow of the world economic network. While the economic slowdown of the majority of nodes with high structural power results to a slower average monetary flow over the network, there are some nodes, where their slowdowns improve the overall quality of the network in terms of connectivity and the average flow of the money. PMID:29065145

  14. Thermosetting resins with high fractions of free volume and inherently low dielectric constants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Kai; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Su, Wen-Chiung; Liu, Ying-Ling

    2015-08-18

    This work demonstrates a new class of thermosetting resins, based on Meldrum's acid (MA) derivatives, which have high fractions of free volume and inherently low k values of about 2.0 at 1 MHz. Thermal decomposition of the MA groups evolves CO2 and acetone to create air-trapped cavities so as to reduce the dielectric constants.

  15. Large Quantum Probability Backflow and the Azimuthal Angle-Angular Momentum Uncertainty Relation for an Electron in a Constant Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strange, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a surprising aspect of quantum mechanics that is accessible to an undergraduate student. We discuss probability backflow for an electron in a constant magnetic field. It is shown that even for a wavepacket composed entirely of states with negative angular momentum the effective angular momentum can take on positive…

  16. Renormalization constants for 2-twist operators in twisted mass QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrou, C.; Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, 15 Kypranoros Str., 1645 Nicosia; Constantinou, M.

    2011-01-01

    Perturbative and nonperturbative results on the renormalization constants of the fermion field and the twist-2 fermion bilinears are presented with emphasis on the nonperturbative evaluation of the one-derivative twist-2 vector and axial-vector operators. Nonperturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations have been performed for pion masses in the range of about 450-260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing a corresponding to {beta}=3.9, 4.05, 4.20. Subtraction of O(a{sup 2}) terms is carried out by performing the perturbative evaluation of thesemore » operators at 1-loop and up to O(a{sup 2}). The renormalization conditions are defined in the RI{sup '}-MOM scheme, for both perturbative and nonperturbative results. The renormalization factors, obtained for different values of the renormalization scale, are evolved perturbatively to a reference scale set by the inverse of the lattice spacing. In addition, they are translated to MS at 2 GeV using 3-loop perturbative results for the conversion factors.« less

  17. Fluctuations in a model ferromagnetic film driven by a slowly oscillating field with a constant bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buendía, Gloria M.; Rikvold, Per Arne

    2017-10-01

    We present a numerical and theoretical study that supports and explains recent experimental results on anomalous magnetization fluctuations of a uniaxial ferromagnetic film in its low-temperature phase, which is forced by an oscillating field above the critical period of the associated dynamic phase transition (DPT) [P. Riego, P. Vavassori, and A. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 117202 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.117202]. For this purpose, we perform kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model with nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic interactions in the presence of a sinusoidally oscillating field, to which is added a constant bias field. We study a large range of system sizes and supercritical periods and analyze the data using a droplet-theoretical description of magnetization switching. We find that the period-averaged magnetization, which plays the role of the order parameter for the DPT, presents large fluctuations that give rise to well-defined peaks in its scaled variance and its susceptibility with respect to the bias field. The peaks are symmetric with respect to zero bias and located at values of the bias field that increase toward the field amplitude as an inverse logarithm of the field oscillation period. Our results indicate that this effect is independent of the system size for large systems, ruling out critical behavior associated with a phase transition. Rather, it is a stochastic-resonance phenomenon that has no counterpart in the corresponding thermodynamic phase transition, providing a reminder that the equivalence of the DPT to an equilibrium phase transition is limited to the critical region near the critical period and zero bias.

  18. Aging in freely evolving granular gas with impact velocity dependent coefficient of restitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Shikha; Ahmad, Syed Rashid

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of granular system is governed by the concept of coefficient of restitution that gives a relationship between normal component of relative velocities before and after collision. Most of the studies consider a simplified collision model where particles interact through coefficient of restitution which is a constant while in reality, the coefficient of restitution must be a variable that depends on the impact velocity of colliding particles. In this work, we have considered the aging in the velocity autocorrelation function, A(τw, τ) for a granular gas of realistic particles interacting through coefficient of restitution that is depending on impact velocity. Molecular dynamics simulation is used to study granular gas that is evolving freely in absence of any external force. From the simulation results, we observe that A(τw, τ) depends explicitly on waiting time τw and collision time τ. Initially, the function decays exponentially but as the waiting time increases the decay of function becomes slow due to correlations that emerge in velocity field.

  19. Properties of an ultrarelativistic charged particle radiation in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, O.V., E-mail: bov@tpu.ru; Department of Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050; Kazinski, P.O., E-mail: kpo@phys.tsu.ru

    The properties of radiation created by a classical ultrarelativistic scalar charged particle in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field are described both analytically and numerically with radiation reaction taken into account in the form of the Landau–Lifshitz equation. The total radiation naturally falls into two parts: the radiation formed at the entrance point of a particle into the crossed field (the synchrotron entrance radiation), and the radiation coming from the late-time asymptotics of a particle motion (the de-excited radiation). The synchrotron entrance radiation resembles, although does not coincide with, the ultrarelativistic limit of the synchrotron radiation: its distribution over energiesmore » and angles possesses almost the same properties. The de-excited radiation is soft, not concentrated in the plane of motion of a charged particle, and almost completely circularly polarized. The photon energy delivering the maximum to its spectral angular distribution decreases with increasing the initial energy of a charged particle, while the maximum value of this distribution remains the same at the fixed photon observation angle and entrance angle of a charged particle. The ultraviolet and infrared asymptotics of the total radiation are also described. - Highlights: • Properties of an electron radiation in a crossed electromagnetic field are studied. • Spectral angular distribution of the synchrotron entrance radiation is described. • Spectral angular distribution of the de-excited radiation is described. • De-excited radiation is almost completely circularly polarized. • Photon energy at the maximum of the de-excited radiation decreases with increasing the initial energy of an electron.« less

  20. Cosmological Constant: A Lesson from Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finazzi, Stefano; Liberati, Stefano; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2012-02-01

    The cosmological constant is one of the most pressing problems in modern physics. We address this issue from an emergent gravity standpoint, by using an analogue gravity model. Indeed, the dynamics of the emergent metric in a Bose-Einstein condensate can be described by a Poisson-like equation with a vacuum source term reminiscent of a cosmological constant. The direct computation of this term shows that in emergent gravity scenarios this constant may be naturally much smaller than the naive ground-state energy of the emergent effective field theory. This suggests that a proper computation of the cosmological constant would require a detailed understanding about how Einstein equations emerge from the full microscopic quantum theory. In this light, the cosmological constant appears as a decisive test bench for any quantum or emergent gravity scenario.

  1. Cosmological constant: a lesson from Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Finazzi, Stefano; Liberati, Stefano; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2012-02-17

    The cosmological constant is one of the most pressing problems in modern physics. We address this issue from an emergent gravity standpoint, by using an analogue gravity model. Indeed, the dynamics of the emergent metric in a Bose-Einstein condensate can be described by a Poisson-like equation with a vacuum source term reminiscent of a cosmological constant. The direct computation of this term shows that in emergent gravity scenarios this constant may be naturally much smaller than the naive ground-state energy of the emergent effective field theory. This suggests that a proper computation of the cosmological constant would require a detailed understanding about how Einstein equations emerge from the full microscopic quantum theory. In this light, the cosmological constant appears as a decisive test bench for any quantum or emergent gravity scenario.

  2. Shifting the Phase Boundary with Electric Fields to Jump In and Out of the Phase Diagram at Constant Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Connie B.; Kriisa, Annika

    Understanding the phase behavior of polymer blends and block copolymers under the presence of electric fields is important for advanced applications containing electrodes such as organic photovoltaics and batteries, as well as for field-directed assembly and alignment of domains. We have recently demonstrated that electric fields enhance the miscibility of polystyrene (PS) / poly(vinyl methyl ether blends) (PVME) blends, shifting the phase separation temperature Ts(E) up by 13.5 +/- 1.4 K for electric field strengths of E = 1.7 MV/m. Experimentally this effect is much larger than the traditional predictions from adding the standard electrostatic energy term for mixtures to the free energy of mixing. However, accounting for the energy penalty of dielectric interfaces between domains created during phase separation, the primary factor that drives alignment of domains, may also be responsible for the change in miscibility. Here we investigate the dynamics of repeatedly jumping the system from the one-phase to the two-phase region and demonstrate that this can be done at a constant temperature simply by turning the electric field on and off, illustrating electric-field-induced remixing in the two-phase region.

  3. Measuring the fine structure constant with Bragg diffraction and Bloch oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Richard; Yu, Chenghui; Zhong, Weicheng; Estey, Brian; Müller, Holger

    2017-04-01

    We have demonstrated a new scheme for atom interferometry based on large-momentum-transfer Bragg beam splitters and Bloch oscillations. In this new scheme, we have achieved a resolution of δÎ+/-/Î+/-=0.25ppb in the fine structure constant measurement, which gives over 10 million radians of phase difference between freely evolving matter waves. We have suppressed many systematic effects known in most atom interferometers with Raman beam splitters such as light shift, Zeeman effect shift as well as vibration. We have also simulated multi-atom Bragg diffraction to understand sub-ppb systematic effects, and implemented spatial filtering to further suppress systematic effects. We present our recent progress toward a measurement of the fine structure constant, which will provide a stringent test of the standard model of particle physics.

  4. Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.

  5. Critical points of the cosmic velocity field and the uncertainties in the value of the Hubble constant

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hao; Naselsky, Pavel; Mohayaee, Roya, E-mail: liuhao@nbi.dk, E-mail: roya@iap.fr, E-mail: naselsky@nbi.dk

    2016-06-01

    The existence of critical points for the peculiar velocity field is a natural feature of the correlated vector field. These points appear at the junctions of velocity domains with different orientations of their averaged velocity vectors. Since peculiar velocities are the important cause of the scatter in the Hubble expansion rate, we propose that a more precise determination of the Hubble constant can be made by restricting analysis to a subsample of observational data containing only the zones around the critical points of the peculiar velocity field, associated with voids and saddle points. On large-scales the critical points, where themore » first derivative of the gravitational potential vanishes, can easily be identified using the density field and classified by the behavior of the Hessian of the gravitational potential. We use high-resolution N-body simulations to show that these regions are stable in time and hence are excellent tracers of the initial conditions. Furthermore, we show that the variance of the Hubble flow can be substantially minimized by restricting observations to the subsample of such regions of vanishing velocity instead of aiming at increasing the statistics by averaging indiscriminately using the full data sets, as is the common approach.« less

  6. Characterization for elastic constants of fused deposition modelling-fabricated materials based on the virtual fields method and digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Quankun; Xie, Huimin

    2017-12-01

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM), a widely used rapid prototyping process, is a promising technique in manufacturing engineering. In this work, a method for characterizing elastic constants of FDM-fabricated materials is proposed. First of all, according to the manufacturing process of FDM, orthotropic constitutive model is used to describe the mechanical behavior. Then the virtual fields method (VFM) is applied to characterize all the mechanical parameters (Q_{11}, Q_{22}, Q_{12}, Q_{66}) using the full-field strain, which is measured by digital image correlation (DIC). Since the principal axis of the FDM-fabricated structure is sometimes unknown due to the complexity of the manufacturing process, a disk in diametrical compression is used as the load configuration so that the loading angle can be changed conveniently. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, finite element method (FEM) simulation is conducted to obtain the strain field of the disk. The simulation results show that higher accuracy can be achieved when the loading angle is close to 30°. Finally, a disk fabricated by FDM was used for the experiment. By rotating the disk, several tests with different loading angles were conducted. To determine the position of the principal axis in each test, two groups of parameters (Q_{11}, Q_{22}, Q_{12}, Q_{66}) are calculated by two different groups of virtual fields. Then the corresponding loading angle can be determined by minimizing the deviation between two groups of the parameters. After that, the four constants (Q_{11}, Q_{22}, Q_{12}, Q_{66}) were determined from the test with an angle of 27°.

  7. Mean-field approach to evolving spatial networks, with an application to osteocyte network formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-King, Jake P.; Basanta, David; Chapman, S. Jonathan; Porter, Mason A.

    2017-07-01

    We consider evolving networks in which each node can have various associated properties (a state) in addition to those that arise from network structure. For example, each node can have a spatial location and a velocity, or it can have some more abstract internal property that describes something like a social trait. Edges between nodes are created and destroyed, and new nodes enter the system. We introduce a "local state degree distribution" (LSDD) as the degree distribution at a particular point in state space. We then make a mean-field assumption and thereby derive an integro-partial differential equation that is satisfied by the LSDD. We perform numerical experiments and find good agreement between solutions of the integro-differential equation and the LSDD from stochastic simulations of the full model. To illustrate our theory, we apply it to a simple model for osteocyte network formation within bones, with a view to understanding changes that may take place during cancer. Our results suggest that increased rates of differentiation lead to higher densities of osteocytes, but with a smaller number of dendrites. To help provide biological context, we also include an introduction to osteocytes, the formation of osteocyte networks, and the role of osteocytes in bone metastasis.

  8. Hybrid reconstruction of field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, Loren; TAE Team

    2016-10-01

    Field-reversed configurations (FRC) are poorly represented by fluid-based models and require instead an ion-distribution function. Two such populations are needed since ``core'' ions are roughly restricted to the region inside the separatrix, whereas ``periphery'' ions can escape along open field lines. The Vlasov equation governs the distribution, the general solution to which is an arbitrary function of the constants of motion (Hamiltonian, canonical angular momentum). Only a small subset of such distributions are realistic in view of collisions, which smooth the distribution, and instabilities, which reorganize the field structure. Collisions and end loss are included if the distribution is a solution to the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation. Vlasov and FP solutions are nearly identical in weakly-collisional plasmas. Numerical construction of such equilibria requires solving both Ampere's law for the magnetic flux variable and the ponderous task of a full velocity-space integration at each point. The latter can be done analytically by expressing the distribution as the superposition of simple basis elements. This procedure allows rapid reconstruction of evolving equilibria based on limited diagnostic observables in FRC experiments.

  9. Field-evolved resistance to insecticides in the invasive western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze-Hua; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Li, Bing-Yan; Chen, Jin-Cui; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Gao, Yu-Lin; Reitz, Stuart; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    To understand the current status of insecticide resistance of the invasive western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, in China, the responses of six field populations to six commonly used insecticides, i.e. spinosad, spinetoram, cyantraniliprole, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and pyriproxyfen, were evaluated in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain. Field populations tended to be less susceptible than the laboratory strain. The population from Shouguang, Shandong Province, showed the lowest levels of susceptibility. A 15.64-fold and 17.29-fold resistance to spinosad and spinetoram was detected in the Shouguang population. A 11.74-fold and 13.64-fold resistance to cyantraniliprole was detected in populations from Daxing in the Beijing area and Shouguang. All populations showed a low level of resistance to imidacloprid, acetamiprid and pyriproxyfen, except for the Shouguang population, which was 127.58-fold more resistant to pyriproxyfen. Variations in resistance to the tested insecticides were observed among the sampled population. Spinosad and spinetoram were the most efficient insecticides and are recommended for use in an integrated management programme. Resistance management strategies should be implemented to reduce the potential for resistance evolving. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Very Large Telescope sets stringent limit on possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time Summary Detecting or constraining the possible time variations of fundamental physical constants is an important step toward a complete understanding of basic physics and hence the world in which we live. A step in which astrophysics proves most useful. Previous astronomical measurements of the fine structure constant - the dimensionless number that determines the strength of interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields - suggested that this particular constant is increasing very slightly with time. If confirmed, this would have very profound implications for our understanding of fundamental physics. New studies, conducted using the UVES spectrograph on Kueyen, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope array at Paranal (Chile), secured new data with unprecedented quality. These data, combined with a very careful analysis, have provided the strongest astronomical constraints to date on the possible variation of the fine structure constant. They show that, contrary to previous claims, no evidence exist for assuming a time variation of this fundamental constant. PR Photo 07/04: Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant (VLT/UVES) A fine constant To explain the Universe and to represent it mathematically, scientists rely on so-called fundamental constants or fixed numbers. The fundamental laws of physics, as we presently understand them, depend on about 25 such constants. Well-known examples are the gravitational constant, which defines the strength of the force acting between two bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, and the speed of light. One of these constants is the so-called "fine structure constant", alpha = 1/137.03599958, a combination of electrical charge of the electron, the Planck constant and the speed of light. The fine structure constant describes how electromagnetic forces hold

  11. An Inverse Square Law Variation for Hubble's Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Orville W., Jr.

    1999-11-01

    The solution to Einstein's gravitational field equations is examined, using a Robertson-Walker metric with positive curvature, when Hubble's parameter, H_0, is taken to be a constant divided by R^2. R is the cosmic scale factor for the universe treated as a three-dimensional hypersphere in a four-dimensional Euclidean space. This solution produces a self-energy of the universe, W^(0)_self, proportional to the square of the total mass, times the universal gravitational constant divided by the cosmic scale factor, R. This result is totally analogous to the self-energy of the electromagnetic field of a charged particle, W^(0)_self = ke^2/2r, where the total charge e is squared, k is the universal electric constant and r is the scale factor, usually identified as the radius of the particle. It is shown that this choice for H0 leads to physically meaningful results for the average mass density and pressure, and a deacceleration parameter q_0=1.

  12. Rate Constants of PSII Photoinhibition and its Repair, and PSII Fluorescence Parameters in Field Plants in Relation to their Growth Light Environments.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kazunori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nakaji, Masayoshi; Kanel, Dhana Raj; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The extent of photoinhibition of PSII is determined by a balance between the rate of photodamage to PSII and that of repair of the damaged PSII. It has already been indicated that the rate constants of photodamage (kpi) and repair (krec) of the leaves differ depending on their growth light environment. However, there are no studies using plants in the field. We examined these rate constants and fluorescence parameters of several field-grown plants to determine inter-relationships between these values and the growth environment. The kpi values were strongly related to the excess energy, EY, of the puddle model and non-regulated energy dissipation, Y(NO), of the lake model, both multiplied by the photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD) level during the photoinhibitory treatment. In contrast, the krec values corrected against in situ air temperature were very strongly related to the daily PPFD level. The plants from the fields showed higher NPQ than the chamber-grown plants, probably because these field plants acclimated to stronger lightflecks than the averaged growth PPFD. Comparing chamber-grown plants and the field plants, we showed that kpi is determined by the incident light level and the photosynthetic capacities such as in situ rate of PSII electron transport and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) [e.g. Y(NO)×PPFD] and that krec is mostly determined by the growth light and temperature levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Time constant determination for electrical equivalent of biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Dutta-Gupta, Shourya; Kumar, Ravi; Tewari, Abhishek; Basu, Bikramjit

    2009-04-01

    The electric field interactions with biological cells are of significant interest in various biophysical and biomedical applications. In order to study such important aspect, it is necessary to evaluate the time constant in order to estimate the response time of living cells in the electric field (E-field). In the present study, the time constant is evaluated by considering the hypothesis of electrical analog of spherical shaped cells and assuming realistic values for capacitance and resistivity properties of cell/nuclear membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. In addition, the resistance of cytoplasm and nucleoplasm was computed based on simple geometrical considerations. Importantly, the analysis on the basis of first principles shows that the average values of time constant would be around 2-3 μs, assuming the theoretical capacitance values and the analytically computed resistance values. The implication of our analytical solution has been discussed in reference to the cellular adaptation processes such as atrophy/hypertrophy as well as the variation in electrical transport properties of cellular membrane/cytoplasm/nuclear membrane/nucleoplasm.

  14. How simple autonomous decisions evolve into robust behaviours? A review from neurorobotics, cognitive, self-organized and artificial immune systems fields.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A; Acosta, Gerardo G; Rozenfeld, Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    Researchers in diverse fields, such as in neuroscience, systems biology and autonomous robotics, have been intrigued by the origin and mechanisms for biological robustness. Darwinian evolution, in general, has suggested that adaptive mechanisms as a way of reaching robustness, could evolve by natural selection acting successively on numerous heritable variations. However, is this understanding enough for realizing how biological systems remain robust during their interactions with the surroundings? Here, we describe selected studies of bio-inspired systems that show behavioral robustness. From neurorobotics, cognitive, self-organizing and artificial immune system perspectives, our discussions focus mainly on how robust behaviors evolve or emerge in these systems, having the capacity of interacting with their surroundings. These descriptions are twofold. Initially, we introduce examples from autonomous robotics to illustrate how the process of designing robust control can be idealized in complex environments for autonomous navigation in terrain and underwater vehicles. We also include descriptions of bio-inspired self-organizing systems. Then, we introduce other studies that contextualize experimental evolution with simulated organisms and physical robots to exemplify how the process of natural selection can lead to the evolution of robustness by means of adaptive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolving Approaches to the Ethical Management of Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Joy T.; Sun, Kathie Y.

    2013-01-01

    The ethical landscape in the field of genomics is rapidly shifting. Plummeting sequencing costs, along with ongoing advances in bioinformatics, now make it possible to generate an enormous volume of genomic data about vast numbers of people. The informational richness, complexity, and frequently uncertain meaning of these data, coupled with evolving norms surrounding the sharing of data and samples and persistent privacy concerns, have generated a range of approaches to the ethical management of genomic information. As calls increase for the expanded use of broad or even open consent, and as controversy grows about how best to handle incidental genomic findings, these approaches, informed by normative analysis and empirical data, will continue to evolve alongside the science. PMID:23453621

  16. Dynamical approach to the cosmological constant.

    PubMed

    Mukohyama, Shinji; Randall, Lisa

    2004-05-28

    We consider a dynamical approach to the cosmological constant. There is a scalar field with a potential whose minimum occurs at a generic, but negative, value for the vacuum energy, and it has a nonstandard kinetic term whose coefficient diverges at zero curvature as well as the standard kinetic term. Because of the divergent coefficient of the kinetic term, the lowest energy state is never achieved. Instead, the cosmological constant automatically stalls at or near zero. The merit of this model is that it is stable under radiative corrections and leads to stable dynamics, despite the singular kinetic term. The model is not complete, however, in that some reheating is required. Nonetheless, our approach can at the very least reduce fine-tuning by 60 orders of magnitude or provide a new mechanism for sampling possible cosmological constants and implementing the anthropic principle.

  17. Robustness to Faults Promotes Evolvability: Insights from Evolving Digital Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Nolfi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the need to cope with operational faults enables evolving circuits to find more fit solutions. The analysis of the results obtained in different experimental conditions indicates that, in absence of faults, evolution tends to select circuits that are small and have low phenotypic variability and evolvability. The need to face operation faults, instead, drives evolution toward the selection of larger circuits that are truly robust with respect to genetic variations and that have a greater level of phenotypic variability and evolvability. Overall our results indicate that the need to cope with operation faults leads to the selection of circuits that have a greater probability to generate better circuits as a result of genetic variation with respect to a control condition in which circuits are not subjected to faults. PMID:27409589

  18. Artifacts correction for T1rho imaging with constant amplitude spin-lock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weitian

    2017-01-01

    T1rho imaging with constant amplitude spin-lock is prone to artifacts in the presence of B1 RF and B0 field inhomogeneity. Despite significant technological progress, improvements on the robustness of constant amplitude spin-lock are necessary in order to use it for routine clinical practice. This work proposes methods to simultaneously correct for B1 RF and B0 field inhomogeneity in constant amplitude spin-lock. By setting the maximum B1 amplitude of the excitation adiabatic pulses equal to the expected constant amplitude spin-lock frequency, the spins become aligned along the effective field throughout the spin-lock process. This results in T1rho-weighted images free of artifacts, despite the spatial variation of the effective field caused by B1 RF and B0 field inhomogeneity. When the pulse is long, the relaxation effect during the adiabatic half passage may result in a non-negligible error in the mono-exponential relaxation model. A two-acquisition approach is presented to solve this issue. Simulation, phantom, and in-vivo scans demonstrate the proposed methods achieve superior image quality compared to existing methods, and that the two-acquisition method is effective in resolving the relaxation effect during the adiabatic half passage.

  19. Protonated Nitrous Oxide, NNOH(+): Fundamental Vibrational Frequencies and Spectroscopic Constants from Quartic Force Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    The interstellar presence of protonated nitrous oxide has been suspected for some time. Using established high-accuracy quantum chemical techniques, spectroscopic constants and fundamental vibrational frequencies are provided for the lower energy O-protonated isomer of this cation and its deuterated isotopologue. The vibrationally-averaged B0 and C0 rotational constants are within 6 MHz of their experimental values and the D(subJ) quartic distortion constants agree with experiment to within 3%. The known gas phase O-H stretch of NNOH(+) is 3330.91 cm(exp-1), and the vibrational configuration interaction computed result is 3330.9 cm(exp-1). Other spectroscopic constants are also provided, as are the rest of the fundamental vibrational frequencies for NNOH(+) and its deuterated isotopologue. This high-accuracy data should serve to better inform future observational or experimental studies of the rovibrational bands of protonated nitrous oxide in the ISM and the laboratory.

  20. A search for radio emission from exoplanets around evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Gorman, E.; Coughlan, C. P.; Vlemmings, W.; Varenius, E.; Sirothia, S.; Ray, T. P.; Olofsson, H.

    2018-04-01

    The majority of searches for radio emission from exoplanets have to date focused on short period planets, i.e., the so-called hot Jupiter type planets. However, these planets are likely to be tidally locked to their host stars and may not generate sufficiently strong magnetic fields to emit electron cyclotron maser emission at the low frequencies used in observations (typically ≥150 MHz). In comparison, the large mass-loss rates of evolved stars could enable exoplanets at larger orbital distances to emit detectable radio emission. Here, we first show that the large ionized mass-loss rates of certain evolved stars relative to the solar value could make them detectable with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) at 150 MHz (λ = 2 m), provided they have surface magnetic field strengths >50 G. We then report radio observations of three long period (>1 au) planets that orbit the evolved stars β Gem, ι Dra, and β UMi using LOFAR at 150 MHz. We do not detect radio emission from any system but place tight 3σ upper limits of 0.98, 0.87, and 0.57 mJy on the flux density at 150 MHz for β Gem, ι Dra, and β UMi, respectively. Despite our non-detections these stringent upper limits highlight the potential of LOFAR as a tool to search for exoplanetary radio emission at meter wavelengths.

  1. Role of dielectric constant in electrohydrodynamics of conducting fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.; Roberts, Glyn O.

    1992-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flows are driven by the interaction of an electric field with variations in electric conductivity or dielectric constant. In reported EHD experiments on the deformation of drops of immiscible dielectric fluids, the role of conductivity has tended to overshadow the role of dielectric constant. Often, large conductivity contrasts were convenient because the conductivities of the dielectric fluid were relatively uncertain. As a result, the observed effects were always qualitatively the same as if there had been no contrast in dielectric constant. Our early experiments studying the EHC deformations of cylindrical streams readily showed the conductivity effect but the dielectric constant effect was not discernible. We have modified our flow chamber and improved our method of observation and can now see an unequivocal dielectric constant effect which is in agreement with the prior theory. In this paper we first give a brief description of the physics of charge buildup at the interface of an immersed spherical drop or flowing cylindrical sample stream and then show how these charge distributions lead to interface distortions and accompanying viscous flows which constitute EHD. We next review theory and experiment describing the deformation of spherical drops. We show that in the reported drop deformation experiments, the contrast in dielectric constant was never sufficient to reverse the deformation due to the conductivity contrast. We review our work describing the deformation of a cylindrical stream of one fluid flowing in a parallel flow of another, and we compare the deformation equations with those for spherical drops. Finally, we show a definite experimental dielectric constant effect for cylindrical stream of aqueous polystyrene latex suspension. The dielectric constant varies with the frequency of the imposed electric field, and the associated EHD flow change is very apparent.

  2. Evolving approaches to the ethical management of genomic data.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Jean E; Boyer, Joy T; Sun, Kathie Y

    2013-06-01

    The ethical landscape in the field of genomics is rapidly shifting. Plummeting sequencing costs, along with ongoing advances in bioinformatics, now make it possible to generate an enormous volume of genomic data about vast numbers of people. The informational richness, complexity, and frequently uncertain meaning of these data, coupled with evolving norms surrounding the sharing of data and samples and persistent privacy concerns, have generated a range of approaches to the ethical management of genomic information. As calls increase for the expanded use of broad or even open consent, and as controversy grows about how best to handle incidental genomic findings, these approaches, informed by normative analysis and empirical data, will continue to evolve alongside the science. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Protein dielectric constants determined from NMR chemical shift perturbations.

    PubMed

    Kukic, Predrag; Farrell, Damien; McIntosh, Lawrence P; García-Moreno E, Bertrand; Jensen, Kristine Steen; Toleikis, Zigmantas; Teilum, Kaare; Nielsen, Jens Erik

    2013-11-13

    Understanding the connection between protein structure and function requires a quantitative understanding of electrostatic effects. Structure-based electrostatic calculations are essential for this purpose, but their use has been limited by a long-standing discussion on which value to use for the dielectric constants (ε(eff) and ε(p)) required in Coulombic and Poisson-Boltzmann models. The currently used values for ε(eff) and ε(p) are essentially empirical parameters calibrated against thermodynamic properties that are indirect measurements of protein electric fields. We determine optimal values for ε(eff) and ε(p) by measuring protein electric fields in solution using direct detection of NMR chemical shift perturbations (CSPs). We measured CSPs in 14 proteins to get a broad and general characterization of electric fields. Coulomb's law reproduces the measured CSPs optimally with a protein dielectric constant (ε(eff)) from 3 to 13, with an optimal value across all proteins of 6.5. However, when the water-protein interface is treated with finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann calculations, the optimal protein dielectric constant (ε(p)) ranged from 2 to 5 with an optimum of 3. It is striking how similar this value is to the dielectric constant of 2-4 measured for protein powders and how different it is from the ε(p) of 6-20 used in models based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation when calculating thermodynamic parameters. Because the value of ε(p) = 3 is obtained by analysis of NMR chemical shift perturbations instead of thermodynamic parameters such as pK(a) values, it is likely to describe only the electric field and thus represent a more general, intrinsic, and transferable ε(p) common to most folded proteins.

  4. Value of the Cosmological Constant in Emergent Quantum Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Craig

    It is suggested that the exact value of the cosmological constant could be derived from first principles, based on entanglement of the Standard Model field vacuum with emergent holographic quantum geometry. For the observed value of the cosmological constant, geometrical information is shown to agree closely with the spatial information density of the QCD vacuum, estimated in a free-field approximation. The comparison is motivated by a model of exotic rotational fluctuations in the inertial frame that can be precisely tested in laboratory experiments. Cosmic acceleration in this model is always positive, but fluctuates with characteristic coherence lengthmore » $$\\approx 100$$km and bandwidth $$\\approx 3000$$ Hz.« less

  5. Variations in the fine-structure constant constraining gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, V. B.; Cunha, M. S.; Muniz, C. R.; Tahim, M. O.; Vieira, H. S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the fine-structure constant, α, locally varies in the presence of a static and spherically symmetric gravitational source. The procedure consists in calculating the solution and the energy eigenvalues of a massive scalar field around that source, considering the weak-field regime. From this result, we obtain expressions for a spatially variable fine-structure constant by considering suitable modifications in the involved parameters admitting some scenarios of semi-classical and quantum gravities. Constraints on free parameters of the approached theories are calculated from astrophysical observations of the emission spectra of a white dwarf. Such constraints are finally compared with those obtained in the literature.

  6. First results from the LIFE project: discovery of two magnetic hot evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. J.; Neiner, C.; Oksala, M. E.; Wade, G. A.; Keszthelyi, Z.; Fossati, L.; Marcolino, W.; Mathis, S.; Georgy, C.

    2018-04-01

    We present the initial results of the Large Impact of magnetic Fields on the Evolution of hot stars (LIFE) project. The focus of this project is the search for magnetic fields in evolved OBA giants and supergiants with visual magnitudes between 4 and 8, with the aim to investigate how the magnetic fields observed in upper main-sequence (MS) stars evolve from the MS until the late post-MS stages. In this paper, we present spectropolarimetric observations of 15 stars observed using the ESPaDOnS instrument of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. For each star, we have determined the fundamental parameters and have used stellar evolution models to calculate their mass, age, and radius. Using the least-squared deconvolution technique, we have produced averaged line profiles for each star. From these profiles, we have measured the longitudinal magnetic field strength and have calculated the detection probability. We report the detection of magnetic fields in two stars of our sample: a weak field of Bl = 1.0 ± 0.2 G is detected in the post-MS A5 star 19 Aur and a stronger field of Bl = -230 ± 10 G is detected in the MS/post-MS B8/9 star HR 3042.

  7. The Higgs field and the resolution of the Cosmological Constant Paradox in the Weyl-geometrical Universe.

    PubMed

    De Martini, Francesco

    2017-11-13

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of Weyl's differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. Within this novel geometrical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU (2) L ⊗ U (1) Y as well as on the conformal groups of space-time Weyl's transformations is analysed within the framework of a general-relativistic, conformally covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An 'effective cosmological potential': V eff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: [Formula: see text] via the 'mass reduction parameter': [Formula: see text], a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a 'free parameter' by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the mass [Formula: see text] which accounts for the measured cosmological constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The non-integrable application of Weyl's geometry leads to a Proca equation accounting for the dynamics of a ϕ ρ -particle, a vector-meson proposed as an an optimum candidate for dark matter. On the basis of previous cosmic microwave background results our theory leads, in the condition of cosmological 'critical density', to the assessment of the average energy content of the ϕ ρ -excitation. The peculiar mathematical structure of V eff offers a clue towards a very general resolution of a most intriguing puzzle of modern quantum field theory, the 'Cosmological Constant Paradox' (here referred to as the ' Λ -Paradox'). Indeed, our 'universal' theory offers a resolution of the Λ -Paradox

  8. Non-minimally coupled varying constants quantum cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Balcerzak, Adam, E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    We consider gravity theory with varying speed of light and varying gravitational constant. Both constants are represented by non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We examine the cosmological evolution in the near curvature singularity regime. We find that at the curvature singularity the speed of light goes to infinity while the gravitational constant vanishes. This corresponds to the Newton's Mechanics limit represented by one of the vertex of the Bronshtein-Zelmanov-Okun cube [1,2]. The cosmological evolution includes both the pre-big-bang and post-big-bang phases separated by the curvature singularity. We also investigate the quantum counterpart of the considered theory and find the probability ofmore » transition of the universe from the collapsing pre-big-bang phase to the expanding post-big-bang phase.« less

  9. SALT Spectroscopy of Evolved Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fiber-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  10. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455; Peloso, Marco

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of themore » constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.« less

  11. Evolving virtual creatures and catapults.

    PubMed

    Chaumont, Nicolas; Egli, Richard; Adami, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    We present a system that can evolve the morphology and the controller of virtual walking and block-throwing creatures (catapults) using a genetic algorithm. The system is based on Sims' work, implemented as a flexible platform with an off-the-shelf dynamics engine. Experiments aimed at evolving Sims-type walkers resulted in the emergence of various realistic gaits while using fairly simple objective functions. Due to the flexibility of the system, drastically different morphologies and functions evolved with only minor modifications to the system and objective function. For example, various throwing techniques evolved when selecting for catapults that propel a block as far as possible. Among the strategies and morphologies evolved, we find the drop-kick strategy, as well as the systematic invention of the principle behind the wheel, when allowing mutations to the projectile.

  12. Bearing selection in ball-rolling dung beetles: is it constant?

    PubMed

    Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie

    2010-11-01

    Ball rolling in dung beetles is thought to have evolved as a means to escape intense inter- and intra-specific competition at the dung pile. Accordingly, dung beetles typically roll along a straight-line path away from the pile, this being the most effective escape strategy for transporting dung to a suitable burial site. In this study, we investigate how individual diurnal dung beetles, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus, select the compass bearing of their straight-line rolls. In particular, we examine whether roll bearings are constant with respect to geographic cues, celestial cues, or other environmental cues (such as wind direction). Our results reveal that the roll bearings taken by individual beetles are not constant with respect to geographic or celestial references. Environmental cues appear to have some influence over bearing selection, although the relationship is not strong. Furthermore, the variance in roll bearing that we observe is not affected by the presence or absence of other beetles. Thus, rather than being constant for individual beetles, bearing selection varies each time a beetle makes a ball and rolls it away from the dung pile. This strategy allows beetles to make an efficient escape from the dung pile while minimizing the chance of encountering competition.

  13. The Effects of Protostellar Disk Turbulence on CO Emission Lines: A Comparison Study of Disks with Constant CO Abundance versus Chemically Evolving Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mo; Evans, Neal J., II; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Willacy, Karen; Turner, Neal J.

    2017-12-01

    Turbulence is the leading candidate for angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks and therefore influences disk lifetimes and planet formation timescales. However, the turbulent properties of protoplanetary disks are poorly constrained observationally. Recent studies have found turbulent speeds smaller than what fully-developed MRI would produce (Flaherty et al.). However, existing studies assumed a constant CO/H2 ratio of 10-4 in locations where CO is not frozen-out or photo-dissociated. Our previous studies of evolving disk chemistry indicate that CO is depleted by incorporation into complex organic molecules well inside the freeze-out radius of CO. We consider the effects of this chemical depletion on measurements of turbulence. Simon et al. suggested that the ratio of the peak line flux to the flux at line center of the CO J = 3-2 transition is a reasonable diagnostic of turbulence, so we focus on that metric, while adding some analysis of the more complex effects on spatial distribution. We simulate the emission lines of CO based on chemical evolution models presented in Yu et al., and find that the peak-to-trough ratio changes as a function of time as CO is destroyed. Specifically, a CO-depleted disk with high turbulent velocity mimics the peak-to-trough ratios of a non-CO-depleted disk with lower turbulent velocity. We suggest that disk observers and modelers take into account the possibility of CO depletion when using line profiles or peak-to-trough ratios to constrain the degree of turbulence in disks. Assuming that {CO}/{{{H}}}2={10}-4 at all disk radii can lead to underestimates of turbulent speeds in the disk by at least 0.2 km s-1.

  14. Transverse spin relaxation and diffusion-constant measurements of spin-polarized 129Xe nuclei in the presence of a magnetic field gradient

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohu; Chen, Chang; Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Luo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a magnetic field gradient in a sample cell containing spin-polarized 129Xe atoms will cause an increased relaxation rate. We measured the transverse spin relaxation time of 129Xe verse the applied magnetic field gradient and the cell temperature. We then compared the different transverse spin relaxation behavior of dual isotopes of xenon (129Xe and 131Xe) due to magnetic field gradient in the same cell. The experiment results show the residual magnetic field gradient can be measured and compensated by applying a negative magnetic gradient in the sample cell. The transverse spin relaxation time of 129Xe could be increased 2–7 times longer when applying an appropriate magnetic field gradient. The experiment results can also be used to determine the diffusion constant of 129Xe in H2 and N2 to be 0.4 ± 0.26 cm2/sec and 0.12 ± 0.02 cm2/sec. The results are close with theoretical calculation. PMID:27049237

  15. Real-time visualization of soliton molecules with evolving behavior in an ultrafast fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Li, Heng; Luo, Ai-Ping; Cui, Hu; Xu, Wen-Cheng; Luo, Zhi-Chao

    2018-03-01

    Ultrafast fiber lasers have been demonstrated to be great platforms for the investigation of soliton dynamics. The soliton molecules, as one of the most fascinating nonlinear phenomena, have been a hot topic in the field of nonlinear optics in recent years. Herein, we experimentally observed the real-time evolving behavior of soliton molecule in an ultrafast fiber laser by using the dispersive Fourier transformation technology. Several types of evolving soliton molecules were obtained in our experiments, such as soliton molecules with monotonically or chaotically evolving phase, flipping and hopping phase. These results would be helpful to the communities interested in soliton nonlinear dynamics as well as ultrafast laser technologies.

  16. Contesting the Canon: Understanding the History of the Evolving Discipline of Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrynn, Alison M.

    2003-01-01

    How do we remember the past in the discipline of kinesiology? What is the connection between memory and history? The conjunction between these two topics has in the past decade become a focus of increasing interest in the broader field of historiography. How do we locate our past in a field that has evolved in a number of ways in the past century?…

  17. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  18. Constants and pseudo-constants of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation.

    PubMed

    Case, K M

    1985-08-01

    Elucidating earlier work, it is shown that the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation has n + 2 constants for all n >/= 0. It also has a pseudo-constant from which the constants can be obtained by differentiation with respect to time. The pseudo-constant can be obtained from a basis functional J(n) ((n+2)) = -1/18 [unk] y(n+2)q by taking repeated Poisson brackets with the Hamiltonian.

  19. Diamond field effect transistors with a high-dielectric constant Ta2O5 as gate material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-W.; Liao, M.-Y.; Imura, M.; Watanabe, E.; Oosato, H.; Koide, Y.

    2014-06-01

    A Ta2O5/Al2O3 bilayer gate oxide with a high-dielectric constant (high-k) has been successfully applied to a hydrogenated-diamond (H-diamond) metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistor (MISFET). The Ta2O5 layer is prepared by a sputtering-deposition (SD) technique on the Al2O3 buffer layer fabricated by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The ALD-Al2O3 plays an important role to eliminate plasma damage for the H-diamond surface during SD-Ta2O5 deposition. The dielectric constants of the SD-Ta2O5/ALD-Al2O3 bilayer and single SD-Ta2O5 are as large as 12.7 and 16.5, respectively. The k value of the single SD-Ta2O5 in this study is in good agreement with that of the SD-Ta2O5 on oxygen-terminated diamond. The capacitance-voltage characteristic suggests low interfacial trapped charge density for the SD-Ta2O5/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond MIS diode. The MISFET with a gate length of 4 µm has a drain current maximum and an extrinsic transconductance of -97.7 mA mm-1 (normalized by gate width) and 31.0 ± 0.1 mS mm-1, respectively. The effective mobility in the H-diamond channel layer is found to be 70.1 ± 0.5 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  20. Protoclusters with evolved populations around radio galaxies at z ~ 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajisawa, Masaru; Kodama, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamada, Toru; Bower, Richard

    2006-09-01

    We report the discovery of protocluster candidates around high-redshift radio galaxies at z ~ 2.5 on the basis of clear statistical excess of colour-selected galaxies around them seen in the deep near-infrared imaging data obtained with CISCO on the Subaru Telescope. We have observed six targets, all at similar redshifts at z ~ 2.5, and our data reach J = 23.5, H = 22.6 and K = 21.8 (5σ) and cover a 1.6 × 1.6 arcmin2 field centred on each radio galaxy. We apply colour cuts in JHK bands in order to exclusively search for galaxies located at high redshifts, z > 2. Over the magnitude range of 19.5 < K < 21.5, we see a significant excess of red galaxies with J - K > 2.3 by a factor of 2 around the combined radio galaxies fields compared to those found in the general field of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S). The excess of galaxies around the radio galaxies fields becomes more than a factor of 3 around 19.5 < K < 20.5 when the two-colour cuts are applied with JHK bands. Such overdensity of the colour-selected galaxies suggests that those fields tend to host high-density regions at high redshifts, although there seems to be the variety of the density of the colour-selected galaxies in each field. In particular, two radio galaxies fields out of the six observed fields show very strong density excess and these are likely to be protoclusters associated with the radio galaxies which would evolve into rich clusters of galaxies dominated by old passively evolving galaxies.

  1. Constants and pseudo-constants of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation

    PubMed Central

    Case, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    Elucidating earlier work, it is shown that the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation has n + 2 constants for all n ≥ 0. It also has a pseudo-constant from which the constants can be obtained by differentiation with respect to time. The pseudo-constant can be obtained from a basis functional Jn(n+2) = -1/18 [unk] yn+2q by taking repeated Poisson brackets with the Hamiltonian. PMID:16593588

  2. The cosmological constant and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, P. J.; Ratra, Bharat

    2003-04-01

    Physics welcomes the idea that space contains energy whose gravitational effect approximates that of Einstein’s cosmological constant, Λ; today the concept is termed dark energy or quintessence. Physics also suggests that dark energy could be dynamical, allowing for the arguably appealing picture of an evolving dark-energy density approaching its natural value, zero, and small now because the expanding universe is old. This would alleviate the classical problem of the curious energy scale of a millielectron volt associated with a constant Λ. Dark energy may have been detected by recent cosmological tests. These tests make a good scientific case for the context, in the relativistic Friedmann-Lemaître model, in which the gravitational inverse-square law is applied to the scales of cosmology. We have well-checked evidence that the mean mass density is not much more than one-quarter of the critical Einstein de Sitter value. The case for detection of dark energy is not yet as convincing but still serious; we await more data, which may be derived from work in progress. Planned observations may detect the evolution of the dark-energy density; a positive result would be a considerable stimulus for attempts at understanding the microphysics of dark energy. This review presents the basic physics and astronomy of the subject, reviews the history of ideas, assesses the state of the observational evidence, and comments on recent developments in the search for a fundamental theory.

  3. Determination of the dispersion constant in a constrained vapor bubble thermosyphon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Sunando; Plawsky, Joel L.; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The isothermal profiles of the extended meniscus in a quartz cuvette were measured in a gravitational field using an image analyzing interferometer which is based on computer enhanced video microscopy of the naturally occurring interference fringes. The experimental results for heptane and pentane menisci were analyzed using the extended Young Laplace Equation. These isothermal results characterized the interfacial force field in-siru at the start of the heat transfer experiments by quantifying the dispersion constant, which is a function of the liquid-solid system and cleaning procedures. The experimentally obtained values of the disjoining pressure and the dispersion constants were compared to that predicted from the DLP theory and good agreements were obtained. The measurements are critical to the subsequent non-isothermal experiments because one of the major variables in the heat sink capability of the Constrained Vapor Bubble Thermosyphon, CVBT, is the dispersion constant. In all previous studies of micro heat pipes the value of the dispersion constant has been 'estimated'. One of the major advantages of the current glass cell is the ability to view the extended meniscus at all times. Experimentally, we find that the extended Young-Laplace Equation is an excellent model for the force field at the solid-liquid-vapor interfaces.

  4. Constants and pseudo-constants of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation

    SciTech Connect

    Case, K.M.

    1985-08-01

    Elucidating earlier work, it is shown that the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation has n + 2 constants for all n greater than or equal to 0. It also has a pseudo-constant from which the constants can be obtained by differentiation with respect to time. The pseudo-constant can be obtained from a basis functional J/sub n/sup (n+2)/ = -1/18 integral y/sup n+2/ q by taking repeated Poisson brackets with the Hamiltonian.

  5. Spin foam propagator: A new perspective to include the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Muxin; Huang, Zichang; Zipfel, Antonia

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the calculation of the first nonvanishing order of the metric 2-point function or graviton propagator in a semiclassical limit has evolved as a standard test for the credibility of a proposed spin foam model. The existing results of spin foam graviton propagators rely heavily on the so-called double scaling limit where spins j are large and the Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ is small such that the area A ∝j γ is approximately constant. However, it seems that this double scaling limit is bound to break down in models including a cosmological constant. We explore this in detail for the recently proposed model [7 H. M. Haggard, M. Han, W. Kaminski, and A. Riello, Nucl. Phys. B900, 1 (2015), 10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2015.08.023.] by Haggard, Han, Kaminski, and Riello and discuss alternative definitions of a graviton propagator, in which the double scaling limit can be avoided.

  6. The evolving magnetic topology of τ Boötis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, M. W.; Fares, R.; Marsden, S. C.; Carter, B. D.; Jeffers, S. V.; Petit, P.; Donati, J.-F.; Folsom, C. P.; BCool Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We present six epochs of spectropolarimetric observations of the hot-Jupiter-hosting star τ Boötis that extend the exceptional previous multiyear data set of its large-scale magnetic field. Our results confirm that the large-scale magnetic field of τ Boötis varies cyclicly, with the observation of two further magnetic reversals; between 2013 December and 2014 May and between 2015 January and March. We also show that the field evolves in a broadly solar-type manner in contrast to other F-type stars. We further present new results which indicate that the chromospheric activity cycle and the magnetic activity cycles are related, which would indicate a very rapid magnetic cycle. As an exemplar of long-term magnetic field evolution, τ Boötis and this long-term monitoring campaign presents a unique opportunity for studying stellar magnetic cycles.

  7. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    PubMed

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  8. Natural Selection Promotes Antigenic Evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Christopher J.; Ros, Vera I. D.; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed ‘cassettes’ that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections

  9. Field-evolved resistance to imidacloprid and ethiprole in populations of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens collected from across South and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Garrood, William T; Zimmer, Christoph T; Gorman, Kevin J; Nauen, Ralf; Bass, Chris; Davies, Thomas G E

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of imidacloprid and ethiprole resistance in Nilaparvata lugens Stål collected from across South and East Asia over the period 2005-2012. A resistance survey found that field populations had developed up to 220-fold resistance to imidacloprid and 223-fold resistance to ethiprole, and that many of the strains collected showed high levels of resistance to both insecticides. We also found that the cytochrome P450 CYP6ER1 was significantly overexpressed in 12 imidacloprid-resistant populations tested when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain, with fold changes ranging from ten- to 90-fold. In contrast, another cytochrome P450 CYP6AY1, also implicated in imidacloprid resistance, was underexpressed in ten of the populations and only significantly overexpressed (3.5-fold) in a single population from India compared with the same susceptible strain. Further selection of two of the imidacloprid-resistant field strains correlated with an approximate threefold increase in expression of CYP6ER1. We conclude that overexpression of CYP6ER1 is associated with field-evolved resistance to imidacloprid in brown planthopper populations in five countries in South and East Asia. © 2015 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The measurement system of birefringence and Verdet constant of optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi; Chen, Li; Guo, Qiang; Pang, Fufei; Wen, Jianxiang; Shang, Yana; Wang, Tingyun

    2013-12-01

    The Faraday magneto-optical effect of optical fiber has many applications in monitoring magnetic field and electric current. When a linearly polarized light propagates in the direction of a magnetic field, the plane of polarization will rotate linearly proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field, which following the relationship of θF =VBl. θF is the Faraday rotation angle, which is proportional to the magnetic flux density B and the Verdet constant V . However, when the optical fiber contains the effect of linear birefringence, the detection of Faraday rotation angle will depend on the line birefringence. In order to determine the Verdet constant of an optical fiber under a linear birefringence, the fiber birefringence needs to be accurately measured. In this work, a model is applied to analyze the polarization properties of an optical fiber by using the Jones matrix method. A measurement system based on the lock-in amplifier technology is designed to test the Verdet constant and the birefringence of optical fiber. The magnetic field is produced by a solenoid with a DC current. A tunable laser is intensity modulated with a motorized rotating chopper. The actuator supplies a signal as the phase-locked synchronization reference to the signal of the lock-in amplifier. The measurement accuracy is analyzed and the sensitivity of the system is optimized. In this measurement system, the Verdet constant of the SMF-28 fiber was measured to be 0.56±0.02 rad/T·m at 1550nm. This setup is well suitable for measuring the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sensitivity for lock-in amplifier at a low magnetic field strength.

  11. QED Based Calculation of the Fine Structure Constant

    SciTech Connect

    Lestone, John Paul

    2016-10-13

    Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. Here, semi-classical approaches are used to obtain a more intuitive feel for what causes electrostatics, and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. These intuitive arguments lead to a possible answer to the question of the nature of charge. Virtual photons, with a reduced wavelength of λ, are assumed to interact with isolated electrons with a cross section of πλ 2. This interaction is assumed to generate time-reversed virtual photons that are capable of seeking out and interacting with other electrons. Thismore » exchange of virtual photons between particles is assumed to generate and define the strength of electromagnetism. With the inclusion of near-field effects the model presented here gives a fine structure constant of ~1/137 and an anomalous magnetic moment of the electron of ~0.00116. These calculations support the possibility that near-field corrections are the key to understanding the numerical value of the dimensionless fine structure constant.« less

  12. The Higgs field and the resolution of the Cosmological Constant Paradox in the Weyl-geometrical Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martini, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of Weyl's differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. Within this novel geometrical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y as well as on the conformal groups of space-time Weyl's transformations is analysed within the framework of a general-relativistic, conformally covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An `effective cosmological potential': Veff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: via the `mass reduction parameter': , a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a `free parameter' by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the mass which accounts for the measured cosmological constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The non-integrable application of Weyl's geometry leads to a Proca equation accounting for the dynamics of a φρ-particle, a vector-meson proposed as an an optimum candidate for dark matter. On the basis of previous cosmic microwave background results our theory leads, in the condition of cosmological `critical density', to the assessment of the average energy content of the φρ-excitation. The peculiar mathematical structure of Veff offers a clue towards a very general resolution of a most

  13. Toward Automated Benchmarking of Atomistic Force Fields: Neat Liquid Densities and Static Dielectric Constants from the ThermoML Data Archive.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Kyle A; Behr, Julie M; Rustenburg, Ariën S; Bayly, Christopher I; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Chodera, John D

    2015-10-08

    Atomistic molecular simulations are a powerful way to make quantitative predictions, but the accuracy of these predictions depends entirely on the quality of the force field employed. Although experimental measurements of fundamental physical properties offer a straightforward approach for evaluating force field quality, the bulk of this information has been tied up in formats that are not machine-readable. Compiling benchmark data sets of physical properties from non-machine-readable sources requires substantial human effort and is prone to the accumulation of human errors, hindering the development of reproducible benchmarks of force-field accuracy. Here, we examine the feasibility of benchmarking atomistic force fields against the NIST ThermoML data archive of physicochemical measurements, which aggregates thousands of experimental measurements in a portable, machine-readable, self-annotating IUPAC-standard format. As a proof of concept, we present a detailed benchmark of the generalized Amber small-molecule force field (GAFF) using the AM1-BCC charge model against experimental measurements (specifically, bulk liquid densities and static dielectric constants at ambient pressure) automatically extracted from the archive and discuss the extent of data available for use in larger scale (or continuously performed) benchmarks. The results of even this limited initial benchmark highlight a general problem with fixed-charge force fields in the representation low-dielectric environments, such as those seen in binding cavities or biological membranes.

  14. How Physician Perspectives on E-Prescribing Evolve over Time

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaishali; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Kaushal, Rainu

    2016-01-01

    do not support workflow or require constant upgrades may further prolong the process. Additionally, as system features continually evolve, physicians may need ongoing training and support to maintain efficiency. PMID:27786335

  15. Information carrying capacity of a cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simidzija, Petar; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the exchange of information in different cosmological backgrounds when sender and receiver are timelike separated and communicate through massless fields (without the exchange of light signals). Remarkably, we show that the dominance of a cosmological constant makes the amount of recoverable information imprinted in the field by the sender extremely resilient: it does not decay in time or with the spatial separation of the sender and receiver, and it actually increases with the rate of expansion of the Universe. This is in stark contrast with the information carried by conventional light signals and with previous results on timelike communication through massless fields in matter-dominated cosmologies.

  16. Recovery of an evolving magnetic flux rope in the solar wind: Decomposing spatial and temporal variations from single-spacecraft data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, H.; Sonnerup, B.; Hu, Q.; Nakamura, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel single-spacecraft data analysis method for decomposing spatial and temporal variations of physical quantities at points along the path of a spacecraft in spacetime. The method is designed for use in the reconstruction of slowly evolving two-dimensional, magneto-hydrostatic structures (Grad-Shafranov equilibria) in a space plasma. It is an extension of the one developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa [2010] and Hasegawa et al. [2010], in which it was assumed that variations in the time series of data, recorded as the structures move past the spacecraft, are all due to spatial effects. In reality, some of the observed variations are usually caused by temporal evolution of the structure during the time it moves past the observing spacecraft; the information in the data about the spatial structure is aliased by temporal effects. The purpose here is to remove this time aliasing from the reconstructed maps of field and plasma properties. Benchmark tests are performed by use of synthetic data taken by a virtual spacecraft as it traverses, at a constant velocity, a slowly growing magnetic flux rope in a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of magnetic reconnection. These tests show that the new method can better recover the spacetime behavior of the flux rope than does the original version, in which time aliasing effects had not been removed. An application of the new method to a solar wind flux rope, observed by the ACE spacecraft, suggests that it was evolving in a significant way during the ~17 hour interval of the traversal. References Hasegawa, H., B. U. Ö. Sonnerup, and T. K. M. Nakamura (2010), Recovery of time evolution of Grad-Shafranov equilibria from single-spacecraft data: Benchmarking and application to a flux transfer event, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A11219, doi:10.1029/2010JA015679. Sonnerup, B. U. Ö., and H. Hasegawa (2010), On slowly evolving Grad-Shafranov equilibria, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A11218, doi:10.1029/2010JA015678. Magnetic

  17. Host-Parasite Relationship in Cystic Echinococcosis: An Evolving Story

    PubMed Central

    Siracusano, Alessandra; Delunardo, Federica; Teggi, Antonella; Ortona, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus causes cystic echinococcosis, a neglected infectious disease that constitutes a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite being under constant barrage by the immune system, E. granulosus modulates antiparasite immune responses and persists in the human hosts with detectable humoral and cellular responses against the parasite. In vitro and in vivo immunological approaches, together with molecular biology and immunoproteomic technologies, provided us exciting insights into the mechanisms involved in the initiation of E. granulosus infection and the consequent induction and regulation of the immune response. Although the last decade has clarified many aspects of host-parasite relationship in human cystic echinococcosis, establishing the full mechanisms that cause the disease requires more studies. Here, we review some of the recent developments and discuss new avenues in this evolving story of E. granulosus infection in man. PMID:22110535

  18. Newman-Penrose constants of the Kerr-Newman metric

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Xuefei; Shang Yu; Bai Shan

    The Newman-Unti formalism of the Kerr-Newman metric near future null infinity is developed, with which the Newman-Penrose constants for both the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the Kerr-Newman metric are computed and shown to be zero. The multipole structure near future null infinity in the sense of Janis-Newman of the Kerr-Newman metric is then further studied. It is found that up to the 2{sup 4}-pole, modulo a constant dependent upon the order of the pole, these multipole moments agree with those of Geroch-Hansen multipole moments defined at spatial infinity.

  19. A design study for a simple-to-fly, constant attitude light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Humphreys, D. E.; Montoya, R. J.; Rickard, W. W.; Wilkinson, I. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activities during a four-year study by doctoral students to evolve in detail a design for a simple-to-fly, constant attitude light airplane are described. The study indicated that such aircraft could materially reduce the hazards to light airplane occupants which arise from the high pilot work load and poor visibility that occur during landing. Preliminary cost studies indicate that in volume production this system would increase the cost of the aircraft in roughly the same fashion that automatic transmission, power steering, power brakes, and cruise control increase the cost of a compact car.

  20. Assessing five evolving microbial enzyme models against field measurements from a semiarid savannah—What are the mechanisms of soil respiration pulses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Niu, Guo-Yue; Elshall, Ahmed S.; Ye, Ming; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch

    2014-09-01

    Soil microbial respiration pulses in response to episodic rainfall pulses (the "Birch effect") are poorly understood. We developed and assessed five evolving microbial enzyme models against field measurements from a semiarid savannah characterized by pulsed precipitation to understand the mechanisms to generate the Birch pulses. The five models evolve from an existing four-carbon (C) pool model to models with additional C pools and explicit representations of soil moisture controls on C degradation and microbial uptake rates. Assessing the models using techniques of model selection and model averaging suggests that models with additional C pools for accumulation of degraded C in the dry zone of the soil pore space result in a higher probability of reproducing the observed Birch pulses. Degraded C accumulated in dry soil pores during dry periods becomes immediately accessible to microbes in response to rainstorms, providing a major mechanism to generate respiration pulses. Explicitly representing the transition of degraded C and enzymes between dry and wet soil pores in response to soil moisture changes and soil moisture controls on C degradation and microbial uptake rates improve the models' efficiency and robustness in simulating the Birch effect. Assuming that enzymes in the dry soil pores facilitate degradation of complex C during dry periods (though at a lower rate) results in a greater accumulation of degraded C and thus further improves the models' performance. However, the actual mechanism inducing the greater accumulation of labile C needs further experimental studies.

  1. Cosmic acceleration in the nonlocal approach to the cosmological constant problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    We have recently constructed a manifestly local formulation of a nonlocal approach to the cosmological constant problem which can treat with quantum effects from both matter and gravitational fields. In this formulation, it has been explicitly shown that the effective cosmological constant is radiatively stable even in the presence of the gravitational loop effects. Since we are naturally led to add the R^2 term and the corresponding topological action to an original action, we make use of this formulation to account for the late-time acceleration of expansion of the universe in case of the open universes with infinite space-time volume. We will see that when the "scalaron", which exists in the R^2 gravity as an extra scalar field, has a tiny mass of the order of magnitude {O}(1 meV), we can explain the current value of the cosmological constant in a consistent manner.

  2. Evolvability Is an Evolved Ability: The Coding Concept as the Arch-Unit of Natural Selection.

    PubMed

    Janković, Srdja; Ćirković, Milan M

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes that characterize living matter are qualitatively distinct in that they involve encoding and transfer of specific types of information. Such information plays an active part in the control of events that are ultimately linked to the capacity of the system to persist and multiply. This algorithmicity of life is a key prerequisite for its Darwinian evolution, driven by natural selection acting upon stochastically arising variations of the encoded information. The concept of evolvability attempts to define the total capacity of a system to evolve new encoded traits under appropriate conditions, i.e., the accessible section of total morphological space. Since this is dependent on previously evolved regulatory networks that govern information flow in the system, evolvability itself may be regarded as an evolved ability. The way information is physically written, read and modified in living cells (the "coding concept") has not changed substantially during the whole history of the Earth's biosphere. This biosphere, be it alone or one of many, is, accordingly, itself a product of natural selection, since the overall evolvability conferred by its coding concept (nucleic acids as information carriers with the "rulebook of meanings" provided by codons, as well as all the subsystems that regulate various conditional information-reading modes) certainly played a key role in enabling this biosphere to survive up to the present, through alterations of planetary conditions, including at least five catastrophic events linked to major mass extinctions. We submit that, whatever the actual prebiotic physical and chemical processes may have been on our home planet, or may, in principle, occur at some time and place in the Universe, a particular coding concept, with its respective potential to give rise to a biosphere, or class of biospheres, of a certain evolvability, may itself be regarded as a unit (indeed the arch-unit) of natural selection.

  3. Kny Coupling Constants and Form Factors from the Chiral Bag Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, M. T.; Cheon, Il-T.

    2000-09-01

    The form factors and coupling constants for KNΛ and KNΣ interactions have been calculated in the framework of the Chiral Bag Model with vector mesons. Taking into account vector meson (ρ, ω, K*) field effects, we find -3.88 ≤ gKNΛ ≤ -3.67 and 1.15 ≤ gKNΣ ≤ 1.24, where the quark-meson coupling constants are determined by fitting the renormalized, πNN coupling constant, [gπNN(0)]2/4π = 14.3. It is shown that vector mesons make significant contributions to the coupling constants gKNΛ and gKNΣ. Our values are existing within the experimental limits compared to the phenomenological values extracted from the kaon photo production experiments.

  4. Highly Accurate Quartic Force Fields, Vibrational Frequencies, and Spectroscopic Constants for Cyclic and Linear C3H3(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Taylor, Peter R.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of theory have been used to compute quartic force fields (QFFs) for the cyclic and linear forms of the C H + molecular cation, referred to as c-C H + and I-C H +. Specifically the 33 3333 singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T), has been used in conjunction with extrapolation to the one-particle basis set limit and corrections for scalar relativity and core correlation have been included. The QFFs have been used to compute highly accurate fundamental vibrational frequencies and other spectroscopic constants using both vibrational 2nd-order perturbation theory and variational methods to solve the nuclear Schroedinger equation. Agreement between our best computed fundamental vibrational frequencies and recent infrared photodissociation experiments is reasonable for most bands, but there are a few exceptions. Possible sources for the discrepancies are discussed. We determine the energy difference between the cyclic and linear forms of C H +, 33 obtaining 27.9 kcal/mol at 0 K, which should be the most reliable available. It is expected that the fundamental vibrational frequencies and spectroscopic constants presented here for c-C H + 33 and I-C H + are the most reliable available for the free gas-phase species and it is hoped that 33 these will be useful in the assignment of future high-resolution laboratory experiments or astronomical observations.

  5. Determination of the effective anisotropy constant of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles through the T-dependence of the coercive field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. H.; Lima, R. J. S.; Meneses, C. T.; Folly, W. S. D.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Coelho, A. A.; Duque, J. G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a systematic study of the coercive field of CoFe2O4-SiO2 nanocomposites. The samples were prepared via the sol-gel method by using the Tetraethyl Orthosilicate as starting reagent. Results of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence confirm the dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles inside the silica matrix. In addition, the shift in the maximum of Zero-Field-Cooled curves observed by varying the weight ratio of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to the precursor of silica is consistent with the increasing of average interparticle distances. Because our samples present a particle size distribution, we have used a generalized model which takes account such parameter to fit the experimental data of coercive field extracted from the magnetization curves as a function of applied field. Unlike most of the coercive field results reported in the literature for this material, the use of this model provided a successful description of the temperature dependence of the coercive field of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a wide temperature range. Surprisingly, we have observed the decreasing of the nanoparticles anisotropy constant in comparison to the bulk value expected for the material. We believe that this can be interpreted as due to both the migration of the Co2+ from octahedral to tetrahedral sites.

  6. Evolving the machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Brent Andrew

    Structural designs by humans and nature are wholly distinct in their approaches. Engineers model components to verify that all mechanical requirements are satisfied before assembling a product. Nature, on the other hand; creates holistically: each part evolves in conjunction with the others. The present work is a synthesis of these two design approaches; namely, spatial models that evolve. Topology optimization determines the amount and distribution of material within a model; which corresponds to the optimal connectedness and shape of a structure. Smooth designs are obtained by using higher-order B-splines in the definition of the material distribution. Higher-fidelity is achieved using adaptive meshing techniques at the interface between solid and void. Nature is an exemplary basis for mass minimization, as processing material requires both resources and energy. Topological optimization techniques were originally formulated as the maximization of the structural stiffness subject to a volume constraint. This research inverts the optimization problem: the mass is minimized subject to deflection constraints. Active materials allow a structure to interact with its environment in a manner similar to muscles and sensory organs in animals. By specifying the material properties and design requirements, adaptive structures with integrated sensors and actuators can evolve.

  7. Measuring h /mCs and the Fine Structure Constant with Bragg Diffraction and Bloch Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Richard

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated a new scheme for atom interferometry based on large-momentum-transfer Bragg beam splitters and Bloch oscillations. In this new scheme, we have achieved a resolution of δα / α =0.25ppb in the fine structure constant measurement, which gives up to 4.4 million radians of phase difference between freely evolving matter waves. We suppress many systematic effects, e.g., Zeeman shifts and effects from Earth's gravity and vibrations, use Bloch oscillations to increase the signal and reduce the diffraction phase, simulate multi-atom Bragg diffraction to understand sub-ppb systematic effects, and implement spatial filtering to further suppress systematic effects. We present our recent progress toward a measurement of the fine structure constant, which will provide a stringent test of the standard model of particle physics.

  8. A Quantitative Approach to Assessing System Evolvability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, John A., III

    2004-01-01

    When selecting a system from multiple candidates, the customer seeks the one that best meets his or her needs. Recently the desire for evolvable systems has become more important and engineers are striving to develop systems that accommodate this need. In response to this search for evolvability, we present a historical perspective on evolvability, propose a refined definition of evolvability, and develop a quantitative method for measuring this property. We address this quantitative methodology from both a theoretical and practical perspective. This quantitative model is then applied to the problem of evolving a lunar mission to a Mars mission as a case study.

  9. Correlations and analytical approaches to co-evolving voter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, M.; Xu, C.; Choi, C. W.; Hui, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    The difficulty in formulating analytical treatments in co-evolving networks is studied in light of the Vazquez-Eguíluz-San Miguel voter model (VM) and a modified VM (MVM) that introduces a random mutation of the opinion as a noise in the VM. The density of active links, which are links that connect the nodes of opposite opinions, is shown to be highly sensitive to both the degree k of a node and the active links n among the neighbors of a node. We test the validity in the formalism of analytical approaches and show explicitly that the assumptions behind the commonly used homogeneous pair approximation scheme in formulating a mean-field theory are the source of the theory's failure due to the strong correlations between k, n and n2. An improved approach that incorporates spatial correlation to the nearest-neighbors explicitly and a random approximation for the next-nearest neighbors is formulated for the VM and the MVM, and it gives better agreement with the simulation results. We introduce an empirical approach that quantifies the correlations more accurately and gives results in good agreement with the simulation results. The work clarifies why simply mean-field theory fails and sheds light on how to analyze the correlations in the dynamic equations that are often generated in co-evolving processes.

  10. An all-organic composite actuator material with a high dielectric constant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q M; Li, Hengfeng; Poh, Martin; Xia, Feng; Cheng, Z-Y; Xu, Haisheng; Huang, Cheng

    2002-09-19

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs) can behave as actuators, changing their shape in response to electrical stimulation. EAPs that are controlled by external electric fields--referred to here as field-type EAPs--include ferroelectric polymers, electrostrictive polymers, dielectric elastomers and liquid crystal polymers. Field-type EAPs can exhibit fast response speeds, low hysteresis and strain levels far above those of traditional piezoelectric materials, with elastic energy densities even higher than those of piezoceramics. However, these polymers also require a high field (>70 V micro m(-1)) to generate such high elastic energy densities (>0.1 J cm(-3); refs 4, 5, 9, 10). Here we report a new class of all-organic field-type EAP composites, which can exhibit high elastic energy densities induced by an electric field of only 13 V micro m(-1). The composites are fabricated from an organic filler material possessing very high dielectric constant dispersed in an electrostrictive polymer matrix. The composites can exhibit high net dielectric constants while retaining the flexibility of the matrix. These all-organic actuators could find applications as artificial muscles, 'smart skins' for drag reduction, and in microfluidic systems for drug delivery.

  11. Radio Imaging of Envelopes of Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Bill

    2018-04-01

    This talk will cover imaging of stellar envelopes using radio VLBI techniques; special attention will be paid to the technical differences between radio and optical/IR interferomery. Radio heterodyne receivers allow a straightforward way to derive spectral cubes and full polarization observations. Milliarcsecond resolution of very bright, i.e. non thermal, emission of molecular masers in the envelopes of evolved stars can be achieved using VLBI techniques with baselines of thousands of km. Emission from SiO, H2O and OH masers are commonly seen at increasing distance from the photosphere. The very narrow maser lines allow accurate measurements of the velocity field within the emitting region.

  12. Constraining cosmologies with fundamental constants - I. Quintessence and K-essence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rodger I.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Vielzeuf, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Many cosmological models invoke rolling scalar fields to account for the observed acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. These theories generally include a potential V(φ) which is a function of the scalar field φ. Although V(φ) can be represented by a very diverse set of functions, recent work has shown that under some conditions, such as the slow-roll conditions, the equation of state parameter w is either independent of the form of V(φ) or part of family of solutions with only a few parameters. In realistic models of this type the scalar field couples to other sectors of the model leading to possibly observable changes in the fundamental constants such as the fine structure constant α and the proton to electron mass ratio μ. Although the current situation on a possible variance of α is complicated, there are firm limitations on the variance of μ in the early universe. This paper explores the limits this puts on the validity of various cosmologies that invoke rolling scalar fields. We find that the limit on the variation of μ puts significant constraints on the product of a cosmological parameter w + 1 and a new physics parameter ζ2μ, the coupling constant between μ and the rolling scalar field. Even when the cosmologies are restricted to very slow roll conditions either the value of ζμ must be at the lower end of or less than its expected values or the value of w + 1 must be restricted to values vanishingly close to 0. This implies that either the rolling scalar field is very weakly coupled to the electromagnetic field, small ζμ, very weakly coupled to gravity, (w + 1) ≈ 0 or both. These results stress that adherence to the measured invariance in μ is a very significant test of the validity of any proposed cosmology and any new physics it requires. The limits on the variation of μ also produces a significant tension with the reported changes in the value of α.

  13. Constant-concentration boundary condition: Lessons from the HYDROCOIN variable-density groundwater benchmark problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Sanford, W.E.; Campbell, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a solute-transport model, if a constant-concentration boundary condition is applied at a node in an active flow field, a solute flux can occur by both advective and dispersive processes. The potential for advective release is demonstrated by reexamining the Hydrologic Code Intercomparison (HYDROCOIN) project case 5 problem, which represents a salt dome overlain by a shallow groundwater system. The resulting flow field includes significant salinity and fluid density variations. Several independent teams simulated this problem using finite difference or finite element numerical models. We applied a method-of-characteristics model (MOCDENSE). The previous numerical implementations by HYDROCOIN teams of a constant-concentration boundary to represent salt release by lateral dispersion only (as stipulated in the original problem definition) was flawed because this boundary condition allows the release of salt into the flow field by both dispersion and advection. When the constant-concentration boundary is modified to allow salt release by dispersion only, significantly less salt is released into the flow field. The calculated brine distribution for case 5 depends very little on which numerical model is used, as long as the selected model is solving the proper equations. Instead, the accuracy of the solution depends strongly on the proper conceptualization of the problem, including the detailed design of the constant-concentration boundary condition. The importance and sensitivity to the manner of specification of this boundary does not appear to have been recognized previously in the analysis of this problem.

  14. Cooperative behavior and phase transitions in co-evolving stag hunt game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Li, Y. S.; Xu, C.; Hui, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    Cooperative behavior and different phases in a co-evolving network dynamics based on the stag hunt game is studied. The dynamical processes are parameterized by a payoff r that tends to promote non-cooperative behavior and a probability q for a rewiring attempt that could isolate the non-cooperators. The interplay between the parameters leads to different phases. Detailed simulations and a mean field theory are employed to reveal the properties of different phases. For small r, the cooperators are the majority and form a connected cluster while the non-cooperators increase with q but remain isolated over the whole range of q, and it is a static phase. For sufficiently large r, cooperators disappear in an intermediate range qL ≤ q ≤qU and a dynamical all-non-cooperators phase results. For q >qU, a static phase results again. A mean field theory based on how the link densities change in time by the co-evolving dynamics is constructed. The theory gives a phase diagram in the q- r parameter space that is qualitatively in agreement with simulation results. The sources of discrepancies between theory and simulations are discussed.

  15. Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: A Status Report

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barry N.; Cohen, E. Richard

    1990-01-01

    We summarize the principal advances made in the fundamental physical constants field since the completion of the 1986 CODATA least-squares adjustment of the constants and discuss their implications for both the 1986 set of recommended values and the next least-squares adjustment. In general, the new results lead to values of the constants with uncertainties 5 to 7 times smaller than the uncertainties assigned the 1986 values. However, the changes in the values themselves are less than twice the 1986 assigned one-standard-deviation uncertainties and thus are not highly significant. Although much new data has become available since 1986, three new results dominate the analysis: a value of the Planck constant obtained from a realization of the watt; a value of the fine-structure constant obtained from the magnetic moment anomaly of the electron; and a value of the molar gas constant obtained from the speed of sound in argon. Because of their dominant role in determining the values and uncertainties of many of the constants, it is highly desirable that additional results of comparable uncertainty that corroborate these three data items be obtained before the next adjustment is carried out. Until then, the 1986 CODATA set of recommended values will remain the set of choice. PMID:28179787

  16. When is the growth index constant?

    SciTech Connect

    Polarski, David; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Giacomini, Hector, E-mail: david.polarski@umontpellier.fr, E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru, E-mail: hector.giacomini@lmpt.univ-tours.fr

    The growth index γ is an interesting tool to assess the phenomenology of dark energy (DE) models, in particular of those beyond general relativity (GR). We investigate the possibility for DE models to allow for a constant γ during the entire matter and DE dominated stages. It is shown that if DE is described by quintessence (a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity), this behaviour of γ is excluded either because it would require a transition to a phantom behaviour at some finite moment of time, or, in the case of tracking DE at the matter dominated stage, because themore » relative matter density Ω {sub m} appears to be too small. An infinite number of solutions, with Ω {sub m} and γ both constant, are found with w {sub DE} = 0 corresponding to Einstein-de Sitter universes. For all modified gravity DE models satisfying G {sub eff} ≥ G , among them the f ( R ) DE models suggested in the literature, the condition to have a constant w {sub DE} is strongly violated at the present epoch. In contrast, DE tracking dust-like matter deep in the matter era, but with Ω {sub m} <1, requires G {sub eff} > G and an example is given using scalar-tensor gravity for a range of admissible values of γ. For constant w {sub DE} inside GR, departure from a quasi-constant value is limited until today. Even a large variation of w {sub DE} may not result in a clear signature in the change of γ. The change however is substantial in the future and the asymptotic value of γ is found while its slope with respect to Ω {sub m} (and with respect to z ) diverges and tends to −∞.« less

  17. The evolving activity of the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    SciTech Connect

    Bodewits, D.; Farnham, T. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.

    2014-05-01

    We used the Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate thatmore » this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km{sup 2}, estimated to be >20% of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost 4 × 10{sup 11} kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a few meters of its surface. Even though this was likely not the comet's first passage through the inner solar system, the activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed.« less

  18. Investigation of Saltwater Intrusion and Recirculation of Seawater for Henry Constant Dispersion and Velocity-Dependent Dispersion Problems and Field-Scale Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motz, L. H.; Kalakan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Three problems regarding saltwater intrusion, namely the Henry constant dispersion and velocity-dependent dispersion problems and a larger, field-scale velocity-dependent dispersion problem, have been investigated to determine quantitatively how saltwater intrusion and the recirculation of seawater at a coastal boundary are related to the freshwater inflow and the density-driven buoyancy flux. Based on dimensional analysis, saltwater intrusion and the recirculation of seawater are dependent functions of the independent ratio of freshwater advective flux relative to the density-driven vertical buoyancy flux, defined as az (or a for an isotropic aquifer), and the aspect ratio of horizontal and vertical dimensions of the cross-section. For the Henry constant dispersion problem, in which the aquifer is isotropic, saltwater intrusion and recirculation are related to an additional independent dimensionless parameter that is the ratio of the constant dispersion coefficient treated as a scalar quantity, the porosity, and the freshwater advective flux, defined as b. For the Henry velocity-dependent dispersion problem, the ratio b is zero, and saltwater intrusion and recirculation are related to an additional independent dimensionless parameter that is the ratio of the vertical and horizontal dispersivities, or rα = αz/αx. For an anisotropic aquifer, saltwater intrusion and recirculation are also dependent on the ratio of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivities, or rK = Kz/Kx. For the field-scale velocity-dependent dispersion problem, saltwater intrusion and recirculation are dependent on the same independent ratios as the Henry velocity-dependent dispersion problem. In the two-dimensional cross-section for all three problems, freshwater inflow occurs at an upgradient boundary, and recirculated seawater outflow occurs at a downgradient coastal boundary. The upgradient boundary is a specified-flux boundary with zero freshwater concentration, and the downgradient

  19. Evolving faceted surfaces: From continuum modeling, to geometric simulation, to mean-field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Scott A.

    We first consider the directional solidification, in two dimensions, of a dilute binary alloy having a large anisotropy of surface energy, where the sample is pulled in a high-energy direction such that the planar state is thermodynamically prohibited. Analyses including reduction of dynamics, matched asymptotic analysis, and energy minimization are used to show that the interface assumes a faceted profile with small wavelength. Questions on stability and other dynamic behavior lead to the derivation of a facet-velocity law. This shows the that faceted steady solutions are stable in the absence of constitutional supercooling, while in its presence, coarsening replaces cell formation as the mechanism of instability. We next proceed to introduce a computational-geometry tool which, given a facet-velocity law, performs large-scale simulations of fully-faceted coarsening surfaces, first in the special case with only three allowed facet orientations (threefold symmetry), and then for arbitrary surfaces. Topological events including coarsening are comprehensively considered, and are treated explicitly by our method using both a priori knowledge of event outcomes and a novel graph-rewriting algorithm. While careful attention must be paid to both non-unique topological events and the imposition of a discrete time-stepping scheme, the resulting method allows rapid simulation of large surfaces and easy extraction of statistical data. Example statistics are provided for the threefold case based on simulations totaling one million facets. Finally, a mean-field theory is developed for the scale-invariant length distributions observed during the coarsening of one-dimensional faceted surfaces. This theory closely follows the LSW theory of Ostwald ripening in two-phase systems, but the mechanism of coarsening in faceted surfaces requires the derivation of additional terms to model the coalescence of facets. The model is solved by the exponential distribution, but agreement with

  20. Knotty structures of the evolving heliospheric magnetic fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Ilan

    2013-04-01

    The analogy between MHD and knot theory is utilized in an analysis of structure, stability and evolution of complex magnetic heliospheric flux tubes. Planar projection of a three-dimensional magnetic configuration depicts the structure as a two-dimensional diagram with crossings, to which one may assign mathematical operations leading to robust topological invariants. These invariants enrich the topological information of magnetic configurations beyond helicity. It is conjectured that the field which emerges from the solar photosphere is structured as one of simplest knot invariants - unknot or prime knot, and these flux ropes are then stretched while carried by the solar wind into the interplanetary medium. Preservation of invariants for small diffusivity and large cross section of the emerging magnetic flux makes them impervious to large scale reconnection, allowing us to predict the observed structures at 1AU as elongated prime knots. Similar structures may be observed in magnetic clouds which got disconnected from their foot-points and in ion drop-out configurations from a compact flare source in solar impulsive solar events. Observation of small scale magnetic features consistent with prime knot may indicate spatial intermittency and non-Gaussian statistics in the turbulent cascade process. For flux tubes with higher resistivity, magnetic energy decay rate should decrease with increased knot complexity as the invariants are then harder to be violated. Future measurements are suggested for distinctly oriented magnetic fields with directionally varying suprathermal particle fluxes.

  1. The evolving quality of frictional contact with graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Suzhi; Li, Qunyang; Carpick, Robert W; Gumbsch, Peter; Liu, Xin Z; Ding, Xiangdong; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju

    2016-11-24

    Graphite and other lamellar materials are used as dry lubricants for macroscale metallic sliding components and high-pressure contacts. It has been shown experimentally that monolayer graphene exhibits higher friction than multilayer graphene and graphite, and that this friction increases with continued sliding, but the mechanism behind this remains subject to debate. It has long been conjectured that the true contact area between two rough bodies controls interfacial friction. The true contact area, defined for example by the number of atoms within the range of interatomic forces, is difficult to visualize directly but characterizes the quantity of contact. However, there is emerging evidence that, for a given pair of materials, the quality of the contact can change, and that this can also strongly affect interfacial friction. Recently, it has been found that the frictional behaviour of two-dimensional materials exhibits traits unlike those of conventional bulk materials. This includes the abovementioned finding that for few-layer two-dimensional materials the static friction force gradually strengthens for a few initial atomic periods before reaching a constant value. Such transient behaviour, and the associated enhancement of steady-state friction, diminishes as the number of two-dimensional layers increases, and was observed only when the two-dimensional material was loosely adhering to a substrate. This layer-dependent transient phenomenon has not been captured by any simulations. Here, using atomistic simulations, we reproduce the experimental observations of layer-dependent friction and transient frictional strengthening on graphene. Atomic force analysis reveals that the evolution of static friction is a manifestation of the natural tendency for thinner and less-constrained graphene to re-adjust its configuration as a direct consequence of its greater flexibility. That is, the tip atoms become more strongly pinned, and show greater synchrony in their stick

  2. Chemical abundances and kinematics of 257 G-, K-type field giants. Setting a base for further analysis of giant-planet properties orbiting evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Benamati, L.; Santos, N. C.; Alves, S.; Lovis, C.; Udry, S.; Israelian, G.; Sousa, S. G.; Tsantaki, M.; Mortier, A.; Sozzetti, A.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    We performed a uniform and detailed abundance analysis of 12 refractory elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Co, Sc, Mn, and V) for a sample of 257 G- and K-type evolved stars from the CORALIE planet search programme. To date, only one of these stars is known to harbour a planetary companion. We aimed to characterize this large sample of evolved stars in terms of chemical abundances and kinematics, thus setting a solid base for further analysis of planetary properties around giant stars. This sample, being homogeneously analysed, can be used as a comparison sample for other planet-related studies, as well as for different type of studies related to stellar and Galaxy astrophysics. The abundances of the chemical elements were determined using an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis relative to the Sun, with the spectral synthesis code MOOG and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 atmospheres. To separate the Galactic stellar populations, both a purely kinematical approach and a chemical method were applied. We confirm the overabundance of Na in giant stars compared to the field FGK dwarfs. This enhancement might have a stellar evolutionary character, but departures from LTE may also produce a similar enhancement. Our chemical separation of stellar populations also suggests a `gap' in metallicity between the thick-disc and high-α metal-rich stars, as previously observed in dwarfs sample from HARPS. The present sample, as most of the giant star samples, also suffers from the B - V colour cut-off, which excludes low-log g stars with high metallicities, and high-log g star with low [Fe/H]. For future studies of planet occurrence dependence on stellar metallicity around these evolved stars, we suggest to use a subsample of stars in a `cut-rectangle' in the log g-[Fe/H] diagram to overcome the aforementioned issue.

  3. The Evolving Doorframe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Discusses decision making factors when choosing doorframes for educational facilities. Focus is placed on how doorframes have evolved over the years in ways that offer new choice options to consider. (GR)

  4. Laser-driven interactions and resultant instabilities in materials with high dielectric constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpoot, Moolchandra; Dixit, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    An analytical investigation of nonlinear interactions resulting in parametric amplification of acoustic wave is made by obtaining the dispersion relation using hydrodynamic model of inhomogeneous plasma by applying large static field at an arbitrary angle with the pump wave. The investigation shows that many early studies have neglected dependence of dielectric constant on deformation of materials but deformation of materials does infect depends on the dielectric constant of medium. Thus we have assumed to high dielectric material like BaTiO3 which resulted in substantially high growth rate of threshold electric field which opens a new dimension to study nonlinear interactions and instabilities.

  5. A complex ligase ribozyme evolved in vitro from a group I ribozyme domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, L.; Wright, M. C.; Joyce, G. F.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Like most proteins, complex RNA molecules often are modular objects made up of distinct structural and functional domains. The component domains of a protein can associate in alternative combinations to form molecules with different functions. These observations raise the possibility that complex RNAs also can be assembled from preexisting structural and functional domains. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro evolution procedure was used to isolate a previously undescribed class of complex ligase ribozymes, starting from a pool of 10(16) different RNA molecules that contained a constant region derived from a large structural domain that occurs within self-splicing group I ribozymes. Attached to this constant region were three hypervariable regions, totaling 85 nucleotides, that gave rise to the catalytic motif within the evolved catalysts. The ligase ribozymes catalyze formation of a 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage between adjacent template-bound oligonucleotides, one bearing a 3' hydroxyl and the other a 5' triphosphate. Ligation occurs in the context of a Watson-Crick duplex, with a catalytic rate of 0.26 min(-1) under optimal conditions. The constant region is essential for catalytic activity and appears to retain the tertiary structure of the group I ribozyme. This work demonstrates that complex RNA molecules, like their protein counterparts, can share common structural domains while exhibiting distinct catalytic functions.

  6. Cosmologically allowed regions for the axion decay constant Fa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Sonomoto, Eisuke; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2018-07-01

    If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is already broken during inflation, the decay constant Fa of the axion can be in a wide region from 1011GeV to 1018GeV for the axion being the dominant dark matter. In this case, however, the axion causes the serious cosmological problem, isocurvature perturbation problem, which severely constrains the Hubble parameter during inflation. The constraint is relaxed when Peccei-Quinn scalar field takes a large value ∼Mp (Planck scale) during inflation. In this letter, we point out that the allowed region of the decay constant Fa is reduced to a rather narrow region for a given tensor-to-scalar ratio r when Peccei-Quinn scalar field takes ∼Mp during inflation. For example, if the ratio r is determined as r ≳10-3 in future measurements, we can predict Fa ≃ (0.1- 1.4) ×1012GeV for domain wall number NDW = 6.

  7. Direct nanoscale imaging of evolving electric field domains in quantum structures.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Rudra Sankar; Razavipour, Seyed Ghasem; Dupont, Emmanuel; Xu, Chao; Laframboise, Sylvain; Wasilewski, Zbig; Hu, Qing; Ban, Dayan

    2014-11-28

    The external performance of quantum optoelectronic devices is governed by the spatial profiles of electrons and potentials within the active regions of these devices. For example, in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), the electric field domain (EFD) hypothesis posits that the potential distribution might be simultaneously spatially nonuniform and temporally unstable. Unfortunately, there exists no prior means of probing the inner potential profile directly. Here we report the nanoscale measured electric potential distribution inside operating QCLs by using scanning voltage microscopy at a cryogenic temperature. We prove that, per the EFD hypothesis, the multi-quantum-well active region is indeed divided into multiple sections having distinctly different electric fields. The electric field across these serially-stacked quantum cascade modules does not continuously increase in proportion to gradual increases in the applied device bias, but rather hops between discrete values that are related to tunneling resonances. We also report the evolution of EFDs, finding that an incremental change in device bias leads to a hopping-style shift in the EFD boundary--the higher electric field domain expands at least one module each step at the expense of the lower field domain within the active region.

  8. Direct Nanoscale Imaging of Evolving Electric Field Domains in Quantum Structures

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Rudra Sankar; Razavipour, Seyed Ghasem; Dupont, Emmanuel; Xu, Chao; Laframboise, Sylvain; Wasilewski, Zbig; Hu, Qing; Ban, Dayan

    2014-01-01

    The external performance of quantum optoelectronic devices is governed by the spatial profiles of electrons and potentials within the active regions of these devices. For example, in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), the electric field domain (EFD) hypothesis posits that the potential distribution might be simultaneously spatially nonuniform and temporally unstable. Unfortunately, there exists no prior means of probing the inner potential profile directly. Here we report the nanoscale measured electric potential distribution inside operating QCLs by using scanning voltage microscopy at a cryogenic temperature. We prove that, per the EFD hypothesis, the multi-quantum-well active region is indeed divided into multiple sections having distinctly different electric fields. The electric field across these serially-stacked quantum cascade modules does not continuously increase in proportion to gradual increases in the applied device bias, but rather hops between discrete values that are related to tunneling resonances. We also report the evolution of EFDs, finding that an incremental change in device bias leads to a hopping-style shift in the EFD boundary – the higher electric field domain expands at least one module each step at the expense of the lower field domain within the active region. PMID:25431158

  9. Direct Nanoscale Imaging of Evolving Electric Field Domains in Quantum Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Rudra Sankar; Razavipour, Seyed Ghasem; Dupont, Emmanuel; Xu, Chao; Laframboise, Sylvain; Wasilewski, Zbig; Hu, Qing; Ban, Dayan

    2014-11-01

    The external performance of quantum optoelectronic devices is governed by the spatial profiles of electrons and potentials within the active regions of these devices. For example, in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), the electric field domain (EFD) hypothesis posits that the potential distribution might be simultaneously spatially nonuniform and temporally unstable. Unfortunately, there exists no prior means of probing the inner potential profile directly. Here we report the nanoscale measured electric potential distribution inside operating QCLs by using scanning voltage microscopy at a cryogenic temperature. We prove that, per the EFD hypothesis, the multi-quantum-well active region is indeed divided into multiple sections having distinctly different electric fields. The electric field across these serially-stacked quantum cascade modules does not continuously increase in proportion to gradual increases in the applied device bias, but rather hops between discrete values that are related to tunneling resonances. We also report the evolution of EFDs, finding that an incremental change in device bias leads to a hopping-style shift in the EFD boundary - the higher electric field domain expands at least one module each step at the expense of the lower field domain within the active region.

  10. The quantum Higgs field and the resolution of the cosmological constant paradox in the Weyl-geometrical Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Martini, Francesco

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of the Weyl’s differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved spacetime. Within this novel geometrical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y as well as on the conformal groups of spacetime Weyl’s transformations is analyzed within the framework of a general-relativistic, conformally-covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An “effective cosmological potential”: Veff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: |VΛ| via the “mass reduction parameter”: |ζ|≡|Veff||VΛ|, a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a “free parameter” by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the mass MU≡|Veff| which contributes to the measured Cosmological Constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The nonintegrable application of the Weyl’s geometry leads to a Proca equation accounting for the dynamics of a ϕρ-particle, a vector-meson proposed as an optimum candidate for Dark Matter. The peculiar mathematical structure of Veff offers a clue towards a very general resolution in 4-D of a most intriguing puzzle of modern quantum field theory, the “cosmological constant paradox”(here referred to as: “Λ-paradox”). Indeed, our “universal” theory offers a resolution of the “Λ-paradox” for all exponential inflationary potentials: VΛ(ϕ)∝e‑nϕ, and for all linear superpositions of these potentials, where n belongs to the mathematical set of the “real numbers”. An explicit

  11. Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Becks, Lutz; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2010-11-04

    The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction has puzzled biologists for decades. Although this field is rich in hypotheses, experimental evidence is scarce. Some important experiments have demonstrated differences in evolutionary rates between sexual and asexual populations; other experiments have documented evolutionary changes in phenomena related to genetic mixing, such as recombination and selfing. However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12). Here we use the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, which is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, to test recent theory predicting that there is more opportunity for sex to evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Replicated experimental populations of rotifers were maintained in homogeneous environments, composed of either high- or low-quality food habitats, or in heterogeneous environments that consisted of a mix of the two habitats. For populations maintained in either type of homogeneous environment, the rate of sex evolves rapidly towards zero. In contrast, higher rates of sex evolve in populations experiencing spatially heterogeneous environments. The data indicate that the higher level of sex observed under heterogeneity is not due to sex being less costly or selection against sex being less efficient; rather sex is sufficiently advantageous in heterogeneous environments to overwhelm its inherent costs. Counter to some alternative theories for the evolution of sex, there is no evidence that genetic drift plays any part in the evolution of sex in these populations.

  12. The hubble constant.

    PubMed

    Huchra, J P

    1992-04-17

    The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and distance in the expanding universe. It is a fundamental property of cosmology that sets both the scale and the expansion age of the universe. It is determined by measurement of galaxy The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and development of new techniques for the measurements of galaxy distances, both calibration uncertainties and debates over systematic errors remain. Current determinations still range over nearly a factor of 2; the higher values favored by most local measurements are not consistent with many theories of the origin of large-scale structure and stellar evolution.

  13. Evolving perspectives on the exposure risks from magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Trappier, A.; Lorio, P.; Johnson, L. P.

    1990-01-01

    Based on information from suggesting effects of positive and negative polarity on cancer cells, surveys were performed on magnetic resonance imaging devices, as well as other types of equipment capable of producing appreciable magnetic fields. These surveys were performed in areas where there was a potential for both occupational and general public exposure. PMID:2213910

  14. Radiation balances and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiometric concepts are defined in order to consider various types of radiation balances and relate them to the diabetic form of the energy balance. Variability in space and time of the components of the radiation field are presented. A specific concept for sweeping which is tailored to the requirements is proposed. Finally, after establishing the truncated character of the present knowledge of the radiation balance. The results of the last observations of the solar constant are given. Ground and satellite measurement techniques are discussed.

  15. Cosmological constant problem and renormalized vacuum energy density in curved background

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Matsui, Hiroki, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: matshiro@post.kek.jp

    The current vacuum energy density observed as dark energy ρ{sub dark}≅ 2.5×10{sup −47} GeV{sup 4} is unacceptably small compared with any other scales. Therefore, we encounter serious fine-tuning problem and theoretical difficulty to derive the dark energy. However, the theoretically attractive scenario has been proposed and discussed in literature: in terms of the renormalization-group (RG) running of the cosmological constant, the vacuum energy density can be expressed as ρ{sub vacuum}≅ m {sup 2} H {sup 2} where m is the mass of the scalar field and rather dynamical in curved spacetime. However, there has been no rigorous proof to derivemore » this expression and there are some criticisms about the physical interpretation of the RG running cosmological constant. In the present paper, we revisit the RG running effects of the cosmological constant and investigate the renormalized vacuum energy density in curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the vacuum energy density described by ρ{sub vacuum}≅ m {sup 2} H {sup 2} appears as quantum effects of the curved background rather than the running effects of cosmological constant. Comparing to cosmological observational data, we obtain an upper bound on the mass of the scalar fields to be smaller than the Planck mass, m ∼< M {sub Pl}.« less

  16. JavaGenes: Evolving Graphs with Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Atsatt, Sean; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms usually use string or tree representations. We have developed a novel crossover operator for a directed and undirected graph representation, and used this operator to evolve molecules and circuits. Unlike strings or trees, a single point in the representation cannot divide every possible graph into two parts, because graphs may contain cycles. Thus, the crossover operator is non-trivial. A steady-state, tournament selection genetic algorithm code (JavaGenes) was written to implement and test the graph crossover operator. All runs were executed by cycle-scavagging on networked workstations using the Condor batch processing system. The JavaGenes code has evolved pharmaceutical drug molecules and simple digital circuits. Results to date suggest that JavaGenes can evolve moderate sized drug molecules and very small circuits in reasonable time. The algorithm has greater difficulty with somewhat larger circuits, suggesting that directed graphs (circuits) are more difficult to evolve than undirected graphs (molecules), although necessary differences in the crossover operator may also explain the results. In principle, JavaGenes should be able to evolve other graph-representable systems, such as transportation networks, metabolic pathways, and computer networks. However, large graphs evolve significantly slower than smaller graphs, presumably because the space-of-all-graphs explodes combinatorially with graph size. Since the representation strongly affects genetic algorithm performance, adding graphs to the evolutionary programmer's bag-of-tricks should be beneficial. Also, since graph evolution operates directly on the phenotype, the genotype-phenotype translation step, common in genetic algorithm work, is eliminated.

  17. Constant Change: The Ever-Evolving Personal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres Kompen, Ricardo; Monguet, Josep Ma.; Brigos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    There are several definitions for the term "personal learning environment" (PLE); in this article, PLE refers to a group of web technologies, with various degrees of integration and interaction, that helps users and learners manage the flow of information that relates to the learning process, the creation of knowledge, and the…

  18. On the efficacy of cinema, or what the visual system did not evolve to do

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutting, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Spatial displays, and a constraint that they do not place on the use of spatial instruments are discussed. Much of the work done in visual perception by psychologists and by computer scientists has concerned displays that show the motion of rigid objects. Typically, if one assumes that objects are rigid, one can then proceed to understand how the constant shape of the object can be perceived (or computed) as it moves through space. The author maintains that photographs and cinema are visual displays that are also powerful forms of art. Their efficacy, in part, stems from the fact that, although viewpoint is constrained when composing them, it is not nearly so constrained when viewing them. It is obvious, according to the author, that human visual systems did not evolve to watch movies or look at photographs. Thus, what photographs and movies present must be allowed in the rule-governed system under which vision evolved. Machine-vision algorithms, to be applicable to human vision, should show the same types of tolerance.

  19. Neutrality and evolvability of designed protein sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Arnab; Biswas, Parbati

    2010-07-01

    The effect of foldability on protein’s evolvability is analyzed by a two-prong approach consisting of a self-consistent mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Theory and simulation models representing protein sequences with binary patterning of amino acid residues compatible with a particular foldability criteria are used. This generalized foldability criterion is derived using the high temperature cumulant expansion approximating the free energy of folding. The effect of cumulative point mutations on these designed proteins is studied under neutral condition. The robustness, protein’s ability to tolerate random point mutations is determined with a selective pressure of stability (ΔΔG) for the theory designed sequences, which are found to be more robust than that of Monte Carlo and mean-field-biased Monte Carlo generated sequences. The results show that this foldability criterion selects viable protein sequences more effectively compared to the Monte Carlo method, which has a marked effect on how the selective pressure shapes the evolutionary sequence space. These observations may impact de novo sequence design and its applications in protein engineering.

  20. Measurements of the time constant for steady ionization in shaped-charge barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoch, Edward L.; Hallinan, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of three solar illuminated shaped-charge barium releases injected at small angles to the magnetic field were made using a calibrated color television camera. Two of the releases were from 1989. The third release, a reanalysis of an event included in Hallinan's 1988 study of three 1986 releases, was included to provide continuity between the two studies. Time constants for ionization, measured during the first 25 s of each release, were found to vary considerably. The two 1989 time constants differed substantially, and both were significantly less than any of the 1986 time constants. On the basis of this variability, we conclude that the two 1989 releases showed evidence of continuous nonsolar ionization. One release showed nonsolar ionization which could not he attributed to Alfven's critical ionization velocity process, which requires a component of velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field providing a perpendicular energy greater than the ionization potential.

  1. Anisotropic inflation with a non-minimally coupled electromagnetic field to gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Muzaffer; Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin; Sert, Özcan

    2017-11-01

    We consider the non-minimal model of gravity in Y(R) F2-form. We investigate a particular case of the model, for which the higher order derivatives are eliminated but the scalar curvature R is kept to be dynamical via the constraint YRFmnFmn =-2/κ2. The effective fluid obtained can be represented by interacting electromagnetic field and vacuum depending on Y(R), namely, the energy density of the vacuum tracks R while energy density of the conventional electromagnetic field is dynamically scaled with the factor Y(R)/2. We give exact solutions for anisotropic inflation by assuming the volume scale factor of the Universe exhibits a power-law expansion. The directional scale factors do not necessarily exhibit power-law expansion, which would give rise to a constant expansion anisotropy, but expand non-trivially and give rise to a non-monotonically evolving expansion anisotropy that eventually converges to a non-zero constant. Relying on this fact, we discuss the anisotropic e-fold during the inflation by considering observed scale invariance in CMB and demanding the Universe to undergo the same amount of e-folds in all directions. We calculate the residual expansion anisotropy at the end of inflation, though as a result of non-monotonic behaviour of expansion anisotropy all the axes of the Universe undergo the same of amount of e-folds by the end of inflation. We also discuss the generation of the modified electromagnetic field during the first few e-folds of the inflation and its persistence against to the vacuum till end of inflation.

  2. Determination of mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal.

    PubMed

    Soluch, Waldemar; Brzozowski, Ernest; Lysakowska, Magdalena; Sadura, Jolanta

    2011-11-01

    Mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal were determined. Mass density was obtained from the measured ratio of mass to volume of a cuboid. The dielectric constants were determined from the measured capacitances of an interdigital transducer (IDT) deposited on a Z-cut plate and from a parallel plate capacitor fabricated from this plate. The elastic and piezoelectric constants were determined by comparing the measured and calculated SAW velocities and electromechanical coupling coefficients on the Z- and X-cut plates. The following new constants were obtained: mass density p = 5986 kg/m(3); relative dielectric constants (at constant strain S) ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 8.6 and ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 10.5, where ε(0) is a dielectric constant of free space; elastic constants (at constant electric field E) C(E)(11) = 349.7, C(E)(12) = 128.1, C(E)(13) = 129.4, C(E)(33) = 430.3, and C(E)(44) = 96.5 GPa; and piezoelectric constants e(33) = 0.84, e(31) = -0.47, and e(15) = -0.41 C/m(2).

  3. Volcanic-plutonic connections and metal fertility of highly evolved magma systems: A case study from the Herberton Sn-W-Mo Mineral Field, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Spandler, Carl; Chang, Zhaoshan; Clarke, Gavin

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the connection between the highly evolved intrusive and extrusive systems is essential to explore the evolution of high silicic magma systems, which plays an important role in discussions of planetary differentiation, the growth of continents, crustal evolution, and the formation of highly evolved magma associated Sn-W-Mo mineral systems. To discern differences between "fertile" and "non-fertile" igneous rocks associated with Sn-W-Mo mineralization and reveal the genetic links between coeval intrusive and extrusive rocks, we integrate whole rock geochemistry, geochronology and Hf isotope signatures of igneous zircons from contemporaneous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the world-class Herberton Mineral Field of Queensland, Australia. The 310-300 Ma intrusive rocks and associated intra-plutonic W-Mo mineralization formed from relatively oxidized magmas after moderate degrees of crystal fractionation. The geochemical and isotopic features of the coeval volcanic succession are best reconciled utilizing the widely-accepted volcanic-plutonic connection model, whereby the volcanic rocks represent fractionated derivatives of the intrusive rocks. Older intrusions emplaced at 335-315 Ma formed from relatively low fO2 magmas that fractionated extensively to produce highly evolved granites that host Sn mineralization. Coeval volcanic rocks of this suite are compositionally less evolved than the intrusive rocks, thereby requiring a different model to link these plutonic-volcanic sequences. In this case, we propose that the most fractionated magmas were not lost to volcanism, but instead were effectively retained at the plutonic level, which allowed further localized build-up of volatiles and lithophile metals in the plutonic environment. This disconnection to the volcanism and degassing may be a crucial step for forming granite-hosted Sn mineralization. The transition between these two igneous regimes in Herberton region over a ∼30 m.y. period is attributed to

  4. Electron acceleration by magnetic islands in a dynamically evolved coronal current sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shaohua, E-mail: shzhang@mail.iggcas.ac.cn; Wang, Bin; Meng, Lifei

    2016-03-25

    This work simulated the electron acceleration by magnetic islands in a drastically evolved solar coronal current sheet via the combined 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and guiding-center approximation test-particle methods. With high magnetic Reynolds number of 105, the long–thin current sheet is evolved into a chain of magnetic islands, growing in size and coalescing with each other, due to tearing instability. The acceleration of electrons is studied in one typical phase when several large magnetic islands are formed. The results show that the electrons with an initial Maxwell distribution evolve into a heavy-tailed distribution and more than 20% of themore » electrons can be accelerated higher than 200 keV within 0.1 second and some of them can even be energized up to MeV ranges. The most energetic electrons have a tendency to be around the outer regions of the magnetic islands or to be located in the small secondary magnetic islands. We find that the acceleration and spatial distributions of the energetic electrons is caused by the trapping effect of the magnetic islands and the distributions of the parallel electric field E{sub p}.« less

  5. Netgram: Visualizing Communities in Evolving Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Raghvendra; Langone, Rocco; Suykens, Johan A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Real-world complex networks are dynamic in nature and change over time. The change is usually observed in the interactions within the network over time. Complex networks exhibit community like structures. A key feature of the dynamics of complex networks is the evolution of communities over time. Several methods have been proposed to detect and track the evolution of these groups over time. However, there is no generic tool which visualizes all the aspects of group evolution in dynamic networks including birth, death, splitting, merging, expansion, shrinkage and continuation of groups. In this paper, we propose Netgram: a tool for visualizing evolution of communities in time-evolving graphs. Netgram maintains evolution of communities over 2 consecutive time-stamps in tables which are used to create a query database using the sql outer-join operation. It uses a line-based visualization technique which adheres to certain design principles and aesthetic guidelines. Netgram uses a greedy solution to order the initial community information provided by the evolutionary clustering technique such that we have fewer line cross-overs in the visualization. This makes it easier to track the progress of individual communities in time evolving graphs. Netgram is a generic toolkit which can be used with any evolutionary community detection algorithm as illustrated in our experiments. We use Netgram for visualization of topic evolution in the NIPS conference over a period of 11 years and observe the emergence and merging of several disciplines in the field of information processing systems. PMID:26356538

  6. Ground State of the Universe and the Cosmological Constant. A Nonperturbative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Husain, Viqar; Qureshi, Babar

    2016-02-12

    The physical Hamiltonian of a gravity-matter system depends on the choice of time, with the vacuum naturally identified as its ground state. We study the expanding Universe with scalar field in the volume time gauge. We show that the vacuum energy density computed from the resulting Hamiltonian is a nonlinear function of the cosmological constant and time. This result provides a new perspective on the relation between time, the cosmological constant, and vacuum energy.

  7. Exploratory studies of new avenues to achieve high electromechanical response and high dielectric constant in polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng

    High performance soft electronic materials are key elements in advanced electronic devices for broad range applications including capacitors, actuators, artificial muscles and organs, smart materials and structures, microelectromechanical (MEMS) and microfluidic devices, acoustic devices and sensors. This thesis exploits new approaches to improve the electromechanical response and dielectric response of these materials. By making use of novel material phenomena such as large anisotropy in dipolar response in liquid crystals (LCs) and all-organic composites in which high dielectric constant organic solids and conductive polymers are either physically blended into or chemically grafted to a polymer matrix, we demonstrate that high dielectric constant and high electromechanical conversion efficiency comparable to that in ceramic materials can be achieved. Nano-composite approach can also be utilized to improve the performance of the electronic electroactive polymers (EAPs) and composites, for example, exchange coupling between the fillers and matrix with very large dielectric contrast can lead to significantly enhance the dielectric response as well as electromechanical response when the heterogeneity size of the composite is comparable to the exchange length. In addition to the dielectric composites, in which high dielectric constant fillers raise the dielectric constant of composites, conductive percolation can also lead to high dielectric constant in polymeric materials. An all-polymer percolative composite is introduced which exhibits very high dielectric constant (>7,000). The flexible all-polymer composites with a high dielectric constant make it possible to induce a high electromechanical response under a much reduced electric field in the field effect electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators (a strain of 2.65% with an elastic energy density of 0.18 J/cm3 can be achieved under a field of 16 V/mum). Agglomeration of the particles can also be effectively prevented

  8. What Technology? Reflections on Evolving Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Each year, the members of the EDUCAUSE Evolving Technologies Committee identify and research the evolving technologies that are having--or are predicted to have--the most direct impact on higher education institutions. The committee members choose the relevant topics, write white papers, and present their findings at the EDUCAUSE annual…

  9. BOREAS RSS-17 Dielectric Constant Profile Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); McDonald, Kyle C.; Zimmerman, Reiner; Way, JoBea

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-17 team acquired and analyzed imaging radar data from the ESA's ERS-1 over a complete annual cycle at the BOREAS sites in Canada in 1994 to detect shifts in radar backscatter related to varying environmental conditions. This data set consists of dielectric constant profile measurements from selected trees at various BOREAS flux tower sites. The relative dielectric constant was measured at C-band (frequency = 5 GHz) as a function of depth into the trunk of three trees at each site, Measurements were made during April 1994 with an Applied Microwave Corporation field PDP fitted with a 0.358-cm (0.141-inch) diameter coaxial probe tip. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  10. Predator confusion is sufficient to evolve swarming behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Randal S.; Hintze, Arend; Dyer, Fred C.; Knoester, David B.; Adami, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Swarming behaviours in animals have been extensively studied owing to their implications for the evolution of cooperation, social cognition and predator–prey dynamics. An important goal of these studies is discerning which evolutionary pressures favour the formation of swarms. One hypothesis is that swarms arise because the presence of multiple moving prey in swarms causes confusion for attacking predators, but it remains unclear how important this selective force is. Using an evolutionary model of a predator–prey system, we show that predator confusion provides a sufficient selection pressure to evolve swarming behaviour in prey. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the evolutionary effect of predator confusion on prey could in turn exert pressure on the structure of the predator's visual field, favouring the frontally oriented, high-resolution visual systems commonly observed in predators that feed on swarming animals. Finally, we provide evidence that when prey evolve swarming in response to predator confusion, there is a change in the shape of the functional response curve describing the predator's consumption rate as prey density increases. Thus, we show that a relatively simple perceptual constraint—predator confusion—could have pervasive evolutionary effects on prey behaviour, predator sensory mechanisms and the ecological interactions between predators and prey. PMID:23740485

  11. Predator confusion is sufficient to evolve swarming behaviour.

    PubMed

    Olson, Randal S; Hintze, Arend; Dyer, Fred C; Knoester, David B; Adami, Christoph

    2013-08-06

    Swarming behaviours in animals have been extensively studied owing to their implications for the evolution of cooperation, social cognition and predator-prey dynamics. An important goal of these studies is discerning which evolutionary pressures favour the formation of swarms. One hypothesis is that swarms arise because the presence of multiple moving prey in swarms causes confusion for attacking predators, but it remains unclear how important this selective force is. Using an evolutionary model of a predator-prey system, we show that predator confusion provides a sufficient selection pressure to evolve swarming behaviour in prey. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the evolutionary effect of predator confusion on prey could in turn exert pressure on the structure of the predator's visual field, favouring the frontally oriented, high-resolution visual systems commonly observed in predators that feed on swarming animals. Finally, we provide evidence that when prey evolve swarming in response to predator confusion, there is a change in the shape of the functional response curve describing the predator's consumption rate as prey density increases. Thus, we show that a relatively simple perceptual constraint--predator confusion--could have pervasive evolutionary effects on prey behaviour, predator sensory mechanisms and the ecological interactions between predators and prey.

  12. EvoGraph: On-The-Fly Efficient Mining of Evolving Graphs on GPU

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Dipanjan; Song, Shuaiwen

    With the prevalence of the World Wide Web and social networks, there has been a growing interest in high performance analytics for constantly-evolving dynamic graphs. Modern GPUs provide massive AQ1 amount of parallelism for efficient graph processing, but the challenges remain due to their lack of support for the near real-time streaming nature of dynamic graphs. Specifically, due to the current high volume and velocity of graph data combined with the complexity of user queries, traditional processing methods by first storing the updates and then repeatedly running static graph analytics on a sequence of versions or snapshots are deemed undesirablemore » and computational infeasible on GPU. We present EvoGraph, a highly efficient and scalable GPU- based dynamic graph analytics framework.« less

  13. Characterizing the evolving K -band luminosity function using the UltraVISTA, CANDELS and HUDF surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortlock, Alice; McLure, Ross J.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; McLeod, Derek J.; Mármol-Queraltó, Esther; Parsa, Shaghayegh; Dunlop, James S.; Bruce, Victoria A.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of a new study of the K-band galaxy luminosity function (KLF) at redshifts z ≤ 3.75, based on a nested combination of the UltraVISTA, Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Legacy Extragalactic Survey and HUDF surveys. The large dynamic range in luminosity spanned by this new data set (3-4 dex over the full redshift range) is sufficient to clearly demonstrate for the first time that the faint-end slope of the KLF at z ≥ 0.25 is relatively steep (-1.3 ≤ α ≤ -1.5 for a single Schechter function), in good agreement with recent theoretical and phenomenological models. Moreover, based on our new data set, we find that a double Schechter function provides a significantly improved description of the KLF at z ≤ 2. At redshifts z ≥ 0.25, the evolution of the KLF is remarkably smooth, with little or no evolution evident at faint (MK ≥ -20.5) or bright magnitudes (MK ≤ -24.5). Instead, the KLF is seen to evolve rapidly at intermediate magnitudes, with the number density of galaxies at MK ≃-23 dropping by a factor of ≃5 over the redshift interval 0.25 ≤ z ≤ 3.75. Motivated by this, we explore a simple description of the evolving KLF based on a double Schechter function with fixed faint-end slopes (α1 = -0.5, α2 = -1.5) and a shared characteristic magnitude (MK^{star }). According to this parametrization, the normalization of the component which dominates the faint end of the KLF remains approximately constant, with φ ^{star }2 decreasing by only a factor of ≃2 between z ≃0 and 3.25. In contrast, the component which dominates the bright end of the KLF at low redshifts evolves dramatically, becoming essentially negligible by z ≃3. Finally, we note that within this parametrization, the observed evolution of MK^{star } between z ≃0 and 3.25 is entirely consistent with MK^{star } corresponding to a constant stellar mass of M⋆ ≃5 × 1010 M⊙ at all redshifts.

  14. Constant-pH Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Large Biomolecular Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Radak, Brian K.; Chipot, Christophe; Suh, Donghyuk; ...

    2017-11-07

    We report that an increasingly important endeavor is to develop computational strategies that enable molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecular systems with spontaneous changes in protonation states under conditions of constant pH. The present work describes our efforts to implement the powerful constant-pH MD simulation method, based on a hybrid nonequilibrium MD/Monte Carlo (neMD/MC) technique within the highly scalable program NAMD. The constant-pH hybrid neMD/MC method has several appealing features; it samples the correct semigrand canonical ensemble rigorously, the computational cost increases linearly with the number of titratable sites, and it is applicable to explicit solvent simulations. The present implementationmore » of the constant-pH hybrid neMD/MC in NAMD is designed to handle a wide range of biomolecular systems with no constraints on the choice of force field. Furthermore, the sampling efficiency can be adaptively improved on-the-fly by adjusting algorithmic parameters during the simulation. Finally, illustrative examples emphasizing medium- and large-scale applications on next-generation supercomputing architectures are provided.« less

  15. Constant-pH Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Large Biomolecular Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Radak, Brian K.; Chipot, Christophe; Suh, Donghyuk

    We report that an increasingly important endeavor is to develop computational strategies that enable molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecular systems with spontaneous changes in protonation states under conditions of constant pH. The present work describes our efforts to implement the powerful constant-pH MD simulation method, based on a hybrid nonequilibrium MD/Monte Carlo (neMD/MC) technique within the highly scalable program NAMD. The constant-pH hybrid neMD/MC method has several appealing features; it samples the correct semigrand canonical ensemble rigorously, the computational cost increases linearly with the number of titratable sites, and it is applicable to explicit solvent simulations. The present implementationmore » of the constant-pH hybrid neMD/MC in NAMD is designed to handle a wide range of biomolecular systems with no constraints on the choice of force field. Furthermore, the sampling efficiency can be adaptively improved on-the-fly by adjusting algorithmic parameters during the simulation. Finally, illustrative examples emphasizing medium- and large-scale applications on next-generation supercomputing architectures are provided.« less

  16. Numerical modeling of field-assisted ion-exchanged channel waveguides by the explicit consideration of space-charge buildup.

    PubMed

    Mrozek, Piotr

    2011-08-01

    A numerical model explicitly considering the space-charge density evolved both under the mask and in the region of optical structure formation was used to predict the profiles of Ag concentration during field-assisted Ag(+)-Na(+) ion exchange channel waveguide fabrication. The influence of the unequal values of diffusion constants and mobilities of incoming and outgoing ions, the value of a correlation factor (Haven ratio), and particularly space-charge density induced during the ion exchange, on the resulting profiles of Ag concentration was analyzed and discussed. It was shown that the incorporation into the numerical model of a small quantity of highly mobile ions other than exclusively Ag(+) and Na(+) may considerably affect the range and shape of calculated Ag profiles in the multicomponent glass. The Poisson equation was used to predict the electric field spread evolution in the glass substrate. The results of the numerical analysis were verified by the experimental data of Ag concentration in a channel waveguide fabricated using a field-assisted process.

  17. Evolved atmospheric entry corridor with safety factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zixuan; Ren, Zhang; Li, Qingdong

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric entry corridors are established in previous research based on the equilibrium glide condition which assumes the flight-path angle to be zero. To get a better understanding of the highly constrained entry flight, an evolved entry corridor that considers the exact flight-path angle is developed in this study. Firstly, the conventional corridor in the altitude vs. velocity plane is extended into a three-dimensional one in the space of altitude, velocity, and flight-path angle. The three-dimensional corridor is generated by a series of constraint boxes. Then, based on a simple mapping method, an evolved two-dimensional entry corridor with safety factor is obtained. The safety factor is defined to describe the flexibility of the flight-path angle for a state within the corridor. Finally, the evolved entry corridor is simulated for the Space Shuttle and the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corridor generation approach. Compared with the conventional corridor, the evolved corridor is much wider and provides additional information. Therefore, the evolved corridor would benefit more to the entry trajectory design and analysis.

  18. Evolvable Neural Software System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  19. Evolving phenotypic networks in silico.

    PubMed

    François, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Evolved gene networks are constrained by natural selection. Their structures and functions are consequently far from being random, as exemplified by the multiple instances of parallel/convergent evolution. One can thus ask if features of actual gene networks can be recovered from evolutionary first principles. I review a method for in silico evolution of small models of gene networks aiming at performing predefined biological functions. I summarize the current implementation of the algorithm, insisting on the construction of a proper "fitness" function. I illustrate the approach on three examples: biochemical adaptation, ligand discrimination and vertebrate segmentation (somitogenesis). While the structure of the evolved networks is variable, dynamics of our evolved networks are usually constrained and present many similar features to actual gene networks, including properties that were not explicitly selected for. In silico evolution can thus be used to predict biological behaviours without a detailed knowledge of the mapping between genotype and phenotype. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  1. Search for a Variation of Fundamental Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubachs, W.

    2013-06-01

    Since the days of Dirac scientists have speculated about the possibility that the laws of nature, and the fundamental constants appearing in those laws, are not rock-solid and eternal but may be subject to change in time or space. Such a scenario of evolving constants might provide an answer to the deepest puzzle of contemporary science, namely why the conditions in our local Universe allow for extreme complexity: the fine-tuning problem. In the past decade it has been established that spectral lines of atoms and molecules, which can currently be measured at ever-higher accuracies, form an ideal test ground for probing drifting constants. This has brought this subject from the realm of metaphysics to that of experimental science. In particular the spectra of molecules are sensitive for probing a variation of the proton-electron mass ratio μ, either on a cosmological time scale, or on a laboratory time scale. A comparison can be made between spectra of molecular hydrogen observed in the laboratory and at a high redshift (z=2-3), using the Very Large Telescope (Paranal, Chile) and the Keck telescope (Hawaii). This puts a constraint on a varying mass ratio Δμ/μ at the 10^{-5} level. The optical work can also be extended to include CO molecules. Further a novel direction will be discussed: it was discovered that molecules exhibiting hindered internal rotation have spectral lines in the radio-spectrum that are extremely sensitive to a varying proton-electron mass ratio. Such lines in the spectrum of methanol were recently observed with the radio-telescope in Effelsberg (Germany). F. van Weerdenburg, M.T. Murphy, A.L. Malec, L. Kaper, W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 180802 (2011). A. Malec, R. Buning, M.T. Murphy, N. Milutinovic, S.L. Ellison, J.X. Prochaska, L. Kaper, J. Tumlinson, R.F. Carswell, W. Ubachs, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 403, 1541 (2010). E.J. Salumbides, M.L. Niu, J. Bagdonaite, N. de Oliveira, D. Joyeux, L. Nahon, W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 86, 022510

  2. Evolving neural networks with genetic algorithms to study the string landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehle, Fabian

    2017-08-01

    We study possible applications of artificial neural networks to examine the string landscape. Since the field of application is rather versatile, we propose to dynamically evolve these networks via genetic algorithms. This means that we start from basic building blocks and combine them such that the neural network performs best for the application we are interested in. We study three areas in which neural networks can be applied: to classify models according to a fixed set of (physically) appealing features, to find a concrete realization for a computation for which the precise algorithm is known in principle but very tedious to actually implement, and to predict or approximate the outcome of some involved mathematical computation which performs too inefficient to apply it, e.g. in model scans within the string landscape. We present simple examples that arise in string phenomenology for all three types of problems and discuss how they can be addressed by evolving neural networks from genetic algorithms.

  3. Numerical Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, T. B.; Erlebacher, G.

    2002-01-01

    The results from direct numerical simulations of a spatially evolving, supersonic, flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow, with free-stream Mach number of 2.25 are presented. The simulated flow field extends from a transition region, initiated by wall suction and blowing near the inflow boundary, into the fully turbulent regime. Distributions of mean and turbulent flow quantities are obtained and an analysis of these quantities is performed at a downstream station corresponding to Re(sub x)= 5.548 x10(exp 6) based on distance from the leading edge.

  4. Linear perturbations in spherically symmetric dust cosmologies including a cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Sven; Bartelmann, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    We study the dynamical behaviour of gauge-invariant linear perturbations in spherically symmetric dust cosmologies including a cosmological constant. In contrast to spatially homogeneous FLRW models, the reduced degree of spatial symmetry causes a non-trivial dynamical coupling of gauge-invariant quantities already at first order perturbation theory and the strength and influence of this coupling on the spacetime evolution is investigated here. We present results on the underlying dynamical equations augmented by a cosmological constant and integrate them numerically. We also present a method to derive cosmologically relevant initial variables for this setup. Estimates of angular power spectra for each metric variable are computed and evaluated on the central observer's past null cone. By comparing the full evolution to the freely evolved initial profiles, the coupling strength will be determined for a best fit radially inhomogeneous patch obtained in previous works (see [1]). We find that coupling effects are not noticeable within the cosmic variance limit and can therefore safely be neglected for a relevant cosmological scenario. On the contrary, we find very strong coupling effects in a best fit spherical void model matching the distance redshift relation of SNe which is in accordance with previous findings using parametric void models.

  5. Field-Evolved Mode 1 Resistance of the Fall Armyworm to Transgenic Cry1Fa-Expressing Corn Associated with Reduced Cry1Fa Toxin Binding and Midgut Alkaline Phosphatase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jakka, Siva R. K.; Gong, Liang; Hasler, James; Banerjee, Rahul; Sheets, Joel J.; Narva, Kenneth; Blanco, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal protein genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are expressed by transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops) for effective and environmentally safe pest control. The development of resistance to these insecticidal proteins is considered the most serious threat to the sustainability of Bt crops. Resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Puerto Rico to transgenic corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein resulted, for the first time in the United States, in practical resistance, and Bt corn was withdrawn from the local market. In this study, we used a field-collected Cry1Fa corn-resistant strain (456) of S. frugiperda to identify the mechanism responsible for field-evolved resistance. Binding assays detected reduced Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Ca toxin binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the larvae of strain 456 compared to that from the larvae of a susceptible (Ben) strain. This binding phenotype is descriptive of the mode 1 type of resistance to Bt toxins. A comparison of the transcript levels for putative Cry1 toxin receptor genes identified a significant downregulation (>90%) of a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which translated to reduced ALP protein levels and a 75% reduction in ALP activity in BBMV from 456 compared to that of Ben larvae. We cloned and heterologously expressed this ALP from susceptible S. frugiperda larvae and demonstrated that it specifically binds with Cry1Fa toxin. This study provides a thorough mechanistic description of field-evolved resistance to a transgenic Bt crop and supports an association between resistance and reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and levels of a putative Cry1Fa toxin receptor, ALP, in the midguts of S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:26637593

  6. Vicinal fluorine-fluorine coupling constants: Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Fabián, J.; Westra Hoekzema, A. J. A.

    2004-10-01

    Stereochemical dependences of vicinal fluorine-fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance coupling constants (3JFF) have been studied with the multiconfigurational self-consistent field in the restricted active space approach, with the second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA), and with density functional theory. The SOPPA results show the best overall agreement with experimental couplings. The relationship with the dihedral angle between the coupled fluorines has been studied by Fourier analysis, the result is very different from that of proton-proton couplings. The Fourier coefficients do not resemble those of a typical Karplus equation. The four nonrelativistic contributions to the coupling constants of 1,2-difluoroethane configurations have been studied separately showing that up to six Fourier coefficients are required to reproduce the calculated values satisfactorily. Comparison with Fourier coefficients for matching hydrogen fluoride dimer configurations suggests that the higher order Fourier coefficients (Cn⩾3) originate mainly from through-space Fermi contact interaction. The through-space interaction is the main reason 3JFF do not follow the Karplus equation.

  7. Omnidirectional antenna having constant phase

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, Matthew

    Various technologies presented herein relate to constructing and/or operating an antenna having an omnidirectional electrical field of constant phase. The antenna comprises an upper plate made up of multiple conductive rings, a lower ground-plane plate, a plurality of grounding posts, a conical feed, and a radio frequency (RF) feed connector. The upper plate has a multi-ring configuration comprising a large outer ring and several smaller rings of equal size located within the outer ring. The large outer ring and the four smaller rings have the same cross-section. The grounding posts ground the upper plate to the lower plate while maintainingmore » a required spacing/parallelism therebetween.« less

  8. Proto-Clusters with Evolved Populations around Radio Galaxies at 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, T.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, I.; Kajisawa, M.

    2007-12-01

    We present an on-going near-infrared survey of proto-clusters around high-z radio-loud galaxies at 2 ≲ z ≲ 3 with a new wide-field instrument MOIRCS on Subaru. Most of these field are known to show a large number of Lyα and/or Hα emitters at the same redshifts of the radio galaxies. We see a clear excess of near-infrared selected galaxies (JHK_s-selected galaxies as well as DRG) in these fields, and they are indeed proto-clusters with not only young emitters but also evolved populations. Spatial distribution of such NIR selected galaxies is filamentary and track similar structures traced by the emitters. There is an hint that the bright-end of the red sequence first appeared between z=3 and 2.

  9. Gravitational lensing effects in a time-variable cosmological 'constant' cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratra, Bharat; Quillen, Alice

    1992-01-01

    A scalar field phi with a potential V(phi) varies as phi exp -alpha(alpha is greater than 0) has an energy density, behaving like that of a time-variable cosmological 'constant', that redshifts less rapidly than the energy densities of radiation and matter, and so might contribute significantly to the present energy density. We compute, in this spatially flat cosmology, the gravitational lensing optical depth, and the expected lens redshift distribution for fixed source redshift. We find, for the values of alpha of about 4 and baryonic density parameter Omega of about 0.2 consistent with the classical cosmological tests, that the optical depth is significantly smaller than that in a constant-Lambda model with the same Omega. We also find that the redshift of the maximum of the lens distribution falls between that in the constant-Lambda model and that in the Einstein-de Sitter model.

  10. Base units of the SI, fundamental constants and modern quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Bordé, Christian J

    2005-09-15

    Over the past 40 years, a number of discoveries in quantum physics have completely transformed our vision of fundamental metrology. This revolution starts with the frequency stabilization of lasers using saturation spectroscopy and the redefinition of the metre by fixing the velocity of light c. Today, the trend is to redefine all SI base units from fundamental constants and we discuss strategies to achieve this goal. We first consider a kinematical frame, in which fundamental constants with a dimension, such as the speed of light c, the Planck constant h, the Boltzmann constant k(B) or the electron mass m(e) can be used to connect and redefine base units. The various interaction forces of nature are then introduced in a dynamical frame, where they are completely characterized by dimensionless coupling constants such as the fine structure constant alpha or its gravitational analogue alpha(G). This point is discussed by rewriting the Maxwell and Dirac equations with new force fields and these coupling constants. We describe and stress the importance of various quantum effects leading to the advent of this new quantum metrology. In the second part of the paper, we present the status of the seven base units and the prospects of their possible redefinitions from fundamental constants in an experimental perspective. The two parts can be read independently and they point to these same conclusions concerning the redefinitions of base units. The concept of rest mass is directly related to the Compton frequency of a body, which is precisely what is measured by the watt balance. The conversion factor between mass and frequency is the Planck constant, which could therefore be fixed in a realistic and consistent new definition of the kilogram based on its Compton frequency. We discuss also how the Boltzmann constant could be better determined and fixed to replace the present definition of the kelvin.

  11. Complex network view of evolving manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Diamantino C.; Bianconi, Ginestra; da Costa, Rui A.; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.

    2018-03-01

    We study complex networks formed by triangulations and higher-dimensional simplicial complexes representing closed evolving manifolds. In particular, for triangulations, the set of possible transformations of these networks is restricted by the condition that at each step, all the faces must be triangles. Stochastic application of these operations leads to random networks with different architectures. We perform extensive numerical simulations and explore the geometries of growing and equilibrium complex networks generated by these transformations and their local structural properties. This characterization includes the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the resulting networks, their degree distributions, and various structural correlations. Our results reveal a rich zoo of architectures and geometries of these networks, some of which appear to be small worlds while others are finite dimensional with Hausdorff dimension equal or higher than the original dimensionality of their simplices. The range of spectral dimensions of the evolving triangulations turns out to be from about 1.4 to infinity. Our models include simplicial complexes representing manifolds with evolving topologies, for example, an h -holed torus with a progressively growing number of holes. This evolving graph demonstrates features of a small-world network and has a particularly heavy-tailed degree distribution.

  12. Compensation of Verdet Constant Temperature Dependence by Crystal Core Temperature Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Petricevic, Slobodan J.; Mihailovic, Pedja M.

    2016-01-01

    Compensation of the temperature dependence of the Verdet constant in a polarimetric extrinsic Faraday sensor is of major importance for applying the magneto-optical effect to AC current measurements and magnetic field sensing. This paper presents a method for compensating the temperature effect on the Faraday rotation in a Bi12GeO20 crystal by sensing its optical activity effect on the polarization of a light beam. The method measures the temperature of the same volume of crystal that effects the beam polarization in a magnetic field or current sensing process. This eliminates the effect of temperature difference found in other indirect temperature compensation methods, thus allowing more accurate temperature compensation for the temperature dependence of the Verdet constant. The method does not require additional changes to an existing Δ/Σ configuration and is thus applicable for improving the performance of existing sensing devices. PMID:27706043

  13. Assessment of Inheritance and Fitness Costs Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Maize by Western Corn Rootworm.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Aubrey R; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2017-05-11

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry) toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present. We measured inheritance and fitness costs of resistance for two strains of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. Plant-based and diet-based bioassays revealed that the inheritance of resistance was non-recessive. In a greenhouse experiment, in which larvae were reared on whole maize plants in field soil, no fitness costs of resistance were detected. In a laboratory experiment, in which larvae experienced intraspecific and interspecific competition for food, a fitness cost of delayed larval development was identified, however, no other fitness costs were found. These findings of non-recessive inheritance of resistance and minimal fitness costs, highlight the potential for the rapid evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm, and may help to improve resistance management strategies for this pest.

  14. MODELING TO EVOLVE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SHALLOW GROUND WATER FLOW SYSTEM BENEATH THE LIZZIE RESEARCH SITE, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the modeling effort presented here is to evolve a conceptual model of ground-water flow at the Lizzie, NC research site using analytic solutions and field observations. The resulting analytic element parameterization of boundary conditions, aquifer transmissivitie...

  15. Chronic subdural haematoma evolving from traumatic subdural hydroma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaodong; Wang, Chuanwei; Liu, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence and clinical characteristics of chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) evolving from traumatic subdual hydroma (TSH). The clinical characteristics of 44 patients with CSDH evolving from TSH were analysed retrospectively and the relevant literature was reviewed. In 22.6% of patients, TSH evolved into CSDH. The time required for this evolution was 14-100 days after injury. All patients were cured with haematoma drainage. TSH is one possible origin of CSDH. The clinical characteristics of TSH evolving into CSDH include polarization of patient age and chronic small effusion. The injuries usually occur during deceleration and are accompanied by mild cerebral damage.

  16. Genetic and biochemical characterization of field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Raymond, Ben; Ibiza-Palacios, M Sales; Escriche, Baltasar; Wright, Denis J

    2004-12-01

    The long-term usefulness of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins, either in sprays or in transgenic crops, may be compromised by the evolution of resistance in target insects. Managing the evolution of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins requires extensive knowledge about the mechanisms, genetics, and ecology of resistance genes. To date, laboratory-selected populations have provided information on the diverse genetics and mechanisms of resistance to B. thuringiensis, highly resistant field populations being rare. However, the selection pressures on field and laboratory populations are very different and may produce resistance genes with distinct characteristics. In order to better understand the genetics, biochemical mechanisms, and ecology of field-evolved resistance, a diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) field population (Karak) which had been exposed to intensive spraying with B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was collected from Malaysia. We detected a very high level of resistance to Cry1Ac; high levels of resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa; and a moderate level of resistance to Cry1Ca. The toxicity of Cry1Ja to the Karak population was not significantly different from that to a standard laboratory population (LAB-UK). Notable features of the Karak population were that field-selected resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki did not decline at all in unselected populations over 11 generations in laboratory microcosm experiments and that resistance to Cry1Ac declined only threefold over the same period. This finding may be due to a lack of fitness costs expressed by resistance strains, since such costs can be environmentally dependent and may not occur under ordinary laboratory culture conditions. Alternatively, resistance in the Karak population may have been near fixation, leading to a very slow increase in heterozygosity. Reciprocal genetic crosses between Karak and LAB-UK populations indicated that resistance was

  17. Deflation of the cosmological constant associated with inflation and dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: chungchi@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-06-01

    In order to solve the fine-tuning problem of the cosmological constant, we propose a simple model with the vacuum energy non-minimally coupled to the inflaton field. In this model, the vacuum energy decays to the inflaton during pre-inflation and inflation eras, so that the cosmological constant effectively deflates from the Planck mass scale to a much smaller one after inflation and plays the role of dark energy in the late-time of the universe. We show that our deflationary scenario is applicable to arbitrary slow-roll inflation models. We also take two specific inflation potentials to illustrate our results.

  18. Current observations with a decaying cosmological constant allow for chaotic cyclic cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, George F.R.; Platts, Emma; Weltman, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    We use the phase plane analysis technique of Madsen and Ellis [1] to consider a universe with a true cosmological constant as well as a cosmological 'constant' that is decaying. Time symmetric dynamics for the inflationary era allows eternally bouncing models to occur. Allowing for scalar field dynamic evolution, we find that if dark energy decays in the future, chaotic cyclic universes exist provided the spatial curvature is positive. This is particularly interesting in light of current observations which do not yet rule out either closed universes or possible evolution of the cosmological constant. We present only a proof ofmore » principle, with no definite claim on the physical mechanism required for the present dark energy to decay.« less

  19. Revisiting Robustness and Evolvability: Evolution in Weighted Genotype Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Partha, Raghavendran; Raman, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Robustness and evolvability are highly intertwined properties of biological systems. The relationship between these properties determines how biological systems are able to withstand mutations and show variation in response to them. Computational studies have explored the relationship between these two properties using neutral networks of RNA sequences (genotype) and their secondary structures (phenotype) as a model system. However, these studies have assumed every mutation to a sequence to be equally likely; the differences in the likelihood of the occurrence of various mutations, and the consequence of probabilistic nature of the mutations in such a system have previously been ignored. Associating probabilities to mutations essentially results in the weighting of genotype space. We here perform a comparative analysis of weighted and unweighted neutral networks of RNA sequences, and subsequently explore the relationship between robustness and evolvability. We show that assuming an equal likelihood for all mutations (as in an unweighted network), underestimates robustness and overestimates evolvability of a system. In spite of discarding this assumption, we observe that a negative correlation between sequence (genotype) robustness and sequence evolvability persists, and also that structure (phenotype) robustness promotes structure evolvability, as observed in earlier studies using unweighted networks. We also study the effects of base composition bias on robustness and evolvability. Particularly, we explore the association between robustness and evolvability in a sequence space that is AU-rich – sequences with an AU content of 80% or higher, compared to a normal (unbiased) sequence space. We find that evolvability of both sequences and structures in an AU-rich space is lesser compared to the normal space, and robustness higher. We also observe that AU-rich populations evolving on neutral networks of phenotypes, can access less phenotypic variation compared to

  20. Is the cosmological constant screened in Liouville gravity with matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Inami, Takeo; Koyama, Yoji; Nakayama, Yu

    In this study, there has been a proposal that infrared quantum effects of massless interacting field theories in de Sitter space may provide time-dependent screening of the cosmological constant. As a concrete model of the proposal, we study the three loop corrections to the energy–momentum tensor of massless λΦ 4 theory in the background of classical Liouville gravity in D = 2 dimensional de Sitter space. We find that the cosmological constant is screened, in sharp contrast to the massless λΦ 4 theory in D = 4 dimensions due to the sign difference between the cosmological constant of the Liouvillemore » gravity and that of the Einstein gravity. To argue for the robustness of our prediction, we introduce the concept of time-dependent infrared counter-terms and examine if they recover the de Sitter invariance in the λΦ 4 theory in comparison with the Sine–Gordon model, where it was possible.« less

  1. Is the cosmological constant screened in Liouville gravity with matter?

    DOE PAGES

    Inami, Takeo; Koyama, Yoji; Nakayama, Yu; ...

    2015-05-19

    In this study, there has been a proposal that infrared quantum effects of massless interacting field theories in de Sitter space may provide time-dependent screening of the cosmological constant. As a concrete model of the proposal, we study the three loop corrections to the energy–momentum tensor of massless λΦ 4 theory in the background of classical Liouville gravity in D = 2 dimensional de Sitter space. We find that the cosmological constant is screened, in sharp contrast to the massless λΦ 4 theory in D = 4 dimensions due to the sign difference between the cosmological constant of the Liouvillemore » gravity and that of the Einstein gravity. To argue for the robustness of our prediction, we introduce the concept of time-dependent infrared counter-terms and examine if they recover the de Sitter invariance in the λΦ 4 theory in comparison with the Sine–Gordon model, where it was possible.« less

  2. How changing physical constants and violation of local position invariance may occur?

    SciTech Connect

    Flambaum, V. V.; Shuryak, E. V.

    2008-04-04

    Light scalar fields very naturally appear in modern cosmological models, affecting such parameters of Standard Model as electromagnetic fine structure constant {alpha}, dimensionless ratios of electron or quark mass to the QCD scale, m{sub e,q}/{lambda}{sub QCD}. Cosmological variations of these scalar fields should occur because of drastic changes of matter composition in Universe: the latest such event is rather recent (redshift z{approx}0.5), from matter to dark energy domination. In a two-brane model (we use as a pedagogical example) these modifications are due to changing distance to 'the second brane', a massive companion of 'our brane'. Back from extra dimensions, massivemore » bodies (stars or galaxies) can also affect physical constants. They have large scalar charge Q{sub d} proportional to number of particles which produces a Coulomb-like scalar field {phi} = Q{sub d}/r. This leads to a variation of the fundamental constants proportional to the gravitational potential, e.g. {delta}{alpha}/{alpha} = k{sub {alpha}}{delta}(GM/rc{sup 2}). We compare different manifestations of this effect, which is usually called violation of local position invariance. The strongest limits k{sub {alpha}}+0.17k{sub e} (-3.5{+-}6)*10{sup -7} are obtained from the measurements of dependence of atomic frequencies on the distance from Sun (the distance varies due to the ellipticity of the Earth's orbit)« less

  3. Origins of multicellular evolvability in snowflake yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, William C.; Fankhauser, Johnathon D.; Rogers, David W.; Greig, Duncan; Travisano, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Complex life has arisen through a series of ‘major transitions’ in which collectives of formerly autonomous individuals evolve into a single, integrated organism. A key step in this process is the origin of higher-level evolvability, but little is known about how higher-level entities originate and gain the capacity to evolve as an individual. Here we report a single mutation that not only creates a new level of biological organization, but also potentiates higher-level evolvability. Disrupting the transcription factor ACE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevents mother–daughter cell separation, generating multicellular ‘snowflake’ yeast. Snowflake yeast develop through deterministic rules that produce geometrically defined clusters that preclude genetic conflict and display a high broad-sense heritability for multicellular traits; as a result they are preadapted to multicellular adaptation. This work demonstrates that simple microevolutionary changes can have profound macroevolutionary consequences, and suggests that the formation of clonally developing clusters may often be the first step to multicellularity. PMID:25600558

  4. The effects of varied versus constant high-, medium-, and low-preference stimuli on performance.

    PubMed

    Wine, Byron; Wilder, David A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the delivery of varied versus constant high-, medium-, and low-preference stimuli on performance of 2 adults on a computer-based task in an analogue employment setting. For both participants, constant delivery of the high-preference stimulus produced the greatest increases in performance over baseline; the varied presentation produced performance comparable to constant delivery of medium-preference stimuli. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the selection and delivery of stimuli as part of employee performance-improvement programs in the field of organizational behavior management.

  5. Eyes on the prize: reflections on the impact of the evolving digital ecology on the librarian as expert intermediary and knowledge coach, 1969-2009.

    PubMed

    Homan, J Michael

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 Janet Doe Lecture reflects on the continuing value and increasing return on investment of librarian-mediated services in the constantly evolving digital ecology and complex knowledge environment of the health sciences. The interrelationship of knowledge, decision making based on knowledge, technology used to access and retrieve knowledge, and the important linkage roles of expert librarian intermediaries is examined. Professional experiences from 1969 to 2009, occurring during a time of unprecedented changes in the digital ecology of librarianship, are the base on which the evolving role and value of librarians as knowledge coaches and expert intermediaries are examined. Librarian-mediated services linking knowledge and critical decision making in health care have become more valuable than ever as technology continues to reshape an increasingly complex knowledge environment.

  6. On inflation, cosmological constant, and SUSY breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Linde, Andrei

    2016-11-02

    We consider a broad class of inflationary models of two unconstrained chiral superfields, the stabilizer S and the inflaton Φ, which can describe inflationary models with nearly arbitrary potentials. These models include, in particular, the recently introduced theories of cosmological attractors, which provide an excellent fit to the latest Planck data. We show that by adding to the superpotential of the fields S and Φ a small term depending on a nilpotent chiral superfield P one can break SUSY and introduce a small cosmological constant without affecting main predictions of the original inflationary scenario.

  7. Cosmological constant and quantum gravitational corrections to the running fine structure constant.

    PubMed

    Toms, David J

    2008-09-26

    The quantum gravitational contribution to the renormalization group behavior of the electric charge in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a cosmological constant is considered. Quantum gravity is shown to lead to a contribution to the running charge not present when the cosmological constant vanishes. This reopens the possibility, suggested by Robinson and Wilczek, of altering the scaling behavior of gauge theories at high energies although our result differs. We show the possibility of an ultraviolet fixed point that is linked directly to the cosmological constant.

  8. Evolution of robust circadian clocks in Drosophila melanogaster populations reared in constant dark for over 330 generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindey, Radhika; Varma, Vishwanath; Nikhil, K. L.; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Robustness is considered to be an important feature of biological systems which may evolve when the functionality of a trait is associated with higher fitness across multiple environmental conditions. Thus, the ability to maintain stable biological phenotypes across environments is thought to be of adaptive value. Previously, we have reported higher intrinsic activity levels (activity levels of free-running rhythm in constant darkness) and power of rhythm (as assessed by amplitude of the periodogram) in Drosophila melanogaster populations (stocks) reared in constant darkness (DD stocks) as compared to those reared in constant light (LL stocks) and 12:12-h light-dark cycles (LD stocks) for over 19 years (˜330 generations). In the current study, we intended to examine whether the enhanced levels of activity observed in DD stocks persist under various environments such as photoperiods, ambient temperatures, non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles, and semi-natural conditions (SN). We found that DD stocks largely retain their phenotype of enhanced activity levels across most of the above-mentioned environments suggesting the evolution of robust circadian clocks in DD stocks. Furthermore, we compared the peak activity levels of the three stocks across different environmental conditions relative to their peaks in constant darkness and found that the change in peak activity levels upon entrainment was not significantly different across the three stocks for any of the examined environmental conditions. This suggests that the enhancement of activity levels in DD stocks is not due to differential sensitivity to environment. Thus, these results suggest that rearing in constant darkness (DD) leads to evolution of robust circadian clocks suggesting a possible adaptive value of possessing such rhythms under constant dark environments.

  9. Evolution of robust circadian clocks in Drosophila melanogaster populations reared in constant dark for over 330 generations.

    PubMed

    Shindey, Radhika; Varma, Vishwanath; Nikhil, K L; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Robustness is considered to be an important feature of biological systems which may evolve when the functionality of a trait is associated with higher fitness across multiple environmental conditions. Thus, the ability to maintain stable biological phenotypes across environments is thought to be of adaptive value. Previously, we have reported higher intrinsic activity levels (activity levels of free-running rhythm in constant darkness) and power of rhythm (as assessed by amplitude of the periodogram) in Drosophila melanogaster populations (stocks) reared in constant darkness (DD stocks) as compared to those reared in constant light (LL stocks) and 12:12-h light-dark cycles (LD stocks) for over 19 years (∼330 generations). In the current study, we intended to examine whether the enhanced levels of activity observed in DD stocks persist under various environments such as photoperiods, ambient temperatures, non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles, and semi-natural conditions (SN). We found that DD stocks largely retain their phenotype of enhanced activity levels across most of the above-mentioned environments suggesting the evolution of robust circadian clocks in DD stocks. Furthermore, we compared the peak activity levels of the three stocks across different environmental conditions relative to their peaks in constant darkness and found that the change in peak activity levels upon entrainment was not significantly different across the three stocks for any of the examined environmental conditions. This suggests that the enhancement of activity levels in DD stocks is not due to differential sensitivity to environment. Thus, these results suggest that rearing in constant darkness (DD) leads to evolution of robust circadian clocks suggesting a possible adaptive value of possessing such rhythms under constant dark environments.

  10. Modernizing Systems and Software: How Evolving Trends in Future Trends in Systems and Software Technology Bode Well for Advancing the Precision of Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-23

    of Code Need for increased functionality will be a forcing function to bring the fields of software and systems engineering... of Software-Intensive Systems is Increasing 3 How Evolving Trends in Systems and Software Technologies Bode Well for Advancing the Precision of ...Engineering in Continued Partnership 4 How Evolving Trends in Systems and Software Technologies Bode Well for Advancing the

  11. Nanotoxicology and nanomedicine: making development decisions in an evolving governance environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rycroft, Taylor; Trump, Benjamin; Poinsatte-Jones, Kelsey; Linkov, Igor

    2018-02-01

    The fields of nanomedicine, risk analysis, and decision science have evolved considerably in the past decade, providing developers of nano-enabled therapies and diagnostic tools with more complete information than ever before and shifting a fundamental requisite of the nanomedical community from the need for more information about nanomaterials to the need for a streamlined method of integrating the abundance of nano-specific information into higher-certainty product design decisions. The crucial question facing nanomedicine developers that must select the optimal nanotechnology in a given situation has shifted from "how do we estimate nanomaterial risk in the absence of good risk data?" to "how can we derive a holistic characterization of the risks and benefits that a given nanomaterial may pose within a specific nanomedical application?" Many decision support frameworks have been proposed to assist with this inquiry; however, those based in multicriteria decision analysis have proven to be most adaptive in the rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine—from the early stages of the field when conditions of significant uncertainty and incomplete information dominated, to today when nanotoxicology and nano-environmental health and safety information is abundant but foundational paradigms such as chemical risk assessment, risk governance, life cycle assessment, safety-by-design, and stakeholder engagement are undergoing substantial reformation in an effort to address the needs of emerging technologies. In this paper, we reflect upon 10 years of developments in nanomedical engineering and demonstrate how the rich knowledgebase of nano-focused toxicological and risk assessment information developed over the last decade enhances the capability of multicriteria decision analysis approaches and underscores the need to continue the transition from traditional risk assessment towards risk-based decision-making and alternatives-based governance for emerging technologies.

  12. The genotype-phenotype map of an evolving digital organism.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Miguel A; Zaman, Luis; Ofria, Charles; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    To understand how evolving systems bring forth novel and useful phenotypes, it is essential to understand the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Artificial evolving systems can help us understand whether the genotype-phenotype maps of natural evolving systems are highly unusual, and it may help create evolvable artificial systems. Here we characterize the genotype-phenotype map of digital organisms in Avida, a platform for digital evolution. We consider digital organisms from a vast space of 10141 genotypes (instruction sequences), which can form 512 different phenotypes. These phenotypes are distinguished by different Boolean logic functions they can compute, as well as by the complexity of these functions. We observe several properties with parallels in natural systems, such as connected genotype networks and asymmetric phenotypic transitions. The likely common cause is robustness to genotypic change. We describe an intriguing tension between phenotypic complexity and evolvability that may have implications for biological evolution. On the one hand, genotypic change is more likely to yield novel phenotypes in more complex organisms. On the other hand, the total number of novel phenotypes reachable through genotypic change is highest for organisms with simple phenotypes. Artificial evolving systems can help us study aspects of biological evolvability that are not accessible in vastly more complex natural systems. They can also help identify properties, such as robustness, that are required for both human-designed artificial systems and synthetic biological systems to be evolvable.

  13. The genotype-phenotype map of an evolving digital organism

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Luis; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    To understand how evolving systems bring forth novel and useful phenotypes, it is essential to understand the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Artificial evolving systems can help us understand whether the genotype-phenotype maps of natural evolving systems are highly unusual, and it may help create evolvable artificial systems. Here we characterize the genotype-phenotype map of digital organisms in Avida, a platform for digital evolution. We consider digital organisms from a vast space of 10141 genotypes (instruction sequences), which can form 512 different phenotypes. These phenotypes are distinguished by different Boolean logic functions they can compute, as well as by the complexity of these functions. We observe several properties with parallels in natural systems, such as connected genotype networks and asymmetric phenotypic transitions. The likely common cause is robustness to genotypic change. We describe an intriguing tension between phenotypic complexity and evolvability that may have implications for biological evolution. On the one hand, genotypic change is more likely to yield novel phenotypes in more complex organisms. On the other hand, the total number of novel phenotypes reachable through genotypic change is highest for organisms with simple phenotypes. Artificial evolving systems can help us study aspects of biological evolvability that are not accessible in vastly more complex natural systems. They can also help identify properties, such as robustness, that are required for both human-designed artificial systems and synthetic biological systems to be evolvable. PMID:28241039

  14. Holographic Dark Energy in Brans-Dicke Theory with Logarithmic Form of Scalar Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, C. P.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, an interacting holographic dark energy model with Hubble horizon as an infra-red cut-off is considered in the framework of Brans-Dicke theory. We assume the Brans-Dicke scalar field as a logarithmic form ϕ = ϕ 0 l n( α + β a), where a is the scale factor, α and β are arbitrary constants, to interpret the physical phenomena of the Universe. The equation of state parameter w h and deceleration parameter q are obtained to discuss the dynamics of the evolution of the Universe. We present a unified model of holographic dark energy which explains the early time acceleration (inflation), medieval time deceleration and late time acceleration. It is also observed that w h may cross the phantom divide line in the late time evolution. We also discuss the cosmic coincidence problem. We obtain a time-varying density ratio of holographic dark energy to dark matter which is a constant of order one (r˜ O(1)) during early and late time evolution, and may evolve sufficiently slow at present time. Thus, the model successfully resolves the cosmic coincidence problem.

  15. Vicinal fluorine-fluorine coupling constants: Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    San Fabián, J; Westra Hoekzema, A J A

    2004-10-01

    Stereochemical dependences of vicinal fluorine-fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance coupling constants (3JFF) have been studied with the multiconfigurational self-consistent field in the restricted active space approach, with the second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA), and with density functional theory. The SOPPA results show the best overall agreement with experimental couplings. The relationship with the dihedral angle between the coupled fluorines has been studied by Fourier analysis, the result is very different from that of proton-proton couplings. The Fourier coefficients do not resemble those of a typical Karplus equation. The four nonrelativistic contributions to the coupling constants of 1,2-difluoroethane configurations have been studied separately showing that up to six Fourier coefficients are required to reproduce the calculated values satisfactorily. Comparison with Fourier coefficients for matching hydrogen fluoride dimer configurations suggests that the higher order Fourier coefficients (Cn> or =3) originate mainly from through-space Fermi contact interaction. The through-space interaction is the main reason 3JFF do not follow the Karplus equation. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  16. Constant symplectic 2-groupoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Rajan Amit; Tang, Xiang

    2018-05-01

    We propose a definition of symplectic 2-groupoid which includes integrations of Courant algebroids that have been recently constructed. We study in detail the simple but illustrative case of constant symplectic 2-groupoids. We show that the constant symplectic 2-groupoids are, up to equivalence, in one-to-one correspondence with a simple class of Courant algebroids that we call constant Courant algebroids. Furthermore, we find a correspondence between certain Dirac structures and Lagrangian sub-2-groupoids.

  17. A fibre based triature interferometer for measuring rapidly evolving, ablatively driven plasma densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, J.; Bland, S. N.; Threadgold, J.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the first use of a fibre interferometer incorporating triature analysis for measuring rapidly evolving plasma densities of ne ˜ 1013/cm3 and above, such as those produced by simple coaxial plasma guns. The resultant system is extremely portable, easy to field in experiments, relatively cheap to produce, and—with the exception of a small open area in which the plasma is sampled—safe in operation as all laser light is enclosed.

  18. Apollo 16 Evolved Lithology Sodic Ferrogabbro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Evolved lunar igneous lithologies, often referred to as the alkali suite, are a minor but important component of the lunar crust. These evolved samples are incompatible-element rich samples, and are, not surprisingly, most common in the Apollo sites in (or near) the incompatible-element rich region of the Moon known as the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT). The most commonly occurring lithologies are granites (A12, A14, A15, A17), monzogabbro (A14, A15), alkali anorthosites (A12, A14), and KREEP basalts (A15, A17). The Feldspathic Highlands Terrane is not entirely devoid of evolved lithologies, and rare clasts of alkali gabbronorite and sodic ferrogabbro (SFG) have been identified in Apollo 16 station 11 breccias 67915 and 67016. Curiously, nearly all pristine evolved lithologies have been found as small clasts or soil particles, exceptions being KREEP basalts 15382/6 and granitic sample 12013 (which is itself a breccia). Here we reexamine the petrography and geochemistry of two SFG-like particles found in a survey of Apollo 16 2-4 mm particles from the Cayley Plains 62283,7-15 and 62243,10-3 (hereafter 7-15 and 10-3 respectively). We will compare these to previously reported SFG samples, including recent analyses on the type specimen of SFG from lunar breccia 67915.

  19. A new evolutionary system for evolving artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Yao, X; Liu, Y

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new evolutionary system, i.e., EPNet, for evolving artificial neural networks (ANNs). The evolutionary algorithm used in EPNet is based on Fogel's evolutionary programming (EP). Unlike most previous studies on evolving ANN's, this paper puts its emphasis on evolving ANN's behaviors. Five mutation operators proposed in EPNet reflect such an emphasis on evolving behaviors. Close behavioral links between parents and their offspring are maintained by various mutations, such as partial training and node splitting. EPNet evolves ANN's architectures and connection weights (including biases) simultaneously in order to reduce the noise in fitness evaluation. The parsimony of evolved ANN's is encouraged by preferring node/connection deletion to addition. EPNet has been tested on a number of benchmark problems in machine learning and ANNs, such as the parity problem, the medical diagnosis problems, the Australian credit card assessment problem, and the Mackey-Glass time series prediction problem. The experimental results show that EPNet can produce very compact ANNs with good generalization ability in comparison with other algorithms.

  20. The variation of the fine-structure constant from disformal couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Mifsud, Jurgen; Nunes, Nelson J.

    2015-12-01

    We study a theory in which the electromagnetic field is disformally coupled to a scalar field, in addition to a usual non-minimal electromagnetic coupling. We show that disformal couplings modify the expression for the fine-structure constant, α. As a result, the theory we consider can explain the non-zero reported variation in the evolution of α by purely considering disformal couplings. We also find that if matter and photons are coupled in the same way to the scalar field, disformal couplings itself do not lead to a variation of the fine-structure constant. A number of scenarios are discussed consistent with the current astrophysical, geochemical, laboratory and the cosmic microwave background radiation constraints on the cosmological evolution of α. The models presented are also consistent with the current type Ia supernovae constraints on the effective dark energy equation of state. We find that the Oklo bound in particular puts strong constraints on the model parameters. From our numerical results, we find that the introduction of a non-minimal electromagnetic coupling enhances the cosmological variation in α. Better constrained data is expected to be reported by ALMA and with the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs such as PEPSI, ESPRESSO, and ELT-HIRES. Furthermore, an expected increase in the sensitivity of molecular and nuclear clocks will put a more stringent constraint on the theory.

  1. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in evolving food webs.

    PubMed

    Allhoff, K T; Drossel, B

    2016-05-19

    We use computer simulations in order to study the interplay between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) during both the formation and the ongoing evolution of large food webs. A species in our model is characterized by its own body mass, its preferred prey body mass and the width of its potential prey body mass spectrum. On an ecological time scale, population dynamics determines which species are viable and which ones go extinct. On an evolutionary time scale, new species emerge as modifications of existing ones. The network structure thus emerges and evolves in a self-organized manner. We analyse the relation between functional diversity and five community level measures of ecosystem functioning. These are the metabolic loss of the predator community, the total biomasses of the basal and the predator community, and the consumption rates on the basal community and within the predator community. Clear BEF relations are observed during the initial build-up of the networks, or when parameters are varied, causing bottom-up or top-down effects. However, ecosystem functioning measures fluctuate only very little during long-term evolution under constant environmental conditions, despite changes in functional diversity. This result supports the hypothesis that trophic cascades are weaker in more complex food webs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Orthogonal Pilot Channel Using Combination of FDMA and CDMA in Single-Carrier FDMA-Based Evolved UTRA Uplink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Teruo; Kishiyama, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Kenichi; Sawahashi, Mamoru

    In the Evolved UTRA (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access) uplink, single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) radio access was adopted owing to its advantageous low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) feature, which leads to wide coverage area provisioning with limited peak transmission power of user equipments. This paper proposes orthogonal pilot channel generation using the combination of FDMA and CDMA in the SC-FDMA-based Evolved UTRA uplink. In the proposed method, we employ distributed FDMA transmission for simultaneous accessing users with different transmission bandwidths, and employ CDMA transmission for simultaneous accessing users with identical transmission bandwidth. Moreover, we apply a code sequence with a good auto-correlation property such as a Constant Amplitude Zero Auto-Correlation (CAZAC) sequence employing a cyclic shift to increase the number of sequences. Simulation results show that the average packet error rate performance using an orthogonal pilot channel with the combination of FDMA and CDMA in a six-user environment, i. e., four users each with a 1.25-MHz transmission bandwidth and two users each with a 5-MHz transmission bandwidth, employing turbo coding with the coding r of R=1/2 and QPSK and 16QAM data modulation coincides well with that in a single-user environment with the same transmission bandwidth. We show that the proposed orthogonal pilot channel structure using the combination of distributed FDMA and CDMA transmissions and the application of the CAZAC sequence is effective in the SC-FDMA-based Evolved UTRA uplink.

  3. The Evolvement of Automobile Steering System Based on TRIZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinjun; Zhang, Shuang

    Products and techniques pass through a process of birth, growth, maturity, death and quit the stage like biological evolution process. The developments of products and techniques conform to some evolvement rules. If people know and hold these rules, they can design new kind of products and forecast the develop trends of the products. Thereby, enterprises can grasp the future technique directions of products, and make product and technique innovation. Below, based on TRIZ theory, the mechanism evolvement, the function evolvement and the appearance evolvement of automobile steering system had been analyzed and put forward some new ideas about future automobile steering system.

  4. Evaluating Henry's law constant of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA).

    PubMed

    Haruta, Shinsuke; Jiao, Wentao; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C; Gan, Jay

    2011-01-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potential carcinogen, may contaminate the groundwater when the reclaimed wastewater is used for irrigation and groundwater recharge. Henry's law constant is a critical parameter to assess the fate and transport of reclaimed wastewater-borne NDMA in the soil profile. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which the change of NDMA concentration in water exposed to the atmosphere was measured with respect to time and, based on the data, obtained the dimensionless Henry's law constant (K(H)') of NDMA, at 1.0 x 10(-4). The K(H)' suggests that NDMA has a relatively high potential to volatilize in the field where NDMA-containing wastewater is used for irrigation and the volatilization loss may be a significant pathway of NDMA transport. The experiment was based on the two boundary-layer approach of mass transfer at the atmosphere-water interface. It is an expedient method to delineate K(H)' for volatile or semi-volatile compounds present in water at low concentrations.

  5. Mentoring: An Evolving Relationship.

    PubMed

    Block, Michelle; Florczak, Kristine L

    2017-04-01

    The column concerns itself with mentoring as an evolving relationship between mentor and mentee. The collegiate mentoring model, the transformational transcendence model, and the humanbecoming mentoring model are considered in light of a dialogue with mentors at a Midwest university and conclusions are drawn.

  6. Planetary Nebulae: Reviews and Previews of a Rapidly Evolving Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Observational results from the ground and space in the past decade and covering the entire spectrum have jolted and energized research into the nature, the formation, and the evolution of planetary nebulae (PNs). The 101-level bubble structure of PNs turned out to be a pleasant but misleading fantasy as observations by HST and ALMA revealed basic details of their infancy. Some combination of close geriatric binary stars (the precusrors of SN Ia's) and magnetic fields dredged into the dusty winds appear to play vital roles in the ejection and collimation of AGB atmospheres. As a result, PNe and their antecedents, AGB stars and prePNs, are providing an array of new opportunities to study asymmetric wind formation, complex gas dynamics, CNO production rates in various galactic environments, and galaxy structure and evolution. I shall review the highlights of recent results, summarize their interpretations, and show some of the observational opportunities to monitor in the next decade, many of which couple strongly to research to related fields.This talk is dedicated to the career of Olivier Chesneau (1972-2014) who pioneered new high-resolution imaging methods that peered into the deep inner cores of nascent planetary nebulae. We remember Olivier as everyone's enthusiastic friend and colleague whose career ended in full stride.

  7. Medical mentoring via the evolving world wide web.

    PubMed

    Jaffer, Usman; Vaughan-Huxley, Eyston; Standfield, Nigel; John, Nigel W

    2013-01-01

    Mentoring, for physicians and surgeons in training, is advocated as an essential adjunct in work-based learning, providing support in career and non-career related issues. The World Wide Web (WWW) has evolved, as a technology, to become more interactive and person centric, tailoring itself to the individual needs of the user. This changing technology may open new avenues to foster mentoring in medicine. DESIGN, SYSTEMATIC REVIEW, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A search of the MEDLINE database from 1950 to 2012 using the PubMed interface, combined with manual cross-referencing was performed using the following strategy: ("mentors"[MeSH Terms] OR "mentors"[All Fields] OR "mentor"[All Fields]) AND ("internet"[MeSH Terms] OR "internet"[All Fields]) AND ("medicine"[MeSH Terms] OR "medicine"[All Fields]) AND ("humans"[MeSH Terms] AND English[lang]). Abstracts were screened for relevance (UJ) to the topic; eligibility for inclusion was simply on screening for relevance to online mentoring and web-based technologies. Forty-five papers were found, of which 16 were relevant. All studies were observational in nature. To date, all medical mentoring applications utilizing the World Wide Web have enjoyed some success limited by Web 1.0 and 2.0 technologies. With the evolution of the WWW through 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 generations, the potential for meaningful tele- and distance mentoring has greatly improved. Some engagement has been made with these technological advancements, however further work is required to fully realize the potential of these technologies. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Theory of space-charge polarization for determining ionic constants of electrolytic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Atsushi

    2007-06-01

    A theoretical expression of the complex dielectric constant attributed to space-charge polarization has been derived under an electric field calculated using Poisson's equation considering the effects of bound charges on ions. The frequency dependence of the complex dielectric constant of chlorobenzene solutions doped with tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate (TBATPB) has been analyzed using the theoretical expression, and the impact of the bound charges on the complex dielectric constant has been clarified quantitatively in comparison with a theory that does not consider the effect of the bound charges. The Stokes radius of TBA +(=TPB-) determined by the present theory shows a good agreement with that determined by conductometry in the past; hence, the present theory should be applicable to the direct determination of the mobility of ion species in an electrolytic solution without the need to measure ionic limiting equivalent conductance and transport number.

  9. Dynamical manifestation of an evolving Berry phase as a frequency shift of the resonance transition between two eigenstates

    SciTech Connect

    Toriyama, Koichi; Oguchi, Akihide; Morinaga, Atsuo

    2011-12-15

    We investigate the phenomenon that a Berry phase evolving linearly in time induces a frequency shift of the resonance transition between two eigenstates, regardless of whether or not they are superposed. Using the magnetic-field-insensitive two-photon microwave--radio-frequency transition, which is free of any other dynamical frequency shift, we demonstrate that the frequency shift caused by a uniform rotation of the magnetic field corresponds to the derivative of the Berry phase with respect to time and depends on the direction of rotation of the magnetic field.

  10. Electron electric dipole moment and hyperfine interaction constants for ThO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleig, Timo; Nayak, Malaya K.

    2014-06-01

    A recently implemented relativistic four-component configuration interaction approach to study P- and T-odd interaction constants in atoms and molecules is employed to determine the electron electric dipole moment effective electric field in the Ω=1 first excited state of the ThO molecule. We obtain a value of Eeff=75.2GV/cm with an estimated error bar of 3% and 10% smaller than a previously reported result (Skripnikov et al., 2013). Using the same wavefunction model we obtain an excitation energy of TvΩ=1=5410 (cm), in accord with the experimental value within 2%. In addition, we report the implementation of the magnetic hyperfine interaction constant A|| as an expectation value, resulting in A||=-1339 (MHz) for the Ω=1 state in ThO. The smaller effective electric field increases the previously determined upper bound (Baron et al., 2014) on the electron electric dipole moment to |de|<9.7×10-29e cm and thus mildly mitigates constraints to possible extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics.

  11. Wavelength-independent constant period spin-echo modulated small angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, Morten, E-mail: lsp260@alumni.ku.dk; Plomp, Jeroen; Bouwman, Wim

    2016-06-15

    Spin-Echo Modulated Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SEMSANS) in Time-of-Flight (ToF) mode has been shown to be a promising technique for measuring (very) small angle neutron scattering (SANS) signals and performing quantitative Dark-Field Imaging (DFI), i.e., SANS with 2D spatial resolution. However, the wavelength dependence of the modulation period in the ToF spin-echo mode has so far limited the useful modulation periods to those resolvable with the limited spatial resolution of the detectors available. Here we present our results of an approach to keep the period of the induced modulation constant for the wavelengths utilised in ToF. This is achieved bymore » ramping the magnetic fields in the coils responsible for creating the spatially modulated beam in synchronisation with the neutron pulse, thus keeping the modulation period constant for all wavelengths. Such a setup enables the decoupling of the spatial detector resolution from the resolution of the modulation period by the use of slits or gratings in analogy to the approach in grating-based neutron DFI.« less

  12. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    PubMed

    Regnery, J; Wing, A D; Alidina, M; Drewes, J E

    2015-08-01

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e., redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e., less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cyberspace Operations: Influence Upon Evolving War Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-18

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t CYBERSPACE OPERATIONS: INFLUENCE UPON EVOLVING WAR THEORY BY COLONEL KRISTIN BAKER United States...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cyberspace Operations: Influence Upon Evolving War Theory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Leadership 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S

  14. Methods Evolved by Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  15. Constraints on the {omega}- and {sigma}-meson coupling constants with dibaryons

    SciTech Connect

    Faessler, A.; Buchmann, A.J.; Krivoruchenko, M.I.

    The effect of narrow dibaryon resonances on basic nuclear matter properties and on the structure of neutron stars is investigated in mean-field theory and in relativistic Hartree approximation. The existence of massive neutron stars imposes constraints on the coupling constants of the {omega} and {sigma} mesons with dibaryons. In the allowed region of the parameter space of the coupling constants, a Bose condensate of the light dibaryon candidates d{sub 1}(1920) and d{sup {prime}}(2060) is stable against compression. This proves the stability of the ground state of heterophase nuclear matter with a Bose condensate of light dibaryons. {copyright} {ital 1997} {italmore » The American Physical Society}« less

  16. How Hierarchical Topics Evolve in Large Text Corpora.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weiwei; Liu, Shixia; Wu, Zhuofeng; Wei, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Using a sequence of topic trees to organize documents is a popular way to represent hierarchical and evolving topics in text corpora. However, following evolving topics in the context of topic trees remains difficult for users. To address this issue, we present an interactive visual text analysis approach to allow users to progressively explore and analyze the complex evolutionary patterns of hierarchical topics. The key idea behind our approach is to exploit a tree cut to approximate each tree and allow users to interactively modify the tree cuts based on their interests. In particular, we propose an incremental evolutionary tree cut algorithm with the goal of balancing 1) the fitness of each tree cut and the smoothness between adjacent tree cuts; 2) the historical and new information related to user interests. A time-based visualization is designed to illustrate the evolving topics over time. To preserve the mental map, we develop a stable layout algorithm. As a result, our approach can quickly guide users to progressively gain profound insights into evolving hierarchical topics. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method on Amazon's Mechanical Turk and real-world news data. The results show that users are able to successfully analyze evolving topics in text data.

  17. Field patterns: a new mathematical object

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Ornella

    2017-01-01

    Field patterns occur in space–time microstructures such that a disturbance propagating along a characteristic line does not evolve into a cascade of disturbances, but rather concentrates on a pattern of characteristic lines. This pattern is the field pattern. In one spatial direction plus time, the field patterns occur when the slope of the characteristics is, in a sense, commensurate with the space–time microstructure. Field patterns with different spatial shifts do not generally interact, but rather evolve as if they live in separate dimensions, as many dimensions as the number of field patterns. Alternatively one can view a collection as a multi-component potential, with as many components as the number of field patterns. Presumably, if one added a tiny nonlinear term to the wave equation one would then see interactions between these field patterns in the multi-dimensional space that one can consider them to live, or between the different field components of the multi-component potential if one views them that way. As a result of PT-symmetry many of the complex eigenvalues of an appropriately defined transfer matrix have unit norm and hence the corresponding eigenvectors correspond to propagating modes. There are also modes that blow up exponentially with time. PMID:28293143

  18. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.; Hedgecock, Jud; Nienaber, Terry; Cooper, Bonnie; Allen, Carlton; Ming, Doug

    2000-01-01

    The Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA) is a high-temperature furnace and mass spectrometer instrument for determining the mineralogical composition and reactivity of soil samples. REGA provides key mineralogical and reactivity data that is needed to understand the soil chemistry of an asteroid, which then aids in determining in-situ which materials should be selected for return to earth. REGA is capable of conducting a number of direct soil measurements that are unique to this instrument. These experimental measurements include: (1) Mass spectrum analysis of evolved gases from soil samples as they are heated from ambient temperature to 900 C; and (2) Identification of liberated chemicals, e.g., water, oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine. REGA would be placed on the surface of a near earth asteroid. It is an autonomous instrument that is controlled from earth but does the analysis of regolith materials automatically. The REGA instrument consists of four primary components: (1) a flight-proven mass spectrometer, (2) a high-temperature furnace, (3) a soil handling system, and (4) a microcontroller. An external arm containing a scoop or drill gathers regolith samples. A sample is placed in the inlet orifice where the finest-grained particles are sifted into a metering volume and subsequently moved into a crucible. A movable arm then places the crucible in the furnace. The furnace is closed, thereby sealing the inner volume to collect the evolved gases for analysis. Owing to the very low g forces on an asteroid compared to Mars or the moon, the sample must be moved from inlet to crucible by mechanical means rather than by gravity. As the soil sample is heated through a programmed pattern, the gases evolved at each temperature are passed through a transfer tube to the mass spectrometer for analysis and identification. Return data from the instrument will lead to new insights and discoveries including: (1) Identification of the molecular masses of all of the gases

  19. CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 121 NIST CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants (Web, free access)   This site, developed in the Physics Laboratory at NIST, addresses three topics: fundamental physical constants, the International System of Units (SI), which is the modern metric system, and expressing the uncertainty of measurement results.

  20. Evolving artificial metalloenzymes via random mutagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hao; Swartz, Alan M.; Park, Hyun June; Srivastava, Poonam; Ellis-Guardiola, Ken; Upp, David M.; Lee, Gihoon; Belsare, Ketaki; Gu, Yifan; Zhang, Chen; Moellering, Raymond E.; Lewis, Jared C.

    2018-03-01

    Random mutagenesis has the potential to optimize the efficiency and selectivity of protein catalysts without requiring detailed knowledge of protein structure; however, introducing synthetic metal cofactors complicates the expression and screening of enzyme libraries, and activity arising from free cofactor must be eliminated. Here we report an efficient platform to create and screen libraries of artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) via random mutagenesis, which we use to evolve highly selective dirhodium cyclopropanases. Error-prone PCR and combinatorial codon mutagenesis enabled multiplexed analysis of random mutations, including at sites distal to the putative ArM active site that are difficult to identify using targeted mutagenesis approaches. Variants that exhibited significantly improved selectivity for each of the cyclopropane product enantiomers were identified, and higher activity than previously reported ArM cyclopropanases obtained via targeted mutagenesis was also observed. This improved selectivity carried over to other dirhodium-catalysed transformations, including N-H, S-H and Si-H insertion, demonstrating that ArMs evolved for one reaction can serve as starting points to evolve catalysts for others.

  1. The variation of the fine-structure constant from disformal couplings

    SciTech Connect

    De Bruck, Carsten van; Mifsud, Jurgen; Nunes, Nelson J., E-mail: c.vandebruck@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: jmifsud1@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: njnunes@fc.ul.pt

    2015-12-01

    We study a theory in which the electromagnetic field is disformally coupled to a scalar field, in addition to a usual non-minimal electromagnetic coupling. We show that disformal couplings modify the expression for the fine-structure constant, α. As a result, the theory we consider can explain the non-zero reported variation in the evolution of α by purely considering disformal couplings. We also find that if matter and photons are coupled in the same way to the scalar field, disformal couplings itself do not lead to a variation of the fine-structure constant. A number of scenarios are discussed consistent with themore » current astrophysical, geochemical, laboratory and the cosmic microwave background radiation constraints on the cosmological evolution of α. The models presented are also consistent with the current type Ia supernovae constraints on the effective dark energy equation of state. We find that the Oklo bound in particular puts strong constraints on the model parameters. From our numerical results, we find that the introduction of a non-minimal electromagnetic coupling enhances the cosmological variation in α. Better constrained data is expected to be reported by ALMA and with the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs such as PEPSI, ESPRESSO, and ELT-HIRES. Furthermore, an expected increase in the sensitivity of molecular and nuclear clocks will put a more stringent constraint on the theory.« less

  2. Polarization and studies of evolved star mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin; Srinivasan, Sundar; Riebel, David; Meixner, Margaret

    2012-05-01

    Polarization studies of astronomical dust have proven very useful in constraining its properties. Such studies are used to constrain the spatial arrangement, shape, composition, and optical properties of astronomical dust grains. Here we explore possible connections between astronomical polarization observations to our studies of mass loss from evolved stars. We are studying evolved star mass loss in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by using photometry from the Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE; PI: M. Meixner) Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy program. We use the radiative transfer program 2Dust to create our Grid of Red supergiant and Asymptotic giant branch ModelS (GRAMS), in order to model this mass loss. To model emission of polarized light from evolved stars, however, we appeal to other radiative transfer codes. We probe how polarization observations might be used to constrain the dust shell and dust grain properties of the samples of evolved stars we are studying.

  3. Eyes on the prize: reflections on the impact of the evolving digital ecology on the librarian as expert intermediary and knowledge coach, 1969–2009*

    PubMed Central

    Homan, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The 2009 Janet Doe Lecture reflects on the continuing value and increasing return on investment of librarian-mediated services in the constantly evolving digital ecology and complex knowledge environment of the health sciences. Setting: The interrelationship of knowledge, decision making based on knowledge, technology used to access and retrieve knowledge, and the important linkage roles of expert librarian intermediaries is examined. Methodology: Professional experiences from 1969 to 2009, occurring during a time of unprecedented changes in the digital ecology of librarianship, are the base on which the evolving role and value of librarians as knowledge coaches and expert intermediaries are examined. Conclusion: Librarian-mediated services linking knowledge and critical decision making in health care have become more valuable than ever as technology continues to reshape an increasingly complex knowledge environment. PMID:20098655

  4. The evolution of resource adaptation: how generalist and specialist consumers evolve.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junling; Levin, Simon A

    2006-07-01

    Why and how specialist and generalist strategies evolve are important questions in evolutionary ecology. In this paper, with the method of adaptive dynamics and evolutionary branching, we identify conditions that select for specialist and generalist strategies. Generally, generalist strategies evolve if there is a switching benefit; specialists evolve if there is a switching cost. If the switching cost is large, specialists always evolve. If the switching cost is small, even though the consumer will first evolve toward a generalist strategy, it will eventually branch into two specialists.

  5. Rings and arcs around evolved stars - I. Fingerprints of the last gasps in the formation process of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Santamaría, E.; Guerrero, M. A.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.; Sabin, L.; Toalá, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    Evolved stars such as asymptotic giant branch stars (AGB), post-AGB stars, proto-planetary nebulae (proto-PNe), and planetary nebulae (PNe) show rings and arcs around them and their nebular shells. We have searched for these morphological features in optical Hubble Space Telescope and mid-infrared Spitzer Space Telescope images of ˜650 proto-PNe and PNe and discovered them in 29 new sources. Adding those to previous detections, we derive a frequency of occurrence ≃8 per cent. All images have been processed to remove the underlying envelope emission and enhance outer faint structures to investigate the spacing between rings and arcs and their number. The averaged time lapse between consecutive rings and arcs is estimated to be in the range 500-1200 yr. The spacing between them is found to be basically constant for each source, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the formation of these structures in the final stages of evolved stars is stable during time periods of the order of the total duration of the ejection. In our sample, this period of time spans ≤4500 yr.

  6. Questions on universal constants and four-dimensional symmetry from a broad viewpoint. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    It is demonstrated that there is a flexibility in clock synchronizations and that four-dimensional symmetry framework can be viewed broadly. The true universality of basic constants is discussed, considering a class of measurement processes based on the velocity = distance/time interval, which always yields some number when used by an observer. The four-dimensional symmetry framework based on common time for all observers is formulated, and related processes of measuring light speed are discussed. Invariant 'action functions' for physical laws in the new four-dimensional symmetry framework with the common time are established to discuss universal constants. Truly universal constants are demonstrated, and it is shown that physics in this new framework and in special relativity are equivalent as far as one-particle systems and the S-matrix in field theories are concerned.

  7. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  8. Some solutions for one of the cosmological constant problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojiri, Shin'Ichi

    2016-11-01

    We propose several covariant models which may solve one of the problems in the cosmological constant. One of the models can be regarded as an extension of sequestering model. Other models could be regarded as extensions of the covariant formulation of the unimodular gravity. The contributions to the vacuum energy from the quantum corrections from the matters are absorbed into a redefinition of a scalar field and the quantum corrections become irrelevant to the dynamics. In a class of the extended unimodular gravity models, we also consider models which are regarded as topological field theories. The models can be extended and not only the vacuum energy but also any quantum corrections to the gravitational action could become irrelevant for the dynamics. We find, however, that the BRS symmetry in the topological field theories is broken spontaneously and therefore, the models might not be consistent.

  9. Multilayer film shields for the protection of PMT from constant magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Dmitrenko, V V; Besson, David; Nyunt, PhyoWai; Grabchikov, S S; Grachev, V M; Muraviev-Smirnov, C C; Ulin, S E; Uteshev, Z M; Vlasik, K F

    2015-01-01

    Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are widely used in physical experiments as well as in applied devices. PMTs are sensitive to magnetic field, so creation of effective magnetic shields for their protection is very important. In this paper, the results of measurements of shielding effectiveness of multilayer film magnetic shields on PMT-85 are presented. Shields were formed by alternating layers of a material with high magnetic permeability (Ni-Fe) and high electric conductivity-Cu. The maximum number of bilayers reached 45. It is shown that in weak magnetic fields up to 0.5 mT, the output signal amplitude from PMT-85 does not change for all used multilayer shields. In strong magnetic field of 2-4 mT, the output signal amplitude decrease with 10%-40% depending from the number of layers in the shield. The Pulse distribution of PMT-85 in magnetic field 0.2-4 mT slightly changed in the range 1.1%-1.3% for the case when the number of layers do not exceed 10 and practically did not change for a shield with 45 double layers.

  10. Surrogate-assisted identification of influences of network construction on evolving weighted functional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahn, Kirsten; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    We aim at identifying factors that may affect the characteristics of evolving weighted networks derived from empirical observations. To this end, we employ various chains of analysis that are often used in field studies for a data-driven derivation and characterization of such networks. As an example, we consider fully connected, weighted functional brain networks before, during, and after epileptic seizures that we derive from multichannel electroencephalographic data recorded from epilepsy patients. For these evolving networks, we estimate clustering coefficient and average shortest path length in a time-resolved manner. Lastly, we make use of surrogate concepts that we apply at various levels of the chain of analysis to assess to what extent network characteristics are dominated by properties of the electroencephalographic recordings and/or the evolving weighted networks, which may be accessible more easily. We observe that characteristics are differently affected by the unavoidable referencing of the electroencephalographic recording, by the time-series-analysis technique used to derive the properties of network links, and whether or not networks were normalized. Importantly, for the majority of analysis settings, we observe temporal evolutions of network characteristics to merely reflect the temporal evolutions of mean interaction strengths. Such a property of the data may be accessible more easily, which would render the weighted network approach—as used here—as an overly complicated description of simple aspects of the data.

  11. Computing sextic centrifugal distortion constants by DFT: A benchmark analysis on halogenated compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Stoppa, Paolo; Tasinato, Nicola; Giorgianni, Santi

    2017-05-01

    This work presents a benchmark study on the calculation of the sextic centrifugal distortion constants employing cubic force fields computed by means of density functional theory (DFT). For a set of semi-rigid halogenated organic compounds several functionals (B2PLYP, B3LYP, B3PW91, M06, M06-2X, O3LYP, X3LYP, ωB97XD, CAM-B3LYP, LC-ωPBE, PBE0, B97-1 and B97-D) were used for computing the sextic centrifugal distortion constants. The effects related to the size of basis sets and the performances of hybrid approaches, where the harmonic data obtained at higher level of electronic correlation are coupled with cubic force constants yielded by DFT functionals, are presented and discussed. The predicted values were compared to both the available data published in the literature and those obtained by calculations carried out at increasing level of electronic correlation: Hartree-Fock Self Consistent Field (HF-SCF), second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled-cluster single and double (CCSD) level of theory. Different hybrid approaches, having the cubic force field computed at DFT level of theory coupled to harmonic data computed at increasing level of electronic correlation (up to CCSD level of theory augmented by a perturbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T)) were considered. The obtained results demonstrate that they can represent reliable and computationally affordable methods to predict sextic centrifugal terms with an accuracy almost comparable to that yielded by the more expensive anharmonic force fields fully computed at MP2 and CCSD levels of theory. In view of their reduced computational cost, these hybrid approaches pave the route to the study of more complex systems.

  12. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  13. Photocatalytic mineralization of commercial herbicides in a pilot-scale solar CPC reactor: photoreactor modeling and reaction kinetics constants independent of radiation field.

    PubMed

    Colina-Márquez, Jose; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2009-12-01

    The six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM) of the radiation field in the photoreactor, combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models, has proved to be suitable to describe the degradation of water pollutants in heterogeneous photocatalytic reactors, combining simplicity and accuracy. In this study, the above approach was extended to model the photocatalytic mineralization of a commercial herbicides mixture (2,4-D, diuron, and ametryne used in Colombian sugar cane crops) in a solar, pilot-scale, compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using a slurry suspension of TiO(2). The ray-tracing technique was used jointly with the SFM to determine the direction of both the direct and diffuse solar photon fluxes and the spatial profile of the local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) in the CPC reactor. Herbicides mineralization kinetics with explicit photon absorption effects were utilized to remove the dependence of the observed rate constants from the reactor geometry and radiation field in the photoreactor. The results showed that the overall model fitted the experimental data of herbicides mineralization in the solar CPC reactor satisfactorily for both cloudy and sunny days. Using the above approach kinetic parameters independent of the radiation field in the reactor can be estimated directly from the results of experiments carried out in a solar CPC reactor. The SFM combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models proved to be a simple, but reliable model, for solar photocatalytic applications.

  14. A similarity hypothesis for the two-point correlation tensor in a temporally evolving plane wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, D. W.; George, W. K.; Moser, R. D.; Rogers, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis demonstrated that the governing equations for the two-point velocity correlation tensor in the temporally evolving wake admit similarity solutions, which include the similarity solutions for the single-point moment as a special case. The resulting equations for the similarity solutions include two constants, beta and Re(sub sigma), that are ratios of three characteristic time scales of processes in the flow: a viscous time scale, a time scale characteristic of the spread rate of the flow, and a characteristic time scale of the mean strain rate. The values of these ratios depend on the initial conditions of the flow and are most likely measures of the coherent structures in the initial conditions. The occurrences of these constants in the governing equations for the similarity solutions indicates that these solutions, in general, will only be the same for two flows if these two constants are equal (and hence the coherent structures in the flows are related). The comparisons between the predictions of the similarity hypothesis and the data presented here and elsewhere indicate that the similarity solutions for the two-point correlation tensors provide a good approximation of the measures of those motions that are not significantly affected by the boundary conditions caused by the finite extent of real flows. Thus, the two-point similarity hypothesis provides a useful tool for both numerical and physical experimentalist that can be used to examine how the finite extent of real flows affect the evolution of the different scales of motion in the flow.

  15. Initial conditions of inhomogeneous universe and the cosmological constant problem

    SciTech Connect

    Totani, Tomonori, E-mail: totani@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Deriving the Einstein field equations (EFE) with matter fluid from the action principle is not straightforward, because mass conservation must be added as an additional constraint to make rest-frame mass density variable in reaction to metric variation. This can be avoided by introducing a constraint 0δ(√− g ) = to metric variations δ g {sup μν}, and then the cosmological constant Λ emerges as an integration constant. This is a removal of one of the four constraints on initial conditions forced by EFE at the birth of the universe, and it may imply that EFE are unnecessarily restrictive about initialmore » conditions. I then adopt a principle that the theory of gravity should be able to solve time evolution starting from arbitrary inhomogeneous initial conditions about spacetime and matter. The equations of gravitational fields satisfying this principle are obtained, by setting four auxiliary constraints on δ g {sup μν} to extract six degrees of freedom for gravity. The cost of achieving this is a loss of general covariance, but these equations constitute a consistent theory if they hold in the special coordinate systems that can be uniquely specified with respect to the initial space-like hypersurface when the universe was born. This theory predicts that gravity is described by EFE with non-zero Λ in a homogeneous patch of the universe created by inflation, but Λ changes continuously across different patches. Then both the smallness and coincidence problems of the cosmological constant are solved by the anthropic argument. This is just a result of inhomogeneous initial conditions, not requiring any change of the fundamental physical laws in different patches.« less

  16. Initial conditions of inhomogeneous universe and the cosmological constant problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totani, Tomonori

    2016-06-01

    Deriving the Einstein field equations (EFE) with matter fluid from the action principle is not straightforward, because mass conservation must be added as an additional constraint to make rest-frame mass density variable in reaction to metric variation. This can be avoided by introducing a constraint 0δ(√-g) = to metric variations δ gμν, and then the cosmological constant Λ emerges as an integration constant. This is a removal of one of the four constraints on initial conditions forced by EFE at the birth of the universe, and it may imply that EFE are unnecessarily restrictive about initial conditions. I then adopt a principle that the theory of gravity should be able to solve time evolution starting from arbitrary inhomogeneous initial conditions about spacetime and matter. The equations of gravitational fields satisfying this principle are obtained, by setting four auxiliary constraints on δ gμν to extract six degrees of freedom for gravity. The cost of achieving this is a loss of general covariance, but these equations constitute a consistent theory if they hold in the special coordinate systems that can be uniquely specified with respect to the initial space-like hypersurface when the universe was born. This theory predicts that gravity is described by EFE with non-zero Λ in a homogeneous patch of the universe created by inflation, but Λ changes continuously across different patches. Then both the smallness and coincidence problems of the cosmological constant are solved by the anthropic argument. This is just a result of inhomogeneous initial conditions, not requiring any change of the fundamental physical laws in different patches.

  17. Helicopter TEM parameters analysis and system optimization based on time constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Pan; Wu, Xin; Shi, Zongyang; Li, Jutao; Liu, Lihua; Fang, Guangyou

    2018-03-01

    Helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) method is a kind of common geophysical prospecting method, widely used in mineral detection, underground water exploration and environment investigation. In order to develop an efficient helicopter TEM system, it is necessary to analyze and optimize the system parameters. In this paper, a simple and quantitative method is proposed to analyze the system parameters, such as waveform, power, base frequency, measured field and sampling time. A wire loop model is used to define a comprehensive 'time constant domain' that shows a range of time constant, analogous to a range of conductance, after which the characteristics of the system parameters in this domain is obtained. It is found that the distortion caused by the transmitting base frequency is less than 5% when the ratio of the transmitting period to the target time constant is greater than 6. When the sampling time window is less than the target time constant, the distortion caused by the sampling time window is less than 5%. According to this method, a helicopter TEM system, called CASHTEM, is designed, and flight test has been carried out in the known mining area. The test results show that the system has good detection performance, verifying the effectiveness of the method.

  18. Refactoring the Genetic Code for Increased Evolvability

    SciTech Connect

    Pines, Gur; Winkler, James D.; Pines, Assaf

    ABSTRACT The standard genetic code is robust to mutations during transcription and translation. Point mutations are likely to be synonymous or to preserve the chemical properties of the original amino acid. Saturation mutagenesis experiments suggest that in some cases the best-performing mutant requires replacement of more than a single nucleotide within a codon. These replacements are essentially inaccessible to common error-based laboratory engineering techniques that alter a single nucleotide per mutation event, due to the extreme rarity of adjacent mutations. In this theoretical study, we suggest a radical reordering of the genetic code that maximizes the mutagenic potential of singlemore » nucleotide replacements. We explore several possible genetic codes that allow a greater degree of accessibility to the mutational landscape and may result in a hyperevolvable organism that could serve as an ideal platform for directed evolution experiments. We then conclude by evaluating the challenges of constructing such recoded organisms and their potential applications within the field of synthetic biology. IMPORTANCE The conservative nature of the genetic code prevents bioengineers from efficiently accessing the full mutational landscape of a gene via common error-prone methods. Here, we present two computational approaches to generate alternative genetic codes with increased accessibility. These new codes allow mutational transitions to a larger pool of amino acids and with a greater extent of chemical differences, based on a single nucleotide replacement within the codon, thus increasing evolvability both at the single-gene and at the genome levels. Given the widespread use of these techniques for strain and protein improvement, along with more fundamental evolutionary biology questions, the use of recoded organisms that maximize evolvability should significantly improve the efficiency of directed evolution, library generation, and fitness maximization.« less

  19. Refactoring the Genetic Code for Increased Evolvability

    DOE PAGES

    Pines, Gur; Winkler, James D.; Pines, Assaf; ...

    2017-11-14

    ABSTRACT The standard genetic code is robust to mutations during transcription and translation. Point mutations are likely to be synonymous or to preserve the chemical properties of the original amino acid. Saturation mutagenesis experiments suggest that in some cases the best-performing mutant requires replacement of more than a single nucleotide within a codon. These replacements are essentially inaccessible to common error-based laboratory engineering techniques that alter a single nucleotide per mutation event, due to the extreme rarity of adjacent mutations. In this theoretical study, we suggest a radical reordering of the genetic code that maximizes the mutagenic potential of singlemore » nucleotide replacements. We explore several possible genetic codes that allow a greater degree of accessibility to the mutational landscape and may result in a hyperevolvable organism that could serve as an ideal platform for directed evolution experiments. We then conclude by evaluating the challenges of constructing such recoded organisms and their potential applications within the field of synthetic biology. IMPORTANCE The conservative nature of the genetic code prevents bioengineers from efficiently accessing the full mutational landscape of a gene via common error-prone methods. Here, we present two computational approaches to generate alternative genetic codes with increased accessibility. These new codes allow mutational transitions to a larger pool of amino acids and with a greater extent of chemical differences, based on a single nucleotide replacement within the codon, thus increasing evolvability both at the single-gene and at the genome levels. Given the widespread use of these techniques for strain and protein improvement, along with more fundamental evolutionary biology questions, the use of recoded organisms that maximize evolvability should significantly improve the efficiency of directed evolution, library generation, and fitness maximization.« less

  20. QCD Axion Dark Matter with a Small Decay Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    The QCD axion is a good dark matter candidate. The observed dark matter abundance can arise from misalignment or defect mechanisms, which generically require an axion decay constant fa˜O (1011) GeV (or higher). We introduce a new cosmological origin for axion dark matter, parametric resonance from oscillations of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking field, that requires fa˜(108- 1011) GeV . The axions may be warm enough to give deviations from cold dark matter in large scale structure.

  1. Charmed-meson decay constants in three-flavor lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Aubin, C; Bernard, C; Detar, C; Di Pierro, M; Freeland, E D; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; El-Khadra, A X; Kronfeld, A S; Levkova, L; Mackenzie, P B; Menscher, D; Maresca, F; Nobes, M; Okamoto, M; Renner, D; Simone, J; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Trottier, H D

    2005-09-16

    We present the first lattice QCD calculation with realistic sea quark content of the D+-meson decay constant f(D+). We use the MILC Collaboration's publicly available ensembles of lattice gauge fields, which have a quark sea with two flavors (up and down) much lighter than a third (strange). We obtain f(D+)=201+/-3+/-17 MeV, where the errors are statistical and a combination of systematic errors. We also obtain f(Ds)=249+/-3+/-16 MeV for the Ds meson.

  2. Accelerating Sequential Gaussian Simulation with a constant path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Raphaël; Mariethoz, Grégoire; Gravey, Mathieu; Gloaguen, Erwan; Holliger, Klaus

    2018-03-01

    Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) is a stochastic simulation technique commonly employed for generating realizations of Gaussian random fields. Arguably, the main limitation of this technique is the high computational cost associated with determining the kriging weights. This problem is compounded by the fact that often many realizations are required to allow for an adequate uncertainty assessment. A seemingly simple way to address this problem is to keep the same simulation path for all realizations. This results in identical neighbourhood configurations and hence the kriging weights only need to be determined once and can then be re-used in all subsequent realizations. This approach is generally not recommended because it is expected to result in correlation between the realizations. Here, we challenge this common preconception and make the case for the use of a constant path approach in SGS by systematically evaluating the associated benefits and limitations. We present a detailed implementation, particularly regarding parallelization and memory requirements. Extensive numerical tests demonstrate that using a constant path allows for substantial computational gains with very limited loss of simulation accuracy. This is especially the case for a constant multi-grid path. The computational savings can be used to increase the neighbourhood size, thus allowing for a better reproduction of the spatial statistics. The outcome of this study is a recommendation for an optimal implementation of SGS that maximizes accurate reproduction of the covariance structure as well as computational efficiency.

  3. Foreshock Langmuir waves for unusually constant solar wind conditions: Data and implications for foreshock structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.; Anderson, Roger R.; Strangeway, R. J.

    1997-10-01

    Plasma wave data are compared with ISEE 1's position in the electron foreshock for an interval with unusually constant (but otherwise typical) solar wind magnetic field and plasma characteristics. For this period, temporal variations in the wave characteristics can be confidently separated from sweeping of the spatially varying foreshock back and forth across the spacecraft. The spacecraft's location, particularly the coordinate Df downstream from the foreshock boundary (often termed DIFF), is calculated by using three shock models and the observed solar wind magnetometer and plasma data. Scatterplots of the wave field versus Df are used to constrain viable shock models, to investigate the observed scatter in the wave fields at constant Df, and to test the theoretical predictions of linear instability theory. The scatterplots confirm the abrupt onset of the foreshock waves near the upstream boundary, the narrow width in Df of the region with high fields, and the relatively slow falloff of the fields at large Df, as seen in earlier studies, but with much smaller statistical scatter. The plots also show an offset of the high-field region from the foreshock boundary. It is shown that an adaptive, time-varying shock model with no free parameters, determined by the observed solar wind data and published shock crossings, is viable but that two alternative models are not. Foreshock wave studies can therefore remotely constrain the bow shock's location. The observed scatter in wave field at constant Df is shown to be real and to correspond to real temporal variations, not to unresolved changes in Df. By comparing the wave data with a linear instability theory based on a published model for the electron beam it is found that the theory can account qualitatively and semiquantitatively for the abrupt onset of the waves near Df=0, for the narrow width and offset of the high-field region, and for the decrease in wave intensity with increasing Df. Quantitative differences

  4. Laplacian Estrada and normalized Laplacian Estrada indices of evolving graphs.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yilun

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale time-evolving networks have been generated by many natural and technological applications, posing challenges for computation and modeling. Thus, it is of theoretical and practical significance to probe mathematical tools tailored for evolving networks. In this paper, on top of the dynamic Estrada index, we study the dynamic Laplacian Estrada index and the dynamic normalized Laplacian Estrada index of evolving graphs. Using linear algebra techniques, we established general upper and lower bounds for these graph-spectrum-based invariants through a couple of intuitive graph-theoretic measures, including the number of vertices or edges. Synthetic random evolving small-world networks are employed to show the relevance of the proposed dynamic Estrada indices. It is found that neither the static snapshot graphs nor the aggregated graph can approximate the evolving graph itself, indicating the fundamental difference between the static and dynamic Estrada indices.

  5. An Evolving Trio of Hybrid Stars: C 111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Dupree, Andrea K.

    2004-01-01

    Our goal is to understand the behavior of the outer atmosphere in this intermediate stage to create a comprehensive picture of atmospheric evolution. In the hybrid phase, the large-scale magnetic dynamo activity decays and hydrodynamic processes assume importance. Some hot plasma is still confined close to the star by magnetic loops, yet the confining field is breaking open, the atmosphere can escape through these open field lines, and the diffuse corona may be warm. There may well be a more extended and variable transition process. It remains for FUSE to identify the controlling parameters of the hybrid stars. It shows the positions of our 3 targets in the color-magnitude diagram where it is seen that they are at the extreme end of the hybrid region. Originally we had been awarded the hybrid star Iota Aur, but due to newly imposed pointing constraints of FUSE, that target was not accessible. And so we substituted Iota Dra, a giant of mass similar to our other targets but less evolved. In addition, Iota Dra was recently found to harbor a sub-stellar objects, possibly a planet, and so it could reveal the stellar environment of the planet. This substitution was accepted.

  6. Methodologies for extracting kinetic constants for multiphase reacting flow simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Golchert, B.

    1997-03-01

    Flows in industrial reactors often involve complex reactions of many species. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer code, ICRKFLO, was developed to simulate multiphase, multi-species reacting flows. The ICRKFLO uses a hybrid technique to calculate species concentration and reaction for a large number of species in a reacting flow. This technique includes a hydrodynamic and reacting flow simulation with a small but sufficient number of lumped reactions to compute flow field properties followed by a calculation of local reaction kinetics and transport of many subspecies (order of 10 to 100). Kinetic rate constants of the numerous subspecies chemical reactions aremore » difficult to determine. A methodology has been developed to extract kinetic constants from experimental data efficiently. A flow simulation of a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) riser was successfully used to demonstrate this methodology.« less

  7. On the Occurrence of Mass Inflation for the Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar Field System with a Cosmological Constant and an Exponential Price Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, João L.; Girão, Pedro M.; Natário, José; Silva, Jorge Drumond

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we study the spherically symmetric characteristic initial data problem for the Einstein-Maxwell-scalar field system with a positive cosmological constant in the interior of a black hole, assuming an exponential Price law along the event horizon. More precisely, we construct open sets of characteristic data which, on the outgoing initial null hypersurface (taken to be the event horizon), converges exponentially to a reference Reissner-Nördstrom black hole at infinity. We prove the stability of the radius function at the Cauchy horizon, and show that, depending on the decay rate of the initial data, mass inflation may or may not occur. In the latter case, we find that the solution can be extended across the Cauchy horizon with continuous metric and Christoffel symbols in {L^2_{loc}} , thus violating the Christodoulou-Chruściel version of strong cosmic censorship.

  8. Currents in Environmental Education: Mapping a Complex and Evolving Pedagogical Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauve, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring to light and celebrate the richness of the environmental education field, thereby paying homage to the pedagogical creativity of its architects over the course of the last thirty years, as well as to their contribution in reflecting on the meaning, problems and possibilities of our relationship to the…

  9. Numerical results on the transcendence of constants involving pi, e, and Euler's constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of simple polynomial equations (integer relations) for the constants e/pi, e + pi, log pi, gamma (Euler's constant), e exp gamma, gamma/e, gamma/pi, and log gamma is investigated by means of numerical computations. The recursive form of the Ferguson-Fourcade algorithm (Ferguson and Fourcade, 1979; Ferguson, 1986 and 1987) is implemented on the Cray-2 supercomputer at NASA Ames, applying multiprecision techniques similar to those described by Bailey (1988) except that FFTs are used instead of dual-prime-modulus transforms for multiplication. It is shown that none of the constants has an integer relation of degree eight or less with coefficients of Euclidean norm 10 to the 9th or less.

  10. Description and test results of a variable speed, constant frequency generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, F. J.

    1985-12-01

    The variable-speed, constant frequency generating system developed for the Mod-0 wind turbine is presented. This report describes the system as it existed at the conclusion of the project. The cycloconverter control circuit is described including the addition of field-oriented control. The laboratory test and actual wind turbine test results are included.

  11. Reception and learning of electric fields in bees.

    PubMed

    Greggers, Uwe; Koch, Gesche; Schmidt, Viola; Dürr, Aron; Floriou-Servou, Amalia; Piepenbrock, David; Göpfert, Martin C; Menzel, Randolf

    2013-05-22

    Honeybees, like other insects, accumulate electric charge in flight, and when their body parts are moved or rubbed together. We report that bees emit constant and modulated electric fields when flying, landing, walking and during the waggle dance. The electric fields emitted by dancing bees consist of low- and high-frequency components. Both components induce passive antennal movements in stationary bees according to Coulomb's law. Bees learn both the constant and the modulated electric field components in the context of appetitive proboscis extension response conditioning. Using this paradigm, we identify mechanoreceptors in both joints of the antennae as sensors. Other mechanoreceptors on the bee body are potentially involved but are less sensitive. Using laser vibrometry, we show that the electrically charged flagellum is moved by constant and modulated electric fields and more strongly so if sound and electric fields interact. Recordings from axons of the Johnston organ document its sensitivity to electric field stimuli. Our analyses identify electric fields emanating from the surface charge of bees as stimuli for mechanoreceptors, and as biologically relevant stimuli, which may play a role in social communication.

  12. A CONSTANT LIMITING MASS SCALE FOR FLAT EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM z {approx} 1 TO z = 0: DENSITY EVOLVES BUT SHAPES DO NOT

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, Bradford P.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2012-04-20

    We measure the evolution in the intrinsic shape distribution of early-type galaxies from z {approx} 1 to z {approx} 0 by analyzing their projected axis-ratio distributions. We extract a low-redshift sample (0.04 < z < 0.08) of early-type galaxies with very low star formation rates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, based on a color-color selection scheme and verified through the absence of emission lines in the spectra. The inferred intrinsic shape distribution of these early-type galaxies is strongly mass dependent: the typical short-to-long intrinsic axis ratio of high-mass early-type galaxies (>10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) is 2:3, whereas atmore » masses below 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} this ratio narrows to 1:3, or more flattened galaxies. In an entirely analogous manner, we select a high-redshift sample (0.6 < z < 0.8) from two deep-field surveys with multi-wavelength and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging: GEMS and COSMOS. We find a seemingly universal mass of {approx}10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} for highly flattened early-type systems at all redshifts. This implies that the process that grows an early-type galaxy above this ceiling mass, irrespective of cosmic epoch, involves forming round systems. Using both parametric and non-parametric tests, we find no evolution in the projected axis-ratio distribution for galaxies with masses >3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} with redshift. At the same time, our samples imply an increase of 2-3 Multiplication-Sign in comoving number density for early-type galaxies at masses >3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, in agreement with previous studies. Given the direct connection between the axis-ratio distribution and the underlying bulge-to-disk ratio distribution, our findings imply that the number density evolution of early-type galaxies is not exclusively driven by the emergence of either bulge- or disk-dominated galaxies, but rather by a balanced mix that depends only on the stellar mass of

  13. A two force-constant model for complexes B⋯M-X (B is a Lewis base and MX is any diatomic molecule): Intermolecular stretching force constants from centrifugal distortion constants D(J) or Δ(J).

    PubMed

    Bittner, Dror M; Walker, Nicholas R; Legon, Anthony C

    2016-02-21

    A two force-constant model is proposed for complexes of the type B⋯MX, in which B is a simple Lewis base of at least C2v symmetry and MX is any diatomic molecule lying along a Cn axis (n ≥ 2) of B. The model assumes a rigid subunit B and that force constants beyond quadratic are negligible. It leads to expressions that allow, in principle, the determination of three quadratic force constants F11, F12, and F22 associated with the r(B⋯M) = r2 and r(M-X) = r1 internal coordinates from the equilibrium centrifugal distortion constants DJ (e) or ΔJ (e), the equilibrium principal axis coordinates a1 and a2, and equilibrium principal moments of inertia. The model can be applied generally to complexes containing different types of intermolecular bond. For example, the intermolecular bond of B⋯MX can be a hydrogen bond if MX is a hydrogen halide, a halogen-bond if MX is a dihalogen molecule, or a stronger, coinage-metal bond if MX is a coinage metal halide. The equations were tested for BrCN, for which accurate equilibrium spectroscopic constants and a complete force field are available. In practice, equilibrium values of DJ (e) or ΔJ (e) for B⋯MX are not available and zero-point quantities must be used instead. The effect of doing so has been tested for BrCN. The zero-point centrifugal distortion constants DJ (0) or ΔJ (0) for all B⋯MX investigated so far are of insufficient accuracy to allow F11 and F22 to be determined simultaneously, even under the assumption F12 = 0 which is shown to be reasonable for BrCN. The calculation of F22 at a series of fixed values of F11 reveals, however, that in cases for which F11 is sufficiently larger than F22, a good approximation to F22 is obtained. Plots of F22 versus F11 have been provided for Kr⋯CuCl, Xe⋯CuCl, OC⋯CuCl, and C2H2⋯AgCl as examples. Even in cases where F22 ∼ F11 (e.g., OC⋯CuCl), such plots will yield either F22 or F11 if the other becomes available.

  14. A two force-constant model for complexes B⋯M-X (B is a Lewis base and MX is any diatomic molecule): Intermolecular stretching force constants from centrifugal distortion constants DJ or ΔJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Dror M.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Legon, Anthony C.

    2016-02-01

    A two force-constant model is proposed for complexes of the type B⋯MX, in which B is a simple Lewis base of at least C2v symmetry and MX is any diatomic molecule lying along a Cn axis (n ≥ 2) of B. The model assumes a rigid subunit B and that force constants beyond quadratic are negligible. It leads to expressions that allow, in principle, the determination of three quadratic force constants F11, F12, and F22 associated with the r(B⋯M) = r2 and r(M-X) = r1 internal coordinates from the equilibrium centrifugal distortion constants DJ e or ΔJ e , the equilibrium principal axis coordinates a1 and a2, and equilibrium principal moments of inertia. The model can be applied generally to complexes containing different types of intermolecular bond. For example, the intermolecular bond of B⋯MX can be a hydrogen bond if MX is a hydrogen halide, a halogen-bond if MX is a dihalogen molecule, or a stronger, coinage-metal bond if MX is a coinage metal halide. The equations were tested for BrCN, for which accurate equilibrium spectroscopic constants and a complete force field are available. In practice, equilibrium values of DJ e or ΔJ e for B⋯MX are not available and zero-point quantities must be used instead. The effect of doing so has been tested for BrCN. The zero-point centrifugal distortion constants DJ 0 or ΔJ 0 for all B⋯MX investigated so far are of insufficient accuracy to allow F11 and F22 to be determined simultaneously, even under the assumption F12 = 0 which is shown to be reasonable for BrCN. The calculation of F22 at a series of fixed values of F11 reveals, however, that in cases for which F11 is sufficiently larger than F22, a good approximation to F22 is obtained. Plots of F22 versus F11 have been provided for Kr⋯CuCl, Xe⋯CuCl, OC⋯CuCl, and C2H2⋯AgCl as examples. Even in cases where F22 ˜ F11 (e.g., OC⋯CuCl), such plots will yield either F22 or F11 if the other becomes available.

  15. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  16. Dynamically avoiding fine-tuning the cosmological constant: the ``Relaxed Universe''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Florian; Solà, Joan; Štefancić, Hrvoje

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate that there exists a large class of Script F(R,Script G) action functionals of the scalar curvature and of the Gauß-Bonnet invariant which are able to relax dynamically a large cosmological constant (CC), whatever it be its starting value in the early universe. Hence, it is possible to understand, without fine-tuning, the very small current value Λ0 ~ H02 of the CC as compared to its theoretically expected large value in quantum field theory and string theory. In our framework, this relaxation appears as a pure gravitational effect, where no ad hoc scalar fields are needed. The action involves a positive power of a characteristic mass parameter, Script M, whose value can be, interestingly enough, of the order of a typical particle physics mass of the Standard Model of the strong and electroweak interactions or extensions thereof, including the neutrino mass. The model universe emerging from this scenario (the ``Relaxed Universe'') falls within the class of the so-called ΛXCDM models of the cosmic evolution. Therefore, there is a ``cosmon'' entity X (represented by an effective object, not a field), which in this case is generated by the effective functional Script F(R,Script G) and is responsible for the dynamical adjustment of the cosmological constant. This model universe successfully mimics the essential past epochs of the standard (or ``concordance'') cosmological model (ΛCDM). Furthermore, it provides interesting clues to the coincidence problem and it may even connect naturally with primordial inflation.

  17. Inflationary dynamics with a smooth slow-roll to constant-roll era transition

    SciTech Connect

    Odintsov, S.D.; Oikonomou, V.K., E-mail: odintsov@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: v.k.oikonomou1979@gmail.com

    In this paper we investigate the implications of having a varying second slow-roll index on the canonical scalar field inflationary dynamics. We shall be interested in cases that the second slow-roll can take small values and correspondingly large values, for limiting cases of the function that quantifies the variation of the second slow-roll index. As we demonstrate, this can naturally introduce a smooth transition between slow-roll and constant-roll eras. We discuss the theoretical implications of the mechanism we introduce and we use various illustrative examples in order to better understand the new features that the varying second slow-roll index introduces.more » In the examples we will present, the second slow-roll index has exponential dependence on the scalar field, and in one of these cases, the slow-roll era corresponds to a type of α-attractor inflation. Finally, we briefly discuss how the combination of slow-roll and constant-roll may lead to non-Gaussianities in the primordial perturbations.« less

  18. Summary of the Conference "The Physics of Evolved Stars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, O.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau was an astronomer of many talents. His expertise was on optical and infrared interferometry. Olivier*s tool of choice, the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), allowed him to see solutions to open questions in stellar astrophysics. These visions led to collaborations with experts in each of the fields where VLTI observations could be useful. As a result Olivier was a man in the middle of a phenomenal network of astronomers, collaborators and friends. I am fortunate to have been one of them. In this contribution I summarise the conference "Physics of Evolved Stars", held in Nice in June 2015 in memory of Olivier. The conference neatly showcased the science that Olivier had been involved with during his life and laid out the advancements that were made thanks in great part to him and to the collaborations he started. Without doubt his bubbly, happy personality, child-like in a way, made him the perfect connector bringing the technique, the questions and the experts in diverse fields together. Dear to all who worked with him, he was truly the little prince of Astronomy. We shall miss him every day.

  19. Highly-evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    The ways in which the IUE has proved useful in studying highly evolved stars are reviewed. The importance of high dispersion spectra for abundance analyses of the sd0 stars and for studies of the wind from the central star of NGC 6543 and the wind from the 0 type component of Vela X-1 is shown. Low dispersion spectra are used for absolute spectrophotometry of the dwarf nova, Ex Hya. Angular resolution is important for detecting and locating UV sources in globular clusters.

  20. On the substructure of the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, G.; Gomez, C.; Zell, S.

    We summarize the findings of our paper arXiv:1701.08776 [hep-th]. We start by defining the quantum break-time. Once one understands a classical solution as expectation value of an underlying quantum state, it emerges as time-scale after which the true quantum evolution departs from the classical mean field evolution. We apply this idea to de Sitter space. Following earlier work, we construct a simple model of a spin-2 field, which for some time reproduces the de Sitter metric and simultaneously allows for its well-defined representation as coherent quantum state of gravitons. The mean occupation number N of background gravitons turns out to be equal to the de Sitter horizon area in Planck units, while their frequency is given by the de Sitter Hubble parameter. In the semi-classical limit, we show that the model reproduces all semi-classical calculations in de Sitter, such as thermal Gibbons-Hawking radiation, all in the language of quantum S-matrix scatterings and decays of coherent state gravitons. Most importantly, this framework allows to capture the (1/N)-effects of back reaction to which the usual semi-classical treatment is blind. They violate the de Sitter symmetry and lead to a finite quantum break-time of the de Sitter state equal to the de Sitter radius times N. We also point out that the quantum-break time is inversely proportional to the number of particle species in the theory. Thus, the quantum break-time imposes the following consistency condition: Older and species-richer universes must have smaller cosmological constants. For the maximal, phenomenologically acceptable number of species, the observed cosmological constant would saturate this bound if our Universe were 10100 years old in its entire classical history.

  1. Calcium-manganese oxides as structural and functional models for active site in oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II: lessons from simple models.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    The oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II which induces the oxidation of water to dioxygen in plants, algae and certain bacteria contains a cluster of one calcium and four manganese ions. It serves as a model to split water by sunlight. Reports on the mechanism and structure of photosystem II provide a more detailed architecture of the oxygen evolving complex and the surrounding amino acids. One challenge in this field is the development of artificial model compounds to study oxygen evolution reaction outside the complicated environment of the enzyme. Calcium-manganese oxides as structural and functional models for the active site of photosystem II are explained and reviewed in this paper. Because of related structures of these calcium-manganese oxides and the catalytic centers of active site of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II, the study may help to understand more about mechanism of oxygen evolution by the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioclimatic Thresholds, Thermal Constants and Survival of Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Response to Constant Temperatures on Hibiscus

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P . solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai’s linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P . solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P . solenopsis . The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P . solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P . solenopsis on its host plants. PMID:24086597

  3. Lower mass limit of an evolving interstellar cloud and chemistry in an evolving oscillatory cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarafdar, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous solution of the equation of motion, equation of state and energy equation including heating and cooling processes for interstellar medium gives for a collapsing cloud a lower mass limit which is significantly smaller than the Jeans mass for the same initial density. The clouds with higher mass than this limiting mass collapse whereas clouds with smaller than critical mass pass through a maximum central density giving apparently similar clouds (i.e., same Av, size and central density) at two different phases of its evolution (i.e., with different life time). Preliminary results of chemistry in such an evolving oscillatory cloud show significant difference in abundances of some of the molecules in two physically similar clouds with different life times. The problems of depletion and short life time of evolving clouds appear to be less severe in such an oscillatory cloud.

  4. Inflation from cosmological constant and nonminimally coupled scalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavan, Dražen; Marunović, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2015-08-01

    We consider inflation in a universe with a positive cosmological constant and a nonminimally coupled scalar field, in which the field couples both quadratically and quartically to the Ricci scalar. When considered in the Einstein frame and when the nonminimal couplings are negative, the field starts in slow roll and inflation ends with an asymptotic value of the principal slow-roll parameter, ɛE=4 /3 . Graceful exit can be achieved by suitably (tightly) coupling the scalar field to matter, such that at late time the total energy density reaches the scaling of matter, ɛE=ɛm . Quite generically the model produces a red spectrum of scalar cosmological perturbations and a small amount of gravitational radiation. With a suitable choice of the nonminimal couplings, the spectral slope can be as large as ns≃0.955 , which is about one standard deviation away from the central value measured by the Planck satellite. The model can be ruled out by future measurements if any of the following is observed: (a) the spectral index of scalar perturbations is ns>0.960 ; (b) the amplitude of tensor perturbations is above about r ˜10-2 ; (c) the running of the spectral index of scalar perturbations is positive.

  5. Experimental study on performance of outdoor ground materials in aspect of surface temperature by constant field experiment in subtropical climate city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, T. Y.; Ding, J. H.; Lv, X. W.; Lei, Y. S.

    2018-06-01

    In order to create a comfortable building thermal environment, it is important to study the outdoor ground materials performance. In this article, we carried out a constant field experiment in Guangzhou, China, studying on the variations of the surface temperature of three common outdoor building materials: concrete, pavement and grass. We put the equipment on six experiment points respectively to measure the ground surface temperature constantly. The result shows that because of the specific heat capacity, both concrete and pavement have an obvious time delay during their temperature decrease when the grass ground has almost no time delay. And when in the same conditions (exposed to sunlight all day), the material with a low specific heat capacity has a more sensitive variation in temperature. The lower the specific capacity is, the steeper the variation trend of the surface temperature will be. So compared with concrete, the pavement brick ground with a low specific heat capacity has a higher surface temperature in daytime and a lower temperature in the late night time. When in different conditions (different time exposed to sunlight), the temperature value is proportional to the time exposed to the sunlight between the same materials. The concrete exposed to sunlight all day has the highest temperature when the shaded one has the lowest. This experiment reveals that both specific heat capacity and the exposed time to sunlight has a strong influence on the surface temperature of outdoor materials. In subtropical region, the materials with a higher specific heat capacity and a less time exposed to sunlight may be more beneficial to the building thermal environment.

  6. The General Evolving Model for Energy Supply-Demand Network with Local-World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei; Han, Dun; Li, Dandan; Fang, Cuicui

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, two general bipartite network evolving models for energy supply-demand network with local-world are proposed. The node weight distribution, the "shifting coefficient" and the scaling exponent of two different kinds of nodes are presented by the mean-field theory. The numerical results of the node weight distribution and the edge weight distribution are also investigated. The production's shifted power law (SPL) distribution of coal enterprises and the installed capacity's distribution of power plants in the US are obtained from the empirical analysis. Numerical simulations and empirical results are given to verify the theoretical results.

  7. Vibrational Frequencies and Spectroscopic Constants for 1(sup 3)A' HNC and 1(sup 3)A' HOC+ from High-Accuracy Quartic Force Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Crawford, T. Daniel; Lee, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The spectroscopic constants and vibrational frequencies for the 1(sup 3)A' states of HNC, DNC, HOC+, and DOC+ are computed and discussed in this work. The reliable CcCR quartic force field based on high-level coupled cluster ab initio quantum chemical computations is exclusively utilized to provide the anharmonic potential. Then, second order vibrational perturbation theory and vibrational configuration interaction methods are employed to treat the nuclear Schroedinger equation. Second-order perturbation theory is also employed to provide spectroscopic data for all molecules examined. The relationship between these molecules and the corresponding 1(sup 3)A' HCN and HCO+ isomers is further developed here. These data are applicable to laboratory studies involving formation of HNC and HOC+ as well as astronomical observations of chemically active astrophysical environments.

  8. Construction of Lines of Constant Density and Constant Refractive Index for Ternary Liquid Mixtures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasic, Aleksandar Z.; Djordjevic, Bojan D.

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates construction of density constant and refractive index constant lines in triangular coordinate system on basis of systematic experimental determinations of density and refractive index for both homogeneous (single-phase) ternary liquid mixtures (of known composition) and the corresponding binary compositions. Background information,…

  9. Evolving mobile robots able to display collective behaviors.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Gianluca; Nolfi, Stefano; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    We present a set of experiments in which simulated robots are evolved for the ability to aggregate and move together toward a light target. By developing and using quantitative indexes that capture the structural properties of the emerged formations, we show that evolved individuals display interesting behavioral patterns in which groups of robots act as a single unit. Moreover, evolved groups of robots with identical controllers display primitive forms of situated specialization and play different behavioral functions within the group according to the circumstances. Overall, the results presented in the article demonstrate that evolutionary techniques, by exploiting the self-organizing behavioral properties that emerge from the interactions between the robots and between the robots and the environment, are a powerful method for synthesizing collective behavior.

  10. Examination of Effective Dielectric Constants Derived from Non-Spherical Melting Hydrometeor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L.; Meneghini, R.

    2009-04-01

    radar measurements from melting hydrometeors, it is necessary to move away from the restriction that the melting particles are spherical. In this study, our primary focus is on the derivation of the effective dielectric constants of non-spherical particles that are mixtures of ice and water. The computational model for the ice-water particle is described by a collection of 128x128x128 cubic cells of identical size. Because of the use of such a high-resolution model, the particles can be described accurately not only with regard to shape but with respect to structure as well. The Cartesian components of the mean internal electric field of particles, which are used to infer the effective dielectric constants, are calculated at each cell by the use of the Conjugate Gradient-Fast Fourier Transform (CG-FFT) numerical method. In this work we first check the validity of derived effective dielectric constant from a non-spherical mixed phase particle by comparing the polarimetric scattering parameters of an ice-water spheroid obtained from the CGFFT to those computed from the T-matrix for a homogeneous particle with the same geometry as that of the mixed phase particle (such as size, shape and orientation) and with an effective dielectric constant derived from the internal field of the mixed-phase particle. The accuracy of the effective dielectric constant can be judged by whether the scattering parameters of interest can accurately reproduce those of the exact solution, i.e., the T-matrix results. The purpose of defining an effective dielectric constant is to reduce the complexity of the scattering calculations in the sense that the effective dielectric constant, once obtained, may be applicable to a range of particle sizes, shapes and orientations. Conversely, if a different effective dielectric constant is needed for each particle size or shape, then its utility would be marginal. Having verified that the effective dielectric constant defined for a particular particle with a

  11. The observational constraint on constant-roll inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qing

    2018-07-01

    We discuss the constant-roll inflation with constant ɛ2 and constant \\bar η . By using the method of Bessel function approximation, the analytical expressions for the scalar and tensor power spectra, the scalar and tensor spectral tilts, and the tensor to scalar ratio are derived up to the first order of ɛ1. The model with constant ɛ2 is ruled out by the observations at the 3σ confidence level, and the model with constant \\bar η is consistent with the observations at the 1σ confidence level. The potential for the model with constant \\bar η is also obtained from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Although the observations constrain the constant-roll inflation to be the slow-roll inflation, the n s- r results from the constant-roll inflation are not the same as those from the slow-roll inflation even when \\bar η 0.01.

  12. Elastic constants of calcite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.

    1962-01-01

    The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.

  13. The evolvability of programmable hardware.

    PubMed

    Raman, Karthik; Wagner, Andreas

    2011-02-06

    In biological systems, individual phenotypes are typically adopted by multiple genotypes. Examples include protein structure phenotypes, where each structure can be adopted by a myriad individual amino acid sequence genotypes. These genotypes form vast connected 'neutral networks' in genotype space. The size of such neutral networks endows biological systems not only with robustness to genetic change, but also with the ability to evolve a vast number of novel phenotypes that occur near any one neutral network. Whether technological systems can be designed to have similar properties is poorly understood. Here we ask this question for a class of programmable electronic circuits that compute digital logic functions. The functional flexibility of such circuits is important in many applications, including applications of evolutionary principles to circuit design. The functions they compute are at the heart of all digital computation. We explore a vast space of 10(45) logic circuits ('genotypes') and 10(19) logic functions ('phenotypes'). We demonstrate that circuits that compute the same logic function are connected in large neutral networks that span circuit space. Their robustness or fault-tolerance varies very widely. The vicinity of each neutral network contains circuits with a broad range of novel functions. Two circuits computing different functions can usually be converted into one another via few changes in their architecture. These observations show that properties important for the evolvability of biological systems exist in a commercially important class of electronic circuitry. They also point to generic ways to generate fault-tolerant, adaptable and evolvable electronic circuitry.

  14. The evolvability of programmable hardware

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Wagner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In biological systems, individual phenotypes are typically adopted by multiple genotypes. Examples include protein structure phenotypes, where each structure can be adopted by a myriad individual amino acid sequence genotypes. These genotypes form vast connected ‘neutral networks’ in genotype space. The size of such neutral networks endows biological systems not only with robustness to genetic change, but also with the ability to evolve a vast number of novel phenotypes that occur near any one neutral network. Whether technological systems can be designed to have similar properties is poorly understood. Here we ask this question for a class of programmable electronic circuits that compute digital logic functions. The functional flexibility of such circuits is important in many applications, including applications of evolutionary principles to circuit design. The functions they compute are at the heart of all digital computation. We explore a vast space of 1045 logic circuits (‘genotypes’) and 1019 logic functions (‘phenotypes’). We demonstrate that circuits that compute the same logic function are connected in large neutral networks that span circuit space. Their robustness or fault-tolerance varies very widely. The vicinity of each neutral network contains circuits with a broad range of novel functions. Two circuits computing different functions can usually be converted into one another via few changes in their architecture. These observations show that properties important for the evolvability of biological systems exist in a commercially important class of electronic circuitry. They also point to generic ways to generate fault-tolerant, adaptable and evolvable electronic circuitry. PMID:20534598

  15. Change in blood coagulation indices as a function of the incubation period of plasma in a constant magnetic field. [considering heparin tolerance and recalcification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yepishina, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of a constant magnetic field (CMF) with a strength of 250 and 2500 oersteds on the recalcification reaction and the tolerance of plasma to heparin was studied as a function of the exposure time of the plasma to the CMF. The maximum and reliable change in the activation of the coagulatory system of the blood was observed after a 20-hour incubation of the plasma in a CMF. As the exposure time increased, the recalcification reaction changed insigificantly; the difference between the mean arithmetic of the experiment and control values was not statistically reliable. The tolerance of the plasma to heparin as a function of the exposure time to the CMF of the plasma was considerably modified, an was statistically reliable.

  16. Facile synthesis of Ni/NiO@GO nanocomposites and its enhanced dielectric constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, S.; Giri, N.; Mondal, A.; Ray, R.

    2018-05-01

    Ni/NiO embedded Graphene Oxide (GO): Ni/NiO@GO is synthesized by citric acid assisted Pechini-type method. Structural and morphological characterizations are performed by X-ray powdered diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM). Defects in GO sheets are probed by RAMAN spectroscopy. The temperature variation of dielectric constant (ɛR) and dielectric loss (tan δ) are investigated in the temperature range 300 - 400 K. Decoration of GO with Ni/NiO nanoparticles enhances its ɛR by˜55 times. Moreover, its dielectric constant measured at 5 MHz is found to be˜430 times to that of Ni/NiO along with the reduction of dielectric loss by a factor˜0.5. The enhanced dielectric constant makes the composite Ni/NiO@GO a potential candidate for using in ecologically friendly energy storage devices.

  17. Evolved dispersal strategies at range margins

    PubMed Central

    Dytham, Calvin

    2009-01-01

    Dispersal is a key component of a species's ecology and will be under different selection pressures in different parts of the range. For example, a long-distance dispersal strategy suitable for continuous habitat at the range core might not be favoured at the margin, where the habitat is sparse. Using a spatially explicit, individual-based, evolutionary simulation model, the dispersal strategies of an organism that has only one dispersal event in its lifetime, such as a plant or sessile animal, are considered. Within the model, removing habitat, increasing habitat turnover, increasing the cost of dispersal, reducing habitat quality or altering vital rates imposes range limits. In most cases, there is a clear change in the dispersal strategies across the range, although increasing death rate towards the margin has little impact on evolved dispersal strategy across the range. Habitat turnover, reduced birth rate and reduced habitat quality all increase evolved dispersal distances at the margin, while increased cost of dispersal and reduced habitat density lead to lower evolved dispersal distances at the margins. As climate change shifts suitable habitat poleward, species ranges will also start to shift, and it will be the dispersal capabilities of marginal populations, rather than core populations, that will influence the rate of range shifting. PMID:19324810

  18. How fundamental are fundamental constants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, ?. For example, the standard model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers or scales? they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as ?, c, G, e and k ?, are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense, only dimensionless constants are 'fundamental'. Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental 'constants' of nature is operationally well defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as ? or ? on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might disagree depending on their apparatus. All these confusions disappear if one asks only unit-independent questions. We provide a selection of opposing opinions in the literature and respond accordingly.

  19. Electron transport and electron energy distributions within the wurtzite and zinc-blende phases of indium nitride: Response to the application of a constant and uniform electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqua, Poppy; Hadi, Walid A.; Salhotra, Amith K.

    2015-03-28

    Within the framework of an ensemble semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo electron transport simulation approach, we critically contrast the nature of the electron transport that occurs within the wurtzite and zinc-blende phases of indium nitride in response to the application of a constant and uniform electric field. We use the electron energy distribution and its relationship with the electron transport characteristics in order to pursue this analysis. For the case of zinc-blende indium nitride, only a peak corresponding to the electrons within the lowest energy conduction band valley is observed, this peak being seen to broaden and shift to higher energiesmore » in response to increases in the applied electric field strength, negligible amounts of upper energy conduction band valley occupancy being observed. In contrast, for the case of wurtzite indium nitride, in addition to the aforementioned lowest energy conduction band valley peak in the electron energy distribution, and its broadening and shifting to higher energies in response to increases in the applied electric field strength, beyond a certain critical electric field strength, 30 kV/cm for the case of this particular material, upper energy conduction band valley occupancy is observed, this occupancy being further enhanced in response to further increases in the applied electric field strength. Reasons for these results are provided. The potential for device consequences is then commented upon.« less

  20. QCD Axion Dark Matter with a Small Decay Constant.

    PubMed

    Co, Raymond T; Hall, Lawrence J; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2018-05-25

    The QCD axion is a good dark matter candidate. The observed dark matter abundance can arise from misalignment or defect mechanisms, which generically require an axion decay constant f_{a}∼O(10^{11})  GeV (or higher). We introduce a new cosmological origin for axion dark matter, parametric resonance from oscillations of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking field, that requires f_{a}∼(10^{8}-10^{11})  GeV. The axions may be warm enough to give deviations from cold dark matter in large scale structure.

  1. Understanding dynamic friction through spontaneously evolving laboratory earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, V.; Rosakis, A. J.; Lapusta, N.

    2017-01-01

    Friction plays a key role in how ruptures unzip faults in the Earth’s crust and release waves that cause destructive shaking. Yet dynamic friction evolution is one of the biggest uncertainties in earthquake science. Here we report on novel measurements of evolving local friction during spontaneously developing mini-earthquakes in the laboratory, enabled by our ultrahigh speed full-field imaging technique. The technique captures the evolution of displacements, velocities and stresses of dynamic ruptures, whose rupture speed range from sub-Rayleigh to supershear. The observed friction has complex evolution, featuring initial velocity strengthening followed by substantial velocity weakening. Our measurements are consistent with rate-and-state friction formulations supplemented with flash heating but not with widely used slip-weakening friction laws. This study develops a new approach for measuring local evolution of dynamic friction and has important implications for understanding earthquake hazard since laws governing frictional resistance of faults are vital ingredients in physically-based predictive models of the earthquake source. PMID:28660876

  2. Effective optical constants of anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    The applicability of a technique for determining the optical constants of soil or aerosol components on the basis of measurements of the reflectance or transmittance of inhomogeneous samples of component material is investigated. Optical constants for a sample of very pure quartzite were obtained by a specular reflection technique and line parameters were calculated by classical dispersion theory. Predictions of the reflectance of powdered quartz were then derived from optical constants measured for the anisotropic quartz and for pure quartz crystals, and compared with experimental measurements. The calculated spectra are found to resemble each other moderately well in shape, however the reflectance level calculated from the psuedo-optical constants (quartzite) is consistently below that calculated from quartz values. The spectrum calculated from the quartz optical constants is also shown to represent the experimental nonrestrahlen features more accurately. It is thus concluded that although optical constants derived from inhomogeneous materials may represent the spectral features of a powdered sample qualitatively a quantitative fit to observed data is not likely.

  3. An Analysis of the Tensor Dielectric Constant of Sea Ice at Microwave Frequencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    36.8 > t a -43.2 0 C (5) is convenient. The above equations for p in the range t > -22.9 0 C were first published by Frankenstein and Garner [12). III...Em 0 (6) for the mean electric field propagating in the medium. Here ko is the free space propagation constant, K. the quasi-static dielectric tensor...C. Essen- " tially identical results were found for the real part of the dielectric con- stant whether the polarization of the electric field was

  4. Thinking Through Computational Exposure as an Evolving Paradign Shift for Exposure Science: Development and Application of Predictive Models from Big Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Symposium Abstract: Exposure science has evolved from a time when the primary focus was on measurements of environmental and biological media and the development of enabling field and laboratory methods. The Total Exposure Assessment Method (TEAM) studies of the 1980s were class...

  5. Constant Communities in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Srinivasan, Sriram; Ganguly, Niloy; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Mukherjee, Animesh

    2013-05-01

    Identifying community structure is a fundamental problem in network analysis. Most community detection algorithms are based on optimizing a combinatorial parameter, for example modularity. This optimization is generally NP-hard, thus merely changing the vertex order can alter their assignments to the community. However, there has been less study on how vertex ordering influences the results of the community detection algorithms. Here we identify and study the properties of invariant groups of vertices (constant communities) whose assignment to communities are, quite remarkably, not affected by vertex ordering. The percentage of constant communities can vary across different applications and based on empirical results we propose metrics to evaluate these communities. Using constant communities as a pre-processing step, one can significantly reduce the variation of the results. Finally, we present a case study on phoneme network and illustrate that constant communities, quite strikingly, form the core functional units of the larger communities.

  6. Foreshock Langmuir Waves for Unusually Constant Solar Wind Conditions: Data and Implications for Foreshock Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.; Anderson, Roger R.; Strangeway, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma wave data are compared with ISEE 1's position in the electron foreshock for an interval with unusually constant (but otherwise typical) solar wind magnetic field and plasma characteristics. For this period, temporal variations in the wave characteristics can be confidently separated from sweeping of the spatially varying foreshock back and forth across the spacecraft. The spacecraft's location, particularly the coordinate D(sub f) downstream from the foreshock boundary (often termed DIFF), is calculated by using three shock models and the observed solar wind magnetometer and plasma data. Scatterplots of the wave field versus D(sub f) are used to constrain viable shock models, to investigate the observed scatter in the wave fields at constant D(sub f), and to test the theoretical predictions of linear instability theory. The scatterplots confirm the abrupt onset of the foreshock waves near the upstream boundary, the narrow width in D(sub f) of the region with high fields, and the relatively slow falloff of the fields at large D(sub f), as seen in earlier studies, but with much smaller statistical scatter. The plots also show an offset of the high-field region from the foreshock boundary. It is shown that an adaptive, time-varying shock model with no free parameters, determined by the observed solar wind data and published shock crossings, is viable but that two alternative models are not. Foreshock wave studies can therefore remotely constrain the bow shock's location. The observed scatter in wave field at constant D(sub f) is shown to be real and to correspond to real temporal variations, not to unresolved changes in D(sub f). By comparing the wave data with a linear instability theory based on a published model for the electron beam it is found that the theory can account qualitatively and semiquantitatively for the abrupt onset of the waves near D(sub f) = 0, for the narrow width and offset of the high-field region, and for the decrease in wave intensity

  7. Reception and learning of electric fields in bees

    PubMed Central

    Greggers, Uwe; Koch, Gesche; Schmidt, Viola; Dürr, Aron; Floriou-Servou, Amalia; Piepenbrock, David; Göpfert, Martin C.; Menzel, Randolf

    2013-01-01

    Honeybees, like other insects, accumulate electric charge in flight, and when their body parts are moved or rubbed together. We report that bees emit constant and modulated electric fields when flying, landing, walking and during the waggle dance. The electric fields emitted by dancing bees consist of low- and high-frequency components. Both components induce passive antennal movements in stationary bees according to Coulomb's law. Bees learn both the constant and the modulated electric field components in the context of appetitive proboscis extension response conditioning. Using this paradigm, we identify mechanoreceptors in both joints of the antennae as sensors. Other mechanoreceptors on the bee body are potentially involved but are less sensitive. Using laser vibrometry, we show that the electrically charged flagellum is moved by constant and modulated electric fields and more strongly so if sound and electric fields interact. Recordings from axons of the Johnston organ document its sensitivity to electric field stimuli. Our analyses identify electric fields emanating from the surface charge of bees as stimuli for mechanoreceptors, and as biologically relevant stimuli, which may play a role in social communication. PMID:23536603

  8. Field trauma care in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, D; König, T; Tai, N

    2008-12-01

    The nature of trauma care on the modern battlefield is changing quickly. Leading figures in UK field trauma care spoke at a recent meeting of the Haywood Club. The challenge of modern warfare, the evolving evacuation chain and the command and governance of field trauma care were explored.

  9. Project Evolve User-Adopter Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Lee M.

    An adult basic education (ABE) program for mentally retarded young adults between the ages of 14 and 26 years, Project Evolve can provide education agencies for educationally handicapped children with detailed information concerning an innovative program. The manual format was developed through interviews with professional educators concerning the…

  10. Mass generation, the cosmological constant problem, conformal symmetry, and the Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannheim, Philip D.

    2017-05-01

    In 2013 the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Francois Englert and Peter Higgs for their work in 1964 along with the late Robert Brout on the mass generation mechanism (the Higgs mechanism) in local gauge theories. This mechanism requires the existence of a massive scalar particle, the Higgs boson, and in 2012 the Higgs boson was finally discovered at the Large Hadron Collider after being sought for almost half a century. In this article we review the work that led to the discovery of the Higgs boson and discuss its implications. We approach the topic from the perspective of a dynamically generated Higgs boson that is a fermion-antifermion bound state rather than an elementary field that appears in an input Lagrangian. In particular, we emphasize the connection with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity. We identify the double-well Higgs potential not as a fundamental potential but as a mean-field effective Lagrangian with a dynamical Higgs boson being generated through a residual interaction that accompanies the mean-field Lagrangian. We discuss what we believe to be the key challenge raised by the discovery of the Higgs boson, namely determining whether it is elementary or composite, and through study of a conformal invariant field theory model as realized with critical scaling and anomalous dimensions, suggest that the width of the Higgs boson might serve as a suitable diagnostic for discriminating between an elementary Higgs boson and a composite one. We discuss the implications of Higgs boson mass generation for the cosmological constant problem, as the cosmological constant receives contributions from the very mechanism that generates the Higgs boson mass in the first place. We show that the contribution to the cosmological constant due to a composite Higgs boson is more tractable and under control than the contribution due to an elementary Higgs boson, and is potentially completely under control if there is an underlying conformal

  11. Analytical Considerations about the Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Everton M. C.; de Assis, Leonardo P. G.; Dos Reis, Carlos M. L.

    The accelerated expansion of the universe has now been confirmed by several independent observations including those of high redshift type Ia supernovae, and the cosmic microwave background combined with the large scale structure of the universe. Another way of presenting this kinematic property of the universe is to postulate the existence of a new and exotic entity, with negative pressure, the dark energy (DE). In spite of observationally well established, no single theoretical model provides an entirely compelling framework within which cosmic acceleration or DE can be understood. At present all existing observational data are in agreement with the simplest possibility that the cosmological constant be a candidate for DE. This case is internally self-consistent and noncontradictory. The extreme smallness of the cosmological constant expressed in either Planck, or even atomic units means only that its origin is not related to strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. Although in this case DE reduces to only a single fundamental constant we still have no derivation from any underlying quantum field theory for its small value. From the principles of quantum cosmologies, for example, it is possible to obtain the reason for an inverse-square law for the cosmological constant with no conflict with observations. Despite the fact that this general expression is well known, in this work we introduce families of analytical solutions for the scale factor different from the current literature. The knowledge of the scale factor behavior might shed some light on these questions mentioned above since the entire evolution of a homogeneous isotropic universe is contained in the scale factor. We use different parameters for these solutions and with these parameters we establish a connection with the equation of state for different DE scenarios.

  12. Tuning the cosmological constant, broken scale invariance, unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Förste, Stefan; Manz, Paul; Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn

    2016-06-10

    We study gravity coupled to a cosmological constant and a scale but not conformally invariant sector. In Minkowski vacuum, scale invariance is spontaneously broken. We consider small fluctuations around the Minkowski vacuum. At the linearised level we find that the trace of metric perturbations receives a positive or negative mass squared contribution. However, only for the Fierz-Pauli combination the theory is free of ghosts. The mass term for the trace of metric perturbations can be cancelled by explicitly breaking scale invariance. This reintroduces fine-tuning. Models based on four form field strength show similarities with explicit scale symmetry breaking due tomore » quantisation conditions.« less

  13. Universe of constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-10-01

    The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan

  14. Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth

    SciTech Connect

    Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael

    2013-08-15

    A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

  15. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  16. Unlocking the "Black box": internal female genitalia in Sepsidae (Diptera) evolve fast and are species-specific

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    behavioral and molecular data, the female structures are evolving 2/3 as fast as the non-constant third positions of the COI barcoding gene. They display less convergent evolution in characters (CI = 0.54) than the third positions or sepsid mating behavior (CICOI = 0.36; CIBEHAV = 0.45). PMID:20831809

  17. High-Accuracy Quartic Force Field Calculations for the Spectroscopic Constants and Vibrational Frequencies of 1(exp 1)A' l-C3H(-): A Possible Link to Lines Observed in the Horsehead Nebula PDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Huang, Xinchuan; Crawford, T. Daniel; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that rotational lines observed in the Horsehead nebula photon-dominated-region (PDR) are probably not caused by l-C3H+, as was originally suggested. In the search for viable alternative candidate carriers, quartic force fields are employed here to provide highly accurate rotational constants, as well as fundamental vibrational frequencies, for another candidate carrier: 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). The ab initio computed spectroscopic constants provided in this work are, compared to those necessary to define the observed lines, as accurate as the computed spectroscopic constants for many of the known interstellar anions. Additionally, the computed D-eff for C3H(-) is three times closer to the D deduced from the observed Horsehead nebula lines relative to l-C3H(+). As a result, 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). is a more viable candidate for these observed rotational transitions and would be the seventh confirmed interstellar anion detected within the past decade and the first C(sub n)H(-) molecular anion with an odd n.

  18. Experimental determination of exchange constants in antiferromagnetic Mn2Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnik, A. A.; Luo, C.; Ryll, H.; Radu, F.; Jourdan, M.; Zabel, H.; Elmers, Hans-Joachim

    2018-05-01

    Mn2Au is an important antiferromagnetic (AF) material for spintronics applications. Due to its very high Néel temperature of about 1500 K, some of the basic properties are difficult to explore, such as the AF susceptibility and the exchange constants. Experimental determination of these parameters is further hampered in thin films by the unavoidable presence of uncompensated and quasiloose spins on antisites and at interfaces. Using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), we measured induced perpendicular spin and orbital moments for a Mn2Au (001) film in fields up to ±8 T. By performing these measurements at a low temperature of 7 K and at room temperature (RT), we were able to separate the loose spin contribution from the susceptibility of AF coupled spins. The value of the AF exchange constant obtained with this method for a 10-nm-thick Mn2Au (001) film is (22 ±5 )meV .

  19. A Course Evolves-Physical Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an online physical anthropology course at Palomar College (California) that evolved from online tutorials. Discusses the ability to update materials on the Web more quickly than in traditional textbooks; creating Web pages that are readable by most Web browsers; test security issues; and clarifying ownership of online…

  20. Larson-Miller Constant of Heat-Resistant Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Manabu; Abe, Fujio; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2013-06-01

    Long-term rupture data for 79 types of heat-resistant steels including carbon steel, low-alloy steel, high-alloy steel, austenitic stainless steel, and superalloy were analyzed, and a constant for the Larson-Miller (LM) parameter was obtained in the current study for each material. The calculated LM constant, C, is approximately 20 for heat-resistant steels and alloys except for high-alloy martensitic steels with high creep resistance, for which C ≈ 30 . The apparent activation energy was also calculated, and the LM constant was found to be proportional to the apparent activation energy with a high correlation coefficient, which suggests that the LM constant is a material constant possessing intrinsic physical meaning. The contribution of the entropy change to the LM constant is not small, especially for several martensitic steels with large values of C. Deformation of such martensitic steels should accompany a large entropy change of 10 times the gas constant at least, besides the entropy change due to self-diffusion.

  1. Design of 2D time-varying vector fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoning; Kwatra, Vivek; Wei, Li-Yi; Hansen, Charles D; Zhang, Eugene

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects.

  2. Constant potential pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of constant potential pulse polarography, In which all pulses are to be the same potential, is presented theoretically and evaluated experimentally. The response obtained is in the form of a faradaic current wave superimposed on a constant capacitative component. Results obtained with a computer-controlled system exhibit a capillary response current similar to that observed In normal pulse polarography. Calibration curves for Pb obtained using a modified commercial pulse polarographic instrument are in good accord with theoretical predictions.

  3. A group evolving-based framework with perturbations for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Cuiqi; Jiao, Licheng; Wu, Jianshe; Zhao, Jin

    2017-06-01

    Link prediction is a ubiquitous application in many fields which uses partially observed information to predict absence or presence of links between node pairs. The group evolving study provides reasonable explanations on the behaviors of nodes, relations between nodes and community formation in a network. Possible events in group evolution include continuing, growing, splitting, forming and so on. The changes discovered in networks are to some extent the result of these events. In this work, we present a group evolving-based characterization of node's behavioral patterns, and via which we can estimate the probability they tend to interact. In general, the primary aim of this paper is to offer a minimal toy model to detect missing links based on evolution of groups and give a simpler explanation on the rationality of the model. We first introduce perturbations into networks to obtain stable cluster structures, and the stable clusters determine the stability of each node. Then fluctuations, another node behavior, are assumed by the participation of each node to its own belonging group. Finally, we demonstrate that such characteristics allow us to predict link existence and propose a model for link prediction which outperforms many classical methods with a decreasing computational time in large scales. Encouraging experimental results obtained on real networks show that our approach can effectively predict missing links in network, and even when nearly 40% of the edges are missing, it also retains stationary performance.

  4. The impact of inter-fraction dose variations on biological equivalent dose (BED): the concept of equivalent constant dose.

    PubMed

    Zavgorodni, S

    2004-12-07

    Inter-fraction dose fluctuations, which appear as a result of setup errors, organ motion and treatment machine output variations, may influence the radiobiological effect of the treatment even when the total delivered physical dose remains constant. The effect of these inter-fraction dose fluctuations on the biological effective dose (BED) has been investigated. Analytical expressions for the BED accounting for the dose fluctuations have been derived. The concept of biological effective constant dose (BECD) has been introduced. The equivalent constant dose (ECD), representing the constant physical dose that provides the same cell survival fraction as the fluctuating dose, has also been introduced. The dose fluctuations with Gaussian as well as exponential probability density functions were investigated. The values of BECD and ECD calculated analytically were compared with those derived from Monte Carlo modelling. The agreement between Monte Carlo modelled and analytical values was excellent (within 1%) for a range of dose standard deviations (0-100% of the dose) and the number of fractions (2 to 37) used in the comparison. The ECDs have also been calculated for conventional radiotherapy fields. The analytical expression for the BECD shows that BECD increases linearly with the variance of the dose. The effect is relatively small, and in the flat regions of the field it results in less than 1% increase of ECD. In the penumbra region of the 6 MV single radiotherapy beam the ECD exceeded the physical dose by up to 35%, when the standard deviation of combined patient setup/organ motion uncertainty was 5 mm. Equivalently, the ECD field was approximately 2 mm wider than the physical dose field. The difference between ECD and the physical dose is greater for normal tissues than for tumours.

  5. Constant-roll tachyon inflation and observational constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qing; Gong, Yungui; Fei, Qin

    2018-05-01

    For the constant-roll tachyon inflation, we derive the analytical expressions for the scalar and tensor power spectra, the scalar and tensor spectral tilts and the tensor to scalar ratio to the first order of epsilon1 by using the method of Bessel function approximation. The derived ns-r results are compared with the observations, we find that only the constant-roll inflation with ηH being a constant is consistent with the observations and observations constrain the constant-roll inflation to be slow-roll inflation. The tachyon potential is also reconstructed for the constant-roll inflation which is consistent with the observations.

  6. Signing Apes and Evolving Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    Linguistics retains from its antecedents, philology and the study of sacred writings, some of their apologetic and theological bias. Thus it has not been able to face squarely the question how linguistic function may have evolved from animal communication. Chimpanzees' use of signs from American Sign Language forces re-examination of language…

  7. The Evolving Demand for Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Alan

    From a macroeconomic perspective, the evolving demand for skills in the United States has been triggered by the accelerated expansion of computer and information technology, which has, in turn, brought significant changes to the workplace. Technological advances have made some wholly manual jobs obsolete. But even for many other workers, a rapidly…

  8. Present status of astronomical constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, T.

    Given was the additional information to the previous report on the recent progress in the determinations of astronomical constants (Fukushima 2000). First noted was the revision of LG as 6.969290134×10-10 based on the proposal to shift its status from a primary to a defining constant (Petit 2000). Next focused was the significant update of the correction to the current precession constant, Δp, based on the recent LLR-based determination (Chapront et al. 2000) as -0.3164+/-0.0030"/cy. By combining this and the equal weighted average of VLBI determinations (Mathews et al. 2000; Petrov 2000; Shirai and Fukushima 2000; Vondrak and Ron 2000) as -0.2968+/-0.0043"/cy, we derived the best estimate of precession constant as p = 5028.790+/-0.005"/cy. Also redetermined were some other quantities related to the precession formula; namely the offsets of Celestial Ephemeris Pole of the International Celestial Reference System as &Deltaψ0sinɛ0 = (-17.0+/-0.3) mas and Δɛ0 = (-5.1+/-0.3) mas. As a result, the obliquity of the ecliptic at the epoch J2000.0 was estimated as ɛ0 = 23°26'21."4059+/-0."0003. As a summary, presented was the (revised) IAU 2000 File of Current Best Estimates of astronomical constants, which is to replace the former 1994 version (Standish 1995).

  9. Hybridization Reveals the Evolving Genomic Architecture of Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Kronforst, Marcus R.; Hansen, Matthew E.B.; Crawford, Nicholas G.; Gallant, Jason R.; Zhang, Wei; Kulathinal, Rob J.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Mullen, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The rate at which genomes diverge during speciation is unknown, as are the physical dynamics of the process. Here, we compare full genome sequences of 32 butterflies, representing five species from a hybridizing Heliconius butterfly community, to examine genome-wide patterns of introgression and infer how divergence evolves during the speciation process. Our analyses reveal that initial divergence is restricted to a small fraction of the genome, largely clustered around known wing-patterning genes. Over time, divergence evolves rapidly, due primarily to the origin of new divergent regions. Furthermore, divergent genomic regions display signatures of both selection and adaptive introgression, demonstrating the link between microevolutionary processes acting within species and the origin of species across macroevolutionary timescales. Our results provide a uniquely comprehensive portrait of the evolving species boundary due to the role that hybridization plays in reducing the background accumulation of divergence at neutral sites. PMID:24183670

  10. Mathematics Education as a Field of Research: Have We Become Too Comfortable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics education is highly regarded as a research field within our region, especially when compared to other fields within the broader education discipline. The field has been relatively cohesive, well organised and internationally influential in a universally strong field. Mathematics education research has developed and evolved in…

  11. Adaptive inferential sensors based on evolving fuzzy models.

    PubMed

    Angelov, Plamen; Kordon, Arthur

    2010-04-01

    A new technique to the design and use of inferential sensors in the process industry is proposed in this paper, which is based on the recently introduced concept of evolving fuzzy models (EFMs). They address the challenge that the modern process industry faces today, namely, to develop such adaptive and self-calibrating online inferential sensors that reduce the maintenance costs while keeping the high precision and interpretability/transparency. The proposed new methodology makes possible inferential sensors to recalibrate automatically, which reduces significantly the life-cycle efforts for their maintenance. This is achieved by the adaptive and flexible open-structure EFM used. The novelty of this paper lies in the following: (1) the overall concept of inferential sensors with evolving and self-developing structure from the data streams; (2) the new methodology for online automatic selection of input variables that are most relevant for the prediction; (3) the technique to detect automatically a shift in the data pattern using the age of the clusters (and fuzzy rules); (4) the online standardization technique used by the learning procedure of the evolving model; and (5) the application of this innovative approach to several real-life industrial processes from the chemical industry (evolving inferential sensors, namely, eSensors, were used for predicting the chemical properties of different products in The Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, TX). It should be noted, however, that the methodology and conclusions of this paper are valid for the broader area of chemical and process industries in general. The results demonstrate that well-interpretable and with-simple-structure inferential sensors can automatically be designed from the data stream in real time, which predict various process variables of interest. The proposed approach can be used as a basis for the development of a new generation of adaptive and evolving inferential sensors that can address the

  12. An almost trivial gauge theory in the limit of infinite gauge coupling constant.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptanoglu, S.

    A local SU(2) gauge theory with one multiplet of scalars in the adjoint representation is considered. In the limit of infinite gauge coupling constant Yang-Mills fields become auxiliary and the action possesses a larger invariance than the usual gauge invariance; hence, the system develops a richer structure of constraints. The constraint analysis is carried out.

  13. The evolving application of single-port robotic surgery in general surgery.

    PubMed

    Qadan, Motaz; Curet, Myriam J; Wren, Sherry M

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the field of minimally invasive surgery have grown since the original advent of conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery. The recent development of single incision laparoscopic surgery remains a relatively novel technique, and has had mixed reviews as to whether it has been associated with lower pain scores, shorter hospital stays, and higher satisfaction levels among patients undergoing procedures through cosmetically-appeasing single incisions. However, due to technical difficulties that arise from the clustering of laparoscopic instruments through a confined working space, such as loss of instrument triangulation, poor surgical exposure, and instrument clashing, uptake by surgeons without a specific interest and expertise in cutting-edge minimally invasive approaches has been limited. The parallel use of robotic surgery with single-port platforms, however, appears to counteract technical issues associated with single incision laparoscopic surgery through significant ergonomic improvements, including enhanced instrument triangulation, organ retraction, and camera localization within the surgical field. By combining the use of the robot with the single incision platform, the recognized challenges of single incision laparoscopic surgery are simplified, while maintaining potential advantages of the single-incision minimally invasive approach. This review provides a comprehensive report of the evolving application single-port robotic surgery in the field of general surgery today. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. L-band Dielectric Constant Measurements of Seawater (Oral presentation and SMOS Poster)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Roger H.; Utku, Cuneyt; LeVine, David M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a resonant cavity technique for the measurement of the dielectric constant of seawater as a function of its salinity. Accurate relationships between salinity and dielectric constant (which determines emissivity) are needed for sensor systems such as SMOS and Aquarius that will monitor salinity from space in the near future. The purpose of the new measurements is to establish the dependence of the dielectric constant of seawater on salinity in contemporary units (e.g. psu) and to take advantage of modern instrumentation to increase the accuracy of these measurements. The measurement device is a brass cylindrical cavity 16cm in diameter and 7cm in height. The seawater is introduced into the cavity through a slender glass tube having an inner diameter of 0.1 mm. By assuming that this small amount of seawater slightly perturbs the internal fields in the cavity, perturbation theory can be employed. A simple formula results relating the real part of the dielectric constant to the change in resonant frequency of the cavity. In a similar manner, the imaginary part of the dielectric constant is related to the change in the cavity s Q. The expected accuracy of the cavity technique is better than 1% for the real part and 1 to 2% for the imaginary part. Presently, measurements of methanol have been made and agree with precision measurements in the literature to within 1% in both real and imaginary parts. Measurements have been made of the dielectric constant of seawater samples from Ocean Scientific in the United Kingdom with salinities of 10, 30, 35 and 38 psu. All measurements were made at room temperature. Plans to make measurements at a range of temperatures and salinities will be discussed.

  15. Isotopic and Geochemical Investigation of Two Distinct Mars Analog Environments Using Evolved Gas Techniques in Svalbard, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jennifer Claire; Mcadam, Amy Catherine; Ten Kate, Inge L.; Bish, David L.; Blake, David F.; Morris, Richard V.; Bowden, Roxane; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Glamoclija, Mihaela; Mahaffy, Paul R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE) investigated two distinct geologic settings on Svalbard, using methodologies and techniques to be deployed on Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). AMASErelated research comprises both analyses conducted during the expedition and further analyses of collected samples using laboratory facilities at a variety of institutions. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on MSL includes pyrolysis ovens, a gas-processing manifold, a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), several gas chromatography columns, and a Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS). An integral part of SAM development is the deployment of SAM-like instrumentation in the field. During AMASE 2010, two parts of SAM participated as stand-alone instruments. A Hiden Evolved Gas Analysis- Mass Spectrometer (EGA-QMS) system represented the EGA-QMS component of SAM, and a Picarro Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (EGA-CRDS), represented the EGA-TLS component of SAM. A field analog of CheMin, the XRD/XRF on MSL, was also deployed as part of this field campaign. Carbon isotopic measurements of CO2 evolved during thermal decomposition of carbonates were used together with EGA-QMS geochemical data, mineral composition information and contextual observations made during sample collection to distinguish carbonates formation associated with chemosynthetic activity at a fossil methane seep from abiotic processes forming carbonates associated with subglacial basaltic eruptions. Carbon and oxygen isotopes of the basalt-hosted carbonates suggest cryogenic carbonate formation, though more research is necessary to clarify the history of these rocks.

  16. Effects of Constant Flow vs. Constant Pressure Perfusion on Fluid Filtration in Severe Hypothermic Isolated Blood-Perfused Rat Lungs.

    PubMed

    Halsøy, Kathrine; Kondratiev, Timofey; Tveita, Torkjel; Bjertnaes, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Victims of severe accidental hypothermia are prone to fluid extravasation but rarely develop lung edema. We hypothesize that combined hypothermia-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a concomitant fall in cardiac output protect the lungs against edema development. Our aim was to explore in hypothermic-isolated blood-perfused rat lungs whether perfusion at constant pressure influences fluid filtration differently from perfusion at constant flow. Isolated blood-perfused rat lungs were hanging freely in a weight transducer for measuring weight changes (ΔW). Fluid filtration coefficient (Kfc), was determined by transiently elevating left atrial pressure (Pla) by 5.8 mmHg two times each during normothermia (37°C) and during hypothermia (15°C). The lung preparations were randomized to two groups. One group was perfused with constant flow (Constant flow group) and the other group with constant pulmonary artery pressure (Constant PPA group). Microvascular pressure (Pmv) was determined before and during elevation of Pla (ΔPmv) by means of the double occlusion technique. Kfc was calculated with the formula Kfc = ΔW/ΔPmv/min. All Kfc values were normalized to predicted lung weight (P LW ), which was based on body weight (BW) according to the formula: P LW  = 0.0053 BW - 0.48 and presented as Kfc PLW in mg/min/mmHg/g. At cessation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid/perfusate protein concentration (B/P) ratio was determined photometrically. Data were analyzed with parametric or non-parametric tests as appropriate. p  < 0.05 considered as significant. Perfusate flow remained constant in the Constant flow group, but was more than halved during hypothermia in the Constant PPA group concomitant with a more fold increase in PVR. In the Constant flow group, Kfc PLW and B/P ratio increased significantly by more than 10-fold during hypothermia concerted by visible signs of edema in the trachea. Hemoglobin and hematocrit increased within

  17. Transistor Level Circuit Experiments using Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Keymeulen, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) performs research in fault tolerant, long life, and space survivable electronics for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). With that focus, JPL has been involved in Evolvable Hardware (EHW) technology research for the past several years. We have advanced the technology not only by simulation and evolution experiments, but also by designing, fabricating, and evolving a variety of transistor-based analog and digital circuits at the chip level. EHW refers to self-configuration of electronic hardware by evolutionary/genetic search mechanisms, thereby maintaining existing functionality in the presence of degradations due to aging, temperature, and radiation. In addition, EHW has the capability to reconfigure itself for new functionality when required for mission changes or encountered opportunities. Evolution experiments are performed using a genetic algorithm running on a DSP as the reconfiguration mechanism and controlling the evolvable hardware mounted on a self-contained circuit board. Rapid reconfiguration allows convergence to circuit solutions in the order of seconds. The paper illustrates hardware evolution results of electronic circuits and their ability to perform under 230 C temperature as well as radiations of up to 250 kRad.

  18. CODATA recommended values of the fundamental constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.

    2000-11-01

    A review is given of the latest Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) adjustment of the values of the fundamental constants. The new set of constants, referred to as the 1998 values, replaces the values recommended for international use by CODATA in 1986. The values of the constants, and particularly the Rydberg constant, are of relevance to the calculation of precise atomic spectra. The standard uncertainty (estimated standard deviation) of the new recommended value of the Rydberg constant, which is based on precision frequency metrology and a detailed analysis of the theory, is approximately 1/160 times the uncertainty of the 1986 value. The new set of recommended values as well as a searchable bibliographic database that gives citations to the relevant literature is available on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants and physics.nist.gov/constantsbib, respectively. .

  19. Fast and slowly evolving vector solitons in mode-locked fibre lasers.

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, Sergey V

    2014-10-28

    We report on a new vector model of an erbium-doped fibre laser mode locked with carbon nanotubes. This model goes beyond the limitations of the previously used models based on either coupled nonlinear Schrödinger or Ginzburg-Landau equations. Unlike the previous models, it accounts for the vector nature of the interaction between an optical field and an erbium-doped active medium, slow relaxation dynamics of erbium ions, linear birefringence in a fibre, linear and circular birefringence of a laser cavity caused by in-cavity polarization controller and light-induced anisotropy caused by elliptically polarized pump field. Interplay of aforementioned factors changes coherent coupling of two polarization modes at a long time scale and so results in a new family of vector solitons (VSs) with fast and slowly evolving states of polarization. The observed VSs can be of interest in secure communications, trapping and manipulation of atoms and nanoparticles, control of magnetization in data storage devices and many other areas. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: Semantic Considerations for an Evolving Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Katari, Ravi; Peloso, Andrea; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine (RM) are rapidly evolving fields that are often obscured by a dense cloud of hype and commercialization potential. We find, in the literature and general commentary, that several of the associated terms are casually referenced in varying contexts that ultimately result in the blurring of the distinguishing boundaries which define them. “TE” and “RM” are often used interchangeably, though some experts vehemently argue that they, in fact, represent different conceptual entities. Nevertheless, contemporary scientists have a general idea of the experiments and milestones that can be classified within either or both categories. Given the groundbreaking achievements reported within the past decade and consequent watershed potential of this field, we feel that it would be useful to properly contextualize these terms semantically and historically. In this concept paper, we explore the various definitions proposed in the literature and emphasize that ambiguous terminology can lead to misplaced apprehension. We assert that the central motifs of both concepts have existed within the surgical sciences long before their appearance as terms in the scientific literature. PMID:25629029

  1. The significance of heterogeneity of evolving scales to transport in porous formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagan, Gedeon

    1994-12-01

    Flow takes place in a heterogeneous formation of spatially variable conductivity, which is modeled as a stationary space random function. To model the variability at the regional scale, the formation is viewed as one of a two-dimensional, horizontal structure. A constant head gradient is applied on the formation boundary such that the flow is uniform in the mean. A plume of inert solute is injected at t = 0 in a volume V0. Under ergodic conditions the plume centroid moves with the constant, mean flow velocity U, and a longitudinal macrodispersion coefficient dL may be defined as half of the time rate of change of the plume second spatial moment with respect to the centroid. For a log-conductivity covariance CY of finite integral scale I, at first order in the variance σY2 and for a travel distance L = Ut ≫ I, dL → σY2UI and transport is coined as Fickian. Ergodicity of the moments is ensured if l ≫ I, where l is the initial plume scale. Some field observations have suggested that heterogeneity may be of evolving scales and that the macrodispersion coefficient may grow with L without reaching a constant limit (anomalous diffusion). To model such a behavior, previous studies have assumed that CY is stationary but of unbounded integral scale with CY ˜ arβ (-1 < β < 0) for large lag r. Under ergodic conditions, it was found that asymptotically dL ˜ aUL1+β, i.e., non-Fickian behavior and anomalous dispersion. The present study claims that an ergodic behavior is not possible for a given finite plume of initial size l, since the basic requirement that l ≫ I cannot be satisfied for CY of unbounded scale. For instance, the centroid does not move any more with U but is random (Figure 1), owing to the large-scale heterogeneity. In such a situation the actual effective dispersion coefficient DL is defined as half the rate of change of the mean second spatial moment with respect to the plume centroid in each realization. This is the accessible entity in a given

  2. The Henry's constant of monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Miguel A; Anderson, Michael A

    2018-02-01

    Monochloramine is a secondary disinfectant used in drinking water and is also formed in chlorinated wastewater. While known to hydrolyze over time and react with dissolved organic matter, its partitioning between the aqueous and gas phase has not been extensively studied. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that monochloramine concentrations in solutions open to the atmosphere or actively aerated decreased more rapidly than in sealed solutions, indicating significant losses to the atmosphere. For example, a monochloramine solution open to the atmosphere yielded a loss rate constant of 0.08 d -1 , a value twice that for sealed samples without headspace (0.04 d -1 ) where loss occurs exclusively as a result of hydrolysis. A solution aerated at 10 mL s -1 had a loss rate constant nearly 10× greater than that for hydrolysis alone (0.35 d -1 ). To better understand partitioning of monochloramine to the gas phase and potential for volatilization, the dimensionless Henry's law constants of monochloramine (K H ) were determined using an equilibrium headspace technique at five different temperatures (11, 16, 21, 27, and 32 °C). The resulting values ranged from 8 × 10 -3 to 4 × 10 -2 , indicating a semi-volatile compound, and were found to be consistent with quantitative structure activity relationship predictions. At 20 °C, monochloramine exhibits a dimensionless Henry's constant of about 1.7 × 10 -2 which is 35 times greater than ammonia but comparable to the Henry's constant of inorganic semi-volatile compounds such sulfur dioxide. The Henry's constant values for monochloramine suggests that volatilization could be a relevant loss process in open systems such as rivers receiving chlorinated wastewater effluent, swimming pools and cooling towers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Vyacheslav M; Popovych, Roman O; Shapoval, Nataliya M

    2013-01-01

    Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients are exhaustively described over both the complex and real fields. The exact lower and upper bounds for the dimensions of the maximal Lie invariance algebras possessed by such systems are obtained using an effective algebraic approach.

  4. Spherical type integrable classical systems in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesiello, A.; Šnobl, L.; Winternitz, P.

    2018-04-01

    We show that four classes of second order spherical type integrable classical systems in a magnetic field exist in the Euclidean space {E}3 , and construct the Hamiltonian and two second order integrals of motion in involution for each of them. For one of the classes the Hamiltonian depends on four arbitrary functions of one variable. This class contains the magnetic monopole as a special case. Two further classes have Hamiltonians depending on one arbitrary function of one variable and four or six constants, respectively. The magnetic field in these cases is radial. The remaining system corresponds to a constant magnetic field and the Hamiltonian depends on two constants. Questions of superintegrability—i.e. the existence of further integrals—are discussed.

  5. Evasive mimicry: when (if ever) could mimicry based on difficulty of capture evolve?

    PubMed

    Ruxton, G D; Speed, M; Sherratt, T N

    2004-10-22

    We elucidate the conditions under which an easy-to-catch edible prey species may evolve to resemble another edible species that is much more difficult to capture ('evasive Batesian mimicry'), and the conditions under which two or more edible but hard-to-catch species evolve a common resemblance ('evasive Mullerian mimicry'). Using two complementary mathematical models, we argue that both phenomena are logically possible but that several factors will limit the prevalence of these forms of mimicry in nature. Evasive Batesian mimicry is most likely to arise when it is costly in time or energy for the predator species to pursue evasive prey, when mimics are encountered less frequently than evasive models and where there are abundant alternative prey. Evasive Mullerian mimicry, by contrast, is most likely to arise when evasive prey species differ in abundance, predators are slow to learn to avoid evasive prey and evading capture is costly to the prey. Unequivocal evidence for evasive Batesian or Mullerian mimicry has not yet been demonstrated in the field, and we argue that more empirical work is needed to test whether putative examples are indeed a result of selection to signal difficulty of capture.

  6. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-10-22

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an electrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable. 1 fig.

  7. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, Max E.

    1996-01-01

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an eletrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable.

  8. CMB power spectrum contribution from cosmic strings using field-evolution simulations of the Abelian Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon

    2007-03-01

    We present the first field-theoretic calculations of the contribution made by cosmic strings to the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Unlike previous work, in which strings were modeled as idealized one-dimensional objects, we evolve the simplest example of an underlying field theory containing local U(1) strings, the Abelian Higgs model. Limitations imposed by finite computational volumes are overcome using the scaling property of string networks and a further extrapolation related to the lessening of the string width in comoving coordinates. The strings and their decay products, which are automatically included in the field theory approach, source metric perturbations via their energy-momentum tensor, the unequal-time correlation functions of which are used as input into the CMB calculation phase. These calculations involve the use of a modified version of CMBEASY, with results provided over the full range of relevant scales. We find that the string tension μ required to normalize to the WMAP 3-year data at multipole ℓ=10 is Gμ=[2.04±0.06(stat.)±0.12(sys.)]×10-6, where we have quoted statistical and systematic errors separately, and G is Newton’s constant. This is a factor 2 3 higher than values in current circulation.

  9. Probing Dust Formation Around Evolved Stars with Near-Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, B.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.; Meixner, M.

    2014-09-01

    Near-infrared interferometry holds great promise for advancing our understanding of the formation of dust around evolved stars. For example, the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI), which will be an optical/near-infrared interferometer with down to submilliarcsecond resolution, includes studying stellar mass loss as being of interest to its Key Science Mission. With facilities like MROI, many questions relating to the formation of dust around evolved stars may be probed. How close to an evolved star such as an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) or red supergiant (RSG) star does a dust grain form? Over what temperature ranges will such dust form? How does dust formation temperature and distance from star change as a function of the dust composition (carbonaceous versus oxygen-rich)? What are the ranges of evolved star dust shell geometries, and does dust shell geometry for AGB and RSG stars correlate with dust composition, similar to the correlation seen for planetary nebula outflows? At what point does the AGB star become a post-AGB star, when dust formation ends and the dust shell detaches? Currently we are conducting studies of evolved star mass loss in the Large Magellanic Cloud using photometry from the Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE; PI: M. Meixner) Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy program. We model this mass loss using the radiative transfer program 2Dust to create our Grid of Red supergiant and Asymptotic giant branch ModelS (GRAMS). For simplicity, we assume spherical symmetry, but 2Dust does have the capability to model axisymmetric, non-spherically-symmetric dust shell geometries. 2Dust can also generate images of models at specified wavelengths. We discuss possible connections of our GRAMS modeling using 2Dust of SAGE data of evolved stars in the LMC and also other data on evolved stars in the Milky Way's Galactic Bulge to near-infrared interferometric studies of such stars. By understanding the origins of dust around evolved

  10. Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

  11. New perspectives on constant-roll inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicciarella, Francesco; Mabillard, Joel; Pieroni, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    We study constant-roll inflation using the β-function formalism. We show that the constant rate of the inflaton roll is translated into a first order differential equation for the β-function which can be solved easily. The solutions to this equation correspond to the usual constant-roll models. We then construct, by perturbing these exact solutions, more general classes of models that satisfy the constant-roll equation asymptotically. In the case of an asymptotic power law solution, these corrections naturally provide an end to the inflationary phase. Interestingly, while from a theoretical point of view (in particular in terms of the holographic interpretation) these models are intrinsically different from standard slow-roll inflation, they may have phenomenological predictions in good agreement with present cosmological data.

  12. A hollow coaxial cable Fabry-Pérot resonator for liquid dielectric constant measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Zhuang, Yiyang; Chen, Yizheng; Huang, Jie

    2018-04-01

    We report, for the first time, a low-cost and robust homemade hollow coaxial cable Fabry-Pérot resonator (HCC-FPR) for measuring liquid dielectric constant. In the HCC design, the traditional dielectric insulating layer is replaced by air. A metal disk is welded onto the end of the HCC serving as a highly reflective reflector, and an open cavity is engineered on the HCC. After the open cavity is filled with the liquid analyte (e.g., water), the air-liquid interface acts as a highly reflective reflector due to large impedance mismatch. As a result, an HCC-FPR is formed by the two highly reflective reflectors, i.e., the air-liquid interface and the metal disk. We measured the room temperature dielectric constant for ethanol/water mixtures with different concentrations using this homemade HCC-FPR. Monitoring the evaporation of ethanol in ethanol/water mixtures was also conducted to demonstrate the ability of the sensor for continuously monitoring the change in dielectric constant. The results revealed that the HCC-FPR could be a promising evaporation rate detection platform with high performance. Due to its great advantages, such as high robustness, simple configuration, and ease of fabrication, the novel HCC-FPR based liquid dielectric constant sensor is believed to be of high interest in various fields.

  13. A hollow coaxial cable Fabry-Pérot resonator for liquid dielectric constant measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Zhuang, Yiyang; Chen, Yizheng; Huang, Jie

    2018-04-01

    We report, for the first time, a low-cost and robust homemade hollow coaxial cable Fabry-Pérot resonator (HCC-FPR) for measuring liquid dielectric constant. In the HCC design, the traditional dielectric insulating layer is replaced by air. A metal disk is welded onto the end of the HCC serving as a highly reflective reflector, and an open cavity is engineered on the HCC. After the open cavity is filled with the liquid analyte (e.g., water), the air-liquid interface acts as a highly reflective reflector due to large impedance mismatch. As a result, an HCC-FPR is formed by the two highly reflective reflectors, i.e., the air-liquid interface and the metal disk. We measured the room temperature dielectric constant for ethanol/water mixtures with different concentrations using this homemade HCC-FPR. Monitoring the evaporation of ethanol in ethanol/water mixtures was also conducted to demonstrate the ability of the sensor for continuously monitoring the change in dielectric constant. The results revealed that the HCC-FPR could be a promising evaporation rate detection platform with high performance. Due to its great advantages, such as high robustness, simple configuration, and ease of fabrication, the novel HCC-FPR based liquid dielectric constant sensor is believed to be of high interest in various fields.

  14. Driven acoustic oscillations within a vertical magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, Bradley W.; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Cally, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of a vertical magnetic field on p-mode frequencies, line widths, and eigenfunctions, are examined. A solar model, consisting of a neutrally stable polytropic interior matched to an isothermal chromosphere, is applied. The p-modes are produced by a spatially distributed driver. The atmosphere is threaded by a constant vertical magnetic field. The frequency shifts due to the vertical magnetic field are found to be much smaller than the shifts caused by horizontal fields of similar strength. A large vertical field of 2000 G produces shifts of several nHz. It is found that the frequency shifts decrease with increasing frequency and increase with field strength. The coupling of the acoustic fast mode to the escaping slow modes is inefficient. Constant vertical magnetic field models are therefore incapable of explaining the high level of absorption observed in sunspots and plage.

  15. Extreme insular dwarfism evolved in a mammoth.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Victoria L; Lister, Adrian M

    2012-08-22

    The insular dwarfism seen in Pleistocene elephants has come to epitomize the island rule; yet our understanding of this phenomenon is hampered by poor taxonomy. For Mediterranean dwarf elephants, where the most extreme cases of insular dwarfism are observed, a key systematic question remains unresolved: are all taxa phyletic dwarfs of a single mainland species Palaeoloxodon antiquus (straight-tusked elephant), or are some referable to Mammuthus (mammoths)? Ancient DNA and geochronological evidence have been used to support a Mammuthus origin for the Cretan 'Palaeoloxodon' creticus, but these studies have been shown to be flawed. On the basis of existing collections and recent field discoveries, we present new, morphological evidence for the taxonomic status of 'P'. creticus, and show that it is indeed a mammoth, most probably derived from Early Pleistocene Mammuthus meridionalis or possibly Late Pliocene Mammuthus rumanus. We also show that Mammuthus creticus is smaller than other known insular dwarf mammoths, and is similar in size to the smallest dwarf Palaeoloxodon species from Sicily and Malta, making it the smallest mammoth species known to have existed. These findings indicate that extreme insular dwarfism has evolved to a similar degree independently in two elephant lineages.

  16. Diffusion Monte Carlo method for evaluating Hamaker constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezono, Ryo; Hongo, Kenta

    We evaluated Hamaker's constants for Si6H12 (CHS) to investigate its wettability, which is industrially useful but no references available. The constant is fundamental for wettability, but not directly accessible by experiments. Ab initio estimations are therefore in demand, and surely give an impact for broader fields such as tribology where the wettability plays an important role. The evaluation of binding curves itself could be a big challenge if it is applied to a practical molecule such as CHS, because highly accurate descriptions of electron correlations in vdW bindings get tough for such larger sizes with anisotropy. We applied DMC to overcome this difficulty, showing a new direction for wettability issues. Since ab intio estimations rely on simple assumptions such as additivity (and hence we denote it as Aadd), it would include biases. Taking a benzene as a benchmark, we compared Aadd evaluated from several available binding curves with other reported AL (estimations based on Lifshitz theory). By the comparison, we get trends of biases in Aa dd due to non-additivity and anisotropy because AL is expected to capture these effects to some extent in macroscopic manner. The expected trends here surprisingly well explain the series of results for CHS.

  17. Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Vyacheslav M.; Popovych, Roman O.; Shapoval, Nataliya M.

    2013-01-01

    Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients are exhaustively described over both the complex and real fields. The exact lower and upper bounds for the dimensions of the maximal Lie invariance algebras possessed by such systems are obtained using an effective algebraic approach. PMID:23564972

  18. The evolving field of kinase inhibitors in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Marotta, V; Sciammarella, C; Vitale, M; Colao, A; Faggiano, A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the genetic events implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer (TC) involve genes with kinase activity. Thus, kinase inhibitors (KIs) are very relevant in this field. KIs are considered the most suitable treatment for patients with iodine-refractory differentiated TC; these patients comprise the subgroup with the poorer prognosis. To date, only sorafenib has been approved for this indication, but promising results have been reported with several other KIs. In particular, lenvatinib has demonstrated excellent efficacy, with both progression-free survival and objective tumour response being better than with sorafenib. Despite being considered to be well tolerated, both sorafenib and lenvatinib have shown a remarkable toxicity, which has led to dose reductions in the majority of patients and to treatment discontinuation in a significant proportion of cases. The role of KIs in differentiated TC may be revolutionised by the finding that selumetinib may restore a clinical response to radioactive iodine (RAI). Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of advanced, progressive medullary TC (MTC). Nevertheless, the toxicity of both compounds suggests their selective use in those patients with strong disease progression. Treatment with the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus, alone or in combination with somatostatin analogues, should be studied in metastatic MTC patients with slow progression of disease, these representing the vast majority of patients. KIs did not significantly impact on the clinical features of anaplastic TC (ATC). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EVOLVING FRIENDSHIPS AND SHIFTING ETHICAL DILEMMAS: FIELDWORKERS' EXPERIENCES IN A SHORT TERM COMMUNITY BASED STUDY IN KENYA

    PubMed Central

    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Theobald, Sally J; Munywoki, Patrick K; Koech, Dorothy; Geissler, Wenzel P; Molyneux, Sassy C

    2013-01-01

    Fieldworkers (FWs) are community members employed by research teams to support access to participants, address language barriers, and advise on culturally appropriate research conduct. The critical role that FWs play in studies, and the range of practical and ethical dilemmas associated with their involvement, is increasingly recognised. In this paper, we draw on qualitative observation and interview data collected alongside a six month basic science study which involved a team of FWs regularly visiting 47 participating households in their homes. The qualitative study documented how relationships between field workers and research participants were initiated, developed and evolved over the course of the study, the shifting dilemmas FWs faced and how they handled them. Even in this one case study, we see how the complex and evolving relationships between fieldworkers and study participants had important implications for consent processes, access to benefits and mutual understanding and trust. While the precise issues that FWs face are likely to depend on the type of research and the context in which that research is being conducted, we argue that appropriate support for field workers is a key requirement to strengthen ethical research practice and for the long term sustainability of research programmes. PMID:23433316

  20. An Evolving Asymmetric Game for Modeling Interdictor-Smuggler Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    ASYMMETRIC GAME FOR MODELING INTERDICTOR-SMUGGLER PROBLEMS by Richard J. Allain June 2016 Thesis Advisor: David L. Alderson Second Reader: W...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN EVOLVING ASYMMETRIC GAME FOR MODELING INTERDICTOR- SMUGGLER PROBLEMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...using incomplete feedback and allowing two-sided adaptive play. Combining these aspects in an evolving game , we use optimization, simulation, and

  1. Loop corrections in double field theory: non-trivial dilaton potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Songlin; Wu, Houwen; Yang, Haitang

    2014-10-01

    It is believed that the invariance of the generalised diffeomorphisms prevents any non-trivial dilaton potential from double field theory. It is therefore difficult to include loop corrections in the formalism. We show that by redefining a non-local dilaton field, under strong constraint which is necessary to preserve the gauge invariance of double field theory, the theory does permit non-constant dilaton potentials and loop corrections. If the fields have dependence on only one single coordinate, the non-local dilaton is identical to the ordinary one with an additive constant.

  2. Constant pressure-assisted head-column field-amplified sample injection in combination with in-capillary derivatization for enhancing the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Na; Zhou, Lei; Zhu, Zaifang; Zhang, Huige; Zhou, Ximin; Chen, Xingguo

    2009-05-15

    In this work, a novel method combining constant pressure-assisted head-column field-amplified sample injection (PA-HC-FASI) with in-capillary derivatization was developed for enhancing the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis. PA-HC-FASI uses an appropriate positive pressure to counterbalance the electroosmotic flow in the capillary column during electrokinetic injection, while taking advantage of the field amplification in the sample matrix and the water of the "head column". Accordingly, the analytes were stacked at the stationary boundary between water and background electrolyte. After 600s PA-HC-FASI, 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole as derivatization reagent was injected, followed by an electrokinetic step (5kV, 45s) to enhance the mixing efficiency of analytes and reagent plugs. Standing a specified time of 10min for derivatization reaction under 35 degrees C, then the capillary temperature was cooled to 25 degrees C and the derivatives were immediately separated and determined under 25 degrees C. By investigating the variables of the presented approach in detail, on-line preconcentration, derivatization and separation could be automatically operated in one run and required no modification of current CE commercial instrument. Moreover, the sensitivity enhancement factor of 520 and 800 together with the detection limits of 16.32 and 6.34pg/mL was achieved for model compounds: glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, demonstrating the high detection sensitivity of the presented method.

  3. Evolving Systems: Adaptive Key Component Control and Inheritance of Passivity and Dissipativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, S. A.; Balas, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. Autonomous assembly of large, complex flexible structures in space is a target application for Evolving Systems. A critical requirement for autonomous assembling structures is that they remain stable during and after assembly. The fundamental topic of inheritance of stability, dissipativity, and passivity in Evolving Systems is the primary focus of this research. In this paper, we develop an adaptive key component controller to restore stability in Nonlinear Evolving Systems that would otherwise fail to inherit the stability traits of their components. We provide sufficient conditions for the use of this novel control method and demonstrate its use on an illustrative example.

  4. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  5. Pulsed Magnetic Field Improves the Transport of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles through Cell Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Shin, Meong Cheol; Yu, Faquan; Yang, Meizhu; David, Allan E.; Yang, Victor C.; Rosania, Gus R.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how a magnetic field affects the interaction of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with cells is fundamental to any potential downstream applications of MNPs as gene and drug delivery vehicles. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of how a pulsed magnetic field influences the manner in which MNPs interact with, and penetrate across a cell monolayer. Relative to a constant magnetic field, the rate of MNP uptake and transport across cell monolayers was enhanced by a pulsed magnetic field. MNP transport across cells was significantly inhibited at low temperature under both constant and pulsed magnetic field conditions, consistent with an active mechanism (i.e. endocytosis) mediating MNP transport. Microscopic observations and biochemical analysis indicated that, in a constant magnetic field, transport of MNPs across the cells was inhibited due to the formation of large (>2 μm) magnetically-induced MNP aggregates, which exceeded the size of endocytic vesicles. Thus, a pulsed magnetic field enhances the cellular uptake and transport of MNPs across cell barriers relative to a constant magnetic field by promoting accumulation while minimizing magnetically-induced MNP aggregates at the cell surface. PMID:23373613

  6. The evolving block universe and the meshing together of times.

    PubMed

    Ellis, George F R

    2014-10-01

    It has been proposed that spacetime should be regarded as an evolving block universe, bounded to the future by the present time, which continually extends to the future. This future boundary is defined at each time by measuring proper time along Ricci eigenlines from the start of the universe. A key point, then, is that physical reality can be represented at many different scales: hence, the passage of time may be seen as different at different scales, with quantum gravity determining the evolution of spacetime itself at the Planck scale, but quantum field theory and classical physics determining the evolution of events within spacetime at larger scales. The fundamental issue then arises as to how the effective times at different scales mesh together, leading to the concepts of global and local times. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. The effective propagation constants of SH wave in composites reinforced by dispersive parallel nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, FangWei; Wei, PeiJun; Li, Li

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper, the effective propagation constants of elastic SH waves in composites with randomly distributed parallel cylindrical nanofibers are studied. The surface stress effects are considered based on the surface elasticity theory and non-classical interfacial conditions between the nanofiber and the host are derived. The scattering waves from individual nanofibers embedded in an infinite elastic host are obtained by the plane wave expansion method. The scattering waves from all fibers are summed up to obtain the multiple scattering waves. The interactions among random dispersive nanofibers are taken into account by the effective field approximation. The effective propagation constants are obtained by the configurational average of the multiple scattering waves. The effective speed and attenuation of the averaged wave and the associated dynamical effective shear modulus of composites are numerically calculated. Based on the numerical results, the size effects of the nanofibers on the effective propagation constants and the effective modulus are discussed.

  8. The Hubble Constant.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Neal

    2015-01-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H 0 values of around 72-74 km s -1 Mpc -1 , with typical errors of 2-3 km s -1 Mpc -1 . This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67-68 km s -1 Mpc -1 and typical errors of 1-2 km s -1 Mpc -1 . The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  9. Rapidly Evolving Transients in the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Pursiainen, M.; et al.

    We present the results of a search for rapidly evolving transients in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Programme. These events are characterized by fast light curve evolution (rise to peak inmore » $$\\lesssim 10$$ d and exponential decline in $$\\lesssim30$$ d after peak). We discovered 72 events, including 37 transients with a spectroscopic redshift from host galaxy spectral features. The 37 events increase the total number of rapid optical transients by more than factor of two. They are found at a wide range of redshifts ($0.05M_\\mathrm{g}>-22.25$$). The multiband photometry is well fit by a blackbody up to few weeks after peak. The events appear to be hot ($$T\\approx10000-30000$$ K) and large ($$R\\approx 10^{14}-2\\cdot10^{15}$$ cm) at peak, and generally expand and cool in time, though some events show evidence for a receding photosphere with roughly constant temperature. Spectra taken around peak are dominated by a blue featureless continuum consistent with hot, optically thick ejecta. We compare our events with a previously suggested physical scenario involving shock breakout in an optically thick wind surrounding a core-collapse supernova (CCSNe), we conclude that current models for such a scenario might need an additional power source to describe the exponential decline. We find these transients tend to favor star-forming host galaxies, which could be consistent with a core-collapse origin. However, more detailed modeling of the light curves is necessary to determine their physical origin.« less

  10. Relativistic problems on astronomical constants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jinhe; Huang, Tianyi

    1999-06-01

    The fact that modern astronomical observational technique has made rapid progress and the 1PN approximation of general relativity has been extensively applied in celestial mechanics and astrometry, makes it is necessary to investigate and examine the system of astronomical constants carefully and rigorously in the relativistic framework. The mass of a celestial body in the solar system should be defined as its BD mass that changes relatively in an amount less than 10-19 and could be considered as a constant. The equations satisfied by the gravitational potentials are not Poisson equations anymore but depend on the choice of the coordinate gauge. Therefore the gravitational potentials cannot be expanded in the traditional harmonics. It is neccessary to choose the coordinate gauge and take BD multipole moments as astronomical constants. The obliquity of the ecliptic has been determined in high precision and it would be neccessary to give a conventional definition of the 1PN ecliptic. A relativistic definition of the geoid is important and left to be discussed. The astronomical constants that relate the units of time and length have been clearly defined but need to be clarified to avoid their misuse.

  11. Coordinating Aircraft During Field Campaigns: Real Time Mission Monitor Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    RTMM has evolved into a powerful and easy to use application in support of planning, situational awareness and strategic decision-making during airborne field campaigns. NASA is very open to sharing these capabilities with any interested group through interagency collaborations in future field activities.

  12. MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, H.P.; Potter, Elinor

    1971-03-01

    This collection of mathematical data consists of two tables of decimal constants arranged according to size rather than function, a third table of integers from 1 to 1000, giving some of their properties, and a fourth table listing some infinite series arranged according to increasing size of the coefficients of the terms. The decimal values of Tables I and II are given to 20 D.

  13. Field Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrone, Edward G.; Montalto, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of athletic fields has increased in today's society because of the popularity of sporting events. As a result, education administrators face challenges when dealing with their athletic facilities. Decisionmakers constantly are being second-guessed in regard to outdated, overused facilities and lack of budget. In this article, the…

  14. Active printed materials for complex self-evolving deformations.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Dan; Zhao, Wei; McKnelly, Carrie; Papadopoulou, Athina; Kadambi, Achuta; Shi, Boxin; Hirsch, Shai; Dikovsky, Daniel; Zyracki, Michael; Olguin, Carlos; Raskar, Ramesh; Tibbits, Skylar

    2014-12-18

    We propose a new design of complex self-evolving structures that vary over time due to environmental interaction. In conventional 3D printing systems, materials are meant to be stable rather than active and fabricated models are designed and printed as static objects. Here, we introduce a novel approach for simulating and fabricating self-evolving structures that transform into a predetermined shape, changing property and function after fabrication. The new locally coordinated bending primitives combine into a single system, allowing for a global deformation which can stretch, fold and bend given environmental stimulus.

  15. Active Printed Materials for Complex Self-Evolving Deformations

    PubMed Central

    Raviv, Dan; Zhao, Wei; McKnelly, Carrie; Papadopoulou, Athina; Kadambi, Achuta; Shi, Boxin; Hirsch, Shai; Dikovsky, Daniel; Zyracki, Michael; Olguin, Carlos; Raskar, Ramesh; Tibbits, Skylar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new design of complex self-evolving structures that vary over time due to environmental interaction. In conventional 3D printing systems, materials are meant to be stable rather than active and fabricated models are designed and printed as static objects. Here, we introduce a novel approach for simulating and fabricating self-evolving structures that transform into a predetermined shape, changing property and function after fabrication. The new locally coordinated bending primitives combine into a single system, allowing for a global deformation which can stretch, fold and bend given environmental stimulus. PMID:25522053

  16. Emerging spatial curvature can resolve the tension between high-redshift CMB and low-redshift distance ladder measurements of the Hubble constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2018-05-01

    The measurements of the Hubble constant reveal a tension between high-redshift (CMB) and low-redshift (distance ladder) constraints. So far neither observational systematics nor new physics has been successfully implemented to explain away this tension. This paper presents a new solution to the Hubble constant problem. The solution is based on the Simsilun simulation (relativistic simulation of the large scale structure of the Universe) with the ray-tracing algorithm implemented. The initial conditions for the Simsilun simulation were set up as perturbations around the Λ CDM model. However, unlike in the standard cosmological model (i.e., Λ CDM model +perturbations ), within the Simsilun simulation relativistic and nonlinear evolution of cosmic structures lead to the phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature, where the mean spatial curvature evolves from the spatial flatness of the early Universe towards the slightly curved present-day Universe. Consequently, the present-day expansion rate is slightly faster compared to the spatially flat Λ CDM model. The results of the ray-tracing analysis show that the Universe which starts with initial conditions consistent with the Planck constraints should have the Hubble constant H0=72.5 ±2.1 km s-1 Mpc-1 . When the Simsilun simulation was rerun with no inhomogeneities imposed, the Hubble constant inferred within such a homogeneous simulation was H0=68.1 ±2.0 km s-1 Mpc-1 . Thus, the inclusion of nonlinear relativistic evolution that leads to the emergence of the spatial curvature can explain why the low-redshift measurements favor higher values compared to the high-redshift constraints and alleviate the tension between the CMB and distance ladder measurements of the Hubble constant.

  17. The 1% concordance Hubble constant

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.

    2014-10-20

    The determination of the Hubble constant has been a central goal in observational astrophysics for nearly a hundred years. Extraordinary progress has occurred in recent years on two fronts: the cosmic distance ladder measurements at low redshift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at high redshift. The CMB is used to predict the current expansion rate through a best-fit cosmological model. Complementary progress has been made with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at relatively low redshifts. While BAO data do not independently determine a Hubble constant, they are important for constraints on possible solutions and checks on cosmic consistency. Amore » precise determination of the Hubble constant is of great value, but it is more important to compare the high and low redshift measurements to test our cosmological model. Significant tension would suggest either uncertainties not accounted for in the experimental estimates or the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology. In this paper we examine in detail the tension between the CMB, BAO, and cosmic distance ladder data sets. We find that these measurements are consistent within reasonable statistical expectations and we combine them to determine a best-fit Hubble constant of 69.6 ± 0.7 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. This value is based upon WMAP9+SPT+ACT+6dFGS+BOSS/DR11+H {sub 0}/Riess; we explore alternate data combinations in the text. The combined data constrain the Hubble constant to 1%, with no compelling evidence for new physics.« less

  18. Microsatellites evolve more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Amos, W.

    1995-12-10

    Microsatellites are highly polymorphic markers consisting of varying numbers of tandem repeats. At different loci, these repeats can consist of one to five nucleotides. Microsatellites have been used in many fields of genetics, including genetic mapping, linkage disequilibrium analyses, forensic studies, and population genetics. It is important that we understand their mutational processes better so that they can be exploited optimally for studies of human diversity and evolutionary genetics. We have analyzed 24 microsatellite loci in chimpanzees, East Anglians, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The stepwise-weighted genetic distances between the humans and the chimpanzees and between the two human populations were calculatedmore » according to the method described by Deka et al. The ratio of the genetic distances between the chimpanzees and the humans relative to that between the Africans and the East Anglians was more than 10 times smaller than expected. This suggests that microsatellites have evolved more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees. 12 refs., 1 tab.« less

  19. The evolving understanding of the construct of intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Robert L

    2011-12-01

    This article addresses two major areas concerned with the evolving understanding of the construct of intellectual disability. The first part of the article discusses current answers to five critical questions that have revolved around the general question, "What is Intellectual Disability?" These five are what to call the phenomenon, how to explain the phenomenon, how to define the phenomenon and determine who is a member of the class, how to classify persons so defined and identified, and how to establish public policy regarding such persons. The second part of the article discusses four critical issues that will impact both our future understanding of the construct and the approach taken to persons with intellectual disability. These four critical issues relate to the conceptualisation and measurement of intellectual functioning, the constitutive definition of intellectual disability, the alignment of clinical functions related to diagnosis, classification, and planning supports, and how the field resolves a number of emerging epistemological issues.

  20. Evolving neural networks through augmenting topologies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Kenneth O; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2002-01-01

    An important question in neuroevolution is how to gain an advantage from evolving neural network topologies along with weights. We present a method, NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT), which outperforms the best fixed-topology method on a challenging benchmark reinforcement learning task. We claim that the increased efficiency is due to (1) employing a principled method of crossover of different topologies, (2) protecting structural innovation using speciation, and (3) incrementally growing from minimal structure. We test this claim through a series of ablation studies that demonstrate that each component is necessary to the system as a whole and to each other. What results is significantly faster learning. NEAT is also an important contribution to GAs because it shows how it is possible for evolution to both optimize and complexify solutions simultaneously, offering the possibility of evolving increasingly complex solutions over generations, and strengthening the analogy with biological evolution.

  1. Carter constant and angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sajal; Nayak, K. Rajesh

    We investigate the Carter-like constant in the case of a particle moving in a nonrelativistic dipolar potential. This special case is a missing link between the Carter constant in stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes (SASS) such as Kerr solution and its possible Newtonian counterpart. We use this system to carry over the definition of angular momentum from the Newtonian mechanics to the relativistic SASS.

  2. Gene delivery by microfluidic flow-through electroporation based on constant DC and AC field.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tao; Zhan, Yihong; Lu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    Electroporation is one of the most widely used physical methods to deliver exogenous nucleic acids into cells with high efficiency and low toxicity. Conventional electroporation systems typically require expensive pulse generators to provide short electrical pulses at high voltage. In this work, we demonstrate a flow-through electroporation method for continuous transfection of cells based on disposable chips, a syringe pump, and a low-cost power supply that provides a constant voltage. We successfully transfect cells using either DC or AC voltage with high flow rates (ranging from 40 µl/min to 20 ml/min) and high efficiency (up to 75%). We also enable the entire cell membrane to be uniformly permeabilized and dramatically improve gene delivery by inducing complex migrations of cells during the flow.

  3. High-Temperature Slow Crack Growth of Silicon Carbide Determined by Constant-Stress-Rate and Constant-Stress Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung H.; Salem, J. A.; Nemeth, N. N.

    1998-01-01

    High-temperature slow-crack-growth behaviour of hot-pressed silicon carbide was determined using both constant-stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") and constant-stress ("static fatigue") testing in flexure at 1300 C in air. Slow crack growth was found to be a governing mechanism associated with failure of the material. Four estimation methods such as the individual data, the Weibull median, the arithmetic mean and the median deviation methods were used to determine the slow crack growth parameters. The four estimation methods were in good agreement for the constant-stress-rate testing with a small variation in the slow-crack-growth parameter, n, ranging from 28 to 36. By contrast, the variation in n between the four estimation methods was significant in the constant-stress testing with a somewhat wide range of n= 16 to 32.

  4. Genetic programming for evolving due-date assignment models in job shop environments.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Su; Zhang, Mengjie; Johnston, Mark; Tan, Kay Chen

    2014-01-01

    Due-date assignment plays an important role in scheduling systems and strongly influences the delivery performance of job shops. Because of the stochastic and dynamic nature of job shops, the development of general due-date assignment models (DDAMs) is complicated. In this study, two genetic programming (GP) methods are proposed to evolve DDAMs for job shop environments. The experimental results show that the evolved DDAMs can make more accurate estimates than other existing dynamic DDAMs with promising reusability. In addition, the evolved operation-based DDAMs show better performance than the evolved DDAMs employing aggregate information of jobs and machines.

  5. REACTOR PHYSICS CONSTANTS

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1963-07-01

    This second edition is based on data available on March 15, 1961. Sections on constants necessary for the interpretation of experimental data and on digital computer programs for reactor design and reactor physics have been added. 1344 references. (D.C.W.)

  6. Making classical and quantum canonical general relativity computable through a power series expansion in the inverse cosmological constant.

    PubMed

    Gambini, R; Pullin, J

    2000-12-18

    We consider general relativity with a cosmological constant as a perturbative expansion around a completely solvable diffeomorphism invariant field theory. This theory is the lambda --> infinity limit of general relativity. This allows an explicit perturbative computational setup in which the quantum states of the theory and the classical observables can be explicitly computed. An unexpected relationship arises at a quantum level between the discrete spectrum of the volume operator and the allowed values of the cosmological constant.

  7. Adjoint-based constant-mass partial derivatives

    DOE PAGES

    Favorite, Jeffrey A.

    2017-09-01

    In transport theory, adjoint-based partial derivatives with respect to mass density are constant-volume derivatives. Likewise, adjoint-based partial derivatives with respect to surface locations (i.e., internal interface locations and the outer system boundary) are constant-density derivatives. This study derives the constant-mass partial derivative of a response with respect to an internal interface location or the outer system boundary and the constant-mass partial derivative of a response with respect to the mass density of a region. Numerical results are given for a multiregion two-dimensional (r-z) cylinder for three very different responses: the uncollided gamma-ray flux at an external detector point, k effmore » of the system, and the total neutron leakage. Finally, results from the derived formulas compare extremely well with direct perturbation calculations.« less

  8. Probing the mechanism of high capacitance in two-dimensional titanium carbide using in-situ X-Ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Bak, Seong -Min; Yu, Xiqian; ...

    2015-05-28

    The field of supercapacitors (electrochemical capacitors) is constantly evolving. The global motivation is to create devices that possess a significant energy density without compromising the power density. To achieve this goal, new materials must be discovered and complex electrode architectures developed.

  9. Systematics of constant roll inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2018-02-01

    We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.

  10. Magnetic black holes and monopoles in a nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a cosmological constant: Exact solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Lemos, José P. S.; Zayats, Alexei E.

    2016-04-01

    Alternative theories of gravity and their solutions are of considerable importance since, at some fundamental level, the world can reveal new features. Indeed, it is suspected that the gravitational field might be nonminimally coupled to the other fields at scales not yet probed, bringing into the forefront nonminimally coupled theories. In this mode, we consider a nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a cosmological constant. Imposing spherical symmetry and staticity for the spacetime and a magnetic Wu-Yang ansatz for the Yang-Mills field, we find expressions for the solutions of the theory. Further imposing constraints on the nonminimal parameters, we find a family of exact solutions of the theory depending on five parameters—two nonminimal parameters, the cosmological constant, the magnetic charge, and the mass. These solutions represent magnetic monopoles and black holes in magnetic monopoles with de Sitter, Minkowskian, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics, depending on the sign and value of the cosmological constant Λ . We classify completely the family of solutions with respect to the number and the type of horizons and show that the spacetime solutions can have, at most, four horizons. For particular sets of the parameters, these horizons can become double, triple, and quadruple. For instance, for a positive cosmological constant Λ , there is a critical Λc for which the solution admits a quadruple horizon, evocative of the Λc that appears for a given energy density in both the Einstein static and Eddington-Lemaître dynamical universes. As an example of our classification, we analyze solutions in the Drummond-Hathrell nonminimal theory that describe nonminimal black holes. Another application is with a set of regular black holes previously treated.

  11. Inflation with a constant rate of roll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-09-01

    We consider an inflationary scenario where the rate of inflaton roll defined by ̈phi/H dot phi remains constant. The rate of roll is small for slow-roll inflation, while a generic rate of roll leads to the interesting case of 'constant-roll' inflation. We find a general exact solution for the inflaton potential required for such inflaton behaviour. In this model, due to non-slow evolution of background, the would-be decaying mode of linear scalar (curvature) perturbations may not be neglected. It can even grow for some values of the model parameter, while the other mode always remains constant. However, this always occurs for unstable solutions which are not attractors for the given potential. The most interesting particular cases of constant-roll inflation remaining viable with the most recent observational data are quadratic hilltop inflation (with cutoff) and natural inflation (with an additional negative cosmological constant). In these cases even-order slow-roll parameters approach non-negligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime.

  12. Inflation with a constant rate of roll

    SciTech Connect

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi, E-mail: motohashi@kicp.uchicago.edu, E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-09-01

    We consider an inflationary scenario where the rate of inflaton roll defined by {sup ··}φ/H φ-dot remains constant. The rate of roll is small for slow-roll inflation, while a generic rate of roll leads to the interesting case of 'constant-roll' inflation. We find a general exact solution for the inflaton potential required for such inflaton behaviour. In this model, due to non-slow evolution of background, the would-be decaying mode of linear scalar (curvature) perturbations may not be neglected. It can even grow for some values of the model parameter, while the other mode always remains constant. However, this always occurs formore » unstable solutions which are not attractors for the given potential. The most interesting particular cases of constant-roll inflation remaining viable with the most recent observational data are quadratic hilltop inflation (with cutoff) and natural inflation (with an additional negative cosmological constant). In these cases even-order slow-roll parameters approach non-negligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime.« less

  13. Dynamically orthogonal field equations for stochastic flows and particle dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    where uncertainty ‘lives’ as well as a system of Stochastic Di erential Equations that de nes how the uncertainty evolves in the time varying stochastic ... stochastic dynamical component that are both time and space dependent, we derive a system of field equations consisting of a Partial Differential Equation...a system of Stochastic Differential Equations that defines how the stochasticity evolves in the time varying stochastic subspace. These new

  14. A comparative analysis of mail and internet surveys

    Treesearch

    Benjamin D. Poole; David K. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    Th e field of survey research is constantly evolving with the introduction of new technologies. Each new mini-revolution brings criticism about the accuracy of the new survey method. The latest development in the survey research field has been increased reliance on Internet surveys. This paper compares data collected through a mixed-mode (mail and Internet) survey of...

  15. New solution to the problem of the tension between the high-redshift and low-redshift measurements of the Hubble constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    During my talk I will present results suggesting that the phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature could resolve the conflict between Planck's (high-redshift) and Riess et al. (low-redshift) measurements of the Hubble constant. The phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature is absent in the Standard Cosmological Model, which has a flat and fixed spatial curvature (small perturbations are considered in the Standard Cosmological Model but their global average vanishes, leading to spatial flatness at all times).In my talk I will show that with the nonlinear growth of cosmic structures the global average deviates from zero. As a result, the spatial curvature evolves from spatial flatness of the early universe to a negatively curved universe at the present day, with Omega_K ~ 0.1. Consequently, the present day expansion rate, as measured by the Hubble constant, is a few percent higher compared to the high-redshift constraints. This provides an explanation why there is a tension between high-redshift (Planck) and low-redshift (Riess et al.) measurements of the Hubble constant. In the presence of emerging spatial curvature these two measurements should in fact be different: high redshift measurements should be slightly lower than the Hubble constant inferred from the low-redshift data.The presentation will be based on the results described in arXiv:1707.01800 and arXiv:1708.09143 (which discuss the phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature) and on a paper that is still work in progress but is expected to be posted on arxiv by the AAS meeting (this paper uses mock low-redshift data to show that starting from the Planck's cosmological models (in the early universe) but with the emerging spatial curvature taken into account, the low-redshift Hubble constant should be 72.4 km/s/Mpc.

  16. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Evolved Gas Analysis at Mars Ambient Conditions Using the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musselwhite, D. S.; Boynton, W. V.; Ming, Douglas W.; Quadlander, G.; Kerry, K. E.; Bode, R. C.; Bailey, S. H.; Ward, M. G.; Pathare, A. V.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) combined with evolved gas analysis (EGA) is a well developed technique for the analysis of a wide variety of sample types with broad application in material and soil sciences. However, the use of the technique for samples under conditions of pressure and temperature as found on other planets is one of current C development and cutting edge research. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (MGA), which was designed, built and tested at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Lab (LPL), utilizes DSC/EGA. TEGA, which was sent to Mars on the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander, was to be the first application of DSC/EGA on the surface of Mars as well as the first direct measurement of the volatile-bearing mineralogy in martian soil.

  17. [Evolvement of soil quality in salt marshes and reclaimed farmlands in Yancheng coastal wetland].

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhi-Gang; Gu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jin-E; Ren, Li-Juan; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2010-08-01

    Through vegetation investigation and soil analysis, this paper studied the evolvement of soil quality during natural vegetation succession and after farmland reclamation in the Yancheng coastal wetland of Jiangsu Province. Along with the process of vegetation succession, the soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in the wetland improved, which was manifested in the improvement of soil physical properties and the increase of soil nutrient contents, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities. Different vegetation type induced the differences in soil properties. Comparing with those in salt marshes, the soil salt content in reclaimed farmlands decreased to 0.01 - 0.04%, the soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities increased, and the soil quality improved obviously. The soil quality index (SQI) in the wetland was in the order of mudflat (0.194) < Suaeda salsa flat (0.233) < Imperata cylindrica flat (0.278) < Spartina alterniflora flat (0.446) < maize field (0.532) < cotton field (0.674) < soybean field (0.826), suggesting that positive vegetation succession would be an effective approach in improving soil quality.

  18. Theoretical Evaluation of the Transient Response of Constant Head and Constant Flow-Rate Permeability Tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, M.; Takahashi, M.; Morin, R.H.; Esaki, T.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented that compares the response characteristics of the constant head and the constant flowrate (flow pump) laboratory techniques for quantifying the hydraulic properties of geologic materials having permeabilities less than 10-10 m/s. Rigorous analytical solutions that describe the transient distributions of hydraulic gradient within a specimen are developed, and equations are derived for each method. Expressions simulating the inflow and outflow rates across the specimen boundaries during a constant-head permeability test are also presented. These solutions illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method, including insights into measurement accuracy and the validity of using Darcy's law under certain conditions. The resulting observations offer practical considerations in the selection of an appropriate laboratory test method for the reliable measurement of permeability in low-permeability geologic materials.

  19. A full set of langatate high-temperature acoustic wave constants: elastic, piezoelectric, dielectric constants up to 900°C.

    PubMed

    Davulis, Peter M; da Cunha, Mauricio Pereira

    2013-04-01

    A full set of langatate (LGT) elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants with their respective temperature coefficients up to 900°C is presented, and the relevance of the dielectric and piezoelectric constants and temperature coefficients are discussed with respect to predicted and measured high-temperature SAW propagation properties. The set of constants allows for high-temperature acoustic wave (AW) propagation studies and device design. The dielectric constants and polarization and conductive losses were extracted by impedance spectroscopy of parallel-plate capacitors. The measured dielectric constants at high temperatures were combined with previously measured LGT expansion coefficients and used to determine the elastic and piezoelectric constants using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) measurements at temperatures up to 900°C. The extracted LGT piezoelectric constants and temperature coefficients show that e11 and e14 change by up to 62% and 77%, respectively, for the entire 25°C to 900°C range when compared with room-temperature values. The LGT high-temperature constants and temperature coefficients were verified by comparing measured and predicted phase velocities (vp) and temperature coefficients of delay (TCD) of SAW delay lines fabricated along 6 orientations in the LGT plane (90°, 23°, Ψ) up to 900°C. For the 6 tested orientations, the predicted SAW vp agree within 0.2% of the measured vp on average and the calculated TCD is within 9.6 ppm/°C of the measured value on average over the temperature range of 25°C to 900°C. By including the temperature dependence of both dielectric and piezoelectric constants, the average discrepancies between predicted and measured SAW properties were reduced, on average: 77% for vp, 13% for TCD, and 63% for the turn-over temperatures analyzed.

  20. Wormholes and the cosmological constant problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanov, I.

    The author reviews the cosmological constant problem and the recently proposed wormhole mechanism for its solution. Summation over wormholes in the Euclidean path integral for gravity turns all the coupling parameters into dynamical variables, sampled from a probability distribution. A formal saddle point analysis results in a distribution with a sharp peak at the cosmological constant equal to zero, which appears to solve the cosmological constant problem. He discusses the instabilities of the gravitational Euclidean path integral and the difficulties with its interpretation. He presents an alternate formalism for baby universes, based on the "third quantization" of the Wheeler-De Witt equation. This approach is analyzed in a minisuperspace model for quantum gravity, where it reduces to simple quantum mechanics. Once again, the coupling parameters become dynamical. Unfortunately, the a priori probability distribution for the cosmological constant and other parameters is typically a smooth function, with no sharp peaks.

  1. Calculation of kinetic rate constants from thermodynamic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. John

    1995-01-01

    A new scheme for relating the absolute value for the kinetic rate constant k to the thermodynamic constant Kp is developed for gases. In this report the forward and reverse rate constants are individually related to the thermodynamic data. The kinetic rate constants computed from thermodynamics compare well with the current kinetic rate constants. This method is self consistent and does not have extensive rules. It is first demonstrated and calibrated by computing the HBr reaction from H2 and Br2. This method then is used on other reactions.

  2. Derivation of the midinfrared (5.0-25.0 micron) optical constants of hydrous carbonate and sulfate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Orenberg, James B.; Pollack, James B.

    1993-01-01

    There is ample theoretical and observational evidence suggesting liquid water was once stable at the surface of Mars. Because water is essential to the evolution of life, it is important to understand the types of environments in which the liquid water was present. For example, if water were present early in Mars' history, then this raises the possibility that biological activity may have evolved only to eventually become extinct as liquid water became scarce. Alternatively, if liquid water were stable only later in Mars' history, then it becomes problematic to envision mechanisms by which biological activity evolved and remained viable without water until more favorable conditions existed. Even without biological activity, atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolved in water can assist the chemical weathering of primary igneous minerals producing common secondary phases such as hydartes, carbonates, and sulfates. While the identification of hydrates, carbonates, and sulfates on Mars cannot provide direct evidence of biological activity, it can provide significant information regarding the presence and duration of an environment that would support the presence of liquid water at the surface. The specific mineralogy of these secondary phases can provide insight into the environments of their formation. For example, the slow precipitation that occurs in large standing bodies of water, e.g. oceans or lakes, commonly results in the formation of calcite, magnesite, dolomite, siderite, and rhodochrosite. Rapid precipitation that occurs in ephemeral bodies of water, e.g. hypersaline lakes or playas, can result in the formation of all of the above phases as well as aragonite, vaterite, hydrated carbonates, alkali carbonates, bicarbonates, and other poorly ordered phases. Absorption features identified in recent near-infrared spectra of Mars have been interpreted as being due to bicarbonate and bisulfate located in the mineral scaplite. Spectral data returned by the Mariner 6 and

  3. Dynamics of a lightning corona sheath—A constant field approach using the generalized traveling current source return stroke model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetic, Jovan; Heidler, Fridolin; Markovic, Slavoljub; Radosavljevic, Radovan; Osmokrovic, Predrag

    2012-11-01

    A generalized lightning traveling current source return stroke model has been used to examine the characteristics of the lightning channel corona sheath surrounding a thin channel core. A model of the lightning channel consisting of a charged corona sheath and a narrow, highly conducting central core that conducts the main current flow is assumed. Strong electric field, with a predominant radial direction, has been created during the return stroke between the channel core and the outer channel sheath containing the negative charge. The return stroke process is modeled with the positive charge coming from the channel core discharging the negative leader charge in the corona sheath. The corona sheath model that predicts the charge motion in the sheath is used to derive the expressions of the sheath radius vs. time during the return stroke. According to the corona sheath model proposed earlier by Maslowski and Rakov (2006) and Maslowski et al. (2009), it consists of three zones, zone 1 (surrounding channel core with net positive charge), zone 2 (surrounding zone 1 with negative charge) and zone 3 (outer zone representing the virgin air without charges). We adopted the assumption of a constant electric field inside zone 1 of the corona sheath observed in the experimental research of corona discharges in a coaxial geometry by Cooray (2000). This assumption seems to be more realistic than the assumption of a uniform corona space charge density used previously in the study of Maslowski and Rakov (2006), Marjanovic and Cvetic (2009), and Tausanovic et al. (2010). Applying the Gauss' law on the infinitesimally small cylindrical section of the channel the expressions for time-dependence of the radii of zones 1 and 2 during the return stroke are derived. The calculations have shown that the overall channel dynamics concerning electrical discharge is roughly 50% slower and the maximum radius of zone 1 is about 33% smaller compared to the corresponding values calculated in the

  4. Evolving gene regulation networks into cellular networks guiding adaptive behavior: an outline how single cells could have evolved into a centralized neurosensory system

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Elliott, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of the neurosensory system of man, able to reflect on its own origin, is one of the major goals of comparative neurobiology. Details of the origin of neurosensory cells, their aggregation into central nervous systems and associated sensory organs, their localized patterning into remarkably different cell types aggregated into variably sized parts of the central nervous system begin to emerge. Insights at the cellular and molecular level begin to shed some light on the evolution of neurosensory cells, partially covered in this review. Molecular evidence suggests that high mobility group (HMG) proteins of pre-metazoans evolved into the definitive Sox [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box] genes used for neurosensory precursor specification in metazoans. Likewise, pre-metazoan basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes evolved in metazoans into the group A bHLH genes dedicated to neurosensory differentiation in bilaterians. Available evidence suggests that the Sox and bHLH genes evolved a cross-regulatory network able to synchronize expansion of precursor populations and their subsequent differentiation into novel parts of the brain or sensory organs. Molecular evidence suggests metazoans evolved patterning gene networks early and not dedicated to neuronal development. Only later in evolution were these patterning gene networks tied into the increasing complexity of diffusible factors, many of which were already present in pre-metazoans, to drive local patterning events. It appears that the evolving molecular basis of neurosensory cell development may have led, in interaction with differentially expressed patterning genes, to local network modifications guiding unique specializations of neurosensory cells into sensory organs and various areas of the central nervous system. PMID:25416504

  5. Evolving gene regulatory networks into cellular networks guiding adaptive behavior: an outline how single cells could have evolved into a centralized neurosensory system.

    PubMed

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Elliott, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of the neurosensory system of man, able to reflect on its own origin, is one of the major goals of comparative neurobiology. Details of the origin of neurosensory cells, their aggregation into central nervous systems and associated sensory organs and their localized patterning leading to remarkably different cell types aggregated into variably sized parts of the central nervous system have begun to emerge. Insights at the cellular and molecular level have begun to shed some light on the evolution of neurosensory cells, partially covered in this review. Molecular evidence suggests that high mobility group (HMG) proteins of pre-metazoans evolved into the definitive Sox [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box] genes used for neurosensory precursor specification in metazoans. Likewise, pre-metazoan basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes evolved in metazoans into the group A bHLH genes dedicated to neurosensory differentiation in bilaterians. Available evidence suggests that the Sox and bHLH genes evolved a cross-regulatory network able to synchronize expansion of precursor populations and their subsequent differentiation into novel parts of the brain or sensory organs. Molecular evidence suggests metazoans evolved patterning gene networks early, which were not dedicated to neuronal development. Only later in evolution were these patterning gene networks tied into the increasing complexity of diffusible factors, many of which were already present in pre-metazoans, to drive local patterning events. It appears that the evolving molecular basis of neurosensory cell development may have led, in interaction with differentially expressed patterning genes, to local network modifications guiding unique specializations of neurosensory cells into sensory organs and various areas of the central nervous system.

  6. Oblique Impact Ejecta Flow Fields: An Application of Maxwells Z Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L. B.; Schultz, P. H.; Heineck, J. T.

    2001-01-01

    Oblique impact flow fields show an evolution from asymmetric to symmetric ejecta flow. This evolution can be put into the simple analytical description of the evolving flow field origin using the Maxwell Z Model. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Evolving MEMS Resonator Designs for Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.; Kraus, William F.; Lohn, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    Because of their small size and high reliability, microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices have the potential to revolution many areas of engineering. As with conventionally-sized engineering design, there is likely to be a demand for the automated design of MEMS devices. This paper describes our current status as we progress toward our ultimate goal of using an evolutionary algorithm and a generative representation to produce designs of a MEMS device and successfully demonstrate its transfer to an actual chip. To produce designs that are likely to transfer to reality, we present two ways to modify evaluation of designs. The first is to add location noise, differences between the actual dimensions of the design and the design blueprint, which is a technique we have used for our work in evolving antennas and robots. The second method is to add prestress to model the warping that occurs during the extreme heat of fabrication. In future we expect to fabricate and test some MEMS resonators that are evolved in this way.

  8. Gravity with a cosmological constant from rational curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We give a new formula for all tree-level correlators of boundary field insertions in gauged N=8 supergravity in AdS4; this is an analogue of the tree-level S-matrix in anti-de Sitter space. The formula is written in terms of rational maps from the Riemann sphere to twistor space, with no reference to bulk perturbation theory. It is polynomial in the cosmological constant, and equal to the classical scattering amplitudes of supergravity in the flat space limit. The formula is manifestly supersymmetric, independent of gauge choices on twistor space, and equivalent to expressions computed via perturbation theory at 3-point overline{MHV} and n-point MHV. We also show that the formula factorizes and obeys BCFW recursion in twistor space.

  9. Equivalent refractive-index structure constant of non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Zhu, Wenyue; Wu, Xiaoqing; Rao, Ruizhong

    2015-09-07

    The relationship between the non-Kolmogorov refractive-index structure constant and the Kolmogorov refractive-index structure constant is derived by using the refractive-index structure function and the variance of refractive-index fluctuations. It shows that the non-Kolmogorov structure constant is proportional to the Kolmogorov structure constant and the scaling factor depends on the outer scale and the spectral power law. For a fixed Kolmogorov structure constant, the non-Kolmogorov structure constant increases with a increasing outer scale for the power law less than 11/3, the trend is opposite for the power law greater than 11/3. This equivalent relation provides a way of obtaining the non-Kolmogorov structure constant by using the Kolmogorov structure constant.

  10. The neurobiology of social environmental risk for schizophrenia: an evolving research field.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Ceren; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and complex brain disorder that usually manifests in early adulthood and disturbs a wide range of human functions. More than 100 years after its initial description, the pathophysiology of the disorder is still incompletely understood. Many epidemiological studies strongly suggest a complex interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors for the development of the disorder. While there is considerable evidence for a social environmental component of this risk, the links between adverse social factors and altered brain function have just come into focus. In the present review, we first summarize epidemiological evidence for the significance of social environmental risk factors, outline the role of altered social stress processing in mental illness, and review the latest experimental evidence for the neural correlates of social environmental risk for schizophrenia. The studies we have discussed in this review provide a selection of the current work in the field. We suggest that many of the social environmental risk factors may impact on perceived social stress and engage neural circuits in the brain whose functional and structural architecture undergoes detrimental change in response to prolonged exposure. We conclude that multidisciplinary approaches involving various fields and thoroughly constructed longitudinal designs are necessary to capture complex structure of social environmental risks.

  11. Local measurements of the diffusion constant in multiple scattering media: Application to human trabecular bone imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, Alexandre; Derode, Arnaud; Padilla, Frédéric

    2008-03-01

    We present local measurements of the diffusion constant for ultrasonic waves undergoing multiple scattering. The experimental setup uses a coherent array of programmable transducers. By achieving Gaussian beamforming at emission and reception, an array of virtual sources and receivers located in the near field is constructed. A matrix treatment is proposed to separate the incoherent intensity from the coherent backscattering peak. Local measurements of the diffusion constant D are then achieved. This technique is applied to a real case: a sample of human trabecular bone for which the ultrasonic characterization of multiple scattering is an issue.

  12. Theoretical lower bounds for parallel pipelined shift-and-add constant multiplications with n-input arithmetic operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Jiménez, Miriam Guadalupe; Meyer Baese, Uwe; Jovanovic Dolecek, Gordana

    2017-12-01

    New theoretical lower bounds for the number of operators needed in fixed-point constant multiplication blocks are presented. The multipliers are constructed with the shift-and-add approach, where every arithmetic operation is pipelined, and with the generalization that n-input pipelined additions/subtractions are allowed, along with pure pipelining registers. These lower bounds, tighter than the state-of-the-art theoretical limits, are particularly useful in early design stages for a quick assessment in the hardware utilization of low-cost constant multiplication blocks implemented in the newest families of field programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits.

  13. Systematic harmonic power laws inter-relating multiple fundamental constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakeres, Donald; Buckhanan, Wayne; Andrianarijaona, Vola

    2017-01-01

    Power laws and harmonic systems are ubiquitous in physics. We hypothesize that 2, π, the electron, Bohr radius, Rydberg constant, neutron, fine structure constant, Higgs boson, top quark, kaons, pions, muon, Tau, W, and Z when scaled in a common single unit are all inter-related by systematic harmonic powers laws. This implies that if the power law is known it is possible to derive a fundamental constant's scale in the absence of any direct experimental data of that constant. This is true for the case of the hydrogen constants. We created a power law search engine computer program that randomly generated possible positive or negative powers searching when the product of logical groups of constants equals 1, confirming they are physically valid. For 2, π, and the hydrogen constants the search engine found Planck's constant, Coulomb's energy law, and the kinetic energy law. The product of ratios defined by two constants each was the standard general format. The search engine found systematic resonant power laws based on partial harmonic fraction powers of the neutron for all of the constants with products near 1, within their known experimental precision, when utilized with appropriate hydrogen constants. We conclude that multiple fundamental constants are inter-related within a harmonic power law system.

  14. Evolving Systems: An Outcome of Fondest Hopes and Wildest Dreams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    New theory is presented for evolving systems, which are autonomously controlled subsystems that self-assemble into a new evolved system with a higher purpose. Evolving systems of aerospace structures often require additional control when assembling to maintain stability during the entire evolution process. This is the concept of Adaptive Key Component Control that operates through one specific component to maintain stability during the evolution. In addition, this control must often overcome persistent disturbances that occur while the evolution is in progress. Theoretical results will be presented for Adaptive Key Component control for persistent disturbance rejection. An illustrative example will demonstrate the Adaptive Key Component controller on a system composed of rigid body and flexible body modes.

  15. The spectrum of random magnetic fields in the mean field dynamo theory of the Galactic magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Anderson, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    The fluctuation spectrum that must arise in a mean field dynamo generation of galactic fields if the initial field is weak is considered. A kinetic equation for its evolution is derived and solved. The spectrum evolves by transfer of energy from one magnetic mode to another by interaction with turbulent velocity modes. This kinetic equation is valid in the limit that the rate of evolution of the magnetic modes is slower than the reciprocal decorrelation time of the turbulent modes. This turns out to be the case by a factor greater than 3. Most of the fluctuation energy concentrates on small scales, shorter than the hydrodynamic turbulent scales. The fluctuation energy builds up to equipartition with the turbulent energy in times that are short compared to the e-folding time of the mean field. The turbulence becomes strongly modified before the dynamo amplification starts. Thus, the kinematic assumption of the mean dynamo theory is invalid. Thus, the galactic field must have a primordial origin, although it may subsequently be modified by dynamo action.

  16. Variation of fundamental constants on sub- and super-Hubble scales: From the equivalence principle to the multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Fundamental constants play a central role in many modern developments in gravitation and cosmology. Most extensions of general relativity lead to the conclusion that dimensionless constants are actually dynamical fields. Any detection of their variation on sub-Hubble scales would signal a violation of the Einstein equivalence principle and hence a lead to gravity beyond general relativity. On super-Hubble scales, or maybe should we say on super-universe scales, such variations are invoked as a solution to the fine-tuning problem, in connection with an anthropic approach.

  17. On the sensitivity of mesoscale models to surface-layer parameterization constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garratt, J. R.; Pielke, R. A.

    1989-09-01

    The Colorado State University standard mesoscale model is used to evaluate the sensitivity of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) fields to differences in surface-layer parameterization “constants”. Such differences reflect the range in the published values of the von Karman constant, Monin-Obukhov stability functions and the temperature roughness length at the surface. The sensitivity of 1D boundary-layer structure, and 2D sea-breeze intensity, is generally less than that found in published comparisons related to turbulence closure schemes generally.

  18. The Dynamical Classification of Centaurs which Evolve into Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Jeremy R.; Horner, Jonathan; Hinse, Tobias; Marsden, Stephen; Swinburne University of Technology

    2016-10-01

    Centaurs are small Solar system bodies with semi-major axes between Jupiter and Neptune and perihelia beyond Jupiter. Centaurs can be further subclassified into two dynamical categories - random walk and resonance hopping. Random walk Centaurs have mean square semi-major axes (< a2 >) which vary in time according to a generalized diffusion equation where < a2 > ~t2H. H is the Hurst exponent with 0 < H < 1, and t is time. The behavior of < a2 > for resonance hopping Centaurs is not well described by generalized diffusion.The aim of this study is to determine which dynamical type of Centaur is most likely to evolve into each class of comet. 31,722 fictional massless test particles were integrated for 3 Myr in the 6-body problem (Sun, Jovian planets, test particle). Initially each test particle was a member of one of four groups. The semi-major axes of all test particles in a group were clustered within 0.27 au from a first order, interior Mean Motion resonance of Neptune. The resonances were centered at 18.94 au, 22.95 au, 24.82 au and 28.37 au.If the perihelion of a test particle reached < 4 au then the test particle was considered to be a comet and classified as either a random walk or resonance hopping Centaur. The results showed that over 4,000 test particles evolved into comets within 3 Myr. 59% of these test particles were random walk and 41% were resonance hopping. The behavior of the semi-major axis in time was usually well described by generalized diffusion for random walk Centaurs (ravg = 0.98) and poorly described for resonance hopping Centaurs (ravg = 0.52). The average Hurst exponent was 0.48 for random walk Centaurs and 0.20 for resonance hopping Centaurs. Random walk Centaurs were more likely to evolve into short period comets while resonance hopping Centaurs were more likely to evolve into long period comets. For each initial cluster, resonance hopping Centaurs took longer to evolve into comets than random walk Centaurs. Overall the population of

  19. A hundred years with the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grøn, Øyvind G.

    2018-07-01

    The main points in the history of the cosmological constant are briefly discussed. As a conceptual background, useful for teaching of physics at an elementary college and university level, Newton’s theory formulated locally in terms of the Poisson equation is presented, and it is shown how it is modified by the introduction of the cosmological constant. The different physical interpretations of the cosmological constant, as introduced by Einstein in 1917 and interpreted by Lemaître in 1934, are presented. Energy conservation in an expanding universe dominated by vacuum energy is discussed. The connection between the cosmological constant and the quantum mechanical vacuum energy is mentioned, together with the problem that a quantum mechanical calculation of the density of the vacuum energy gives a vastly too large value of the cosmological constant. The article is concluded by reviewing a solution of this problem that was presented on May 11, 2017.

  20. Evolving Organizational Structures in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Eileen F., Ed.; Sage, Daniel D., Ed.

    The monograph addresses evolving organizational structures in special education from the perspectives of theory and practice. The initial paper, "Issues in Organizational Structure" (D. Sage), focuses on how the multiple units and operations of the special education system should be related and how the management authority and responsibility for…