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Sample records for constipation

  1. Constipation-Related Health Care Utilization in Children Before and After Hospitalization for Constipation.

    PubMed

    Stephens, John R; Steiner, Michael J; DeJong, Neal; Rodean, Jonathan; Hall, Matt; Richardson, Troy; Berry, Jay G

    2018-01-01

    We studied constipation-related health care among children before and after constipation admission. Index admissions for constipation in 2010-2011 were identified in the Truven Marketscan Database, which includes children receiving Medicaid in 10 states. We measured number of and spending for outpatient constipation visits 12 months before and after index hospitalizations. We also measured spending for constipation hospitalizations and rehospitalization rate. There were 780 index constipation admissions. The median number of outpatient constipation visits was 1 (interquartile range [IQR] = 0, 3) in the 12 months before and 2 (IQR [0, 4]) after admission ( P = .001). Median outpatient spending for constipation was $110 (IQR [0, 429]) before and $132 (IQR [0, 431]) after admission ( P = .2). Median spending for index constipation admissions was $5295 (IQR [2756, 8267]); 78 children (10%) were rehospitalized for constipation within 12 months. Constipation-related health care utilization increased after constipation admission. Median spending for one constipation admission was 50 times the median spending for 12 months of outpatient constipation visits.

  2. Lubiprostone for constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Ashok K; Rao, Satish S C

    2008-12-01

    Chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome are heterogeneous disorders characterized by altered bowel habits, abdominal discomfort and/or difficult defecation. These conditions have a significant impact on patients' quality of life, as well as on the US economy, both in terms of healthcare costs and lost productivity. Treatment typically begins with lifestyle changes, increased fiber intake and osmotic and stimulant laxative intake. However, treatments for constipation vary in terms of their efficacy and safety. Furthermore, surveys of physicians and patients have revealed a strong desire for improved therapeutic options. Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid that is gut selective and stimulates type 2 chloride channels, resulting in increased chloride, sodium and water secretion into the lumen. The increased fluid secretion causes luminal distension, secondary peristalsis and laxation. Randomized Phase III trials have shown that lubiprostone is efficacious in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. The US FDA has approved lubiprostone at a dose of 24 microg twice daily for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults, and at a dose of 8 microg twice daily for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in adult women. Nausea, diarrhea and headaches are the most commonly reported side effects. In long-term studies, lubiprostone appears to be safe.

  3. [Constipation in children].

    PubMed

    Dito, L

    2002-01-01

    Constipation is a common disease in paediatric age, with an incidence ranging from 0.3 to 8% in paediatric patients, and from 10 to 25% among paediatric gastroenterological patients. In 90-95% of cases constipation is a functional, and often due to an exclusively milky diet or, in advanced age, to an inadequate fibres intake. Among the organic forms causing constipation, especially in new-born age, Hirshsprung disease, anorectal malformations, intestinal atresiae and stenosis are frequent. Moreover, recent studies have shown that constipation is often the symptom of a cow's milk proteins intolerance, that leadis to colorectal mucosa inflammation, with peristalsis decrease and fecal slackness. In these patients a milk's proteins free diet recovers constipation. In most persistent forms, total intestinal transit time (TITT), anorectal manometry, sphynteric muscles electromyografy and defecofraphy are useful to the diagnosis. In more than 90% of cases simple diet revisions, fecal softening, evacuative suppositories and enemas recovers constipation, some times a psychological approach is useful. Furthermore, excellent results can be obtained by giving low doses of polietiltnglycol (PEG), which has been recently introduced for the treatment of functional chronic constipation.

  4. Painful or Mild-Pain Constipation? A Clinically Useful Alternative to Classification as Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation Versus Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain; Mary, Florence; Bon, Cyriaque; Bejou, Bakhtiar; Benamouzig, Robert

    2018-02-28

    Abdominal pain is not used to characterize constipated patients. This study aimed to compare clinical, psychological, and physiological features in patients with IBS-constipation (IBS-C) with those in patients with functional constipation (FC) according to the intensity of abdominal pain. All patients filled a standard Rome III questionnaire. In addition, they indicated the intensity of constipation, diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain on a 10-point Likert scale, and their stool form with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physiological evaluation included anorectal manometry and total and segmental colonic transit time. A total of 546 consecutive patients, 245 with IBS-C and 301 with FC, were included. Painful constipation (PFC) was found by cluster analysis and subsequently defined as having a value over four on the Likert scale for abdominal pain. PFC was found in 67% of IBS-C patients and in 22% of FC patients. PFC patients have digestive disorders with greater frequency and report higher levels of constipation and bloating, despite similar stool form. They have higher scores of depression, state and trait anxiety, and shorter terminal transit time than mild-pain constipated patients. Compared to IBS-C patients, PFC patients report higher levels of abdominal pain (P < 0.001). Psychological and physiological parameters were similar in PFC and IBS-C patients. Painful constipation and mild-pain constipation could be an alternative way to identify constipated patients than using the diagnosis of IBS-C and FC for clinical evaluation and drug studies.

  5. Constipation in specialized palliative care: factors related to constipation when applying different definitions.

    PubMed

    Erichsén, E; Milberg, A; Jaarsma, T; Friedrichsen, M

    2016-02-01

    For patients in palliative care, constipation is primarily a result of opioid treatment. Impacts from other factors related to constipation in palliative care are rarely studied. The aim was to identify factors related to constipation in patients in palliative care, and then to compare these factors between patients with different types of constipation and patients without constipation. Cross-sectional data on constipation was collected with a 26-item questionnaire from 485 patients in 38 specialist palliative care units in Sweden. Three different constipation groups were used; MC ONLY, PC ONLY, and MC & PC. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios. Patients with <3 defecations/week, MC ONLY, (n = 36) had higher odds of being hospitalized, bed-restricted, in need of personal assistance for toilet visits, and of having a poor fluid intake. Patients with the perception of being constipated, PC ONLY, (n = 93) had higher odds of having poor appetite, hemorrhoids, hard stool, more opioid treatment, less laxative treatment and of being more dissatisfied with constipation information. Patients with both <3 defecations/week and a perception of being constipated, MC & PC, (n = 78) had higher odds of having cancer- disease. There were several significant factors related to constipation with higher odds than opioid- treatment, for patients in palliative care, such as; hard stool, cancer diagnosis, dissatisfaction with information, low fluid intake, hemorrhoids, bed restriction, hospitalization, and need of personal assistance for toilet visits.

  6. Factors associated with childhood constipation.

    PubMed

    Inan, Mustafa; Aydiner, Cagatay Y; Tokuc, Burcu; Aksu, Burhan; Ayvaz, Suleyman; Ayhan, Sinan; Ceylan, Turan; Basaran, Umit N

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate factors associated with constipation, determine its risk factors and identify common methods of managing constipation among schoolchildren from ages 7-12 in Edirne, Turkey. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study and 1900 children were stratified by the school population, age and gender. The questionnaire collected information from parents about the prevalence of constipation and associated factors as well. It asked about bowel movements, socio-demographic data, personal and family stressors, parental concern about constipation, and treatment methods. The overall prevalence of constipation was 7.2%. It was 7.3% in boys and 7.2% in girls (P > 0.05). The parameters of siblings with health problems, constipation history in family members, abnormal oral habits, and little regular sporting activity were more common in constipated children than in non-constipated ones (P < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, never having used school toilets (OR: 5.9) and having problem to control their bowel after 2 years of age (OR: 3.1) were found to be major risk factors for constipation in schoolchildren ages 7-12 years. Constipated children had a lower consumption rate of fruits and vegetables and a higher consumption rate of milk-group foods, biscuits and macaroni than non-constipated children. Parental concern was at 90% and the rate of medical consultation was 23.2% for constipated children. The risk factors for childhood constipation may be genetic, psychological or organic. Bowel functions may be affected by dietary habits. Parents, health and education professionals should give special attention to childhood constipation.

  7. Living with constipation--older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61-91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related to strategies were Struggling to find a solution; they were aware of different strategies to prevent and treat constipation, though the most common solution described was the use of laxatives, Wait and see; the participants were awaiting to take action until they experienced constipation symptoms, Constipation is a private problem being challenged during hospitalization; constipation was considered a private issue rarely discussed with health-care professionals. This study illuminates the need for health-care professionals to be attentive to this issue and initiate the conversation with patients in order to advise on the management of constipation.

  8. Lubiprostone for chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    PubMed

    Saad, Richard; Chey, William D

    2008-08-01

    Lubiprostone, a locally acting highly selective type-2 chloride channel activator, has been US FDA approved since January 2006 for the treatment of adults with chronic idiopathic constipation and FDA approved since April 2008 for the treatment of woman aged 18 years or older suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation. Through activation of the type-2 chloride channels located on the luminal side of intestinal epithelial cells, it promotes fluid secretion, increasing the liquid content of stool and accelerating small bowel as well as colonic transit. Lubiprostone has demonstrated efficacy with respect to increasing weekly spontaneous bowel movements and improving stool consistency, straining and constipation severity, both in short- and long-term studies. It has also demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of IBS with constipation, with beneficial effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, constipation-related symptoms and overall quality of life. There is no evidence of a rebound in constipation or IBS symptoms following cessation of lubiprostone. In general, lubiprostone is well tolerated, with the most common side effects including nausea, headache and diarrhea.

  9. Constipation: understanding mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Costilla, Vanessa C; Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E

    2014-02-01

    Constipation is a frequently diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder. Symptoms of constipation are common, with the greatest prevalence in the elderly. Evaluation of constipation begins with a detailed medical history and a focused anorectal examination. Diagnostic testing for constipation is not routinely recommended in the initial evaluation in the absence of alarm signs. Key self-management strategies include increased exercise, a high-fiber diet, and toilet training. High-fiber diets can worsen symptoms in some patients who have chronic constipation. Biofeedback is an effective treatment option for patients who have constipation caused by outlet obstruction defecation. A variety of medications are available to remedy constipation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Evaluation of familial aggregation, vegetable consumption, legumes consumption, and physical activity on functional constipation in families of children with functional constipation versus children without constipation.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Moravej, Hossein; Rajaei, Elahe; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is a frequent complication in paediatrics. Most of the constipation is functional. Functional constipation constitutes 25% of visits in paediatric gastroenterology clinics. Two studies were published regarding aggregation or clustering of functional constipation. Only one of these research projects was about a paediatric population. To elucidate the cluster pattern of constipation among the families of children with constipation. This case-control study was carried out on the families of 37 children < 18 years old with chronic functional constipation and the families of 37 healthy children as controls. Cases were enrolled in the study according to Rome III criteria for constipation. The control group was selected from children < 18 years old who visited the well baby clinic of the university. Parents and siblings were evaluated regarding constipation. Rome II and III were used for evaluation of constipation for adults and children, respectively. Data was analysed using SPSS (Chicago, IL, USA). The χ(2) and t-test were used for comparison. Physical activity and vegetable consumption were seen more frequently in the control group compared to the cases, but these differences were statistically insignificant. Constipation in mothers was significantly higher in the case group compared to the control group (p = 0.015). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding exercise and vegetable consumption. The frequency of constipation among mothers was significantly higher in the case group compared to the control group. Another study is recommended in a larger population for evaluation of genetic background, diet, physical activity, and familial clustering among mothers of children with constipation.

  11. Constipation: causes and cures.

    PubMed

    Christer, Ruth; Robinson, Liz; Bird, Clare

    Constipation is a common but poorly understood problem. Within the UK it is estimated that three million GP consultations relate to constipation every year. It is a problem that could affect any person at any time, yet it is often preventable. There is no accepted definition for constipation, however, and it is open to individual interpretation. Some may describe constipation as passing hard stools, others may describe it as infrequent defaecation. Constipation can affect a person's physical, psychological and social wellbeing. Nurses are in a key position to help with this problem, although a multidisciplinary approach is needed if treatment is to be successful.

  12. Linaclotide: a novel therapy for chronic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E; Levenick, John M; Crowell, Michael D

    2012-10-01

    Chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are functional gastrointestinal disorders that significantly affect patients' quality of life. Chronic constipation and IBS are prevalent-1 2% of the US population meet the diagnostic criteria for IBS, and 1 5% meet the criteria for chronic constipation- and these conditions negatively impact the healthcare system from an economic perspective. Despite attempts at dietary modification, exercise, or use of over-the-counter medications, many patients have persistent symptoms. Alternative treatment options are limited. This article describes linaclotide (Linzess, Ironwood Pharmaceuticals/Forest Pharmaceuticals), a new, first-in-class medication for the treatment of chronic constipation and constipation-predominant IBS.

  13. Understanding of Constipation Symptoms and the Diagnosis and Management of Constipation in Chinese Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Huikuan; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Although a range of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation has been carried out, there was very little information about the understanding on constipation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the understanding of constipation symptoms and the diagnosis and management of constipation by clinical physicians in China. Methods Participants were physicians and researchers in the field of gastroenterology in China who were scheduled to attend the National Conference on gastrointestinal motility(Constipation). Based on the recommendation of the Rome Foundation Board, the self-reported questionnaire was constructed. Findings Although most of the opinions on symptoms of constipation were consistent, there were still some differences. Opinions on the Bristol stool form during constipation were discordant, 34% of the doctors thought that it was type 1 and type 2, while 46%of the doctors suggested that type 3 should also be considered constipation. There was no significant difference between them(P = 0.05); We investigated the interpretation on the duration of defecation prolonged, 27% of the doctors suggested it should be longer than 10 minutes, 22% of the doctors suggested it should be longer than 20 minutes, and other 22% of the doctors suggested it should be time of defecation became longer compared to previously bowel habits, there was no significant difference among them(P = 0.38).Only 36% of the doctors thought that psychotherapy was most important in the treatment of severe constipation, while 37% of the doctors thought that medication treatment was most important in the treatment of severe constipation, there was no significant difference between them(P = 0.895). Conclusion We were able to obtain valuable information about current views on symptoms of constipation and the diagnosis and treatment of constipation among Chinese doctors. Although most of the opinions were consistent there were still some differences

  14. Novel therapies for constipation

    PubMed Central

    Thayalasekeran, Sreedhari; Ali, Hani; Tsai, Her-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Constipation is a common medical problem and when standard laxatives fail it can be difficult to treat. Different aetiologies require tailored therapeutic approaches. Simple constipation may only require dietary manipulation while severe neurological or slow transit constipation may need pharmacologic intervention. Recently new drug therapies have been introduced. PubMed and Ovid were searched for reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analysis published since 2003 using the terms: constipation, prucalopride, linaclotide and lubiprostone. This review summarizes potential novel therapies identified as effective in the management of chronic constipation. Prucalopride is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist. The prucalopride study was in patients, largely women with idiopathic constipation showed improved spontaneous complete bowel movement (SCBM) at a dose of 2 mg a day with few adverse events reported. Linaclotide is a 14-amino acid peptide guanylate cyclase-C agonist. The linaclotide study was carried out in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, constipation group (IBS-C). There was significant improvement of bowel evacuation and symptom resolution in patients on the active treatment arm. Lubiprostone activates type-2 chloride channels, increasing intestinal fluid secretion. In the trials of this drug, the lubiprostone arms had a greater mean number of SCBM. The novel therapies, prucalopride, lubiprostone, and linaclotide had very different modes of action yet, all three have been shown to be efficacious and safe in the treatment dose for constipation. PMID:24363515

  15. Side Effects: Constipation

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause constipation. Symptoms include hard stools, stomach cramps, bloating, and nausea. Causes also include pain medicine, diet changes, dehydration, and being less active. Prevention and treatment of constipation is explained.

  16. Medical Management of Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Portalatin, Meredith; Winstead, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a common clinical problem. Initial management of chronic constipation should include lifestyle maneuvers, and increased fiber and fluids. Polyethylene glycol, sodium picosulfate, bisacodyl, prucalopride, lubiprostone, and linaclotide were all more effective than placebo for treating chronic idiopathic constipation. Many commonly used agents lack quality evidence supporting their use. PMID:23449608

  17. Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder in constipated children: The role of constipation.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Maria Luiza; Costa, Elen Veruska; Portella, Inaah; Nacif, Ananda; Martinelli Braga, Ana Aparecida; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2016-12-01

    Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an effective method for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), and, additionally, it accelerates bowel transit time. Therefore, not only does parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), but it also resolves the problem of constipation in a significant number of children. Since TENS has a positive effect on LUTS and on the symptoms of fecal retention, it is possible that its action regarding OAB could be directly associated with the improvement in constipation. In other words, the positive effect of parasacral TENS in OAB would be because constipation was resolved. The objective of this study was to test that hypothesis. To test the hypothesis that the positive effect of parasacral TENS in OAB would be because constipation had improved with this method. In this prospective study, children with OAB alone were submitted to parasacral TENS. The inclusion criteria consisted of children with idiopathic OAB alone The Rome III criteria for children of 4-18 years of age were used to diagnose constipation. All the children were treated with 20 sessions of parasacral TENS applied for 20 min, three times weekly on alternating days (Figure). No instructions were given to the participants with respect to diet, laxatives, or pharmaceutical treatment for constipation throughout the study period. None of the patients used anticholinergics. Standard urotherapy was prescribed. Parasacral TENS improves OAB and constipation. The presence of constipation before treatment was not associated with a poorer prognosis insofar as the resolution of the symptoms of OAB was concerned. Likewise, there was no association between the resolution of constipation with parasacral TENS and the resolution of OAB. There was no statistically significant difference in urinary symptoms between the constipated and nonconstipated children. There was an improvement in urgency

  18. Chronic constipation: Current treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Louis Wing Cheong

    2011-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects patients of all ages. In 2007, a consensus group of 10 Canadian gastroenterologists developed a set of recommendations pertaining to the management of chronic constipation and constipation-dominant irritable bowel syndrome. Since then, tegaserod has been withdrawn from the Canadian market. A new, highly selective serotonin receptor subtype 4 agonist, prucalopride, has been examined in several large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy and safety in the management of patients with chronic constipation. Additional studies evaluating the use of stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation have also been published. The present review summarizes the previous recommendations and new evidence supporting different treatment modalities – namely, diet and lifestyle, bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, prucalopride and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation. A brief summary of lubiprostone and linaclotide is also presented. The quality of evidence is presented by adopting the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Finally, a management pyramid for patients with chronic constipation is proposed based on the quality of evidence, impact of each modality on constipation and on general health, and their availabilities in Canada. PMID:22114754

  19. [Guidelines for the treatment of constipation].

    PubMed

    Park, Moo In; Shin, Jeong Eun; Myung, Seung Jae; Huh, Kyu Chan; Choi, Chang Hwan; Jung, Sung Ae; Choi, Suck Chei; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Myung Gyu

    2011-02-01

    While constipation is a common symptom in Korea, there are no existing treatment guidelines. Although constipation may occur as a result of organic cause, there is no obstructive mucosal or structural cause in the vast majority of patients with constipation. The present paper deals with only the management of functional constipation: lifestyle changes; bulking agents and stool softeners; osmotic agents; stimulant laxatives; prokinetics; biofeedback and surgical treatments. Exercise and dietary fiber are helpful in some patients with constipation. Laxatives including bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic agents, and stimulant laxatives have been found to be more effective than placebo at relieving symptoms of constipation. New enterokinetic agents that affect peristalsis through selective interaction with 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 receptors can be effective in patients with constipation who cannot get adequate relief from current laxatives. Biofeedback can relieve symptoms in selected patients with pelvic floor dyssynergia. Surgical treatments can be helpful in some patients with refractory constipation.

  20. Lubiprostone: chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E; Chey, William D

    2009-01-01

    Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite analogue of prostaglandin E1. The FDA has approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women and the treatment of women with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Lubiprostone specifically activates type-2-chloride channels on the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Lubiprostone acts locally within the intestinal tract, is rapidly metabolized and has very low systemic bioavailability. Animal studies have demonstrated that lubiprostone increases gastrointestinal fluid secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Clinical studies performed in men and women with chronic constipation using 24 microg of lubiprostone twice-daily demonstrated objective improvement in stool frequency and consistency, as well as symptoms of straining and incomplete evacuation. A multi-center study of patients with IBS-C found that 8 microg of lubiprostone twice-daily improved both global and individual symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone is generally well tolerated and serious adverse events are rare. The most common reported side effects are nausea, headache and diarrhea. This monograph provides a brief overview on chloride channel function in the gastrointestinal tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses the safety and efficacy of this new medication for the treatment of chronic constipation and IBS-C.

  1. New Options in Constipation Management.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar; Gamier, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    Constipation is common in the general population and for those on opioids and/or who are suffering from advanced cancer. Self-management consists of dietary changes, exercise, and laxatives. However, responses to self-management efforts are often inadequate to relieve the subjective and objective experience of constipation. Multiple new anti-constipating medications have recently been tested in randomized trials and the following are available commercially: probiotics, prucalopride, lubiprostone, linaclotide, elobixibat, antidepressants, methylnaltrexone, alvimopan, and naloxegol. This review will discuss the evidence-based benefits of these medications and outline an approach to managing constipation.

  2. Functional Constipation and Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the General Population: Data from the GECCO Study

    PubMed Central

    Enck, Paul; Leinert, Johannes; Smid, Menno; Köhler, Thorsten; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of constipation in the (German) population has been shown to be 14.9% in a telephone survey, but more detailed data are required to characterize the sociographics and clinical characteristics of persons with different types of functional constipation, either constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) or functional constipation with or without meeting Rome criteria. Methods. Of 2239 constipated individuals identified during the telephone interview, 1037 (46.3%) were willing to provide a postal address for a questionnaire, of which 589 (56.8%) returned the questionnaire, inquiring about sociographic data, clinical symptoms, and health care behavior related to constipation, as well as health-related quality-of-life (SF12). Subgroups of functionally constipated individuals were compared. Results. More than 50% of the respondents reported a somatic comorbid condition and/or regular medication intake that may contribute to constipation. We split the remaining individuals (N = 214) into three groups, matching Rome-criteria for IBS (IBS-C, n = 64) and for functional constipation (FC-R, n = 36) and FC not matching Rome criteria (n = 114). Nearly all sociographic and clinical characteristics were equal among them, and all individuals with constipation had similar and lowered QOL on the SF-12 physical health domain, but in IBS-C the scores were also significantly lower in comparison to FC-R and FC, in both the physical health and the mental health domain. Conclusion. Only a fraction of individuals with chronic constipation match Rome criteria for IBS-C or FC, but subgroups do not differ with respect to most other measures except quality-of-life profiles. PMID:26880887

  3. Constipation in the elderly: management strategies.

    PubMed

    Spinzi, Giancarlo; Amato, Arnaldo; Imperiali, Gianni; Lenoci, Nicoletta; Mandelli, Giovanna; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Terreni, Natalia; Terruzzi, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    Constipation is a highly prevalent and bothersome disorder that negatively affects patients' social and professional lives and places a great economic burden on both patients and national health services. An accurate determination of the prevalence of constipation is difficult because of the various definitions used, but many epidemiological studies have shown that it affects up to 20% of the population at any one time. Although constipation is not a physiological consequence of normal aging, decreased mobility and other co-morbid medical conditions may contribute to its prevalence in older adults. Functional constipation is diagnosed when no secondary causes can be identified. Patients have some unusual beliefs about their bowel habits. Systematic attention to history, examination and investigation, especially in older people, can be highly effective in resolving problems and in enhancing quality of life. There is a considerable range of treatment modalities available for patients with constipation, but the clinical evidence supporting their use varies widely. However, if constipation is not managed proactively, patients can experience negative consequences, such as anorexia, nausea, bowel impaction or bowel perforation. The clinical benefits of various traditional pharmacological and non-pharmacological agents remain unclear. The first steps in the treatment of simple constipation include increasing intake of dietary fibre and the use of a fibre supplement. Patients with severe constipation or those unable to comply with the recommended intake of fibre may benefit from the addition of laxatives. More recently, newer agents (e.g. tegaserod and lubiprostone), have been approved for the treatment of patients with chronic constipation. Additional work is needed to determine what role, if any, these agents may play in the treatment of patients with chronic constipation. The purpose of this review is to identify evidence-based interventions for the prevention and

  4. Pathophysiology of constipation in the older adult

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, G Lindsay; Miaskowski, Christine; Stotts, Nancy A; Macera, Liz; Varma, Madhulika G

    2008-01-01

    This review provides information on the definition of constipation, normal continence and defecation and a description of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of constipation. In addition, changes in the anatomy and physiology of the lower gastrointestinal tract associated with aging that may contribute to constipation are described. MEDLINE (1966-2007) and CINAHL (1980-2007) were searched. The following MeSH terms were used: constipation/etiology OR constipation/physiology OR constipation/physiopathology) AND (age factors OR aged OR older OR 80 and over OR middle age). Constipation is not well defined in the literature. While self-reported constipation increases with age, findings from a limited number of clinical studies that utilized objective measures do not support this association. Dysmotility and pelvic floor dysfunction are important mechanisms associated with constipation. Changes in GI function associated with aging appear to be relatively subtle based on a limited amount of conflicting data. Additional research is warranted on the effects of aging on GI function, as well as on the timing of these changes. PMID:18461648

  5. Constipation and Incident CKD

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Potukuchi, Praveen K.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope <−10, −10 to <−5, and −5 to <−1 versus −1 to <0 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.20; 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.09; and 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.03, respectively). More severe constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:28122944

  6. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines are expected to reflect the current situation regarding treatment of constipation in Korea. In this paper, practical constipation treatment methods that are in current use will be reviewed with reference to these recent guidelines. PMID:23019388

  7. The measures to evaluate constipation: a review article.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review current constipation assessment scales and clarify (a) the nature of extant measurements and (b) the criteria contained in the measures. A review of relevant literature from inception to 2011 was extracted from PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and MEDLINE databases by searching for the following key words: constipation, scale, measurement, questionnaire, and assessment. Eight scales were reviewed. The scales under review measured constipation from a subjective viewpoint. All measurement criteria included in 8 of the scales were arranged into 51 items and divided into 5 categories. Categories used to measure the severity of constipation were defecation difficulties, abdominal symptoms, emotional effects of constipation, self-treatment strategies, and individual characteristics. Original and suitable scales for the measurement of the severity of constipation based on the review were the Patient-Assessment of Constipation Symptoms scale and the Constipation Assessment Scale. The Patient-Assessment of Constipation Symptoms scale and the Constipation Assessment Scale are reliable, valid, original, and suitable scales to measure the severity of constipation for subjects.

  8. Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... constipation, as well as other conditions, like diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) . Some people have a condition called irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which can act through stress or by ...

  9. Anismus in chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Preston, D M; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1985-05-01

    Among patients complaining of constipation, a group can be defined in which there is slow whole gut transit shown by retention of radiopaque markers but a rectum and colon of normal width judged by measurements of barium enema radiographs compared with control observations. It is not known whether their symptoms are due to an abnormality of colonic motility or to a failure of the defecatory mechanism. Defecation was simulated experimentally in a group of these patients by asking them to expel a water-filled rectal balloon. The constipated patients were not able to expel the balloon, whereas normal subjects could do so. Electromyography of the striated pelvic floor muscles during attempts at expulsion of the balloon in the constipated patients showed failure of the normal inhibition of resting activity. Failure of external and sphincter relaxation on attempted defecation may contribute to the symptoms of some patients who complain of constipation.

  10. Chronic constipation: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lawrence; Riutta, Taylor; Kotecha, Jyoti; Rosser, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common condition seen in family practice among the elderly and women. There is no consensus regarding its exact definition, and it may be interpreted differently by physicians and patients. Physicians prescribe various treatments, and patients often adopt different over-the-counter remedies. Chronic constipation is either caused by slow colonic transit or pelvic floor dysfunction, and treatment differs accordingly. To update our knowledge of chronic constipation and its etiology and best-evidence treatment, information was synthesized from articles published in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Levels of evidence and recommendations were made according to the Strength of Recommendation taxonomy. The standard advice of increasing dietary fibers, fluids, and exercise for relieving chronic constipation will only benefit patients with true deficiency. Biofeedback works best for constipation caused by pelvic floor dysfunction. Pharmacological agents increase bulk or water content in the bowel lumen or aim to stimulate bowel movements. Novel classes of compounds have emerged for treating chronic constipation, with promising clinical trial data. Finally, the link between senna abuse and colon cancer remains unsupported. Chronic constipation should be managed according to its etiology and guided by the best evidence-based treatment.

  11. Laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for external rectal prolapse improves constipation and avoids de novo constipation.

    PubMed

    Boons, P; Collinson, R; Cunningham, C; Lindsey, I

    2010-06-01

    Abdominal rectopexy is ideal for otherwise healthy patients with rectal prolapse because of low recurrence, yet after posterior rectopexy, half of the patients complain of severe constipation. Resection mitigates this dysfunction but risks a pelvic anastomosis. The novel nerve-sparing ventral rectopexy appears to avoid postero-lateral rectal dissection denervation and thus postoperative constipation. We aimed to evaluate our functional results with laparoscopic ventral rectopexy. Consecutive rectal prolapse patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral rectopexy were prospectively assessed (Wexner Constipation and Faecal Incontinence Severity Index scores) pre-, 3 months postoperatively, and late (> 12 months). Sixty-five consecutive patients with external rectal prolapse (median age 72 years, 34% > 80 years, median follow up 19 months) underwent laparoscopic ventral rectopexy. There was one recurrence (2%) and one conversion. Morbidity (17%) and mortality (0%) were low. Median operating time was 140 min and median length of stay 2 days. At 3 months, constipation was improved in 72% and mildly induced in 2% (median pre-and postoperative Wexner scores 9 vs 4, P < 0.0001). Continence was improved in 83% and mild incontinence was induced or worsened in 5% (median pre- and postoperative incontinence score 40 vs 4, P < 0.0001). Significant improvement in both constipation and incontinence (P < 0.0001) remained at median 24 months late follow-up. Ventral rectopexy has a recurrent prolapse rate of < 5%, similar to that of posterior rectopexy. Its correction of preoperative constipation and avoidance of de novo constipation appear superior to historical functional results of posterior rectopexy. A laparoscopic approach allows low morbidity and short hospital stay, even in those patients over 80 years of age in whom a perineal approach is usually preferred for safety.

  12. The pathophysiology of chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Christopher N; Storr, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Constipation is broadly defined as an unsatisfactory defecation characterized by infrequent stools, difficult stool passage or both. The common approach to the pathophysiology of constipation groups the disorder into primary and secondary causes. Primary causes are intrinsic problems of colonic or anorectal function, whereas secondary causes are related to organic disease, systemic disease or medications. The normal process of colonic transit and defecation is discussed, and the etiology of constipation is reviewed. PMID:22114753

  13. Constipation in older people: A consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Anton; Mattace-Raso, Francesco; Neri, Maria Cristina; Petersen, Karl-Uwe; Rey, Enrique; Rogers, June

    2017-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a serious medical condition that affects 30%-40% of people over 60 years old. Although not normally life threatening, constipation reduces quality of life by the same extent as diabetes and osteoarthritis. There are currently no Europe-wide guidelines for treating constipation in older people, although there is some country-level guidance for the general population. We have evaluated the existing guidance and best clinical practice to improve the care of older people with constipation. European healthcare professionals working in gastroenterology, geriatrics, nursing and pharmacology discussed the treatment of constipation in older people and reviewed existing guidance on the treatment of constipation in the general population. This manuscript represents the consensus of all authors. Most general guidance for constipation treatment recommends increased dietary fibre, fluid intake and exercise; however, this is not always possible in older patients. Although a common first-line treatment, bulk-forming laxatives are unsuitable for older people because of an associated need to increase fluid intake, osmotic laxatives are likely to be the most suitable laxative type for older patients. Treatment is often hampered by reluctance to talk about bowel problems so healthcare providers should proactively identify older constipated patients who are self-medicating or not receiving treatment. With certain modifications, general treatment guidelines can be applied to older people with constipation, although specific guidelines are still required for this age group. Awareness of constipation, its complications and treatment options need to be increased among healthcare providers, patients and carers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are many things you can do to prevent constipation. They include Eating more fruits, vegetables and grains, which are high in fiber Drinking plenty of water and other liquids Getting enough exercise Taking time ...

  15. Lubiprostone for chronic constipation in adults.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    Lubiprostone (Amitiza-Sucampo Pharma Europe), a chloride-channel activator is licensed for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults. It received a marketing authorisation in the UK in September 2012. In this article, we consider the evidence for lubiprostone in the management of constipation and how the treatment fits with current management strategies for constipation.

  16. Idiopathic slow transit constipation is rare. But delayed passage of meconium is common in the constipation clinic.

    PubMed

    Croaker, G D H; Pearce, R; Li, J; Nahon, I; Javaid, A; Kecskes, Z

    2007-12-01

    We hypothesise that constipated children would be more likely to come from a socially deprived background. We also hypothesise that a percentage of children with resistant constipation would have a congenital gut motility problem that might be recognised at birth, and that some of these would have slow transit constipation that could be recognised on nuclear transit study. One hundred and forty children with a constipation related diagnosis were seen in the last 4 years, and were reviewed as a retrospective audit. Twenty-six children who were felt likely to have a congenital cause for their constipation were offered nuclear colon transit study to search for slow transit constipation. One hundred and forty children from the constipation clinic were reviewed. There were 67 females (47.9%) and 73 males (52.1%), a sex ratio near equality. The mean age at presentation was 5.38 years. Forty-one percent were formally discharged, 36% were lost to follow up, and 23% are still being seen. There was a highly significant tendency for these children to have delayed passage of meconium, as compared normal newborns (P < 0.001). Twenty-six children were considered for possible transit study, and 14 were performed. Four of these were normal, seven showed hold up in the recto-sigmoid, and three showed more proximal slow transit. Two of these probably have non ISTC diagnoses. Social class seems similar to the general population on the criterion employed. Delayed passage of meconium in this group was significantly more frequent than in the general population, but only one of the group seems likely to have truly idiopathic slow transit constipation, and he did not have delayed passage of meconium. There is no evidence for an effect of social class in this population. Idiopathic slow transit constipation itself is rare.

  17. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation These foods may help if you are ...

  18. Using massage to ease constipation.

    PubMed

    Lämås, Kristina

    Constipation is a painful and serious condition that patients often find difficult to talk about. It is usually treated with laxatives alone. To determine whether abdominal massage is an effective treatment for constipation. METHOD Of 60 people with constipation, half received 15 minutes of abdominal and hand massage a day, five days a week, for eight weeks, as well as prescribed laxatives. The rest received prescribed laxatives only. Interviews with participants were also conducted. Abdominal massage used with laxatives reduced abdominal pain, increased bowel movements and improved quality of life compared with laxative use alone. Patients reported positive experiences of abdominal massage but it did not reduce their laxative use. Abdominal massage was seen as a pleasant treatment that can be offered as an option in constipation management.

  19. Comparison of familial and psychological factors in groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation.

    PubMed

    Çengel-Kültür, S Ebru; Akdemir, Devrim; Saltık-Temizel, İnci N

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the differences between groups of encopresis patients with constipation and without constipation. The Symptom Checklist- 90-Revised, the COPE Questionnaire, the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Parenting Style Scale were used to evaluate, respectively, maternal psychiatric symptoms, coping abilities, attachment style, family functioning and children's perceptions of parenting behaviors. Psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the K-SADS. A higher level of maternal psychiatric symptoms, impaired role and affective involvement functioning of the family and less psychological autonomy were observed in the group of encopresis patients with constipation than in the group of encopresis patients without constipation. No significant differences were found between the groups in psychiatric comorbidities, maternal coping abilities and attachment style. The two groups had a similar pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders and maternal psychological factors, although some familial factors-related mainly to parental authority-were differentiated in the encopresis with constipation group.

  20. A comparison of polyethylene glycol laxative and placebo for relief of constipation from constipating medications.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, Jack A; Cleveland, Mark B; McGowan, John; Herrera, Jorge L

    2007-11-01

    Medications often cause constipation and little data are available concerning treatment interventions. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 laxative (MiraLax) for relief of constipation from medicines associated with symptoms of constipation. Study subjects were enrolled who met defined criteria for chronic constipation and were also taking medications that were associated with a reported side effect incidence of more than 3% constipation. Subjects were randomized into a double-blind, parallel, multicenter study where they received 17 g per day of PEG laxative or placebo for 28 days. The primary efficacy variable, "Treatment Success," was defined as relief of ROME II criteria for constipation over the last 7 days of the treatment period. Various secondary measures were also assessed. Daily bowel movement experience, patient perception of efficacy, and safety information were recorded in a diary. Laboratory testing was performed at baseline and at end of study for hematology and blood chemistry, including BUN, calcium, electrolytes, and TSH. One hundred patients were enrolled at 4 study centers. Successful treatment according to the primary efficacy variable was seen in 78.3% of PEG and 39.1% of placebo subjects (P < 0.001). Similar results were observed in a subgroup of 28 elderly subjects. Secondary measures of number of bowel movements, complete bowel movements, satisfactory bowel movements, straining at stool and stool consistency also showed statistically significant results in favor of PEG compared with placebo (P < or = 0.01) after the first week of treatment. There were no differences inpatient reported scores for gas, cramping, or bloating between PEG and placebo. No significant differences in laboratory findings or adverse events, including the gastrointestinal category, were observed. Diarrhea and flatulence occurred more frequently with PEG treatment, although they were not individually

  1. Teenage constipation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Streeter, Bonnie L

    2002-01-01

    Constipation is a problem of significant magnitude. It can have a devastating impact on a patient's personal life. There are many causes of constipation. Among them are dietary factors such as decreased fiber and low fluid intake, decreased activity, lack of privacy for defecation, pharmacologic agents, physiologic problems such as bowel obstruction or metabolic disorders, and psychosocial distress. A young teenage boy is followed through a series of emergency room visits, office visits, and a hospitalization related to his experiences with constipation. A bowel program was identified and instituted with successful outcomes.

  2. Lubiprostone in constipation: clinical evidence and place in therapy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicholas; Schey, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Constipation is one of the most common function bowel disorders encountered by primary care providers and gastroenterologists. Disorders of chronic constipation, including irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, chronic idiopathic constipation, and opioid-induced chronic constipation, are associated with significant medical costs and a negative impact on quality of life. Although there is evidence supporting the effectiveness of some over-the-counter laxatives in chronic constipation, currently there is no evidence supporting lifestyle modification, dietary change or over-the-counter laxatives as effective long-term therapy for patients with chronic constipation. Lubiprostone is a prostaglandin-derived bicyclic fatty acid available to use for long-term treatment of constipation. Lubiprostone works by increasing intraluminal chloride ion secretion, which results in a passive influx of water and sodium, leading to increased intestinal peristalsis and colonic laxation with decreased intestinal stool transit time. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of lubiprostone in patients with chronic constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and opioid-induced constipation have shown it to be effective and free of serious adverse effects. The most common side effects associated with lubiprostone are mild to moderate nausea and diarrhea. Currently lubiprostone is approved for treatment of chronic constipation and opioid-induced constipation for men and women at 24 µg twice daily and for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in women at 8 µg twice daily. Additional research continues to shed light on the molecular mechanisms of lubiprostone and further work may expand its clinical applications.

  3. Integrative approaches to childhood constipation and encopresis.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Timothy P; Banez, Gerard A

    2007-12-01

    Constipation and encopresis (fecal soiling) are common childhood disorders that may lead to significant functional impairment. The etiology and course of constipation and encopresis are increasingly conceptualized from a broad biopsychosocial perspective, and therefore a holistic approach to assessment and treatment is indicated. Many children experience symptoms of chronic constipation and/or encopresis that are only partially responsive to conventional medical therapy. Complementary/alternative therapies can often help in the treatment of constipation/encopresis and are well accepted by patients and families.

  4. [Practical approach to constipation in adults].

    PubMed

    Hermann, Jacek; Kościński, Tomasz; Drews, Michał

    2012-11-01

    The authors present epidemiology etiology pathophysiology management, and treatment of constipation including proper qualification for surgery. Constipations can be divided into more common - primary and less frequent - secondary The latter may occur due to organic lesions of the large bowel, in the course of metabolic and endocrine disorders, or neurological and psychiatric diseases. Constipation may also be a side effect of multiple medications. In turn, primary constipation is either a slower movement of contents within the large bowel or twice as likely pelvic floor dysfunction with the inability to adequately evacuate the contents from the rectum. Symptoms such as infrequent defecation and decreased urge to defecate indicate rather colonic inertia whereas prolong straining even in case of loose stools, and feeling of incomplete evacuation are typical of obstructed defecation. Digital rectal examination reveals common anorectal defects presenting with constipation such as tumors, anal fissures and strictures, and rectocele, or less frequent changes such as rectal intussusception and enterocele. Proctologic examination should include the assessment of the anal sphincter tone and the pelvic floor movement. Barium enema or colonoscopy are necessary to confirm or exclude colorectal organic lesions, mostly in patients with alarm features. More accurate differentiation between slow transit constipation and obstructed defecation is possible with tests such as colonic transit time, defecography and anorectal manometry Treatment of constipation, irrespective of the cause, is initiated with lifestyle modification which includes exercise, increased water intake and a high-fiber diet. Pharmacologic treatment is started with osmotic agents followed by stimulant laxatives. In turn, biofeedback therapy is a method of choice for the treatment of defecation disorders. There is a small group of patients with intractable slow-transit constipation and descending perineum syndrome

  5. Lubiprostone in constipation: clinical evidence and place in therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is one of the most common function bowel disorders encountered by primary care providers and gastroenterologists. Disorders of chronic constipation, including irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, chronic idiopathic constipation, and opioid-induced chronic constipation, are associated with significant medical costs and a negative impact on quality of life. Although there is evidence supporting the effectiveness of some over-the-counter laxatives in chronic constipation, currently there is no evidence supporting lifestyle modification, dietary change or over-the-counter laxatives as effective long-term therapy for patients with chronic constipation. Lubiprostone is a prostaglandin-derived bicyclic fatty acid available to use for long-term treatment of constipation. Lubiprostone works by increasing intraluminal chloride ion secretion, which results in a passive influx of water and sodium, leading to increased intestinal peristalsis and colonic laxation with decreased intestinal stool transit time. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of lubiprostone in patients with chronic constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and opioid-induced constipation have shown it to be effective and free of serious adverse effects. The most common side effects associated with lubiprostone are mild to moderate nausea and diarrhea. Currently lubiprostone is approved for treatment of chronic constipation and opioid-induced constipation for men and women at 24 µg twice daily and for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in women at 8 µg twice daily. Additional research continues to shed light on the molecular mechanisms of lubiprostone and further work may expand its clinical applications. PMID:25729555

  6. Remedies for children constipation in medieval Persia.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Sadeghpour, Omid; Imanieh, Mohammad-Hadi; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammadreza; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Minaei, Mohamad-Bagher

    2014-04-01

    Constipation in children with bowel movement less than 3 times a week and lasting for more than 3 months is defined as pediatric chronic constipation. According to traditional Persian medicine resources, dryness of food, low nutrition, hotness or dryness of the gastrointestinal tract, intestine sensory loss, excessive urination, increase of evaporation, and sweating because of heavy exercise will together constitute the condition for constipation occurrence. Lifestyle changes considered as premier of medical intervention for constipation. Treatment of constipation in children vastly benefitted from traditional Persian medicine, including simple dietary measures, oil massages, and herbal medicines. This investigation was performed to somewhat help the anxious academics to achieve proper findings in the field of gastroenterology, in pursuit of the traditional Persian medicine advices.

  7. Constipation: Pathophysiology and Current Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amol; Rao, Satish

    2017-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common, persistent condition affecting many patients worldwide, presenting significant economic burden and resulting in substantial healthcare utilization. In addition to infrequent bowel movements, the definition of constipation includes excessive straining, a sense of incomplete evacuation, failed or lengthy attempts to defecate, use of digital manoeuvres for evacuation of stool, abdominal bloating, and hard consistency of stools. After excluding secondary causes of constipation, chronic idiopathic or primary constipation can be classified as functional defecation disorder, slow-transit constipation (STC), and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). These classifications are not mutually exclusive and significant overlap exists. Initial therapeutic approach to primary constipation, regardless of aetiology, consists of diet and lifestyle changes such as encouraging adequate fluid and fibre intake, regular exercise, and dietary modification. Laxatives are the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for potential long-term therapy in patients who do not respond to lifestyle or dietary modification. After a failed empiric trial of laxatives, diagnostic testing is necessary to understand underlying anorectal and/or colonic pathophysiology. No single test provides a comprehensive assessment for primary constipation; therefore, multiple tests are used to provide complementary information to one another. Dyssynergic defecation, a functional defecation disorder, is an acquired behavioural disorder of defecation present in two-thirds of adult patients, where an inability to coordinate the abdominal, recto-anal, and pelvic floor muscles during attempted defecation exists. Biofeedback therapy is the mainstay treatment for dyssynergic defecation aimed at improving coordination of abdominal and anorectal muscles. A large percentage of patients with dyssynergic defecation also exhibit rectal hyposensitivity and may benefit from the

  8. Constipation and catharsis.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Constipation is endemic in the Western world. Stool consistence and associated symptoms are more important than stool frequency. The patient's attitude towards his bowel habit is also important. Exclusion of "organic" disease, reassurance and discussion of normal variations of bowel habit are necessary first steps in treatment. Adquate bulk in the stool must be ensured, either through diet or bulking agnets, and bowel retraining attempted. Laxatives should be reserved for episodes of constipation following enforced bedrest, or as a preparation for diagnostic procedures. Long-term use should be avoided. PMID:1268778

  9. Is encopresis always the result of constipation?

    PubMed Central

    Benninga, M A; Büller, H A; Heymans, H S; Tytgat, G N; Taminiau, J A

    1994-01-01

    Encopresis is often the result of chronic constipation in the majority of paediatric patients. In clinical practice, however, encopresis is also seen without constipation and it is unknown whether these two clinical variants are based on similar or different pathophysiological mechanisms, requiring different therapeutic approaches. We analysed clinical symptoms, colonic transit time (CTT), orocaecal transit time (OCTT), anorectal manometric profiles, and behavioural scores. Patients were divided into two groups, one consisted of 111 children with paediatric constipation, and another group of 50 children with encopresis and/or soiling without constipation. Significant clinical differences in children with encopresis/soiling existed compared with children with paediatric constipation regarding: bowel movements per week, the number of daytime soiling episodes, the presence of night time soiling, the presence and number of encopresis episodes, normal stools, pain during defecation, abdominal pain, and good appetite. Total and segmental CTT were significantly prolonged in paediatric constipation compared with encopresis/soiling, 62.4 (3.6-384) and 40.2 (10.8-104.4) hours, respectively. No significant differences were found in OCTT. Among the two groups, all manometric parameters were comparable, except for a significantly higher threshold of sensation in children with paediatric constipation. The defecation dynamics were abnormal in 59% and 46% in paediatric constipation and encopresis/soiling, respectively, and were significantly different from controls. Using the child behaviour checklist no significant differences were found when comparing children with paediatric constipation and encopresis/soiling, while both patient groups differed significantly from controls. In conclusion, our findings support the concept of the existence of encopresis as a distinct entity in children with defecation disorders. Identification of such children is based on clinical symptoms, that

  10. [Fiber intake and colonic transit time in functional constipated patients].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Adriana Cruz; Victoria, Carlos Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Patients with functional constipation presenting no response to treatment using fibers supplement represents important clinical issue. To evaluate the relations among the amount of ingested fiber, the constipation intensity and the colonic transit time in patients with functional constipation. We evaluated 30 patients, presenting no response to treatment using fibers supplement, and 18 healthy volunteers conducting individual inquiry into fibers intake, constipation intensity and the total and segmental colonic transit evaluation using radiopaque markers. In the constipated, despite the good level of fiber intake (26.3 +/- 12.9 g, constipated x 9.3 +/- 5,2 g, control), the symptoms of constipation was serious (score = 21.3 +/- 4.07). Mean total colonic transit was 58.8h. The colonic transit was slower in the constipated group (41.0 +/- 22.8 hours, constipated x 21.8 +/- 18.5h, control). In constipated patients with slow colonic transit (>58.8h) there were colonic inertia (eight), outlet constipation (one) and slow transit in left colon (one), and among constipated patients with normal colonic transit (<58.8h), there were isolated slow transit, in the right colon (nine), left colon (three) and in the rectosigmoid segment (eight). There were no relation among the amount of ingested fiber, constipation intensity and the colon transit. In the functional constipation the gravity of symptoms does not depend only on the dietary fibers intake, which is not the only responsible for the differences in the colonic transit. The colonic transit can differentiate normal from constipated patients and, among them, those with altered transit that demand approaches distinct of fiber supplementation.

  11. Constipation after thoraco-lumbar fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Schaller, Karl; Tessitore, Enrico; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2014-11-01

    Thoraco-lumbar posterior fusion surgery is a frequent procedure used for patients with spinal instability due to tumor, trauma or degenerative disease. In the perioperative phase, many patients may experience vomiting, bowel irritation, constipation, or may even show symptoms of adynamic ileus possibly due to immobilization and high doses of opioid analgesics and narcotics administered during and after surgery. Retrospective single-center study on patients undergoing thoraco-lumbar fusion surgery for degenerative lumbar spine disease with instability in 2012. Study groups were built according to presence/absence of postoperative constipation, with postoperative constipation being defined as no bowel movement on postoperative days 0-2. Ninety-nine patients (39 males, 60 females) with a mean age of 57.1 ± 17.3 years were analyzed, of which 44 patients with similar age, gender, BMI and ASA-grades showed constipation (44.4%). Occurrence of constipation was associated with longer mean operation times (247 ± 62 vs. 214 ± 71 min; p=0.012), higher estimated blood loss (545 ± 316 vs. 375 ± 332 ml; p<0.001), and higher mean morphine dosages in the postoperative days 0-7 (the difference being significant on postoperative days 1 (48 mg vs. 30.9 mg, p=0.041) and 2 (43.2mg vs. 29.1mg, p=0.028). The equivalence dose of morphine administered during surgery was similar (339 ± 196 vs. 285 ± 144 mg; p=0.286). The use of laxatives in the postoperative days 0-7 was generally high in both study groups, while it was more frequent in patients experiencing constipation. One patient with constipation developed a sonographically confirmed paralytic ileus. Patients with constipation showed a tendency toward longer postoperative hospitalization (7.6 vs. 6.7 days, p=0.136). The rate of constipation was high after thoraco-lumbar fusion surgery. Moreover, it was associated with longer surgery time, higher blood loss, and higher postoperative morphine doses. Further trials are needed to

  12. Chronic constipation: new diagnostic and treatment approaches

    PubMed Central

    Levenick, John M.; Crowell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a highly prevalent disorder that affects approximately 15% of the US population. Chronic constipation refers to patients who have had symptoms for more than 6 months. In clinical practice, chronic constipation is often used interchangeably with the term functional constipation. This is best defined using the Rome III criteria, which involves an evaluation of stool frequency in addition to symptoms of straining, feelings of incomplete evacuation, and the need to use manual maneuvers to assist with stool evacuation. Symptoms can be burdensome, leading to a reduction in patients’ quality of life. As a national healthcare issue, chronic constipation is also important because it imposes a significant economic impact on the healthcare system. A number of treatment options are currently available, both over-the-counter and by prescription, although not all patients respond to these therapies. This review will focus on new medical treatment options for the management of chronic constipation, and the safety and efficacy of these agents will be reviewed. In addition, the efficacy of new diagnostic tests to evaluate colonic motility and anorectal function are described. PMID:22778789

  13. Management of constipation and encopresis in children.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Diane F; Navarro, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem in primary care. Nurse practitioners should be able to diagnose and treat constipation appropriately and to recognize which children require referral to a gastroenterologist. Referral to a gastroenterologist is necessary for the child with simple constipation or encopresis fails to respond to treatment, an organic etiology is suspected, or complex management is required.

  14. Correlates of constipation in people with Parkinson's.

    PubMed

    Gage, H; Kaye, J; Kimber, A; Storey, L; Egan, M; Qiao, Y; Trend, P

    2011-02-01

    To investigate clinical, demographic and dietary factors associated with constipation in a sample of community dwelling people with Parkinson's disease, recruited through a specialist outpatient clinic. Partners/carers provided a convenience control group. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire (background information, diet and exercise, activities of daily living: mobility and manual dexterity, health-related quality of life (SF-12), stool frequency and characteristics, extent of concern due to constipation, laxative taking), and a four-week stool diary. The Rome criterion was used to determine constipation status. Multiple regression methods were used to explore the correlates of constipation. Baseline data were provided by 121 people with Parkinson's, (54 controls), of whom 73% (25%) met the Rome criterion. Prospective diary data from 106 people with Parkinson's (43 controls) showed lower proportions: 35% (7%) meeting the Rome criterion. Among all study subjects, i.e. Parkinson's patients and controls taken together, the presence of constipation is predicted by having Parkinson's disease (p = .003; odds ratio 4.80, 95% CI 1.64-14.04) and mobility score (p = .04; odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.31), but not by dietary factors. Amongst people with Parkinson's constipation is predicted by number of medications (p = .027). Laxative taking masks constipation, and is significantly associated with wearing protection against bowel incontinence (p = .009; odds ratio 4.80, 95% CI: 1.48-15.52). Constipation is disease-related, not a lifestyle factor. More research is needed on optimal management and laxative use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Managing a patient's constipation with physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Kendra L; Haskvitz, Esther M

    2006-11-01

    Constipation is a prevalent condition in the United States, with typical treatment consisting of diet modification, stool softeners, and laxatives. These interventions, however, are not always effective. The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of abdominal massage in physical therapist management for a patient with constipation. An 85-year-old woman with constipation was referred for physical therapy following unsuccessful treatment with stool softeners. The patient was instructed in bowel management as well as a daily, 10-minute home abdominal massage program. Upon re-examination, the patient reported a return of normal bowel frequency and function without the need to strain or use digital evacuation. Physical therapy incorporating abdominal massage appeared to be helpful in resolving this patient's constipation. Unlike medical management of constipation, no known side effects have been identified with abdominal massage.

  16. Evaluation of a constipation risk assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Zernike, W; Henderson, A

    1999-06-01

    This project was undertaken in order to evaluate the utility of a constipation risk assessment scale and the accompanying bowel management protocol. The risk assessment scale was primarily introduced to teach and guide staff in managing constipation when caring for patients. The intention of the project was to reduce the incidence of constipation in patients during their admission to hospital.

  17. Constipation and its implications in the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, S M; Bhandari, S; Ritchie, G; Gratton, N; Wenstone, R

    2003-12-01

    Motility of the lower gut has been little studied in intensive care patients. We prospectively studied constipation in an intensive care unit of a university hospital, and conducted a national survey to assess the generalizability of our findings. Constipation occurred in 83% of the patients. More constipated patients (42.5%) failed to wean from mechanical ventilation than non-constipated patients (0%), P<0.05. The median length of stay in intensive care and the proportion of patients who failed to feed enterally were greater in constipated than non-constipated patients (10 vs 6.5 days and 27.5 vs 12.5%, respectively (NS)). The survey found similar observations in other units. Delays in weaning from mechanical ventilation and enteral feeding were reported by 28 and 48% of the units surveyed, respectively. Constipation has implications for the critically ill.

  18. Clinical Manifestations among Children with Chronic Functional Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Kulouee, Niloofar; Honar, Naser; Imanieh, Mohammad-Hadi; Haghighat, Mahmood; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Constipation is one of the most frequent cause of patient visits to pediatric gastroenterology clinics. Early diagnosis and treatment is important. There are few studies about clinical manifestations of constipation in children. We aimed to find the relative frequency of gastrointestinal manifestations of constipation among constipated children. METHODS This cross-sectional study was carried out on children aged < 18 years old with chronic functional constipation referred to Imam Reza Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Children with organic causes of chronic constipation were excluded from study. Rome III criteria were used for defining constipation. The duration of study was 1 year starting from September 2010. Abdominal pain, fecal mass, rectal bleeding, anorexia, fecal soiling, retentive posture, withholding behavior, anal fissure, and peri-anal erythema were recorded for each case based on history and physical examination. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 13.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS Of 222 children with functional constipation, 124(55.9%) were girls and 98 (44.1%) were boys with a mean ± SD age of 5±3.12 years. The mean ± SD duration of constipation was 2.2±1.9 years. Large and hard stool was present in 93.7% of the patients. Painful defecation and withholding behavior were seen in 92.3% and 91.9% of the patients, respectively. Fecal impaction was more frequent among boys compared with girls (p<0.01). Fecal soiling was present in 40.8% of the boys and 28.2% of the girls (p=0.04). CONCLUSION Large and hard stool, painful defecation and withholding behavior were the most frequent signs or symptoms among children with chronic functional constipation. Fresh rectal bleeding and anal fissure were the least frequent signs and symptoms in this group. PMID:25628851

  19. Clinical Manifestations among Children with Chronic Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Kulouee, Niloofar; Honar, Naser; Imanieh, Mohammad-Hadi; Haghighat, Mahmood; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Constipation is one of the most frequent cause of patient visits to pediatric gastroenterology clinics. Early diagnosis and treatment is important. There are few studies about clinical manifestations of constipation in children. We aimed to find the relative frequency of gastrointestinal manifestations of constipation among constipated children. METHODS This cross-sectional study was carried out on children aged < 18 years old with chronic functional constipation referred to Imam Reza Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Children with organic causes of chronic constipation were excluded from study. Rome III criteria were used for defining constipation. The duration of study was 1 year starting from September 2010. Abdominal pain, fecal mass, rectal bleeding, anorexia, fecal soiling, retentive posture, withholding behavior, anal fissure, and peri-anal erythema were recorded for each case based on history and physical examination. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 13.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS Of 222 children with functional constipation, 124(55.9%) were girls and 98 (44.1%) were boys with a mean ± SD age of 5±3.12 years. The mean ± SD duration of constipation was 2.2±1.9 years. Large and hard stool was present in 93.7% of the patients. Painful defecation and withholding behavior were seen in 92.3% and 91.9% of the patients, respectively. Fecal impaction was more frequent among boys compared with girls (p<0.01). Fecal soiling was present in 40.8% of the boys and 28.2% of the girls (p=0.04). CONCLUSION Large and hard stool, painful defecation and withholding behavior were the most frequent signs or symptoms among children with chronic functional constipation. Fresh rectal bleeding and anal fissure were the least frequent signs and symptoms in this group.

  20. Lubiprostone: a novel treatment for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Chronic constipation is highly prevalent, reduces patients' quality of life, and imposes a significant health care burden on society. Lifestyle modifications and over-the-counter agents improve symptoms of constipation in some patients, however many patients have persistent symptoms and require the use of prescription medications. Three prescription medications are currently Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved and available for the treatment of chronic constipation in adults. This review will focus on lubiprostone, the newest medication available for the treatment of chronic constipation. Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite analogue ofprostaglandin E1. It activates specific chloride channels in the gastrointestinal tract to stimulate intestinal fluid secretion, increase gastrointestinal transit, and improve symptoms of constipation. This article will provide a brief overview on chloride channel function in the gastrointestinal tract, describe the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discuss the safety and efficacy of this new medication.

  1. Constipation in intensive care unit: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Antonio Paulo; da Silva, Fernanda Maria Queiroz; de Cleva, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Although gastrointestinal motility disorders are common in critically ill patients, constipation and its implications have received very little attention. We aimed to determine the incidence of constipation to find risk factors and its implications in critically ill patients During a 6-month period, we enrolled all patients admitted to an intensive care unit from an universitary hospital who stayed 3 or more days. Patients submitted to bowel surgery were excluded. Constipation occurred in 69.9% of the patients. There was no difference between constipated and not constipated in terms of sex, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, type of admission (surgical, clinical, or trauma), opiate use, antibiotic therapy, and mechanical ventilation. Early (<24 hours) enteral nutrition was associated with less constipation, a finding that persisted at multivariable analysis (P < .01). Constipation was not associated with greater intensive care unit or mortality, length of stay, or days free from mechanical ventilation. Constipation is very common among critically ill patients. Early enteral nutrition is associated with earlier return of bowel function.

  2. Constipation: evaluation and treatment of colonic and anorectal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Rao, Satish S C

    2007-09-01

    This article focuses on the colonic and anorectal motility disturbances that are associated with chronic constipation and their management. Functional chronic constipation consists of three overlapping subtypes: slow transit constipation, dyssynergic defecation, and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. The Rome criteria may serve as a useful guide for making a clinical diagnosis of functional constipation. Today, an evidence-based approach can be used to treat patients with chronic constipation. The availability of specific drugs for the treatment of chronic constipation, such as tegaserod and lubiprostone, has enhanced the therapeutic armamentarium for managing these patients. Randomized controlled trials have also established the efficacy of biofeedback therapy in the treatment of dyssynergic defecation.

  3. The Mexican consensus on chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Remes-Troche, J M; Coss-Adame, E; Lopéz-Colombo, A; Amieva-Balmori, M; Carmona Sánchez, R; Charúa Guindic, L; Flores Rendón, R; Gómez Escudero, O; González Martínez, M; Icaza Chávez, M E; Morales Arámbula, M; Schmulson, M; Tamayo de la Cuesta, J L; Valdovinos, M Á; Vázquez Elizondo, G

    Significant advances have been made in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic constipation, since the publication of the 2011 guidelines on chronic constipation diagnosis and treatment in Mexico from the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. To present a consensus review of the current state of knowledge about chronic constipation, providing updated information and integrating the new scientific evidence. Three general coordinators reviewed the literature published within the time frame of January 2011 and January 2017. From that information, 62 initial statements were formulated and then sent to 12 national experts for their revision. The statements were voted upon, using the Delphi system in 3 voting rounds (2 electronic and one face-to-face). The statements were classified through the GRADE system and those that reached agreement >75% were included in the consensus. The present consensus is made up of 42 final statements that provide updated knowledge, supplementing the information that had not been included in the previous guidelines. The strength of recommendation and quality (level) of evidence were established for each statement. The current definitions of chronic constipation, functional constipation, and opioid-induced constipation are given, and diagnostic strategies based on the available diagnostic methods are described. The consensus treatment recommendations were established from evidence on the roles of diet and exercise, fiber, laxatives, new drugs (such as prucalopride, lubiprostone, linaclotide, plecanatide), biofeedback therapy, and surgery. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  4. Constipation and Outcomes of Cecostomy.

    PubMed

    Arya, Shruti; Gupta, Nancy; Gupta, Rahul; Aggarwal, Arun

    Constipation, defined as delay or difficulty in defecation, present for 2 or more weeks, is a common problem encountered by both primary and specialty medical providers. There are no randomized controlled trials on the use of antegrade enemas in the pediatric population. Most published papers are based on the experience at a particular center. The aim of this article is to describe the pathophysiology of constipation, review the contribution of colonic manometry to the diagnosis of constipation, summarize the advancements in the management of constipation through the use of antegrade enemas, and study the outcomes of cecostomy at different centers. This study is a comprehensive literature review generated by computerized search of literature, supplemented by review of monographs and textbooks in pathology, gastroenterology, and surgery. Literature search was performed using the publications from 1997 to 2012. The search included publications of all types presenting or reviewing data on cecostomy. The antegrade continence enema is a therapeutic option for defecation disorders when maximal conventional therapy is not successful. Symptoms of defecation disorders in children with different underlying etiologies improve significantly after a cecostomy is created. In addition, there is a benefit on the patients' physical activity, healthcare utilization, and general well-being. Based on the review of published literature it seems that antegrade enemas are a successful therapeutic option in children with severe constipation and/or fecal incontinence. With the advent of cecostomy buttons, patient compliance and the overall cosmetic appearance have improved.

  5. Constipation - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about constipation ... during the day? How long should I wait? What else can I do to train my body ... more regular bowel movements? How should I change what I eat to help with my constipation? What ...

  6. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation, an ancient disease, is prevalent, and costly in the general population. Complementary and alternative therapies are frequently used for constipation. This review introduces various methods of complementary and alternative therapies, including acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, and herbal medicine. Efficacy, safety, influence factors, sham control design, and mechanisms of these therapies are discussed and evaluated. Acupuncture or electroacupuncture was found to be most commonly used for constipation among these complementary and alternative therapies, followed by herbal medicine. Although only a small number of clinical studies are flawless, our review of the literature seems to suggest that acupuncture or electroacupuncture and herbal medicine are effective in treating constipation, whereas findings on massage and moxibustion are inconclusive. More well-designed clinical trials are needed to improve and prove the efficacy of the complementary and alternative therapies for constipation; mechanistic studies that would lead to wide spread use and improvement of the methods are also discussed in this review. PMID:26064163

  7. Lubiprostone: a novel treatment for chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Chronic constipation is highly prevalent, reduces patients’ quality of life, and imposes a significant health care burden on society. Lifestyle modifications and over-the-counter agents improve symptoms of constipation in some patients, however many patients have persistent symptoms and require the use of prescription medications. Three prescription medications are currently Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved and available for the treatment of chronic constipation in adults. This review will focus on lubiprostone, the newest medication available for the treatment of chronic constipation. Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite analogue of prostaglandin E1. It activates specific chloride channels in the gastrointestinal tract to stimulate intestinal fluid secretion, increase gastrointestinal transit, and improve symptoms of constipation. This article will provide a brief overview on chloride channel function in the gastrointestinal tract, describe the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discuss the safety and efficacy of this new medication. PMID:18686757

  8. Infant Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  9. Chronic idiopathic constipation: a psychological enquiry.

    PubMed

    Dykes, S; Smilgin-Humphreys, S; Bass, C

    2001-01-01

    Intractable idiopathic constipation in women is often associated with psychosocial problems. To determine the past and current psychological factors associated with slow and normal transit constipation. Twenty-eight consecutive patients referred for biofeedback treatment were interviewed before the procedure. All were women. Transit studies revealed that 12 had slow transit constipation (STC) and 16 had normal transit constipation (NTC). Patients were assessed for evidence of previous and current psychiatric diagnoses using a standardized diagnostic interview schedule. A full family and social history was noted. Self-rating scales were used to measure psychological distress, abnormal attitudes to eating and current psychosocial functioning. The mean age of the 28 patients was 38.2 years (SD = 10.8) with a mean duration of symptoms of 17.5 years (SD = 16.9). Seventeen (61%) had a current psychiatric disorder and 18 (64%) a previous episode of psychiatric illness. The mean age of the 16 NTC patients was 38.4 years (SD = 10.1) with a mean duration of symptoms of 12.4 years (SD = 15.9). By contrast, the 12 STC patients had a much longer mean duration of constipation (24.3 years; SD = 16.4), a mean age of 37.9 years (SD = 12.1), with half having an onset in childhood. The STC patients reported more psychosocial distress on the rating scales than those with NTC, and only one did not experience some form of adverse life event or gynaecological procedure in the 6 months before the onset of constipation. Eleven (39%) of the 28 women had had a hysterectomy at a mean age of 36 years, but only four (14%) reported a history of sexual abuse. Of the nine (32%) patients who reported markedly distorted attitudes to food, six had NTC and three had STC. Of consecutive patients undergoing psychological assessment for intractable constipation, three fifths had evidence of current, and two thirds a previous, affective disorder. One third reported distorted attitudes to food. Although

  10. Constipation in Specialized Palliative Care: Prevalence, Definition, and Patient-Perceived Symptom Distress.

    PubMed

    Erichsén, Eva; Milberg, Anna; Jaarsma, Tiny; Friedrichsen, Maria J

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of constipation among patients in palliative care has varied in prior research, from 18% to 90%, depending on study factors. The aim of this study was to describe and explore the prevalence and symptom distress of constipation, using different definitions of constipation, in patients admitted to specialized palliative care settings. Data was collected in a cross-sectional survey from 485 patients in 38 palliative care units in Sweden. Variables were analyzed using logistic regression and summarized as odds ratio (OR). The prevalence of constipation varied between 7% and 43%, depending on the definition used. Two constipation groups were found: (1) medical constipation group (MCG): ≤3 defecations/week, n=114 (23%) and (2) perceived constipation group (PCG): patients with a perception of being constipated in the last two weeks, n=171 (35%). Three subgroups emerged: patients with (1) only medical constipation (7%), (2) only perceived constipation (19%), and (3) both medical and perceived constipation (16%). There were no differences in symptom severity between groups; 71% of all constipated patients had severe constipation. The prevalence of constipation may differ, depending on the definition used and how constipation is assessed. In this study we found two main groups and three subgroups, analyzed from the definitions of frequency of bowel movements and experience of being constipated. To be able to identify constipation, the patients' definition has to be further explored and assessed.

  11. Characterization of Microbiota in Children with Chronic Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    de Meij, Tim G J; de Groot, Evelien F J; Eck, Anat; Budding, Andries E; Kneepkens, C M Frank; Benninga, Marc A; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of the intestinal microbiota is considered an etiological factor in pediatric functional constipation. Scientifically based selection of potential beneficial probiotic strains in functional constipation therapy is not feasible due to insufficient knowledge of microbiota composition in affected subjects. The aim of this study was to describe microbial composition and diversity in children with functional constipation, compared to healthy controls. Fecal samples from 76 children diagnosed with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria (median age 8.0 years; range 4.2-17.8) were analyzed by IS-pro, a PCR-based microbiota profiling method. Outcome was compared with intestinal microbiota profiles of 61 healthy children (median 8.6 years; range 4.1-17.9). Microbiota dissimilarity was depicted by principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), diversity was calculated by Shannon diversity index. To determine the most discriminative species, cross validated logistic ridge regression was performed. Applying total microbiota profiles (all phyla together) or per phylum analysis, no disease-specific separation was observed by PCoA and by calculation of diversity indices. By ridge regression, however, functional constipation and controls could be discriminated with 82% accuracy. Most discriminative species were Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides ovatus, Bifidobacterium longum, Parabacteroides species (increased in functional constipation) and Alistipes finegoldii (decreased in functional constipation). None of the commonly used unsupervised statistical methods allowed for microbiota-based discrimination of children with functional constipation and controls. By ridge regression, however, both groups could be discriminated with 82% accuracy. Optimization of microbiota-based interventions in constipated children warrants further characterization of microbial signatures linked to clinical subgroups of functional constipation.

  12. Physical activity may decrease the likelihood of children developing constipation.

    PubMed

    Seidenfaden, Sandra; Ormarsson, Orri Thor; Lund, Sigrun H; Bjornsson, Einar S

    2018-01-01

    Childhood constipation is common. We evaluated children diagnosed with constipation, who were referred to an Icelandic paediatric emergency department, and determined the effect of lifestyle factors on its aetiology. The parents of children who were diagnosed with constipation and participated in a phase IIB clinical trial on laxative suppositories answered an online questionnaire about their children's lifestyle and constipation in March-April 2013. The parents of nonconstipated children that visited the paediatric department of Landspitali University Hospital or an Icelandic outpatient clinic answered the same questionnaire. We analysed responses regarding 190 children aged one year to 18 years: 60 with constipation and 130 without. We found that 40% of the constipated children had recurrent symptoms, 27% had to seek medical attention more than once and 33% received medication per rectum. The 47 of 130 control group subjects aged 10-18 were much more likely to exercise more than three times a week (72%) and for more than a hour (62%) than the 26 of 60 constipated children of the same age (42% and 35%, respectively). Constipation risk factors varied with age and many children diagnosed with constipation had recurrent symptoms. Physical activity may affect the likelihood of developing constipation in older children. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Characterization of Microbiota in Children with Chronic Functional Constipation

    PubMed Central

    de Meij, Tim G. J.; de Groot, Evelien F. J.; Eck, Anat; Budding, Andries E.; Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; Benninga, Marc A.; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Disruption of the intestinal microbiota is considered an etiological factor in pediatric functional constipation. Scientifically based selection of potential beneficial probiotic strains in functional constipation therapy is not feasible due to insufficient knowledge of microbiota composition in affected subjects. The aim of this study was to describe microbial composition and diversity in children with functional constipation, compared to healthy controls. Study Design Fecal samples from 76 children diagnosed with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria (median age 8.0 years; range 4.2–17.8) were analyzed by IS-pro, a PCR-based microbiota profiling method. Outcome was compared with intestinal microbiota profiles of 61 healthy children (median 8.6 years; range 4.1–17.9). Microbiota dissimilarity was depicted by principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), diversity was calculated by Shannon diversity index. To determine the most discriminative species, cross validated logistic ridge regression was performed. Results Applying total microbiota profiles (all phyla together) or per phylum analysis, no disease-specific separation was observed by PCoA and by calculation of diversity indices. By ridge regression, however, functional constipation and controls could be discriminated with 82% accuracy. Most discriminative species were Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides ovatus, Bifidobacterium longum, Parabacteroides species (increased in functional constipation) and Alistipes finegoldii (decreased in functional constipation). Conclusions None of the commonly used unsupervised statistical methods allowed for microbiota-based discrimination of children with functional constipation and controls. By ridge regression, however, both groups could be discriminated with 82% accuracy. Optimization of microbiota-based interventions in constipated children warrants further characterization of microbial signatures linked to clinical subgroups of functional

  14. [Case-control study of risk factors associated with constipation. The FREI Study].

    PubMed

    Comas Vives, A; Polanco Allué, I

    2005-04-01

    Children represent one of the patient groups most affected by constipation. Our objective was to identify and describe the risk factors associated with childhood constipation. The study had a case-control, retrospective, open and multicenter design. Clinical data on possible risk factors were collected through an ad-hoc questionnaire. Two groups were studied: children with and without constipation. Nine hundred twenty-one children were recruited; of these, 898 (97.6%) were included in the statistical analysis. There were 408 (45.4%) children in the constipated group and 490 (54.5%) in the non-constipated group. Most of the children with constipation (53.6%) had a maternal history of constipation compared with 21.4% of children without constipation (p < 0.05). More than half (53.2%) of the constipated children reported a lack of regularity in their toilet habits while 64.9 % of the children without constipation went to the toilet regularly. Toilet training started slightly earlier (at 3 years) in children without constipation (93.2%) than in those with the disorder (83.8%) (p < 0.05). At school, 57.4% of the children with constipation never used the toilet compared with 26.8% of those without constipation (p < 0.05). A total of 73.4% of children with constipation drank less than four glasses of water per day compared with 47.1% of those without constipation (p < 0.05). Consumption of vegetables and legumes in the diet was significantly lower in children with constipation than in those without (p < 0.05). The risk factors linked to childhood constipation found in this study were a familial history of constipation, irregular toilet habits, low dietary fiber contents and no fruit intake. The main preventive factors against constipation were water and vegetable consumption and training on the use of the toilet at school. Daily toilet training and dietary changes are needed to prevent constipation among children and to achieve regular defecation. This preventive

  15. Lubiprostone: chloride channel activator for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Anastasia; Chagan, Larisa

    2006-12-01

    Chronic constipation is a common and costly health problem occurring in approximately 4.5 million Americans. Current management of constipation is suboptimal and requires a stepwise approach using a combination of laxatives to decrease symptoms. The objective of this review was to describe the efficacy and safety of a new therapeutic entity, lubiprostone, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were conducted (1966-July 10, 2006). Search terms utilized were lubiprostone, RU-0211, and chronic constipation. References of selected articles were searched for additional articles or abstracts. All relevant published literature regarding lubiprostone was included in this review. Pertinent abstracts presented at meetings of the American College of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases Week were also included. Lubiprostone activates a chloride channel (ie, subtype 2) and increases chloride and fluid secretion into the intestines, resulting in relief of constipation. It is poorly absorbed after oral administration, and its metabolism occurs primarily in the stomach and jejunum. Lubiprostone was evaluated in 6 placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized Phase II or III clinical trials. Overall, in clinical trials, >1400 patients were exposed to 24 mug of lubiprostone BID for up to 48 weeks. It improved the number of bowel movements, stool consistency, bloating, and global assessment of constipation compared with placebo (P < 0.05). Nausea was the most common adverse effect reported in clinical trials, occurring in 30.9% of patients. However, nausea was dose dependent and decreased when lubiprostone was given with food. Lubiprostone is the first in its class of chloride channel activators that results in improvement of symptoms of constipation. It has not been compared with other laxatives but, based on the available placebo

  16. The health-related quality of life and economic burden of constipation.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Cheryl; Prasad, Manishi; Lloyd, Andrew; Bhattacharyya, Samir K; Dhawan, Ravinder; Coyne, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Constipation is a prevalent condition that disproportionately affects women and older adults and leads to self-medication and/or medical consultation. It occurs as a result of functional idiopathic causes or secondarily as a result of a variety of factors including dietary and exercise patterns, adverse effects of medication and disease processes. Constipation is often perceived to be a benign, easily treated condition with short-term treatment being relatively straightforward; however, chronic constipation is associated with mild complications that, left untreated, can develop into more serious bowel complaints (faecal impaction, incontinence and bowel perforations) with further implications for healthcare costs and the patient's health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). This review summarises the evidence of the HR-QOL impact and economic burden of constipation on patients. Relatively few studies have systematically explored the HR-QOL and economic impact of constipation; however, the existing evidence suggests that HR-QOL is lower in patients with constipation than in non-constipated individuals, and treatments for constipation improve HR-QOL. Additionally, constipation represents an economic burden for the patient and healthcare provider. Resource utilisation associated with the diagnosis and management of constipation is a significant cost driver, whereas constipation prevention programmes have demonstrated cost savings.

  17. Physical activity and constipation in Hong Kong adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2014-01-01

    To examine the association of constipation with exercise, non-exercise physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in Hong Kong adolescents. In 2006-2007, 42 secondary schools were randomly selected to participate in the Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project. A total of 33692 Form 1-7 students (44.9% boys; mean age 14.8, SD 1.9 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire on lifestyle behaviours. Constipation was defined as a frequency of evacuation of less than once every two days. Exercise (moderate-to-vigorous levels) and non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) were each considered insufficient when less than 1 hour per day, and sedentary behaviours were considered excessive when over 4 hours per day. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for constipation in relation to exercise, NEPA, and sedentary behaviours, adjusting for potential confounders. Constipation was identified in 15.6% (95% CI 15.2% - 16.0%) of adolescents overall, 14.0% in those with sufficient exercise and 19.6% in those without. Constipation was associated with insufficient exercise (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.16 - 1.36), insufficient NEPA 1.21 (1.10 - 1.33) and excessive sedentary behaviours (1.25, 1.17 - 1.34). Compared with having none of the above 3 inactive behaviours, increasing AORs of constipation were observed for having 1 (AOR 1.23), 2 (AOR 1.57) and 3 (AOR 1.88) inactive behaviours (p for trend <0.001). Constipation was associated with insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behaviours among Chinese adolescents with a dose-response relation. If the association is causal, constipation could be prevented by promotion of physical activity.

  18. Incidence of constipation in an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Tatiana Lopes de Souza; Mendonça, Simone Sotero; Guimarães Marshall, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the incidence of constipation in critical patients on enteral nutrition in a hospital intensive care unit and to correlate this incidence with the variables found for critical patients. Methods The present investigation was a retrospective analytical study conducted in the intensive care unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte (DF) via the analysis of medical records of patients admitted during the period from January to December 2011. Data on the incidence of constipation and enteral nutritional support, gastrointestinal changes, stool frequency, ventilatory support, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results The initial sample consisted of 127 patients admitted to the unit during the period from January to December 2011. Eighty-four patients were excluded, and the final sample consisted of 43 patients. The incidence of constipation, defined as no bowel movement during the first 4 days of hospitalization, was 72% (n=31). The patients were divided into a control group and a constipated group. The group of constipated patients reached the caloric target, on average, at 6.5 days, and the control group reached the caloric target in 5.6 days (p=0.51). Constipation was not associated with the length of hospital stay, suspension of nutritional support, or outcome of hospitalization. There was an association between evacuation during hospitalization and a longer duration of hospitalization for a subgroup of patients who did not evacuate during the entire period (p=0.009). Conclusion The incidence of constipation in the unit studied was 72%. Only the absence of evacuation during hospitalization was associated with longer hospital stays. Constipation was not associated with the length of hospital stay, suspension of nutritional support, or outcome of hospitalization. PMID:23917972

  19. Incidence of constipation in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Tatiana Lopes de Souza; Mendonça, Simone Sotero; Marshall, Norma Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of constipation in critical patients on enteral nutrition in a hospital intensive care unit and to correlate this incidence with the variables found for critical patients. The present investigation was a retrospective analytical study conducted in the intensive care unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte (DF) via the analysis of medical records of patients admitted during the period from January to December 2011. Data on the incidence of constipation and enteral nutritional support, gastrointestinal changes, stool frequency, ventilatory support, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. The initial sample consisted of 127 patients admitted to the unit during the period from January to December 2011. Eighty-four patients were excluded, and the final sample consisted of 43 patients. The incidence of constipation, defined as no bowel movement during the first 4 days of hospitalization, was 72% (n=31). The patients were divided into a control group and a constipated group. The group of constipated patients reached the caloric target, on average, at 6.5 days, and the control group reached the caloric target in 5.6 days (p=0.51). Constipation was not associated with the length of hospital stay, suspension of nutritional support, or outcome of hospitalization. There was an association between evacuation during hospitalization and a longer duration of hospitalization for a subgroup of patients who did not evacuate during the entire period (p=0.009). The incidence of constipation in the unit studied was 72%. Only the absence of evacuation during hospitalization was associated with longer hospital stays. Constipation was not associated with the length of hospital stay, suspension of nutritional support, or outcome of hospitalization.

  20. Is constipation associated with decreased physical activity in normally active subjects?

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Ashok K; Talley, Nicholas J; Joos, Sandra K; Woehl, James V; Hickam, David H

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of physical activity in the management of constipation remains controversial. We examined the associations among physical activity, constipation, and quality of life (QoL) in a population of employed adults to determine whether the risk of constipation is related to physical activity. A total of 1,069 employees (age range 24-77) of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Black Hills Health Care System were mailed validated questionnaires (response rate 72%), inquiring about bowel habits, QoL (SF 36), and physical activity (modified Baecke questionnaire). Constipation was defined using the Rome I criteria. One hundred and forty (19.4%, 95% CI 16.2-22.4) employees reported constipation. The average total physical activity and all subscales of physical activity were not significantly different in subjects with and without constipation (all p > or = 0.2). Subjects with constipation had lower QoL scores than subjects without constipation, and physical activity was positively correlated with physical functioning and health perception. Physical activity appears to be unrelated to the risk of constipation in employed adults, but higher physical activity was associated with improved QoL. Recommendations to increase physical activity may not alter symptoms of constipation but may improve overall well-being.

  1. Childhood constipation is not associated with characteristic fingerprint patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C; Anderson, B; Jaffray, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that there is an association between simple arch fingerprint patterns and severe childhood constipation. If real, this association might be useful to predict which children have a poor prognosis. Aim: To see how many severely constipated children have simple arches, compared to non-constipated controls and their first degree relatives. Methods: Fingerprints were classified by two blinded assessors in 30 children requiring surgery for refractory constipation, and 30 children with appendicitis, and the first degree relatives of both groups. Colonic transit times and clinical outcomes were also evaluated among constipated children. Results: At least one simple arch was found in similar numbers of constipated children (13%) and their families (16%), and control children (7%) and their families (13%). Arch positivity was commoner among relatives of arch positive (6/6) than arch negative children (14/54), regardless of bowel history. Arch positivity did not identify children with prolonged transit times, nor those who required colectomy. Conclusions: Fingerprint patterns are not associated with severe childhood constipation, do not aid their management, and do not support a genetic aetiology for this problem. PMID:14670772

  2. Constipation and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Crawford, Sybil; Jackson, Elizabeth; Ockene, Judith; Ockene, Ira

    2011-01-01

    Background Constipation is common in Western societies, accounting for 2.5 million-physician visits/year in the US. Since many factors predisposing to constipation are also risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized that constipation may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis in 93,676 women enrolled in the observational arm of the Women’s Health Initiative. Constipation was evaluated at baseline by a self-administered questionnaire. Estimates of the risk of cardiovascular events (cumulative endpoint including mortality from coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, angina, coronary revascularization, stroke and transient ischemic attack) were derived from Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, risk factors and other clinical variables (median follow-up: 6.9 years). Results The analysis included 73,047 women. Constipation was associated with increased age, African American and Hispanic descent, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, family history of myocardial infarction, hypertension, obesity, lower physical activity levels, lower fiber intake, and depression. Women with moderate and severe constipation experienced more cardiovascular events (14.2 and 19.1 events/1000 person-years, respectively) compared to women with no constipation (9.6/1000 person-years). After adjustment for demographics, risk factors, dietary factors, medications, frailty and other psychological variables, constipation was no longer associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events except for the severe constipation group, which had a 23% higher risk of cardiovascular events. Conclusion In postmenopausal women, constipation is a marker for cardiovascular risk factors and increased cardiovascular risk. Since constipation is easily assessed, it may be a helpful tool to identify women with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:21663887

  3. Clostridial constipation's broad pathology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S

    2001-04-01

    Clostridia are normally found in the healthy colon, where their numbers are kept in check by other bacteria. However, when they establish themselves in the ileum they become formidable foes. They produce medium-length fatty acids that increase water absorption, causing hypertension and drying up the feces, causing constipation.Furthermore, they can deconjugate bile (impaired fat absorption), metabolyze tryptophan (the most scarce of the essential amino acids), digest fiber (so that the more fiber the patient takes, the more the constipation is exacerbated), digest lecithin, produce carcinogenic metabolites and copious amounts of extremely foul smelling gas, etc. They can also prevent vitamin B12 absorption in the ileum, causing anemia. The synthetic sugar lactulose, which can only be digested by lactobacilli, can help displace the clostridia and resolve the constipation by causing the lactobacilli to produce short fatty acids that have the opposite effect to that of the medium fatty acids produced by clostridia and their accomplices: they cause water retention in the intestines. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  4. Review of the treatment options for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Johanson, John F

    2007-05-02

    Constipation is a common gastrointestinal motility disorder that is often chronic, negatively affects patients' daily lives, and is associated with high healthcare costs. There is a considerable range of treatment modalities available for patients with constipation; however, the clinical evidence supporting their use varies widely. Nonpharmacologic modalities, such as increased exercise or fluid intake and bowel habit training, are generally recommended as first-line approaches, but data on the effectiveness of these measures are limited. The clinical benefits of various traditional pharmacologic agents (many of which are available over the counter, such as laxatives and fiber supplements) remain unclear. Although these modalities may benefit some patients with temporary constipation, their efficacy in patients for whom constipation is chronic is less well defined. Some studies suggest benefit with psyllium, polyethylene glycol, and lactulose; however, the use of other agents, such as calcium polycarbophil, methylcellulose, bran, magnesium hydroxide, and stimulant laxatives, is not supported by strong clinical evidence. More recently, newer agents have been approved for the treatment of patients with chronic constipation on the basis of comprehensive clinical investigation programs. Tegaserod, with its well-established clinical profile, and lubiprostone, the latest addition to the treatment armamentarium, represent the new generation of therapies for chronic constipation. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of traditional therapies used in the management of the multiple symptoms associated with chronic constipation and discusses recently approved and emerging therapies for this disorder.

  5. Slow transit constipation: a review of a colonic functional disorder.

    PubMed

    Frattini, Jared C; Nogueras, Juan J

    2008-05-01

    Constipation is a common gastrointestinal complaint that can cause significant physical and psychosocial problems. It has been categorized as slow transit constipation, normal transit constipation, and obstructed defecation. Both the definition and pathophysiology of constipation are unclear, but attempts to describe each of the three types have been made. Slow transit constipation, a functional colonic disorder represents approximately 15 to 30% of constipated patients. The theorized etiologies are disorders of the autonomic and enteric nervous system and/or a dysfunctional neuroendocrine system. Slow transit constipation can be diagnosed with a complete history, physical exam, and a battery of specific diagnostic studies. Once the diagnosis is affirmed and medical management has failed, there are several treatment options. Biofeedback, sacral nerve stimulation, segmental colectomy, and subtotal colectomy with various anastomoses have all been used. Of those treatment options, a subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis is the most efficacious with the data to support its use.

  6. Physical Activity and Constipation in Hong Kong Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of constipation with exercise, non-exercise physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods In 2006–2007, 42 secondary schools were randomly selected to participate in the Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project. A total of 33692 Form 1–7 students (44.9% boys; mean age 14.8, SD 1.9 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire on lifestyle behaviours. Constipation was defined as a frequency of evacuation of less than once every two days. Exercise (moderate-to-vigorous levels) and non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) were each considered insufficient when less than 1 hour per day, and sedentary behaviours were considered excessive when over 4 hours per day. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for constipation in relation to exercise, NEPA, and sedentary behaviours, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Constipation was identified in 15.6% (95% CI 15.2% – 16.0%) of adolescents overall, 14.0% in those with sufficient exercise and 19.6% in those without. Constipation was associated with insufficient exercise (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.16 – 1.36), insufficient NEPA 1.21 (1.10 – 1.33) and excessive sedentary behaviours (1.25, 1.17 – 1.34). Compared with having none of the above 3 inactive behaviours, increasing AORs of constipation were observed for having 1 (AOR 1.23), 2 (AOR 1.57) and 3 (AOR 1.88) inactive behaviours (p for trend <0.001). Conclusions Constipation was associated with insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behaviours among Chinese adolescents with a dose-response relation. If the association is causal, constipation could be prevented by promotion of physical activity. PMID:24587274

  7. The pathogenesis of constipation.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Nigel P

    2006-05-01

    The pathogenesis of the constipation that is commonly experienced by cancer patients, especially those with advanced disease, is the result of multiple influences on the control of intestinal motility and fluid handling. These factors include the direct effects of malignancy on gut structure, paraneoplastic neural impairment, biochemical disturbance, and adverse effects of cancer treatments. In addition, the debility and reduced oral intake associated with cancer also contribute, as, perhaps, might the older age of many cancer patients. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of constipation, especially in association with illness, is lacking, and most treatments remain nonspecific.

  8. Incidence of constipation in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianxiang; Yuan, Mengguo; Liu, Yunfang; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Jingqing; Guo, Weifeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is growing awareness of a link between the gut and cardiovascular disease. Constipation is common among individuals who have had a stroke, and it negatively affects social functioning and quality of life. However, no systematic study on the incidence of constipation in stroke patients has been reported. We selected studies included in Medline, Embase, Cochrane database, and Web of Science. Studies were included if they reported the incidence in stroke patients. Two authors selected the studies, extracted the data independently, and assessed these. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to the stroke subtype and stage of stroke. After detailed evaluations, 8 studies (n  =  1385 participants) were found that contained data that were suitable for meta-analytic synthesis. A forest plot showed that the incidence of constipation was 48% (95% confidence interval [CI]  =  33%–63%). In the analysis of the type of stroke subgroup, the incidence of constipation in patients who had had a hemorrhagic stroke (66% [95% CI  =  40–91%]) was higher than that in patients who had experienced an ischemic stroke (51% [95% CI  =  27%–75%]). The incidence in the acute stage (45% [95% CI  =  36%–54%]) was lower than that in the rehabilitation stage (48% [95% CI  =  23%–73%]). Constipation after a stroke event occurs frequently. This finding may raise awareness about bowel complications to allow correct evaluation and proper management. PMID:28640117

  9. Reversible ventriculoperitoneal shunt dysfunction and chronic constipation: case report.

    PubMed

    Morais, Barbara A; Cardeal, Daniel D; Andrade, Fernanda G; Paiva, Wellingson S; Matushita, Hamilton; Teixeira, Manoel J

    2018-05-11

    Constipation can cause transient malfunction of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). Patients with myelomeningocele or cerebral palsy are often diagnosed with hydrocephalus and constipation due to neurogenic bowel. These patients are more prone to VPS dysfunction, often requiring surgical revision. The authors report the case of a 6-year-old girl with a VPS that had been implanted due to hydrocephalus secondary to myelomeningocele. The patient was brought to the emergency department with intermittent headache, vomiting, constipation, and abdominal distension and pain. A CT scan revealed ventricular dilatation and radiography of the abdomen showed bowel loop distension. After a Fleet enema and digital maneuvers, her abdominal distension and symptoms improved. A CT scan obtained 24 hours later showed a reduction in ventricular size. The mechanism by which constipation can lead to VPS malfunction can be traced to indirect increases of intraabdominal pressure and direct obstruction of the catheter by distended intestinal loops. Treating constipation can restore the free circulation of the CSF and avoid surgical intervention. Careful neurological monitoring of these patients is essential, because some measures used to treat constipation can increase intracranial pressure. The objective of this report was to highlight constipation as a possible cause of transient VPS malfunction, thereby avoiding unnecessary surgical revisions, to which children with hydrocephalus are frequently submitted.

  10. Constipation in adults.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Lissner, Stefan A; Wald, Arnold

    2010-07-05

    Although there are defined criteria for the diagnosis of constipation, in practice, diagnostic criteria are less rigid, and depend in part on the perception of normal bowel habit. Constipation is highly prevalent, with approximately 12 million general practitioner prescriptions for laxatives in England in 2001. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug interventions, bulk-forming laxatives, faecal softeners, stimulant laxatives, osmotic laxatives, prostaglandin derivatives, and 5-HT4 agonists in adults with idiopathic chronic constipation? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 51systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: arachis oil, biofeedback, bisacodyl, cascara, docusate, exercise, glycerol/glycerine suppositories, high-fibre diet, increasing fluids, ispaghula husk, lactitol, lactulose, lubiprostone, macrogols (polyethylene glycols), magnesium salts, methylcellulose, paraffin, phosphate enemas, seed oils, senna, sodium citrate enemas, prucalopride, and sterculia.

  11. Constipation in adults.

    PubMed

    Frizelle, Frank; Barclay, Murray

    2007-08-01

    Although there are defined criteria for the diagnosis of constipation, in practice, diagnostic criteria are less rigid, and in part depend on the perception of normal bowel habit. Constipation is highly prevalent, with approximately 12 million general practitioner prescriptions for laxatives in England in 2001. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug interventions, and of other interventions, in adults with idiopathic chronic constipation? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2006 (BMJ Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 42 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: arachis oil, biofeedback, bisacodyl, cascara, docusate, exercise, glycerine suppositories, glycerol, high-fibre diet, increasing fluids, ispaghula husk, lactitol, lactulose, macrogols (polyethylene glycols), magnesium salts, methylcellulose, paraffin, phosphate enemas, seed oils, senna, sodium citrate enemas, sterculia.

  12. Diagnosis of Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research ... do doctors find the cause of constipation? Doctors use your medical and family history, a physical exam, or medical tests to diagnose and find ...

  13. Constipation in the Critically Ill Child: Frequency and Related Factors.

    PubMed

    López, Jorge; Botrán, Marta; García, Ana; González, Rafael; Solana, María J; Urbano, Javier; Fernández, Sarah N; Sánchez, César; López-Herce, Jesús

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the incidence and factors associated with constipation in critically ill children. We performed a prospective observational study that included children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit for more than 3 days. Constipation was defined as more than 3 days without a bowel movement. Relationships between constipation and demographic data; clinical severity score; use of mechanical ventilation, use of vasoconstrictors, sedatives, and muscle relaxants; nutritional data; electrolyte disturbances; and clinical course were analyzed. Constipation developed in 46.7% of the 150 patients studied (mean age, 34.3 ± 7.1 months). It was most common in postoperative, older, and higher-body-weight patients, and in those with fecal continence (P < .01). Compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher severity scores and more frequently received midazolam, fentanyl, muscle relaxants, and inotropic support (P < .05). Patients with constipation also started nutrition later and with a lower volume of nutrition (P < .01). There were no between-group differences in mortality or length of pediatric intensive care unit stay. In multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with constipation were body weight (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13), Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09), admission after surgery (OR, 7.64; 95% CI, 2.56-22.81), and treatment with vasoconstrictors (OR, 10.28; 95% CI, 3.53-29.93). Constipation is common in critically ill children. Body weight, Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 clinical severity score, admission after surgery, and the need for vasoconstrictor therapy are major independent risk factors associated with constipation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. OTC polyethylene glycol 3350 and pharmacists' role in managing constipation.

    PubMed

    Horn, John R; Mantione, Maria Marzella; Johanson, John F

    2012-01-01

    To define constipation, assess the pharmacist's role in identifying and treating constipation, and review clinical evidence for the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLAX-Merck Consumer Care), an osmotic laxative now available over the counter (OTC), across a variety of patient populations routinely encountered in pharmacy settings. Systematic PubMed search of the primary literature for constipation treatment guidelines and clinical trial results for PEG 3350. Pharmacists have a unique role in assisting patients with identifying and managing constipation. Multiple controlled clinical trials have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of PEG 3350 at its recommended dose of 17 g once daily. On the basis of this evidence, various professional groups have recommended PEG 3350 for use in improving stool frequency and consistency in patients with constipation. PEG 3350 is approved for short-term use, including treatment of constipation caused by medications. Pharmacists can play an important role in managing constipation with OTC agents. Compared with other available OTC agents, PEG 3350 can be recommended to patients suffering from constipation on the basis of a large body of clinical evidence supporting its efficacy and safety, as well as the high patient acceptance shown for its palatability and once-daily dosing.

  15. [Functional dyspepsia, constipation and faecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Wiesel, Paul; Frei, Alain

    2007-01-24

    Regarding functional dyspepsia, constipation, fecal incontinence, the main therapeutic acquisitions of the period are the following: for functional dyspepsia, remember that alarm signs are not absolute signs of seriousness; for constipation, encourage and repeat advises such as physical exercise; for fecal incontinence the transcutaneous neuro-modulation and the TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation) are potential alternatives to sacral neuro-modulation.

  16. Anorectal motility abnormalities in children with encopresis and chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Neeraj; Glassman, Mark S; Halata, Michael S; Berezin, Stuart H; Stewart, Julian M; Medow, Marvin S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the response to rectal distension in children with chronic constipation and children with chronic constipation and encopresis. We studied 27 children, aged 3 to 16 years, with chronic constipation; 12 had encopresis. Anorectal motility was measured with a solid state catheter. When the catheter was located in the internal sphincter, the balloon was inflated to 60 mL with air. There were no differences in age, sex distribution, and duration of constipation in the two groups. Comparing groups, anorectal manometry showed no differences in the resting sphincter pressure, recovery pressure, the lowest relaxation pressure, and percent relaxation. However, time to maximum relaxation, time to recovery to baseline pressure, and duration of relaxation were significantly higher in patients with constipation and encopresis, compared with patients who had constipation alone. There may be an imbalance in neuromuscular control of defecation in constipated patients with encopresis that results in incontinence as a consequence of the increased time to recovery and duration of relaxation of the internal anal sphincter. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of macrogol 4000 in chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, R; Cestari, R; Corinaldesi, R; Stanghellini, V; Barbara, G; Felicani, C; Di Nardo, G; Cucchiara, S

    2011-08-01

    Chronic constipation is a common functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting up to 35% of the general population, and especially the elderly. However, its definition as perceived by the patient can vary, making it difficult to understand the problem and find appropriate therapeutic measures. The approach to chronic constipation, thus, needs a thorough understanding of the patient's complaint and the main pathophysiological mechanism requiring treatment. Lifestyle changes do not usually meet with complete patient satisfaction. Other treatments include different types of laxatives. Of these, osmotic laxatives appear one of the most effective and are, therefore, frequently prescribed. This review will cover the topic of osmotic laxatives, specifically focusing on polyethylene glycol (PEG/macrogol 4000) in chronic constipation and as a key agent for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy. PEG formulations, including macrogol 4000, are safe, effective treatments for constipation, even in children and elderly patients. Macrogol 4000 may well be more palatable than combined formulations (macrogol 3350 with electrolytes), which could help improve adherence to the long-term treatment required for chronic constipation. PEG/macrogol is also recommended as an effective option for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy. The improved cost-effectiveness of macrogol over other commonly prescribed laxatives, such as lactulose, should be taken into consideration.

  18. Phenylquinoxalinone CFTR activator as potential prosecretory therapy for constipation

    PubMed Central

    CIL, ONUR; PHUAN, PUAY-WAH; SON, JUNG-HO; ZHU, JIE S.; KU, COLTON K.; TABIB, NILOUFAR AKHAVAN; TEUTHORN, ANDREW P.; FERRERA, LORETTA; ZACHOS, NICHOLAS C.; LIN, RUXIAN; GALIETTA, LUIS J. V.; DONOWITZ, MARK; KURTH, MARK J.; VERKMAN, ALAN S.

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is a common condition for which current treatments can have limited efficacy. By high-throughput screening, we recently identified a phenylquinoxalinone activator of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel that stimulated intestinal fluid secretion and normalized stool output in a mouse model of opioid-induced constipation. Here, we report phenylquinoxalinone structure-activity analysis, mechanism of action, animal efficacy data in acute and chronic models of constipation, and functional data in ex vivo primary cultured human enterocytes. Structure-activity analysis was done on 175 phenylquinoxalinone analogs, including 15 synthesized compounds. The most potent compound, CFTRact-J027, activated CFTR with EC50 ~ 200 nM, with patch-clamp analysis showing a linear CFTR current-voltage relationship with direct CFTR activation. CFTRact-J027 corrected reduced stool output and hydration in a mouse model of acute constipation produced by scopolamine and in a chronically constipated mouse strain (C3H/HeJ). Direct comparison with the approved prosecretory drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide showed substantially greater intestinal fluid secretion with CFTRact-J027, as well as greater efficacy in a constipation model. As evidence to support efficacy in human constipation, CFTRact-J027 increased transepithelial fluid transport in enteroids generated from normal human small intestine. Also, CFTRact-J027 was rapidly metabolized in vitro in human hepatic microsomes, suggesting minimal systemic exposure upon oral administration. These data establish structure-activity and mechanistic data for phenylquinoxalinone CFTR activators, and support their potential efficacy in human constipation. PMID:27815136

  19. Current developments in pharmacological therapeutics for chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunhuan; Xu, Qinglong; Wen, Xiaoan; Sun, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common gastrointestinal disease severely affecting the patient׳s quality of life. The traditional treatment of constipation is the use of laxatives. Recently, several new drugs including lubiprostone, linaclotide and prucalopride have been approved for treatment of chronic constipation. However, a significant unmet medical need still remains, particularly among those patients achieving poor results by current therapies. The 5-HT4 receptor modulators velusetrag and naronapride, the guanylate cyclase C agonist plecanatide and the ileal bile acid transporter inhibitor elobixibat are recognized as the most promising drugs under investigation. Herein, we give a comprehensive review on the pharmacological therapeutics for the treatment of chronic constipation, with the purpose of reflecting the drug development trends in this field. PMID:26579459

  20. [Nursing cares in constipation of the oncology patient].

    PubMed

    Cordero-Ponce, Montserrat; Romero-Sánchez, Isabel María

    2008-01-01

    The importance of constipation lies in its frequency, even among the healthy. The incidence of constipation in oncological patients is 70-80% in the final stage, 40-50% in advanced disease, and 90% in patients with aggressive cancer. This disorder is not only uncomfortable for the patient but also causes complications. Prolonged constipation can cause abdominal pain and even increase the pain caused by the tumor and stronger pain relief can be required when the constipation is unresolved. Among the complications that can occur are intestinal obstruction, diarrhea by spillage, urinary dysfunction, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, restlessness, malaise, and confusion. When analyzing this problem, we aim to unify criteria and nursing interventions, emphasize the importance of prevention, and solve the problem. Health education of both the patient and the main caregiver aid control of this disorder after discharge. The patient will be able to identify the appearance of constipation, its causes and symptoms and will be familiar with the treatment and when and where to go to review it.

  1. Postoperative constipation risk assessment in Turkish orthopedic patients.

    PubMed

    Şendir, Merdiye; Büyükıylmaz, Funda; Aştı, Türkinaz; Gürpınar, Şengül; Yazgan, İlknur

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive, correlational study was conducted to describe constipation risk assessment and the affecting factors of constipation risk of patients who have undergone major orthopedic surgery. Data were collected using a patient information form and the Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS) on the second postoperative day. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. The mean age of the 83 patients studied was 53.75 ± 21.29 years. Subjects were hospitalized in the orthopedic wards for 14.39 ± 15.17 days, and their current bowel habit was 2.18 ± 1.80 stools per week. Of the sample, 63.9% were female, 69.9% of the patients had a history of previous surgery, 45.8% had hip/knee arthroplasty surgery, and 55.4% had bowel problems during the hospitalization period. Patients had a medium risk for constipation according to the CRAS subscale (gender, mobility, and pharmacological agents). Total CRAS score was 12.73 ± 4.75 (medium risk) on the second postoperative day. In addition, age, marital status, educational level, having a history of surgery, and bowel elimination problems did have a significant effect on constipation risk. On the basis of the findings from this study, nurses must learn the postoperative constipation risk of orthopedic patients to implement safe and effective interventions.

  2. The overlap of gastroesophageal reflux disease and functional constipation in children: the efficacy of constipation treatment.

    PubMed

    Baran, Masallah; Cagan Appak, Yeliz; Karakoyun, Miray; Yalcinkaya, Sevda; Eliacik, Kayi; Dundar, Bumin N

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the frequency of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children with functional constipation (FC). It was structured to assess the improvement level in reflux symptoms by measuring the acid reflux in these patients after they had received FC treatment. Ninety-four children who suffered from constipation were evaluated prospectively. Data forms were completed to assess the GERD symptoms in all the cases. Twenty-four-hour pH meter monitoring was performed in 55 of the patients with GERD symptoms. The cases with abnormal acid reflux were treated by conventional therapy for FC. These cases were re-evaluated for GERD symptoms and weekly defecation frequency, and 24-h pH meter monitoring was performed at the end of a 3-month period. An abnormal level of acid reflux was determined in 23 of the 55 cases. After the constipation treatment, a significant improvement was achieved in the acid reflux index and GERD symptoms, whereas the weekly defecation frequency increased. GERD is a frequent problem in children with FC. Treatment of the constipation can improve the reflux symptoms and abnormal acid reflux in these cases. Physicians should bear in mind the co-occurrence of these two prevalent problems for better disease management.

  3. A survey of subjective constipation in Parkinson's disease patients in shanghai and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jing; Wan, Ying; Shi, Junjie; Zhou, Mingzhu; Lou, Zhiyin; Liu, Zhenguo

    2018-03-15

    Constipation is one of the most frequent non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the prevalence of constipation in PD patients varies among different studies. We designed this study to survey the prevalence and clinical characteristics of subjective constipation and the appearance chronology between the emergence of constipation and onset of motor symptoms in PD patients from Shanghai, China. 268 PD patients were continuously recruited into this study. Parkinson's related clinical information of the participants was collected. A spectrum of motor and nonmotor features was assessed with scales and questionnaires. Subjective constipation was defined by ROME III criteria. 54.10% PD patients suffer from constipation. Among them, there was 47.59% having constipation before onset of motor symptoms. Compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation reported lower daily water intake and less exercise, and were dominated by bradykinetic-rigid motor phenotype at onset and were prone to have anxiety, depression and insomnia. The time span between constipation and the onset of motor symptoms was (6.62 ± 9.32) years. Constipation occurred more frequently between 2 and 10 years before onset of motor symptoms. Patients suffering with constipation were then divided into two groups according to the time sequence of constipation and motor onset: 'constipation pre-motor sign' group and 'constipation post-motor sign' group. Total timespan from earliest initial symptoms to present was similar. Compared with 'constipation post-motor sign' group, the patients in 'constipation pre-motor sign' group experienced an older motor symptoms onset age, less serious motor symptoms, more serious constipation and less daily levodopa dosage. Our results supported that constipation could be a pre-motor symptom of PD. Different clinical characteristics were found in different constipation-loading time relative to motor symptoms. Research of constipation may

  4. Review of pathogenesis and management of constipation.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the pathogenesis, classification, mechanism and management of constipation. Constipation is likely to be common in the Indian population. It is difficult to define precisely since perception of patient and doctor may differ. Rome Consensus Criteria may not be applicable in India where we should not define constipation as stool frequency less than thrice a week as normal bowel movement in among Indians is different than that in the West. Constipation may be due to difficulty in evacuation, i.e. dyschezia, or due to a combination of infrequency and dyschezia. Low fibre diet, insufficient fluid intake, irregular toilet habit, lack of exercise, prolonged bed rest and chronic consumption of drugs may all lead to this chronic ailment. Constipation may result from slow colonic transit, faecal evacuation disorders or a combination of both. The first step in management is to exclude organic and anatomic causes. In the elderly, proctosigmoidoscopy or when required, colonoscopy and barium enema should be done. Colonic transit study is useful to screen for slow transit constipation or faecal evacuation disorders. Defecography, the balloon expulsion test, anorectal ultrasound, anorectal manometry, defecometry, anal sphincter electromyography and the pudendal nerve terminal motor latency study may be used to diagnose faecal evacuation disorders. Treatment aims at symptom relief and bettering the quality of life. High fibre diet, physical activity, modification of current therapy (e.g. where the patient is on opioids), and prescription of laxatives may provide relief. Current guidelines for prescribing laxatives suggest bulk agents as first line and osmotic agents as second line therapy. Biofeedback is useful in faecal evacuation disorders. Surgery may also rarely be necessary to correct anatomical abnormalities.

  5. Slow transit constipation and lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Queiroz Machado, V; Monteiro, A; Peçanha, A; Garcez da Fonseca, E

    2015-12-01

    Many theories have been proposed for the coexistence of constipation and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD), such as bladder compression from a distended rectum and stimulation of sacral reflexes from a full rectum. In these cases, successful treatment of constipation should result in resolution of bladder symptoms. Some children have refractory constipation and others respond well to treatment, but once treatment is discontinued most children relapse back into their constipation. This may indicate the existence of a defect in colon motility, with a persistent peristalsis problem. The existence of a common neuromuscular disorder should be the base for both bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD). To study colonic transit time (CTT) in children and adolescents with refractory constipation and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A total of 15 children (mean age 9.7 years) with refractory constipation and LUTS were evaluated with: standardized medical history; physical examination; bladder and bowel diaries; Bristol stool scale; Rome III criteria; Dysfunctional Voiding Scoring System (DVSS); ultrasound examination of the kidneys and urinary tract, and measurement of rectal diameter; urodynamic evaluation; and a CTT study using radiopaque markers. Urodynamic features were abnormal in 13 out of 15 children: 10 (66.7%) presented with detrusor overactivity (DO) and voiding dysfunction (VD), two (16.7%) had isolated DO, and one (8.3%) had a VD. The CTT study was abnormal in 12 out of 15 children: nine (60%) presented with slow transit constipation, three (20%) had outlet obstruction, and three (20%) had a normal CTT study. When comparing CTT and LUTD, nine (100%) children with slow transit constipation (STC) and three (50%) with no STC had DO (P = 0.04). Seven (77.8%) children with STC and three (50%) with no STC had VD (P = 0.29). The DVSS scores ranged from 6 to 21. The subgroup with STC had a DVSS score that was significantly higher than that of the subgroup with

  6. Constipation: an overlooked, unmanaged symptom of patients with pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Thosani, Sonali; Ayala-Ramirez, Montserrat; Román-González, Alejandro; Zhou, Shouhao; Thosani, Nirav; Bisanz, Annette; Jimenez, Camilo

    2015-09-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PHs) and sympathetic paragangliomas (PGs) are tumors that produce catecholamines, predisposing patients to cardiovascular disease and gastrointestinal effects such as constipation. i) determine the prevalence of constipation, its risk factors, and its impact on survival; ii) identify whether a systematic combination of fiber, water, and laxatives was effective for treatment of constipation. We retrospectively studied 396 patients with PH/PG diagnosed in 2005-2014. The study population was patients with constipation as a presenting symptom; the control group was patients without constipation as a presenting symptom. The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory was used to assess constipation and quality of life. Twenty-three patients (6%) had constipation. Constipation was associated with headaches, palpitations, diaphoresis, weight loss, and excessive noradrenaline production (P<0.0001). Eighteen of these patients had non-metastatic primary tumors larger than 5 cm and/or extensive metastases. No statistically significant differences in age, sex, and genotype were noted between the study and control groups. In patients without metastases, resection of the primary tumor led to symptom disappearance. A systematic combination of fiber, water, and laxatives was associated with symptom improvement. Two patients who presented unmanaged constipation died because of sepsis from toxic megacolon. Constipation is a rare and potentially lethal complication in patients with PH/PGs. Severe constipation can be prevented by recognizing and treating mild symptoms. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  7. Pediatric constipation therapy using guidelines and polyethylene glycol 3350.

    PubMed

    Bell, Edward A; Wall, Geoffrey C

    2004-04-01

    To review current guidelines on the treatment of functional constipation in pediatric patients, with an emphasis on the role of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350). Primary medical literature published in English was identified by MEDLINE search (1980-May 2003). Recently published treatment guidelines relating to pediatric functional constipation and its pharmacotherapy are assessed and compared. Published trials evaluating PEG 3350 in pediatric subjects are discussed and their results applied to the clinical role and use of this new agent. Constipation is a common disorder among children. A number of factors may play a role. A variety of medications are commonly used for this disorder, although few treatments have undergone evaluation by controlled clinical trials. Consensus guidelines recommend either osmotic laxatives, mineral oil, or their combination for maintenance treatment in concert with patient and parental education and behavioral training. PEG 3350 solution (MiraLax) has been shown in recent clinical studies to be an effective maintenance treatment for pediatric constipation. PEG 3350 is an effective and well-tolerated treatment choice for pediatric constipation, especially as an adjunct to education and behavioral training. PEG 3350 is an option for children with constipation who have failed or are intolerant of other pharmacotherapies.

  8. Treating Opioid-Induced Constipation in Older Adults: New Options.

    PubMed

    Sani, Halima; Mahan, Rebecca J

    2015-10-01

    Numerous factors, such as changes in gastrointestinal physiology, reduced mobility, decreased liquid and nutritional intake, and certain comorbidities, predispose older adults to constipation. Use of opioid medications further compounds this problem. Unlike other side effects associated with opioid use, patients do not develop tolerance to constipation and other opioid-induced bowel dysfunctions. Although opioid-induced constipation has a prevalence rate of 80% in this population, it remains highly undertreated. Despite this problem, there have been limited therapeutic options available for older adults suffering from opioid-induced constipation. On September 16, 2014, a new oral agent, naloxegol, a peripherally acting muopioid receptor antagonist (PAMORA), approved by the Food and Drug Administration, provides new hope for patients. This paper explores clinical complications associated with opioid-induced constipation in older adults, analyzes the efficacy and safety of laxatives and PAMORAs, and defines the future role of naloxegol in this vulnerable population.

  9. Behavioural and new pharmacological treatments for constipation: getting the balance right

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E

    2011-01-01

    Chronic constipation affects almost one in six adults and is even more frequent in the elderly. In the vast majority of patients, there is no obstructive mucosal or structural cause for constipation and, after excluding relatively rare systemic diseases (commonest of which is hypothyroidism), the differential diagnosis is quickly narrowed down to three processes: evacuation disorder of the spastic (pelvic floor dyssynergia, anismus) or flaccid (descending perineum syndrome) varieties, and normal or slow transit constipation. Treatment of chronic constipation based on identifying the underlying pathophysiology is generally successful with targeted therapy. The aims of this review are to discuss targeted therapy for chronic constipation: behavioural treatment for outlet dysfunction and pharmacological treatment for constipation not associated with outlet dysfunction. In particular, we shall review the evidence that behavioural treatment works for evacuation disorders, describe the new treatment options for constipation not associated with evacuation disorder, and demonstrate how `targeting therapy' to the underlying diagnosis results in a balanced approach to patients with these common disorders. PMID:20801775

  10. Categorization of Functional Constipation in Traditional Persian Medicine: A Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Elsagh, Mahin; Behbahani, Farshad Amini; Fartookzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Adibi, Peyman; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Anushiravani, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is a common clinical condition without any specific physiological causes with economic cost and adverse effects on patients' quality of life. The present study aimed to evaluate the causes of nonobstructive constipation in traditional Persian medicine and its prevalence in patients with functional constipation by content analysis of patients' interviews and clinical exams. In this study, almost two thirds of the patients with functional constipation had mild to severe cold distemperament of the gastrointestinal system, and in almost half of them the signs and symptoms were compatible with dry distemperament of the gastrointestinal. This observational study reports high prevalence of gastrointestinal system distemperaments in patients with functional constipation. According to the results, we can consider the proposed management of distemperaments in traditional Persian medicine for functional constipation treatment and pathophysiology explanation. This project is a novel study that provides the opportunity for investigating the epidemiological aspects of these distemperaments and their relationship with functional constipation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  12. Healthcare Utilization and Spending for Constipation in Children With Versus Without Complex Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Stephens, John R; Steiner, Michael J; DeJong, Neal; Rodean, Jonathan; Hall, Matt; Richardson, Troy; Berry, Jay G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of diagnosis and treatment for constipation among children receiving Medicaid and to compare healthcare utilization and spending for constipation among children based on number of complex chronic conditions (CCCs). Retrospective cohort study of 4.9 million children ages 1 to 17 years enrolled in Medicaid from 2009 to 2011 in 10 states in the Truven Marketscan Database. Constipation was identified using International Classification of Disease, 9th revision codes for constipation (564.0x), intestinal impaction (560.3x), or encopresis (307.7). Outpatient and inpatient utilization and spending for constipation were assessed. CCC status was identified using validated methodology. A total of 267,188 children (5.4%) were diagnosed with constipation. Total constipation spending was $79.5 million. Outpatient constipation spending was $66.8 million (84.1%) during 406,814 visits, mean spending $120/visit. Among children with constipation, 1363 (0.5%) received inpatient treatment, accounting for $12.2 million (15.4%) of constipation spending, mean spending $7815/hospitalization. Of children hospitalized for constipation, 552 (40.5%) did not have an outpatient visit for constipation before admission. Approximately 6.8% of children in the study had ≥1 CCC; these children accounted for 33.5% of total constipation spending, 70.3% of inpatient constipation spending, and 19.8% of emergency department constipation spending. Constipation prevalence was 11.0% for children with 1 CCC, 16.6% with 2 CCCs, and 27.1% with ≥3 CCCs. Although the majority of pediatric constipation treatment occurs in the outpatient setting, inpatient care accounts for a sizable percentage of spending. Children with CCCs have a higher prevalence of constipation and account for a disproportionate amount of constipation healthcare utilization and spending.

  13. Perspective on Physical Therapist Management of Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    George, Susan E; Borello-France, Diane F

    2017-04-01

    Functional constipation is a common bowel disorder leading to activity restrictions and reduced health-related quality of life. Typically, this condition is initially managed with prescription of laxatives or fiber supplementation, or both. However, these interventions are often ineffective and fail to address the underlying pathophysiology and impairments contributing to this condition. Physical therapists possess the knowledge and skills to diagnose and manage a wide range of musculoskeletal and motor coordination impairments that may contribute to functional constipation. Relevant anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral contributors to functional constipation are discussed with regard to specific constipation diagnoses. A framework for physical therapist examination of impairments that can affect gastrointestinal function, including postural, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and behavioral impairments, is offered. Within the context of diagnosis-specific patient cases, multifaceted interventions are described as they relate to impairments underlying functional constipation type. The current state of evidence to support these interventions and patient recommendations is summarized. This perspective article aims not only to heighten physical therapists' awareness and management of this condition, but also to stimulate clinical questioning that will open avenues for future research to improve patient care. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  14. [The evaluation of the prevalence of constipation at the Centre of clinical gerontology].

    PubMed

    Pančevová, Pavla; Vodička, Martin; Vašut, Karel; Forejtar, Milan

    Constipation is a disease which increases in the senior population and is a common complication for hospitalised patients. Among the risk factors are age, female gender, immobility, diet, fluid intake and polypharmacotherapy. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence of constipation according to the used drugs and known risk factors in a population with a high prevalence of constipation. In the department of clinical gerontology, observational prevalence point study was performed using a questionnaire involving 100 patients based on the patients subjective perception of constipation. Prevalence of constipation was determined according to the drug categories and individual drugs, gender, age, mobility, diagnosis, diet and fluid intake. There were 59 patients who suffered from constipation. A high prevalence of constipation was associated with the diet, the principal diagnosis, and mainly the use of drugs. Among the drugs associated with constipation were the calcium channel blockers of 21 patients out of 28, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of 22 patients out of 30, drugs for the treatment of increased urinary frequency and incontinence of 6 patients out of 6 and bisoprolol of 10 patients out of 11. Hospitalisation of seniors is connected with the high prevalence of constipation that is increased by the use of drugs that influence constipation. A change in the therapeutic value of drugs should be taken into consideration during the pharmacotherapy of this group of patients. constipation risks factors for constipation drug-induced constipation.

  15. Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Management of Functional Constipation at Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Soo Hee; Park, Kie Young; Kang, Sung Kil; Kang, Ki Soo; Na, So Young; Yang, Hye Ran; Uhm, Ji Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and management of functional constipation at pediatric gastroenterology clinics. A prospective survey using the Rome III criteria was distributed to a group of parents of children with a constipation history and its control group in May 2008. The mean prevalence of constipation was 6.4%, which was similar to those in other countries. Statistically significant variables for children without constipation were that more children had a body mass index of below the 10th percentile even though they received more mother's care and ate balanced meals compared to the constipation group. Meanwhile, the constipation group frequently showed a history of constipation in infancy, picky-eating, lack of exercise, and retentive posturing. When analyzed with the Rome III criteria, the children showed greater than 60% rate of hard stools, painful stools, a history of large fecal mass in rectum, and its disappearance of constipation symptoms after passing a large stool. Our study found different approaches amongst pediatric gastroenterologists like rectal examinations, disimpaction, or drug treatment. Several factors addressed in our study can provide better guidelines for clinicians treating constipation and its future research. PMID:24015043

  16. Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and management of functional constipation at pediatric gastroenterology clinics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Soo Hee; Park, Kie Young; Kang, Sung Kil; Kang, Ki Soo; Na, So Young; Yang, Hye Ran; Uhm, Ji Hyun; Ryoo, Eell

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and management of functional constipation at pediatric gastroenterology clinics. A prospective survey using the Rome III criteria was distributed to a group of parents of children with a constipation history and its control group in May 2008. The mean prevalence of constipation was 6.4%, which was similar to those in other countries. Statistically significant variables for children without constipation were that more children had a body mass index of below the 10th percentile even though they received more mother's care and ate balanced meals compared to the constipation group. Meanwhile, the constipation group frequently showed a history of constipation in infancy, picky-eating, lack of exercise, and retentive posturing. When analyzed with the Rome III criteria, the children showed greater than 60% rate of hard stools, painful stools, a history of large fecal mass in rectum, and its disappearance of constipation symptoms after passing a large stool. Our study found different approaches amongst pediatric gastroenterologists like rectal examinations, disimpaction, or drug treatment. Several factors addressed in our study can provide better guidelines for clinicians treating constipation and its future research.

  17. The efficacy of education programme for preventing constipation in women.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Sultan; Hisar, Filiz

    2014-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficiency of the education programme for prevention of constipation in women. This study was performed as a pre-test-posttest design. Thirty-five women were included who have constipation problem. Data were collected by questionnaire: Constipation Severity Instrument (CSI), Constipation Visual Analogue Scale (CVAS) and Bristol Stool Chart (BSC). Eight home visits were made for each of the women and they were followed up for 3 months. Participants received an individual education programme that included advice on dietary consumption such as pulpy-fibrous nutrient consumption, fluid intake, an exercise regime and counselling about optimal position to defecate. The subscales of 'Colonic Inertia' and 'Pain', and CSI total mean scores and CVAS mean scores were decreased significantly after education programme (P < 0.05). According to the BSC, 71.5% of the women stated their stool form to be 'sausage-shaped, but lumpy' before the education programme, but after the said programme the percentage had dropped to 17.1%. Education programme given to women who had constipation were determined to have been effective in alleviating constipation. Nurses should develop appropriate and effective strategies to help women prevent constipation. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. [Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and functional constipation in adults: Treatment (Part 2 of 2)].

    PubMed

    Mearin, F; Ciriza, C; Mínguez, M; Rey, E; Mascort, J J; Peña, E; Cañones, P; Júdez, J

    2017-03-01

    In this Clinical practice guide we examine the diagnostic and therapeutic management of adult patients with constipation and abdominal discomfort, at the confluence of the spectrum of irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation. Both fall within the framework of functional intestinal disorders and have major personal, health and social impact, altering the quality of life of the patients affected. The former is a subtype of irritable bowel syndrome in which constipation and altered bowel habit predominate, often along with recurring abdominal pain, bloating and abdominal distension. Constipation is characterised by infrequent or hard-to-pass bowel movements, often accompanied by straining during defecation or the sensation of incomplete evacuation. There is no underlying organic cause in the majority of cases; it being considered a functional bowel disorder. There are many clinical and pathophysiological similarities between the two conditions, the constipation responds in a similar way to commonly used drugs, the fundamental difference being the presence or absence of pain, but not in an "all or nothing" way. The severity of these disorders depends not only on the intensity of the intestinal symptoms but also on other biopsychosocial factors: association of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms, degree of involvement, forms of perception and behaviour. Functional bowel disorders are diagnosed using the Rome criteria. This Clinical practice guide adapts to the Rome IV criteria published at the end of May 2016. The first part (96, 97, 98) examined the conceptual and pathophysiological aspects, alarm criteria, diagnostic test and referral criteria between Primary Care and Gastroenterology. This second part reviews all the available treatment alternatives (exercise, fluid ingestion, diet with soluble fibre-rich foods, fibre supplements, other dietary components, osmotic or stimulating laxatives, probiotics, antibiotics, spasmolytics, peppermint

  19. [Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and functional constipation in adults: Treatment (Part 2 of 2)].

    PubMed

    Mearin, F; Ciriza, C; Mínguez, M; Rey, E; Mascort, J J; Peña, E; Cañones, P; Júdez, J

    2017-03-01

    In this Clinical practice guide we examine the diagnostic and therapeutic management of adult patients with constipation and abdominal discomfort, at the confluence of the spectrum of irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation. Both fall within the framework of functional intestinal disorders and have major personal, health and social impact, altering the quality of life of the patients affected. The former is a subtype of irritable bowel syndrome in which constipation and altered bowel habit predominate, often along with recurring abdominal pain, bloating and abdominal distension. Constipation is characterised by infrequent or hard-to-pass bowel movements, often accompanied by straining during defecation or the sensation of incomplete evacuation. There is no underlying organic cause in the majority of cases; it being considered a functional bowel disorder. There are many clinical and pathophysiological similarities between the two conditions, the constipation responds in a similar way to commonly used drugs, the fundamental difference being the presence or absence of pain, but not in an "all or nothing" way. The severity of these disorders depends not only on the intensity of the intestinal symptoms but also on other biopsychosocial factors: association of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms, degree of involvement, forms of perception and behaviour. Functional bowel disorders are diagnosed using the Rome criteria. This Clinical practice guide adapts to the Rome IV criteria published at the end of May 2016. The first part (96, 97, 98) examined the conceptual and pathophysiological aspects, alarm criteria, diagnostic test and referral criteria between Primary Care and Gastroenterology. This second part reviews all the available treatment alternatives (exercise, fluid ingestion, diet with soluble fibre-rich foods, fibre supplements, other dietary components, osmotic or stimulating laxatives, probiotics, antibiotics, spasmolytics, peppermint

  20. Incidence and predictors of new-onset constipation during acute hospitalisation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Lim, S-F; Ong, S Y; Tan, Y L; Ng, Y S; Chan, Y H; Childs, C

    2015-04-01

    We investigated new-onset constipation in patients with stroke compared with orthopaedic conditions and explored the predictors associated with constipation during acute hospitalisation. This was a prospective matched cohort study of 110 patients comparing stroke patients (n = 55) with orthopaedic patients (n = 55) admitted to a large tertiary acute hospital. Both cohorts were matched by age and sex. The incidence of new-onset constipation which occurred during a patient's acute hospitalisation was determined. Demographics, comorbidity, clinical factors, laboratory parameters and medications were evaluated as possible predictors of constipation. The incidence of new-onset constipation was high for both stroke (33%) and orthopaedic patients (27%; p = 0.66). Seven stroke patients (39%) and four orthopaedic patients (27%) developed their first onset of constipation on day 2 of admission. Mobility gains (RR 0.741, p < 0.001) and the use of prophylactic laxatives (RR 0.331, p < 0.01) had a protective effect against constipation. Bedpan use (RR 2.058, p < 0.05) and longer length of stay (RR 1.032, p < 0.05) increased the risk of developing new-onset constipation. New-onset constipation is common among patients admitted for stroke and orthopaedic conditions during acute hospitalisation. The early occurrence, on day 2 of admission, calls for prompt preventive intervention for constipation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Constipation - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... go. Try to get to know your normal bowel movement pattern, so that you can keep constipation from getting worse. ... Exercise regularly. Drink more water and eat more fiber. Try to walk, ... regular. It may help to go to the bathroom every day at the ...

  2. Treating constipation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Magan; Erebara, Aida; Bozzo, Pina

    2012-08-01

    Many of my patients experience constipation during pregnancy, even after increasing dietary fibre and fluids. Are there any safe treatments I can recommend to them? Although the recommended first-line therapy for constipation includes increasing fibre, fluids, and exercise, these are sometimes ineffective. Therefore, laxatives such as bulk-forming agents, lubricant laxatives, stool softeners, osmotic laxatives, and stimulant laxatives might be considered. Although few of the various types of laxatives have been assessed for safety in pregnancy, they have minimal systemic absorption. Therefore, they are not expected to be associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies. However, it is recommended that osmotic and stimulant laxatives be used only in the short term or occasionally to avoid dehydration or electrolyte imbalances in pregnant women.

  3. Chronic Constipation and Constipation-Predominant IBS: Separate and Distinct Disorders or a Spectrum of Disease?

    PubMed

    Siah, Kewin T H; Wong, Reuben K; Whitehead, William E

    2016-03-01

    Rome III diagnostic criteria separate patients with idiopathic chronic constipation into mutually exclusive categories of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) or functional constipation (FC). However, several experts think that these conditions are not different disorders, but parts of a continuum. To shed light on this issue, we examined studies that compared IBS-C with FC with respect to symptoms, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and treatment response. When the Rome III requirement that patients meeting criteria for IBS cannot also be given a diagnosis of FC is suspended, most patients meet criteria for both, and, contrary to expectation, IBS-C patients have more symptoms of constipation than patients with FC. No symptoms reliably separate IBS-C from FC. Physiologic tests are not reliably associated with diagnosis, but visceral pain hypersensitivity tends to be more strongly associated with IBS-C than with FC, and delayed colonic transit tends to be more common in FC. Although some treatments are effective for both IBS-C and FC, such as prosecretory agents, other treatments are specific to IBS-C (eg, antidepressants, antispasmodics, cognitive behavior therapy) or FC (eg, prucalopride, biofeedback). Future studies should permit IBS-C and FC diagnoses to overlap. Physiologic tests comparing these disorders should include visceral pain sensitivity, colonic transit time, time to evacuate a water-filled balloon, and anal pressures or electromyographic activity from the anal canal. To date, differential responses to treatment provide the strongest evidence that IBS-C and FC may be different disorders, rather than parts of a spectrum.

  4. Chronic Constipation and Constipation-Predominant IBS: Separate and Distinct Disorders or a Spectrum of Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Siah, Kewin T. H.; Wong, Reuben K.

    2016-01-01

    Rome III diagnostic criteria separate patients with idiopathic chronic constipation into mutually exclusive categories of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) or functional constipation (FC). However, several experts think that these conditions are not different disorders, but parts of a continuum. To shed light on this issue, we examined studies that compared IBS-C with FC with respect to symptoms, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and treatment response. When the Rome III requirement that patients meeting criteria for IBS cannot also be given a diagnosis of FC is suspended, most patients meet criteria for both, and, contrary to expectation, IBS-C patients have more symptoms of constipation than patients with FC. No symptoms reliably separate IBS-C from FC. Physiologic tests are not reliably associated with diagnosis, but visceral pain hypersensitivity tends to be more strongly associated with IBS-C than with FC, and delayed colonic transit tends to be more common in FC. Although some treatments are effective for both IBS-C and FC, such as prosecretory agents, other treatments are specific to IBS-C (eg, antidepressants, antispasmodics, cognitive behavior therapy) or FC (eg, prucalopride, biofeedback). Future studies should permit IBS-C and FC diagnoses to overlap. Physiologic tests comparing these disorders should include visceral pain sensitivity, colonic transit time, time to evacuate a water-filled balloon, and anal pressures or electromyographic activity from the anal canal. To date, differential responses to treatment provide the strongest evidence that IBS-C and FC may be different disorders, rather than parts of a spectrum. PMID:27231446

  5. Advancing treatment options for chronic idiopathic constipation.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Eamonn M M; Neshatian, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a global problem affecting all ages and associated with considerable morbidity and significant financial burden for society. Though formerly defined on the basis of a single symptom, infrequent defecation; constipation is now viewed as a syndrome encompassing several complaints such as difficulty with defecation, a sense of incomplete evacuation, hard stools, abdominal discomfort and bloating. The expanded concept of constipation has inevitably led to a significant change in outcomes in clinical trials, as well as in patient expectations from new therapeutic interventions. The past decades have also witnessed a proliferation in therapeutic targets for new agents. Foremost among these have been novel prokinetics, a new category, prosecretory agents and innovative approaches such as inhibitors of bile salt transport. In contrast, relatively few effective therapies exist for the management of those anorectal and pelvic floor problems that result in difficult defecation. Though constipation is a common and often troublesome disorder, many of those affected can resolve their symptoms with relatively simple measures. For those with more resistant symptoms a number of novel, effective and safe options now exist. Those with defecatory difficulty (anismus, pelvic floor dysfunction) continue to represent a significant management challenge.

  6. Prevalence and Self-recognition of Chronic Constipation: Results of an Internet Survey

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Akio; Tomita, Toshihiko; Oshima, Tadayuki; Toyoshima, Fumihiko; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Okugawa, Takuya; Kondo, Takashi; Kono, Tomoaki; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Ikehara, Hisatomo; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Although chronic constipation is a common symptom, to date no international consensus has been reached regarding its definition. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate defecation habits and (2) to examine the prevalence of constipation using the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine (JSIM) and the Rome III criteria using an online survey. Methods An online questionnaire composed of items on the frequency, interval, form of defecation, the management, and self-recognition of constipation (reference standard of constipation) was created. A total of 5155 valid responses were received. In addition, constipation symptoms were evaluated through a survey using the JSIM and the Rome III criteria. Results In the internet survey, 28.4% of the respondents considered themselves to be constipated. Stratified by sex, significantly more females (37.5%) than males (19.1%) considered themselves to be constipated (P < 0.001). The prevalence of constipation among the respondents was 28.0% using the Rome III, but only 10.1% using the JSIM. The diagnostic accuracy was 73.2% for the Rome III and 78.1% for the JSIM, while the diagnostic specificity was 81.1% for the Rome III and 97.5% for the JSIM. However, the diagnostic sensitivities for both measures were low, at 52.2% and 29.2% for the Rome III and the JSIM, respectively. Conclusions The online survey developed for this study was able to provide clarification regarding defecation patterns. The results also suggest a discrepancy between the self-recognized prevalence of constipation in Japan and prevalence of constipation based on the JSIM criteria. PMID:27426278

  7. Clinical Practice Guideline: Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and functional constipation in the adult.

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Ciriza, Constanza; Mínguez, Miguel; Rey, Enrique; Mascort, Juan José; Peña, Enrique; Cañones, Pedro; Júdez, Javier

    2016-06-01

    In this Clinical Practice Guideline we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of adult patients with constipation and abdominal complaints at the confluence of the irritable bowel syndrome spectrum and functional constipation. Both conditions are included among the functional bowel disorders, and have a significant personal, healthcare, and social impact, affecting the quality of life of the patients who suffer from them. The first one is the irritable bowel syndrome subtype, where constipation represents the predominant complaint, in association with recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, and abdominal distension. Constipation is characterized by difficulties with or low frequency of bowel movements, often accompanied by straining during defecation or a feeling of incomplete evacuation. Most cases have no underlying medical cause, and are therefore considered as a functional bowel disorder. There are many clinical and pathophysiological similarities between both disorders, and both respond similarly to commonly used drugs, their primary difference being the presence or absence of pain, albeit not in an "all or nothing" manner. Severity depends not only upon bowel symptom intensity but also upon other biopsychosocial factors (association of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms, grade of involvement, and perception and behavior variants). Functional bowel disorders are diagnosed using the Rome criteria. This Clinical Practice Guideline has been made consistent with the Rome IV criteria, which were published late in May 2016, and discuss alarm criteria, diagnostic tests, and referral criteria between Primary Care and gastroenterology settings. Furthermore, all the available treatment options (exercise, fluid ingestion, diet with soluble fiber-rich foods, fiber supplementation, other dietary components, osmotic or stimulating laxatives, probiotics, antibiotics, spasmolytics, peppermint essence, prucalopride, linaclotide, lubiprostone, biofeedback

  8. Interventions for treating constipation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rungsiprakarn, Phassawan; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Pratt, Jeremy J

    2015-09-04

    Constipation is a common symptom experienced during pregnancy. It has a range of consequences from reduced quality of life and perception of physical health to haemorrhoids. An understanding of the effectiveness and safety of treatments for constipation in pregnancy is important for the clinician managing pregnant women. To assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) for treating constipation in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (30 April 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We considered all published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs and quasi-RCTs, evaluating interventions (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) for constipation in pregnancy. Cross-over studies were not eligible for inclusion in this review. Trials published in abstract form only (without full text publication) were not eligible for inclusion.We compared one intervention (pharmacological or non-pharmacological) against another intervention, placebo or no treatment. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Four studies were included, but only two studies with a total of 180 women contributed data to this review. It was not clear whether they were RCTs or quasi-RCTs because the sequence generation was unclear. We classified the overall risk of bias of three studies as moderate and one study as high risk of bias. No meta-analyses were carried out due to insufficient data.There were no cluster-RCTs identified for inclusion. Comparisons were available for stimulant laxatives versus bulk-forming laxatives, and fibre supplementation versus no intervention. There were no data available for any other comparisons.During the review process we found that studies

  9. Megarectum in constipation

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, R N; Benninga, M; Staalman, C; Akkermans, L; Redekop, W; Taminiau, J; Buller, H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Faecal impaction is frequently observed in children with chronic constipation. The term megarectum is often used to describe this finding.
AIM—To evaluate rectal functioning and rectal measures in constipated children with a filled rectum, in order to define the terms faecal impaction, enlarged rectum, and megarectum.
METHODS—All children underwent radiological investigation, colonic transit time study, anorectal manometry, and rectal volume and rectal wall compliance measurements. Patients with faecal impaction were compared with controls, who had an empty rectum on digital rectal examination.
RESULTS—A total of 31 patients and six controls were included in the study. The mean duration of complaints was 4.2 years and all had faecal incontinence. The colonic transit times in the patients showed a distinct delay in the rectosigmoid segment. Anorectal manometry was not significantly different between patients and controls. The rectal width in patients was 0.68 and in controls 0.52 with an upper limit of 0.61. The pressure-volume curve in patients showed significant less relaxation at a distension of 50 ml. The slope of the curve (corresponding with rectal wall compliance) was comparable for patients and controls.
CONCLUSIONS—We suggest that faecal impaction is a filled rectum found on digital rectal examination; an enlarged rectum is defined by a rectopelvic ratio greater than 0.61; and megarectum is defined in those with significant abnormalities found with anorectal manometry, pressure-volume curves, or rectal compliance investigation. A diminished relaxation of the rectum on rectal distension could be the first sign of megarectum in children with chronic constipation.

 PMID:10869000

  10. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenjun; Xu, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Sa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors. We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases) from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history. The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Clozapine-Associated Constipation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Ayala; Stubbs, Brendon; Gomez, Lucia; Moore, Susan; Gaughran, Fiona; Flanagan, Robert J.; MacCabe, James H.; Lally, John

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a frequently overlooked side effect of clozapine treatment that can prove fatal. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for clozapine-associated constipation. Two authors performed a systematic search of major electronic databases from January 1990 to March 2016 for articles reporting the prevalence of constipation in adults treated with clozapine. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 32 studies were meta-analyzed, establishing a pooled prevalence of clozapine-associated constipation of 31.2% (95% CI: 25.6–37.4) (n = 2013). People taking clozapine were significantly more likely to be constipated versus other antipsychotics (OR 3.02 (CI: 1.91–4.77), p < 0.001, n = 11 studies). Meta-regression identified two significant study-level factors associated with constipation prevalence: significantly higher (p = 0.02) rates of constipation were observed for those treated in inpatient versus outpatient or mixed settings and for those studies in which constipation was a primary or secondary outcome measure (36.9%) compared to studies in which constipation was not a specified outcome measure (24.8%, p = 0.048). Clozapine-associated constipation is common and approximately three times more likely than with other antipsychotics. Screening and preventative strategies should be established and appropriate symptomatic treatment applied when required. PMID:27271593

  12. Constipation in community-dwelling elders: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyo Jeong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of constipation in community-dwelling elders and to analyze associated factors. The study sample comprised 186 elders from 5 Senior Citizen Centers in Jeju-si. This community-based cross-sectional study used a structured questionnaire to collect data via interviews with respondents. Interviews were completed by the principal investigator and an assistant. Interviews required approximately 20 minutes and were completed in the senior centers. Respondents were queried about demographic characteristics, body mass index, alcohol consumption, level of exercise, depression, and lower urinary tract symptoms including urinary incontinence. Bowel elimination symptoms were queried, and the presence of constipation was established using Rome II criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to test for associations between potential risk factors and constipation. The prevalence of constipation in this community-dwelling sample population was 25.8%. The most common symptoms were "hard or lumpy stools" reported by 30.8% and "straining during a bowel movement" reported by 27.1%. Analysis via logistic regression found that constipation is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (odds ratio = 1.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.14) and obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m) (odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-5.57). Slightly more than one quarter of the elderly reported symptoms of constipation. Associated factors were presence of lower urinary tract symptoms and obesity.

  13. Living with constipation—older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. Methods A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61–91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. Results Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related to strategies were Struggling to find a solution; they were aware of different strategies to prevent and treat constipation, though the most common solution described was the use of laxatives, Wait and see; the participants were awaiting to take action until they experienced constipation symptoms, Constipation is a private problem being challenged during hospitalization; constipation was considered a private issue rarely discussed with health-care professionals. Conclusion This study illuminates the need for health-care professionals to be attentive to this issue and initiate the conversation with patients in order to advise on the management of constipation. PMID:27121271

  14. Emergency department burden of constipation in the United States from 2006 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Thomas; Corban, Caroline; Sengupta, Neil; Jones, Michael; Cheng, Vivian; Bollom, Andrea; Nurko, Samuel; Kelley, John; Lembo, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    Although constipation is typically managed in an outpatient setting, there is an increasing trend in the frequency of constipation-related hospital visits. The aim of this study was to analyze trends related to chronic constipation (CC) in the United States with respect to emergency department (ED) visits, patient and hospital characteristics, and associated costs. Data from 2006 to 2011, in which constipation (The International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes 564.00-564.09) was the primary discharge diagnosis, were obtained from the National Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). Between 2006 and 2011, the frequency of constipation-related ED visits increased by 41.5%, from 497,034 visits to 703,391 visits, whereas the mean cost per patient rose by 56.4%, from $1,474 in 2006 to $2,306 in 2011. The aggregate national cost of constipation-related ED visits increased by 121.4%, from $732,886,977 in 2006 to $1,622,624,341 in 2011. All cost data were adjusted for inflation and reported in 2014 dollars. Infants (<1 year old) had the highest rate of constipation-related ED visits in both 2006 and 2011. The late elders (85+ years) had the second highest constipation-related ED visit rate in 2006; however, the 1- to 17-year-old age group experienced a 50.7% increase in constipation-related ED visit rate from 2006 to 2011 and had the second highest constipation-related ED visit rate in 2011. The frequency of and the associated costs of ED visits for constipation are significant and have increased notably from 2006 to 2011.

  15. COEXISTENCE OF CONSTIPATION AND INCONTINENCE IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Nurko, S; Scott, SM

    2011-01-01

    The coexistence of constipation and fecal incontinence has long been recognized in pediatric and geriatric populations, but is grossly underappreciated in the rest of the adult population. In children, functional fecal incontinence is usually associated with constipation, stool retention and incomplete evacuation, and is frequently allied to urinary incontinence. Pathophysiology of the incontinence is incompletely understood, although both in children and adults, it is thought to be secondary to overflow, while in adults it may also be related to pelvic floor dysfunction and denervation. Incontinence has an important impact on quality of life and daily functioning, and in children may be associated with behavior problems. The treatment of underlying constipation usually results in improvement in incontinence. This review broadly addresses the epidemiology and pathophysiology of coexistent constipation and incontinence in both children and adults, and also reviews clinical presentation and treatment response in pediatrics. PMID:21382577

  16. Comorbidity of headache and functional constipation in children: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Inaloo, Soror; Dehghani, Seyyed Mohsen; Hashemi, Seyyed Mohammad; Heydari, Mojtaba; Heydari, Seyyed Taghi

    2014-10-01

    Constipation and headache are prevalent conditions among children worldwide. Previous studies have shown the relationship between upper gastrointestinal complaints and headache in children. However, the association with lower gastrointestinal complaints such as constipation has not been investigated until present. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between headache and chronic functional constipation in children aged 4-12 years old. This cross-sectional study has evaluated the prevalence of headache in 326 children in Shiraz, Iran 2012. All the subjects and their parents were interviewed based on a structured questionnaire for the diagnosis of constipation and headache. Children with constipation were selected from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic Affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from healthy children attending Shiraz schools. Diagnosis of headache and constipation were made based on the second Edition of The International Headache Classification (ICHD-2) and ROME III criteria, respectively. Headache prevalence among children with constipation was significantly higher (19.8%) than that of the control group (5.6%) [Odds ratio (OR) 4.192, p<0.001], which was significant only in the non-migraine headache subtypes (15.1% vs 2.8%, OR 25, p<0.002). Among the headache subtypes of different severity (mild, moderate, severe), only mild headache was significantly more prevalent in constipated children (14.9% vs. 1.4%, in the control group, respectively, p<0.001). This study revealed a strong correlation between headache and chronic functional constipation, which can result from the effect of these comorbid conditions with emotional stress, depression, and anxiety.

  17. Constipation in children with autism and autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Pang, Karl H; Croaker, Geoffrey David Hain

    2011-04-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) have long been known to suffer from GIT symptoms. We planned to quantify the contribution of this group to our constipation clinic workload, and to discover defining group characteristics. The characteristics of the bowel habit of children with autism ± neuro-developmental psychiatric (NDP) diagnoses were compared with 'normal' children by retrospective chart review. Data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Office 2007), and compared between groups. One hundred and eighteen patients presented to the Paediatric Surgical Constipation clinic between April 2003 and May 2008. 90 patients were otherwise normal; 18 patients had NDP; 6 patients had ASD alone and 4 had ASD with other neurodevelopmental features. The median [interquartile range] age at onset in the ASD + NDP and normal groups was 2.5 (1-6) and 14 (4-36) months, respectively (p = 0.03) and the median duration of history in the ASD ± NDP and normal groups was 61 (47-89) and 27 (13-53) months, respectively (p = 0.007). Autism spectrum disorders are an order of magnitude more common in the constipation clinic than in the general population. 8.5% of patients who attended our Paediatric Surgical Constipation clinic had autism with or without NDP deficits. Children with autism ± NDP deficits have an earlier onset of symptoms, longer history, and some possess signs similar to those of slow transit constipation. These features may be inborn. A common genetic origin of gut and behavioural abnormalities suggests that specific targeted investigation and treatment for the constipation of ASD may in time be developed.

  18. Haemorrhoids, constipation and faecal incontinence: is there any relationship?

    PubMed

    Riss, S; Weiser, F A; Schwameis, K; Mittlböck, M; Stift, A

    2011-08-01

    Little is known about the association of haemorrhoids and anorectal function. Moreover, available data on the impact of constipation on the presence of haemorrhoids are conflicting. The present study aimed to assess any potential relationship between haemorrhoids and anorectal dysfunction. All participants who attended the Austrian nationwide healthcare programme for colorectal cancer screening at four medical institutions were enrolled prospectively between 2008 and 2009. A colonoscopy and detailed anorectal examination were performed on all patients. Haemorrhoids were classified according to an international grading system. Faecal incontinence was defined as the involuntary loss of solid stool, liquid stool or gas, at least once a month. Constipation was recorded by a constipation scoring system. Of 976 participants, 380 (38.9%) were found to have haemorrhoids. There was an association between healthy individuals, patients with symptomatic and patients with asymptomatic haemorrhoids and incontinence of liquid stool. No association was found regarding incontinence for solid stool and gas. The median constipation score was significantly higher in those patients with haemorrhoids (grade I-IV) compared with patients without haemorrhoids (2.5 points (range, 0-19) and 3 points (range, 0-19); P = 0.0113). 'Painful evacuation effort' and 'assistance for defaecation (stimulant laxatives, digital assistance or enema)' showed a significant correlation with haemorrhoids (P = 0.0394 and P = 0.0143). Although the median constipation score was low in both groups, there was a significant association between constipation and haemorrhoids in adult patients. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Behavioral risk factors of constipation in palliative care patients.

    PubMed

    Dzierżanowski, Tomasz; Ciałkowska-Rysz, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    Constipation is frequently encountered in palliative care patients and remains a significant therapeutic problem. The etiology of constipation is multifactorial. Nutritional and behavioral factors are considered common causes of constipation; however, their impact has not yet been assessed precisely. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the frequency of bowel movements (FoBM) and risk factors of constipation in palliative care patients. A cohort retrospective study was performed in three palliative care centers, including outpatient, home, and inpatient care cancer patients using questionnaires on bowel dysfunction symptoms, behavioral risk factors, and opioid use. The inclusion criterion was adult patients examined on the day of admission. The exclusion criterion was Karnofsky performance status score ≤20. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to measure the statistical dependence between two variables and frequency analysis was performed using the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. Two hundred thirty-seven valid questionnaires were collected. We found the correlation between FoBM and insufficient food and fluid intake (p < 0.0001), as well as for inadequate conditions of privacy (p = 0.0008), dependency on a caregiver (p = 0.0059), and the patient's overall performance status (p = 0.013). We did not manage to prove bed rest as the independent risk factor of constipation. The main risk factors of constipation in palliative care patients appeared to be insufficient fluid and food intake, inadequate conditions of privacy, dependency on a caregiver, as well as poor general performance status.

  20. Severe constipation associated with extended-release bupropion therapy.

    PubMed

    Lounsbery, Jody L; Medow, Mitchell A; Green, Christopher G

    2008-08-15

    A case of bupropion-induced constipation is reported. A 38-year-old man went to a clinic with a chief complaint of depression. He was prescribed extended-release bupropion 150 mg orally daily. Three weeks later, the patient returned to the clinic for a follow-up visit regarding his depression. He reported that his depression symptoms improved, but he complained of constipation and inflamed hemorrhoids from straining with defecation. He used docusate sodium, fiber supplements, and Preparation H(Wyeth) products with some relief. The bupropion was continued for his depression. Recommendations were given to the patient to increase fluids, maintain fiber intake, and add exercise. One week later, the patient complained of rectal pain and minimal bleeding. Prescriptions were given to the patient for hydrocortisone suppositories and 2.5% cream to be used twice daily. Three days later, the patient returned to the clinic complaining of increased pain and no relief from the hydrocortisone suppositories and cream. The rectal examination showed 3- and 5-cm hemorrhoids, one of which was thrombotic. The patient was instructed to continue hydrocortisone products, increase fluids, and continue docusate. Hemorrhoidectomy surgery was eventually performed, as well as a fissurectomy. The patient discontinued bupropion on his own due to the constipation approximately one week before the surgery. The constipation resolved after discontinuation of bupropion. Extended-release bupropion was the probable cause of severe constipation in a man with multiple medical problems.

  1. Epidemiology Characteristics of Constipation for General Population, Pediatric Population, and Elderly Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Huikuan; Zhong, Likun; Li, Hai; Zhang, Xiujing; Zhang, Jingzhi; Hou, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To acquire more data about the epidemiologic characteristics of constipation in different kinds of populations in China. Methods. Using “constipation” and “China” as search terms; relevant papers were searched from January 1995 to April 2014. Data on prevalence, gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, educational class, age, race, and physician visit results were extracted and analyzed. Results. 36 trials were included. Prevalence rates of constipation in elderly population (18.1%) and pediatric population (18.8%) were significantly higher than that in general population (8.2%). Prevalence of constipation defined by non-Rome criteria was higher than that by Rome criteria in general population. Prevalence rates of constipation were different for different geographical area. People with less education were predisposed to constipation. In pediatric population, prevalence of constipation was the lowest in children aged 2–6 years. Prevalence of constipation in ethnic minorities was higher than that in Han people. People with constipation were predisposed to FD, haemorrhoid, and GERD. Only 22.2% patients seek medical advice in general population. Conclusions. In China, prevalence of constipation was lower compared with most of other countries. The factors including female gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, age, educational class, and race seemed to have major effects on prevalence of constipation. PMID:25386187

  2. Etiologic factors of chronic constipation: review of the scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Leung, Felix W

    2007-02-01

    Geriatric patient educational material and a general practice review suggest insufficient dietary fiber intake, inadequate fluid intake, decrease physical activity, side effects of drugs, hypothyroidism, sex hormones and colorectal cancer obstruction may play a role in the pathogenesis of constipation. A search of recent literature, however, reveals that there is a paucity of evidence-based publications that address the etiologic factors of chronic constipation. Much of current writings on the subject may be based primarily on myths handed down from one generation to the next. In the absence of well-designed studies, there do not appear to be sufficient evidence-based information to implicate the above as major etiologic factors in the development of chronic constipation. The etiological role of each of these factors in the development of chronic constipation deserves to be assessed by modern techniques and methodologies. Funding agencies including the government and industry sponsors should support the development of evidence-based data sets. The understanding of the etiology of chronic constipation is the foundation on which cost-effective management strategies are to be built.

  3. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Guo, Sa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Aim To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors. Methods We searched hospital databases for women who were 37–41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases) from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history. Conclusion The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population. PMID:26208169

  4. Constipation and Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children and Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Clara; Sousa, Ariane Sampaio; Fraga, Luis Gustavo A; Veiga, Maria Luiza; Bastos Netto, José Murillo; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between constipation and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and nocturnal enuresis in a population-based study. This is a cross-sectional study. The criteria for inclusion were children and adolescents of between 5 and 17 years and who agreed to sign the informed consent form. The study excluded students with neurological problems or who had documented abnormalities of the urinary tract. To identify the presence and severity of LUTD, we used the Voiding Dysfunction Symptom Score (DVSS). To evaluate the presence of constipation, Rome III questionnaire was used. We interviewed 829 children and adolescents, of which 416 (50.18%) were male. The mean (SD) age was 9.1 (±2.9) years. The overall prevalence of LUTD was 9.1%, predominantly in girls (15 versus 3.1%, p  < 0.001). Constipation was found in 9.4% of boys and 12.4% of girls ( p  = 0.169). Constipated children were 6.8 times more likely to have LUTD than those not constipated ( p  < 0.001, coefficient and correlation of 0.411). Constipation was found in 8.2% of children without LUTD and in 35.2% of children with LUTD. We performed multivariate analysis to identify urinary symptoms that are independent predictors of the presence of constipation. The presence of infrequent urination ( p  = 0.004) and holding maneuvers ( p  < 0.001) were independent predictors. It was noted also noted that constipated children, according to the Rome III criteria, possess a worse DVSS ( p  < 0.001). Regarding the presence of nocturnal enuresis, 12.6% of children and adolescents had constipation in association with this symptom. However, this relationship was not statistically significant ( p  = 0.483). Constipated children were 6.8 times more likely to have LUTD than those not constipated. Among the urinary symptoms, infrequent voiding and holding maneuvers are independent factors of urinary expressions in constipated children. Children with more severe constipation have

  5. [Determination of total and segmental colonic transit time in constipated children].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-cheng; Wang, Wei-lin; Bai, Yu-zuo; Yuan, Zheng-wei; Wang, Wei

    2003-03-01

    To determine the total and segmental colonic transit time of normal Chinese children and to explore its value in constipation in children. The subjects involved in this study were divided into 2 groups. One group was control, which had 33 healthy children (21 males and 12 females) aged 2 - 13 years (mean 5 years). The other was constipation group, which had 25 patients (15 males and 10 females) aged 3 - 14 years (mean 7 years) with constipation according to Benninga's criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents of each subject. In this study the simplified method of radio opaque markers was used to determine the total gastrointestinal transit time and segmental colonic transit time of the normal and constipated children, and in part of these patients X-ray defecography was also used. The total gastrointestinal transit time (TGITT), right colonic transit time (RCTT), left colonic transit time (LCTT) and rectosigmoid colonic transit time (RSTT) of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. In the constipated children, the TGITT, LCTT and RSTT were significantly longer than those in controls (92.2 +/- 55.5 h vs 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, P < 0.001; 16.9 +/- 12.6 h vs 6.5 +/- 3.8 h, P < 0.01; 61.5 +/- 29.0 h vs 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, P < 0.001), while the RCTT had no significant difference. X-ray defecography demonstrated one rectocele, one perineal descent syndrome and one puborectal muscle syndrome, respectively. The TGITT, RCTT, LCTT and RSTT of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. With the segmental colonic transit time, constipation can be divided into four types: slow-transit constipation, outlet obstruction, mixed type and normal transit constipation. X-ray defecography can demonstrate the anatomical or dynamic abnormalities within the anorectal area, with which constipation can be further divided into different subtypes, and

  6. Supporting patients in reducing postoperative constipation: fundamental nursing care - a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Trads, Mette; Deutch, Søren Rasmussen; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2017-09-07

    The prevalence of constipation in the general population is 2-28%. Patients with constipation report symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, straining to defecate and general discomfort. Strategies for preventing constipation include laxatives, exercise and increased fluid and fibre intake, but life style adjustments, such as exercise, eating more fibres and drinking more fluids, were not considered a solution by older patients. Previous studies have shown that actively involving patients through individualised care and support increases patients' outcome. To test the efficacy of a nursing intervention based on active patient involvement including individualised nursing care plans and daily dialogues for patients with hip fractures in preventing constipation after surgery. A quasi-experimental design was applied. Inclusion criteria hip fracture needing surgery, understand Danish. Exclusion criteria dementia, gastrointestinal disease. A total of 186 patients were included and 155 completed. An admission interview including Constipation Risk Assessment Scale was undertaken. On that basis an individualised nursing care plan was made. At admission, discharge and 30 days after surgery constipation, intake of fibres and fluid were measured. The Bristol Stool Scale and Rasmussen's scale were used to measure constipation. Patients in the control group received standard care of the ward. After 30 days constipation rates for patients in the intervention group were significantly lower than for patients in the control group (p = 0.042). The fibre intakes and fluid intakes were significantly higher in the intervention group (p ≤ 0.001). The effect of liquid intake was statistically significant (OR = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0-1.2). Likewise, the effect of fibre intake was statistically significant; the odds of constipation decreased with increasing fibre intake (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8). Patients with hip fractures that were actively involved in their own care in preventing

  7. Waardenburg syndrome presenting with constipation since birth.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Sharma, S B; Mathur, P; Agrawal, L D

    2014-12-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome is Waardenburg syndrome associated with Hirschsprung's disease. A 10-day-old full-term male neonate of Waardenburg syndrome presented with constipation since birth along with features of small bowel obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy revealed distended proximal jejunal and ileal loops along with microcolon; an ileostomy was performed. Postoperatively patient developed sepsis and died. Histopathology confirmed total colonic aganglionosis. Suspect familial Shah-Waardenburg syndrome in a neonate of Waardenburg syndrome presenting with constipation since birth or intestinal obstruction.

  8. Preschool physical activity and functional constipation: the Generation R study.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Lisa M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Wijtzes, Anne; de Vries, Sanne I; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriette A

    2013-12-01

    Decreased physical activity levels in children may partly explain the rising prevalence of functional constipation in childhood. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine the association between physical activity and functional constipation during the preschool period. This study was embedded in the Generation R study, a large prospective birth-cohort study in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Physical activity was measured by an Actigraph accelerometer in 347 children (182 boys, 165 girls; mean age 25.1 months) and data were expressed as counts per minute. Data were categorized into light activity (302-614 counts/15 seconds), moderate activity (615-1230 counts/15 seconds), and vigorous activity (≥1231 counts/15 seconds). Functional constipation in the third and fourth year of life was defined according to the Rome II criteria. Children spending time in the highest tertile of light (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.87), moderate (adjusted OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.14-0.97), and total activity (adjusted OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.15-0.92) at the age of 2 years had significantly less functional constipation in the fourth year of life. For functional constipation in the third year of life, the results were in similar direction but not statistically significant. Additionally, children with physical activity of more than the WHO recommendation of 60 min/day had significantly less functional constipation in the fourth year of life (adjusted OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.24-0.97). Physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of functional constipation in the preschool period, but this may be time dependent.

  9. Inhibition of ileal bile acid transporter: An emerging therapeutic strategy for chronic idiopathic constipation.

    PubMed

    Mosińska, Paula; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin

    2015-06-28

    Chronic idiopathic constipation is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that encompasses a wide profile of symptoms. Current treatment options for chronic idiopathic constipation are of limited value; therefore, a novel strategy is necessary with an increased effectiveness and safety. Recently, the inhibition of the ileal bile acid transporter has become a promising target for constipation-associated diseases. Enhanced delivery of bile acids into the colon achieves an accelerated colonic transit, increased stool frequency, and relief of constipation-related symptoms. This article provides insight into the mechanism of action of ileal bile acid transporter inhibitors and discusses their potential clinical use for pharmacotherapy of constipation in chronic idiopathic constipation.

  10. Enteric nervous system: sensory physiology, diarrhea and constipation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jackie D

    2010-03-01

    The enteric nervous system integrates secretion and motility into homeostatic patterns of behavior susceptible to disorder. Progress in understanding mechanosensory detection in these processes, disordered enteric nervous system integration in diarrhea and constipation and pharmacotherapy is summarized. Most neurons in the enteric nervous system discharge in response to distortion. Drugs acting directly to open chloride conductance channels in the mucosal epithelium are therapeutic options for constipation. Mechanoreception is required for negative feedback control. At issue is identification of the neurons that fulfil the requirement for mechanoreception. Understanding secretomotor neurons is basic to understanding neurogenic secretory diarrhea and constipation and therapeutic strategies. A strategy for treatment of chronic constipation is development of agents that act directly to open Cl channels, which thereby increases the liquidity of the luminal contents. Lubiprostone, a recently Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, increases intraluminal liquidity by opening Cl channels. The future for the drug is clouded by controversy over whether its action is directly at one or the other of chloride channel type 2 (ClC-2) or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels or both and whether action reflects involvement of G protein-coupled prostaglandin receptors expressed by mucosal epithelial cells.

  11. In-hospital costs associated with chronic constipation in Belgium: a retrospective database study

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, P; Lamotte, M; Joseph, A; Dubois, D; Boeckxstaens, G

    2014-01-01

    Background Real-life data on the economic burden of chronic idiopathic constipation are scarce. The objectives of this study were to assess hospitalization resource use and costs associated with chronic constipation and its complications in Belgium. Methods This was a single country, retrospective study using the IMS Hospital Disease Database (2008), which comprises data on 34% of acute hospital beds in Belgium and contains information on patient demographics, length of stay (LOS), billed costs, drug use, diagnoses, and procedures. Stays with a primary diagnosis of constipation, or a secondary diagnosis of constipation and a concomitant diagnosis of a constipation-related complication, were selected. Patients with diagnoses of colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, or who had stays involving potentially constipation-inducing procedures, were excluded as having secondary constipation. Patients receiving opioids, calcium-antagonists, antipsychotics or antidepressants were excluded as having drug-induced constipation. Key Results In total, 1541 eligible patients were identified. The average unadjusted cost per day in hospital for idiopathic constipation was €441 (€311 ± 1.4 in day clinic visits without overnight stays; €711 ± 14.0 in full hospitalizations with complications). The average LOS in a full hospitalization setting was 7.0 and 4.0 days in stays with and without complications, respectively. The most frequent drug and procedural treatments were osmotically acting laxatives (with complications: 42.61%; without complications: 35.69%), and transanal enema (2.32% and 2.03%), respectively. Conclusions & Inferences The burden of constipation is often underestimated; it is a condition reflected by hospital-related costs comparable to such indications as migraine, which increase when associated with complications. PMID:24325294

  12. In-hospital costs associated with chronic constipation in Belgium: a retrospective database study.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, P; Lamotte, M; Joseph, A; Dubois, D; Boeckxstaens, G

    2014-03-01

    Real-life data on the economic burden of chronic idiopathic constipation are scarce. The objectives of this study were to assess hospitalization resource use and costs associated with chronic constipation and its complications in Belgium. This was a single country, retrospective study using the IMS Hospital Disease Database (2008), which comprises data on 34% of acute hospital beds in Belgium and contains information on patient demographics, length of stay (LOS), billed costs, drug use, diagnoses, and procedures. Stays with a primary diagnosis of constipation, or a secondary diagnosis of constipation and a concomitant diagnosis of a constipation-related complication, were selected. Patients with diagnoses of colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, or who had stays involving potentially constipation-inducing procedures, were excluded as having secondary constipation. Patients receiving opioids, calcium-antagonists, antipsychotics or antidepressants were excluded as having drug-induced constipation. In total, 1541 eligible patients were identified. The average unadjusted cost per day in hospital for idiopathic constipation was €441 (€311 ± 1.4 in day clinic visits without overnight stays; €711 ± 14.0 in full hospitalizations with complications). The average LOS in a full hospitalization setting was 7.0 and 4.0 days in stays with and without complications, respectively. The most frequent drug and procedural treatments were osmotically acting laxatives (with complications: 42.61%; without complications: 35.69%), and transanal enema (2.32% and 2.03%), respectively. The burden of constipation is often underestimated; it is a condition reflected by hospital-related costs comparable to such indications as migraine, which increase when associated with complications. © 2013 The Authors. Neurogastroenterology & Motility Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Lubiprostone: a new drug for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Danial E

    2007-01-01

    Lubiprostone offers an additional alternative for patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. Lubiprostone is more efficacious than placebo in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, lubiprostone therapy was generally well tolerated and was not associated with severe adverse effects; however, the high incidence of nausea may be problematic for some patients. The nausea may be alleviated or minimized by administering the dose with food, and some patients may require a dosage reduction to 24 mug once daily. The key limitations of the placebo-controlled clinical trials include the absence of information regarding the duration of the constipation and previous types of therapies that had been used to treat the constipation and the absence of an active control group. Comparative studies with other therapies (eg, saline laxatives, polyethylene glycol) used for constipation are necessary to determine the clinical and economic value of this agent relative to other forms of therapy.

  14. [Influence of an exercise therapy on primary chronic constipation].

    PubMed

    Beradze, G; Sherozia, M; Shankulashvili, G

    2011-09-01

    During the primary chronic constipation increase of exercise stress is a commonly recognized recommendation, but not existence of specific schemes and forms of tension, restricts wide usage of this method. Subject of the research was the evaluation of exercise therapy effectiveness in patients with primary chronic constipation. The research was carried out on 15 patients, who were undergone exercise therapy sessions for their stoutness and spinal pathologies. Research group consisted of 8 patients with irritable intestine syndrome, who were provided by standard treatment. All researched patients kept a diary, with numeral evaluation of defecation type. Analysis of the findings displayed satisfactory effectiveness of the exercise therapy during the primary chronic constipation.

  15. Pediatric functional constipation gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Patient-reported outcomes are necessary to evaluate the gastrointestinal symptom profile of patients with functional constipation. Study objectives were to compare the gastrointestinal symptom profile of pediatric patients with functional constipation with matched healthy controls with the Pediatric...

  16. Anismus as a cause of functional constipation--experience from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Igor; Jovanović, Dragana; Uglješić, Milenko; Milinić, Nikola; Cvetković, Mirjana; Branković, Marija; Nikolić, Goran

    2015-01-01

    BACKROUND/AIM: Anismus is paradoxal pressure increase or pressure decrease less than 20% of external anal sphincter during defecation straining. This study analyzed the presence of anismus as within a group of patients with the positive Rome III criteria for functional constipation. We used anorectal manometry as the determination method for anismus. We used anorectal water-perfused manometry in 60 patients with obstructive defecation defined by the Rome III criteria for functional constipation. We also analyzed anorectal function in 30 healthy subjects. The presence of anismus is more frequent in the group of patients with obstructive defecation compared to the control group (a highly statistically significant difference, p < 0.01). Furthermore, we found that the Rome III criteria for functional constipation showed 90% accuracy in predicting obstructive defecation. We analyzed the correlation of anismus with the presence of weak external anal sphincter, rectal sensibility disorders, enlarged piles, diverticular disease and anatomic variations of colon. We found no correlation between them in any of these cases. There is a significant correlation between anismus and positive Rome III criteria for functional constipation. Anorectal manometry should be performed in all patients with the positive Rome III criteria for functional constipation.

  17. Conservative Measures for Managing Constipation in Patients Living With a Colostomy.

    PubMed

    Kuczynska, Barbara; Bobkiewicz, Adam; Studniarek, Adam; Szmyt, Krzsztof; Krokowicz, Łukasz; Matysiak, Konrad; Szmeja, Jacek; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Drews, Michał; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a conservative regimen for the treatment of constipation in persons living with a colostomy. Prospective, noncontrolled, single-center study. The study sample comprised 35 patients with a colostomy who were diagnosed with constipation. Subjects with morphologic changes causing constipation such as stomal stenosis and neoplastic and inflammatory changes were excluded. The study was conducted in the Proctology and Stoma Outpatient Clinic at Poznan University of Medical Sciences. Patients at our Stoma Outpatient Clinic underwent baseline evaluation, and those with symptoms of constipation (prolonged periods between bowel movements, passage of pasty or hardened fecal effluent, and associated symptoms such as abdominal discomfort or bloating, flatulence, and pain with passage of effluent into the stoma) received individualized dietary recommendations that typically included an increase in dietary fiber and fluid intake, along with increased fluid intake. The outcomes of dietary changes were evaluated during a follow-up visit 3 months later. If dietary changes alone did not improve constipation symptoms, we prescribed a psyllium-based bulk-forming agent, an osmotic stool softener, and a probiotic, with or without a prokinetic agent such as metoclopramide taken 3 times daily. Dietary interventions alone were deemed successful in 60% of study subjects (n = 21); the remaining 14 patients required additional treatment. Dietary modifications alone relieved constipation in more than half of a group of 35 patients with constipation. We therefore recommend a trial of dietary modifications prior to the initiation of pharmacotherapy in patients with a colostomy.

  18. When all seems lost: management of refractory constipation-Surgery, rectal irrigation, percutaneous endoscopic colostomy, and more.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson-Smith, V; Bharucha, A E; Emmanuel, A; Knowles, C; Yiannakou, Y; Corsetti, M

    2018-05-01

    While the pharmacological armamentarium for chronic constipation has expanded over the past few years, a substantial proportion of constipated patients do not respond to these medications. This review summarizes the pharmacological and behavioral options for managing constipation and details the management of refractory constipation. Refractory constipation is defined as an inadequate improvement in constipation symptoms evaluated with an objective scale despite adequate therapy (ie, pharmacological and/or behavioral) that is based on the underlying pathophysiology of constipation. Minimally invasive (ie, rectal irrigation and percutaneous endoscopic colostomy) and surgical therapies are used to manage refractory constipation. This review appraises these options, and in particular, percutaneous endoscopic colostomy, which as detailed by an article in this issue, is a less invasive option for managing refractory constipation than surgery. While these options benefit some patients, the evidence of the risk: benefit profile for these therapies is limited. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Osteopathic management of chronic constipation in women patients. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Belvaux, Aurélie; Bouchoucha, Michel; Benamouzig, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Constipation is a common problem in western countries. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) for the treatment of constipated women with functional constipation (FC) or defeation disorders (DD). Twenty-one constipated females referred to a tertiary center were recruited. A course of OMT, weekly for four weeks, was given. Clinical questionnaire, Bristol stool form scale and patients' subjective perception of constipation, bloating and abdominal pain, were recorded. Total and segmental colonic transit time (CTT) were performed before and after OMT. Eleven patients had FC and 10 DD, as defined by Rome III criteria. After OMT, the Knowless Eccersley Scott Symptom score (P=0.020), the oro-anal transit time (P=0.002), the right (P=0.005) and left (P=0.009) CTT had decreased while the stool frequency (P=0.005) and the Bristol Stool Form scale (P=0.003) had increased. After OMT, the intensity of constipation, and the Patient assessment of constipation symptoms score did not change but a decrease of abdominal pain, bloating, quality of life score and drug use was found. This study shows OMT has potential benefit for treating functional constipation in women. Further randomised trials are required to confirm these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Reflexology in the management of encopresis and chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Eileen; McKinnon, Evelyn; Weir, Evelyn; Brown, Denise W

    2003-04-01

    Encopresis or faecal incontinence in children is an extremely distressing condition that is usually secondary to chronic constipation/stool withholding. Traditional management with enemas may add to the child's distress. This study investigated the efficacy of treating patients with encopresis and chronic constipation with reflexology. An observational study was carried out of 50 children between three and 14 years of age who had a diagnosis of encopresis/chronic constipation. The children received six sessions of 30-minutes of reflexology to their feet. With the help of their parents they completed questionnaires on bowel motions and soiling patterns before, during and after the treatment. A further questionnaire was completed by parents pre and post treatment on their attitude towards reflexology. Forty-eight of the children completed the sessions. The number of bowel motions increased and the incidence of soiling decreased. Parents were keen to try the reflexology and were satisfied with the effect of reflexology on their child's condition. It appears that reflexology has been an effective method of treating encopresis and constipation over a six-week period in this cohort of patients.

  1. Constipation and the preached trio: diet, fluid intake, exercise.

    PubMed

    Annells, Merilyn; Koch, Tina

    2003-11-01

    A survey of 90 older community-dwelling people's constipation experience is reported in part. The focus is the participants' efforts to use diet, fluid intake and exercise as preventive strategies. Most feel that they have been preached to in this regard. However, constraints may prevent full adherence to the trio and although some have gained from diet adjustment, the majority is disillusioned about these strategies. Nurses should be aware that scientific and medical literature is discussing evidence that dietary fibre intake preventing constipation is not proven, that fluid intake does not necessarily determine stool bulk or speed colon transit time, and that there is no proven link between exercise levels and chronic constipation.

  2. Therapeutic effect of lyophilized, Kefir-fermented milk on constipation among persons with mental and physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Maki, Rumiko; Matsukawa, Mayumi; Matsuduka, Atsuko; Hashinaga, Masahiko; Anai, Hirofumi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Hanada, Katsuhiro; Fujii, Chieko

    2017-11-06

    Constipation is a serious problem for persons with mental and physical disabilities in Japan. However, prophylaxis is extremely difficult because the major causes of constipation in these individuals are related to their mental and physical disabilities. Constipation can be successfully treated with glycerol enemas (GEs) and other aperients. As constipation is a lifetime issue for these persons, dietary regimens to prevent constipation can be important. This study evaluated the probiotic effects of kefir-fermented milk for preventing constipation in 42 persons with mental and physical disabilities. The participants were administered 2 g of lyophilized kefir with each meal for 12 weeks and their bowel movements, the administration of GE and other aperients, and stool shape were recorded. The intake of kefir significantly reduced constipation, compared with the baseline status. Some individuals showed complete relief of constipation, whereas others showed no effect. Despite individual variations, consuming kefir daily could prevent constipation. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  3. Familial clustering of habitual constipation: a prospective study in children from West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Ostwani, Waseem; Dolan, Jenna; Elitsur, Yoram

    2010-03-01

    To investigate familial clustering of habitual constipation in pediatric patients who attended our medical facilities. Children with the diagnosis of functional, habitual constipation or patients without constipation and their respective family members were prospectively recruited to our study. Constipation was established in all participants using a standard questionnaire (Rome criteria). A total of 112 children and their families participated in the study, of which 37 were probands families (test) and 75 children and their respective family members constituted the control group. A total of 310 family members completed the questionnaire. No significant differences were found between the study and the control groups in age, sex, or family size. Siblings or parents from the study group (probands) had significantly higher rates of constipation compared with the control group (30% vs 7% and 42% vs 9%, respectively; P = 0.001). Habitual constipation in children seemed to cluster in families. The pathophysiology behind this phenomenon is yet unknown.

  4. Characteristics of intestinal habits in children younger than 4 years: detecting constipation.

    PubMed

    Mota, Denise M; Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Iná; Matijasevich, Alícia

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of childhood constipation, stool characteristics, and their relationship with toilet training and age of introduction of cow's milk. A total of 4231 children born in 2004, from a birth cohort study, were assessed at 12, 24, and 48 months of age, when their mothers provided information on sociodemographic characteristics, bowel habits, toilet training, and age of introduction of cow's milk and other foods. The prevalence of constipation was 27.3% and 31.0% at 24 and 48 months of age, respectively. Among girls, at 48 months of age, it was 34.4% versus 27.4% in boys (P<0.001). The most common features of constipation were scybalous stools (47.7% and 41.0% at 24 and 48 months, respectively), evacuation difficulty (24.3% and 23.1%), and hard stools (17.8% and 34.1%). Toilet training starting before 24 months was associated with constipation at 24 months and its persistence up to 48 months. Among children who did not receive cow's milk in their first year of life, 22% had constipation at 24 months, 22.6% at 48 months, and 8.3% at 24 and 48 months. Among children who started cow's milk before 30 days of life, the respective proportions of children with constipation was 28.2%, 33%, and 12.4%. The prevalence of constipation increases with age and cannot be detected using only information on evacuation interval. Toilet training before 24 months and introduction of cow's milk before 1 year of age is positively associated with constipation at 24 months and its persistence up to 48 months.

  5. Early constipation and toilet training in children with encopresis.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Laurie; Rappaport, Leonard; Cousineau, Dominique; Nurko, Samuel

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the frequency of predisposing factors for encopresis before and during toilet training, comparing children with primary and secondary encopresis. In this retrospective study, questionnaires from the initial evaluation at an encopresis clinic at a tertiary care pediatric hospital were reviewed for the presence or absence of factors in the first 2 years of life, for toilet training practices, and for disruptive events during the training process. Children younger than 48 months or those with organic defecation disorders were excluded. In 411 children with encopresis, the reported frequency of predisposing factors included constipation in 35%, and previous treatment for constipation in 24%. Toilet training was initiated before age 2 years in 26% and after age 3 years in 14%. Interruption of toilet training and punishment were seen more in primary encopresis than in secondary encopresis (50% versus 23%; P < 0.05) and (52% versus 26%; P < 0.05) respectively. Constipation (30% versus 18%; P < 0.05) and abdominal pain (23% versus 9%; P <0.0:5) during toilet training were more common in primary encopresis as was fear of the toilet (47% versus 10%; P < 0.05). In children with encopresis, early difficult defecation, previous treatment for constipation, and early initiation of toilet training were less common than expected. Children with primary encopresis did not have an increased incidence of early constipation or invasive treatments compared with those with secondary encopresis. However, children with primary encopresis did have more difficult and disruptive toilet training experiences.

  6. What's New in the Toolbox for Constipation and Fecal Incontinence?

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Constipation and fecal incontinence (FI) are common complaints predominantly affecting the elderly and women. They are associated with significant morbidity and high healthcare costs. The causes are often multi-factorial and overlapping. With the advent of new technologies, we have a better understanding of their underlying pathophysiology which may involve disruption at any levels along the gut-brain-microbiota axis. Initial approach to management should always be the exclusion of secondary causes. Mild symptoms can be approached with conservative measures that may include dietary modifications, exercise, and medications. New prokinetics (e.g., prucalopride) and secretagogues (e.g., lubiprostone and linaclotide) are effective and safe in constipation. Biofeedback is the treatment of choice for dyssynergic defecation. Refractory constipation may respond to neuromodulation therapy with colectomy as the last resort especially for slow-transit constipation of neuropathic origin. Likewise, in refractory FI, less invasive approach can be tried first before progressing to more invasive surgical approach. Injectable bulking agents, sacral nerve stimulation, and SECCA procedure have modest efficacy but safe and less invasive. Surgery has equivocal efficacy but there are promising new techniques including dynamic graciloplasty, artificial bowel sphincter, and magnetic anal sphincter. Despite being challenging, there are no short of alternatives in our toolbox for the management of constipation and FI.

  7. Manometric and ultrasonographic characteristics of patients with coexisting fecal incontinence and constipation.

    PubMed

    Somers, M; Peleman, C; Van Malderen, K; Verlinden, W; Francque, S; De Schepper, H

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of fecal incontinence (FI) depends upon the dominant pathophysiology: impaired sphincter contractility or overflow due to pelvic floor dyssynergia and insufficient rectal emptying. In this study, we aimed to define the manometric and anorectal ultrasound characteristics in FI patients with and without constipation. We did a retrospective study of 365 anal manometries, performed between October 2012 and July 2015, in patients with FI. Clinical information was obtained from questionnaires. In 220 of these patients an anorectal ultrasound was also available. Key results : A high prevalence of self-reported constipation was seen in the total population of FI patients (66%). This number was lower (31%) when Rome IV criteria were applied. A very high percentage of manometric pelvic floor dyssynergia was seen in the total population with FI (81%). However, patients with FI and constipation did not show pelvic floor dyssynergia more often than patients without constipation. Anal resting pressure, squeeze pressure and anorectal pressure sensitivity were not different when comparing patients without and with constipation. The prevalence of a functional defecation disorder (FDD) in our study population of FI patients was 20%. Wexner score in this subgroup was lower compared with patients without FDD. Anal sphincter defects were more prevalent in women than men, and were associated with diminished sphincter contractility. A very high percentage of FI patients showed manometric pelvic floor dyssynergia. The coexistence of fecal incontinence and constipation did not increase this percentage. Constipation is a frequent and underestimated cause of FI. A correct diagnosis has a major impact on treatment. We aimed to characterize the manometric and transrectal ultrasound profile of FI patients with and without signs of coexisting constipation. - A very high percentage of incontinent patients showed pelvic floor dyssynergia, however no significant difference between the

  8. Constipation--prevalence and incidence among medical patients acutely admitted to hospital with a medical condition.

    PubMed

    Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise; Bager, Louise; Herning, Margrethe; Lyngby, Christel; Konradsen, Hanne

    2014-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients. Constipation is a common medical problem with severe consequences, and most people suffer from constipation at some point in their lives. In the general population, constipation is one of the most common complaints and is a significant personal and public health burden. Alteration in patients' patterns of elimination while in hospital has long been identified as either a potential or an actual problem that requires attention. Knowledge of the prevalence and incidence of constipation during hospitalisation is only sporadic. The study was descriptive and a prospective cohort design was chosen. The Constipation Assessment Scale was translated into Danish and was used for the assessment of patient-reported bowel function. Five nurses made the assessments at admission to the acute medical ward and three days after admission. Three hundred and seventy-three patients participated in this study. Thirty-nine percent of the patients showed symptoms of constipation at admission. Of the patients who did not have the symptoms at admission, 43% developed the symptoms during the first three days of their stay in hospital. Significantly more of the older patients developed symptoms of moderate constipation. The incidence rate was 143 new cases per 1000 patient days. In this study, symptoms of constipation were common among patients acutely admitted to hospital due to different medical conditions. Symptoms of constipation were also developed during the first three days of the stay in hospital. The study highlights the need to develop both clinical guidelines towards treating constipation, and preventive measures to ensure that patients do not become constipated while staying in hospital. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Use of fibers in childhood constipation treatment: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Piccoli de Mello, Patricia; Eifer, Diego Andre; Daniel de Mello, Elza

    2018-02-21

    To gather current evidence on the use of fiber for constipation treatment in pediatric patients. Systematic review with meta-analysis of studies identified through Pubmed, Embase, LILACS and Cochrane databases published up to 2016. Randomized controlled trials; patients aged between 1 and 18 years and diagnosed with functional constipation receiving or not drug treatment for constipation; articles published in Portuguese, English, Spanish, French, and German in journals accessible to the researchers. A total of 2963 articles were retrieved during the search and, after adequate evaluation, nine articles were considered relevant to the study objective. A total of 680 children were included, of whom 45% were boys. No statistical significance was observed for bowel movement frequency, stool consistency, therapeutic success, fecal incontinence, and abdominal pain with fiber intake in patients with childhood constipation. These results should be interpreted with care due to the high clinical heterogeneity between the studies and the methodological limitation of the articles selected for analysis. There is a scarcity of qualified studies to evaluate fiber supplementation in the treatment of childhood constipation, generating a low degree of confidence in estimating the real effect of this intervention on this population. Today, according to the current literature, adequate fiber intake should only be recommended for functional constipation, and fiber supplementation should not be prescribed in the diet of constipated children and adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. A critical appraisal of lubiprostone in the treatment of chronic constipation in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Gras-Miralles, Beatriz; Cremonini, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common disorder in the general population, with higher prevalence in the elderly, and is associated with worse quality of life and with greater health care utilization. Lubiprostone is an intestinal type-2 chloride channel activator that increases intestinal fluid secretion, small intestinal transit, and stool passage. Lubiprostone is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and of irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation. This review outlines current approaches and limitations in the treatment of chronic constipation in the elderly and discusses the results, limitations, and applicability of randomized, controlled trials of lubiprostone that have been conducted in the general and elderly population, with additional focus on the use of lubiprostone in constipation in Parkinson's disease and in opioid-induced constipation, two clinical entities that can be comorbid in elderly patients.

  11. Manometric assessment of idiopathic megarectum in constipated children

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; de Roberto, Giuseppe; Mazzocchi, Alessandro; Morelli, Antonio; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Chronic constipation is a frequent finding in children. In this age range, the concomitant occurrence of megarectum is not uncommon. However, the definition of megarectum is variable, and a few data exist for Italy. We studied anorectal manometric variables and sensation in a group of constipated children with megarectum defined by radiologic criteria. Data from this group were compared with those obtained in a similar group of children with recurrent abdominal pain. METHODS: Anorectal testing was carried out in both groups by standard manometric technique and rectal balloon expulsion test. RESULTS: Megarectum patients displayed discrete abnormalities of anorectal variables and sensation with respect to controls. In particular, the pelvic floor function appeared to be impaired in most patients. CONCLUSION: Constipated children with megarectum have abnormal anorectal function and sensation. These findings may be helpful for a better understanding of the pathophysiological basis of this condition. PMID:16273619

  12. Colon transit scintiraphy in health and constipation using oral iodine-131-cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.G.; Smart, R.C.; Gaston-Parry, D.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess if a new scintigraphic method for noninvasive assessment of colonic transit could differentiate between subjects with normal bowel transit and those with constipation. Eleven normal subjects and 29 constipated patients were given 4 MBq iodine-131-cellulose ({sup 131}I-cellulose) orally and sequential abdominal scans were performed at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr from which total and segmental percent retentions were calculated. There were clear differences between the normal subjects and the constipated patients for the total percent retention at all time intervals, on a segmental basis in the right colon at 24more » hr, and in all segments at 48 and 72 hr. Three-day urinary excretion of radioiodine was minimal; 2.4% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- s.d.) in constipated patients and 3.1% +/- 0.8% in normals, with approximately 75% occurring in the first day. The use of oral radiotracers in the investigation of constipation appears promising.« less

  13. Lubiprostone for the treatment of adults with constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schey, Ron; Rao, Satish S C

    2011-06-01

    Chronic constipation and IBS-C are two of the most common functional bowel disorders encountered by primary care providers and gastroenterologists, affecting up to 27% of the population in Western countries [1-4]. The treatment of these disorders is often empiric and most current therapies are indicated for episodic constipation. Over time, most patients become refractory to one or more laxatives. Lubiprostone (Amitiza) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of chronic-idiopathic constipation [6]. It is an oral bicyclic fatty acid that selectively activates type 2 chloride channels in the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells, hence stimulating chloride secretion, along with passive secretion of sodium and water, inducing peristalsis and laxation, without stimulating gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Several trials have shown it to be effective in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation, and recently also IBS-C. It has little systemic absorption and almost free of any serious adverse effects, however, occasionally can cause nausea. Based on the available evidence, it is reasonable to conclude that lubiprostone should be added to the short list of evidence-based pharmacotherapies for chronic constipation and IBS-C. Given the overlap between chronic constipation and IBS-C, clinicians can consider two strategies when deciding on the initial dose of lubiprostone. Based on current product labeling, it is recommended that 8 μg bid be started in patients with IBS-C whereas 24 μg bid be used in those with chronic constipation. Thus far, lubiprostone offers a novel approach to our therapeutic armamentarium, however, there is a need for more drugs with different mechanisms of action, in order to treat constipation that is often multifunctional.

  14. Consensus Recommendations on Initiating Prescription Therapies for Opioid‐Induced Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Argoff, Charles E.; Brennan, Michael J.; Camilleri, Michael; Davies, Andrew; Fudin, Jeffrey; Galluzzi, Katherine E.; Gudin, Jeffrey; Lembo, Anthony; Stanos, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Aims of this consensus panel were to determine (1) an optimal symptom‐based method for assessing opioid‐induced constipation in clinical practice and (2) a threshold of symptom severity to prompt consideration of prescription therapy. Methods A multidisciplinary panel of 10 experts with extensive knowledge/experience with opioid‐associated adverse events convened to discuss the literature on assessment methods used for opioid‐induced constipation and reach consensus on each objective using the nominal group technique. Results Five validated assessment tools were evaluated: the Patient Assessment of Constipation–Symptoms (PAC‐SYM), Patient Assessment of Constipation–Quality of Life (PAC‐QOL), Stool Symptom Screener (SSS), Bowel Function Index (BFI), and Bowel Function Diary (BF‐Diary). The 3‐item BFI and 4‐item SSS, both clinician administered, are the shortest tools. In published trials, the BFI and 12‐item PAC‐SYM are most commonly used. The 11‐item BF‐Diary is highly relevant in opioid‐induced constipation and was developed and validated in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. However, the panel believes that the complex scoring for this tool and the SSS, PAC‐SYM, and 28‐item PAC‐QOL may be unfeasible for clinical practice. The BFI is psychometrically validated and responsive to changes in symptom severity; scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating greater severity and scores >28.8 points indicating constipation. Conclusions The BFI is a simple assessment tool with a validated threshold of clinically significant constipation. Prescription treatments for opioid‐induced constipation should be considered for patients who have a BFI score of ≥30 points and an inadequate response to first‐line interventions. PMID:26582720

  15. Efficacy and safety of lubiprostone in patients with chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Barish, Charles F; Drossman, Douglas; Johanson, John F; Ueno, Ryuji

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of lubiprostone in adults with chronic constipation. This multicenter, parallel-group trial enrolled 237 patients with chronic constipation and randomized them to 4 weeks of double-blind treatment with oral lubiprostone 24 mcg or placebo twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was the number of spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs) after 1 week of treatment. Secondary evaluations included SBMs at weeks 2, 3, and 4; percentage of patients with a SBM within 24 h of first study dose; stool consistency; degree of straining; constipation severity; abdominal bloating and discomfort; global treatment effectiveness; and safety assessments. Lubiprostone-treated patients experienced greater mean numbers of SBMs at week 1 compared with placebo (5.89 versus 3.99, P = 0.0001), with significantly greater percentages having SBMs within 24 h of the first dose (61.3% versus 31.4%, P < 0.0001). At each assessment, SBM frequency and percentages of full responders (> or =4 SBM per week) were significantly greater among lubiprostone-treated patients compared with placebo (P < or = 0.0171). Lubiprostone-treated patients reported significant improvements in stool consistency, straining, and constipation severity at all weeks, and in abdominal bloating at week 1. Patient assessments of treatment effectiveness were significantly greater with lubiprostone compared with placebo at all weeks (P < 0.0004). Gastrointestinal-related disorders were the most common adverse events in both treatment groups. In patients with chronic constipation, lubiprostone produced a bowel movement in the majority of individuals within 24 h of initial dosing, with sustained improvement in frequency as well as other constipation symptoms over 4 weeks of treatment.

  16. Revalidation of description of constipation in terms of recall bias and visual scale analog questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Pamuk, Omer Nuri; Pamuk, Gulsum Emel; Celik, Aykut Ferhat

    2003-12-01

    The present study was designed to identify a cut-off value to define subjective and relatively objective criteria of constipation using the visual scale analog questionnaire (VSAQ) in healthy subjects. In addition, the importance of recall bias when evaluating constipation was investigated by repeating the questionnaire and ensuring the subjects maintained diaries. Seven hundred and sixty healthy hospital personnel were questioned by means of a standard questionnaire. Subjects were initially asked if they were constipated (self-reported) and their daily defecation frequencies. Severity of the parameters of constipation, the consistency of defecation in the form of hard stools, straining and incomplete evacuation were also investigated using a VSAQ (0-10). Subjects were asked to complete a standard form about their daily bowel habits in the subsequent 7 days (diary). At the end of this series, the questionnaire forms completed at the beginning were readministered. Using the criteria of functional constipation, the prevalence of self-reported, symptom-based (>/=2 criteria) and diary-based (>/=2 criteria in the diary) were defined. Of the subjects, 48.5% (369/760) completed diaries regarding their bowel habits and completed the questionnaire for the second time (198 female, 171 male; mean age 31.6 +/- 7.1 years). According to only interrogation, 29.8% of subjects reported that they were constipated; however, this number increased to 39.6% when symptom-based constipation (>/=2 criteria) was considered. Significant agreement was observed between the results of self-reported constipation in form I and II, and symptom-based and diary-based constipation (concordance = 77.7-98.6%, k = 0.47-0.97). Furthermore, 98.1% of the subjects who reported that they were not constipated scored 3 on the VSAQ; conversely, 91.8% who accepted being constipated scored >3 for the same question. A total of 76.1% subjects who had symptom-based constipation scored 3 on the VSAQ, 97.3% of those

  17. Luminally Acting Agents for Constipation Treatment: A Review Based on Literatures and Patents

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is one of the most frequently reported gastrointestinal (GI) disorders that negatively impacts quality of life and is associated with a significant economic burden to the patients and society. Traditional treatments including lifestyle modification and laxatives are often ineffective in the more severe forms of constipation and over the long term. New medications targeting at intestinal chloride channels and colonic serotonin receptors have been demonstrated effective in recent years. Emerging agents focusing on improving intestinal secretion and/or colonic motility have been shown effective in animal models and even in clinical trials. Recognization of the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) in intestine fluid secretion and motility modulation makes CFTR and CaCCs promising molecule targets for anti-constipation therapy. Although there are multiple choices for constipation treatment, there is still a recognized need for new medications in anti-constipation therapy. The present review covers the discovery of luminally acting agents for constipation treatment described in both patents (2011–present) and scientific literatures. PMID:28713271

  18. Dexpanthenol (Ro 01-4709) in the treatment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Hanck, A B; Goffin, H

    1982-01-01

    Functional constipation is not a life-threatening disease, but as a chronic state it worries the patient and causes him discomfort and often leads him to self-medication with potentially dangerous drugs. Ro 01-4709 contains as active substance dexpanthenol, which is the alcohol of pantothenic acid, a vitamin of the B-complex. In the cells, dexpanthenol is readily oxidized to pantothenic acid, which stimulates peristalsis when administered in therapeutically effective doses. Ro 01-4709 has already proven its efficacy in the prevention and treatment of adynamic ileus. Recently, several open and two double-blind studies have been carried out, investigating the efficacy of oral Ro 01-4709 in the treatment of chronic functional constipation. The two double-blind studies showed Ro 01-4709 to be superior to placebo in all parameters measured. The studies with an open design also demonstrated a favourable effect of Ro 01-4709 in the treatment of chronic functional constipation. Owing to its physiological action-which is in a favourable contrast to that of normal laxatives. Ro 01-4709 can be recommended for the treatment of functional constipation in pregnant women, children and the elderly.

  19. Lubiprostone for constipation in adults with cystic fibrosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine E; Anderson, Paula J; Stowe, Cindy D

    2011-09-01

    Constipation is prevalent in the cystic fibrosis (CF) population and yet there are few data demonstrating the effectiveness of currently used treatments. Lubiprostone is a laxative that works by activating the type 2 chloride channel in the gastrointestinal tract and thus has the potential to be especially effective for constipation associated with CF. To evaluate the effectiveness of lubiprostone for the treatment of constipation in adults with CF. In this pilot study, participants acted as their own controls and comparisons were made between run-in and treatment periods. During the 2-week run-in period, participants continued their usual treatment for constipation; during the 4-week treatment period, participants received lubiprostone 24 μg twice daily. Efficacy outcomes included spontaneous bowel movement frequency, Bristol Stool Scale scores, and Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms (PAC-SYM) survey scores. Outcomes were assessed during both the run-in and treatment periods (0, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment). Safety outcomes included spirometry, body weight, and serum chemistry. Seven participants completed the study. Mean (SD) baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 83.0% (9.4) of predicted and body mass index was 24.0 (2.8) kg/m², indicating an overall healthy, well-nourished group of adults with CF. Lubiprostone improved overall symptoms of constipation as measured by PAC-SYM survey scores (1.18 [0.56], 0.54 [0.27], and 0.44 [0.36] at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, respectively; p < 0.001). Spontaneous bowel movement frequency and Bristol Stool Scale scores were not statistically significantly different between periods. There were no differences in safety measures. Transient chest tightness and shortness of breath were reported by 2 separate participants, although neither participant withdrew due to these adverse effects. Lubiprostone may be an effective option for the treatment of constipation in adults with CF.

  20. A critical appraisal of lubiprostone in the treatment of chronic constipation in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Gras-Miralles, Beatriz; Cremonini, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common disorder in the general population, with higher prevalence in the elderly, and is associated with worse quality of life and with greater health care utilization. Lubiprostone is an intestinal type-2 chloride channel activator that increases intestinal fluid secretion, small intestinal transit, and stool passage. Lubiprostone is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and of irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation. This review outlines current approaches and limitations in the treatment of chronic constipation in the elderly and discusses the results, limitations, and applicability of randomized, controlled trials of lubiprostone that have been conducted in the general and elderly population, with additional focus on the use of lubiprostone in constipation in Parkinson’s disease and in opioid-induced constipation, two clinical entities that can be comorbid in elderly patients. PMID:23439964

  1. Effects of Ficus carica paste on loperamide-induced constipation in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak-Yong; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Jeung, Han-Wool; Lee, Cha-Uk; Kim, Do-Sung; Li, Bo; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Sung, Myung-Soon; Ha, Ki-Chan; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young; Park, Soo-Hyun; Oh, Mi-Ra; Kim, Min-Gul; Jeon, Ji-Young; Im, Yong-Jin; Hwang, Min-Ho; So, Byung-Ok; Shin, Sook-Jeong; Yoo, Wan-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2012-03-01

    Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study examined the effects of fig (Ficus carica L.) paste for the treatment of loperamide-induced constipation in a rat model. Animals were divided into one normal control group and four experimental groups (0, 1, 6, and 30 g/kg). Loperamide (2 mg/kg, twice per day) was injected intraperitoneally to induce constipation in the four experimental groups. Fig paste was administered for 4 weeks to assess its anti-constipation effects. Fecal pellet number, weight and water content were increased in the fig-treated groups as compared to the control group. Reductions in body weight and increased intestinal transit length were observed in the fig-treated groups. Fecal pellet number was reduced in the distal colons of the fig-treated rats. Exercise and ileum tension increased in the experimental groups as compared to the control group. According to histological analyses, the thickness of the distal colon and areas of crypt epithelial cells that produce mucin were increased in the fig-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Constipation was decreased when fig fruit was fed to rats. Specifically, fecal number, weight, and water content, as well as histological parameters such as thickness and mucin areas in the distal colon were improved. Fig treatment may be a useful therapeutic and preventive strategy for chronic constipation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Is celiac disease misdiagnosed in children with functional constipation?

    PubMed

    Akman, Sezin; Şahaloğlu, Özlem; Dalkan, Ceyhun; Bahçeciler, Nerin Nadir; Arıkan, Çiğdem

    2018-03-01

    Functional constipation is one of the common problems in childhood, and it comprises approximately 5% of the pediatric outpatient clinical applications. On the other hand, celiac disease (CD) is an immune enteropathy with the prevalence between 1/150 and 1/200. In addition to the classical symptoms of the disease such as diarrhea and weight loss, the incidence of atypical symptoms is increasing. This study aims to determine the prevalence of CD in patients with chronic constipation. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2012 and included 1046 children (range, 2-18 y; median, 11.4 y) diagnosed with chronic constipation according to the Rome III criteria. Serum immunoglobulin A, tissue transglutaminase, and/or anti-endomysial antibodies were examined. The patients with serological positive results were subjected to upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy and duodenal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of CD. Blood tests were positive in 36 patients (3.25%). One of the patients had Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 4 patients had short stature. Endoscopic findings included nodularity in bulbus and duodenal mucosa (n=16), scalloping fold (n=13), and normal mucosa (n=5). Histopathologic findings revealed that 10 patients had total villous atrophy, 24 patients had subtotal and partial villous atrophy, and 34 patients had intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration. All patients followed a gluten-free diet, resulting in a resolution of symptoms. In the present study, a CD ratio of 1:28 was diagnosed in chronically constipated children. The use of screening tests for CD should be considered in children with conventional treatment-resistant constipation.

  3. Traditional Japanese Medicine Daikenchuto Improves Functional Constipation in Poststroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Takehiro; Takayama, Shin; Tobita, Muneshige; Ishida, Shuichi; Katayose, Dai; Shinkawa, Mitsutoshi; Oikawa, Takashi; Aonuma, Takanori; Kaneko, Soichiro; Tanaka, Junichi; Kanemura, Seiki; Iwasaki, Koh; Ishii, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Poststroke patients with functional constipation, assessed by the Rome III criteria, from 6 hospitals were recruited in a study on the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on constipation. Thirty-four patients (17 men and 17 women; mean age: 78.1 ± 11.6 years) were randomly assigned to 2 groups; all patients received conventional therapy for constipation, and patients in the DKT group received 15 g/day of DKT for 4 weeks. Constipation scoring system (CSS) points and the gas volume score (GVS) (the measure of the intestinal gas volume calculated from plain abdominal radiographs) were recorded before and after a 4-week observation period. The total score on the CSS improved significantly in the DKT group compared to the control (P < 0.01). In addition, scores for some CSS subcategories (frequency of bowel movements, feeling of incomplete evacuation, and need for enema/disimpaction) significantly improved in the DKT group (P < 0.01, P = 0.049, and P = 0.03, resp.). The GVS was also significantly reduced in the DKT group compared to the control (P = 0.03). DKT in addition to conventional therapy is effective in treating functional constipation in poststroke patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial and was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (no. UMIN000007393). PMID:25089144

  4. Traditional Japanese medicine daikenchuto improves functional constipation in poststroke patients.

    PubMed

    Numata, Takehiro; Takayama, Shin; Tobita, Muneshige; Ishida, Shuichi; Katayose, Dai; Shinkawa, Mitsutoshi; Oikawa, Takashi; Aonuma, Takanori; Kaneko, Soichiro; Tanaka, Junichi; Kanemura, Seiki; Iwasaki, Koh; Ishii, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Poststroke patients with functional constipation, assessed by the Rome III criteria, from 6 hospitals were recruited in a study on the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on constipation. Thirty-four patients (17 men and 17 women; mean age: 78.1 ± 11.6 years) were randomly assigned to 2 groups; all patients received conventional therapy for constipation, and patients in the DKT group received 15 g/day of DKT for 4 weeks. Constipation scoring system (CSS) points and the gas volume score (GVS) (the measure of the intestinal gas volume calculated from plain abdominal radiographs) were recorded before and after a 4-week observation period. The total score on the CSS improved significantly in the DKT group compared to the control (P < 0.01). In addition, scores for some CSS subcategories (frequency of bowel movements, feeling of incomplete evacuation, and need for enema/disimpaction) significantly improved in the DKT group (P < 0.01, P = 0.049, and P = 0.03, resp.). The GVS was also significantly reduced in the DKT group compared to the control (P = 0.03). DKT in addition to conventional therapy is effective in treating functional constipation in poststroke patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial and was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (no. UMIN000007393).

  5. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator for treatment of chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Ambizas, Emily M; Ginzburg, Regina

    2007-06-01

    To review lubiprostone's pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety in the treatment of chronic constipation. A literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE (1966-January 2007), IngentaConnect, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1977-January 2007). Key words used included lubiprostone, Amitiza, and chronic constipation. All articles identified from the data sources that were published in English were evaluated. Lubiprostone is a chloride channel activator approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic constipation. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effect of lubiprostone on gastric function showed slowed gastric emptying and increased small bowel and colonic transit time. Peak plasma concentration was shown to be around 1.14 hours, with a majority of the drug excreted in the urine within 48 hours. Phase III trials have noted that most patients with chronic constipation have a spontaneous bowel movement within 24 hours after taking lubiprostone. The most common adverse events in these trials were nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Lubiprostone use has not been studied in the pediatric population. Lubiprostone may be a reasonable alternative for use in patients who either fail or are intolerant of standard therapy for chronic constipation. Head-to-head comparison studies with conventional therapy are needed to contrast clinical efficacy and safety of this medication.

  6. [Clinical practice guidelines: Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and functional constipation in adults: Concept, diagnosis, and healthcare continuity. (Part 1 of 2)].

    PubMed

    Mearin, F; Ciriza, C; Mínguez, M; Rey, E; Mascort, J J; Peña, E; Cañones, P; Júdez, J

    2017-01-01

    In this Clinical practice guide, an analysis is made of the diagnosis and treatment of adult patients with constipation and abdominal discomfort, under the spectrum of irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation. These have an important personal, health and social impact, affecting the quality of life of these patients. In irritable bowel syndrome with a predominance of constipation, this is the predominant change in bowel movements, with recurrent abdominal pain, bloating and frequent abdominal distension. Constipation is characterised by infrequent or difficulty in bowel movements, associated with excessive straining during bowel movement or sensation of incomplete evacuation. There is often no underling cause, with an intestinal functional disorder being considered. They have many clinical and pathophysiological similarities, with a similar response of the constipation to common drugs. The fundamental difference is the presence or absence of pain, but not in a way evaluable way; "all or nothing". The severity depends on the intensity of bowel symptoms and other factors, a combination of gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms, level of involvement, forms of perception, and behaviour. The Rome criteria diagnose functional bowel disorders. This guide is adapted to the Rome criteria IV (May 2016) and in this first part an analysis is made of the alarm criteria, diagnostic tests, and the criteria for referral between Primary Care and Digestive Disease specialists. In the second part, a review will be made of the therapeutic alternatives available (exercise, diet, drug therapies, neurostimulation of sacral roots, or surgery), making practical recommendations for each one of them. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Improving management of constipation in an inpatient setting using a care bundle.

    PubMed

    Linton, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Constipation is a common occurrence on geriatric in-patient wards. It can result in delirium and other complications including bowel obstruction. Over treatment with laxatives can result in iatrogenic diahorrea, which can lead to dehydration, delirium, and the false positive labeling and unnecessary treatment of clostridium difficile carriers. This can result in increased morbidity and mortality, and a longer stay in hospital. This means that improving the assessment and treatment of constipation should improve patient outcomes and result in significant hospital cost savings. Multidisciplinary discussion and planning resulted in the delivery of our constipation project. This aimed to encourage the early assessment and treatment of constipation of inpatients on a geriatric rehabilitation ward. The goal was to prevent significant constipation by intervening early, improving the prescription of laxatives, and titrating them when the constipation has resolved. This involved educational sessions, non-pharmacological alternatives to laxatives (optimisation of hydration, exercise, and high fibre foods), laxative prescription guidance, and twice weekly laxative ward rounds. The profile of laxative prescription changed in keeping with our guidance. There was a reduction in overall laxative prescription by a third and the prescription of "PRN" laxatives was eliminated. This hopefully resulted in reduced morbidity for the patients and reduced length of stay. There was a cost savings on the laxative bill on average per day of the project, which when extrapolated to a 365 day year was £1226.40. This doesn't include potential savings gained from reduced complications of constipation and reduced length of stay, which are hard to accurately measure.

  8. Prevalence of constipation among persons living in institutional geriatric-care settings - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lämås, Kristina; Karlsson, Stig; Nolén, Anna; Lövheim, Hugo; Sandman, Per-Olof

    2017-03-01

    The current state of knowledge about the prevalence of constipation among persons living in institutional geriatric-care settings is limited. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of constipation among institutional geriatric-care residents and identify resident characteristics related to constipation. In a cross-sectional study of all the institutional geriatric-care settings in a county in northern Sweden, 2970 residents were assessed. The member of staff who knew each resident best used the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale and the resident's records of prescribed medication to monitor cognitive function, activities in daily life, behavioural and psychological symptoms, physical restraints, speech ability, nutrition and pharmacologic agents. The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board. The prevalence of constipation was 67%. The mean age was higher among those with constipation. A significantly higher proportion of the constipated had cognitive and/or physical impairments, physical restraints, impaired speech, problems with nutrition, and higher numbers of drugs for regular use. Of those with constipation, 68% were prescribed laxatives for regular use. Twenty-three per cent of the constipated residents were prescribed opioid analgesics (n = 465), and 29% (n = 134) of these were not prescribed any laxatives. Due to the cross-sectional design, the results should be interpreted with caution in terms of causal reasoning, generalisation and conclusions about risk factors. Another limitation is the use of proxy assessments of constipation. The results show that constipation is common among residents in institutional geriatric-care settings in Sweden, which is in line with previous studies from other Western countries. Despite being constipated when having prescribed opioid analgesics, a large number did not have prescribed laxatives. The results indicate the urgency of finding strategies and implementing suitable interventions to improve

  9. Role Of Stretching Exercises In The Management Of Constipation In Spastic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Awan, Waqar Ahmed; Masood, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is considered as one of the most common non-motor manifestations in cerebral palsy (CP). Along with other reasons, spasticity also contributes in developing constipation in CP, by decreasing mobility of trunk and lower extremities and abdominal viscera. Stretching exercises of upper extremities, trunk and lower extremities are routine management of spasticity in CP children. The objective of the study was to determine the role of stretching exercises in improving constipation symptoms in children with spastic cerebral palsy and to explore the association between spasticity and constipation among cerebral palsy children. Single-group Pretest-Posttest Design (Quasi Experimental Study Design). The study was conducted at Physiotherapy Department of National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) Islamabad. Thirty spastic CP children - both male and female - with complaints of constipation were recruited through non-probability, convenience sampling. The mean age of the children was 7.55±1.33 years. Each child was assessed for defecation frequency (DF), constipation severity by constipation assessment scale (CAS) and level of spasticity by modified ash worth scale for spasticity (MASS) at baseline. Stretching exercises were performed for 30 seconds with five repetitions and at least once a day for six week, followed by positioning of patients in reflex inhibiting posture. Final data was collected using the same tools as done at the baseline. Paired samples t-test was used to analyse the rehabilitation-induced changes after 6 weeks. To determine association between spasticity and constipation Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was used. The data was analysed through SPSS 20. Significant changes, compared to the baseline scores, were observed after 6 weeks of stretching exercises in MASS (2.53±0.62 Vs 1.53±0.77), DF (2.43±0.67 Vs 3.70±1.02) and CAS (7.23±1.50 Vs 5.43±1.73) with p≤0.05. The results also showed significant correlation

  10. Functional Disorders: Slow-Transit Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Tillou, John; Poylin, Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is a very common complaint, with slow-transit constipation (STC) accounting for a significant proportion of cases. Old age, female gender, psychiatric illness, and history of sexual abuse are all associated with STC. The exact cause of STC remains elusive; however, multiple immune and cellular changes have been demonstrated. Diagnosis requires evidence of slowed colonic transit which may be achieved via numerous modalities. While a variety of medical therapies exist, these are often met with limited success and a minority of patients ultimately require operative intervention. When evaluating a patient with STC, it is important to determine the presence of concomitant obstructed defecation or other forms of enteric dysmotility, as this may affect treatment decisions. Although a variety of surgical procedures have been reported, subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis is the most commonly performed and well-studied procedure, with the best track record of success. PMID:28144215

  11. [Social network analysis of traditional Chinese medicine on treatment of constipation].

    PubMed

    Du, Li-Dong; Tian, Jin-Hui; Wu, Guo-Tai; Niu, Ting-Hui; Chen, Zhen-He; Ren, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The methods of literature metrology and data mining were used to study the research topics and social network analysis of traditional Chinese medicine for constipation. The major Chinese databases were searched to include the research studies of traditional Chinese medicine for constipation. BICOMS analysis software was used to extract and collect the main information and produce co-occurrence Matrix; gCLUTO software was used for cluster analysis. Data analysis was conducted by using SPSS 19.0 software. The results showed that the number of studies on traditional Chinese medicine for constipation was constantly increased, with two literature volume peaks respectively in 2003 and 2006. Related studies have been published in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities have published, but the studies in developed areas were more than those in developing areas. There was little cooperation between research institutions and the authors, especially the cooperation between different areas. At present, the research field of Chinese medicine for constipation is divided into five research topics. In terms of specific traditional Chinese medicine, angelica sinensis is in the core position. The results showed regional imbalance in the number of studies on Chinese medicine treatment for constipation, as well as little cooperation between researchers and research institutions. The research topics mainly focused on the evaluation of clinical efficacy, but the research on optimizing the prescriptions was still not enough, so the future researchers shall pay more attention to the studies of constipation prescriptions with Angelica sinensis as the core herb. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Lack of lasting effectiveness of PEG 3350 laxative treatment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lily C; Di Palma, Jack A

    2005-08-01

    PEG 3350 (MiraLax, Braintree Laboratories Inc., Braintree, MA) 17 g daily has been shown to be safe and effective in a 14-day trial for constipation. This present investigation was designed to extend the treatment and safety experience with PEG 3350 and to evaluate any lasting effectiveness during a 30-day post-treatment observation period. Study subjects met Rome II criteria for constipation and reported <3 bowel movements a week. They were treated with PEG 3350 17 g daily for 14 days. Treatment efficacy was defined by resolution of constipation symptoms as determined by the Rome II and stool frequency definitions during the treatment period. Fifty healthy constipated subjects formed the study group. There were 42 females and 8 males. Mean age was 52 +/- 15.5 years (+/-SD). Symptom duration was 22.6 +/- 16.7 months (+/-SD). At baseline, all had <3 bowel movements a week and met Rome II criteria. Two were lost to follow-up. Two took enemas or laxatives and 2 discontinued active treatment because of "gas" and were considered treatment failures. At the end of 14 days, 40 of 48 (83.3%) had >3 stools in the last week and no longer met Rome criteria. Thirty-two of 45 (71.1%) reported satisfaction with the first bowel movement after initiating treatment. Thirty days after active treatment, 29 of 47 (61.7%) responded that they needed laxative treatment. PEG 3350 relieved constipation in most treated study subjects. During a 30-day post-treatment observation period, 29 of 47 (61.7%) had additional constipation treatment interventions.

  13. Gastric emptying in patients with constipation following childbirth and due to idiopathic slow transit.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, A; Baxter, J N; Bessent, R G; Gray, H W; Finlay, I G

    1997-08-01

    Idiopathic slow transit constipation (ISTC) is considered to be a heterogeneous condition in which patients have varying sites and degrees of delayed gastrointestinal transit. The majority of patients have pancolonic disease, and colectomy with ileocolorectal anastomosis has been the mainstay of surgical treatment. Severe constipation following traumatic childbirth is now being recognized and this subgroup of patients may have delayed transit confined to the rectosigmoid colon. In theory, proximal transit in these patients should be normal. Gastric emptying was studied in patients with constipation following childbirth or ISTC and in controls. After an overnight fast, both patients and controls received breakfast, which consisted of cornflakes, sugar and milk. The liquid marker 111In-labelled di-ethylene tri-amine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) was added to the milk. A solid marker, 99mTc-labelled colloid, was impregnated on to paper and sealed with cellulose. The t1/2 for gastric emptying was calculated. Liquid phase emptying was normal in both constipation following childbirth and ISTC. Solid phase emptying was delayed significantly in ISTC compared with that in patients with constipation following childbirth and controls. In addition, half the patients with ISTC had delayed transit through the small bowel and proximal colon. Small bowel and colonic transit were normal in patients with constipation following childbirth. Patients with constipation following childbirth represent a distinct subgroup with normal proximal gastrointestinal function. Gastric emptying studies may be helpful in selecting patients for surgical management of severe constipation.

  14. Constipation incidence and impact in medical critical care patients: importance of the definition criterion.

    PubMed

    Prat, Dominique; Messika, Jonathan; Avenel, Alexandre; Jacobs, Frédéric; Fichet, Jérome; Lemeur, Matthieu; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Sztrymf, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Constipation incidence and impact remain controversial in the ICU. This may depend on the definition criterion used in the previous studies on the field. We aimed to determine the frequency and significance of constipation according to its definition criterion. This is a prospective observational study. Adult patients without a cause of transit time modification and laxative intake within the first 3 days were screened. Constipation was defined by a first stool passage occurring after 3 days of ICU stay. Thereafter, we identified two subgroups of patients: absence of stool passage more than 3 days but less than 6 days (3-day subgroup), and no stool passage for 6 days or more (6-day subgroup). Survival, length of stay and time spent under mechanical ventilation (MV) were compared according to constipation status. Among 189 included patients [age 60.8 (49.5-74.2) years, SAPS II 44 (34-53)], 98 (51.9%) exhibited constipation (3-day subgroup n=53, 6-day subgroup n=45). Constipated patients were more likely to receive MV, sedation, vasopressors, enteral nutrition and neuromuscular blocking agents. ICU length of stay and time spent under MV was longer in the 6-day subgroup but not in the 3-day subgroup of patients. With regard to outcomes, defining constipation by the absence of stool passage less than 6 days after ICU admission does not identify a specific subset of population. Further studies on the management of this condition should focus on these 'long-term' constipated patients.

  15. Diet, physical inactivity and the prevalence of constipation throughout and after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Emma; Davies, Jill; Costarelli, Vassiliki; Dettmar, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Few studies appear to have investigated the prevalence of constipation for all three trimesters of the gestative period, or indeed after birth. Using a prospective 4- to 7-day weighed food diary, International Physical Activity Questionnaire and 7-day bowel habit diary, dietary factors, physical activity levels and bowel habit parameters were assessed and examined concurrently at weeks 13, 25, 35 of pregnancy and 6 weeks post-partum. Ninety-four primiparous pregnant women were initially recruited, and 72, 59, 62 and 55 completed the first, second, third trimester and post-partum study stages, respectively. Key dietary factors and physical activity levels were compared between the constipated and non-constipated groups from each of the three trimesters and after parturition. Compared with non-constipated mothers-to-be, constipated participants consumed statistically significantly less water in the first trimester (P = 0.04), more food in the second trimester (P = 0.04), and less iron (P = 0.02) and food (P = 0.04) in the third trimester and after birth, respectively. No statistically significant differences were identified between light, moderate and vigorous physical activity levels when groups were compared. This study demonstrates that dietary factors may play a role in terms of preventing, or alleviating, bowel habit perturbations both throughout and after pregnancy. Further research is required to investigate the interrelationship between physical activity and constipation during and after pregnancy.

  16. Psychological maladjustment and quality of life in adolescents with constipation.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Nishadi; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Benninga, Marc Alexander; van Dijk, Marieke; Rajindrajith, Shaman

    2017-03-01

    To assess psychological maladjustment in adolescents with functional constipation. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in five schools. Adolescents aged between 13 and 18 years were included in the study. Validated questionnaires were used to collect bowel habits and demographic data, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological maladjustment. Rome III criteria were used to diagnose constipation. 1697 adolescents were recruited (boys 779 (45.9%), mean age 15.06 years and SD 1.6 years). Prevalence of constipation was 6.7%, of whom 52 were boys (45.6%) and 62 were girls (54.4%). 38 adolescents (33.3%) with constipation and 230 controls (14.5%) had significant psychological maladjustment. Among seven different personality dimensions used to assess psychological maladjustment, children with constipation had significantly more deficits than controls in hostility and aggression (14.2 vs 12.6 in controls (mean difference 1.54, 95% CI (0.89 to 2.19) p<0.001), negative self-esteem (12.0 vs 10.5 in controls, mean difference 1.54 95% CI (0.96 to 2.06) p<0.001), negative self-adequacy (11.9 vs 9.8 controls, mean difference 2.07 95% CI (1.46 to 2.67) p<0.001), emotional unresponsiveness (12.9 vs 11.5 controls, mean difference 1.44 95% CI (0.84 to 2.04) p<0.001), emotional instability (17.1 vs 15.6, mean difference 1.53 95% CI (0.86 to 2.2) p<0.001) and negative world view (12.1 vs 10.2 controls, mean difference 1.91 95% CI (1.24 to 2.59) p<0.001). The total HRQoL of adolescents with constipation was lower than controls (70.6 vs 79.0 mean difference 9.48 95% CI (1.4 to 6.7) p<0.05). A significant proportion of children with constipation are suffering from psychological maladjustment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. [Clinical practice guidelines: Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and functional constipation in adults: Concept, diagnosis, and healthcare continuity. (Part 1 of 2)].

    PubMed

    Mearin, F; Ciriza, C; Mínguez, M; Rey, E; Mascort, J J; Peña, E; Cañones, P; Júdez, J

    In this Clinical practice guide, an analysis is made of the diagnosis and treatment of adult patients with constipation and abdominal discomfort, under the spectrum of irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation. These have an important personal, health and social impact, affecting the quality of life of these patients. In irritable bowel syndrome with a predominance of constipation, this is the predominant change in bowel movements, with recurrent abdominal pain, bloating and frequent abdominal distension. Constipation is characterised by infrequent or difficulty in bowel movements, associated with excessive straining during bowel movement or sensation of incomplete evacuation. There is often no underling cause, with an intestinal functional disorder being considered. They have many clinical and pathophysiological similarities, with a similar response of the constipation to common drugs. The fundamental difference is the presence or absence of pain, but not in a way evaluable way; "all or nothing". The severity depends on the intensity of bowel symptoms and other factors, a combination of gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms, level of involvement, forms of perception, and behaviour. The Rome criteria diagnose functional bowel disorders. This guide is adapted to the Rome criteria IV (May 2016) and in this first part an analysis is made of the alarm criteria, diagnostic tests, and the criteria for referral between Primary Care and Digestive Disease specialists. In the second part, a review will be made of the therapeutic alternatives available (exercise, diet, drug therapies, neurostimulation of sacral roots, or surgery), making practical recommendations for each one of them. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical findings, child and mother psychosocial status in functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Çağan Appak, Yeliz; Yalın Sapmaz, Şermin; Doğan, Güzide; Herdem, Ahmet; Özyurt, Beyhan Cengiz; Kasırga, Erhun

    2017-11-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is a common problem in childhood. In this study, we aimed to analyze the clinical and sociodemographic findings of patients with FC, parenting behaviors, and psychosocial states of children and parents. According to the Roma III diagnosis criteria, 32 patients with FC and 31 healthy controls were included. Patients' clinical and sociodemographic data set associated with constipation was determined. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to screen the emotional and behavioral problems in children. To evaluate the parents and family, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Parental Attitude Research Instrument were used. Emotional and peer problems subscale scores, parental concerns as well as over-parenting attitude were found higher in patients. Significant difference was also observed between the groups in terms of mean score of authoritarian attitude dimensions. Attitude of hostility and rejection and marital discordance was found to be significantly high in patient families. Our study revealed a decrease in the constipation rate with the increasing education level of parents, higher rate of constipation in families with less income than expenses, and lower rate of working mothers in patients with constipation. Parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety level were determined to be considerably higher. A mother's low education level, low socioeconomic level, presence of psychological symptoms, and problems of parental attitude-primarily the authoritarian attitude-increase the risk of FC occurrence. Therefore, FC patients and their families should definitely undergo a psychosocial assessment.

  19. Prescriptions of Chinese herbal medicine for constipation under the national health insurance in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jong, Maw-Shiou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Chen, Fang-Pey

    2010-07-01

    Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of use and prescriptive patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treating constipation by analyzing the claims data of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan. The computerized claims dataset of the TCM office visits and the corresponding prescription files in 2004 compiled by the NHI Research Institute in Taiwan were linked and processed. Visit files with the single diagnostic coding of constipation (ICD-9-CM code 564.0) were extracted to analyze the frequency and pattern of corresponding CHM prescriptions. The association rule was applied to analyze the co-prescription of CHM in treating constipation. There were 152,564 subjects who visited TCM clinics only for constipation in Taiwan during 2004 and received a total of 387,268 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 20 and 29 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.5%). Female subjects used CHM for constipation more frequently than male subjects (female:male = 3.31:1). There was an average of 4.6 items of single Chinese herbs or formula in a single prescription for constipation. Ma-zi-renwan was the most commonly prescribed herbal formula, while Da-huang (Rheum palmatum) was the most commonly used single Chinese herb. According to the association rule, the most common prescribed pattern of 2-drug combination of CHM for treating constipation was Ban-xia-xie-xin-tang plus Ma-zi-ren-wan, while the 3-drug combination of CHM was Fang-feng-tong-sheng-san, Rheum palmatum and Ma-zi-ren-wan. This study showed the pattern of single Chinese herbs or herbal formulae used in treating constipation in Taiwan. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs in treating constipation. 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biofeedback training in chronic constipation.

    PubMed Central

    Benninga, M A; Büller, H A; Taminiau, J A

    1993-01-01

    Twenty nine patients, aged 5-16 years, were studied to evaluate whether biofeedback training is effective in treating children with chronic constipation and encopresis; the clinical outcome at six weeks and 12 months was also evaluated. Patients received on average five biofeedback training sessions. The existence of external anal contraction or decreased rectal sensation in 16 (55%) and eight (27%) of the children, respectively was identified on manometry. After biofeedback training, 26 (90%) of the patients learned to relax the external anal sphincter; 18 (63%) normalised rectal sensation. The training resulted in a significant increase in defecation frequency and a significant decrease in encopresis. At six weeks, 16 (55%) of the patients were clinically symptom free. At follow up after 12 months the results were sustained. Only three patients showed a relapse within six months, of whom two were successfully treated with one extra training session. Biofeedback training might be a useful therapeutical approach in children with chronic constipation and encopresis. PMID:8434996

  1. Genetic and Non-genetic Factors Associated With Constipation in Cancer Patients Receiving Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Laugsand, Eivor A; Skorpen, Frank; Kaasa, Stein; Sabatowski, Rainer; Strasser, Florian; Fayers, Peter; Klepstad, Pål

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether the inter-individual variation in constipation among patients receiving opioids for cancer pain is associated with genetic or non-genetic factors. Methods: Cancer patients receiving opioids were included from 17 centers in 11 European countries. Intensity of constipation was reported by 1,568 patients on a four-point categorical scale. Non-genetic factors were included as covariates in stratified regression analyses on the association between constipation and 75 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 15 candidate genes related to opioid- or constipation-signaling pathways (HTR3E, HTR4, HTR2A, TPH1, ADRA2A, CHRM3, TACR1, CCKAR, KIT, ARRB2, GHRL, ABCB1, COMT, OPRM1, and OPRD1). Results: The non-genetic factors significantly associated with constipation were type of laxative, mobility and place of care among patients receiving laxatives (N=806), in addition to Karnofsky performance status and presence of metastases among patients not receiving laxatives (N=762) (P<0.01). Age, gender, body mass index, cancer diagnosis, time on opioids, opioid dose, and type of opioid did not contribute to the inter-individual differences in constipation. Five SNPs, rs1800532 in TPH1, rs1799971 in OPRM1, rs4437575 in ABCB1, rs10802789 in CHRM3, and rs2020917 in COMT were associated with constipation (P<0.01). Only rs2020917 in COMT passed the Benjamini–Hochberg criterion for a 10% false discovery rate. Conclusions: Type of laxative, mobility, hospitalization, Karnofsky performance status, presence of metastases, and five SNPs within TPH1, OPRM1, ABCB1, CHRM3, and COMT may contribute to the variability in constipation among cancer patients treated with opioids. Knowledge of these factors may help to develop new therapies and to identify patients needing a more individualized approach to treatment. PMID:26087058

  2. Genetic and Non-genetic Factors Associated With Constipation in Cancer Patients Receiving Opioids.

    PubMed

    Laugsand, Eivor A; Skorpen, Frank; Kaasa, Stein; Sabatowski, Rainer; Strasser, Florian; Fayers, Peter; Klepstad, Pål

    2015-06-18

    To examine whether the inter-individual variation in constipation among patients receiving opioids for cancer pain is associated with genetic or non-genetic factors. Cancer patients receiving opioids were included from 17 centers in 11 European countries. Intensity of constipation was reported by 1,568 patients on a four-point categorical scale. Non-genetic factors were included as covariates in stratified regression analyses on the association between constipation and 75 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 15 candidate genes related to opioid- or constipation-signaling pathways (HTR3E, HTR4, HTR2A, TPH1, ADRA2A, CHRM3, TACR1, CCKAR, KIT, ARRB2, GHRL, ABCB1, COMT, OPRM1, and OPRD1). The non-genetic factors significantly associated with constipation were type of laxative, mobility and place of care among patients receiving laxatives (N=806), in addition to Karnofsky performance status and presence of metastases among patients not receiving laxatives (N=762) (P<0.01). Age, gender, body mass index, cancer diagnosis, time on opioids, opioid dose, and type of opioid did not contribute to the inter-individual differences in constipation. Five SNPs, rs1800532 in TPH1, rs1799971 in OPRM1, rs4437575 in ABCB1, rs10802789 in CHRM3, and rs2020917 in COMT were associated with constipation (P<0.01). Only rs2020917 in COMT passed the Benjamini-Hochberg criterion for a 10% false discovery rate. Type of laxative, mobility, hospitalization, Karnofsky performance status, presence of metastases, and five SNPs within TPH1, OPRM1, ABCB1, CHRM3, and COMT may contribute to the variability in constipation among cancer patients treated with opioids. Knowledge of these factors may help to develop new therapies and to identify patients needing a more individualized approach to treatment.

  3. A ghrelin receptor agonist is an effective colokinetic in rats with diet-induced constipation.

    PubMed

    Pustovit, R V; Furness, J B; Rivera, L R

    2015-05-01

    Despite constipation being a common problem, the treatments that are available have side effects and are only partly effective. Recent studies show that centrally penetrant ghrelin receptor agonists cause defecation in humans and other species. Here, we describe some features of a rat model of low fiber-induced constipation, and investigate the effectiveness of the ghrelin agonist, capromorelin. Rats were given low-fiber diets for 5 weeks. Their colorectal responsiveness to distension and to a behavioral test, water avoidance and colon histology were compared to those of rats on a standard diet. After the low-fiber diet, distension of the colon produced fewer propulsive contractions, behaviorally induced defecation was reduced, and the lining of the colorectum was inflamed. However, capromorelin was similarly effective in causing defecation in constipated and non-constipated rats. Low-fiber diet in rats produces a constipation phenotype, characterized by reduced responsiveness of the colorectum to distension and to a behavioral stimulus of defecation, water avoidance. The effectiveness of capromorelin suggests that centrally penetrant ghrelin receptor stimulants may be effective in treating constipation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dietary fibre, fluids and physical activity in relation to constipation symptoms in pre-adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Amy; Davies, G Jill; Costarelli, Vassiliki; Dettmar, Peter W

    2009-06-01

    Children with constipation are advised frequently to increase their activity levels, fluids and fibre intake. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of constipation symptoms in a group of schoolchildren while concurrently assessing their activity levels and fluid and fibre intakes. Eighty-four pre-adolescent children aged 7-10 years were recruited. All children completed a bowel function diary, an activity diary and a weighed food inventory for seven consecutive days. Of the children, 33 percent were found to experience constipation symptoms. Fluid and fibre intakes were higher in the children who did not experience constipation symptoms, but the results were not significant. Physical activity levels were found to be significantly higher in the children reporting constipation symptoms, with the most active children reporting low water intakes. This study has highlighted that constipation symptoms are a prevalent problem in children not seeking medical treatment.

  5. Prevalence of Functional Constipation and Relationship with Dietary Habits in 3- to 8-Year-Old Children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Asami; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Inui, Ayano; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and effect of dietary habits on functional constipation in preschool and early elementary school children in Japan. A total of 3595 children aged 3 to 8 years from 28 nursery schools and 22 elementary schools in Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, were evaluated. The subjects were divided into a functional constipation group and a nonfunctional constipation group according to the Rome III criteria. Dietary intake data were collected using a brief-type, self-administered, diet-history questionnaire validated for Japanese preschool-aged children. Of the 3595 subjects evaluated, 718 (20.0%) had functional constipation. The association between functional constipation and gender was not statistically significant ( p = 0.617). A decrease in bowel frequency was observed in 15.9% of those with functional constipation. There was no significant difference in the proportion of participants in the constipation group by age ( p = 0.112). Binomial logistic regression analysis indicated that only fat per 100 kcal positively correlated with functional constipation [odds ratio = 1.216, 95% confidence interval: 1.0476-1.412]. Functional constipation is common among children in preschool and early elementary school in urban areas of Japan. Parents should pay attention to constipation-related symptoms other than defecation frequency. A high-fat diet should be avoided to prevent functional constipation.

  6. Placebo-controlled trial of lubiprostone for constipation associated with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ondo, W G; Kenney, C; Sullivan, K; Davidson, A; Hunter, C; Jahan, I; McCombs, A; Miller, A; Zesiewicz, T A

    2012-05-22

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of lubiprostone (Amitiza) for constipation in Parkinson disease (PD) in a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Patients with PD and clinically meaningful constipation (constipation rating scale score > 10 [range: 0-28]) were recruited from 2 academic movement disorder centers to participate in the study. After enrollment, patients were initially followed for 2 weeks and then were randomly assigned 1:1 to lubiprostone, and the dose was titrated up to 48 μg/day. They returned 4 weeks later for a final assessment. Data included stool diaries and global impressions (co-primary endpoints), demographics, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores, constipation scale scores, visual analog scale (VAS) scores, a stool diary, and adverse events. Fifty-four subjects (39 male, mean age 67.0 ± 10.1 years, and mean duration of PD 8.3 ± 5.4 years) were randomly assigned to lubiprostone or placebo. One patient in the drug group discontinued the study because of logistics, and one patient in the placebo group discontinued the study because of lack of efficacy. A marked or very marked clinical global improvement was reported by 16 of 25 (64.0%) subjects receiving drug vs 5 of 27 (18.5%) subjects receiving placebo (p = 0.001). The constipation rating scale (p < 0.05), VAS (p = 0.001), and stools per day in the diary (p < 0.001) all improved with drug compared with placebo. Adverse events with drug were mild, most commonly intermittent loose stools. In this randomized controlled trial, lubiprostone seemed to be well tolerated and effective for the short-term treatment of constipation in PD.

  7. Dietary intake, physical activity, and time management are associated with constipation in preschool children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is a common complaint in children, which is not fatal but can affect quality of life. Several lifestyle-related risk factors for constipation have been reported, particularly dietary factors, but results have been inconsistent. Here, we examined the relationship of dietary and lifestyle factors with constipation in Japanese preschool children using data of a nationwide study. Subjects were 5,309 children aged 5 to 6 years at 380 nursery schools in 44 of 47 prefectures in Japan. Children having three or fewer bowel movements per week were considered constipated. Dietary intake data was collected using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children, and information about general lifestyle was collected using a 4-page questionnaire designed for this study. Multivariateadjusted odds ratios for constipation were calculated by logistic regression. Higher dietary fiber intake was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of constipation (adjusted odds ratio: 0.62, p for trend: 0.005), but higher carbohydrate intake was marginally associated with a higher prevalence of constipation. Intake of potatoes, pulses, vegetables, and fruits intake decreased constipation prevalence, whereas higher rice intake was significantly and independently associated with higher prevalence of constipation. Regarding lifestyle factors, high physical activity and sufficient preparation time for breakfast and dinner for guardians were significantly associated with lower prevalence. Prevalence tended to be negatively associated with a higher educational background of the mother. Several lifestyle factors were associated with a lower prevalence of constipation among Japanese preschool children, including dietary fiber intake.

  8. Efficacy of electroacupuncture compared with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for functional constipation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Xinwei; Jiao, Ruimin; Liu, Zhishun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: To treat functional constipation, both electroacupuncture (EA) therapy and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) are safe and effective. However, no head-to-head comparison trial has been conducted. This trial compares the efficacy of electroacupuncture relative to transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for functional constipation. Methods: Individuals with functional constipation will be randomly allocated to receive either EA or TENS (n = 51, each), 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the percentage of participants with an average increase from baseline of 1 or more complete spontaneous bowel movements at week 8. The secondary outcome measures are the following: at the time of visits, changes in the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements, number of spontaneous bowel movements, stool character, difficulty in defecation, patients’ assessment of quality of life regarding constipation (self-report questionnaire), and use of auxiliary defecation methods. Discussion: The results of this trial should verify whether EA is more efficacious than TENS for relieving symptoms of functional constipation. The major limitation of the study is the lack of blinding of the participants and acupuncturist. PMID:29742718

  9. Paediatric constipation: An approach and evidence-based treatment regimen

    PubMed

    Singh, Harveen; Connor, Frances

    2018-05-01

    Constipation affects 5-30% of children and is responsible for 3% of primary care visits. General practitioners (GPs) are frequently the first medical encounter for concerned parents regarding their child's bowel habit. The aim of this article is to review the assessment and management of children with constipation to empower GPs to initiate treatment and know when to refer to a paediatrician. In the absence of organic aetiology, childhood constipation is almost always functional and often due to painful bowel movements that prompt the child to withhold stool. It is important to initiate a clear management plan for the family, as what is an easily treatable condition can escalate into a vicious cycle of pain if not addressed early. The medical approach should consider organic disease, the use of appropriate toileting habits, and dietary modifications. Laxatives are often required to re-establish regular, painless defaecation.

  10. Peripherally acting opioid antagonists in the treatment of opiate-related constipation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gerhild; Galandi, Daniel; Blum, Hubert E

    2007-11-01

    Many patients treated with opioids suffer from constipation. Opiate- or opioid-related constipation is not only a frequent but also a distressing symptom and difficult to treat. There is emerging evidence regarding a novel approach to the management of opiate-related constipation. The aim of this paper is to collect, critically appraise, and summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of recently developed peripherally acting micro-receptor antagonists in the treatment of opiate-related constipation. A comprehensive search of 11 computerized databases was conducted and efforts were made to identify unpublished and ongoing research. Twenty studies were identified; 13 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 were Phase II studies assessing toxicity. Studies were mainly executed in healthy volunteers or members of methadone programs with opioid-induced constipation as a model to mimic the condition of patients on opioids. Two RCTs were conducted in hospice patients. Quality of study design and validity of the findings was assessed in all studies. Data show proof of concept but do not allow a definitive answer concerning the effectiveness of the peripherally acting micro-opioid antagonists methylnaltrexone and alvimopan in managing opiate-related constipation. Further research is needed. If future Phase III trials provide supportive data, opioid antagonists may become a standard therapeutic option for the treatment of opiate-related constipation in patients with advanced cancer.

  11. Isolated colonic inertia is not usually the cause of chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Ragg, J; McDonald, R; Hompes, R; Jones, O M; Cunningham, C; Lindsey, I

    2011-11-01

    Chronic constipation is classified as outlet obstruction, colonic inertia or both. We aimed to determine the incidence of isolated colonic inertia in chronic constipation and to study symptom pattern in those with prolonged colonic transit time. Chronic constipation patients were classified radiologically by surgeon-reported defaecating proctography and transit study into four groups: isolated outlet obstruction, isolated colonic inertia, outlet obstruction plus colonic inertia, or normal. Symptom patterns were defined as stool infrequency (twice weekly or less) or frequent unsuccessful evacuations (more than twice weekly). Of 541 patients with chronic constipation, 289 (53%) were classified as isolated outlet obstruction, 26 (5%) as isolated colonic inertia, 159 (29%) as outlet obstruction plus colonic inertia and 67 (12%) as normal. Of 448 patients (83%) with outlet obstruction, 35% had additional colonic inertia. Only 14% of those with prolonged colonic transit time had isolated colonic inertia. Frequent unsuccessful evacuations rather than stool infrequency was the commonest symptom pattern in all three disease groups (isolated outlet obstruction 86%, isolated colonic inertia 54% and outlet obstruction plus colonic inertia 63%). Isolated colonic inertia is an unusual cause of chronic constipation. Most patients with colonic inertia have associated outlet obstruction. These data question the clinical significance of isolated colonic inertia. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Systematic review: probiotics for functional constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Wojtyniak, Katarzyna; Szajewska, Hania

    2017-09-01

    We updated our 2010 systematic review on the efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of constipation in children. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases; clinical trial registries; and reference lists of included studies were searched to February 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed in children, with no language restriction. The primary outcome measure was treatment success, as defined by the investigators. We included seven RCTs with a total of 515 participants. Included trials were heterogeneous with respect to study population, probiotic strains, dosages, study duration, and follow-up. Pooled results of two RCTs showed no significant difference between the Lactobacillus rhamnosus casei Lcr35 and placebo groups with respect to treatment success. Other probiotics were studied in single trials only. There was no significant difference between the probiotic and control groups with respect to treatment success. While some probiotic strains showed some effects on defecation frequency, none of the probiotics had beneficial effects on frequency of fecal incontinence or frequency of abdominal pain. Adverse events were rare and not serious. Limited evidence does not support the use of any of currently evaluated probiotics in the treatment of functional constipation in children. What is Known: • Conventional treatment for functional constipation in children does not always provide satisfying improvement. • Probiotics have been suggested as potential treatment modalities for this condition. What is New: • Probiotics are ineffective for the management of functional constipation in children in terms of treatment success, frequency of fecal incontinence, and frequency of abdominal pain.

  13. Systematic Review: FDA-Approved Prescription Medications for Adults With Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E.

    2006-01-01

    Constipation is a common, often chronic, gastrointestinal disorder that can negatively impact the lives of those it affects and can be difficult to treat satisfactorily. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and analyze the available published literature on US Food and Drug Administration–approved prescription therapies for adults with constipation (episodic and chronic) and to assess their place in therapy, based on the methodologic strength and results of identified clinical trials. Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE databases were used to search the published literature. Studies were included if they were randomized and prospective, conducted in adults (age ≥18), published as full-length manuscripts in English, and compared the test agent with placebo or a comparator(s). Studies were excluded if they involved patients with constipation attributed to secondary causes. Because fully published manuscripts from phase III efficacy trials involving the recently approved medication lubiprostone were not available, a manual search was performed of abstracts from the two annual major gastroenterology meetings (American College of Gastroenterology and Digestive Disease Week) from the past 4 years. Data on study design; number, age, and sex of patients; duration of treatment period; primary efficacy variable; secondary efficacy variables; adverse events; and discontinuations because of adverse events were abstracted from eligible articles. Eligible studies were assessed using well-established recommendations and a preformatted standardized form. A scoring system, with scores ranging from 1 to 15, was used to individually and separately assess the methodologic quality of the studies. Results of this analysis indicate a general lack of methodologically high-quality clinical trials supporting the use of lactulose and PEG 3350 to treat patients with chronic constipation, but data support their use in acute, episodic constipation. Conversely, high

  14. Constipation-Related Emergency Department Use, and Associated Office Visits and Payments Among Commercially Insured Children.

    PubMed

    MacGeorge, Claire A; Simpson, Kit N; Basco, William T; Bundy, David G

    2018-04-16

    Pediatric constipation is common, costly, and often managed in the Emergency Department (ED). The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of constipation-related ED visits in a large commercially insured population, the frequency of an office visit in the month before and after these visits, demographic characteristics associated with these office visits, and the ED-associated payments. Data were extracted from the Truven MarketScan database for commercially insured children from 2012 to 2013. Data on the presence and timing of clinic visits within 30 days before and after an ED constipation visit and demographic variables were extracted. Logistic regression was used to predict an outcome of presence of a visit with independent variables of age, sex, and region of the country. In a population of 17 million children aged 0 to 17 years, 448,440 (2.6%) were identified with constipation in at least 1 setting, with 65,163 (14.5%) having an ED visit for constipation. Of all children with a constipation-related ED visit, 45% had no office visit in the 30 days before or after the ED visit. Increasing age was associated with absence of an office visit. The median payment by insurance for an ED constipation visit was $523, the median out-of-pocket payment was $100, for a total of $623 per visit. One in 7 children with constipation in this commercially insured population received ED care for constipation, many without an outpatient visit in the month before or after. Efforts to improve primary care utilization for this condition should be encouraged. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of severe constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Noviello, C; Romano, M; Zangari, A; Papparella, A; Martino, A; Cobellis, G

    2013-04-01

    Constipation is a common pediatric problem. Sometimes the hospitalization is necessary and in these patients the organic cause should be verified. The authors report their experience in the management of children with severe constipation. Anorectal manometry (ARM) was performed after a careful examination of perineum and bowel disimpaction. Once organic cause had be excluded, the patient got medical therapy. If recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) was absent, not collaborative patient or medical treatment failed, the child underwent contrast enema (CE) and rectal suction biopsies (RSB). Local anesthetics were used for anal fissures or internal anal sphincter (IAS) hypertonia. Anal malformations and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) were surgically treated. Posterior sagittal anorectoplasty was performed for anal malformations. In 5 years 98 children (63 males) were observed (mean age 6 years). 5 children were premature for gestational age, 4 presented failure to thrive, 5 anal malformations and 45 anal fissures. ARM was performed in 87 children and 74 of them showed normal RAIR. Hypertonia of the IAS was recorded in 38 patients. RAIR was absent/unclear in 13 patients. Follow-up revealed 6 patients (negative to ARM) with poor results without oral laxative. CE was performed in 19 children (2 positive cases) and RBS in 25 patients (2 cases of HD). Children with severe constipation must be carefully observed and studied because of not negligible incidence of organic cause. The first step in the management of these patients is the evacuation of the fecaloma.

  16. Prevalence and clinical presentation of constipation in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A; Calis, Elsbeth A C; Willemsen, Sten P; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine

    2010-09-01

    Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included 152 children (81 males, 71 females; mean age 9 y 6 mo, SD 4 y 6 mo). Intellectual disability ranged from moderate (7%) to profound (52%) in all participants who also had severe motor disabilities (83% classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System level V). We collected data on defaecation characteristics, food and fluid intake, and laxative consumption using standardized bowel diaries and interviews. Constipation was defined as (1) scybalous, pebble-like, hard stools in over a quarter of defaecations in combination with a defaecation frequency of less than three times per week during a 2-week study period; (2) large stools palpable on abdominal examination; or (3) laxative use or manual disimpaction of faeces. Of the studied population, 57% were constipated and 55% used laxatives, 27% of whom showed symptoms of constipation. Daily intakes of water and fibre were below the required standards in 87% and 53% of participants respectively, without a proven relation to constipation. Constipation is a common problem in children with severe disabilities. Laxative use is high but dosing is frequently inadequate to prevent symptoms.

  17. Clinical trial: phase 2 study of lubiprostone for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    PubMed

    Johanson, J F; Drossman, D A; Panas, R; Wahle, A; Ueno, R

    2008-04-01

    Analyses of a trial in constipated patients indicated that lubiprostone may be an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. To assess the efficacy and safety of three lubiprostone doses for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. 195 irritable bowel syndrome with constipation patients received daily doses of 16 [8 microg twice daily (b.d.)], 32 (16 microg b.d.) or 48 microg (24 microg b.d.) lubiprostone or placebo b.d. for 3 months. Gastrointestinal parameters were recorded in diaries daily by patients. After 1 month, lubiprostone showed significantly greater improvements in mean abdominal discomfort/pain scores vs. placebo (P = 0.023). After 2 months, all lubiprostone groups showed significantly greater improvements in mean abdominal discomfort/pain scores (P < or = 0.039). After 3 months of treatment, the improvement in each lubiprostone arm was greater than placebo, but the test for trend was no longer significant. Treatment with lubiprostone showed significantly higher rates of gastrointestinal adverse events (P = 0.020), especially diarrhoea and nausea. Lubiprostone significantly improved gastrointestinal symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation at all doses. Higher doses of lubiprostone, especially the 48 microg/day group, were associated with more gastrointestinal adverse events. From these data, the 16 microg/day dose demonstrated the optimal combination of efficacy and safety. These results warrant further study of lubiprostone for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation patients.

  18. Pregnancy Constipation: Are Stool Softeners Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lifestyle changes. For example: Drink plenty of fluids. Water is a good choice. Prune juice also can help. Include physical activity in your daily routine. Being active can help prevent pregnancy constipation. Include more fiber in your diet. Choose high- ...

  19. Constipation and paradoxical puborectalis contraction in anismus and Parkinson's disease: a dystonic phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Mathers, S E; Kempster, P A; Swash, M; Lees, A J

    1988-12-01

    Anismus, or constipation due to functional obstruction at the pelvic outlet by paradoxical contraction of the striated sphincter muscles during defaecation straining, is described in ten constipated patients and four patients with Parkinson's disease and constipation. The dysfunctional pattern of muscle recruitment resembled that characteristic of dystonia elsewhere in the body and was indistinguishable in patients with idiopathic anismus and those with extrapyramidal motor disturbance due to Parkinson's disease. These findings suggest that anismus may be a focal dystonic phenomenon.

  20. Constipation and paradoxical puborectalis contraction in anismus and Parkinson's disease: a dystonic phenomenon?

    PubMed Central

    Mathers, S E; Kempster, P A; Swash, M; Lees, A J

    1988-01-01

    Anismus, or constipation due to functional obstruction at the pelvic outlet by paradoxical contraction of the striated sphincter muscles during defaecation straining, is described in ten constipated patients and four patients with Parkinson's disease and constipation. The dysfunctional pattern of muscle recruitment resembled that characteristic of dystonia elsewhere in the body and was indistinguishable in patients with idiopathic anismus and those with extrapyramidal motor disturbance due to Parkinson's disease. These findings suggest that anismus may be a focal dystonic phenomenon. PMID:3221217

  1. [Constipation in patients with quadriplegic cerebral palsy: intestinal reeducation using massage and a laxative diet].

    PubMed

    Faleiros-Castro, Fabiana Santana; de Paula, Elenice Dias Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Constipation affects 74% of individuals with cerebral palsy. This study aimed to evaluate the results of nursing interventions for treating intestinal constipation associated with cerebral palsy. This quantitative, prospective, comparative study included 50 patients with quadriplegic cerebral palsy and constipation. The main conservative measures included daily consumption of laxative foods and vegetable oils, increase in fluid intake, and daily intestinal massage. Total or partial constipation relief was observed in 90% of the patients, with improvement in quality-of-life aspects such as sleep, appetite, and irritability, and a significant decrease in rectal bleeding, anal fissure, voluntary retention of stools, crying, and pain on defecation. Only 10% of the patients required laxative medications. It is recommended that conservative measures be used for treating cerebral palsy-related constipation and medications be used solely as adjuvants, if needed.

  2. Update on the management of constipation in the elderly: new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Satish SC; Go, Jorge T

    2010-01-01

    Constipation disproportionately affects older adults, with a prevalences of 50% in community-dwelling elderly and 74% in nursing-home residents. Loss of mobility, medications, underlying diseases, impaired anorectal sensation, and ignoring calls to defecate are as important as dyssynergic defecation or irritable bowel syndrome in causing constipation. Detailed medical history on medications and co-morbid problems, and meticulous digital rectal examination may help identify causes of constipation. Likewise, blood tests and colonoscopy may identify organic causes such as colon cancer. Physiological tests such as colonic transit study with radio-opaque markers or wireless motility capsule, anorectal manometry, and balloon expulsion tests can identify disorders of colonic and anorectal function. However, in the elderly, there is usually more than one mechanism, requiring an individualized but multifactorial treatment approach. The management of constipation continues to evolve. Although osmotic laxatives such as polyethylene glycol remain mainstay, several new agents that target different mechanisms appear promising such as chloride-channel activator (lubiprostone), guanylate cyclase agonist (linaclotide), 5HT4 agonist (prucalopride), and peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists (alvimopan and methylnaltrexone) for opioid-induced constipation. Biofeedback therapy is efficacious for treating dyssynergic defecation and fecal impaction with soiling. However, data on efficacy and safety of drugs in elderly are limited and urgently needed. PMID:20711435

  3. Prevalence and severity of antipsychotic related constipation in patients with schizophrenia: a retrospective descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antipsychotic are the cornerstone in the treatment of schizophrenia. They also have a number of side-effects. Constipation is thought to be common, and a potential serious side-effect, which has received little attention in recent literature. Method We performed a retrospective study in consecutively admitted patients, between 2007 and 2009 and treated with antipsychotic medication, linking different electronic patient data to evaluate the prevalence and severity of constipation in patients with schizophrenia under routine treatment conditions. Results Over a period of 22 months 36.3% of patients (99) received at least once a pharmacological treatment for constipation. On average medication for constipation was prescribed for 273 days. Severe cases (N = 50), non-responsive to initial treatment, got a plain x-ray of the abdomen. In 68.4% fecal impaction was found. Conclusion A high prevalence of constipation, often severe and needing medical interventions, was confirmed during the study period. Early detection, monitoring over treatment and early intervention of constipation could prevent serious consequences such as ileus. PMID:21385443

  4. [Food intake, nutritional status and physical activity between elderly with and without chronic constipation. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Vargas-García, Elisa Joan; Vargas-Salado, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Constipation is one of the most frequently found gastrointestinal problems in the elderly as aging modifies their food intake, nutritional status and physical activity, which are associated factors in the development of constipation. To compare food intake, nutritional status and physical activity between elderly subjects with or without chronic constipation. The study included a total of 140 subjects who were divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of constipation using the Rome III criteria. Diet intake was obtained through a 3-day dietary record (2 days during the week and one on Saturday or Sunday). Height, weight, arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was applied to all participants. Fiber and water intake were not statistically different between both groups. Constipated participants showed significantly less variety and less inclusion of all food groups in their diets compared to their non-constipated counterparts (p < 0.02; p < 0.03). Mean nutritional status was overweight and it didn't differ from each studied group (p= 0.49). Higher levels of physical activity were found in non-constipated subjects (1664 vs 1049 MET, p= 0.004). This study indicates that lower physical activity levels as well as an incomplete and less varied diet are associated to constipation in the elderly. Water and fibre intake do not seem to be contributing to constipation.

  5. Stool patterns of Malaysian adults with functional constipation: association with diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Mazlyn, Mena M; Nagarajah, Lee H L; Fatimah, A; Norimah, A K; Goh, K L

    2013-04-01

    Diet and lifestyle modification is commonly used in constipation management. As there is a dearth of studies on this topic in Malaysia, we aim to elucidate the relations between stool patterns, dietary intake and physical activity levels among adults with functional constipation. From a database collected via surveys at public events, a convenience sample of 100 adults diagnosed with Rome II-defined functional constipation was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After severity assessment using the Chinese Constipation Questionnaire, subjects completed 2-week bowel movement diaries to determine stool frequency, consistency and output. Dietary intake and physical activity levels were assessed twice using three-day 24-hour diet recalls and International Physical Activity Questionnaire, respectively. Ninety subjects who completed the study were included in the analysis. Mean weekly stool frequency was 3.9 +/- 1.9 times, consistency score was 2.6 +/- 0.6 (range 1.0-4.0), output was 11.0 +/- 6.3 balls (40 mm diameter) and severity score was 10.3 +/- 3.3 (range 5.0-22.0). Mean daily dietary intakes were: energy 1,719 +/- 427kcal, dietary fibre 15.0 +/- 4.9g and fluid 2.5 +/- 0.8L. The majority of subjects were physically inactive. Stool frequency and output were positively associated with dietary fibre (r(s) = 0.278, P < 0.01; r(s) = 0.226, P < 0.05) and fluid intake (r(s) = 0.257, P < 0.05; OR = 3.571, 95% CI [1.202-10.609]). Constipation severity was associated with higher physical activity levels (OR = 2.467, 95% CI [1.054-5.777]). Insufficient intake of dietary fibre and fluid are associated with aggravated constipation symptoms. Further studies are necessary to confirm usefulness of dietary intervention in treatment of constipation as dietary factors alone may not influence overall severity and stool consistency, an integral element of constipation.

  6. Potentially avoidable hospitalisation for constipation in Victoria, Australia in 2010-11.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Humaira; Ansari, Zahid; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2014-07-11

    When primary care of constipation fails, the patient may need emergency hospitalisation for disimpaction. This study aimed to provide population-based data on the number of unplanned admissions and the cost to the healthcare system for constipation in Victoria, Australia in financial year 2010-11. The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was examined to find the number of emergency hospital separations coded as constipation (ICD-10-AM Code K390). An estimate of costs was determined from the number of weighted inlier equivalent separations (WIES) multiplied by the WEIS price, used by the Victorian Government for funding purposes. There were 3978 emergency separations for constipation in Victoria in 2010-2011, 92% in public hospitals. Fifty-five percent were female and 38% > 75 years old. One third stayed overnight and 1/3 more than 1 day. The emergency bed day rate was 7.1 per 10,000 of population. The estimate of cost, based on WEIS, was approximately $8.3 million. Potential savings could be made by reducing the number of separations in 6 Local Government Areas (LGAs). This study shows that the burden (in number of admissions, emergency bed days and overall direct costs) in managing emergency admissions for constipation in Victoria, Australia, is very significant and likely to be similar in other developed countries. Improved primary healthcare and alternative ways to achieve faecal disimpaction without emergency admission could save the public health system a proportion of this $8.3 million.

  7. Pilot study of pyridostigmine in constipated patients with autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Low, Phillip A; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane; Gehrking, Tonette L; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2008-08-01

    The effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, which increase colonic motility in health, on chronic constipation are unknown. Our aims were to evaluate the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors for dysautonomia and chronic constipation and to assess whether acute effects could predict the long term response. In this single-blind study, 10 patients with autonomic neuropathy and constipation were treated with placebo (2 weeks), followed by an escalating dose of pyridostigmine to the maximum tolerated dose (i.e., 180-540 mg daily) for 6 weeks. Symptoms and gastrointestinal transit were assessed at 2 and 8 weeks. The acute effects of neostigmine on colonic transit and motility were also assessed. At baseline, 4, 6, and 3 patients had delayed gastric, small intestinal, and colonic transit respectively. Pyridostigmine was well tolerated in most patients, improved symptoms in 4 patients, and accelerated the geometric center for colonic transit at 24 h by > or =0.7 unit in 3 patients. The effects of i.v. neostigmine on colonic transit and compliance predicted (P < 0.05) the effects of pyridostigmine on colonic transit. Pyridostigmine improves colonic transit and symptoms in some patients with autonomic neuropathy and constipation. The motor response to neostigmine predicted the response to oral pyridostigmine.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation – a European perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tack, J; Müller-Lissner, S; Stanghellini, V; Boeckxstaens, G; Kamm, M A; Simren, M; Galmiche, J-P; Fried, M

    2011-01-01

    Background Although constipation can be a chronic and severe problem, it is largely treated empirically. Evidence for the efficacy of some of the older laxatives from well-designed trials is limited. Patients often report high levels of dissatisfaction with their treatment, which is attributed to a lack of efficacy or unpleasant side-effects. Management guidelines and recommendations are limited and are not sufficiently current to include treatments that became available more recently, such as prokinetic agents in Europe. Purpose We present an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, current management and available guidelines for the treatment of chronic constipation, and include recent data on the efficacy and potential clinical use of the more newly available therapeutic agents. Based on published algorithms and guidelines on the management of chronic constipation, secondary pathologies and causes are first excluded and then diet, lifestyle, and, if available, behavioral measures adopted. If these fail, bulk-forming, osmotic, and stimulant laxatives can be used. If symptoms are not satisfactorily resolved, a prokinetic agent such as prucalopride can be prescribed. Biofeedback is recommended as a treatment for chronic constipation in patients with disordered defecation. Surgery should only be considered once all other treatment options have been exhausted. PMID:21605282

  9. Pilot study of pyridostigmine in constipated patients with autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane; Low, Phillip A.; Gehrking, Tonette L.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background The effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, which increase colonic motility in health, on chronic constipation are unknown. Our aims were to evaluate the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors for dysautonomia and chronic constipation and to assess whether acute effects could predict the long term response. Methods In this single-blind study, 10 patients with autonomic neuropathy and constipation were treated with placebo (2 weeks), followed by an escalating dose of pyridostigmine to the maximum tolerated dose (i.e., 180–540 mg daily) for 6 weeks. Symptoms and gastrointestinal transit were assessed at 2 and 8 weeks. The acute effects of neostigmine on colonic transit and motility were also assessed. Results At baseline, 4, 6, and 3 patients had delayed gastric, small intestinal, and colonic transit respectively. Pyridostigmine was well tolerated in most patients, improved symptoms in 4 patients, and accelerated the geometric center for colonic transit at 24 h by ≥0.7 unit in 3 patients. The effects of i.v. neostigmine on colonic transit and compliance predicted (P < 0.05) the effects of pyridostigmine on colonic transit. Conclusions Pyridostigmine improves colonic transit and symptoms in some patients with autonomic neuropathy and constipation. The motor response to neostigmine predicted the response to oral pyridostigmine. PMID:18622640

  10. Protective effect of vilva juice on glycoconjugate levels in experimentally induced constipation in rats.

    PubMed

    Padmini, R; Sabitha, K E; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2004-10-01

    Efficacy of vilva, a polyherbal formulation was evaluated in morphine induced constipated rats. Vilva juice, at a dose of 1.5 ml/100 g body wt was given orally for a period of 7 days. Morphine sulfate was injected to induce constipation on 8th day, 45 min before the experiments. Protein bound glycoconjungates were estimated in intestinal tissue. Altered levels of glycoconjugates were maintained at near normalcy when pretreated with vilva juice in morphine induced rats. Histological changes were observed in the colon tissue. The damage to crypts of Liberkunn in constipated rats were found to be reduced in vilva pretreated rats. Vilva, thus, offered significant protection against morphine induced constipation by way of augmenting mucus secretion.

  11. Increased Burden of Healthcare Utilization and Cost Associated with Opioid-Related Constipation Among Patients with Noncancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Ancilla W.; Kern, David M.; Datto, Catherine; Chen, Yen-Wen; McLeskey, Charles; Tunceli, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioids are widely accepted as treatment for moderate to severe pain, and opioid-induced constipation is one of the most common side effects of opioids. This side effect negatively affects pain management and patients’ quality of life, which could result in increased healthcare utilization and costs. Objective To assess healthcare utilization and costs (all-cause, constipation-related, and pain-related) for individuals with and without opioid-induced constipation during the 12 months after initiation of opioid therapy for noncancer pain. Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted using administrative claims data from HealthCore Integrated Research Environment between January 1, 2006, and June 30, 2014. The analysis was limited to patients aged ≥18 years who filled a prescription for continuous opioid treatment (≥28 days) for noncancer pain. Propensity scores were used to match opioid users with constipation (cohort 1) and opioid users without constipation (cohort 2), using a 1:1 ratio. Generalized linear models were used to estimate all-cause, constipation-related, and pain-related healthcare utilization and costs during the 12 months after the initiation of opioid therapy. Results After matching and balancing for all prespecified variables, 17,384 patients were retained in each cohort (mean age, 56 years; 63% female). Opioid users with constipation were twice as likely as those without constipation to have ≥1 inpatient hospitalizations (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.39) during the 12 months. The total mean adjusted overall costs per patient during the study period were $12,413 higher for patients with constipation versus those without it (95% CI, $11,726–$13,116). The total mean adjusted overall pain-related costs per patient were $6778 (95% CI, $6293–$7279) higher for the patients with constipation than those without. Among patients using opioids for noncancer pain, the annual mean constipation

  12. [Constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Rossol, Siegbert

    2007-11-01

    Up to 60% of the patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from gastrointestinal tract symptoms that arise pathogenetically from a disturbance of the autonomous nervous system. Patient age, disease duration and poor control of diabetes mellitus correlate positively with the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Chronic constipation, in addition to diarrhoea, gall bladder dysfunction and incontinence, is increasingly regarded as a serious problem and for the first time, is now considered in the current guidelines of the professional societies. Modern diagnosis and treatment facilitate systematic control of the symptoms. Treatment necessitates long-term intake of laxatives, proper diabetes control and other accompanying general measures such as adequate amounts of liquids, dietary fibre and exercise. Motility and secretion-stimulating, osmotically active or locally applied laxatives are used. Slow transit constipation, which is typically observed in diabetics, can be best controlled with polyethylene glycol, bisacodyl or sodium picosulphate.

  13. Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy for adults with chronic constipation: Retrospective case series of 12 patients.

    PubMed

    Strijbos, D; Keszthelyi, D; Masclee, A A M; Gilissen, L P L

    2018-05-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) is a technique derived from percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. When conservative treatment of chronic obstipation fails, colon irrigation via PEC seems less invasive than surgical interventions. However, previous studies have noted high complication rates of PEC, mostly related to infections. Our aim was to report our experiences with PEC in patients with chronic refractory constipation. Retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent PEC for refractory constipation in our secondary referral hospital between 2009 and 2016. Twelve patients received a PEC for chronic, refractory constipation. Short-term efficacy for relief of constipation symptoms was good in 8 patients and moderate in 4 patients. Two patients had the PEC removed because of spontaneous improvement of constipation. Three patients, who initially noticed a positive effect, preferred an ileostomy over PEC after 1-5 years. One PEC was removed because of an abscess. Long-term efficacy is 50%: 6 patients still use their PEC after 3.3 years of follow-up. No mortality occurred. PEC offers a technically easily feasible and safe treatment option for patients with chronic constipation not responding to conventional therapy. Long-term efficacy of PEC in our patients is 50%. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pregnancy and postpartum bowel changes: constipation and fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Shin, Grace Hewon; Toto, Erin Lucinda; Schey, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are often associated with many gastrointestinal complaints, including nausea, vomiting, and heartburn; however, the most troublesome complaints in some women are defecatory disorders such as constipation and fecal incontinence, especially postpartum. These disorders are often multifactorial in etiology, and many studies have looked to see what risk factors lead to these complications. This review discusses the current knowledge of pelvic floor and anorectal physiology, especially during pregnancy, and reviews the current literature on causes and treatments of postpartum bowel symptoms of constipation and fecal incontinence.

  15. DRY CUPPING IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATION: A RANDOMIZED OPEN LABEL CLINICAL TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Shahamat, Mahmoud; Daneshfard, Babak; Najib, Khadijeh-Sadat; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Tafazoli, Vahid; Kasalaei, Afshineh

    2016-01-01

    As a common disease in pediatrics, constipation poses a high burden to the community. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of dry cupping therapy (an Eastern traditional manipulative therapy) in children with functional constipation. One hundred and twenty children (4-18 years old) diagnosed as functional constipation according to ROME III criteria were assigned to receive a traditional dry cupping protocol on the abdominal wall for 8 minutes every other day or standard laxative therapy (Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 40% solution without electrolyte), 0.4 g/kg once daily) for 4 weeks, in an open label randomized controlled clinical trial using a parallel design with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Patients were evaluated prior to and following 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of the intervention commencement in terms of the ROME III criteria for functional constipation. There were no significant differences between the two arms regarding demographic and clinical basic characteristics. After two weeks of the intervention, there was a significant better result in most of the items of ROME III criteria of patients in PEG group. In contrast, after four weeks of the intervention, the result was significantly better in the cupping group. There was no significant difference in the number of patients with constipation after 4 and 8 weeks of the follow-up period. This study showed that dry cupping of the abdominal wall, as a traditional manipulative therapy, can be as effective as standard laxative therapy in children with functional constipation.

  16. Constipation in the acutely hospitalized older patients.

    PubMed

    Cardin, Fabrizio; Minicuci, Nadia; Droghi, Annapaola Teggia; Inelmen, Emine Meral; Sergi, Giuseppe; Terranova, Oreste

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish the factors that determine the onset of constipation in acutely hospitalized older patients with a view to contributing towards an evidence-based identification of which patients warrant early, specific preventive measures. To evade the problem posed by the definition of constipation, we have considered parameters that are part of the daily routine in the hospital ward, such as the prescription of laxatives, also paying attention to how the co-operative older person subjectively interpret this condition. One thirds of the 192 hospitalized older patients needed a laxative at least once every 3 days. Multivariate analysis identified the use of laxatives at home as the only risk factor for objective constipation while in hospital (odds ratio (OR)=3.0). A significant risk of being dissatisfied with their bowel emptying emerged among patients who were bedridden for more than 2 weeks (OR=6.0), and in those who experienced cerebrovascular events (OR=3.1). The use of laxatives at home and awareness that satisfaction with bowel movements drops in patients obliged to stay in bed for lengthy periods of time and in those who have suffered cerebrovascular damage, should provide the grounds for a screening program to establish rational guidelines on bowel movement therapy. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of constipation in older adults: radioopaque markers (ROMs) versus wireless motility capsule (WMC).

    PubMed

    Rao, S S C; Coss-Adame, E; Valestin, J; Mysore, K

    2012-01-01

    There is scarce information regarding assessment of constipation in older subjects. We examined regional and whole-gut transit time (WGTT) with wireless motility capsule (WMC) and compared this with radioopaque markers (ROM) transit. 39 constipated and 11 healthy older subjects (≥ 65 years) ingested a ROM capsule and WMC, wore a data receiver and kept stool diaries for 5 days. WMC recordings were analyzed for colonic transit time (CTT), WGTT and gastric emptying time (GET). Radiographs obtained on day 5 assessed ROM transit. Results for each device were compared. The CTT (p = <0.0001), WGTT (p = <0.001) and GET (p = <0.04) as measured by WMC were all slower in constipated subjects compared to healthy subjects. ROM colonic transit was also slower (p = <0.007) in constipated compared to healthy subjects. The diagnostic utility for identifying subjects with constipation as assessed by receiver operating characteristics were similar; 0.85 (WMC) versus 0.73 (ROM). Device agreement for slow colonic transit was 88% with good correlation between WMC and ROM (CTT r=0.718, p=0.0001, WGTT r=0.693, p=0.0001). Slow transit constipation was identified in 28% with ROM and 32% with WMC. No adverse events were recorded. WMC is a safe and useful device that provides objective diagnosis of delayed colonic and whole gut transit in older constipated adults. It is a radiation-free, physiologic and ambulatory technique that provides additional diagnostic information than ROM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Faecal consistency and risk factors for diarrhoea and constipation in cats in UK rehoming shelters.

    PubMed

    German, Allison C; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Morgan, Kenton L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to describe faecal consistency, prevalence and risk factors for diarrhoea and constipation in a rescue cat population. Methods Faecal samples in litter trays from a stratified random sample of cats in pens at 25 UK rehoming centres were scored for consistency in two discrete time periods, summer and winter. A six-point scale was used, with diarrhoea ⩽3, severe diarrhoea ⩽2 and constipation as 6. The effect on faecal consistency of age, number of cats per pen and season was investigated using multivariable hierarchical logistic regression with centre and pen as random effects. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to estimate the effect of pen and centre. Results Overall, 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]:10.4-13.7) of cats had diarrhoea, 2.4% (95% CI 1.6-3.7) had severe diarrhoea and 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.5) were constipated. The prevalence of diarrhoea (median 11.0%, interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-14.5%) and constipation (median 4.2%, IQR 1.8-5.9) varied at the centre level. Diarrhoea was associated with being a kitten (odds ratio [OR] 2.54, 95% CI 1.45-4.46; P = 0.001) and being in a multi-cat pen (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.48; P = 0.02) but not with season (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.55-1.77; P = 0.96). Severe diarrhoea was associated with senior cats (OR 4.66, 95% CI 1.25-17.44; P = 0.02). Constipation was associated with increasing age (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01; P = 0.02) and winter (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.89; P = 0.02). Both diarrhoea and constipation showed moderate correlation with pens within a centre. Conclusions and relevance From IQRs, we suggest acceptable levels for diarrhoea and constipation of 11% and 4%, respectively, targets of 5% and 2%, and intervention at 15% and 6%. Increasing age was associated with decreased risk of diarrhoea and increased risk of constipation. However, severe diarrhoea was associated with being a senior cat. Season (winter) was a risk factor for constipation; multi-cat pens were a risk

  19. A qualitative study of quality of life and the experience of complementary and alternative medicine in Korean women with constipation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; Warden, Sherry

    2011-01-01

    Twelve percent of people worldwide report suffering from self-defined constipation. Women experience constipation three times more than men. Many people have used complementary and alternative medicine for constipation, but there is no qualitative research about this issue. The purpose of this article was to describe Korean women's experience of treating chronic constipation with complementary and alternative medicine. A qualitative descriptive approach used in-depth, semistructured interviews with 10 Korean women in the United States who had constipation. Four themes were identified: (1) subjective definition of constipation; (2) efforts to find the reason for constipation; (3) efforts to find solutions for constipation (subtheme: frequent use of enemas, laxatives, and suppositories; expectation and disappointment for complementary and alternative medicine; finding individually effective solutions for constipation); and (4) negative impact on quality of life (subtheme: mental discomfort, changed appetite, and difficult relationships with people).Ten women reported that they had used exercise, massage, yogurt, vegetables, seeds of tangles (seaweed), mineral oil, milk with plums, mixed rice, walnuts, grapefruits, apples, oranges, aloe, oatmeal, soymilk, sweet potatoes, ground flax seed, and alcohol as a strategy for relieving constipation. Participants had also used herbs, acupuncture, acupressure, moxibustion, cupping therapy, hand acupuncture, senna tea, and soy bean past fomentation. In conclusion, living with constipation is an irritable and uncomfortable experience, and it motivated these women to select a variety of methods to reduce constipation.

  20. Primary Care Management of Chronic Constipation in Asia: The ANMA Chronic Constipation Tool

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Chua, Andrew Seng Boon; Myung, Seung-Jae; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Wu, Justin C Y; Chen, Min-Hu; Gong, Xiao-Rong; Lu, Ching-Liang; Chen, Chien-Lin; Pratap, Nitesh; Abraham, Philip; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Ke, Meiyun; Ricaforte-Campos, Jane D; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Abdullah, Murdani

    2013-01-01

    Chronic constipation (CC) may impact on quality of life. There is substantial patient dissatisfaction; possible reasons are failure to recognize underlying constipation, inappropriate dietary advice and inadequate treatment. The aim of these practical guidelines intended for primary care physicians, and which are based on Asian perspectives, is to provide an approach to CC that is relevant to the existing health-care infrastructure. Physicians should not rely on infrequent bowel movements to diagnose CC as many patients have one or more bowel movement a day. More commonly, patients present with hard stool, straining, incomplete feeling, bloating and other dyspeptic symptoms. Physicians should consider CC in these situations and when patients are found to use laxative containing supplements. In the absence of alarm features physicians may start with a 2-4 week therapeutic trial of available pharmacological agents including osmotic, stimulant and enterokinetic agents. Where safe to do so, physicians should consider regular (as opposed to on demand dosing), combination treatment and continuous treatment for at least 4 weeks. If patients do not achieve satisfactory response, they should be referred to tertiary centers for physiological evaluation of colonic transit and pelvic floor function. Surgical referral is a last resort, which should be considered only after a thorough physiological and psychological evaluation. PMID:23667746

  1. Effects of Low-frequency Current Sacral Dermatome Stimulation on Idiopathic Slow Transit Constipation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Seop; Yi, Seung-Ju

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine whether low-frequency current therapy can be used to reduce the symptoms of idiopathic slow transit constipation (ISTC). [Subjects] Fifteen patients (ten male and five female) with idiopathic slow transit constipation were enrolled in the present study. [Results] Bowel movements per day, bowel movements per week, and constipation assessment scale scores significantly improved after low-frequency current simulation of S2-S3. [Conclusion] Our results show that stimulation with low-frequency current of the sacral dermatomes may offer therapeutic benefits for a subject of patients with ISTC.

  2. Effects of regular exercise in management of chronic idiopathic constipation.

    PubMed

    Meshkinpour, H; Selod, S; Movahedi, H; Nami, N; James, N; Wilson, A

    1998-11-01

    Regular physical exercise has long been considered in the management of chronic constipation. This recommendation is probably based on the assumption that exercise shortens the transit time through the gastrointestinal tract. However, on the basis of previous studies, the effect of exercise on the transit remains controversial at best. Therefore, it was the goal of the present study to assess the influence of regular physical exercise, what average people may consider routine exercise, in the management of chronic idiopathic constipation. The study population consisted of eight patients, seven women and a man, with chronic idiopathic constipation. They were studied for six weeks, including two weeks of rest and four weeks of regular exercise. Patients had a submaximal exercise test, before and after the exercise period, to determine their rate of perceived exertion (RPE), the target heart rate, and the intensity of exercise they can perform. In addition to their routine daily activities, they exercised 1 hr a day, five days a week according to their performance at the initial exercise tolerance test. They kept a daily activity log and maintained their normal dietary intake during this period. The patients overall physical activity was assessed by a pedometer. They also maintained a diary of the number and consistency of their bowel movements and the amount of straining required for defecation. The impact of exercise on constipation was assessed by utilizing an index that took into consideration all three parameters of bowel function. Results of the study revealed that patients covered 1.8+/-0.33 and 3.24+/-0.28 miles/day in the rest period and during the exercise period, respectively (P = 0.007). The intensity of exercise may have improved the level of training as reflected on the mean maximum time before and after exercise period (P = 0.039). This level of exercise did not improve their constipation indices, which were 9.11+/-0.65 and 8.57+/-1.08 in the rest and

  3. Polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes for treatment of childhood constipation

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seen; Cheng, Adam; Goldman, Ran D.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT QUESTION I have come across many pediatric patients with functional constipation. Is polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes a safe and effective long-term treatment option for these patients? ANSWER Functional constipation is a common and often difficult problem for parents and families to deal with. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is a safe and effective long-term laxative in pediatric populations, but there are limited studies for its use in children younger than 2 years of age. PMID:19439699

  4. Constipation services for children: the role of health visitor teams.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise; Derrett, Sarah

    Constipation among children is a prevalent condition, yet poorly understood. There is little empirical evidence for 'best possible' configurations of services. This article presents a survey of Walsall health visitor team members (HVTMs) which aimed to identify the types of advice and care provided to young children with constipation, pathways to care and ideas for service improvement. Most HVTM consultations were parent-initiated. Few GPs referred children to HVTMs. HVTMs most commonly provided advice about fluids and diet -- only one prescribed medication. HVTMs identified the need for early intervention, consistent information for parents and a clear pathway for all health professionals to follow. Currently, a team from the local primary and hospital NHS trusts is developing an integrated care pathway for paediatric constipation. Success of such pathways depends on their adoption by GPs and hospital-based health professionals, and on evidence of efficacy arising from their evaluation.

  5. Glucocorticoid treatment, immobility, and constipation are associated with nutritional risk.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, Jean-Pierre; Aschwanden, Josef; Iff, Samuel; Leuenberger, Michèle; Perrig, Martin; Stanga, Zeno

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis of this clinical study was to determine whether glucocorticoid use and immobility were associated with in-hospital nutritional risk. One hundred and one patients consecutively admitted to the medical wards were enrolled. Current medical conditions, symptoms, medical history, eating and drinking habits, diagnosis, laboratory findings, medications, and anthropometrics were recorded. The Nutrition Risk Score 2002 (NRS-2002) was used as a screening instrument to identify nutritional risk. The results confirmed that glucocorticoid use and immobility are independently associated with nutritional risk determined by the NRS-2002. Constipation could be determined as an additional cofactor independently associated with nutritional risk. Glucocorticoid treatment, immobility, and constipation are associated with nutritional risk in a mixed hospitalized population. The presence of long-time glucocorticoid use, immobility, or constipation should alert the clinician to check for nutritional status, which is an important factor in mortality and morbidity.

  6. Pediatric constipation in the emergency department: evaluation, treatment, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Stephen B; Thull-Freedman, Jennifer; Rumantir, Maggie; Eltorki, Mohamed; Schuh, Suzanne

    2014-09-01

    Limited knowledge exists surrounding the pharmacologic management of pediatric constipation in the emergency department (ED) setting and the success of interventions. Our primary objective was to determine whether enema administration is associated with 7-day ED revisits for persistent symptoms. Secondary objectives focused on assessing other predictors of ED revisits. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children <18 years old, diagnosed as having constipation (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes F98.1 nonorganic encopresis, K59.0 constipation) in a pediatric ED in Toronto, Canada, between November 2008 and October 2010. A total of 3592 visits were included; 6% (n = 225) were associated with a revisit. Children with revisits more frequently had vomiting (28% vs 17%, P = 0.001), more pain (5.7 ± 3.6 vs 4.6-3.6 of 10, P = 0.01), and underwent more blood tests (19% 05, 11%, 95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference 3%-14%] and diagnostic imaging (62% vs 47%, 95% CI of the difference 9%-22%). Children administered an enema were 1.54 times more likely to revisit the ED than those who did not receive an enema (8.6% vs 5.5%, 95% CI of the difference 1.1%-5.2%, P = 0.001). Type of enema administered varied by age (P < 0.001). Regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of revisits: diagnostic imaging (odds ratio [OR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.15-2.06), vomiting (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.98), enema administration (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.05-1.88), and significant medical history (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.53). Enema administration and diagnostic imaging are associated with revisits in children diagnosed with constipation. Their role in the ED management of pediatric constipation requires further evaluation.

  7. The management of constipation in hospital inpatients.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Simon M

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews the causes of constipation in hospital and how it can be prevented with simple measures. A review of laxatives available on hospital words is provided for the reader and recommendations are made.

  8. Pediatric abdominal radiograph use, constipation, and significant misdiagnoses.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Stephen B; Thull-Freedman, Jennifer; Manson, David; Rowe, Margot Follett; Rumantir, Maggie; Eltorki, Mohamed; Schuh, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    To determine the proportion of children diagnosed with constipation assigned a significant alternative diagnosis within 7 days (misdiagnosis), if there is an association between abdominal radiograph (AXR) performance and misdiagnosis, and features that might identify children with misdiagnoses. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive children <18 years who presented to a pediatric emergency department in Toronto, between 2008 and 2010. Children assigned an International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision code consistent with constipation were eligible. Misdiagnosis was defined as an alternative diagnosis during the subsequent 7 days that resulted in hospitalization or an outpatient procedure that included a surgical or radiologic intervention. Constipation severity was classified employing text word categorization and the Leech score. 3685 eligible visits were identified. Mean age was 6.6 ± 4.4 years. AXR was performed in 46% (1693/3685). Twenty misdiagnoses (0.5%; 95% CI 0.4, 0.8) were identified (appendicitis [7%], intussusception [2%, bowel obstruction [2%], other [9%]). AXR was performed more frequently in misdiagnosed children (75% vs 46%; P = .01). These children more often had abdominal pain (70% vs 49%; P = .04) and tenderness (60% vs 32%; P =.01). Children in both groups had similar amounts of stool on AXR (P = .38) and mean Leech scores (misdiagnosed = 7.9 ± 3.4; not misdiagnosed = 7.7 ± 2.9; P = .85). Misdiagnoses in children with constipation are more frequent in those in whom an AXR was performed and those with abdominal pain and tenderness. The performance of an AXR may indicate diagnostic uncertainty; in such cases, the presence of stool on AXR does not rule out an alternative diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Reflexology on Children With Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    Canbulat Sahiner, Nejla; Demirgoz Bal, Meltem

    Functional constipation is a common problem in Turkey that affects up to 10% of children. Reflexologists claim that reflexology can be beneficial in the treatment of constipation. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to determine the effectiveness of reflexology in treating functional constipation in children. Thirty-seven children who were referred to a pediatrician with functional constipation as defined by the Rome III criteria were recruited to the study. After the physician's diagnosis, two groups (intervention/control) were created. The intervention and control groups comprised 17 and 20 children, respectively. Each child in the intervention group was given a foot massage for 10 minutes five times a week, and toilet/diet/motivation training was given to their parents. The test period lasted for 4 weeks. Toilet/diet/motivation training was undertaken for 30 minutes once per week (for a total of 4 weeks) in an interactive manner. The parents of children in the control group received equivalent toilet/diet/motivation training only. No significant differences in terms of feces frequency and feces consistency were noted between the intervention and control groups (p > .05). This study sample showed that only toilet/diet/motivation training had potential benefit for treating functional constipation in children. Further larger randomized trials are required to establish whether there are benefits to foot message in the treatment of functional constipation in children.

  10. Nurse-Led Self-Management Educational Intervention Improves Symptoms of Patients With Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiong; Zhu, Hongqin; Jiang, Guixiang; Liu, Xueqin

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of self-management educational intervention on the symptoms of patients with functional constipation. From January 2014 to April 2015, 66 patients with functional constipation were randomly assigned into intervention group receiving intensive educational interventions and control group receiving routine nursing care. The constipation score of all clinical symptoms (Bristol stool form scale, defecation interval, incomplete evacuation, evacuatory difficulty) at 1 month postdischarge were all significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (all, p < .05). At 1 month postdischarge, the intervention group had a significantly higher proportion of patients with good health habits (reasonable diet, regular exercise, good defecation habits, proper use of laxatives) as compared with the control group (all, p < .05). These data suggest educational intervention can effectively improve constipation symptoms and compliance with treatment of patients, and lead to the development of good health habits.

  11. Dysfunctional elimination syndromes--how closely linked are constipation and encopresis with specific lower urinary tract conditions?

    PubMed

    Combs, Andrew J; Van Batavia, Jason P; Chan, Jennifer; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-09-01

    It is recognized that there is a strong association between bladder and bowel dysfunction. We determined the association of constipation and/or encopresis with specific lower urinary tract conditions. We reviewed our database of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and divided cases into 3 categories of bowel dysfunction (constipation, encopresis and constipation plus encopresis) and 4 lower urinary tract conditions (dysfunctional voiding, idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder, detrusor underutilization disorder and primary bladder neck dysfunction). Associations between bowel dysfunction types and each lower urinary tract condition were determined. Of 163 males and 205 females with a mean age of 8.5 years constipation was the most common bowel dysfunction (27%). Although encopresis is generally thought to reflect underlying constipation, only half of children with encopresis in this series had constipation. Dysfunctional voiding was associated with the highest incidence of bowel dysfunction. All but 1 patient with encopresis had associated urgency and detrusor overactivity, and the encopresis resolved in 75% of patients after initiation of anticholinergic therapy. Constipation was significantly more common in girls (27%) than in boys (11%, p <0.01), while encopresis was more common in boys (9%) than in girls (3%, p = 0.02), likely reflecting the higher incidence of dysfunctional voiding in girls and idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder in boys. Active bowel dysfunction was seen in half of the children with a lower urinary tract condition. Constipation was more common in patients with dysfunctional voiding, while encopresis was significantly increased in those with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder and in those with dysfunctional voiding, severe urgency and detrusor overactivity. Anticholinergics, despite their constipating effect, given for treatment of detrusor overactivity resolved encopresis in most children with this bowel dysfunction

  12. Demographics and health care seeking behavior of Singaporean women with chronic constipation: implications for therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Gwee, Kok Ann; Setia, Sajita

    2012-01-01

    Chronic constipation is significantly more prevalent in women than men in Singapore. We carried out a survey to study patient demographics, symptom prevalence, healthcare-seeking behavior, and patient satisfaction with available treatment options in women with chronic constipation. Responses were collected predominantly via a web-based survey from a panel representative of Singapore's women population. Eligibility was established using a nine-question screener. A total of 1006 invited females took part in an online screener survey, of which 911 respondents did not meet the eligibility requirements for the chronic constipation survey. Of the total panelists consenting to participate (via both online and face-to-face interviews), 100 women met eligibility requirements and took the 22-question survey. Eligible respondents were skewed to younger patients but well mixed in terms of marital status. The majority of them were not keen on doing exercise and were working women, especially white collar females. The majority complained of straining and hard stools as the most common constipation symptoms (88% and 80% respectively) and rated constipation symptoms as severe or moderate. On average, respondents experienced constipation symptoms for 6 to 7 months in the last year. In more than two-thirds of respondents, constipation symptoms were frequent (at least 1 in 3 times). Most of the patients had attempted to treat constipation themselves and 80% had tried laxatives before visiting the doctor. Satisfaction with fiber supplements and laxatives was average and many of the users were not satisfied with their effect. Ineffectiveness and prolonged time taken for the treatment to take effect were the most common reasons for dissatisfaction. Nearly all respondents (97%) were interested in considering alternative prescriptive medication that is proven more effective. Chronic constipation symptoms in women are often severe and bothersome, and many patients are dissatisfied with

  13. Hospital-Level Variation in Practice Patterns and Patient Outcomes for Pediatric Patients Hospitalized With Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    Librizzi, Jamie; Flores, Samuel; Morse, Keith; Kelleher, Kelly; Carter, Jodi; Bode, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    Constipation is a common pediatric condition with a prevalence of 3% to 5% in children aged 4 to 17 years. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the management of pediatric patients hospitalized with constipation. The primary objective was to evaluate practice patterns and patient outcomes for the hospital management of functional constipation in US children's hospitals. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of children aged 0 to 18 years hospitalized for functional constipation from 2012 to 2014 by using the Pediatric Health Information System. Patients were included by using constipation and other related diagnoses as classified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision . Patients with complex chronic conditions were excluded. Outcome measures included percentage of hospitalizations due to functional constipation, therapies used, length of stay, and 90-day readmission rates. Statistical analysis included means with 95% confidence intervals for individual hospital outcomes. A total of 14 243 hospitalizations were included, representing 12 804 unique patients. The overall percentage of hospitalizations due to functional constipation was 0.65% (range: 0.19%-1.41%, P < .0001). The percentage of patients receiving the following treatment during their hospitalization included: electrolyte laxatives: 40% to 96%; sodium phosphate enema: 0% to 64%; mineral oil enema: 0% to 61%; glycerin suppository: 0% to 37%; bisacodyl 0% to 47%; senna: 0% to 23%; and docusate 0% to 11%. Mean length of stay was 1.97 days (range: 1.31-2.73 days, P < .0001). Mean 90-day readmission rate was 3.78% (range: 0.95%-7.53%, P < .0001). There is significant variation in practice patterns and clinical outcomes for pediatric patients hospitalized with functional constipation across US children's hospitals. Collaborative initiatives to adopt evidence-based best practices guidelines could help standardize the hospital management of pediatric

  14. Laxatives Do Not Improve Symptoms of Opioid-Induced Constipation: Results of a Patient Survey

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Anton; Johnson, Martin; McSkimming, Paula; Dickerson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Laxatives are commonly used to treat opioid-induced constipation, the commonest and most bothersome complication of opioids. However, laxatives have a nonspecific action and do not target underlying mechanisms of opioid-induced constipation; their use is associated with abdominal symptoms that negatively impact quality of life. Objective To assess the effects of laxatives in patients taking opioids for chronic pain. Methods One hundred ninety-eight UK patients who had taken opioid analgesics for at least one month completed a cross-sectional online or telephone survey. Questions addressed their pain condition, medication, and laxative use (including efficacy and side effects). The survey also assessed bowel function using the Bowel Function Index. Results Since starting their current opioid, 134 of 184 patients (73%) had used laxatives at some point and 122 (91%) of these were currently taking them. The most common laxatives were osmotics and stimulants. Laxative side effects were reported in 75%, most commonly gas, bloating/fullness, and a sudden urge to defecate. Side effects were more common in patients less than 40 years of age. Approximately half of patients said laxatives interfered with work and social activities, and one-fifth needed an overnight hospital stay because of their pain condition and/or constipation. Laxatives did not improve the symptoms of constipation, as assessed by the Bowel Function Index. Constipation was not related to opioid strength, dose of opioid, or number of laxatives taken. Conclusions Use of laxatives to treat opioid-induced constipation is often ineffective and associated with side effects. Instead of relieving the burden of opioid-induced constipation, laxative use is associated with a negative impact. PMID:28339544

  15. Modification of stool's water content in constipated infants: management with an adapted infant formula

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common occurrence in formula-fed infants. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of a formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium, in compliance with the official regulations, on stool water content, as well as a parental assessment of constipation. Materials and methods Thirty healthy term-born, formula-fed infants, aged 4-10 weeks, with functional constipation were included. All infants were full-term and fed standard formula. Exclusion criteria were preterm and/or low birth weight, organic constipation, being breast fed or fed a formula specially designed to treat constipation. Stool composition was measured by near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) and parents answered questions about crying associated with defecation and stool consistency at baseline and after two weeks of the adapted formula. Results After 2 weeks of the adapted formula, stool water content increased from 71 +/- 8.1% to 84 +/- 5.9%, (p < 0.02). There was no significant change in the stool's fat, protein or carbohydrate content. Parental impressions of constipation were improved with the decrease in stool hardness (100% with hard stools at baseline, 10% after 2 weeks), pain with defecation (90% at baseline, 10% after 2 weeks), and the requirement for rectal stimulation to achieve defecation (70% at baseline, 30% after 2 weeks, p < 0.001 for all three indicators). Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that an adapted formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium increases stool water content and improves symptoms of constipation in term-born, formula-fed infants. A larger randomized placebo-controlled trial is indicated. PMID:21595890

  16. Laxative effects of agarwood on low-fiber diet-induced constipation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakino, Mamoru; Tazawa, Shigemi; Maruyama, Hiroe; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Araki, Yoko; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2010-11-15

    Agarwood (Aquilaria sinensis), well known as incense in Southeast Asia, has been used as a digestive in traditional medicine. We investigated the laxative effects of an ethanol extract of agarwood leaves (EEA) in a rat model of low-fiber diet-induced constipation. A set of rats was bred on a normal diet while another set was placed on a low-fiber diet to induce constipation. The laxative effect of agarwood was then investigated on both sets of rats. Pretreatment of normal rats with single dose of EEA (600 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased frequency and weight of stools. Also, treatments with EEA (300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days caused a significant increase in stool frequency and weight. Feeding of the animals with a low-fiber diet resulted in a decrease in stool weight, frequency, and water content and also delayed carmine egestion. A single treatment with EEA (600 mg/kg) or senna (150 and 300 mg/kg) significantly increased stool frequency, weight, and water content and also accelerated carmine egestion in the model rats. Once daily administrations of EEA (150 mg/kg), for 14 days, caused a significant increase in water content of stools. The higher doses of EEA (300 and 600 mg/kg) significantly increased frequency, weight, and water content of the stools while accelerating carmine egestion in the constipated rats. Senna (150 and 300 mg/kg) produced similar effect as the higher doses of EEA but, in addition, induced severe diarrhea. These findings indicate that EEA has a laxative effect, without causing diarrhea, in a rat model of low-fiber diet-induced constipation. These findings suggest that EEA may be highly effective on constipation as a complementary medicine in humans suffering from life style-induced constipation.

  17. DRY CUPPING IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATION: A RANDOMIZED OPEN LABEL CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Shahamat, Mahmoud; Daneshfard, Babak; Najib, Khadijeh-Sadat; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Tafazoli, Vahid; Kasalaei, Afshineh

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a common disease in pediatrics, constipation poses a high burden to the community. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of dry cupping therapy (an Eastern traditional manipulative therapy) in children with functional constipation. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty children (4-18 years old) diagnosed as functional constipation according to ROME III criteria were assigned to receive a traditional dry cupping protocol on the abdominal wall for 8 minutes every other day or standard laxative therapy (Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 40% solution without electrolyte), 0.4 g/kg once daily) for 4 weeks, in an open label randomized controlled clinical trial using a parallel design with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Patients were evaluated prior to and following 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of the intervention commencement in terms of the ROME III criteria for functional constipation. Results: There were no significant differences between the two arms regarding demographic and clinical basic characteristics. After two weeks of the intervention, there was a significant better result in most of the items of ROME III criteria of patients in PEG group. In contrast, after four weeks of the intervention, the result was significantly better in the cupping group. There was no significant difference in the number of patients with constipation after 4 and 8 weeks of the follow-up period. Conclusion: This study showed that dry cupping of the abdominal wall, as a traditional manipulative therapy, can be as effective as standard laxative therapy in children with functional constipation. PMID:28852716

  18. Effects of Low-frequency Current Sacral Dermatome Stimulation on Idiopathic Slow Transit Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Seop; Yi, Seung-Ju

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine whether low-frequency current therapy can be used to reduce the symptoms of idiopathic slow transit constipation (ISTC). [Subjects] Fifteen patients (ten male and five female) with idiopathic slow transit constipation were enrolled in the present study. [Results] Bowel movements per day, bowel movements per week, and constipation assessment scale scores significantly improved after low-frequency current simulation of S2-S3. [Conclusion] Our results show that stimulation with low-frequency current of the sacral dermatomes may offer therapeutic benefits for a subject of patients with ISTC. PMID:25013277

  19. Direct medical costs of constipation in children over 15 years: a population-based birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Choung, Rok Seon; Shah, Nilay D.; Chitkara, Denesh; Branda, Megan E.; Van Tilburg, Miranda A.; Whitehead, William E.; Katusic, Slavica K.; Locke, G. Richard; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although direct medical costs for constipation-related medical visits are thought to be high, to date there have been no studies examining if longitudinal resource utilization is persistently elevated in children with constipation. Our aim was to estimate the incremental direct medical costs and types of health care utilization associated with constipation from childhood to early adulthood. Methods A nested case-control study was conducted to evaluate the incremental costs associated with constipation. The original sample consisted of 5,718 children in a population-based birth cohort who were born during 1976–1982 in Rochester, MN. The cases included individuals who presented to medical facilities with constipation. The controls were matched and randomly selected among all non-cases in the sample. Direct medical costs for cases and controls were collected from the time subjects were between 5–18 years of age or until the subject emigrated from the community. Results We identified 250 cases with a diagnosis of constipation in the birth cohort. While the mean inpatient costs for cases were $9994 (95% CI=2538, 37201) compared to $2391 (95% CI=923, 7452) for controls (p=0.22) over the time period, the mean outpatient costs for cases were $13927 (95% CI=11325, 16525) compared to $3448 (95% CI=3771, 4621) for controls (p<0.001) over the same time period. The mean annual number emergency department visits for cases were 0.66 (95% CI=0.62, 0.70) compared to 0.34 (95% CI=0.32, 0.35) for controls (p<0.0001). Conclusion Individuals with constipation have higher medical care utilization. Outpatient costs and ER utilization were significantly greater for individuals with constipation from childhood to early adulthood. PMID:20890220

  20. Depression but Not Symptom Severity is Associated With Work and School Absenteeism in Refractory Chronic Constipation.

    PubMed

    Staller, Kyle; Barshop, Kenneth; Kuo, Braden; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    We sought to determine the patient characteristics associated with increased absenteeism and Emergency Department (ED) utilization among patients with constipation. Chronic constipation is associated with significant direct and indirect economic costs. There has been limited study of the predictors of direct and indirect costs in a population with refractory constipation. We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study of patients with chronic constipation who presented to a tertiary care center for anorectal manometry. We used standardized instruments to assess disease severity, quality of life, somatization, and psychiatric comorbidities. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the predictors of work and school absenteeism as well as ED visits for constipation. There were 148 consecutive patients enrolled (87% female, mean age 43) of whom 32 (21.6%) had high absenteeism and 36 (24.3%) visited the ED for constipation in the past year. Patients with high absenteeism and ED visits were more likely to be depressed (56.3% vs. 18.5%, P<0.0001 for high absenteeism; 47.2% vs. 19.6%, P<0.01 for ED visits). After multivariable adjustment and sensitivity analyses, only depression (OR, 4.41; P<0.01) was associated with increased absenteeism while there was a trend toward an association between depression and ED visits (OR, 2.57; P=0.067). Symptom severity was not associated with high absenteeism or ED utilization. Among patients with chronic constipation, depression is a stronger predictor of absenteeism than symptom severity. Depression may drive a portion of the indirect costs of chronic constipation.

  1. Bifidobacterium adolescentis Exerts Strain-Specific Effects on Constipation Induced by Loperamide in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linlin; Hu, Lujun; Xu, Qi; Yin, Boxing; Fang, Dongsheng; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent gavage with B. adolescentis (CCFM 626, 667, and 669) once per day for 17 days. The primary outcome measures included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures were the basic biological characteristics of the strains, the concentration changes of short-chain fatty acids in feces, and the changes in the fecal flora. B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 relieved constipation symptoms by adhering to intestinal epithelial cells, growing quickly in vitro and increasing the concentrations of propionic and butyric acids. The effect of B. adolescentis on the gut microbiota in mice with constipation was investigated via 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis. The results revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased and the amount of Clostridium decreased in the B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 treatment groups. In conclusion, B. adolescentis exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of constipation, mostly due to the strains’ growth rates, adhesive capacity and effects on the gut microbiome and microenvironment. PMID:28230723

  2. Hot Topics in Primary Care: Management of Opioid-induced Constipation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David A; Argoff, Charles E

    2015-12-01

    Constipation is a common complication of opioid therapy that contributes to substantial patient morbidity, decreased productivity, and opioid nonadherence. Other causes of constipation may occur concomitantly and should be investigated. Although evidence supporting their use is limited, the use of fiber, water, laxatives, and/or exercise is recommended in current guidelines as initial management. Peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists are important treatment options, are well-tolerated, and improve many signs and symptoms of OIC in patients taking an opioid for chronic noncancer pain.

  3. Opioid-induced constipation, use of laxatives, and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Helene Nordahl; Olsson, Urban; From, Jesper; Breivik, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Real-life data on laxative use in patients suffering from opioid-induced constipation (OIC) are very limited, and many OIC patients are only using over the counter laxatives to resolve their constipation. Our aim was to describe laxative utilization and quality of life in participants in Norway who ever experienced OIC. This was a cross-sectional online survey conducted between 27th of June and 3rd of July 2014 among participants above 18 years with self-reported OIC and who had agreed to receive information from the pharmacy chain (Boots A/S, Norway). The questionnaire comprised a series of multiple choice, close-ended, and free text questions on abdominal symptoms, laxative use and health-related quality of life. A total of 417 participants met the study eligibility criteria: (1) treated with opioid for a minimum of 4 weeks, (2) actively accepted participation, and (3) confirmed ever experiencing OIC and in addition completed the survey. Among the eligible participants, 86% were females, 85% were younger than 60 years of age, and 57% were currently suffering OIC. More than half of the currently constipated participants were experiencing moderate to very severe abdominal bloating (63%), abdominal pain (55%) and/or pain during bowel movement (50%). Less than every fourth participant (23%) had consulted health care professionals (HCPs) about their constipation. Up to 39% reported that they handled their OIC by self-management, e.g., bought laxative, reduced the dose and/or changed opioid without consulting HCP or pharmacy. Less than half (48%) of the laxative users were satisfied with the laxative they were using to relieve their constipation. The EQ-5D health-related quality of life score was mean (SD): 0.587 (0.272). Although not statistically significant (p=0.067), there was a tendency of lower quality of life among the participants who were currently constipated compared with those not currently constipated (difference of mean EQ-5D: 0.629-0.555=0.074). A

  4. Multiple clinical presentations of anal ultra slow waves and high anal pressure: megacolon, hemorrhoids and constipation.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiroaki; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Hebiguchi, Tatsuzo; Morii, Mayako; Hebiguchi, Taku; Ito, Wataru; Chihara, Junichi; Kato, Tetsuo

    2007-02-01

    The physiopathology of idiopathic chronic constipation is complex and yet to be investigated. In the manometric studies of the patients with severe chronic constipation, we noticed that some patients with megacolon show very slow periodical (< 2/min) pressure change in the anal canal, namely ultra slow waves (USWs). USWs are considered to represent the hyperactivity of the internal anal sphincter; however, USW-related clinical presentations have yet to be investigated. We retrospectively re-evaluated the patient records and manometric studies of 85 cases, 51 subjects without defecatory problems and 34 patients with constipation, to elucidate USW-related clinical presentations. USWs were seen in 10 patients, including eight patients with chronic constipation and two subjects without defecatory problems. Out of the eight patients with constipation, one had no organic change in the anorectum, three had hemorrhoids and four exhibited megacolon. Manometric and pathological studies proved that none of the four patients with megacolon was suffering from Hirschsprung's disease. Among the 51 subjects without defecatory problems, only two had USWs. Anal pressure in the USW-positive group (106.0 +/- 37.0 cmH2O) was significantly higher than that in the group without defecatory problems (56.0 +/- 27.0 cmH2O) or constipated patients without USWs (55.0 +/- 26.0 cmH2O). Megacolon and high anal pressure, as well as chronic constipation and hemorrhoids, were the clinical presentations related to USWs. This is the first report to show the clinical relevance of USWs to megacolon. USWs should be recognized as an important manometric finding indicating a possible new clinical entity in chronic constipation.

  5. Constipation prophylaxis reduces length of stay in elderly hospitalized heart failure patients with home laxative use.

    PubMed

    Staller, Kyle; Khalili, Hamed; Kuo, Braden

    2015-11-01

    Elderly, hospitalized patients suffer disproportionately from constipation; however, little data suggest that constipation prophylaxis reduces length of stay (LOS). We performed a retrospective analysis of elderly patients admitted to our hospital with congestive heart failure (CHF) to determine the effects of constipation prophylaxis on LOS. Patients ≥ 65 years old admitted with the diagnosis of CHF in 2012 were evaluated for home and hospital laxative use on admission. Our primary outcome was LOS. We used linear regression modeling to independently evaluate the impact of constipation prophylaxis on LOS. Among 618 patients who were eligible for our study, 201 (32.5%) were using laxatives at home, whereas 254 (41.1%) were started on a prophylactic laxative on admission. There was no significant difference in LOS between patients receiving prophylaxis versus those who did not (P = 0.32). Patients with home laxative use had a 1 day longer LOS compared to those without laxative use (6 vs 5, P = 0.03). Among patients with home laxative use, there were 2 days longer LOS in those who were not given constipation prophylaxis on admission (8 vs 6, P = 0.002). After multivariate adjustment, failure to use constipation prophylaxis in patients with home laxative use was the only independent predictor of increased LOS (P = 0.03). Among elderly patients admitted for CHF exacerbations, failure to use constipation prophylaxis in patients with home laxative use is associated with a significantly longer LOS. Our data suggest that routine use of bowel prophylaxis for elderly CHF patients with preexisting constipation may reduce LOS. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Component analysis of Pu-erh and its anti-constipation effects.

    PubMed

    Li, Guijie; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yu; Zhou, Yalin; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Xin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Pu-erh tea on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. The changes in body weight, dietary intake, gastrointestinal transit, first black stool defecation time, number and weight of feces, water content of feces and various levels of substances in serum were used to evaluate the anti-constipation effects of Pu-erh tea. Body weight, dietary intake and the amount of water consumed by mice decreased with activated carbon-induced constipation and those of the sample treated group mice were higher than the control group mice. The first black stool time of normal, control, bisacodyl (100 mg/kg) and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg Pu-erh tea treated mice were 90, 221, 118, 178, 155 and 139 min, respectively. Following oral administration of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of Pu-erh tea and 100 mg/kg of bisacodyl, the gastrointestinal transit rates were shortened by 48.6, 59.6, 78.0 and 91.9%, respectively. Serum levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), acetylcholine enzyme (AchE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were significantly increased and somatostatin (SS) was decreased when the mice were treated with different concentrations of Pu-erh tea compared with the untreated control mice. These results demonstrate that Pu-erh tea has a similar preventive effect to bisacodyl and it may be used as a functional food to prevent constipation.

  7. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes for children with constipation and encopresis.

    PubMed

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2002-04-01

    Children with functional constipation and encopresis benefit from behavior modification and from long-term laxative medication. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes has become the first option for many pediatric gastroenterologists. Twenty-eight children treated with polyethylene glycol without electrolytes were compared with 21 children treated with milk of magnesia to evaluate the efficiency, acceptability, side effects, and treatment dosage of polyethylene glycol in long-term treatment of functional constipation and encopresis. Children were rated as "doing well," "improved," or "not doing well," depending on resolution of constipation and encopresis. At the 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups, bowel movement frequency increased and soiling frequency decreased significantly in both groups. At the 1-month follow-up, children on polyethylene glycol were soiling more frequently (P < 0.01) and fewer were improved (P < 0.01). At the 3- and 6-month follow-ups, both groups had similarly improved. At the 12-month visit, 61% of children on polyethylene glycol and 67% of children on milk of magnesia were doing well. Children on polyethylene glycol soiled more frequently (P < 0.01). None refused polyethylene glycol, but 33% refused to take milk of magnesia. The mean initial treatment dosage of polyethylene glycol was 0.6 +/- 0.2 g/kg daily. Polyethylene glycol had no taste, and no loss of efficacy occurred. Polyethylene glycol did not cause clinically significant side effects. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes is an alternative for long-term management of children with constipation and encopresis.

  8. Management of constipation in palliative care patients undergoing opioid therapy: is polyethylene glycol an option?

    PubMed

    Wirz, Stefan; Klaschik, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of laxative use for treatment of constipation in patients receiving opioid therapy, with special attention to polyethylene glycol 3350/electrolyte solution (PEG-ES). Computerized data from 206 patients were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Subgroups were analyzed using confirmatory statistics. Constipation occurred in 42.7 percent of patients. Laxatives were administered to 74.3 percent of these patients using a standardized step scheme, with good results in 78.4 percent. As a therapy for constipation, the combined administration of PEG-ES, sodium picosulphate, and liquid paraffin proved most effective, although statistical analysis yielded no significance. Early use of PEG-ES using a step scheme holds promise for treatment of opioid-related constipation in palliative care patients, although further investigation is warranted.

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Constipation in Adults with Intellectual Disability in Residential Care Centers in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morad, Mohammed; Nelson, Noele P.; Merrick, Joav; Davidson, Philip W.; Carmeli, Eli

    2007-01-01

    The normal aging process is not in itself a risk factor for constipation, but age-related morbidities, immobility, neurologic impairment or specific drugs are risk factors for constipation. This study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors for constipation in a large sample of 2400 persons with intellectual disability (ID) aged…

  10. Demographics and health care seeking behavior of Singaporean women with chronic constipation: implications for therapeutic management

    PubMed Central

    Gwee, Kok Ann; Setia, Sajita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chronic constipation is significantly more prevalent in women than men in Singapore. We carried out a survey to study patient demographics, symptom prevalence, healthcare-seeking behavior, and patient satisfaction with available treatment options in women with chronic constipation. Methods Responses were collected predominantly via a web-based survey from a panel representative of Singapore’s women population. Eligibility was established using a nine-question screener. Results A total of 1006 invited females took part in an online screener survey, of which 911 respondents did not meet the eligibility requirements for the chronic constipation survey. Of the total panelists consenting to participate (via both online and face-to-face interviews), 100 women met eligibility requirements and took the 22-question survey. Eligible respondents were skewed to younger patients but well mixed in terms of marital status. The majority of them were not keen on doing exercise and were working women, especially white collar females. The majority complained of straining and hard stools as the most common constipation symptoms (88% and 80% respectively) and rated constipation symptoms as severe or moderate. On average, respondents experienced constipation symptoms for 6 to 7 months in the last year. In more than two-thirds of respondents, constipation symptoms were frequent (at least 1 in 3 times). Most of the patients had attempted to treat constipation themselves and 80% had tried laxatives before visiting the doctor. Satisfaction with fiber supplements and laxatives was average and many of the users were not satisfied with their effect. Ineffectiveness and prolonged time taken for the treatment to take effect were the most common reasons for dissatisfaction. Nearly all respondents (97%) were interested in considering alternative prescriptive medication that is proven more effective. Conclusion Chronic constipation symptoms in women are often severe and bothersome

  11. Systematic review of stimulant and nonstimulant laxatives for the treatment of functional constipation

    PubMed Central

    Paré, Pierre; Fedorak, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constipation is an uncomfortable and common condition that affects many, irrespective of age. Since 1500 BC and before, health care practitioners have provided treatments and prevention strategies to patients for chronic constipation despite the significant variation in both medical and personal perceptions of the condition. OBJECTIVE: To review relevant research evidence from clinical studies investigating the efficacy and safety of commercially available pharmacological laxatives in Canada, with emphasis on studies adopting the Rome criteria for defining functional constipation. SEARCH METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Embase and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases were searched for blinded or randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses assessing the efficacy of nonstimulant and stimulant laxatives for the treatment of functional constipation. RESULTS: A total of 19 clinical studies and four meta-analyses were retrieved and abstracted regarding study design, participants, interventions and outcomes. The majority of studies focused on polyethylene glycol compared with placebo. Both nonstimulant and stimulant laxatives provided better relief of constipation symptoms than placebo according to both objective and subjective measures. Only one study compared the efficacy of a nonstimulant versus a stimulant laxative, while only two reported changes in quality of life. All studies reported minor side effects due to laxative use, regardless of treatment duration, which ranged from one week to one year. Laxatives were well tolerated by both adults and children. PMID:25390617

  12. Cactus (Opuntia humifusa) water extract ameliorates loperamide-induced constipation in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Hee; Park, Kyungmi; Kim, Eun Young; Ahn, So Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-01-17

    Korean cactus Cheonnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) is rich in pectin, phenols, flavonoids, and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. Some Koreans drink Cheonnyuncho juice prepared by grinding Cheonnyuncho with water. Cheonnyuncho is well known for its functional properties and antioxidant effects, but its effect on constipation has not been sufficiently studied. Loperamide (2 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to induce constipation in rats. The animals were divided into four groups: a normal group (NOR), constipation control group (CON), and two constipation groups receiving the Cheonnyuncho extract (CE) at two different concentrations in drinking water, 3% (L-CE group) and 6% (H-CE group), for 25 days. The fecal pellet numbers of NOR and L-CE were significantly increased from 35.67 ± 2.09 (CON) to 50.60 ± 1.38 and 46.50 ± 2.91 after loperamide treatment, respectively (p < 0.05). The water content of fecal excretions was significantly enhanced in only the L-CE group (33.05 ± 0.49%) compared to control (23.38 ± 1.26%) (p < 0.05) after loperamide treatment. The oral intake of CE (L-CE and H-CE groups) significantly increased levels of the intestinal transit ratio (45.25 ± 1.86% and 41.05 ± 2.47%, respectively) compared to the CON group (32.15 ± 2.05%) (p < 0.05). Treatment with the low concentration of CE significantly increased fecal levels of acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids, as well as the total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration. Histological analyses revealed that the thickness of the distal colon also increased in the CE-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Constipation decreased when CE was fed to the rats. In particular, the fecal pellet number and water content, as well as histological parameters such as distal colon thickness, improved. The CE treatment also increased the fecal SCFA content. These results show that the extract of Cheonnyuncho (O. humifusa) alleviated the

  13. Delayed Diagnoses in Children with Constipation: Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Stephen B; Rodean, Jonathan; Hall, Matthew; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Aronson, Paul L; Simon, Harold K; Shah, Samir S; Marin, Jennifer R; Cohen, Eyal; Morse, Rustin B; Katsogridakis, Yiannis; Berry, Jay G; Neuman, Mark I

    2017-07-01

    The use of abdominal radiographs contributes to increased healthcare costs, radiation exposure, and potentially to misdiagnoses. We evaluated the association between abdominal radiograph performance and emergency department (ED) revisits with important alternate diagnosis among children with constipation. Retrospective cohort study of children aged <18 years diagnosed with constipation at one of 23 EDs from 2004 to 2015. The primary exposure was abdominal radiograph performance. The primary outcome was a 3-day ED revisit with a clinically important alternate diagnosis. RAND/University of California, Los Angeles methodology was used to define whether the revisit was related to the index visit and due to a clinically important condition other than constipation. Regression analysis was performed to identify exposures independently related to the primary outcome. A total of 65.7% (185 439/282 225) of children with constipation had an index ED visit abdominal radiograph performed. Three-day revisits occurred in 3.7% (10 566/282 225) of children, and 0.28% (784/282 225) returned with a clinically important alternate related diagnosis. Appendicitis was the most common such revisit, accounting for 34.1% of all 3-day clinically important related revisits. Children who had an abdominal radiograph performed were more likely to have a 3-day revisit with a clinically important alternate related diagnosis (0.33% vs 0.17%; difference 0.17%; 95% CI 0.13-0.20). Following adjustment for covariates, abdominal radiograph performance was associated with a 3-day revisit with a clinically important alternate diagnosis (aOR: 1.39; 95% CI 1.15-1.67). Additional characteristics associated with the primary outcome included narcotic (aOR: 2.63) and antiemetic (aOR: 2.35) administration and underlying comorbidities (aOR: 2.52). Among children diagnosed with constipation, abdominal radiograph performance is associated with an increased risk of a revisit with a clinically important

  14. Constipation, haemorrhoids, and heartburn in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Constipation, heartburn, and haemorrhoids are common gastrointestinal complaints during pregnancy. Constipation occurs in 11-38% of pregnant women. Although the exact prevalence of haemorrhoids during pregnancy is unknown, the condition is common, and the prevalence of symptomatic haemorrhoids in pregnant women is higher than in non-pregnant women. The incidence of heartburn in pregnancy is reported to be 17-45%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat constipation in pregnancy? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat haemorrhoids in pregnancy? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat heartburn in pregnancy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to July 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five systematic reviews, RCTs or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: Acid-suppressing drugs, anaesthetic agents (topical), antacids with or without alginates, bulk-forming laxatives, compound corticosteroid and anaesthetic agents (topical), corticosteroid agents (topical), increased fibre intake, increased fluid intake, osmotic laxatives, raising the head of the bed, reducing caffeine intake, intake of fatty foods, and the size and frequency of meals, rutosides, sitz baths, and stimulant laxatives. PMID:19450328

  15. Constipation, haemorrhoids, and heartburn in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Constipation, heartburn, and haemorrhoids are common gastrointestinal complaints during pregnancy. Constipation occurs in 11% to 38% of pregnant women. Although the exact prevalence of haemorrhoids during pregnancy is unknown, the condition is common, and the prevalence of symptomatic haemorrhoids in pregnant women is higher than in non-pregnant women. The incidence of heartburn in pregnancy is reported to be 17% to 45%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat constipation in pregnancy? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat haemorrhoids in pregnancy? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat heartburn in pregnancy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found seven systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acid-suppressing drugs; anaesthetic agents (topical); antacids with or without alginates; bulk-forming laxatives; compound corticosteroid and anaesthetic agents (topical); corticosteroid agents (topical); increased fibre intake; increased fluid intake; osmotic laxatives; raising the head of the bed; reducing caffeine intake, intake of fatty foods, and the size and frequency of meals; rutosides; sitz baths; and stimulant laxatives. PMID:21418682

  16. Colonic mass movements in idiopathic chronic constipation.

    PubMed Central

    Bassotti, G; Gaburri, M; Imbimbo, B P; Rossi, L; Farroni, F; Pelli, M A; Morelli, A

    1988-01-01

    As relatively little is known of human colonic motor activity either in health, or in pathological conditions, we investigated mass movements in 14 chronically constipated patients and 18 healthy volunteers. Mass movements were recorded from proximal and distal colon during 24 h (12 noon-12 noon) by a colonoscopically positioned multilumen manometric probe and low compliance infusion system. Patients and controls differed significantly in the number (mean 2.6 (0.7) v 6.1 (0.9) (SE), p = 0.02) and duration (mean 8.2 (1.6) v 14.1 (0.8) s, p = 0.04) of mass movements. The data suggest that one pathophysiological mechanism of constipation may be decreased propulsive activity. A circadian pattern, with a significant difference between day and night distribution, was documented in both groups. The patients reported decreased defecatory stimulus concomitant with the mass movements. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3197990

  17. Perforation and mortality after cleansing enema for acute constipation are not rare but are preventable.

    PubMed

    Niv, Galia; Grinberg, Tamar; Dickman, Ram; Wasserberg, Nir; Niv, Yaron

    2013-01-01

    Constipation is a common complaint, frequently treated with cleansing enema. Enemas can be very effective but may cause serious adverse events, such as perforation or metabolic derangement. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the use of cleansing enema for acute constipation and to assess adverse events within 30 days of therapy. We performed a two-phase study: an initial retrospective and descriptive study in 2010, followed by a prospective study after intervention, in 2011. According to the results of the first phase we established guidelines for the treatment of constipation in the Emergency Department and then used these in the second phase. There were 269 and 286 cases of severe constipation in the first and second periods of the study, respectively. In the first study period, only Fleet® Enema was used, and in the second, this was changed to Easy Go enema (free of sodium phosphate). There was a 19.2% decrease in the total use of enema, in the second period of the study (P < 0.0001). Adverse events and especially, the perforation rate and the 30-day mortality in patients with constipation decreased significantly in the second phase: 3 (1.4%) versus 0 (P = 0.0001) and 8 (3.9%) versus 2 (0.7%) (P = 0.0001), for perforation and death in the first and second period of the study, respectively. Enema for the treatment of acute constipation is not without adverse events, especially in the elderly, and should be applied carefully. Perforation, hyperphosphatemia (after Fleet Enema), and sepsis may cause death in up to 4% of cases. Guidelines for the treatment of acute constipation and for enema administration are urgently needed.

  18. Polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes for the treatment of functional constipation in infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Loening-Baucke, Vera; Krishna, Rachana; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2004-11-01

    We have recently reported the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes (PEG) for the daily treatment of constipation in older children. Because there are very few data available on the use of PEG in infants and toddlers, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of PEG for the treatment of constipation in children <2 years of age. This is a retrospective chart review of 75 constipated children <2 years of age at start of PEG therapy. PEG was started at an average dose of 1 g/kg body weight/d and parents were asked to adjust the dose to yield 1 to 2 soft painless stools/d. Data from the history and physical examination were collected initially and at short-term (or=6 months) follow-up. 75 otherwise healthy children received PEG for functional constipation. The mean age was 17 months (range, 1 to 24 months) and the mean duration of constipation was 10 months (range, 0.5 to 23 months). The mean duration of short-term follow-up was 2 months and mean duration of long-term follow-up was 11 months. The mean effective short-term PEG dose was 1.1 g/kg body weight/d and the mean long-term dose was 0.8 g/kg body weight/d. Constipation was relieved in 85% with short-term and in 91% with long-term PEG therapy. Adverse effects were mild and included diarrhea, which disappeared with lowering the dose. No subjects stopped PEG because of adverse effects. PEG is effective, well tolerated and appeared safe for the treatment of functional constipation in children <2 years of age.

  19. Potentially avoidable hospitalisation for constipation in Victoria, Australia in 2010–11

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When primary care of constipation fails, the patient may need emergency hospitalisation for disimpaction. This study aimed to provide population-based data on the number of unplanned admissions and the cost to the healthcare system for constipation in Victoria, Australia in financial year 2010–11. Methods The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was examined to find the number of emergency hospital separations coded as constipation (ICD-10-AM Code K390). An estimate of costs was determined from the number of weighted inlier equivalent separations (WIES) multiplied by the WEIS price, used by the Victorian Government for funding purposes. Results There were 3978 emergency separations for constipation in Victoria in 2010–2011, 92% in public hospitals. Fifty-five percent were female and 38% > 75 years old. One third stayed overnight and 1/3 more than 1 day. The emergency bed day rate was 7.1 per 10,000 of population. The estimate of cost, based on WEIS, was approximately $8.3 million. Potential savings could be made by reducing the number of separations in 6 Local Government Areas (LGAs). Conclusions This study shows that the burden (in number of admissions, emergency bed days and overall direct costs) in managing emergency admissions for constipation in Victoria, Australia, is very significant and likely to be similar in other developed countries. Improved primary healthcare and alternative ways to achieve faecal disimpaction without emergency admission could save the public health system a proportion of this $8.3 million. PMID:25015386

  20. A case of cecal volvulus presenting with chronic constipation in lissencephaly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Yun-Young; Kim, Saeyoon; Choi, Kwang Hea

    2013-06-01

    Cecal volvulus is uncommon in pediatric patients and there are few reports of cecal volvulus with cerebral palsy. Here, we report the case of a 19-year-old male patient who presented with abdominal distension, a history of cerebral palsy, refractory epilepsy due to lissencephaly, and chronic constipation. An abdominal x-ray and computed tomography without contrast enhancement showed fixed dilated bowel intensity in the right lower abdomen. Despite decompression with gastric and rectal tube insertion, symptoms did not improve. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy that revealed cecal volvulus. Cecal volvulus usually occurs following intestinal malrotation or previous surgery. In this patient, however, intestinal distension accompanying mental disability and chronic constipation resulted in the development of cecal volvulus. We suggest that cecal and proximal large bowel volvulus should be considered in patients presenting with progressive abdominal distension combined with a history of neuro-developmental delay and constipation.

  1. A Case of Cecal Volvulus Presenting with Chronic Constipation in Lissencephaly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Yun-young; Kim, Saeyoon

    2013-01-01

    Cecal volvulus is uncommon in pediatric patients and there are few reports of cecal volvulus with cerebral palsy. Here, we report the case of a 19-year-old male patient who presented with abdominal distension, a history of cerebral palsy, refractory epilepsy due to lissencephaly, and chronic constipation. An abdominal x-ray and computed tomography without contrast enhancement showed fixed dilated bowel intensity in the right lower abdomen. Despite decompression with gastric and rectal tube insertion, symptoms did not improve. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy that revealed cecal volvulus. Cecal volvulus usually occurs following intestinal malrotation or previous surgery. In this patient, however, intestinal distension accompanying mental disability and chronic constipation resulted in the development of cecal volvulus. We suggest that cecal and proximal large bowel volvulus should be considered in patients presenting with progressive abdominal distension combined with a history of neuro-developmental delay and constipation. PMID:24010118

  2. Direct medical costs of constipation from childhood to early adulthood: a population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Choung, Rok Seon; Shah, Nilay D; Chitkara, Denesh; Branda, Megan E; Van Tilburg, Miranda A; Whitehead, William E; Katusic, Slavica K; Locke, G Richard; Talley, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Although direct medical costs for constipation-related medical visits are thought to be high, to date there have been no studies examining whether longitudinal resource use is persistently elevated in children with constipation. Our aim was to estimate the incremental direct medical costs and types of health care use associated with constipation from childhood to early adulthood. A nested case-control study was conducted to evaluate the incremental costs associated with constipation. The original sample consisted of 5718 children in a population-based birth cohort who were born during 1976 to 1982 in Rochester, MN. The cases included individuals who presented to medical facilities with constipation. The controls were matched and randomly selected among all noncases in the sample. Direct medical costs for cases and controls were collected from the time subjects were between 5 and 18 years of age or until the subject emigrated from the community. We identified 250 cases with a diagnosis of constipation in the birth cohort. Although the mean inpatient costs for cases were $9994 (95% Confidence interval [CI] 2538-37,201) compared with $2391 (95% CI 923-7452) for controls (P = 0.22) during the time period, the mean outpatient costs for cases were $13,927 (95% CI 11,325-16,525) compared with $3448 (95% CI 3771-4621) for controls (P < 0.001) during the same time period. The mean annual number of emergency department visits for cases was 0.66 (95% CI 0.62-0.70) compared with 0.34 (95% CI 0.32-0.35) for controls (P < 0.0001). Individuals with constipation have higher medical care use. Outpatient costs and emergency department use were significantly greater for individuals with constipation from childhood to early adulthood.

  3. L-Glutamine Supplementation Alleviates Constipation during Late Gestation of Mini Sows by Modifying the Microbiota Composition in Feces

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Taofeng; Han, Lingxia; Zhao, Lili; Niu, Yinjie

    2017-01-01

    Constipation occurs frequently in both sows and humans, particularly, during late gestation. The microbial community of the porcine gut, the enteric microbiota, plays a critical role in functions that sustain intestinal health. Hence, microbial regulation during pregnancy may be important to prevent host constipation. The present study was conducted to determine whether L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation improved intestinal function and alleviated constipation by regulation of enteric microbiota. 16S rRNA sequences obtained from fecal samples from 9 constipated sows (3 in the constipation group and 6 in the 1.0% Gln group) were assessed from gestational day 70 to 84. Comparative analysis showed that the abundance of intestinal-friendly microbiota, that is, Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and Actinobacteria (P = 0.037), was comparatively increased in the 1.0% Gln group, while the abundance of pernicious bacteria, Oscillospira (P < 0.001) and Treponema (P = 0.011), was decreased. Dietary supplementation with 1.0% Gln may ameliorate constipation of sows by regulated endogenous gut microbiota. PMID:28386552

  4. Safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 for the treatment of chronic constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Pashankar, Dinesh S; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Bishop, Warren P

    2003-07-01

    To assess the clinical and biochemical safety profile of long-term polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG) therapy in children with chronic constipation and to assess pediatric patient acceptance of PEG therapy. Prospective observational study. Pediatric clinics at a referral center. Patients Eighty-three children (44 with chronic constipation, 39 with constipation and encopresis) receiving PEG therapy for more than 3 months. Clinical adverse effects related to PEG therapy and acceptance and compliance with PEG therapy. Serum electrolyte levels, osmolality, albumin levels, and liver and renal function test results were measured. At the time of evaluation, the mean duration of PEG therapy was 8.7 months, and the mean PEG dose was 0.75 g/kg daily. There were no major clinical adverse effects. All blood test results were normal, except for transient minimal alanine aminotransferase elevation unrelated to therapy in 9 patients. All children preferred PEG to previously used laxatives, and daily compliance was measured as good in 90% of children. Long-term PEG therapy is safe and is well accepted by children with chronic constipation with and without encopresis.

  5. [A crossover control study of prophylactic treatment of chemotherapy-induced constipation by senna extract].

    PubMed

    Tao, Li-Ming; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Liu, Tong-Xin

    2012-01-01

    To observe the prophylactic effects of senna extract 40 mg/kg on chemotherapy-induced constipation. Eighty-two patients suffering from constipation after chemotherapy were assigned to Group AB and Group BA. Group AB referred to patients who first took senna extract in the 1st chemotherapeutic course and the crude fiber diet in the 2nd chemotherapeutic course. But the sequence was just the opposite in Group BA. The effective rates of relieving chemotherapy-induced constipation by senna extract and by the crude fiber diet were observed. The differences of the digestive tract reaction and the hematotoxicity reaction were compared. The conditions of patients' abdominal pain and stool properties were observed after they took senna extract. The effective rate of constipation by taking senna extract was 92.68% and that by the crude fiber diet was 10.93%, with statistical difference shown (P < 0.01). There was no statistic difference in adverse reaction rate such as decreased neutrophils over degree II, decreased hemoglobin, decreased platelet, nausea, vomit, etc. (P > 0.05). The occurrence rate of abdominal pain over degree II after taking senna was 8.54%. In the distribution of stool properties, the rate of loose stool was 35.53%. Senna extract 40 mg/kg was effective and safe in treating chemotherapy-induced constipation.

  6. Management of chronic constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Prasad, V G M; Abraham, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical assessment and evidence-based treatment options for managing diabetes-associated chronic constipation. A literature search of published medical reports in English language was performed using the OVID Portal, from PUBMED and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from inception to October 2015. A total of 145 abstracts were identified; duplicate publications were removed and 95 relevant full-text articles were retrieved for potential inclusion. Chronic constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetes, and occurs more frequently than in healthy individuals. Treatment goals include improving symptoms and restoring bowel function by accelerating colonic transit and facilitating defecation. Based on guidelines and data from published literature, food and dietary change with exercise and lifestyle change should be the first step in management. For patients recalcitrant to these changes, laxatives should be the next step of treatment. Treatment should begin with bulking agents such as psyllium, bran or methylcellulose followed by osmotic laxatives if response is poor. Lactulose, polyethylene glycol and lactitol are the most frequently prescribed osmotic agents. Lactulose has a prebiotic effect and a carry-over effect (continued laxative effect for at least 6 to 7 days, post cessation of treatment). Stimulants such as bisacodyl, sodium picosulphate and senna are indicated if osmotic laxatives are not effective. Newer agents such as chloride-channel activators and 5-HT4 agonist can be considered for severe or resistant cases. The primary aim of intervention in diabetic patients with chronic constipation is to better manage the diabetes along with management of constipation. The physician should explain the rationale for prescribing laxatives and educate patients about the potential drawbacks of long-term use of laxatives. They should contact their physician if

  7. Acute urinary retention in a pre-school girl with constipation

    PubMed Central

    Traslaviña, Guillermo A. Ariza; Ciampo, Luiz Antonio Del; Ferraz, Ivan Savioli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of a preschool girl who developed acute urinary retention associated with constipation. Case description: A girl aged six years old presented a 24 h history of inability to urinate. She was went twice to the emergency room during this period. In the first admission, 12 h after the onset of the symptoms, she presented abdominal pain and acute urinary retention. After the drainage by urinary catheterization of 300 mL of clear urine, she presented relief of the symptoms and, as urinalysis had no change, the patient was discharged home. Twelve hours after the first visit, she returned to the emergency room complaining about the same symptoms. At physical examination, there was only a palpable and distended bladder up to the umbilicus with no other abnormalities. Again, a urinary catheterization was performed, which drained 450 mL of clear urine, with immediate relief of the symptoms. Urinalysis and urine culture had no abnormalities. During the anamnesis, the diagnosis of constipation was considered and a plain abdominal radiography was performed, which identified large amount of feces throughout the colon (fecal retention). An enema with a 12% glycerin solution was prescribed for three days. During follow-up, the child used laxatives and dietary modifications, this contributed to the resolution of the constipation. There were no other episodes of urinary retention after 6 months of follow-up. Comments: Acute urinary retention in children is a rare phenomenon and constipation should be considered as a cause. PMID:26298658

  8. Factors Associated With Efficacy of Nurse-led Bowel Training of Patients With Chronic Constipation.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Fareed; Askari, Alan; Adaba, Franklin; Choudhary, Aliya; Thomas, Gregory; Collins, Brigitte; Tan, Emile; Nicholls, R John; Vaizey, Carolynne J

    2015-10-01

    It is not clear whether nurse-led bowel training (NBT), an individually tailored biofeedback strategy designed to improve the physiological process of defecation by operant conditioning and trial and error learning, is effective for patients with chronic constipation. We assessed the ability of NBT to reduce symptoms and increase quality of life in patients with constipation at a large tertiary medical center. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 347 patients (median age, 50 years) who underwent a median 3 sessions of NBT for chronic constipation from January 2011 through December 2013 at St Marks Hospital in the United Kingdom. The NBT comprised a combination of sensory retraining, pelvic floor conditioning, and advice on diet and toileting behavior. Data on patient demographics (age, sex, type of constipation) were collected alongside their assessments of constipation, which were based on Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QoL) and patient satisfaction scores. We performed binary logistic regression analysis. Each variable was tested first at the univariate level; those with significance (P < .10) were included in a multivariate model. At the end of NBT, 62.5% of the patients (217/347) reported reduced symptoms, and 40.2% of the patients (41/102) reported a reduction of at least 1 point on the PAC-QoL score. The mean PAC-QoL scores before and after NBT were 2.42 and 1.41, respectively (P = .001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that increasing age (odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.87; P = .042), greater number of sessions (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.09-8.20; P < .001), and non-irrigation (OR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.89-10.19; P = .001) were independent predictors of patient satisfaction. Data collected immediately after patients with chronic constipation received NBT indicate that it is an effective treatment for most patients. Older patients with dyssynergic defecation benefit most from at least 4 sessions

  9. Perforation and mortality after cleansing enema for acute constipation are not rare but are preventable

    PubMed Central

    Niv, Galia; Grinberg, Tamar; Dickman, Ram; Wasserberg, Nir; Niv, Yaron

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Constipation is a common complaint, frequently treated with cleansing enema. Enemas can be very effective but may cause serious adverse events, such as perforation or metabolic derangement. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the use of cleansing enema for acute constipation and to assess adverse events within 30 days of therapy. Methods We performed a two-phase study: an initial retrospective and descriptive study in 2010, followed by a prospective study after intervention, in 2011. According to the results of the first phase we established guidelines for the treatment of constipation in the Emergency Department and then used these in the second phase. Results There were 269 and 286 cases of severe constipation in the first and second periods of the study, respectively. In the first study period, only Fleet® Enema was used, and in the second, this was changed to Easy Go enema (free of sodium phosphate). There was a 19.2% decrease in the total use of enema, in the second period of the study (P < 0.0001). Adverse events and especially, the perforation rate and the 30-day mortality in patients with constipation decreased significantly in the second phase: 3 (1.4%) versus 0 (P = 0.0001) and 8 (3.9%) versus 2 (0.7%) (P = 0.0001), for perforation and death in the first and second period of the study, respectively. Conclusion Enema for the treatment of acute constipation is not without adverse events, especially in the elderly, and should be applied carefully. Perforation, hyperphosphatemia (after Fleet Enema), and sepsis may cause death in up to 4% of cases. Guidelines for the treatment of acute constipation and for enema administration are urgently needed. PMID:23658492

  10. Physiologic study of the terminal digestive tract in chronic painful constipation.

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, P

    1986-01-01

    A manometric study of the sigmoid colon and of the anorectum was undertaken in 65 chronically constipated patients complaining of abdominal pain, and in a control group of 23 healthy volunteers. Rectal compliance was tested in both groups. The sigmoid motility study allowed for the segregation of the constipated patients into three groups: hypokinesia (12 cases), normokinesia (34 cases), hyperkinesia (19 cases). Rectal manometry showed anal hypertony in 24 patients, impaired rectal conscious sensitivity in 12 subjects, and normal functions in the remaining cases. The rectal compliance study disclosed a decreased compliance in 15 cases and increased compliance in 13 other patients. In 12 cases disordered sigmoid motility was the only abnormality; in 10 cases only a rectoanal abnormality was found. Most of the patients (52%) exhibited miscellaneous disorders. In contrast, all parameters were normal in nine subjects. No consistent pattern of motility disorders was thus demonstrated in this clinically homogeneous group of patients with chronic, painful, constipation. PMID:3758814

  11. Favorable surgical treatment outcomes for chronic constipation with features of colonic pseudo-obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eon Chul; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Choe, Eun Kyung; Moon, Sang Hui; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Park, Kyu Joo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine long-term outcomes of surgical treatments for patients with constipation and features of colonic pseudo-obstruction. METHODS: Consecutive 42 patients who underwent surgery for chronic constipation within the last 13 years were prospectively collected. We identified a subgroup with colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO) features, with dilatation of the colon proximal to the narrowed transitional zone, in contrast to typical slow-transit constipation (STC), without any dilated colonic segments. The outcomes of surgical treatments for chronic constipation with features of CPO were analyzed and compared with outcomes for STC. RESULTS: Of the 42 patients who underwent surgery for constipation, 33 patients had CPO with dilatation of the colon proximal to the narrowed transitional zone. There were 16 males and 17 females with a mean age of 51.2 ± 16.1 years. All had symptoms of chronic intestinal obstruction, including abdominal distension, pain, nausea, or vomiting, and the mean duration of symptoms was 67 mo (range: 6-252 mo). Preoperative defecation frequency was 1.5 ± 0.6 times/wk (range: 1-2 times/wk). Thirty-two patients underwent total colectomy, and one patient underwent diverting transverse colostomy. There was no surgery-related mortality. Postoperative histologic examination showed hypoganglionosis or agangliosis in 23 patients and hypoganglionosis combined with visceral neuropathy or myopathy in 10 patients. In contrast, histology of STC group revealed intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (n = 6) and visceral myopathy (n = 3). Early postoperative complications developed in six patients with CPO; wound infection (n = 3), paralytic ileus (n = 2), and intraabdominal abscess (n = 1). Defecation frequencies 3 mo after surgery improved to 4.2 ± 3.2 times/d (range: 1-15 times/d). Long-term follow-up (median: 39.7 mo) was available in 32 patients; all patients had improvements in constipation symptoms, but two patients needed intermittent medication for

  12. Efficacy of auriculotherapy for constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Hua; Duan, Pei-Bei; Du, Shi-Zheng; Sun, Jin-Fang; Mei, Si-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan

    2014-08-01

    To assess the clinical evidence of auriculotherapy for constipation treatment and to identify the efficacy of groups using Semen vaccariae or magnetic pellets as taped objects in managing constipation. Databases were searched, including five English-language databases (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and AMED) and four Chinese medical databases. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the review process. Critical appraisal was conducted using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Seventeen randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria, of which 2 had low risk of bias. The primary outcome measures were the improvement rate and total effective rate. A meta-analysis of 15 RCTs showed a moderate, significant effect of auriculotherapy in managing constipation compared with controls (relative risk [RR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52- 2.79; p<0.00001). The 15 RCTs also showed a moderate, significant effect of auriculotherapy in relieving constipation (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13-1.44; p<0.0001). For other symptoms associated with constipation, such as abdominal distension or anorexia, results of the meta-analyses showed no statistical significance. Subgroup analysis revealed that use of S. vaccariae and use of magnetic pellets were both statistically favored over the control in relieving constipation. Current evidence illustrated that auriculotherapy, a relatively safe strategy, is probably beneficial in managing constipation. However, most of the eligible RCTs had a high risk of bias, and all were conducted in China. No definitive conclusion can be made because of cultural and geographic differences. Further rigorous RCTs from around the world are warranted to confirm the effect and safety of auriculotherapy for constipation.

  13. Efficacy of Auriculotherapy for Constipation in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Hua; Du, Shi-Zheng; Sun, Jin-Fang; Mei, Si-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the clinical evidence of auriculotherapy for constipation treatment and to identify the efficacy of groups using Semen vaccariae or magnetic pellets as taped objects in managing constipation. Methods: Databases were searched, including five English-language databases (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and AMED) and four Chinese medical databases. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the review process. Critical appraisal was conducted using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: Seventeen randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria, of which 2 had low risk of bias. The primary outcome measures were the improvement rate and total effective rate. A meta-analysis of 15 RCTs showed a moderate, significant effect of auriculotherapy in managing constipation compared with controls (relative risk [RR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52– 2.79; p<0.00001). The 15 RCTs also showed a moderate, significant effect of auriculotherapy in relieving constipation (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13–1.44; p<0.0001). For other symptoms associated with constipation, such as abdominal distension or anorexia, results of the meta-analyses showed no statistical significance. Subgroup analysis revealed that use of S. vaccariae and use of magnetic pellets were both statistically favored over the control in relieving constipation. Conclusions: Current evidence illustrated that auriculotherapy, a relatively safe strategy, is probably beneficial in managing constipation. However, most of the eligible RCTs had a high risk of bias, and all were conducted in China. No definitive conclusion can be made because of cultural and geographic differences. Further rigorous RCTs from around the world are warranted to confirm the effect and safety of auriculotherapy for constipation. PMID:25020089

  14. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Constipation in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Constipation in Children What should my child ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  15. Effect of Connective Tissue Manipulation on Symptoms and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Constipation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gürsen, Ceren; Kerem Günel, Mintaze; Kaya, Serap; Kav, Taylan; Akbayrak, Türkan

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of connective tissue manipulation (CTM) on the severity of constipation and health-related quality of life in individuals diagnosed with chronic constipation. Fifty patients with a diagnosis of chronic constipation according to Rome III criteria were recruited and randomized to an intervention (n = 25) or control group (n = 25). The intervention group received CTM in addition to the lifestyle advice, whereas the control group was given only lifestyle advice for constipation. All assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Constipation Severity Instrument. Secondary outcomes included Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life Questionnaire, Bristol Stool Scale, and 7-day bowel diary. Differences between groups were analyzed with t tests, Mann-Whitney U test and χ(2) test. Compared with the control group, subjects in the intervention group reported significantly greater improvement in total and subscale scores of the Constipation Severity Instrument and Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life Questionnaire (P < .05). Based on the results from bowel diaries, the improvements in the number of bowel movements, duration of defecation, stool consistency, and the feeling of incomplete evacuation in the intervention group were also significantly more than the control group (P < .05). This study showed that CTM and lifestyle advice were superior to reducing symptoms of constipation and quality of life compared with lifestyle advice alone for patients with chronic constipation. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost savings of reduced constipation rates attributed to increased dietary fiber intakes: a decision-analytic model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly five percent of Americans suffer from functional constipation, many of whom may benefit from increasing dietary fiber consumption. The annual constipation-related healthcare cost savings associated with increasing intakes may be considerable but have not been examined previously. The objective of the present study was to estimate the economic impact of increased dietary fiber consumption on direct medical costs associated with constipation. Methods Literature searches were conducted to identify nationally representative input parameters for the U.S. population, which included prevalence of functional constipation; current dietary fiber intakes; proportion of the population meeting recommended intakes; and the percentage that would be expected to respond, in terms of alleviation of constipation, to a change in dietary fiber consumption. A dose–response analysis of published data was conducted to estimate the percent reduction in constipation prevalence per 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake. Annual direct medical costs for constipation were derived from the literature and updated to U.S. $ 2012. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact on adult vs. pediatric populations and the robustness of the model to each input parameter. Results The base case direct medical cost-savings was $12.7 billion annually among adults. The base case assumed that 3% of men and 6% of women currently met recommended dietary fiber intakes; each 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake would lead to a reduction of 1.9% in constipation prevalence; and all adults would increase their dietary fiber intake to recommended levels (mean increase of 9 g/day). Sensitivity analyses, which explored numerous alternatives, found that even if only 50% of the adult population increased dietary fiber intake by 3 g/day, annual medical costs savings exceeded $2 billion. All plausible scenarios resulted in cost savings of at least $1 billion. Conclusions Increasing dietary fiber

  17. [Functional childhood gastrointestinal disorders. II. Constipation and solitary encopresis: physiology and pathophysiology].

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, R; Büller, H A; Heymans, H S; Taminiau, J A; Boeckxstaens, G E; Benninga, M A

    2003-06-28

    The childhood prevalences of constipation and encopresis are 0.3-8% and 1-3% respectively. Following a recent stricter definition and classification, constipation and solitary encopresis are now recognised to be two separate entities. Constipation is characterised by infrequent defecation, often in combination with involuntary loss of faeces. Solitary encopresis most often occurs once a day after school hours. When there is no defecation, the frequency of encopresis increases, the abdominal pain becomes more severe and the appetite becomes less, until a large quantity of faeces is produced (often once per week). The physiology of the defecation and continence mechanism is complex and has only been unravelled in part. The multiple physiological mechanisms involved have a complementary and compensatory effect on each other. This makes it difficult to determine the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these functional disorders.

  18. Effect of Home Care Nursing on Patients Discharged From Hospital With Self-Reported Signs of Constipation: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, Hanne; Rasmussen, Marie Louise Thiese; Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise

    Constipation is a common health problem in relation to hospitalization. This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate whether advice from a home care nurse after discharge had an effect on self-reported signs of constipation. A total of 59 patients were included in the study on the basis of their self-reported signs of constipation evaluated using the Constipation Assessment Scale. Advice from the home care nurses was given on the intake of fiber and liquid and mobilization related to scorings on the Constipation Risk Assessment Scale, the administration of laxatives, and referral to a physician when needed. Results showed a tendency toward the visits being effective, but a more complex intervention might be needed.

  19. Factors relating to hospitalisation and economic burden of paediatric constipation in the state of Victoria, Australia, 2002-2009.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Humaira; Ansari, Zahid; Lim, Tracy; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2014-12-01

    Constipation is common, with severe symptoms requiring hospitalisation. Constipation can be a primary (present at admission and requires treatment or investigation) or principal (first listed) diagnosis for hospitalisation. In the USA, constipation is the second most common ambulatory care digestive diagnosis with total costs >US$1.7 billion/year. Incidence of hospitalisation for constipation in children peaks at toilet-training age. This study determined the burden of paediatric constipation to hospital care in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was analysed retrospectively, examining hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of constipation in the 7-year period 2002/2003 to 2008/2009. For children, constipation was recorded as a primary diagnosis in 8688 admissions (3.6/1000 of population). In-hospital prevalence was ∼1.0%. Mean length of stay was 4.4 days (median 1.0, range 0-993, standard deviation 16.7). There were 1121 readmissions in 668 children. Average treatment cost was A$4235/admission (median A$1461, range A$0-$278 816), with annual costs of ∼A$5 505 500. Children in the highest socio-economic area had ∼50% fewer admissions (P < 0.0001). Predictors of readmission included age 10-18, male gender, rural residence, severe socio-economic disadvantage, public hospital, planned admission, longer length of stay and association with other medical conditions. This study identified that constipation in children is a significant cost burden in Victoria (costing public hospitals ∼A$5.5 million/year). Hospitalisation in Victoria is 10-fold higher than in the USA with 10% readmissions within a month. We conclude that strategies aimed at reducing hospitalisation for constipation could result in significant savings for the paediatric public health system in Victoria, Australia. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Does Milk Cause Constipation? A Crossover Dietary Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Elesa T.; Williams, Lauren T.; Roberts, Tim K.; Dunstan, Richard H.; Jones, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine whether replacement of cow’s milk protein with soy resolves Chronic Functional Constipation (CFC); and (2) investigate the effects of cow’s milk β casein A1 and cow’s milk β casein A2 on CFC. Children diagnosed with CFC were recruited to one of two crossover trials: Trial 1 compared the effects of cow’s milk and soy milk; Trial 2 compared the effects of cow’s milk β casein A1 and cow’s milk β casein A2. Resolution of constipation was defined as greater than eight bowel motions during a two week intervention. Thirteen children (18 to 144 months) participated in Trial 1 (6 boys, 7 girls). Nine participants who completed the soy epoch all experienced resolution (p < 0.05). Thirty-nine children (21 to 144 months) participated in Trial 2 (25 boys, 14 girls). Resolution of constipation was highest during the washout epoch, 81%; followed by cow’s milk β casein A2, 79%; and cow’s milk β casein A1, 57%; however, the proportions did not differ statistically. The results of Trial 1 demonstrate an association between CFC and cow’s milk consumption but Trial 2 failed to show an effect from type of casein. Some other component in cow’s milk common to both A1 and A2 milk may be causing a problem in these susceptible children. PMID:23340316

  1. Colonic exclusion and combined therapy for refractory constipation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong-Yun; Xu, Ai-Zhong

    2006-12-28

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of colonic exclusion and combined therapy for refractory constipation. Thirty-two patients with refractory constipation were randomly divided into treatment group (n = 14) and control group (n = 18). Fourteen patients in treatment group underwent colonic exclusion and end-to-side colorectal anastomosis. Eighteen patients in control group received subtotal colectomy and end-to-end colorectal anastomosis. The therapeutic effects of the operations were assessed by comparing the surgical time, incision length, volume of blood losses, hospital stay, recovery rate and complication incidence. All patients received long-term follow-up. All operations were successful and patients recovered fully after the operations. In comparison of treatment group and control group, the surgical time (h), incision length (cm), volume of blood losses (mL), hospital stay (d) were 87 +/- 16 min vs 194 +/- 23 min (t = 9.85), 10.4 +/- 0.5 cm vs 21.2 +/- 1.8 cm (t = 14.26), 79.5 +/- 31.3 mL vs 286.3 +/- 49.2 mL (t = 17.24), and 11.8 +/- 2.4 d vs 18.6 +/- 2.6 d (t = 6.91), respectively (P < 0.001 for all). The recovery rate and complication incidence were 85.7% vs 88.9% (P = 0.14 > 0.05), 21.4% vs 33.3% (P = 0.73 > 0.05), respectively. Colonic exclusion has better therapeutic efficacy on refractory constipation. It has many advantages such as shorter surgical time, smaller incision, fewer blood losses and shorter hospital stay.

  2. The clinical effectiveness of Movicol in children with severe constipation: an outcome audit.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Sandra; Bansal, Nav

    2006-03-01

    This audit reviewed the clinical effectiveness of polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolytes (PEG+E, Movicol) in the management of severe paediatric constipation. A seven-day disimpaction regimen was initiated followed by a maintenance dose as appropriate. An information and support service was provided by the community children's nursing team (CCNT) at Darent Valley Hospital. Twenty-three parents completed questionnaires on their children's experiences with previous and current laxative treatments, bowel movement status, in-patient admissions or home visits required and the perceived value of the back up service. The mean age of children studied was 6.7 years. Prior to PEG+E treatment, 57 per cent of children were admitted to hospital and 26 per cent required home visits for constipation treatment. After treatment, no child needed either intervention. Thirty-nine percent of parents used the support service, of which 96 per cent rated the information it provided as adequate. When asked about their satisfaction with the control of their children's constipation, 96 per cent of parents were 'more than happy' after treatment with PEG+E. The treatment of severe paediatric constipation with PEG+E in conjunction with a support and advice service was both clinically and economically effective.

  3. Biofeedback treatment of constipation: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Heymen, Steve; Jones, Kenneth R; Scarlett, Yolanda; Whitehead, William E

    2003-09-01

    This review was designed to 1) critically examine the research design used in investigations of biofeedback for pelvic floor dyssynergia, 2) compare the various biofeedback treatment protocols for pelvic floor dyssynergia-type constipation used in this research, 3) identify factors that influence treatment outcome, and 4) identify goals for future biofeedback research for pelvic floor dyssynergia. A comprehensive review of both the pediatric and adult research from 1970 to 2002 on "biofeedback for constipation" was conducted using a Medline search in all languages. Only prospective studies including five or more subjects that described the treatment protocol were included. In addition, a meta-analysis of these studies was performed to compare the outcome of different biofeedback protocols for treating constipation. Thirty-eight studies were reviewed, and sample size, treatment protocol, outcome rates, number of sessions, and etiology are shown in a table. Ten studies using a parallel treatment design were reviewed in detail, including seven that randomized subjects to treatment groups. A meta-analysis (weighted by subjects) was performed to compare the results of two treatment protocols prevalent in the literature. The mean success rate of studies using pressure biofeedback (78 percent) was superior (P = 0.018) to the mean success rate for studies using electromyography biofeedback (70 percent). However, the mean success rates comparing studies using intra-anal electromyography sensors to studies using perianal electromyography sensors were 69 and 72 percent, respectively, indicating no advantages for one type of electromyography protocol over the other (P = 0.428). In addition to the varied protocols and instrumentation used, there also are inconsistencies in the literature regarding the severity and etiology of symptoms, patient selection criteria, and the definition of a successful outcome. Finally, no anatomic, physiologic, or demographic variables were

  4. Effects of herbal medicine Dai-Kenchu-to on anorectal function in children with severe constipation.

    PubMed

    Iwai, N; Kume, Y; Kimura, O; Ono, S; Aoi, S; Tsuda, T

    2007-04-01

    We administered the herbal medicine Dai-Kenchu-To (DKT) to children with severe chronic constipation or with severe constipation after surgery for anorectal malformations. We then objectively assessed the effect of DKT on anorectal function by manometric study in addition to using a clinical scoring system. Ten children with severe chronic constipation and 5 children with severe constipation after surgery for anorectal malformations were assessed. These 15 children received 0.3 g/kg/day of DKT for periods ranging from 3 months to 1 year. We objectively assessed their bowel function, sphincter function and rectal reservoir function by anorectal manometry and clinical scoring. In 10 children with severe chronic constipation, the clinical score after administration of DKT (7.2 +/- 0.8) improved significantly compared with that before administration of DKT (4.6 +/- 2.9) (p < 0.02). The threshold sensation volume and the maximum tolerable volume after administration of DKT significantly (p < 0.05; p < 0.01) decreased (128 +/- 63 ml vs. 69 +/- 18 ml; 229 +/- 99 ml vs. 144 +/- 47 ml), and rectal compliance after administration of DKT also significantly (p < 0.05) decreased (12.4 +/- 10.9 ml/cmH(2)O vs. 4.7 +/- 3.9 ml/cmH(2)O). The present study demonstrated that DKT had a favorable clinical effect on severe constipation in children, and anorectal manometry showed an improvement in their rectal reservoir functions. It appears that the results were secondary to DKT-stimulated peristalsis of the intestine, which promoted regular bowel habits.

  5. Role of dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and overweight on the longitudinal development of childhood constipation: the Generation R study.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Vries, Jeanne H; Escher, Johanna C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriette A

    2013-10-01

    The influence of childhood nutrition on the development of constipation beyond the period of weaning and breastfeeding is relatively understudied. In addition, eating patterns in childhood can be highly correlated with overweight and sedentary behaviour, which may also have an influence on constipation. The aim of this study was to assess whether common dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and childhood overweight are associated with constipation in childhood. The study was embedded in a population-based prospective birth cohort. Information on dietary intake was obtained by a food frequency questionnaire at the child's age of 14 months (n = 2420). The adherence scores on a 'Health conscious' and 'Western-like' diet were extracted from principal component analysis. At the age of 24, 36 and 48 months, information on constipation and sedentary behaviour, and weight and height was obtained by parental-derived questionnaires and from the child health centres, respectively. Adherence to a 'Western-like' dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of constipation up to 48 months [adjusted odds ratio (aOR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39; 1.02-1.87], which was not mediated by overweight or sedentary behaviour. Adherence to a 'Health Conscious' dietary pattern was only associated at short term, with a lower prevalence of constipation at 24 months (aOR; 95%CI: 0.65; 0.44-0.96). No association was found between overweight, sedentary behaviour and constipation. Our results suggest that specific dietary patterns in early childhood could be associated with higher or lower risks for constipation, but these effects are time-dependent. Overweight and sedentary behaviour seem to not have a major role on constipation in childhood. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparison of pyridostigmine and bisacodyl in the treatment of refractory chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Soufi-Afshar, Iman; Moghadamnia, Aliakbar; Bijani, Ali; Kazemi, Sohrab; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment of chronic constipation is creating one of the major problems for doctors and patients. Pyridostigmine increases the gastrointestinal motility through the effects on cholinesterase. It seems that this mechanism can reduce chronic constipation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of pyridostigmine and bisacodyl on chronic constipation. Methods: This study was conducted on 68 patients who suffered from chronic constipation. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of Pyridostigmine and bisacodyl in which each consisted of 34 patients, respectively. Bristol stool form score, straining defecation, the time of defecation, the number of defecation per week, sense of incomplete evacuation and self-digitation were collected by means of questionnaires and the data were compared. Results: Sixty-eight patients with the mean age of 68.12±84.49 were studied. The mean difference in the frequency of defecation per week, VAS score, the time to defecation and the Bristol Stool form Scale in pre and post-treatment were 4.33±1.88, 5.96±2.29, 12.30±7.95 min and 2.10±0.95 in pyridostigmine group and 2.96±1.81, 4.06±2.22, 6.67±5.23 min and 1.41±0.84 in bisacodyl group, respectively. The significant difference was observed in both pyridostigmine and bisacodyl groups (P=0.005, P=0.002, P=0.002 and P=0.005, respectively). 60% and 32.3 of patients in pyridostigmine and bisacodyl groups recovered from self-digitations, respectively. In pyridostigmine and bisacodyl groups, 66.7% and 32.3 of them had improvement in the sense of incomplete defecation, respectively. Conclusion: Pyridostigmine and bisacodyl significantly improved the symptoms of chronic constipation similarly. PMID:26958328

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Daikenchuto for Constipation and Dose-Dependent Differences in Clinical Effects.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Tatsuya; Shinoda, Yasutaka; Kuroda, Ayaka; Yoshida, Aya; Mitsuoka, Machiko; Mori, Kouki; Kawachi, Yuki; Moriya, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kouji; Takeda, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Sugiyama, Tadashi

    2018-01-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT) is a Kampo medicine used for the treatment of constipation. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of DKT against constipation. Thirty-three patients administered DKT for constipation were selected and divided into low-dose (7.5 g DKT; n = 22) and high-dose (15 g DKT; n = 11) groups. We retrospectively evaluated weekly defaecation frequency, side effects, and clinical laboratory data. Median defaecation frequencies after DKT administration (5, 5.5, 5, and 8 for the first, second, third, and fourth weeks, resp.) were significantly higher than that before DKT administration (2) in all 33 cases ( P < 0.01). One case (3%) of watery stool, one case of loose stools (3%), and no cases of abdominal pain (0%) were observed. Median defaecation frequencies in the high-dose group (7 and 9) were significantly higher than those in the low-dose group (4 and 3) in the first ( P = 0.0133) and second ( P = 0.0101) weeks, respectively. There was no significant change in clinical laboratory values. We suggest that DKT increases defaecation frequency and is safe for treating constipation.

  8. Constipation in children: avoiding hospital admissions by the use of a specialist community nurse.

    PubMed

    Bartle, David; Finlay, Fiona; Atherton, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    To review paediatric admissions with a primary diagnosis of constipation to see whether some could have been managed in the community instead. A review of the medical notes of all patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of constipation to the children's ward of a district general hospital over a 12-month period. Of 41 admissions (19 girls and 22 boys, age range 6 weeks to 12 years), the average length of stay was less than two nights. The short duration of hospital stay implies rapid improvement. It is likely that many of these children could have been managed in the community if suitable resources, such as a community nurse specialising in constipation, were available.

  9. Use of the chloride channel activator lubiprostone for constipation in adults with cystic fibrosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine E; Anderson, Paula J; Stowe, Cindy D

    2010-03-01

    To describe the use of lubiprostone for constipation in 3 adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). This case series describes the use of lubiprostone for the treatment of constipation in 3 adults with CF (mean +/- SD length of therapy 17.3 +/- 1.5 mo). All 3 patients were prescribed lubiprostone 24 microg twice daily after hospitalization for treatment of intestinal obstruction. Patient 1 continues on chronic polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and lubiprostone and has not had a recurrence of obstruction. Patient 2 requires aggressive chronic therapy with PEG 3350, lubiprostone, and methylnaltrexone. She has had 1 recurrence of obstruction. Patient 3 continues with lubiprostone taken several times per week with good control of constipation and no recurrence of obstruction to date. The adverse effect profile has been tolerable in all 3 patients. CF is caused by a genetic mutation resulting in a dysfunctional or absent CF transmembrane conductance regulator that normally functions as a chloride channel. This results in viscous secretions in multiple organ systems including the lungs and intestinal tract. Accumulation of viscous intestinal contents contributes to constipation, which is common among adults with CF and can sometimes lead to intestinal obstruction. Lubiprostone is indicated for chronic constipation and works by activating type 2 chloride channels (ClC-2) in the intestinal tract. Because it utilizes an alternate chloride channel, lubiprostone may be especially effective for constipation in patients with CF. Lubiprostone provides an additional option for the treatment of constipation in adults with CF. Its use in the CF population deserves further study.

  10. Utility of high-resolution anorectal manometry and wireless motility capsule in the evaluation of patients with Parkinson's disease and chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Andrew; Gandhy, Rita; Barlow, Carrolee; Triadafilopoulos, George

    2016-01-01

    Background The aetiology of constipation in Parkinson's disease remains poorly understood. Defaecatory dyssynergia, anal sphincter spasticity and slow transit constipation may, individually or collectively, play a role. Aims In this retrospective cohort analysis of patients with Parkinson's disease and chronic constipation, we determined the utility of high-resolution anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion and wireless motility capsule testing in defining the underlying aetiology for constipation. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease and chronic constipation underwent clinical assessment, manometry with balloon expulsion and wireless motility capsule testing using standard protocols. Results We studied 66 patients fulfilling Rome IV criteria for functional constipation. Most patients (89%) had abnormal manometry, exhibiting various types of defaecatory dyssynergia (mostly types II and IV), abnormal balloon expulsion, diminished rectal sensation and, in some, lacking rectoanal inhibitory reflex. 62% exhibited colonic transit delay by wireless motility capsule study, while 57% had combined manometric and transit abnormalities, suggesting of overlap constipation. Symptoms of infrequent defaecation, straining and incomplete evacuation were not discriminatory. There was a relationship between constipation scores and colonic transit times (p=0.01); Parkinson's disease scores and duration were not correlated with either the manometric or transit findings. Faecal incontinence was seen in 26% of the patients. Conclusions Chronic constipation in patients with Parkinson's disease may reflect pelvic floor dyssynergia, slow transit constipation or both, and may be associated with faecal incontinence, suggesting both motor and autonomic dysfunction. Anorectal manometry and wireless motility capsule testing are useful in the assessment of these patients. PMID:27843572

  11. Using the Internet to teach parents and children about constipation and encopresis.

    PubMed

    Borowitz, S M; Ritterband, L

    2001-01-01

    Since 1995, we have maintained a tutorial about chronic childhood constipation and encopresis on our web site. The tutorial is directed at parents and older children and includes a feedback form comprised of six multiple-choice questions and a free-text comment field. Between 1 January 1998 and 30 April 2000, we received 1,142 completed feedback forms. The vast majority of respondents identified themselves as parents or guardians of a child with constipation or encopresis. All respondents felt the tutorial was clear and easy to understand. 98% of respondents felt the tutorial helped them understand why children develop constipation and/or encopresis and 91% of respondents felt the tutorial made them better able to take care of a child suffering from constipation and/or encopresis. More than 99% of respondents felt this type of tutorial was a good way to teach people about health problems. 74% of respondents sent us comments about the tutorial. Most often, the comments expressed thanks for having this information available in clear and understandable language, however a significant number of people inquired about a particular child's difficulties or asked a general question not clearly pertaining to a particular child. The results of this study indicate that many people are searching the Internet for information concerning childhood encopresis and that the World Wide Web can provide families with useful information about this common paediatric problem.

  12. Relationship Between Microbiota of the Colonic Mucosa vs Feces and Symptoms, Colonic Transit, and Methane Production in Female Patients With Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Gopanandan; Chen, Jun; Chen, Xianfeng; Chia, Nicholas; O'Connor, Helen M.; Wolf, Patricia G.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims In fecal samples from patients with chronic constipation, the microbiota differs from that of healthy subjects. However, the profiles of fecal microbiota only partially replicate those of the mucosal microbiota. It is not clear whether these differences are caused by variations in diet or colonic transit, or are associated with methane production (measured by breath tests). We compared the colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota in patients with chronic constipation and in healthy subjects to investigate the relationships between microbiota and other parameters. Methods Sigmoid colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota samples were collected from 25 healthy women (controls) and 25 women with chronic constipation and evaluated by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing (average of 49,186 reads/sample). We assessed associations between microbiota (overall composition and operational taxonomic units) and demographic variables, diet, constipation status, colonic transit, and methane production (measured in breath samples after oral lactulose intake). Results Fourteen patients with chronic constipation had slow colonic transit. The profile of the colonic mucosal microbiota differed between constipated patients and controls (P<.05). The overall composition of the colonic mucosal microbiota was associated with constipation, independent of colonic transit (P<.05) and discriminated between patients with constipation and controls with 94% accuracy. Genera from Bacteroidetes were more abundant in the colonic mucosal microbiota of patients with constipation. The profile of the fecal microbiota was associated with colonic transit before adjusting for constipation, age, body mass index, and diet; genera from Firmicutes (Faecalibacterium, Lactococcus, and Roseburia) correlated with faster colonic transit. Methane production was associated with the composition of the fecal microbiota, but not with constipation or colonic transit. Conclusions After adjusting for diet and

  13. Relationship Between Microbiota of the Colonic Mucosa vs Feces and Symptoms, Colonic Transit, and Methane Production in Female Patients With Chronic Constipation.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Gopanandan; Chen, Jun; Chen, Xianfeng; Chia, Nicholas; O'Connor, Helen M; Wolf, Patricia G; Gaskins, H Rex; Bharucha, Adil E

    2016-02-01

    In fecal samples from patients with chronic constipation, the microbiota differs from that of healthy subjects. However, the profiles of fecal microbiota only partially replicate those of the mucosal microbiota. It is not clear whether these differences are caused by variations in diet or colonic transit, or are associated with methane production (measured by breath tests). We compared the colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota in patients with chronic constipation and in healthy subjects to investigate the relationships between microbiota and other parameters. Sigmoid colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota samples were collected from 25 healthy women (controls) and 25 women with chronic constipation and evaluated by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing (average, 49,186 reads/sample). We assessed associations between microbiota (overall composition and operational taxonomic units) and demographic variables, diet, constipation status, colonic transit, and methane production (measured in breath samples after oral lactulose intake). Fourteen patients with chronic constipation had slow colonic transit. The profile of the colonic mucosal microbiota differed between constipated patients and controls (P < .05). The overall composition of the colonic mucosal microbiota was associated with constipation, independent of colonic transit (P < .05), and discriminated between patients with constipation and controls with 94% accuracy. Genera from Bacteroidetes were more abundant in the colonic mucosal microbiota of patients with constipation. The profile of the fecal microbiota was associated with colonic transit before adjusting for constipation, age, body mass index, and diet; genera from Firmicutes (Faecalibacterium, Lactococcus, and Roseburia) correlated with faster colonic transit. Methane production was associated with the composition of the fecal microbiota, but not with constipation or colonic transit. After adjusting for diet and colonic transit, the profile of the microbiota in

  14. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Polyphenols Ameliorate Functional Constipation Symptoms in Humans Beyond Equivalent Amount of Fiber.

    PubMed

    P Venancio, Vinicius; Kim, Hyemee; A Sirven, Maritza; D Tekwe, Carmen; Honvoh, Gilson; T Talcott, Stephen; U Mertens-Talcott, Susanne

    2018-05-07

    Chronic constipation is a common gastrointestinal condition associated with intestinal inflammation and considerably impaired quality of life, affecting about 20% of Americans. Dietary fiber and laxatives aid in its treatment but do not fully address all symptoms, such as intestinal inflammation. Mango (Mangifera indica L.), a fiber- and polyphenol-rich fruit may provide anti-inflammatory effects in constipation. The 4-week consumption of mango fruit (300 g) or the equivalent amount of fiber was investigated in otherwise healthy human volunteers with chronic constipation that were randomly assigned to either group. Blood and fecal samples and digestive wellness questionnaires were collected at the beginning and end of the study. Results show that mango consumption significantly improved constipation status (stool frequency, consistency, and shape) and increased gastrin levels and fecal concentrations of short chain fatty acid (valeric acid) while lowering endotoxin and interleukin 6 concentrations in plasma. In this pilot study, the consumption of mango improves symptoms and associated biomarkers of constipation beyond an equivalent amount of fiber. Larger follow-up studies would need to investigate biomarkers for intestinal inflammation in more detail. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Patterns of colonic transit in chronic idiopathic constipation

    SciTech Connect

    Krevsky, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-02-01

    Rectosigmoid motility, anal manometry, and radiopaque marker studies have suggested the presence of several patterns of altered colonic transit in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. Colonic transit scintigraphy was used to evaluate 23 constipated patients. After oral passage of a tube to the cecum, 50 microCi of /sup 111/In-diethylenetriaminepentaaceticacid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) were instilled, and abdominal images were obtained for 48 h with a gamma camera. The 95% confidence limit for the geometric center in normals at 24 h was used as a criterion to differentiate patients with colonic inertia from those with functional rectosigmoid obstruction. In patients with functional rectosigmoidmore » obstruction, colonic transit was essentially normal. In colonic inertia, transit was delayed in the cecum and ascending colon, hepatic flexure, and transverse colon. These two distinct patterns of colonic transit may have different pathogenetic and therapeutic implications.« less

  16. Gut microbial and short-chain fatty acid profiles in adults with chronic constipation before and after treatment with lubiprostone.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae-Wook; DiBaise, John K; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Crowell, Michael D; Rideout, Jai Ram; Caporaso, J Gregory; Rittmann, Bruce E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Identifying specific gut microorganisms associated with chronic constipation may be useful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether or not the gut microbial community of constipated subjects had specific microbial signatures and to assess the effects of lubiprostone treatment on the gut microbial community. Stool diaries, breath H2 and CH4 levels, and stool samples were collected from ten healthy subjects and nine patients meeting the Rome III criteria for chronic functional constipation. Constipated subjects received lubiprostone for four weeks, during which stool diaries were maintained. Stool samples were evaluated for gut microbial communities using pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting 16S-rRNA gene, along with concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Prior to treatment, gut microbial profiles were similar between constipated subjects and healthy subjects, while iso-butyrate levels were significantly higher in constipated subjects compared with healthy subjects. Despite increases in stool frequency and improvements in consistency after lubiprostone treatment, gut microbial profiles and community diversity after treatment showed no significant change compared to before treatment. While we did not observe a significant difference in either breath methane or archaeal abundance between the stool samples of healthy and constipated subjects, we confirmed a strong correlation between archaeal abundance measured by qPCR and the amount of methane gas exhaled in the fasting breath. Butyrate levels, however, were significantly higher in the stool samples of constipated subjects after lubiprostone treatment, suggesting that lubiprostone treatment had an effect on the net accumulation of SCFAs in the gut. In conclusion, lubiprostone treatment improved constipation symptoms and increased levels of butyrate without substantial modification of

  17. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol 4000 on constipation of posttraumatic bedridden patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-yang; Yao, Yuan-zhang; Wang, Tao; Fei, Jun; Shen, Yue; Chen, Yong-hua; Zong, Zhao-wen

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol 4000 on adult patients with functional constipation due to posttraumatic confinement to bed. A total of 201 posttraumatic bedridden patients were studied in this prospective, open-labeled, single-group study. Polyethylene glycol 4000 was administered orally for 14 days and the dosage was adjusted according to the Bristol stool types. Demographic characteristics, disease status, treatment period and factors affecting clinical outcome, especially the concomitant medications, were recorded. After administration of polyethylene glycol 4000, 194 cases (96.52%) showed remission of constipation, including 153 (76.12%) persistent remission. The average defecation frequency increased significantly after treatment and the percentage of patients with stools of normal types (Bristol types 3-5) increased as well. Genders, ages and concomitant medications showed no significant influence on the persistent remission rate. After consecutive treatment for two weeks, patients with slight movement showed a significantly higher remission rate than those without movement (95% vs 80%). At the end of treatment, most accompanying symptoms were relieved obviously. Patients with a medical history of constipation or ever taking laxatives showed a lower remission rate. Sixty cases (29.85%) developed diarrhea during the observational period, among whom 6 (10%) withdrew from the clinical observation voluntarily at the first onset of diarrhea. Two cases suffered from abdominal pain. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has efficacy on functional constipation in posttraumatic bedridden patients. Furthermore, patients with milder symptoms, more movement in bed, and longer duration of treatment but without accompanying symptoms can achieve a higher remission rate.

  18. Validation of the Danish version of the constipation risk assessment scale (CRAS).

    PubMed

    Trads, Mette; Håkonson, Sasja J; Pedersen, Preben U

    2017-11-01

    The Constipation Assessment Scale (CRAS) was developed in order to enable the prediction of the risk of developing constipation. The scale needs validation in acute and elective patients with common disorders. Two hundred and six acute patients with hip fracture and 200 elective patients with total knee or hip replacement were included. They were assessed with CRAS before surgery and their defecation pattern, stool consistency and degree of straining were measured at admission and 30 days after surgery. The prevalence of constipation was 0.49 for the acute patients and 0.34 for the elective patients. Sensitivity was 0.67 and 0.57. Specificity was 0.54 and 0.52. Positive predictive value was 0.59 and 0.38, whereas the negative predictive value was 0.63 and 0.7. When used in an orthopaedic ward, the prognostic accuracy of CRAS is poor and it cannot be recommended as a screening tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine use for constipation: a critical review focusing upon prevalence, type, cost, and users' profile, perception and motivations.

    PubMed

    Peng, W; Liang, H; Sibbritt, D; Adams, J

    2016-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly used by those suffering from constipation. This paper reports the first critical integrative review of CAM use for people with constipation focusing upon the prevalence, type and cost of CAM use, as well as CAM users' profile, perception and motivations. A comprehensive search of international literature was conducted in MEDLINE, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED). The search was limited to original research peer-reviewed English language articles concerning CAM use for constipation published with an abstract and full text between 2005 and 2015. A total of 35 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The review shows approximately one in every three people suffering from constipation use CAM with herbal medicine the most commonly used CAM treatment for constipation and a large proportion of CAM use occurring concurrent with or in addition to conventional medical treatments. While early investigation suggests the cost of herbal medicine use in constipation care may be lower than that associated with the use other CAM modalities and conventional medications, this issue requires further research. Although a high percentage of people with constipation using CAM consider these treatments effective, there remains a need for further in-depth examination of both patient and provider perspectives as well as communication and decision-making around CAM use for constipation to inform safe, effective and coordinated care for patients with constipation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. How active resisters and organizational constipators affect health care-acquired infection prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Saint, Sanjay; Kowalski, Christine P; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Forman, Jane; Damschroder, Laura; Krein, Sarah L

    2009-05-01

    As of October 2008, hospitals in the United States no longer receive Medicare reimbursement for certain types of health care-associated infection (HAI), thereby heightening the need for effective prevention efforts. The mere existence of evidence-based practices, however, does not always result in the use of such practices because of the complexities inherent in translating evidence into practice. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the barriers to implementing evidence-based practices to prevent HAI, with a specific focus on the role played by hospital personnel. In-depth phone and in-person interviews were conducted between October 2006 and September 2007 with 86 participants (31 physicians) including chief executive officers, chiefs of staff, hospital epidemiologists, infection control professionals, intensive care unit directors, nurse managers, and frontline physicians and nurses, in 14 hospitals. Active resistance to evidence-based practice change was pervasive. Successful efforts to overcome active resisters included benchmarking infection rates, identifying effective champions, and participating in collaborative efforts. Organizational constipators-mid- to high-level executives who act as insidious barriers to change-also increased the difficulty in implementing change. Recognizing the presence of constipators is often the first step in addressing the problem but can be followed with including the organizational constipator early in group discussions to improve communication and obtain buy-in, working around the individual, and terminating the constipator's employment. Two types of personnel-active resistors and organizational constipators-impeded HAI prevention activities, and several approaches were used to overcome those barriers. Hospital administrators and patient safety leaders can use the findings to more successfully structure activities that prevent HAI in their hospitals.

  1. Differentiation of functional constipation and constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome based on Rome III criteria: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Koloski, N A; Jones, M; Young, M; Talley, N J

    2015-05-01

    While the Rome III classification recognises functional constipation (FC) and constipation predominant IBS (IBS-C) as distinct disorders, recent evidence has suggested that these disorders are difficult to separate in clinical practice. To identify whether clinical and lifestyle factors differentiate Rome III-defined IBS-C from FC based on gastrointestinal symptoms and lifestyle characteristics. 3260 people randomly selected from the Australian population returned a postal survey. FC and IBS-C were defined according to Rome III. The first model used logistic regression to differentiate IBS-C from FC based on lifestyle, quality-of-life and psychological characteristics. The second approach was data-driven employing latent class analysis (LCA) to identify naturally occurring clusters in the data considering all symptoms involved in the Rome III criteria for IBS-C and FC. We found n = 206 (6.5%; 95% CI 5.7-7.4%) people met strict Rome III FC whereas n = 109 (3.5%; 95% CI 2.8-4.1%) met strict Rome III IBS-C. The case-control approach indicated that FC patients reported an older age at onset of constipation, were less likely to exercise, had higher mental QoL and less health care seeking than IBS-C. LCA yielded one latent class that was predominantly (75%) FC, while the other class was approximately half IBS-C and half FC. The FC-dominated latent class had clearly lower levels of symptoms used to classify IBS (pain-related symptoms) and was more likely to be male (P = 0.046) but was otherwise similar in distribution of lifestyle factors to the mixed class. The latent class analysis approach suggests a differentiation based more on symptom severity rather than the Rome III view. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The effects of conservative treatment for constipation on symptom severity and quality of life in community-dwelling adults.

    PubMed

    Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; Hornby, Linda; Millar, Lynne; Ockerby, Cherene

    2010-01-01

    Constipation is a common symptom in the general community that incurs considerable cost and negative effects on quality of life. This article reports the effects of an individualized, multimodal, conservative intervention on symptom severity and quality of life in community-dwelling adults who presented with constipation and specific lower urinary tract symptoms to a community-based continence service. The study was a within-subject, pretest-posttest design that utilized purposeful recruitment. The sample was drawn from a clinical population of patients attending a community-based continence service. Twenty-seven community-dwelling adults aged 35 to 83 years (mean age 63.85 years) who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and constipation received individualized conservative treatment of constipation that comprised advice on dietary supplementation, fluid intake, exercise, position to defecate, the gastrocolic reflex, and over-the-counter laxatives. Participants completed the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptom Questionnaire (PAC-SYM) and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAC-QOL) prior to the intervention and 8 to 12 weeks later. Wilcoxon signed ranks test results indicated that the intervention significantly reduced the severity of overall constipation symptoms measured by the PAC-SYM (T = 75.5, P < .01). In particular, there were significant improvements in abdominal and stool symptoms subscales. Participants also reported statistically significant improvements in their overall quality of life as measured by the PAC-QOL (T = 48.5, P < .01). There were significant improvements in relation to psychosocial discomfort, worries and concerns, and satisfaction as measured by the PAC-QOL. While no participants felt in control of their situation "all of the time" prior to treatment, 26.9% of participants reported feeling in control of their situation "all of the time" following treatment. The severity of constipation

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Daikenchuto for Constipation and Dose-Dependent Differences in Clinical Effects

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Yasutaka; Kuroda, Ayaka; Yoshida, Aya; Mitsuoka, Machiko; Mori, Kouki; Kawachi, Yuki; Moriya, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kouji; Takeda, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Sugiyama, Tadashi

    2018-01-01

    Background Daikenchuto (DKT) is a Kampo medicine used for the treatment of constipation. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of DKT against constipation. Patients and Methods Thirty-three patients administered DKT for constipation were selected and divided into low-dose (7.5 g DKT; n = 22) and high-dose (15 g DKT; n = 11) groups. We retrospectively evaluated weekly defaecation frequency, side effects, and clinical laboratory data. Results Median defaecation frequencies after DKT administration (5, 5.5, 5, and 8 for the first, second, third, and fourth weeks, resp.) were significantly higher than that before DKT administration (2) in all 33 cases (P < 0.01). One case (3%) of watery stool, one case of loose stools (3%), and no cases of abdominal pain (0%) were observed. Median defaecation frequencies in the high-dose group (7 and 9) were significantly higher than those in the low-dose group (4 and 3) in the first (P = 0.0133) and second (P = 0.0101) weeks, respectively. There was no significant change in clinical laboratory values. Conclusion We suggest that DKT increases defaecation frequency and is safe for treating constipation. PMID:29693001

  4. Can balneotherapy improve the bowel motility in chronically constipated middle-aged and elderly patients?

    PubMed

    Dandinoglu, Taner; Dandin, Ozgur; Ergin, Tuncer; Tihan, Deniz; Akpak, Yasam Kemal; Aydın, Oguz Ugur; Teomete, Uygar

    2017-06-01

    Balneotherapy or spa therapy is usually known for different application forms of medicinal waters and its effects on the human body. Our purpose is to demonstrate the effect of balneotherapy on gastrointestinal motility. A total of 35 patients who were treated for osteoarthritis with balneotherapy from November 2013 through March 2015 at our hospital had a consultation at the general surgery for constipation and defecation disorders. Patients followed by constipation scores, short-form health survey (SF-12), and a colonic transit time (CTT) study before and after balneotherapy were included in this study, and the data of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. The constipation score, SF-12 score, and CTT were found statistically significant after balneotherapy (p < 0.05). The results of our study confirm the clinical finding that a 15-day course of balneotherapy with mineral water from a thermal spring (Bursa, Turkey) improves gastrointestinal motility and reduces laxative consumption in the management of constipation in middle-aged and elderly patients, and it is our belief that treatment with thermal mineral water could considerably improve the quality of life of these patients.

  5. Comparing Healthcare Utilization and Costs Among Medicaid-Insured Patients with Chronic Noncancer Pain with and without Opioid-Induced Constipation: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Olufade, Tope; Kong, Amanda M; Princic, Nicole; Juneau, Paul; Kulkarni, Rucha; Zhang, Kui; Datto, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is a common adverse effect of opioid use and has been associated with increased healthcare utilization and costs among patients receiving opioids for pain management. To compare the healthcare utilization and costs of Medicaid patients with chronic noncancer pain with and without constipation who were receiving opioids. This retrospective, claims-based study was conducted using data from the Truven Health MarketScan Medicaid Multi-State database. Patients with no evidence of cancer who initiated opioid therapy between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2013, were eligible for the study. Patients had to have continuous enrollment in the database in the 6 months before and 12 months after opioid initiation, with no evidence of substance abuse or functional or inflammatory bowel disease. Medical and pharmacy claims during the 12 months after opioid initiation were evaluated for a diagnosis of constipation or for prescription or over-the-counter medications indicative of constipation. All-cause healthcare utilization and costs were measured over the same period and were compared between propensity score-matched cohorts of patients with evidence of constipation and patients without constipation. Of the 25,744 patients meeting the study inclusion criteria, 2716 (10.5%) had evidence of constipation. After 1:1 propensity score matching, the 2 cohorts had similar demographic and clinical characteristics (ie, mean age, 47 years; 26%-27% male). During the 12-month follow-up period, healthcare utilization was more frequent among patients with constipation, including inpatient admissions and emergency department visits, than in the matched patients without constipation. The total all-cause mean healthcare costs were substantially higher among the patients with constipation ($28,234; 95% confidence interval [CI], $24,307-$32,160) than in the patients without constipation ($13,709; 95% CI, $12,618-$14,801), with a median cost difference of $4166 per patient ( P <.001

  6. Comparing Healthcare Utilization and Costs Among Medicaid-Insured Patients with Chronic Noncancer Pain with and without Opioid-Induced Constipation: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Olufade, Tope; Kong, Amanda M.; Princic, Nicole; Juneau, Paul; Kulkarni, Rucha; Zhang, Kui; Datto, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common adverse effect of opioid use and has been associated with increased healthcare utilization and costs among patients receiving opioids for pain management. Objective To compare the healthcare utilization and costs of Medicaid patients with chronic noncancer pain with and without constipation who were receiving opioids. Methods This retrospective, claims-based study was conducted using data from the Truven Health MarketScan Medicaid Multi-State database. Patients with no evidence of cancer who initiated opioid therapy between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2013, were eligible for the study. Patients had to have continuous enrollment in the database in the 6 months before and 12 months after opioid initiation, with no evidence of substance abuse or functional or inflammatory bowel disease. Medical and pharmacy claims during the 12 months after opioid initiation were evaluated for a diagnosis of constipation or for prescription or over-the-counter medications indicative of constipation. All-cause healthcare utilization and costs were measured over the same period and were compared between propensity score–matched cohorts of patients with evidence of constipation and patients without constipation. Results Of the 25,744 patients meeting the study inclusion criteria, 2716 (10.5%) had evidence of constipation. After 1:1 propensity score matching, the 2 cohorts had similar demographic and clinical characteristics (ie, mean age, 47 years; 26%–27% male). During the 12-month follow-up period, healthcare utilization was more frequent among patients with constipation, including inpatient admissions and emergency department visits, than in the matched patients without constipation. The total all-cause mean healthcare costs were substantially higher among the patients with constipation ($28,234; 95% confidence interval [CI], $24,307–$32,160) than in the patients without constipation ($13,709; 95% CI, $12,618–$14,801), with a median cost

  7. Constipation is more frequent than diarrhea in patients fed exclusively by enteral nutrition: results of an observational study.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Amanda F; Martins, Juliana R; Logullo, Luciana; Shiroma, Glaucia; Horie, Lilian; Ortolani, Maria Claudia; Silva, Maria de Lourdes T; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2012-08-01

    Digestive complications in enteral nutrition (EN) can negatively affect the nutrition clinical outcome of hospitalized patients. Diarrhea and constipation are intestinal motility disorders associated with pharmacotherapy, hydration, nutrition status, and age. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of these intestinal motility disorders in patients receiving EN and assess risk factors associated with diarrhea and constipation in hospitalized patients receiving exclusive EN therapy in a general hospital. The authors performed a sequential and observational study of 110 hospitalized adult patients fed exclusively by EN through a feeding tube. Patients were categorized according to the type of intestinal transit disorder as follows: group D (diarrhea, 3 or more watery evacuations in 24 hours), group C (constipation, less than 1 evacuation during 3 days), and group N (absence of diarrhea or constipation). All prescription drugs were recorded, and patients were analyzed according to the type and amount of medication received. The authors also investigated the presence of fiber in the enteral formula. Patients classified in group C represented 70% of the study population; group D comprised 13%, and group N represented 17%. There was an association between group C and orotracheal intubation as the indication for EN (P < .001). Enteral formula without fiber was associated with constipation (logistic regression analysis: P < .001). Constipation is more frequent than diarrhea in patients fed exclusively by EN. Enteral diet with fiber may protect against medication-associated intestinal motility disorders. The addition of prokinetic drugs seems to be useful in preventing constipation.

  8. Clinical efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 versus liquid paraffin in the treatment of pediatric functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Rafati, Mr; Karami, H; Salehifar, E; Karimzadeh, A

    2011-01-01

    Functional constipation is prevalent in children. Recently polyethylene glycol has been introduced as an effective and safe drug to treat chronic constipation. There are only a few clinical trials on comparison of PEG and liquid paraffin in childhood constipation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety of PEG 3350 solution and liquid paraffin in the treatment of children with functional constipation in Sari Toba clinic during the period of 2008-2009. Children with a history of functional constipation were subjects of this study. One hundred and sixty children of 2-12 years old with functional constipation were randomized in two PEG and paraffin treatment groups. Patients received either 1.0-1.5 g/kg/day PEG 3350 or 1.0-1.5 ml/kg/day liquid paraffin for 4 months. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by stool and encopresis frequency/week and overall treatment success rate was compared in two groups. Compared with the baseline, defecation frequency/ week increased significantly and encopresis frequency meaningfully decreased in two groups during the period of the study. Patients using PEG 3350 had more success rate (mean: 95.3%±3.7) compared with the patients in paraffin group (mean: 87.2%±7.1) (p=0.087). Administration of PEG 3350 were associated with less adverse events than liquid paraffin. In conclusion in treatment of pediatric functional constipation, regarding clinical efficacy and safety, PEG 3350 were at least as effective as liquid paraffin and but less adverse drug events.

  9. Constipation Prophylaxis Is Rare for Adults Prescribed Outpatient Opioid Therapy From U.S. Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Hunold, Katherine M; Smith, Samantha A; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2015-09-01

    Constipation is a common and potentially serious side effect of oral opioids. Accordingly, most clinical guidelines suggest routine use of laxatives to prevent opioid-induced constipation. The objective was to characterize emergency provider prescribing of laxatives to prevent constipation among adults initiating outpatient opioid treatment. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data from 2010 were analyzed. Among visits by individuals aged 18 years and older discharged from the emergency department (ED) with opioid prescriptions, the authors estimated the survey-weighted proportion of visits in which laxatives were also prescribed. A subgroup analysis was conducted for individuals aged 65 years and older, as the potential risks associated with opioid-induced constipation are greater among older individuals. To examine a group expected to be prescribed laxative medication and confirm that NHAMCS captures prescriptions for these medications, the authors estimated the proportion of visits by individuals discharged with prescriptions for laxatives among those who presented with constipation. Among visits in 2010 by adults aged 18 years and older discharged from the ED with opioid prescriptions, 0.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7% to 1.3%, estimated total n = 191,203 out of 21,075,050) received prescriptions for laxatives. Among the subset of visits by adults aged 65 years and older, 1.0% (95% CI = 0.5% to 2.0%, estimated total n = 18,681 out of 1,904,411) received prescriptions for laxatives. In comparison, among visits by individuals aged 18 years and older with constipation as a reason for visit, 42% received prescriptions for laxatives. In this nationally representative sample, laxatives were not routinely prescribed to adults discharged from the ED with prescriptions for opioid pain medications. Routine prescribing of laxatives for ED visits may improve the safety and effectiveness of outpatient opioid pain management. © 2015 by the

  10. [Clinical benefits after soluble dietary fiber supplementation: a randomized clinical trial in adults with slow-transit constipation].

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Yu, Wenkui; Jiang, Jun; Li, Ning

    2014-12-30

    To explore the effect of pectin, a kind of soluble dietary fiber, on colonic transit time (CTT), clinical symptoms and gut microbiota in adults with slow-transit constipation. A total of 80 patients with slow-transit constipation were selected between June 2011 and December 2013. For this randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of pectin on intestinal transit time and other indices of constipation in adults with slow-transit constipation. They were randomized to receive either pectin or placebo. Treatment consisted of 4-week supplementation with 24 g/d pectin (fiber group) or maltodextrin (placebo group). Before and after 4-week treatment, CTT, constipation symptoms and fecal bacterial population were compared between groups. CTT of the fiber group after treatment was lower than those of fiber group before treatment and those in the placebo group ((60.2 ± 11.2) h vs (80.3 ± 9.5), (79.4 ± 11.7) h, P < 0.01). Constipation score of the fiber group after treatment also decreased than those of fiber group before treatment and those in the placebo group (both P < 0.05). Bifidobacterium sp. and Lactobacillus sp. evidently increased (lg copies/g:8.26 ± 0.83 vs 6.42 ± 1.07 and 6.48 ± 0.82, 6.83 ± 0.77 vs 5.85 ± 0.64 and 5.91 ± 0.73; all P < 0.05) and total Clostridium sp. significantly decreased (9.07 ± 0.63 vs 9.74 ± 0.81 and 9.66 ± 0.43, P < 0.05) in the fiber group after treatment versus the placebo group. No significant adverse effects were reported. Four-week soluble dietary fiber use accelerates colon transit time and alleviates clinical symptoms in patients with slow-transit constipation. Additionally, supplementary fiber offers protective effects on gut microbiota by increasing the population of healthy microflora.

  11. Effect of dual-type oligosaccharides on constipation in loperamide-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Ki Bae; Kim, Eun Young; Ahn, So Hyun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Constipation is a condition that can result from intestinal deformation. Because humans have an upright posture, the effects of gravity can cause this shape deformation. Oligosaccharides are common prebiotics and their effects on bowel health are well known. However, studies of the physiological functionality of a product that contains both lactulose and galactooligosaccharides are insufficient. We investigated the constipation reduction effect of a dual-type oligosaccharide, Dual-Oligo, in loperamide-treated rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Dual-Oligo consists of galactooligosaccharides (15.80%) and lactulose (51.67%). Animals were randomly divided into four groups, the normal group (normal), control group (control), low concentration of Dual-Oligo (LDO) group, and high concentration of Dual-Oligo (HDO) group. After 7 days of oral administration, fecal pellet amount, fecal weight, water content of fecal were measured. Blood chemistry, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), gastrointestinal transit ratio and length and intestinal mucosa were analyzed. RESULTS Dual-Oligo increased the fecal weight, and water content of feces in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Gastrointestinal transit ratio and length and area of intestinal mucosa significantly increased after treatment with Dual-Oligo in loperamide-induced rats. A high concentration of Dual-Oligo tended to produce more acetic acid than that observed for the control group, and Dual-Oligo affected the production of total SCFA. Bifidobacteria concentration of cecal contents in the high-concentration oligosaccharide (HDO) and low-concentration oligosaccharide (LDO) groups was similar to the result of the normal group. CONCLUSIONS These results showed that Dual-Oligo is a functional material that is derived from a natural food product and is effective in ameliorating constipation. PMID:27909555

  12. Improvement Effect of Dewaxed Brown Rice on Constipation in Antibiotic-treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    INAGAWA, HIROYUKI; SAIKA, TOSHIYUKI; NISHIYAMA, NAOKI; NISIZAWA, TAKASHI; KOHCHI, CHIE; UENOBE, MAYA; SOMA, GEN-ICHIRO

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: A decrease in gastrointestinal motility causing weakened lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling along with a decline in the number of enteric bacteria is known to be a cause of constipation due to the administration of antibiotics. A new type of brown rice with its wax layer removed, resulting in quick-cooking and tasty product, contains 100-times more LPS than polished white rice. In this study, the improvement effect on constipation due to intake of dewaxed brown rice was examined. Materials and Methods: Dewaxed brown rice was prepared at Toyo Rice from brown rice. Mice were given powdered feed to which powdered rice containing 0-50% of dewaxed brown rice was added. Antibiotics were administered for 10 or 27 days in drinking water containing vancomycin, metronidazole and neomycin. LPS, used as a control, was freely provided in drinking water. The defecation frequency, stool weight per hour and body weight were determined on the last day. Results: Although the 10-day administration of antibiotics reduced the stool weight per hour to half, the dewaxed brown rice and LPS groups showed a trend towards improvement at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. The body weight significantly decreased after the 27-day administration of antibiotics but was improved in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. Though the defecation frequency and wet and dry stool weights per hour were reduced by as much as 50% in the group receiving antibiotics, a significant improvement in constipation was observed in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group. Conclusion: As the improvement effect of dewaxed brown rice on body weight loss and constipation caused by the long-term administration of antibiotics has been confirmed in animal experimentation, the introduction of dewaxed brown rice as a staple food to patients under long-term antibiotic treatment may improve constipation. PMID

  13. Improvement Effect of Dewaxed Brown Rice on Constipation in Antibiotic-treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Saika, Toshiyuki; Nishiyama, Naoki; Nisizawa, Takashi; Kohchi, Chie; Uenobe, Maya; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    A decrease in gastrointestinal motility causing weakened lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling along with a decline in the number of enteric bacteria is known to be a cause of constipation due to the administration of antibiotics. A new type of brown rice with its wax layer removed, resulting in quick-cooking and tasty product, contains 100-times more LPS than polished white rice. In this study, the improvement effect on constipation due to intake of dewaxed brown rice was examined. Dewaxed brown rice was prepared at Toyo Rice from brown rice. Mice were given powdered feed to which powdered rice containing 0-50% of dewaxed brown rice was added. Antibiotics were administered for 10 or 27 days in drinking water containing vancomycin, metronidazole and neomycin. LPS, used as a control, was freely provided in drinking water. The defecation frequency, stool weight per hour and body weight were determined on the last day. Although the 10-day administration of antibiotics reduced the stool weight per hour to half, the dewaxed brown rice and LPS groups showed a trend towards improvement at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. The body weight significantly decreased after the 27-day administration of antibiotics but was improved in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. Though the defecation frequency and wet and dry stool weights per hour were reduced by as much as 50% in the group receiving antibiotics, a significant improvement in constipation was observed in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group. As the improvement effect of dewaxed brown rice on body weight loss and constipation caused by the long-term administration of antibiotics has been confirmed in animal experimentation, the introduction of dewaxed brown rice as a staple food to patients under long-term antibiotic treatment may improve constipation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr

  14. Colectomy for constipation: time trends and impact based on the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1998-2011.

    PubMed

    Dudekula, A; Huftless, S; Bielefeldt, K

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines include subtotal colectomy as treatment for refractory slow transit constipation. To use the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) (1998-2011) and longitudinal data from the State Inpatient Database (2005-2011), comparable to NIS, to examine colectomy rates, in-hospital morbidity and emergency department (ED) visits or readmissions among patients treated for constipation. Colectomies for any reason were identified based on the primary procedural code (ICD-9-CM 45.8x). Index hospitalisations were defined by the primary diagnosis of constipation (ICD-9-CM 564.x) associated with the primary procedural code for colectomy (ICD-9-CM45.8x) after exclusion of other diseases associated with colectomy. Demographic variables, comorbidities, complications and adverse events during the hospitalisation were captured, and ED visits and admissions were recorded for periods before and after colectomy. Nationally, colectomies for constipation rose from 104 procedures in 1998 (1.2% of annual colectomies) to 311 in 2011 (2.4% of annual colectomies). While there were no perioperative deaths, perioperative complications occurred in 42.7% of patients during the index hospitalisation. Longitudinal data were analysed for 181 patients, with similar perioperative complications and a readmission rate of 28.9% within the first 30 days after the index hospitalisation. Resource utilisation was tracked for a median time of 630 (0-2386) before and 463 (0-2204) days after colectomy with unchanged ED visits (median: 2 vs. 2, P = 0.21), but increased hospitalisations (median: 1 vs. 2, P = 0.003). Colectomy rates for constipation are rising, are associated with significant morbidity and do not decrease resource utilisation, raising questions about the true benefit of surgery for slow transit constipation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Inpatient burden of constipation in the United States: an analysis of national trends in the United States from 1997 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Saurabh; Mikami, Sage; Leclair, John; Park, Richard; Jones, Mike; Wadhwa, Vaibhav; Sethi, Nidhi; Cheng, Vivian; Friedlander, Elizabeth; Bollom, Andrea; Lembo, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    Constipation is one of the most common outpatient diagnoses in primary care and gastroenterology clinics; however, there is limited data on the inpatient burden of constipation in the United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate inpatient admission rates, length of stay, and associated costs related to constipation from 1997 to 2010. We analyzed the National Inpatient Sample Database for all patients in which constipation (ICD-9 codes: 564.0-564.09) was the principal discharge diagnosis from 1997 to 2010. The statistical significance of the difference in the number of hospital discharges, length of stay, and hospital costs over the study period was determined by utilizing the Spearman's coefficient to describe various trends. Between 1997 and 2010, the number of hospitalizations for patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of constipation increased from 21,190 patients to 48,450 (P<0.001, GoF test), whereas the mean length of hospital stay increased only slightly from 3.0 days to 3.1 days (b=0.008 (0.003-0.014); P=0.004). The mean charges per hospital discharge for constipation increased from $8869 in 1997 (adjusted for long-term inflation) to $17,518 in 2010 (b=745.4 (685.3-805.6); P<0.001)), whereas the total costs increased from $188,109,249 (adjusted for inflation) in 1997 to $851,713,263 in 2010. Although the elderly (65-84 years) accounted for the largest percentage of constipation discharges, patients in the 1-17 years age group had the highest frequency of constipation per 10,000 discharges. The number of inpatient discharges for constipation and associated costs has significantly increased between 1997 and 2010.

  16. Clinical efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 versus liquid paraffin in the treatment of pediatric functional constipation

    PubMed Central

    Rafati, MR.; Karami, H.; Salehifar, E.; Karimzadeh, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Functional constipation is prevalent in children. Recently polyethylene glycol has been introduced as an effective and safe drug to treat chronic constipation. There are only a few clinical trials on comparison of PEG and liquid paraffin in childhood constipation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety of PEG 3350 solution and liquid paraffin in the treatment of children with functional constipation in Sari Toba clinic during the period of 2008–2009. Methods Children with a history of functional constipation were subjects of this study. One hundred and sixty children of 2–12 years old with functional constipation were randomized in two PEG and paraffin treatment groups. Patients received either 1.0–1.5 g/kg/day PEG 3350 or 1.0–1.5 ml/kg/day liquid paraffin for 4 months. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by stool and encopresis frequency/week and overall treatment success rate was compared in two groups. Results and major conclusion Compared with the baseline, defecation frequency/ week increased significantly and encopresis frequency meaningfully decreased in two groups during the period of the study. Patients using PEG 3350 had more success rate (mean: 95.3%±3.7) compared with the patients in paraffin group (mean: 87.2%±7.1) (p=0.087). Administration of PEG 3350 were associated with less adverse events than liquid paraffin. In conclusion in treatment of pediatric functional constipation, regarding clinical efficacy and safety, PEG 3350 were at least as effective as liquid paraffin and but less adverse drug events. PMID:22615652

  17. Long-term efficacy of polyethylene glycol 3350 for the treatment of chronic constipation in children with and without encopresis.

    PubMed

    Pashankar, Dinesh S; Bishop, Warren P; Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Seventy-four children (43 with chronic constipation, 31 with constipation and encopresis) treated with polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG) for longer than 3 months were studied to assess long-term efficacy. The mean duration of PEG therapy was 8.4 months (range, 3-30). Weekly stool frequency, stool consistency, and symptoms associated with constipation improved significantly with PEG therapy in all 74 patients. In 31 children with encopresis, soiling ceased completely in 16 patients and frequency of soiling decreased significantly in all others. The average effective long-term dose of PEG was 0.7 g/kg/day. Long-term PEG therapy is effective for the treatment of chronic constipation with and without encopresis in children.

  18. Cross cultural comparison of constipation profiles at tertiary care centers between India and USA.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Surana, R; Soni, S; Agnihotri, A; Ahuja, V; Makharia, G K; Staller, K; Kuo, B

    2018-03-09

    Despite potential differences in patient perception of chronic constipation (CC) in geographically and culturally distinct regions, head-to-head studies comparing the clinical profile, constipation severity, impact on quality of life (QOL) and economic impact are lacking. We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study of patients presenting with CC to tertiary care centers in the USA and India. Standardized instruments were used to assess constipation subtype, disease severity, disease-specific QOL, somatization, and psychiatric comorbidities. We used multivariable linear regression to determine the predictors of QOL and number of healthcare visits. Sixty-six and 98 patients with CC were enrolled in the USA and India, respectively. Indian patients with CC had significantly more frequent bowel movements/week compared to their USA counterparts (Median 5 vs 3, P < .0001). The proportion of patients with Bristol stool form scale type 1 and 2 was significantly higher in the USA compared to India (65.5% vs 48%, P = .04). Higher depression score (P = .001), more severe constipation symptoms (P = .001) and site of the study being USA (P = .008) independently predicted worse QOL. Indian patients (P < .001) and worse QOL (P = .02) were independent predictors of number of healthcare visits in the last 12 months. Indian patients with CC have more frequent and softer bowel movements compared to those in the USA suggesting significant differences in perception of CC in different geographic and cultural settings. QOL and economic impact related to constipation varies with geographic/cultural setting irrespective of other clinical and psychosomatic features. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Use of Sacral Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Overlapping Constipation and Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Sreepati, Gouri; James-Stevenson, Toyia

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 51 Final Diagnosis: Fecal incontinence Symptoms: Constipation • fecal incontinence Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Sacral nerve stimulator Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Fecal incontinence and constipation are common gastrointestinal complaints, but rarely occur concurrently. Management of these seemingly paradoxical processes is challenging, as treatment of one symptom may exacerbate the other. Case Report: A 51-year-old female with lifelong neurogenic bladder secondary to spina bifida occulta presented with progressive symptoms of daily urge fecal incontinence as well as hard bowel movements associated with straining and a sensation of incomplete evacuation requiring manual disimpaction. Pelvic floor testing showed poor ability to squeeze the anal sphincter, which indicated sphincter weakness as a major contributor to her fecal incontinence symptoms. Additionally, on defecography she was unable to widen her posterior anorectal angle or relax the anal sphincter during defecation consistent with dyssynergic defecation. A sacral nerve stimulator was placed for management of her fecal incontinence. Interestingly, her constipation also dramatically improved with sacral neuromodulation. Conclusions: This unique case highlights the emerging role of sacral nerve stimulation in the treatment of complex pelvic floor dysfunction with improvement in symptoms beyond fecal incontinence in a patient with dyssynergic-type constipation. PMID:28265107

  20. Fecal overflow often affects children with chronic constipation that appears after the age of 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kammacher Guerreiro, Mélissa; Bettinville, Aurore; Herzog, Denise

    2014-08-01

    Chronic functional constipation with or without encopresis is a common problem in the pediatric population, and the prevalence of encopresis may be underestimated. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for overflow incontinence in patients with chronic constipation seen at a pediatric gastroenterology consultation. A retrospective study of 270 files of patients seen between 1997 and 2012 was conducted, and a classification according to Rome III criteria was done. Among 145 (53.7%) boys and 125 (46.2%) girls, 117 had overflow incontinence (43.3%) - 41 (35%) girls and 76 (65%) boys. The first symptoms of chronic constipation appeared at a median age of 30 and 33 months in encopretic and 16 and 12 months in nonencopretic girls and boys, respectively. The first specialized consultation took place after a median disease duration of 26.5 and 24 months in encopretic and 16 and 9 months in nonencopretic girls and boys, respectively. A history of stool retention and the presence of scybala at examination, but not of pain at defecation or anal fissure, were associated with encopresis. The onset of chronic constipation after the age of 2 years, a longer disease duration, male gender, and a history of stool retention were seen as risk factors for the development of encopresis in patients with chronic functional constipation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Surgical interventions in patients with chronic constipation refractory to intensive medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Samet; Yalcin, Bulent; Gecim, Ethem I

    2009-01-01

    Management of patients with chronic constipation (CC), irresponsive to medical treatment, is very difficult. There are some surgical approaches reported for the treatment. In this study we aimed to assess the results of different surgical procedures in patients with severe CC who were refractory to intensive medical treatments. Fifteen patients with refractory chronic constipation underwent surgical management between 1998 and 2003 in Ankara University School of Medicine Department of General Surgery. Median age of the patients was 40 years (range, 24-77), female/male ratio was 11/4, median duration of symptoms was 13 years (range, 4-35 years) and median interval of two subsequent bowel movements was 15 (range, 5-30) days. Preoperative evaluation including barium enema, colonoscopy, colonic transit time, and cinedefecography and balloon expulsion test were done in all patients. Clinical analysis of constipation with these tests indicated a simple slow transit colon in three patients but more complicated variations of combined anatomical functional disorders in the rest of the cases. Surgical procedures consisted of total colectomy, Frykman-Goldberg procedure, Wells procedure and appendisostomy, laparoscopically in 8 of them. Deep vein thrombosis developed in the postoperative period after rectopexy and pelvic floor repair in one case. The median follow-up time was 5.5 years. Fourteen (93.3%) patients had an excellent bowel movement and were highly satisfied with the surgical management. Surgical interventions may be beneficial in selected patients with refractory chronic constipation (Tab. 2, Ref. 13). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  2. Lubiprostone--a novel treatment for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    PubMed

    Owen, Richard T

    2008-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, highly prevalent gastrointestinal motility disorder characterized by abdominal discomfort/pain associated with altered bowel habits such as diarrhea or constipation or both. Current therapy for the constipation-predominant form (IBS-C) comprises fiber or osmotic or stimulant laxatives. However, these may exacerbate the condition or cause electrolyte disturbances. Lubiprostone is a novel selective chloride channel-2 activator that increases fluid secretion in the intestinal apical cell membrane, increasing gut motility and frequency of stool passage, and alleviating abdominal discomfort/pain. Lubiprostone has very low systemic bioavailability and cannot be quantitated in blood, but its active metabolite, M3, has been pharmacokinetically profiled. Lubiprostone reaches peak plasma concentrations within approximately 1 h and has a half-life of 0.9-1.4 h. Despite this short half-life, lubiprostone can be administered orally twice daily. Its efficacy in IBS-C has been demonstrated in two phase III studies; spontaneous bowel movement frequency increased and stool consistency improved, whereas straining, bloating and severity of constipation decreased. The beneficial effects continued for up to 4 weeks after cessation of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone was well tolerated in the long-term, with nausea and diarrhea being the commonest adverse events. Further studies are ongoing in opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term safety and effectiveness of lubiprostone, a chloride channel (ClC-2) activator, in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Anthony J; Johanson, John F; Parkman, Henry P; Rao, Satish S; Miner, Philip B; Ueno, Ryuji

    2011-09-01

    Lubiprostone helps relieve constipation in short-term 4-week studies. There are limited data on long-term pharmacological treatment with lubiprostone for chronic idiopathic constipation. To examine the long-term safety and effectiveness of lubiprostone in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. In this prospective, multicenter, open-labeled trial, 248 patients aged ≥18 years with chronic idiopathic constipation were directed to take lubiprostone 24 mcg BID as needed for 48 weeks. Patients were allowed to decrease the dose in response to the perceived severity of constipation and need for relief. Hematology and chemistry profiles and assessment of constipation symptoms and its severity were performed at all visits. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Of the 248 patients who entered the trial, 127 (51%) completed the trial. A dose reduction was observed in 17% of the patients, resulting in an average study medication exposure across the study of approximately 1.7 capsules (or approximately 40.8 mcg) per day. The most common treatment-related AEs were nausea (19.8%), diarrhea (9.7%), abdominal distension (6.9%), headache (6.9%), and abdominal pain (5.2%). No deaths were reported and of the 16 reported serious AEs, one was considered possibly treatment related. Average changes in serum electrolytes were not clinically relevant at any time point during the study. On average, lubiprostone significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced patient-reported constipation severity, abdominal bloating, and abdominal discomfort across 48 weeks when compared to baseline. During this 48-week open-label study, lubiprostone was well tolerated. Bowel symptoms consistently improved over 48 weeks in adult patients with chronic idiopathic constipation.

  4. [The Latin-American Consensus on Chronic Constipation].

    PubMed

    Schmulson Wasserman, Max; Francisconi, Carlos; Olden, Kevin; Aguilar Paíz, Luis; Bustos-Fernández, Luis; Cohen, Henry; Passos, Maria Carmo; González-Martínez, Marina Alejandra; Iade, Beatriz; Iantorno, Guido; Ledesma Ginatta, Carlos; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Pérez, Cesar Louis; Madrid-Silva, Ana María; Quilici, Flavio; Quintero Samudio, Isaac; Rodríguez Varón, Alberto; Suazo, Jorge; Valenzuela, Jorge; Zolezzi, Alberto

    2008-02-01

    The Latin-American Consensus on Chronic Constipation aimed to establish guidelines to improve the identification, diagnosis and treatment of this disorder in the region. Two coordinators and an honorary coordinator established the process and the topics to be discussed, based on a systematic review of the literature published in the previous 10 years, since 1995. Seventeen members participated with the support of their local gastroenterology societies. The members reviewed the different subjects based on the levels of evidence and grades of recommendation; the topics were then discussed in a plenary session. A written report was drafted and the coordinators prepared the final declarations to be submitted to a vote by all the members in October 2006. The consensus concluded that chronic constipation has an estimated prevalence of 5-21% in the region, with a female-to-male ratio of 3:1. Among individuals with constipation, 75% use some type of medication, with more than 50% using home remedies. A diagnosis based on Rome Criteria was recommended and diagnostic testing only in persons older than 50 years or with alarm symptoms. The use of barium enema as an initial investigation was recommended only in countries with a high prevalence of idiopathic megacolon or Chagas' disease. Recommendations on treatment included an increase in dietary fiber of up to 25-30 g/day (grade C). No evidence was found to recommend measures such as exercise, increased water intake, or frequent visits to the toilet. Fiber supplements such as Psyllium received a grade B and pharmacological treatments such as tegaserod and polyethylene glycol, both grade A. There was insufficient evidence to recommend lactulose, but the consensus did not disadvise its use when necessary. Complementary investigations such as colonic transit followed by anorectal manometry and defecography were only recommended to rule out colonic inertia and/or obstructive defecation in patients not responding to treatment

  5. Scintigraphic measurement of regional gut transit in idiopathic constipation

    SciTech Connect

    Stivland, T.; Camilleri, M.; Vassallo, M.

    1991-07-01

    In this study, total gut transit and regional colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation were measured scintigraphically. Eight patients with severe constipation were studied, none of whom had evidence of abnormal function of the pelvic floor. 99mTc-radiolabeled Amberlite resin particles with a mixed meal were used to assess gastric emptying and small bowel transit; similar particles labeled with 111In were ingested in a coated capsule that dispersed in the ileocecal region. These were used to quantify colonic transit. Five healthy volunteers were also studied. Two patients showed delayed gastric emptying and two had slow small bowel transit. Seven ofmore » the eight patients had slow colonic transit. In five, delay affected the whole colon (pancolonic inertia); in two, transit in the ascending and transverse colon was normal, but solids moved through the left colon slowly. Mean colonic transit was also measured using radiopaque markers; this technique identified the patients with slow transit, as shown by measurements of overall colonic transit by simultaneous scintigraphy. However, estimated transit through the ascending and transverse colons was considerably shorter by the radiopaque marker technique. In conclusion, idiopathic constipation is characterized by either exaggerated reservoir functions of the ascending and transverse colons and/or impairment of propulsive function in the descending colon. Particle size may influence the result of regional colonic transit tests. Transit delays in other parts of the gut suggest that, in some patients, the condition may be a more generalized motor dysfunction.« less

  6. The combination of Cassia obtusifolia L. and Foeniculum vulgare M. exhibits a laxative effect on loperamide-induced constipation of rats

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seung Hee

    2018-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a functional gastrointestinal disease that is detrimental to the quality of patient life. Cassia obtusifolia L. (CO) and Foeniculum vulgare M. (FV) are commonly used as medicinal foods in many countries. We aimed to examine the laxative effect and their underlying mechanism of CO and FV mixture on loperamide (lop)-induced constipated rats. To determine the laxative effects of these compounds, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: the control, lop-induced constipated (2mg/kg), and three doses (100, 300, and 500mg/kg) of CO and FV mixture-, and Bisacodyl (bis, 3.3mg/kg)-treated groups. The mixture of CO and FV and bis were orally administered once a day for 4 weeks. For induction of constipation, the lop were treated with a dose of 2 mg/kg twice a day on the 3rd week after treatments of CO and FV extracts and bis. The results were revealed that the CO and FV mixture has the laxative effects more than those in CO and FV-alone treatments on constipated rats by determining the stool parameters, including stool number and weight. Indeed, stool parameters, such as, stool number, weight, and water contents and colonic peristalsis from the intestinal transit length and ratio were dramatically improved by CO and FV mixture treatment. Histological study also revealed that CO and FV mixture enhanced the thicknesses of mucosa and muscular layers of the colon in constipated rats. For their underlying mechanism, the mRNAs and proteins expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) M2 and M3 and their downstream signaling were preserved by CO and FV mixture treatment in constipated rats. Therefore, this study suggests that treatment with CO and FV mixture has beneficial effects against constipation. We further suggest that CO and FV mixture may be utilized as an alternative therapeutic strategy for constipation. PMID:29621360

  7. Effects of Prebiotics and Synbiotics on Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Tan, Jia-Cheng; Xiong, Wen-Jie; Wang, Yun; Lin, Lin

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of prebiotics and synbiotics on adults with functional constipation (FC). Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for literature published up to February 2015. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported administration of prebiotics or synbiotics to adults with FC. The end points included stool frequency, stool consistency and other symptoms related to constipation. Mean differences (MD) or standard mean differences (SMD) were used for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for discontinuous outcomes using a random-effects model. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to determine the quality of the trials. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to analyze for publication bias. We included 5 RCTs involving 199 patients who were administered prebiotics and 8 RCTs involving 825 patients who were administered synbiotics. Prebiotics increased weekly stool frequency (MD: 1.01bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.04-1.99) and improved stool consistency (SMD: -0.59, 95% CI: -1.16 to -0.02). Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for galacto-oligosaccharides on stool frequency, consistency, ease of defecation and abdominal pain. Synbiotics significantly improved stool frequency (MD: 1.15bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.58-1.71), consistency (SMD: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-0.92) and reduced whole-gut transit time (MD: 13.52, 95% CI: -26.56 to -0.49) in patients with FC. Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for fructo-oligosaccharides and probiotic combinations on stool frequency, consistency, straining defecation and bloating. Galacto-oligosaccharides and synbiotics made up of fructo-oligosaccharides with probiotic combinations may improve stool frequency, consistency and some other symptoms related to constipation. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The efficacy of treatment of patients with severe constipation or recurrent pseudo-obstruction with pyridostigmine.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, C J; Brookes, J H; Wattchow, D A

    2010-06-01

    Disorders of colonic motility, such as severe constipation and pseudo-obstruction, remain difficult to treat. The pathophysiology of these conditions is not completely understood, but previous studies suggest a deficiency of cholinergic innervation and an imbalance in autonomic regulation of colonic motor function as contributing factors. Therefore, increasing the availability of acetylcholine in the bowel wall with a cholinesterase inhibitor, such as pyridostigmine, may improve symptoms. We studied thirteen patients with severe constipation (slow transit type) or recurrent pseudo-obstruction. The six patients with slow transit constipation had mechanical obstruction and pelvic floor dysfunction excluded, and normal calibre colon and slow transit confirmed. These patients were offered pyridostigmine in an attempt to avoid surgery. The seven patients with pseudo-obstruction had dilated bowel on imaging, and mechanical obstruction was excluded. These patients received pyridostigmine when symptoms recurred, despite previous treatments. Pyridostigmine was initiated at 10 mg b.i.d. and increased if required. One of the six patients with slow transit constipation reported improvement of symptoms and had concurrently weaned anti-psychotic medications. Pyridostigmine was ceased in the remaining five patients due to lack of efficacy and/or side effects. Four patients proceeded to surgery for refractory symptoms. All seven patients with pseudo-obstruction had some improvement of symptoms with few side effects. Of these, two later had surgery for recurrent symptoms. In patients with slow transit constipation, treatment with pyridostigmine does not improve symptoms. However, it does improve symptoms in patients with recurrent pseudo-obstruction with few side effects, offering an extra treatment option for these patients.

  9. Novel Pharmacological Therapies for Management of Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Marina A.; Mendez-Navarro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common health problem that significantly affects the quality of life of patients and impacts in terms of costs; current treatments based on fiber and laxatives cause dissatisfaction to doctors and patients in more than half of the cases. New drugs are now available or in very advanced stages of research, with different and innovative mechanisms of action as prucalopride, lubiprostone, and linaclotide. Prucalopride an enterokinetic, is a selective high-affinity 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)4 receptor agonist of serotonin that increases the peristaltic reflex and the colonic contractions; lubiprostone, a type 2 chlorine channel activator, or linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase-C agonist of enterocytes, both prosecretory agents, stimulate the secretion of fluid within the intestinal lumen. In general, these promising drugs have proven efficacy and safety as a specific therapeutic option in patients with chronic constipation. Yet the solution might not be sufficient for everybody and still without the ideal drug that might be useful in all cases, the pharmacological revolution for colonic motility disorders has arrived. PMID:24172177

  10. Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercise for Paediatric Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Fatemeh; Abedi, Aidin; Esmaeili-Dooki, Mohammad Reza; Jalilian, Rozita; Tabari, Sanaz Mehrabani

    2015-06-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is one of the most common gastrointestinal problems among children. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle exercise on treatment of FC. In this study which was conducted in Children's Medical Center, children with a diagnosis of FC (aged 4-18 y) who did not respond to medical treatment, performed sessions of pelvic floor muscle exercise at home twice a day for 8 wk. Frequency of defecation, overall improvement of constipation, stool withholding, painful defecation and stool consistency were measured at the final week of the intervention compared to baseline. Forty children (16 males, 24 females mean age 5.6±1.03 y) completed the 8-wk exercise program. Subjective overall improvement of the symptoms was present in 36 patients (90%). The changes in stool frequency, stool diameter and consistency were statistically significant. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the stool withholding, fecal impaction, fecal incontinence and painful defecation. Pelvic floor muscle exercise is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for Paediatric FC.

  11. Efficacy of electroacupuncture compared with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for functional constipation: Study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Xinwei; Jiao, Ruimin; Liu, Zhishun

    2018-05-01

    To treat functional constipation, both electroacupuncture (EA) therapy and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) are safe and effective. However, no head-to-head comparison trial has been conducted. This trial compares the efficacy of electroacupuncture relative to transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for functional constipation. Individuals with functional constipation will be randomly allocated to receive either EA or TENS (n = 51, each), 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the percentage of participants with an average increase from baseline of 1 or more complete spontaneous bowel movements at week 8. The secondary outcome measures are the following: at the time of visits, changes in the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements, number of spontaneous bowel movements, stool character, difficulty in defecation, patients' assessment of quality of life regarding constipation (self-report questionnaire), and use of auxiliary defecation methods. The results of this trial should verify whether EA is more efficacious than TENS for relieving symptoms of functional constipation. The major limitation of the study is the lack of blinding of the participants and acupuncturist.

  12. Acupuncture for treatment of hospital-induced constipation in children: a retrospective case series study.

    PubMed

    Anders, Eric Falk; Findeisen, Annette; Nowak, Andreas; Rüdiger, Mario; Usichenko, Taras Ivanovich

    2012-12-01

    Acupuncture is a promising option in the treatment of functional bowel disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptance of acupuncture for the treatment of hospital-induced constipation (HIC) in children. Bilateral stimulation of acupuncture point LI11 was applied in 10 children with HIC using fixed indwelling acupuncture needles (0.9 mm long) before considering starting conventional local constipation therapy with laxative suppositories. The clinical records were studied retrospectively for feasibility, acceptance and effectiveness of acupuncture. Acupuncture was feasible in all children and application of the indwelling needles was tolerated without fear. Side effects were not observed. After a median of 3 days of HIC, all children defaecated within 2 h after LI11 stimulation. No patient required conventional local constipation therapy. Acupuncture for the treatment of HIC is feasible and acceptable. Its effect should be verified in a randomised controlled trial.

  13. Rectal cooling test in the differentiation between constipation due to rectal inertia and anismus.

    PubMed

    Shafik, A; Shafik, I; El Sibai, O; Shafik, A A

    2007-03-01

    The differentiation between constipation due to rectal inertia and that due to outlet obstruction from non-relaxing puborectalis muscle (PRM) is problematic and not easily achieved with one diagnostic test. Therefore, we studied the hypothesis that the rectal cooling test (RCT) can effectively be used to differentiate between those two forms of constipation. The study enrolled 28 patients with constipation and abnormal transit study in whom radio-opaque markers accumulated in the rectum; 15 healthy volunteers acted as controls. Electromyographic activity of the external anal sphincter (EAS) and PRM was initially recorded. Subsequently rectal wall tone was assessed by a barostat system during rectal infusion with normal saline at 30 degrees C and at 4 degrees C with simultaneous electromyography (EMG). There was a significant increase in EMG activity of the EAS and PRM on strain- ing (p<0.001), suggestive of anismus, in 10 of 28 patients and 0 of 15 controls. Rectal tone in controls did not respond to saline infusion at 30 degrees C, but it increased at 4 degrees C (p<0.05). Similarly, in constipated patients rectal tone did not respond to rectal saline infusion at 30 degrees C, but infusion at 4 degrees C increased tone in all 10 patients with anismus (p<0.05); EMG activity of the EAS and PRM also increased (p<0.001). In the remaining 18 patients, rectal tone after saline infusion at 4 degrees C remained unchanged. Rectal infusion with iced saline increased rectal tone in healthy controls and constipated patients with anismus while it had no effect in the remaining patients. Lack of increase of rectal tone may be secondary to rectal inertia. According to these preliminary observations, the rectal cooling test may be useful in differentiating between rectal inertia and anismus.

  14. [Post-stroke constipation treated with acupuncture therapy of regulating qi circulation of fu-organ].

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhen; Wu, Qing-Ming; Li, Dan-Dan; Liu, Wei-Ai; Li, Xiang-Rong; Lin, Xu-Ming

    2013-10-01

    To compare the difference in the efficacy on post-stroke constipation between acupuncture therapy of regulating qi circulation of fe-organ and Shengxue Tongbian Capsules. Seventy-five patients of post-stroke constipation were randomized into an acupuncture group (39 cases) and a Chinese medicine group (36 cases). The unit mode comprehensive therapy of stroke was adopted as basic treatment in the two groups. In the acupuncture group, acupuncture therapy of regulating qi circulation of fu-organ was added at Tianshu (ST 25), Zhigou (TE 6), Qihai (CV 6) and Zusanli (ST 36), once every day. In the Chinese medicine group, Shengrue Tongbian Capsules were supplemented for oral administration, once every day, 10 g each time. The clinical symptom score of constipation was observed before treatment, after 1 and 2 weeks treatment in the two groups, respectively. The efficacy in 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment and the adverse reaction were observed. In 1 and 2 weeks of treatment, the clinical symptom score of constipation was reduced significantly as compared with that before treatment in the two groups (all P < 0.05). The improvements in the acupuncture group were significant than those in the Chinese medicine group in 2 weeks of treatment (8.03 +/- 2.38 vs 9.20 +/- 2.45, P < 0.05). Concerning to the occurrence of adverse reaction, there was 1 case of local bruises in needling local site in the acupuncture group; and there were 1 case of abdominal pain, 3 cases of diarrhea and 2 cases of nausea and vomiting in the Chinese medicine group. Both the acupuncture therapy of regulating qi circulation of fu-organ and Shengxue Tongbian Capsules achieve the significant efficacy on post-stroke constipation. The efficacy of the acupuncture therapy of regulating qi circulation of fe-organ is better and the adverse reaction is less after long-term persistent treatment.

  15. Are We Using Abdominal Radiographs Appropriately in the Management of Pediatric Constipation?

    PubMed

    Beinvogl, Beate; Sabharwal, Sabina; McSweeney, Maireade; Nurko, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    To identify the reasons why pediatric gastroenterologists obtain abdominal radiographs in the management of pediatric constipation. This was a prospective study surveying providers regarding their rationale, interpretation, resultant change, and confidence in their management before and after obtaining KUBs in patients seen for suspected constipation. Demographics and clinical findings were obtained from medical records. A total of 24 providers were surveyed after 72 patient encounters. Reasons for obtaining an abdominal radiograph included evaluation of stool burden (70%), need for a clean out (35%), fecal impaction (27%), cause of abdominal pain (24%), demonstration of stool burden to families (14%), assessment of response to therapy (13%), or encopresis (10%). The plan was changed in 47.6% of cases based on radiographic findings. In cases in which a plan was outlined before obtaining the radiograph (69%), the initial plan was implemented on average in 52.5%. In cases with no plans before obtaining the radiograph, previously unconsidered plans were implemented in 8.7%. Provider confidence in the management plan increased from 2.4 ± 2.7 to 4.1 ± 1.8 (P < .05) after the abdominal radiograph. Abdominal radiographs commonly are obtained by pediatric gastroenterologists in the evaluation and management of constipation. The majority used it to make a diagnosis, and nearly one-half changed their management based on the imaging findings. Overall, they reported an improved confidence in their management plan, despite evidence that radiographic findings poorly correlate with clinical severity. This study highlights the need for further provider education regarding the recommendations delineated in existing constipation guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anismus in patients with normal and slow transit constipation.

    PubMed

    Miller, R; Duthie, G S; Bartolo, D C; Roe, A M; Locke-Edmunds, J; Mortensen, N J

    1991-06-01

    This study examined differences in anorectal function, with particular reference to anismus, which might explain why some patients with intractable constipation have slow and others have normal whole gut transit times. Twenty-four patients were studied; 13 with slow transit (all female, median age 32 years, range 16-52 years) and 11 with normal transit (eight women, three men, median age 37 years, range 21-60 years). Videoproctography with synchronous sphincteric electromyography and anorectal manometry was performed. There were no differences between the two groups, suggesting that slow transit constipation is not secondary to any abnormality in anorectal function and may therefore be a primary disorder of colonic motility. There was no correlation between electromyographic evidence of anismus (pelvic floor contraction on defaecation) and the ability of the patient to evacute the rectum or symptoms of obstructed defaecation. Electromyography findings alone can be misleading and should be related to proctographic evidence of incomplete rectal evacuation before functional anismus can be said to be present.

  17. [Clinical observation on treatment of functional constipation with compound plantain-senna granules].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao-xian

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of compound plantain-senna granule (CPSG) in the treatment of functional constipation. Eighty patients with confirmed diagnosis of functional constipation were assigned to 2 groups. The 40 patients in the treatment group were treated with CPSG 5 g per day, while the 40 patients in the control group were treated with equal volume of starch granule, for 2 weeks totally. The defecating frequency and stool property, the scores of fecal discharge difficulty and accompanied symptoms, the gastrointestinal transmission time, and adverse reaction of treatment in the two groups were observed before and after treatment. Parameters of defecating frequency, stool property, the scores of fecal discharge difficulty, accompanied symptoms and the gastrointestinal transmission time were unchanged after treatment in the control group (P > 0.05); while in the treatment group, they improved significantly (P < 0.05) and showed significant difference to those in the control group respectively (P < 0. 05). No serious adverse reaction occurred in both groups. CPSG can obviously increase the defecating frequency, change the stool property, alleviate the fecal discharging difficult symptom and accompanied symptom, and shorten the gastrointestinal transmission time in patients with functional constipation with good security and tolerability.

  18. Emerging treatments in neurogastroenterology: a multidisciplinary working group consensus statement on opioid-induced constipation

    PubMed Central

    CAMILLERI, M.; DROSSMAN, D. A.; BECKER, G.; WEBSTER, L. R.; DAVIES, A. N.; MAWE, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Opioids are effective for acute and chronic pain conditions, but their use is associated with often difficult-to-manage constipation and other gastrointestinal (GI) effects due to effects on peripheral μ-opioid receptors in the gut. The mechanism of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) differs from that of functional constipation (FC), and OIC may not respond as well to most first-line treatments for FC. The impact of OIC on quality of life (QoL) induces some patients to decrease or stop their opioid therapy to relieve or avoid constipation. Purpose At a roundtable meeting on OIC, a working group developed a consensus definition for OIC diagnosis across disciplines and reviewed current OIC treatments and the potential of treatments in development. By consensus, OIC is defined as follows: ‘A change when initiating opioid therapy from baseline bowel habits that is characterized by any of the following: reduced bowel movement frequency, development or worsening of straining to pass bowel movements, a sense of incomplete rectal evacuation, or harder stool consistency’. The working group noted the prior validation of a patient response outcome and end point for clinical trials and recommended future efforts to create treatment guidelines and QoL measures specific for OIC. Details from the working group’s discussion and consensus recommendations for patient care and research are presented in this article. PMID:25164154

  19. Holistic approach to functional constipation: Perspective of traditional Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2015-11-23

    Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) proposes a different viewpoint to the chronic diseases. Diagnosis and implemented treatment are based on individual differences among patients. Constipation or Ea'teghal-e-batn is a condition in which the patient develops difficult or painful defecation. Based on TPM concepts, the fifirst digestion step starts from halq (oral cavity), and ends via defecation from the maq'ad (anus). Avicenna believed that four faculties, ha'zemeh (digestive), ja'zebeh (absorptive), ma'sekeh (retentive) and da'fe'eh (propulsive), are involved in the process of digestion and absorption of the ingested food and expelling the waste materials. The bowel movement and appearance of the stool is a measure for evaluating the gastrointestinal healthy function. Defecation should be with no pain and fecal material should have no burning and acuity. Low food intake or foods with dry temperament, dryness of gastrointestinal tract, diaphoresis and heavy exercise as well as intestine sensory loss were discussed as main causes of constipation. Management of constipation in TPM includes dietary schemes, oil massages and subsequently simple herbal medicines. According to TPM theories, the fifirst step in treating a disease is the elimination of disease causes (asbabe- maraz) and also providing the causes of health (asbab-e-sehhat). Health care providers should know the proper condition which the herbal medicines should be administered in and be able to guide the patients about the benefifits and hazards of herbal remedies, commonly used in their living origin.

  20. Prucalopride: A Review in Chronic Idiopathic Constipation.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-01-01

    Prucalopride (Resolor®), a highly selective serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist, is indicated in the European Economic Area for the treatment of adults with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) in whom laxatives have failed to provide adequate relief. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of prucalopride and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in patients with CIC. In five well-designed, 12-week trials in patients with CIC, oral prucalopride 2 mg/day was significantly more effective than placebo at improving bowel function, including the number of bowel movements and a range of other constipation symptoms, as well as health-related quality of life and patient satisfaction; however, no significant differences in bowel function measures were observed between prucalopride and placebo in a 24-week trial. Oral PEG-3350 + electrolytes reconstituted powder was found to be noninferior but not superior to prucalopride according to primary endpoint data from a 4-week, controlled-environment trial. Prucalopride was generally well tolerated in clinical trials; the most common adverse events were headache, diarrhoea, nausea and abdominal pain. No cardiovascular safety issues have arisen with prucalopride treatment. Although further long-term and comparative data would be beneficial, prucalopride provides an additional treatment option for patients with CIC.

  1. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Functional Constipation in Korea, 2015 Revised Edition

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jeong Eun; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Tae Hee; Jo, Yunju; Lee, Hyuk; Song, Kyung Ho; Hong, Sung Noh; Lim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Soon Jin; Chung, Soon Sup; Lee, Joon Seong; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Lee, Kwang Jae; Choi, Suck Chei; Shin, Ein Soon

    2016-01-01

    The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility first published guidelines for chronic constipation in 2005 and was updated in 2011. Although the guidelines were updated using evidence-based process, they lacked multidisciplinary participation and did not include a diagnostic approach for chronic constipation. This article includes guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation to realistically fit the situation in Korea and to be applicable to clinical practice. The guideline development was based upon the adaptation method because research evidence was limited in Korea, and an organized multidisciplinary group carried out systematical literature review and series of evidence-based evaluations. Six guidelines were selected using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II process. A total 37 recommendations were adopted, including 4 concerning the definition and risk factors of chronic constipation, 8 regarding diagnoses, and 25 regarding treatments. The guidelines are intended to help primary physicians and general health professionals in clinical practice in Korea, to provide the principles of medical treatment to medical students, residents, and other healthcare professionals, and to help patients for choosing medical services based on the information. These guidelines will be updated and revised periodically to reflect new diagnostic and therapeutic methods. PMID:27226437

  2. Opioid-Induced Constipation and Bowel Dysfunction: A Clinical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Bassotti, Gabrio; Coffin, Benoit; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Breivik, Harald; Eisenberg, Elon; Emmanuel, Anton; Laroche, Françoise; Meissner, Winfried; Morlion, Bart

    2017-10-01

    To formulate timely evidence-based guidelines for the management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Constipation is a major untoward effect of opioids. Increasing prescription of opioids has correlated to increased incidence of opioid-induced constipation. However, the inhibitory effects of opioids are not confined to the colon, but also affect higher segments of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to the coining of the term "opioid-induced bowel dysfunction." A literature search was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, and EMBASE Classic, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Predefined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria were used to identify and categorize relevant papers. A series of statements were formulated and justified by a comment, then labeled with the degree of agreement and their level of evidence as judged by the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) system. From a list of 10,832 potentially relevant studies, 33 citations were identified for review. Screening the reference lists of the pertinent papers identified additional publications. Current definitions, prevalence, and mechanism of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction were reviewed, and a treatment algorithm and statements regarding patient management were developed to provide guidance on clinical best practice in the management of patients with opioid-induced constipation and opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. In recent years, more insight has been gained in the pathophysiology of this "entity"; new treatment approaches have been developed, but guidelines on clinical best practice are still lacking. Current knowledge is insufficient regarding management of the opioid side effects on the upper gastrointestinal tract, but recommendations can be derived from what we know at present. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  3. Opioid-Induced Constipation and Bowel Dysfunction: A Clinical Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Bassotti, Gabrio; Coffin, Benoit; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Breivik, Harald; Eisenberg, Elon; Emmanuel, Anton; Laroche, Françoise; Meissner, Winfried; Morlion, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To formulate timely evidence-based guidelines for the management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Setting Constipation is a major untoward effect of opioids. Increasing prescription of opioids has correlated to increased incidence of opioid-induced constipation. However, the inhibitory effects of opioids are not confined to the colon, but also affect higher segments of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to the coining of the term “opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.” Methods A literature search was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, and EMBASE Classic, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Predefined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria were used to identify and categorize relevant papers. A series of statements were formulated and justified by a comment, then labeled with the degree of agreement and their level of evidence as judged by the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) system. Results From a list of 10,832 potentially relevant studies, 33 citations were identified for review. Screening the reference lists of the pertinent papers identified additional publications. Current definitions, prevalence, and mechanism of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction were reviewed, and a treatment algorithm and statements regarding patient management were developed to provide guidance on clinical best practice in the management of patients with opioid-induced constipation and opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Conclusions In recent years, more insight has been gained in the pathophysiology of this “entity”; new treatment approaches have been developed, but guidelines on clinical best practice are still lacking. Current knowledge is insufficient regarding management of the opioid side effects on the upper gastrointestinal tract, but recommendations can be derived from what we know at present. PMID:28034973

  4. Case-controlled study on risk factors for the development of constipation in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Tetsuya; Nagai, Keiko; Ooe, Nobuharu; Nakashima, Mihoko N; Nishida, Koyo; Nakamura, Junzo; Nakashima, Mikiro

    2011-03-01

    Constipation is a common problem in hospitalized patients; however, the relative risks of its development with various factors have not been clarified. To clarify the risk factors associated with constipation, we performed a case-controlled study of 165 hospitalized patients who were not laxative users on admission. They were divided into case (n=35) and control (n=130) groups according to laxative administration during hospitalization. Comparison of the patient backgrounds in the two groups revealed significant differences in the activities of daily living, length of fasting, rest level on admission, cerebrovascular disease, and administration of hypnotics. Multiple logistic regression analysis using these five factors as autonomous variables showed that administration of hypnotics (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-7.06; p=0.031) was significantly related to laxative use. Therefore, the administration of hypnotics may be the principal cause of constipation development in hospitalized patients and they should be used with caution.

  5. [A comparison between effects of aroma massage and meridian massage on constipation and stress in women college students].

    PubMed

    Chung, Miyoung; Choi, Euysoon

    2011-02-01

    This study was done to compare the effects of abdominal aroma massage and meridian massage on constipation and stress in college women with functional constipation. The participants were 38 college women, 18 were in the aroma group and 20 in the meridian group. The aroma massage was given using aroma oil which was a mixture of lemon, lavender, rosemary, and cyprus. The meridian massage was given at 9 accupoints which influence intestinal functions. The treatment was given 5 days a week for 4 weeks. A constipation severity score, weekly defecation frequency, and a stress response score were measured before and every week of 4 weeks of the experiment. While there was no significant difference between two groups, there was a significant difference within the groups in the constipation severity (aroma group: 1st week, meridian group: except 4th week), defecation frequency (aroma group: 3rd week, meridian group: 2nd and 3rd week), and stress (aroma group: all weeks, meridian group: except 4th week) after different duration of experiment. Based on these results, both abdominal massages relieved constipation and stress. Resorting to either types of massage will contribute to the reduction of use of stool softeners, suppositories, or enemas.

  6. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Limits Chronic Constipation in a Child with Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Alessandro; Perini, Mattia; Cosmai, Silvia; Zanon, Silvia; Pisa, Viviana; Castagna, Carmine; Uberti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome (PTHS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by insufficient expression of the TCF4 gene. Children with PTHS typically present with gastrointestinal disorders and early severe chronic constipation is frequently found (75%). Here we describe the case of a PTHS male 10-year-old patient with chronic constipation in whom Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) resulted in improved bowel functions, as assessed by the diary, the QPGS-Form A Section C questionnaire, and the Paediatric Bristol Stool Form Scale. The authors suggested that OMT may be a valid tool to improve the defecation frequency and reduce enema administration in PTHS patients.

  7. Consensus statement AIGO/SICCR diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation and obstructed defecation (Part II: Treatment)

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Antonio; Bellini, Massimo; Battaglia, Edda; Bocchini, Renato; Gambaccini, Dario; Bove, Vincenzo; Pucciani, Filippo; Altomare, Donato Francesco; Dodi, Giuseppe; Sciaudone, Guido; Falletto, Ezio; Piloni, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    The second part of the Consensus Statement of the Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Italian Society of Colo-Rectal Surgery reports on the treatment of chronic constipation and obstructed defecation. There is no evidence that increasing fluid intake and physical activity can relieve the symptoms of chronic constipation. Patients with normal-transit constipation should increase their fibre intake through their diet or with commercial fibre. Osmotic laxatives may be effective in patients who do not respond to fibre supplements. Stimulant laxatives should be reserved for patients who do not respond to osmotic laxatives. Controlled trials have shown that serotoninergic enterokinetic agents, such as prucalopride, and prosecretory agents, such as lubiprostone, are effective in the treatment of patients with chronic constipation. Surgery is sometimes necessary. Total colectomy with ileorectostomy may be considered in patients with slow-transit constipation and inertia coli who are resistant to medical therapy and who do not have defecatory disorders, generalised motility disorders or psychological disorders. Randomised controlled trials have established the efficacy of rehabilitative treatment in dys-synergic defecation. Many surgical procedures may be used to treat obstructed defecation in patients with acquired anatomical defects, but none is considered to be the gold standard. Surgery should be reserved for selected patients with an impaired quality of life. Obstructed defecation is often associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Surgery with the placement of prostheses is replacing fascial surgery in the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse, but the efficacy and safety of such procedures have not yet been established. PMID:23049207

  8. Chiropractic Management Using Multimodal Therapies on 2 Pediatric Patients With Constipation.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Madhu Mia; Skokos, Evangelia; Piombo, Denise

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic management of 7-month-old male twins who had had constipation since birth. Identical male twins presented with the chief complaint of constipation and bloating. Both patients were born premature after 29 weeks of gestation and had invasive abdominal surgeries in the right lower quadrant resulting in healed postsurgical scars. Patient A underwent ileostomy for a perforation in his ileum. Patient B underwent surgery to repair an inguinal hernia. Motion palpation restrictions indicated bilateral sacroiliac, cervical, and thoracic joint restrictions. The treatment plan included chiropractic manipulation, acupressure stimulation, and dynamic neuromuscular stabilization. Manipulation of the sacroiliac, cervical, and thoracic spine joint restrictions was performed using minimal force. Cross-frictional massage and myofascial manipulation and scar tissue mobilization of the abdominal scar in the right lower quadrant were performed. Acupressure stimulation was performed on both patients' feet. Both patients had improved bowel movements after the first treatment. Patient A had 5 weeks of treatment (2 visits per week). Patient B had 4 weeks of treatment (2 visits per week). The patients' clinical progress improved, and once the goal of regular bowel movements was reached, as confirmed by their mother, follow-up visits were reduced to once a week and gradually to once a month. Both pediatric patients with constipation responded to chiropractic care using multimodal therapies.

  9. Colostomy for treatment of functional constipation in children: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Mark N; Foley, Peter; Cusick, Eleri L

    2004-01-01

    Surgery is indicated in very few children with intractable functional constipation. A number of operations have been described with unpredictable outcome and significant morbidity. The authors present a series of 10 children who underwent a Hartmann procedure with end colostomy formation. Preoperative management, in addition to maximum conservative measures, included psychologic referral, rectal biopsy, transit studies, and contrast enemas. A standard Hartmann procedure was performed with on-table rectal washout, formation of a proximal sigmoid colostomy, limited anterior resection of hypertrophic proximal rectosigmoid, and oversewing of the rectal stump. The series includes 10 pediatric patients (4 female, 6 male), in whom constipation was first reported at a median age of 3 years (range, 2 months-7 years) and surgical referral was made at 8 years (range, 1-14 years). Surgery was performed at a median age of 9.5 years (range, 2-15 years), and the median postoperative stay was 5 days (range, 4-9 days). Complications occurred in four patients (transient mild rectal discharge in 2, stomal prolapse in 1, and an unrelated small bowel obstruction in 1 patient with an additional Mitrofanoff stoma). Median postoperative follow-up was 31 months (range, 9-56 months), and the children and parents were all completely satisfied with the stoma. Colostomy formation is a potential surgical option for severe functional constipation with low associated morbidity and high patient satisfaction.

  10. Dyssynergic defecation may play an important role in postoperative Hirschsprung's disease patients with severe persistent constipation: analysis of a case series.

    PubMed

    Meinds, Rob J; Eggink, Maura C; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M A

    2014-10-01

    After surgery for Hirschsprung's disease (HD) the majority of patients have satisfactory clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients remain who suffer from severe persistent constipation. Current consensus attributes these complaints to the hallmarks of HD. In non-HD patients a cause for severe constipation is dyssynergic defecation. Retrospectively, we reviewed the medical records of ten postoperative HD patients with severe persistent constipation who had undergone extensive anorectal function tests to diagnose the reason for the constipation. We analyzed the results of these tests. During the last three years, ten postoperative HD patients with severe persistent constipation were given extensive anorectal function tests. All ten patients were diagnosed with dyssynergic defecation. The ages at the time of diagnosis ranged from 7 to 19years with a median age of 12years. Signs of an enlarged rectum were seen in all ten patients, with a maximum measured value of 845mL. Patients with HD may also suffer from dyssynergic defecation. It is important to consider this possibility when dealing with severe persistent constipation in postoperative HD patients. Viable options for treating dyssynergic defecation are available that could prevent irreversible long-term complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transabdominal electrical stimulation (TES) for the treatment of slow-transit constipation (STC).

    PubMed

    Hutson, John M; Dughetti, Lauren; Stathopoulos, Lefteris; Southwell, Bridget R

    2015-05-01

    Slow-transit constipation (STC) is a newly described subtype of intractable constipation in children which we originally identified with deficiency of substance P in axons supplying the proximal colonic muscle. When nuclear transit studies became available, the patients were found to have slow proximal colonic transit, and responded to antegrade enemas. Using the appendicostomy, we found that there was reduced frequency in propagating sequences throughout the colon. We began testing whether transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) could improve motility and symptoms, and over several trials have now shown that TES is remarkably effective in treating children with STC, with long-lasting effects. TES holds promise for treating STC, as well as a range of gastrointestinal motility disorders.

  12. When the going gets tough: pediatric constipation and encopresis.

    PubMed

    Philichi, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Constipation and encopresis are two common conditions seen in the pediatric gastroenterology setting. Organic causes cannot be excluded although they are rarely diagnosed in infants and children with defecation disorders. To successfully treat these disorders, a combination of family education, disimpaction and maintenance medications, a well-balanced diet, and behavior management is essential.

  13. Comparison of Chang Run Tong and Forlaxin Treatment of Constipation in Elderly Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Jing-Bo

    2018-05-01

    Constipation is quite common and has impact on life quality in the elderly diabetic patients; therefore it is important to seek better treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Chang Run Tong (CRT) decoction on constipation in elderly diabetic patients in comparison with the effect of Macrogol 4000 powder (Forlax). This study was designed as a prospective study consisting of two parallel arms: CRT group and Forlax group. The study was conducted in China-Japan Hospital. Subject interventions: Eighty elderly diabetic patients with constipation were evaluated, among them 52 patients were treated with CRT and 28 patients were treated with Forlax. The patients were interviewed for Bristol stool scale, spontaneous complete bowel movements (SCBM) and symptoms of defecation feeling, defecation weakness, feeling of incomplete evacuation, bloating, and flatulence at different time points. The changes of all above parameters from treatment for 2 and 4 weeks and follow-up for 1 and 2 months with reference to the baseline (before treatment) were compared between CRT and Forlax treatments. The treatment efficiency was evaluated and compared between two different treatments. For the improvement of Bristol stool scale, SCBM and feeling of incomplete evacuation, CRT was significantly better than Forlax at different time points (p < 0.01, p < 0.001). For the symptoms of defecation feeling, defecation weakness, bloating, and flatulence, CRT was significantly better than Forlax for follow-up improvement (p < 0.01, p < 0.001); whereas no difference was found at other time points of the treatment (p > 0.05). Furthermore, CRT had a significantly better treatment efficiency than Forlax (p < 0.001). Both CRT and Forlax treatment could effectively improve bowel habits and symptoms of constipation in elderly diabetic patients. CRT was better than Forlax to treat constipation in elderly diabetic patients and had better follow-up improvement after

  14. Lubiprostone for the treatment of functional constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Paul E; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Prestridge, Laurel L; Youssef, Nader N; Ueno, Ryuji

    2014-03-01

    Pediatric functional constipation is common; effective, easily administered treatment options are limited. Lubiprostone is an oral chloride channel protein-2 activator that stimulates gastrointestinal fluid secretion, softens stools, and facilitates bowel movements (BMs). We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of lubiprostone in children and adolescents with functional constipation. Patients ≥12 kg, 17 years or younger, and with <3 spontaneous BMs (SBMs; ie, BMs that did not occur within 24 hours of rescue medication use) per week were enrolled at 22 US general pediatric and pediatric gastroenterology centers (January 2007-October 2008). Patients received 4 weeks of open-label lubiprostone at doses of 12 μg once daily (QD), 12 μg twice daily (BID), or 24 μg BID based on age and weight. The primary endpoint was SBM frequency during week 1 versus baseline. Of 127 enrolled patients, 124 were treated and analyzed (12 μg QD, n = 27; 12 μg BID, n = 65; 24 μg BID, n = 32), and 109 completed the study. The mean age of treated patients was 10.2 years (range 3-17 years); 65 were boys. Mean SBM frequency significantly increased compared with baseline at week 1 (3.1 vs. 1.5 SBMs/week, P < 0.0001). SBM frequency was improved significantly from baseline overall (P < 0.0001) and for individual dose groups (P ≤ 0.0062) during weeks 2, 3, and 4. Common (≥5%) adverse events included nausea (18.5%), vomiting (12.1%), diarrhea (8.1%), abdominal pain (7.3%), and headache (5.6%). Two patients experienced serious adverse events (unrelated abdominal pain; unrelated sickle cell crisis). Lubiprostone was efficacious and well tolerated in children and adolescents with functional constipation.

  15. [Diet and lifestyle rules in chronic constipation in adults: From fantasy to reality…].

    PubMed

    Fathallah, Nadia; Bouchard, Dominique; de Parades, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Chronic constipation is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal complaints and a frequent reason for consultation. Lifestyle modification and dietary advice attract a lot of patients, often dissatisfied with a long-term drug intake. These behavioral modifications are recommended as a first-line approach in the treatment of chronic mild constipation in the majority of current guidelines despite a low level of evidence. Fiber supplementation is probably the most relevant measure because of a satisfactory level of proof. It improves stool frequency and consistency. It has a positive effect on excessive straining and colonic transit time. The recommended daily fiber intake is at least 20 to 25g. To avoid side effects like bloating and abdominal pain, it must be gradually adjusted after a several days period. The benefice of increasing water intake or daily physical exercise in the treatment of chronic constipation have a lack of evidence, except specific situations such as elderly, hospitalized, institutionalized, dehydrated people or people consuming fluids less than 500mL/day. Change in environmental defecation conditions or bowel habits are probably anecdotal recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Transvaginal Mesh and Transanal Resection to Treat Outlet Obstruction Constipation Caused by Rectocele.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yang; Yu, Yongjun; Zhang, Xipeng; Li, Yuwei

    2017-02-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the curative effect of transvaginal mesh repair (TVMR) and stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) in treating outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients who had outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele were retrospectively analyzed and 39 patients were enrolled the study. Patients were assigned to either the TVMR or STARR group. Postoperative factors such as complications, pain, recurrence rate, and operative time were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS Total effective rate was 100% in both groups. No long-term chronic pain occurred and discomfort rate of tenesmus was higher in the STARR group than in the TVMR group. Postoperative defecography showed that the rectocele depth was significantly reduced, and the prolapse of the rectal mucosa and the lower rectal capacity was also decreased. Four cases had mesh exposure in the TVMR group and 2 cases in the STARR group had anastomotic bleeding after the surgery. CONCLUSIONS For outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele, TVMR and STARR both obtained satisfactory results. Although TVMR is complex with longer operative time and hospitalization period, its long-term effect is better than that of STARR.

  17. Lubiprostone: in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie J; Scott, Lesley J

    2009-06-18

    Lubiprostone is an oral bicyclic fatty acid that selectively activates type 2 chloride channels in the apical membrane of human gastrointestinal epithelial cells, thereby increasing chloride-rich fluid secretion. Although the mechanism is unclear, this may then decrease intestinal transit time, allowing the passage of stool and alleviating symptoms of constipation. Oral lubiprostone was effective in the treatment of patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) in large (n = 193-583) phase II (dose-finding) and phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials. The number of patients with IBS-C demonstrating an overall response to treatment (primary endpoint) in the two phase III trials was significantly greater in patients receiving lubiprostone 8 microg twice daily for 3 months than in those receiving placebo. In addition, a randomized, 4-week withdrawal period at the end of one of the phase III trials demonstrated that discontinuation of lubiprostone was not associated with rebound of IBS symptoms. Lubiprostone was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with the majority of adverse events being of mild to moderate severity. In patients with IBS-C who received lubiprostone 8 microg twice daily, nausea was the most frequently occurring adverse event that was considered possibly or probably treatment related. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in a 36-week open-label extension to the phase III trials.

  18. Idiopathic constipation: A challenging but manageable problem.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Andrea; Brisighelli, Giulia; Dickie, Belinda; Frischer, Jason; Levitt, Marc A; Peña, Alberto

    2017-10-10

    A protocol to treat idiopathic constipation is presented. A contrast enema is performed in every patient and, when indicated, patients are initially submitted to a "clean out" protocol. All patients are started on a Senna-based laxative. The initial dosage is empirically determined and adjusted daily, during a one week period, based on history and abdominal radiographs, until the amount of Senna that empties the colon is reached. The management is considered successful when patients empty their colon daily and stop soiling. If the laxatives dose provokes abdominal cramping, distension, and vomiting, without producing bowel movements, patients are considered nonmanageable. From 2005 to 2012, 215 patients were treated. 121 (56%) were males. The average age was 8.2years (range: 1-20). 160 patients (74%) presented encopresis. 67 patients (32%) needed a clean out. After one week, 181 patients (84%) achieved successful management, with an average Senna dose of 67mg (range: 5-175mg). In 34 patients (16%) the treatment was unsuccessful: 19 were nonmanageable, 3 noncompliant, and 12 continued soiling. At a later follow-up (median: 329days) the success rate for 174 patients was 81%. We designed a successful protocol to manage idiopathic constipation. The key points are clean out before starting laxatives, individual adjustments of laxative, and radiological monitoring of colonic emptying. Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of an organized bowel management program in the management of severe chronic constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Russell, Katie W; Barnhart, Douglas C; Zobell, Sarah; Scaife, Eric R; Rollins, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Chronic constipation is a common problem in children. The cause of constipation is often idiopathic, when no anatomic or physiologic etiology can be identified. In severe cases, low dose laxatives, stool softeners and small volume enemas are ineffective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a structured bowel management program in these children. We retrospectively reviewed children with chronic constipation without a history of anorectal malformation, Hirschsprung's disease or other anatomical lesions seen in our pediatric colorectal center. Our bowel management program consists of an intensive week where treatment is assessed and tailored based on clinical response and daily radiographs. Once a successful treatment plan is established, children are followed longitudinally. The number of patients requiring hospital admission during the year prior to and year after initiation of bowel management was compared using Fisher's exact test. Forty-four children with refractory constipation have been followed in our colorectal center for greater than a year. Fifty percent had at least one hospitalization the year prior to treatment for obstructive symptoms. Children were treated with either high-dose laxatives starting at 2mg/kg of senna or enemas starting at 20ml/kg of normal saline. Treatment regimens were adjusted based on response to therapy. The admission rate one-year after enrollment was 9% including both adherent and nonadherent patients. This represents an 82% reduction in hospital admissions (p<0.001). Implementation of a structured bowel management program similar to that used for children with anorectal malformations, is effective and reduces hospital admissions in children with severe chronic constipation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of low dietary intake of fiber and liquids with constipation: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Markland, Alayne D; Palsson, Olafur; Goode, Patricia S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Whitehead, William E

    2013-05-01

    Epidemiological studies support an association of self-defined constipation with fiber and physical activity, but not liquid intake. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and associations of dietary fiber and liquid intake to constipation. Analyses were based on data from 10,914 adults (≥20 years) from the 2005-2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Constipation was defined as hard or lumpy stools (Bristol Stool Scale type 1 or 2) as the "usual or most common stool type." Dietary fiber and liquid intake from total moisture content were obtained from dietary recall. Co-variables included: age, race, education, poverty income ratio, body mass index, self-reported general health status, chronic illnesses, and physical activity. Prevalence estimates and prevalence odds ratios (POR) were analyzed in adjusted multivariable models using appropriate sampling weights. Overall, 9,373 (85.9%) adults (4,787 women and 4,586 men) had complete stool consistency and dietary data. Constipation rates were 10.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.6, 10.9) for women and 4.0% (95% CI: 3.2, 5.0) for men (P<.001). After multivariable adjustment, low liquid consumption remained a predictor of constipation among women (POR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6) and men (POR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.9); however, dietary fiber was not a predictor. Among women, African-American race/ethnicity (POR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.9), being obese (POR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5,0.9), and having a higher education level (POR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9) were significantly associated with constipation. The findings support clinical recommendations to treat constipation with increased liquid, but not fiber or exercise.

  1. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Limits Chronic Constipation in a Child with Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Mattia; Pisa, Viviana

    2017-01-01

    Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome (PTHS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by insufficient expression of the TCF4 gene. Children with PTHS typically present with gastrointestinal disorders and early severe chronic constipation is frequently found (75%). Here we describe the case of a PTHS male 10-year-old patient with chronic constipation in whom Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) resulted in improved bowel functions, as assessed by the diary, the QPGS-Form A Section C questionnaire, and the Paediatric Bristol Stool Form Scale. The authors suggested that OMT may be a valid tool to improve the defecation frequency and reduce enema administration in PTHS patients. PMID:28251008

  2. Pelvic widening to alleviate the mechanical component of constipation in a patient with severe caudal regression and extremely narrow pelvis.

    PubMed

    Sathya, Chethan; Ertresvaag, Kjetil; Wright, James; Azzie, Georges

    2013-05-01

    Constipation in children is a commonly encountered problem with a broad variety of causes. Constipation caused by a narrow pelvis has, to our knowledge, not been reported in the human literature. Retrospective review of patient chart, in depth follow-up appointment with the patient and review of literature. A 15 year old girl with sacral agenesis and significant co-morbidities was referred for consideration of cecostomy tube placement to manage her constipation. Digital rectal exam revealed a very narrow pelvic outlet and CT scan confirmed abnormal configuration of the bony pelvis. Discussions with orthopaedic colleagues concluded that bilateral pelvic osteotomies to widen her pelvis may relieve her constipation. The procedure was uneventful and radiologic follow-up confirmed widening of the pelvic outlet and increased pelvic volume. Her stooling pattern improved postoperatively and she was satisfied with the result on follow up at one year. Although previously described only in the veterinary literature, surgical widening of a narrow pelvis can be considered for the management of constipation in the rare patient with appropriate physical and radiologic findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abdominal Massage for the Treatment of Idiopathic Constipation in Children with Profound Learning Disabilities: A Single Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Lucy; Smith, Melanie; Wharton, Sarah; Hames, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common problem in people with learning disabilities. Treatment often involves dietary changes or long-term laxative use. The participants were five children with profound learning disabilities and additional physical difficulties. Their long-standing idiopathic constipation was managed by laxatives. Intervention lasted up…

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and loperamide-induced constipated rats and microarray analysis of drug-metabolizing genes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Ling; Chang, Li-Wen; Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-09-11

    Rhein is a pharmacological active component found in Rheum palmatum L. that is the major herb of the San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a medicinal herbal product used as a remedy for constipation. Here we have investigated the comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and constipated rats. Microarray analysis was used to explore whether drug-metabolizing genes will be altered after SHXXT treatment. The comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and loperamide-induced constipated rats was studied by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Gene expression profiling in drug-metabolizing genes after SHXXT treatment was investigated by microarray analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A validated LC-MS/MS method was applied to investigate the comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and loperamide-induced constipated rats. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrate that the loperamide-induced constipation reduced the absorption of rhein. Cmax significantly reduced by 2.5-fold, the AUC decreased by 27.8%; however, the elimination half-life (t1/2) was prolonged by 1.6-fold. Tmax and mean residence time (MRT) were significantly prolonged by 2.8-fold, and 1.7-fold, respectively. The volume of distribution (Vss) increased by 2.2-fold. The data of microarray analysis on gene expression indicate that five drug-metabolizing genes, including Cyp7a1, Cyp2c6, Ces2e, Atp1b1, and Slc7a2 were significantly altered by the SHXXT (0.5 g/kg) treatment. The loperamide-induced constipation reduced the absorption of rhein. Since among the 25,338 genes analyzed, there were five genes significantly altered by SHXXT treatment. Thus, information on minor drug-metabolizing genes altered by SHXXT treatment indicates that SHXXT is relatively safe for clinical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New treatment options for chronic constipation: Mechanisms, efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The present review has several objectives, the first of which is to review the pharmacology and selectivity of serotonergic agents to contrast the older serotonergic agents (which were withdrawn because of cardiac or vascular adverse effects) with the newer generation serotonin receptor subtype 4 agonists. Second, the chloride ion secretagogues that act through the guanylate cyclase C receptor are appraised and their pharmacology is compared with the approved medication, lubiprostone. Third, the efficacy and safety of the application of bile acid modulation to treat constipation are addressed. The long-term studies of surgically induced excess bile acid delivery to the colon are reviewed to ascertain the safety of this therapeutic approach. Finally, the new drugs for opiate-induced constipation are introduced. Assuming these drugs are approved, practitioners will have a choice; however, patient responsiveness will be based on trial and error. Nevertheless, the spectrum of mechanisms and demonstrated efficacy and safety augur well for satisfactory treatment outcomes. PMID:22114755

  6. Effects of a self-management program on antiemetic-induced constipation during chemotherapy among breast cancer patients: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Akiko; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Sozu, Takashi; Tsuda, Moe; Arai, Hidenori; Mitani, Akira; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Research on patient-reported outcomes indicates that constipation is a common adverse effect of chemotherapy, and the use of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5HT3) receptor antagonists aggravates this condition. As cancer patients take multiple drugs as a part of their clinical management, a non-pharmacological self-management (SM) of constipation would be recommended. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a SM program on antiemetic-induced constipation in cancer patients. Thirty patients with breast cancer, receiving 5HT3 receptor antagonists to prevent emesis during chemotherapy were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The SM program consisted of abdominal massage, abdominal muscle stretching, and education on proper defecation position. The intervention group started the program before the first chemotherapy cycle, whereas patients in the wait-list control group received the program on the day before their second chemotherapy cycle. The primary outcome was constipation severity, assessed by the constipation assessment scale (CAS, sum of eight components). The secondary outcome included each CAS component (0-2 points) and mood states. A self-reported assessment of satisfaction with the program was performed. The program produced a statistically and clinically significant alleviation of constipation severity (mean difference in CAS, -3.00; P = 0.02), decrease in the likelihood of a small volume of stool (P = 0.03), and decrease in depression and dejection (P = 0.02). With regards to program satisfaction, 43.6 and 26.4 % patients rated the program as excellent and good, respectively. Our SM program is effective for mitigating the symptoms of antiemetic-induced constipation during chemotherapy.

  7. Encopresis in children: a cyclical model of constipation and faecal retention.

    PubMed Central

    Swanwick, T

    1991-01-01

    Encopresis afflicts one in 100 children causing considerable stigma and parental concern. General practitioners are in a position to help in most cases but are often deterred by the psychoanalytical theories which have been developed to explain this problem. It is currently accepted that children with encopresis tend to retain stools. This leads to constipation, overstretching of sphincters and resultant faecal soiling. Physical and psychological perpetuating factors result in retention once again, thus completing a cycle of constipation and retention. Various precipitant and predisposing factors can maintain this cycle. Once physical causes have been excluded a simple behavioural approach can be adopted aimed at retraining the bowel. By using laxatives to prevent retention, gaining the child's confidence, cooperation and understanding and involving both the family and school, encopresis can be successfully managed in general practice. PMID:1807329

  8. Alleviating debilitating, chronic constipation with colostomy after appendicostomy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza K; Boyer, Mary Lou; Marquez, Helen; Wexner, Steven D

    2005-12-01

    Severe chronic constipation is a debilitating condition. Patients not only experience infrequent bowel movements, but also are often frustrated by the sensation of incomplete evacuation; pain; straining; daily use of enemas; and continual concerns regarding diet, fluids, and medications. Diagnostic tests are performed to rule out organic causes of the condition. Common treatment options consist of dietary fiber supplementation, dietary instruction, adequate fluid intake, enemas, and laxatives; additional noninvasive management includes biofeedback training and botulinum toxin type A injections. Surgery is rarely recommended, although a select group of patients may benefit from antegrade continence enema procedure. A female patient presented with a history of long-standing constipation. When antegrade continence enema offered no improvement and other treatment measures failed, she underwent successful laparoscopic-assisted sigmoid resection and end colostomy. This approach may provide options for patients in similar circumstances.

  9. Effect of the ingestion of a symbiotic yogurt on the bowel habits of women with functional constipation.

    PubMed

    De Paula, Juan Andrés; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo

    2008-03-01

    functional constipation is a prevalent problem within the western population. There is evidence supporting the fact that the inclusion of pre and probiotics in the diet can favorably modify the intestinal function. The present study evaluates the effect of the consumption of Activia, a yogurt containing 10(8) UFC/g of Bifidobacterium animalis (DN-173 010) and fructoligosaccharide, in women between the ages of 18 and 55 with and without functional constipation (Rome II criteria). after a stabilization and a basal period, women were randomized to receive 2 units/day of Activia or a lacteous dessert without probiotics (control) for a period of 14 days. Afterwards the groups were intercrossed for another 14 days. of the 399 women who started the study, 378 were eligible for study participation. In the group of women with functional constipation (n=266), the consumption of the symbiotic was associated with a higher bowel evacuation rate (6.1+/-2.7 depositions/week with Activia vs. 5.0+/-2.6 dep./week in the control group; P<0.01), an improvement in the quality of the stools according to the Bristol scale (3.6+/-1.0 vs. 3.4+/-1.0; P<0.01), a reduced perception of straining effort (1.9+/-0.8 vs. 2.2+/-0.9; P<0.01) and a reduced perception of pain associated with defecation (0.1+/-0.2 vs. 0.2+/-0.3; P<0.01). In the group of women without constipation (n=112) there were statistically significant variations in equal sense but of smaller magnitude, with the exception of pain which, having a very low value in the basal period, did not experience changes. the consumption of a symbiotic yogurt by women with functional constipation showed a significant improvement in the parameters related with bowel evacuation. The use of this symbiotic food can result in a useful and safe tool for managing constipation.

  10. Effect of bowel cleansing on colonic transit in constipation due to slow transit or evacuation disorder.

    PubMed

    Sloots, C E J; Felt-Bersma, R J F

    2002-02-01

    Colon transit time measurement with radio-opaque markers is a method of studying the passage of luminal contents throughout the colon. Overall colonic transit time (CTT), as well as segmental transit times [right (RTT), left (LTT) and rectosigmoid (RSTT)], can be calculated. We hypothesize that CTT is influenced by faecal impaction when the rectum is emptied infrequently. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bowel cleansing on colonic transit time in patients with chronic constipation. In 25 women (age 41 years; range 20-65 years) with constipation according to Thompson criteria, CTT measurement was performed in an unprepared situation and repeated after cleansing with 4 L of Klean-Prepreg. Ten healthy female volunteers (age 41 years; range 27-57 years) were used as controls. In constipated patients, CTT decreased from a median 70 h (range 10-130 h) to 48 h (5-94 h) in the cleansed state (P < 0.001). A shortening of transit time was found in all three segments. In 10 patients with slow transit (ST) (CTT > 86 h), CTT decreased from 110 h (range 94-130) to 86 (38-94) (P < 0.001). Five of the 10 patients with ST before bowel cleansing had a CTT below 86 h after cleansing. In female controls, uncleansed CTT and RSTT shortened from 39 h (23 to 62) and 17 h (8-29) to 29 h (17-48) and 10 h (0-20) after bowel cleansing (P=0.058 and P=0.046). Colonic intraluminal contents have a substantial effect on colonic transit. In female controls, bowel cleansing shortened rectosigmoid transit. Women with constipation had faster transit in the cleansed state, however, the distribution of markers was not altered. Despite the effect of bowel cleansing on CTT, it seems unnecessary to prepare the bowel in clinical practice because the differentiation of patients between slow transit constipation and outlet obstruction is not changed. However, because in an infrequent defecation pattern, the influence of faecal impaction is considerable, CTT should be applied with care for

  11. [Acupuncture combined with Chinese herbal medicine Plantain and Senna Granule in treatment of functional constipation: a randomized, controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-ke; Zhang, Chao-xian; Guo, Xiao-feng

    2011-11-01

    Functional constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. Currently, there is no effective Western medical therapy for functional constipation and it significantly impacts the quality of life of the patients. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapies were reported to have better therapeutic effects than routine Western medicine therapies. To explore the efficacy of acupuncture combined with Chinese herbal medicine Plantain and Senna Granule in the treatment of functional constipation. A total of 390 patients with confirmed functional constipation enrolled from the Department of Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical College in China from February 2008 to January 2010 were randomly divided into three groups, with 130 cases in each group. Acupuncture group was treated with puncture of point Tianshu (ST25), Shangjuxu (ST37), Zusanli (ST36), Dachangyu (BL25) and Zhigou (SJ6) twice daily for four weeks, while Plantain and Senna Granule group was treated with 5 g of Plantain and Senna Granule once daily, and the combination group was given above-mentioned acupuncture and Plantain and Senna Granule. The defecation cycle, stool property, constipation symptom, accompanying symptoms, gastrointestinal transit time, including total gastrointestinal transit time, mouth-intestine transit time, colonic transit time, right colonic transit time, left colonic transit time and rectosigmoid colonic transit time, and adverse reactions of the three groups were evaluated before treatment, at the end of treatment and 64 weeks after treatment, respectively. Compared with before treatment, the scores of defecation cycle, stool property, constipation symptoms and accompanying symptoms, and gastrointestinal transit time all decreased significantly at the end of treatment in each group (P<0.01), and the combination group showed better results than the other groups (P<0.05). Compared with the end of treatment, the above

  12. Primary Swenson's pull-through in children with chronic constipation: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bakare Tajudeen, I B; Badmus, T A; Lawal, A O; Katung, A I

    2010-01-01

    The discrepancy in diameters of the resected ends coupled with the heavy faecal loads in the colon of chronically constipated children with Hirschsprung's disease makes definitive primary pull-through procedure quite difficulty in this group. Four consecutive patients (aged 5 months to 11 years) who presented with chronic constipation were given warm saline enema along with Castor oil per oram twice daily for 1 week before and 2 weeks after full-thickness biopsies that confirmed Hirschsprung's disease. All patients had intravenous Cefuroxime or Ceftriaxone plus Metronidazole at induction of anaesthesia. Intra-operatively, the levels of resections were 6-8 cm proximal to the most contractile part of the colon adjacent to the transition zone observed after complete division of mesenteric vessels. There were three males and one female, aged 5 months to 11 years. The levels of aganglionosis were in the rectosigmoid region, except one in the descending colon. There was one case each of anastomotic stenoses, mild enterocolitis and deep peri-anal excoriation. The bowel motions were two to four times daily within 1 month post-operatively. It can be concluded from this preliminary study that with pre-operative saline enema and oral Castor oil for about 3 weeks in chronically constipated children with Hirschsprung's disease primary pull-through procedures can be performed successfully. However, further prospective work is required with this method.

  13. Association of Low Dietary Intake of Fiber and Liquids with Constipation: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Markland, Alayne D.; Palsson, Olafur; Goode, Patricia S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Whitehead, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological studies support an association of self-defined constipation with fiber and physical activity, but not liquid intake. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and associations of dietary fiber and liquid intake to constipation. Methods Analyses were based on data from 10,914 adults (≥20 years) from the 2005-2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Constipation was defined as hard or lumpy stools (Bristol Stool Scale types 1 or 2) as the “usual or most common stool type.” Dietary fiber and liquid intake from total moisture content were obtained from dietary recall. Co-variables included: age, race, education, poverty income ratio, body mass index, self-reported general health status, chronic illnesses, and physical activity. Prevalence estimates and prevalence odds ratios (POR) were analyzed in adjusted multivariable models using appropriate sampling weights. Results Overall, 9,373 (85.9%) adults (4,787 women and 4,586 men) had complete stool consistency and dietary data. Constipation rates were 10.2% (95% CI: 9.6,10.9) for women and 4.0 (95% CI: 3.2,5.0) for men (p<.001). After multivariable adjustment, low liquid consumption remained a predictor of constipation among women (POR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0,1.6) and men (POR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5,3.9); however, dietary fiber was not a predictor. Among women, African-American race/ethnicity (POR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0,1.9), being obese (POR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5,0.9), and having a higher education level (POR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7,0.9) were significantly associated with constipation. Conclusions The findings support clinical recommendations to treat constipation with increased liquid, but not fiber or exercise. PMID:23567352

  14. Chronic Functional Constipation and Encopresis in Children in Relationship with the Psychosocial Environment.

    PubMed

    Olaru, Claudia; Diaconescu, Smaranda; Trandafir, Laura; Gimiga, Nicoleta; Olaru, Radian A; Stefanescu, Gabriela; Ciubotariu, Gabriela; Burlea, Marin; Iorga, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Functional constipation is an issue for both the patient and his/her family, affecting the patient's psychoemotional balance, social relations, and their harmonious integration in the school environment. We aimed to highlight the connection between chronic constipation and encopresis and the patient's psychosocial and family-related situation. Material and Method . 57 patients with ages spanning from 6 to 15 were assessed within the pediatric gastroenterology ward. Sociodemographic, medical, and psychological data was recorded. The collected data was processed using the SPSS 20 software. Results . The study group consisted of 57 children diagnosed with encopresis (43 boys (75.44%) and 14 girls (24.56%)), M = 10.82 years. It was determined that most of the children came from urban families with a poor socioeducational status. We identified a level of studies of 11.23 ± 5.56 years in mothers, while fathers had an average number of 9.35 ± 4.53 years of study. We also found a complex relationship between encopretic episodes and school performances ( F = 7.968, p = 0.001, 95% Cl). Children with encopresis were found to have more anxiety/depression symptoms, greater social problems, more disruptive behavior, and poorer school performance. Conclusions . The study highlights the importance of the family environment and socioeconomic factors in manifestations of chronic constipation and encopresis.

  15. Effectiveness of senna vs polyethylene glycol as laxative therapy in children with constipation related to anorectal malformation.

    PubMed

    Santos-Jasso, Karla Alejandra; Arredondo-García, José Luis; Maza-Vallejos, Jorge; Lezama-Del Valle, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is present in 80% of children with corrected anorectal malformations, usually associated to rectal dilation and hypomotility. Osmotic laxatives are routinely used for idiopathic constipation. Senna is a stimulant laxative that produces contractions improving colonic motility without affecting the stool consistency. We designed this trial to study the effectiveness of Senna versus polyethylene glycol for the treatment of constipation in children with anorectal malformation. A randomized controlled crossover design clinical trial, including a washout period, was conducted, including children with corrected anorectal malformations with fecal continence and constipation. The sample size was calculated for proportions (n=28) according to available data for Senna. Effectiveness of laxative therapy was measured with a three variable construct: 1) daily bowel movement, 2) fecal soiling, 3) a "clean" abdominal x-ray. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and a Fisher's exact test for the outcome variable (effectiveness). The study was terminated early because the interim analysis showed a clear benefit toward Senna (p = 0.026). The sample showed a normal statistical distribution for the variables age and presence of megarectum. The maximum daily dose of Senna (sennosides A and B) was 38.7mg and 17g for polyethylene glycol. No adverse effects were identified. Therapy with Senna should be the laxative treatment of choice as part of a bowel management program in children with repaired anorectal malformations and constipation, since the stimulation of colonic propulsion waves could lead to stool evacuation without modification of its consistency which can affect fecal continence. I - randomized controlled trial with adequate statistical power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and impact of constipation and bowel dysfunction induced by strong opioids: a cross-sectional survey of 520 patients with cancer pain: DYONISOS study.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, L; Béziaud, N; Labreze, L; Giardina, V; Caussé, C; Chuberre, B; Allaert, F A; Perrot, S

    2013-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients with cancer pain according to the Knowles-Eccersley-Scott symptom score (KESS), the different symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD), and to assess the impact of OIBD on patient's quality-of-life. A cross-sectional observational study, using the KESS questionnaire and the physician's subjective assessment of constipation, and other questionnaires and questions on constipation, OIBD, and quality-of-life, carried out on 1 day at oncology day centres and hospitals. Five hundred and twenty patients were enrolled at 77 centres in France; 61.7% of patients (n = 321) showed a degree of constipation that is problematic for the patient according to KESS (between 9-39). Even more patients, 85.7% (n = 438), were considered constipated according to the physician's subjective assessment-despite laxative use (84.7% of patients). Quality-of-life was significantly reduced in constipated vs non-constipated patients for both PAC-QoL (p < 0.0001 for total score and each dimension) and the SF-12 questionnaires (statistically significant for all dimensions except physical state and role physical). OIC and OIBD led to hospitalization (16% of patients), pain (75% of patients), and frequent changes in opioid and laxative treatment. This cross-sectional study, in a selected population of cancer patients, has measured prevalence and impact of OIBD. Further confirmation could be sought through the use of longitudinal studies, and larger populations, such as non-cancer pain patients treated with opioids. Cancer patients taking opioids for pain are very frequently constipated, even if they are prescribed laxatives. This leads to relevant impairments of quality-of-life.

  17. Contemporary understanding and management of reflux and constipation in the general population and pregnancy: a consensus meeting.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, G N; Heading, R C; Müller-Lissner, S; Kamm, M A; Schölmerich, J; Berstad, A; Fried, M; Chaussade, S; Jewell, D; Briggs, A

    2003-08-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and constipation have a major impact on public health; however, the wide variety of treatment options presents difficulties for recommending therapy. Lack of definitive guidelines in pharmacy and general practice medicine further exacerbates the decision dilemma. To address these issues, a panel of experts discussed the principles and practice of treating GERD and constipation in the general population and in pregnancy, with the aim of developing respective treatment guidelines. The panel recommended antacids 'on-demand' as the first-line over-the-counter treatment in reflux, and as rescue medication for immediate relief when reflux breaks through with proton pump inhibitors. Calcium/magnesium-based antacids were recommended as the treatment of choice for pregnant women because of their good safety profile. In constipation, current data do not distinguish a hierarchy between polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based laxatives and other first-line treatments, although limitations are associated with stimulant- and bulk-forming laxatives. Where data are available, PEG is superior to lactulose in terms of efficacy. In pregnancy, PEG-based laxatives meet the criteria for the ideal treatment. The experts developed algorithms that present healthcare professionals with clear treatment options and management strategies for GERD and constipation in pharmacy and general practice medicine.

  18. [Distribution characteristics of basic syndromes of chronic functional constipation and its related factors analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Liao, Xiu-jun; Yang, Guan-gen; Mao, Wei-ming; Zhang, Xiu-feng; Deng, Qun; Wu, Wen-jing

    2014-10-01

    To explore the distribution characteristics of basic syndromes and its related factors in patients with chronic functional constipation (CFC). The complete data of 538 patients with CFC were collected and initial database was established with Epidata 3. 0. TCM syndrome typing was performed. The distribution characteristics of basic syndromes were analyzed using SPSS 17. 0 Software. The univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed with SPSS 17. 0 Software to determine basic syndrome related factors such as age, engaged professionals, sleep quality, depression, mental stress, interpersonal relations, work fatigue, stimulating beverage, exercise conditions, Western medicine type of constipation, and so on. The TCM syndrome frequency of CFC patients was sequenced from high to low as qi deficiency syndrome (380 cases, 70.6%), qi stagnation syndrome (337 cases, 62.6%), blood deficiency syndrome (234 cases, 43.5%), yin deficiency syndrome (220 cases, 40.9%), yang deficiency syndrome (197 cases, 36.6%), and others(58 cases, 10. 8%) . Most patients were complicated with complex syndromes, and the most common complex syndromes were qi deficiency complicated qi stagnation syndrome (275 cases, 51.1%) and qi deficiency complicated blood deficiency syndrome (222 cases, 41.3%). Aging, work fatigue, and exercise conditions were main related factors for qi deficiency syndrome (P <0. 01, P <0. 05). Poor emotional (depression and anxiety tendencies), mental stress, interpersonal relations, defecation barriers constipation were main related factors for qi stagnation syndrome (P <0.01). Sleep quality and poor emotional (depression and anxiety tendencies) were main related factors for blood deficiency syndrome (P <0. 01, P < 0.05). Stimulating beverages were main related factor for yin deficiency syndrome (P <0.05). Engaged in mental work and slow transit constipation were main related factors for yang deficiency syndrome (P < 0. 01, P <0. 05). CFC is featured

  19. New ultrasonographic evaluation of stool and/or gas distribution for treatment of chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Noriaki; Kamada, Tomoari; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken

    2018-03-01

    The first aim of this study was to develop a new ultrasonographic method (US) to evaluate stool and/or gas distribution. The second aim was to apply this method to compare stool and/or gas distribution between healthy subjects and patients with chronic constipation and evaluate whether US parameters could be an alternative to the colonic transit time (CTT). We enrolled seven healthy volunteers (four men, three women; mean age 29.3 ± 5.2 years) who underwent US and computed tomography (CT) on the same day to evaluate the reproducibility of US results. We then enrolled 268 patients with chronic constipation (94 men, 174 women; mean age 63.3 ± 4.2 years) and 66 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (controls). The transverse diameters of four segments of the colon [ascending (AC), transverse (TC), descending (DC), and sigmoid (SC)] and the rectum (R) were measured, and their stool and/or gas distribution was evaluated using the constipation index (CI) [AC + TC + DC + SC + R/5] and left/right (L/R) distribution [(DC + SC)/(AC + TC)]. The CTT was assessed using radiopaque markers. All healthy subjects underwent US and CT successfully, with a sufficiently high reproducibility coefficient for this method and significant correlation between the US and CT parameters. The stool and/or gas distribution evaluated by US showed a significant difference in one of the US parameters between healthy subjects and patients, and the CI was an indirect indicator for the CTT. These findings may assist physicians evaluate stool and/or gas distribution of patients with chronic constipation, which is an indirect indicator for CTT.

  20. Diarrhoea, constipation and intestinal transit in a northern Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Fakunle, Y M; Ajagbonna, S O; Ani, O E; Awofeso, O

    1978-07-01

    Healthy Nigerians from Zaria have a short intestinal transit time. It is usual for them to open their bowels daily and their concept of diarrhoea and constipation differs widely from the standard medical definition. To avoid confusion care must be taken to inquire exactly what patients mean when they present with these symptoms.

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation: Fact and fiction

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Massimo; Gambaccini, Dario; Usai-Satta, Paolo; De Bortoli, Nicola; Bertani, Lorenzo; Marchi, Santino; Stasi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC) are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders. According to the Rome III Criteria these two disorders should be theoretically separated mainly by the presence of abdominal pain or discomfort relieved by defecation (typical of IBS) and they should be mutually exclusive. However, many gastroenterologists have serious doubts as regards a clear separation. Both IBS-C and FC, often associated with many other functional digestive and non digestive disorders, are responsible for a low quality of life. The impact of the media on patients’ perception of these topics is sometimes disruptive, often suggesting a distorted view of pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy. These messages frequently overlap with previous subjective opinions and are further processed on the basis of the different culture and the previous experience of the constipated patients, often producing odd, useless or even dangerous behaviors. The aim of this review was to analyze the most common patients’ beliefs about IBS-C and CC, helping physicians to understand where they should focus their attention when communicating with patients, detecting false opinions and misconceptions and correcting them on the basis of scientific evidence. PMID:26523103

  2. Targinact--opioid pain relief without constipation?

    PubMed

    2010-12-01

    Targinact (Napp Pharmaceuticals Ltd) is a modified-release combination product containing the strong opioid oxycodone plus the opioid antagonist naloxone. It is licensed for "severe pain, which can be adequately managed only with opioid analgesics".1 The summary of product characteristics (SPC) states that "naloxone is added to counteract opioid-induced constipation by blocking the action of oxycodone at opioid receptors locally in the gut". Advertising for the product claims "better pain relief", "superior GI [gastrointestinal] tolerability" and "improved quality of life" "compared to previous treatment in a clinical practice study (n=7836)". Here we consider whether Targinact offers advantages over using strong opioids plus laxatives where required.

  3. A systematic review of treatments for constipation in children and young adults undergoing cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert S; Gibson, Faith

    2008-11-01

    Constipation is a common problem in children and young people with cancer. Treatment of this complication is subject to wide variation in practice. We undertook a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to build a rational approach to prophylaxis and treatment of this complication. Randomized controlled trials of any intervention (pharmacologic, physical, complementary, or alternative) to prevent or treat constipation were to be included if they included children and young people 16 years old and younger who were undergoing treatment for malignancy. Of the 1336 abstracts retrieved from the searches, only 3 papers were identified for further assessment, and no studies were suitable for inclusion. There are no good data on which to base the management of constipation in children and young people with cancer. This is not to say that we do not know if laxatives work-they are clearly effective. Our ignorance is of the comparative value of different agents. The practical problems with undertaking specific trials of supportive care measures are large, and integration of such questions into treatment trials is essential.

  4. Biofeedback for treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Sue; Norton, Christine; Chiarelli, Pauline

    2014-03-26

    Biofeedback therapy has been used to treat the symptoms of people with chronic constipation referred to specialist services within secondary and tertiary care settings. However, different methods of biofeedback are used within different centres and the magnitude of suggested benefits and comparable effectiveness of different methods of biofeedback has yet to be established. To determine the efficacy and safety of biofeedback for the treatment of chronic idiopathic (functional) constipation in adults. We searched the following databases from inception to 16 December 2013: CENTRAL, the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane IBD/FBD Review Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, and PsychINFO. Hand searching of conference proceedings and the reference lists of relevant articles was also undertaken. All randomised trials evaluating biofeedback in adults with chronic idiopathic constipation were considered for inclusion. The primary outcome was global or clinical improvement as defined by the included studies. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, and adverse events as defined by the included studies. Where possible, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous outcomes and the mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. We assessed the methodological quality of included studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The overall quality of the evidence supporting each outcome was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Seventeen eligible studies were identified with a total of 931 participants. Most participants had chronic constipation and dyssynergic defecation. Sixteen of the trials were at high risk of bias for blinding. Attrition bias (4 trials) and other potential bias (5 trials) was also noted. Due to differences between study populations, the heterogeneity of the different samples and large range of different outcome measures, meta-analysis was not

  5. Abdominal massage for the alleviation of symptoms of constipation in people with Parkinson's: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    McClurg, Doreen; Hagen, Suzanne; Jamieson, Katharine; Dickinson, Lucy; Paul, Lorna; Cunnington, AnneLouise

    2016-03-01

    constipation is one of the most common non-motor features of Parkinson's affecting up to 90% of patients. In severe cases, it can lead to hospitalisation and is usually managed with laxatives which in themselves can lead to side effects. Abdominal massage has been used as adjunct in the management of constipation in various populations, but not in those with Parkinson's. the primary objective was to test the recruitment, retention and the appropriateness of the intervention methods and outcome measures. thirty-two patients with Parkinson's were recruited from three movement disorder clinics and were randomised to receive either 6 weeks of daily abdominal massage plus lifestyle advice on managing constipation (Intervention Group, n = 16) or lifestyle advice (Control Group, n = 16). Data were collected prior to group allocation (Baseline), at Week 6 (following intervention) and 4 weeks later (Week 10). Outcome tools included the Gastrointestinal Rating Scale and a bowel diary. constipation has a negative impact on quality of life. The study recruited to target, retention was high and adherence to the study processes was good. The massage was undertaken as recommended during the 6 weeks of intervention with 50% continuing with the massage at 10 weeks. Participants in both groups demonstrated an improvement in symptoms, although this was not significantly different between the groups. abdominal massage, as an adjunct to management of constipation, offers an acceptable and potentially beneficial intervention to patients with Parkinson's. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Banana Resistant Starch and Its Effects on Constipation Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Ji Hong; Cheng, Yan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Banana resistant starch (BRS) was extracted to investigate the structural properties of BRS, its effects on the gastrointestinal transit, and dejecta of normal and experimentally constipated mice. The mouse constipation model was induced by diphenoxylate administration. The BRS administered mice were divided into three groups and gavaged with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 g/kg body weight BRS per day. The small intestinal movement, time of the first black dejecta, dejecta granules, weight and their moisture content, body weight, and food intake of mice were studied. Results showed that the BRS particles were oval and spindly and some light cracks and pits were in the surface. The degree of crystallinity of BRS was 23.13%; the main diffraction peaks were at 2θ 15.14, 17.38, 20.08, and 22.51. The degree of polymerization of BRS was 81.16 and the number-average molecular weight was 13147.92 Da, as determined by the reducing terminal method. In animal experiments, BRS at the dose of 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was able to increase the gastrointestinal propulsive rate, and BRS at the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was found to shorten the start time of defecation by observing the first black dejecta exhaust. However, there were no influences of BRS on the dejecta moisture content, the dejecta granules and their weight, body weight, or daily food intake in mice. BRS was effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine and in shortening the start time of defecation, but did not impact body weight and food intake. Therefore, BRS had the potential to be useful for improving intestinal motility during constipation. PMID:25046686

  7. [Recommendations on therapy for chronic constipation--working group for functional diagnosis and psychosomatics of the austrian society of gastroenterology and hepatology].

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, H; Pfeiffer, J; Moser, G

    2011-02-01

    Constipation is one of the most frequent gastroenterological problems, especially among elderly people. Chronic constipation is now defined by the new Rome III criteria. Life style counselling is usually only effective in early stages of disease and for mild types. In patients with constipation one should actively screen for possible causative, medically adverse events. Recently new effective opioid antagonists were introduced to act against constipation in patients on long-term opioid therapy. If these actions fail, medical therapy with polyethylene glycol or lactulose should be favoured in the long-term treatment. Psychodiagnostic queries concerning fear should be included in the diagnostic procedures. Biofeedback is an effective therapy in these cases and especially with pelvic floor dyssynergia. Surgical interventions are rarely indicated or successful with the exception of chronic outlet obstruction with severe anatomic changes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Algorithms to identify colonic ischemia, complications of constipation and irritable bowel syndrome in medical claims data: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Sands, Bruce E; Duh, Mei-Sheng; Cali, Clorinda; Ajene, Anuli; Bohn, Rhonda L; Miller, David; Cole, J Alexander; Cook, Suzanne F; Walker, Alexander M

    2006-01-01

    A challenge in the use of insurance claims databases for epidemiologic research is accurate identification and verification of medical conditions. This report describes the development and validation of claims-based algorithms to identify colonic ischemia, hospitalized complications of constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). From the research claims databases of a large healthcare company, we selected at random 120 potential cases of IBS and 59 potential cases each of colonic ischemia and hospitalized complications of constipation. We sought the written medical records and were able to abstract 107, 57, and 51 records, respectively. We established a 'true' case status for each subject by applying standard clinical criteria to the available chart data. Comparing the insurance claims histories to the assigned case status, we iteratively developed, tested, and refined claims-based algorithms that would capture the diagnoses obtained from the medical records. We set goals of high specificity for colonic ischemia and hospitalized complications of constipation, and high sensitivity for IBS. The resulting algorithms substantially improved on the accuracy achievable from a naïve acceptance of the diagnostic codes attached to insurance claims. The specificities for colonic ischemia and serious complications of constipation were 87.2 and 92.7%, respectively, and the sensitivity for IBS was 98.9%. U.S. commercial insurance claims data appear to be usable for the study of colonic ischemia, IBS, and serious complications of constipation. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Impact of ao-dake-humi, Japanese traditional bamboo foot stimulator, on lower urinary tract symptoms, constipation and hypersensitivity to cold: a single-arm prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Tomonori; Saitou, Tetsuichi; Suzuki, Toshiro; Domen, Takahisa; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Masakuni; Hirakata, Shiro; Nagai, Takashi; Nakazawa, Masaki; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2016-12-09

    Ao-dake-humi is a traditional Japanese bamboo foot stimulator consisting of a half-pipe-shaped step made of bamboo used to stimulate the foot by stepping on it, and is commonly used to promote general health among the elderly in Japan. However, its efficacy has not been reported in the scientific literature. This study was performed to investigate the role of ao-dake-humi focusing on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), constipation, and hypersensitivity to cold (HC). Participants with LUTS, constipation, or HC were enrolled in this study. Ao-dake-humi was used twice a day for 28 days. Before and 28 days after starting ao-dake-humi use, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality-of-life (QoL) score, and overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) were measured to evaluate the efficacy of ao-dake-humi on LUTS. To evaluate the objective efficacy of ao-dake-humi on LUTS, a frequency-volume chart (FVC) was plotted in LUTS patients for 3 days. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the efficacy of ao-dake-humi on constipation (VAS-constipation) and HC (VAS-HC) in the participants with constipation or HC. A total of 24 participants were enrolled in this study. Twenty-one participants had LUTS, 11 had constipation, and 17 participants had HC. IPSS, especially storage-subscore, QoL score and OABSS, decreased significantly after use of ao-dake-humi. The use of ao-dake-humi increased maximal bladder capacity, resulting in a significant decrease in urinary frequency as determined from the FVC. In accordance with the results of VAS-constipation and VAS-HC, both constipation and HC were significantly relieved after ao-dake-humi use. The results of this prospective pilot study indicated that ao-dake-humi is safe and has therapeutic efficacy in cases of LUTS, constipation and HC. The possibility of using ao-dake-humi as physical neuromodulation therapy was shown in the management of LUTS, constipation and HC. UMIN000019333 (UMIN-CTR, Registered October-15

  10. Effect of dietary fiber on constipation: A meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Hai-Peng; Zhou, Li; Xu, Chun-Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of dietary fiber intake on constipation by a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946 to October 2011), Cochrane Library (2011), PubMed for articles on dietary fiber intake and constipation using the terms: constipation, fiber, cellulose, plant extracts, cereals, bran, psyllium, or plantago. References of important articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Articles were eligible for the meta-analysis if they were high-quality RCTs and reported data on stool frequency, stool consistency, treatment success, laxative use and gastrointestinal symptoms. The data were extracted independently by two researchers (Yang J and Wang HP) according to the described selection criteria. Review manager version 5 software was used for analysis and test. Weighted mean difference with 95%CI was used for quantitative data, odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI was used for dichotomous data. Both I2 statistic with a cut-off of ≥ 50% and the χ2 test with a P value < 0.10 were used to define a significant degree of heterogeneity. RESULTS: We searched 1322 potential relevant articles, 19 of which were retrieved for further assessment, 14 studies were excluded for various reasons, five studies were included in the analysis. Dietary fiber showed significant advantage over placebo in stool frequency (OR = 1.19; 95%CI: 0.58-1.80, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in stool consistency, treatment success, laxative use and painful defecation between the two groups. Stool frequency were reported by five RCTs, all results showed either a trend or a significant difference in favor of the treatment group, number of stools per week increased in treatment group than in placebo group (OR = 1.19; 95%CI: 0.58-1.80, P < 0.05), with no significant heterogeneity among studies (I2= 0, P = 0.77). Four studies evaluated stool consistency, one of them presented outcome in terms of percentage of hard stool

  11. Idiopathic slow transit constipation and megacolon are not associated with neurturin mutations.

    PubMed

    Chen, B; Knowles, C H; Scott, M; Anand, P; Williams, N S; Milbrandt, J; Tam, P K H

    2002-10-01

    Chronic idiopathic slow-transit constipation (ISTC) and idiopathic megacolon (IMC) are early-onset gastrointestinal motility disorders of unknown aetiology. The gene encoding the neurotrophic factor neurturin may be a candidate for these disorders, as neurturin-deficient mice have a similar enteric phenotype. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis. Genomic DNA from 26 cases of chronic idiopathic STC [with a family history of constipation in 15 (58%) and Hirschsprung's disease in two (8%)], and five cases of IMC [two familial (40%)] was screened by direct DNA sequencing using the fluorescent dideoxy terminator method. Results were compared with published sequence data and 24 control DNAs. Our results revealed several previously unreported common sequence polymorphisms, but overall frequencies were comparable between patients and controls. We conclude that mutation of neurturin is not a frequent cause of ISTC or IMC.

  12. Dietary fibre intakes and reduction in functional constipation rates among Canadian adults: a cost-of-illness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based research highlights beneficial impacts of dietary fibre on several aspects of the gut pathophysiology that are accompanied by a considerable financial burden in healthcare services. Recommended intakes of dietary fibre may thus associate with financial benefits at a population level. Objective We sought to systematically assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs that would follow the reduction in rates of functional constipation and irregularity with increased dietary fibre intakes among Canadian adults. Design A cost-of-illness analysis was developed on the basis of current and recommended levels of fibre intake in Canada, constipation reduction per 1 g fibre intake, proportion of adults who are likely to consume fibre-rich diets, and population expected to respond to fibre intake. Sensitivity analyses covering a range of assumptions were further implemented within the economic simulation. Results Our literature searches assumed a 1.8% reduction in constipation rates with each 1 g/day increase in fibre intake. With intakes corresponding to the Institute of Medicine's adequate levels of 38 g/day for men and 25 g/day for women, among 5 and 100% of the adult populations, anywhere between CAD$1.5 and CAD$31.9 million could be saved on constipation-related healthcare costs annually. Each 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre was estimated to result in total annual healthcare cost savings that ranged between CAD$0.1 and CAD$2.5 million. Conclusions The present research suggests an economic value of increasing dietary fibre intake beyond its well-known health benefits. Healthy-eating behaviours consistent with the recommended intakes of dietary fibre by the general public should hence be advocated as a practical approach for reducing costs associated with the management of constipation in Canada. PMID:26652739

  13. Childhood constipation as an emerging public health problem

    PubMed Central

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Crispus Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri; Benninga, Marc Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is a significant health problem in children and contrary to common belief, has serious ramifications on the lives of children and their families. It is defined by the Rome criteria which encourage the use of multiple clinical features for diagnosis. FC in children has a high prevalence (0.7%-29%) worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. Biopsychosocial risk factors such as psychological stress, poor dietary habits, obesity and child maltreatment are commonly identified predisposing factors for FC. FC poses a significant healthcare burden on the already overstretched health budgets of many countries in terms of out-patient care, in-patient care, expenditure for investigations and prescriptions. Complications are common and range from minor psychological disturbances, to lower health-related quality of life. FC in children also has a significant impact on families. Many paediatric clinical trials have poor methodological quality, and drugs proved to be useful in adults, are not effective in relieving symptoms in children. A significant proportion of inadequately treated children have similar symptoms as adults. These factors show that constipation is an increasing public health problem across the world with a significant medical, social and economic impact. This article highlights the potential public health impact of FC and the possibility of overcoming this problem by concentrating on modifiable risk factors rather than expending resources on high cost investigations and therapeutic modalities. PMID:27570423

  14. Childhood constipation as an emerging public health problem.

    PubMed

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Crispus Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri; Benninga, Marc Alexander

    2016-08-14

    Functional constipation (FC) is a significant health problem in children and contrary to common belief, has serious ramifications on the lives of children and their families. It is defined by the Rome criteria which encourage the use of multiple clinical features for diagnosis. FC in children has a high prevalence (0.7%-29%) worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. Biopsychosocial risk factors such as psychological stress, poor dietary habits, obesity and child maltreatment are commonly identified predisposing factors for FC. FC poses a significant healthcare burden on the already overstretched health budgets of many countries in terms of out-patient care, in-patient care, expenditure for investigations and prescriptions. Complications are common and range from minor psychological disturbances, to lower health-related quality of life. FC in children also has a significant impact on families. Many paediatric clinical trials have poor methodological quality, and drugs proved to be useful in adults, are not effective in relieving symptoms in children. A significant proportion of inadequately treated children have similar symptoms as adults. These factors show that constipation is an increasing public health problem across the world with a significant medical, social and economic impact. This article highlights the potential public health impact of FC and the possibility of overcoming this problem by concentrating on modifiable risk factors rather than expending resources on high cost investigations and therapeutic modalities.

  15. Effects of resistance and functional-skills training on habitual activity and constipation among older adults living in long-term care facilities: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chin A Paw, Marijke J M; van Poppel, Mireille N M; van Mechelen, Willem

    2006-07-31

    Large-scale RCTs comparing different types of exercise training in institutionalised older people are scarce, especially regarding effects on habitual physical activity and constipation. This study investigated the effects of different training protocols on habitual physical activity and constipation of older adults living in long-term care facilities. A randomized controlled trial with 157 participants, aged 64 to 94 years, who were randomly assigned to 1) resistance training; 2) all-round functional-skills training; 3) both; or 4) an 'educational' control condition. Habitual physical activity was assessed with a physical activity questionnaire and accelerometers. Constipation was assessed by a questionnaire. Measurements were performed at baseline and after six months of training. At baseline the median time spent sitting was 8.2 hr/d, the median time spent on activity of at least moderate intensity was 32 min/d. At baseline, about 22% of the subjects were diagnosed with constipation and 23% were taking laxatives. There were no between-group differences for changes in habitual physical activity or constipation over 6-months. Six months of moderate intensity exercise training neither enhances habitual physical activity nor affects complaints of constipation among older people living in long-term care facilities.

  16. Effects of Fermented Milk with Mixed Strains as a Probiotic on the Inhibition of Loperamide-Induced Constipation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Kook; Choi, In Suk; Kim, Jihee; Han, Sung Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a single bacterium and a mixture of bacteria as probiotics in loperamide-treated animal models, loperamide (3 mg/kg) was administered to SD rats to induce constipation. The individual lactic acid bacterial doses, Enterococcus faecium (EF), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Streptococcus thermophilus (ST), Bifidobacterium bifidum (BB), Bifidobacterium lactis (BL), Pediococcus pentosaceus (PP), and a mixture of the bacteria were orally administered to loperamide-induced constipated rats at a concentration of 10 8 CFU/kg for 14 days. The weights and water contents of their stools were found to be significantly higher in PP, CKDB (mixture of 5 strains except PP), and CKDBP (CKDB+PP) groups than in the normal (constipation not induced) and the control (constipation-induced) groups ( p <0.05). The intestinal transit ratio was significantly higher in all probiotic-treated groups than in the control group, and was the highest in the CKDBP group ( p <0.05). The mucosal length and mucus secretion were significantly improved in all probiotic-treated-groups, as compared to that in the control group, and the CKDBP group was found to be the most effective according to immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining and total short chain fatty acid content analysis ( p <0.05). Lastly, PP, CKDB, and CKDBP showed relatively higher Lactobacillus sp. ratios of 61.94%, 60.31% and 51.94%, respectively, compared to the other groups, based on metagenomic analysis.

  17. Nuclear transit studies of patients with intractable chronic constipation reveal a subgroup with rapid proximal colonic transit.

    PubMed

    Yik, Yee Ian; Cain, Timothy M; Tudball, Coral F; Cook, David J; Southwell, Bridget R; Hutson, John M

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear transit studies (NTS) allow us to follow transit through the stomach and the small and large intestines. We identified children with chronic constipation with rapid proximal colonic transit and characterized their clinical features. We reviewed NTS from 1998 to 2009 to identify patients with chronic constipation and rapid proximal colonic transit, defined as greater than 25% of tracer beyond hepatic flexure at 6 hour and/or greater than 25% of tracer beyond end of descending colon at 24 hour. This was correlated with clinical symptoms and outcome from patient records. Five hundred twenty children with chronic constipation underwent investigation by NTS, and 64 (12%) were identified with rapid proximal colonic transit. The clinical history, symptoms, and outcome in 55 of 64 available for analysis frequently showed family history of allergy (10.9%) and symptoms associated with food allergy/intolerance: abdominal pain (80%), anal fissure (27.3%), and other allergic symptoms (43.6%). Eighteen children were treated with dietary exclusion, with resolution of symptoms in 9 (50%). Some children with intractable chronic constipation have rapid proximal colonic transit, have symptoms consistent with possible food allergy/intolerance, and may respond to dietary exclusion. The NTS can identify these patients with rapid proximal transit that may be secondary to food intolerance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic Functional Constipation and Encopresis in Children in Relationship with the Psychosocial Environment

    PubMed Central

    Olaru, Claudia; Trandafir, Laura; Gimiga, Nicoleta; Olaru, Radian A.; Stefanescu, Gabriela; Ciubotariu, Gabriela; Burlea, Marin; Iorga, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Functional constipation is an issue for both the patient and his/her family, affecting the patient's psychoemotional balance, social relations, and their harmonious integration in the school environment. We aimed to highlight the connection between chronic constipation and encopresis and the patient's psychosocial and family-related situation. Material and Method. 57 patients with ages spanning from 6 to 15 were assessed within the pediatric gastroenterology ward. Sociodemographic, medical, and psychological data was recorded. The collected data was processed using the SPSS 20 software. Results. The study group consisted of 57 children diagnosed with encopresis (43 boys (75.44%) and 14 girls (24.56%)), M = 10.82 years. It was determined that most of the children came from urban families with a poor socioeducational status. We identified a level of studies of 11.23 ± 5.56 years in mothers, while fathers had an average number of 9.35 ± 4.53 years of study. We also found a complex relationship between encopretic episodes and school performances (F = 7.968, p = 0.001, 95% Cl). Children with encopresis were found to have more anxiety/depression symptoms, greater social problems, more disruptive behavior, and poorer school performance. Conclusions. The study highlights the importance of the family environment and socioeconomic factors in manifestations of chronic constipation and encopresis. PMID:27990158

  19. New Onset of Constipation during Long-Term Physical Inactivity: A Proof-of-Concept Study on the Immobility-Induced Bowel Changes

    PubMed Central

    Iovino, Paola; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Cirillo, Massimo; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Pisot, Rado; Ciacci, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathophysiological mechanisms underlining constipation are incompletely understood, but prolonged bed rest is commonly considered a relevant determinant. Aims Our primary aim was to study the effect of long-term physical inactivity on determining a new onset of constipation. Secondary aim were the evaluation of changes in stool frequency, bowel function and symptoms induced by this prolonged physical inactivity. Methods Ten healthy men underwent a 7-day run-in followed by 35-day study of experimentally-controlled bed rest. The study was sponsored by the Italian Space Agency. The onset of constipation was evaluated according to Rome III criteria for functional constipation. Abdominal bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency were assessed by a 100mm Visual Analog Scales and bowel function by adjectival scales (Bristol Stool Form Scale, ease of passage of stool and sense of incomplete evacuation). Daily measurements of bowel movements was summarized on a weekly score. Pre and post bed rest Quality of Life (SF-36), general health (Goldberg’s General Health) and depression mood (Zung scale) questionnaires were administered. Results New onset of functional constipation fulfilling Rome III criteria was found in 60% (6/10) of participants (p=0.03). The score of flatulence significantly increased whilst the stool frequency significantly decreased during the week-by-week comparisons period (repeated-measures ANOVA, p=0.02 and p=0.001, respectively). Stool consistency and bowel symptoms were not influenced by prolonged physical inactivity. In addition, no significant changes were observed in general health, in mood state and in quality of life at the end of bed rest Conclusions Our results provide evidence that prolonged physical inactivity is relevant etiology in functional constipation in healthy individuals. The common clinical suggestion of early mobilization in bedridden patients is supported as well. PMID:23977327

  20. New onset of constipation during long-term physical inactivity: a proof-of-concept study on the immobility-induced bowel changes.

    PubMed

    Iovino, Paola; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Cirillo, Massimo; Mekjavic, Igor B; Pisot, Rado; Ciacci, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlining constipation are incompletely understood, but prolonged bed rest is commonly considered a relevant determinant. Our primary aim was to study the effect of long-term physical inactivity on determining a new onset of constipation. Secondary aim were the evaluation of changes in stool frequency, bowel function and symptoms induced by this prolonged physical inactivity. Ten healthy men underwent a 7-day run-in followed by 35-day study of experimentally-controlled bed rest. The study was sponsored by the Italian Space Agency. The onset of constipation was evaluated according to Rome III criteria for functional constipation. Abdominal bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency were assessed by a 100mm Visual Analog Scales and bowel function by adjectival scales (Bristol Stool Form Scale, ease of passage of stool and sense of incomplete evacuation). Daily measurements of bowel movements was summarized on a weekly score. Pre and post bed rest Quality of Life (SF-36), general health (Goldberg's General Health) and depression mood (Zung scale) questionnaires were administered. New onset of functional constipation fulfilling Rome III criteria was found in 60% (6/10) of participants (p=0.03). The score of flatulence significantly increased whilst the stool frequency significantly decreased during the week-by-week comparisons period (repeated-measures ANOVA, p=0.02 and p=0.001, respectively). Stool consistency and bowel symptoms were not influenced by prolonged physical inactivity. In addition, no significant changes were observed in general health, in mood state and in quality of life at the end of bed rest. Our results provide evidence that prolonged physical inactivity is relevant etiology in functional constipation in healthy individuals. The common clinical suggestion of early mobilization in bedridden patients is supported as well.

  1. Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life Questionnaire: Translation, Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Validity of the Persian Version.

    PubMed

    Nikjooy, Afsaneh; Jafari, Hassan; Saba, Maryam A; Ebrahimi, Naghmeh; Mirzaei, Rezvan

    2018-05-01

    The Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) questionnaire is the most validated and the most specific tool for measuring the quality of life of patients with constipation. Over 120 million people live in countries whose official language is Persian. There is no reported Persian version of the PAC-QOL questionnaire yet. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the PAC-QOL questionnaire and to assess its reliability and validity among Persian patients with chronic constipation. Following the translation and cultural adaptation of the PAC-QOL questionnaire to Persian, 100 patients (mean±SD age=40.51±13.67) with constipation were recruited for validity measurement and 20 patients were re-examined for reliability. Content validity was assessed based on the opinions of an expert committee and the floor/ceiling effect. Construct validity was evaluated according to the hypothesis test. The SF-36 questionnaire was used for concurrent criterion validity, intra-class correlation coefficient for reliability, and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. The content validity of the PAC-QOL questionnaire was proven, and there was no floor/ceiling effect. Construct validity also was confirmed based on the hypothesis test. The overall Cronbach's alpha of the PAC-QOL questionnaire was 0.92 (range=0.72-0.92), and the overall intra-class correlation coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.88 (range=0.69-0.87). The correlation between the SF-36 and PAC-QOL questionnaires was moderate. The Persian version of the PAC-QOL questionnaire demonstrated good validity and reliability properties in chronic constipation. Accordingly, Persian researchers and clinicians can benefit from this questionnaire in further research and assessment of treatment outcomes.

  2. The effect of a sweet potato, footbath, and acupressure intervention in preventing constipation in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kai; Qiu, Jingbo; Wang, Xiaohua; Niu, Fenglin; Jiang, Tingbo

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a common health problem that adversely affects quality of life and the prognosis of hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The purpose of this study was to develop and test the sweet potato/footbath/acupressure massage (SFA) intervention as a safe treatment for prevention of constipation and to increase satisfaction with bowel emptying in hospitalized patients with ACS. The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial with a sample of 93 patients (SFA group, n = 44; usual care group, n = 49). Patients in the SFA group received SFA intervention combined with usual care. The results showed that there were statistical differences between the two groups in terms of (1) the incidence of constipation; (2) the use of laxatives and enemas; (3) patients' subjective satisfaction with their bowel emptying during hospitalization; and (4) sensation of incomplete evacuation and anorectal obstruction/blockade. The SFA intervention was more effective, economical, and practical than usual care alone in managing constipation and satisfaction with defecation in patients hospitalized with ACS.

  3. Long-Lasting Orthostatic Hypotension and Constipation After Celiac Plexus Block; A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yousefshahi, Fardin; Tahmasebi, Mamak

    2018-02-01

    This case report presents a 55 years old man, presented with abdominal pain and diagnosed with a metastatic pancreatic tumor, who developed long lasting orthostatic hypotension and constipation following a celiac plexus block.

  4. Comparison of polyethylene glycol 3350 and lactulose for treatment of chronic constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Gremse, David A; Hixon, Jamie; Crutchfield, Alysia

    2002-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and lactulose were compared in an unblinded, randomized, crossover design for treatment of constipation in 37 children aged 2 to 16 years. Subjects received lactulose (1.3 g/kg/d divided twice daily up to 20 g) or PEG 3350 (10 g/m2/day) for 2 weeks. PEG 3350 significantly decreased the total colonic transit time compared to lactulose (47.6+/-2.7 vs 55.3+/-2.4 hours, mean +/- SE, PEG 3350 vs lactulose, respectively, p = 0.038). The stool frequency, form, and the ease of passage were similar for each laxative. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is an effective laxative for the treatment of chronic constipation in children.

  5. Psychodynamic and biodynamic analysis of treatment of outlet obstructive constipation (OOC) using Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids (PPH).

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhensheng; Pang, Liqun; Dai, Weijie; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Yao; Li, Qianjun; Wu, Kun; Zhou, Baoxiang

    2015-07-01

    To discuss the possible pathogenesis of outlet obstructive constipation (OOC) and identify the theoretical basis of the Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids (PPH) used to treat outlet obstructive constipation (OOC). 19 patients diagnosed with outlet obstructive constipation (OOC) form the case group, and 9 healthy volunteers form the control group. Patients, before and after operation, and the control group, were equally given such tests as Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and anorectal dynamics. No significant difference in the functional lengths of anal canals was found between all groups (F = 0.98, p = 0.41). The minimum perception threshold, maximum tolerance threshold, and rectal defecation threshold of Group A, of 15 days after operation, were equally lower than those before operation, and than the control group (P < 0.05). These thresholds rebounded significantly in Group B 90 days after operation. Mentally, HAMA (F = 23.75, p = 0.00) and HAMD (F = 20.99, p = 0.00) total scores, after operation, were equally decreased first and then rebounded. Patients with outlet obstructive constipation (OOC) are subject to anorectal dynamic disorders as well as mental and psychological disorders, which can be remarkably improved using the Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids (PPH). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Probiotic Fermented Milk Containing Dietary Fiber Has Additive Effects in IBS with Constipation Compared to Plain Probiotic Fermented Milk.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Chul; Kim, Beom Jin; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Chang, Dong Kyung; Son, Hee Jung; Kim, Jae J; Rhee, Jong Chul; Kim, Soon Im; Han, Young Sil; Sim, Ki Hyeon; Park, Seok Nam

    2011-03-01

    Although controversial, probiotics and dietary fiber are commonly used for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We evaluated the effects of multistrain probiotics on the symptoms of IBS to determine whether the addition of dietary fi ber had an additive effect on constipation-predominant IBS. A total of 142 participants who met the Rome III criteria were recruited and randomized into a control group or a test group. Participants in the control group received multistrain probiotic fermented milk with Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium infantis; the participants in the test group received the same probiotic fermented milk mixed with dietary fi ber such as sea tangle extracts, radish extracts and glasswort extracts. The patients were treated for four weeks. Most of the symptoms of IBS, with the exception of fl atulence, stool consistency, and frequency of defecation, signifi cantly improved in both groups. In the analysis of IBS subtypes, especially constipation-predominant IBS, the frequency and duration of defecation and straining at stool were improved more in the test group than in the control group. Dietary fiber had additive benefits for the symptoms of constipation, especially in constipation-predominant IBS.

  7. [Clinical Advantages and Acupoint Selection of Treatment of Chronic Functional Constipation with Acupuncture Therapy].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2016-08-25

    Abundant clinical practice has showed that acupuncture therapy has some distinct advantages in the treatment of chronic functional constipation (CFC), such as faster positive effect, shorter course of treatment, long-term post-effect, etc. In the present paper, the authors reviewed progresses of researches in clinical treatment of CFC with acupuncture therapy in recent years. Results of clinical trials indicated that among the 3 types (slow transit, outlet obstruction and mixed type) of constipation, acupuncture therapy showed a better effect for slow transit constipation by improving severity, increasing defecation frequency, reducing abdominal distension, easing patients' psychological discomfort and raising daily life activity, probably by ameliorating colonic motility, enteric nervous system function and neurotransmitter secretion (vasoactive intestinal peptide, acetylcholine, substance P, nitrix oxide,etc.). Most of the chosen acupoints (ST 25, SP 15, SP 14, CV 6, BL 25, BL 23, etc.) are located in the projection region of colon. For outlet obstruction defecation, the effect of acupuncture is relatively better for chalasia type, in spite of generally being poorer in the efficacy. Majority of the selected acupoints (GV 1, BL 32, BL 33, BL 30, etc.)are located near the pelvic floor region. In addition, the clinical therapeutic effects of acupuncture need being confirmed by more large sample, multiple centers randomized controlled trials.

  8. Evaluation of constipation after parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Maria Luiza; Lordêlo, Patrícia; Farias, Tiago; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for the treatment of constipation in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). We treated 9 boys and 5 girls with a mean age of 8.07 ± 2.72 years. 10 (71.4%) had overactive bladder and 4 (28.6%) had voiding dysfunction. A total of 20 parasacral TENS sessions, 20 min each (10 Hz), were performed 3 times per week. The criteria used to assess constipation were the Rome III criteria for children, the Bristol Stool Chart, and a visual analog scale (pain from 0 to 10). The children were reassessed immediately after treatment. No specific treatment of constipation was performed. After treatment, 85.7% (p < 0.001) of the children's constipation symptoms had improved following the Rome III criteria. Parasacral TENS significantly impacted the following symptoms: "the presence of at least one episode of fecal incontinence per week", "history of stool retention", and "the presence of a large fecal mass in the rectum." There was no significant change in the Bristol Stool Chart evaluation (p < 0.25), but there was a significant improving trend in level of pain before and after treatment (p < 0.063). All urinary symptoms evaluated showed improvement after TENS treatment. There was a decrease in post-void residual urine. In this first study to evaluate the results of parasacral TENS on constipation in children with LUTD, satisfactory results were obtained for both complaints. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of probiotics as a treatment for constipation in elderly people: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Maria Isabel; Calabuig-Tolsá, Raquel; Cauli, Omar

    2017-07-01

    Treating constipation in elderly people remains a challenge; the administration of probiotics may be a valid therapy for this problem as an alternative to traditional drug-based treatments. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficiency of probiotics in treating constipation in elderly people. Articles related to this topic and published, without any time limitations, in the Medline, Embase, Scopus, Lilacs, or Cochrane databases were systematically reviewed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The primary search terms were 'constipation' and 'probiotics'. The main inclusion criteria were: 1) the article was original and the whole text was published in English or Spanish and 2) included the primary search terms in the title, summary, or body text; 3) the studies had to have included 60 or more participants defined as 'elderly' and 4) have specifically evaluated the effect of the administration of probiotics. Of the 475 articles consulted, 9 met the inclusion criteria. Among the selected studies, there were four randomised and placebo-controlled trials and the remaining five reports were observational. Overall, our analysis of the randomised and placebo-controlled trials suggests that administration of probiotics significantly improved constipation in elderly individuals by 10-40% compared to placebo controls in which no probiotic was administered. The strain of bacteria most commonly tested was Bifidobacterium longum. However, caution is needed when interpreting these reports because of the heterogeneity of the original study designs, populations, and the risk of bias. Therefore, further placebo-controlled trials are necessary to determine the most efficient strains, doses, and the optimal treatment duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prognosis of constipation: clinical factors and colonic transit time

    PubMed Central

    de Lorijn, F; van Wijk, M P; Reitsma, J; van Ginkel, R; Taminiau, J; Benninga, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Measurement of colonic transit time (CTT) is sometimes used in the evaluation of patients with chronic constipation. Aim: To investigate the relation between symptoms and CTT, and to assess the importance of symptoms and CTT in predicting outcome. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 169 consecutive patients (median age 8.4 years, 65% boys) fulfilling the criteria for constipation were enrolled. During the intervention and follow up period, all kept a diary to record symptoms. CTT was measured at entry to the study. Results: At entry, defecation frequency was lower in girls than in boys, while the frequency of encopresis episodes was higher in boys. CTT values were significantly higher in those with a low defecation frequency (⩽1/week) and a high frequency of encopresis (⩾2/day). However, 50% had CTT values within the normal range. Successful outcome occurred more often in those with a rectal impaction. CTT results <100 hours were not predictive of outcome. However, those with CTT >100 hours were less likely to have had a successful outcome. Conclusion: The presence of a rectal impaction at presentation is associated with a better outcome at one year. A CTT >100 hours is associated with a poor outcome at one year. PMID:15269069

  11. A retrospective audit on usage of Diatrizoate Meglumine (Gastrografin®) for intestinal obstruction or constipation in patients with advanced neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Heng, Sharon; Hardy, Janet; Good, Phillip

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction and constipation are common conditions in patients with advanced neoplasms. Diatrizoate Meglumine has been used in the management of both these conditions without good quality evidence of its effectiveness and safety. This audit aimed to assess the usage, effectiveness and adverse effects of Diatrizoate Meglumine for intestinal obstruction and constipation in patients with advanced neoplasms. A retrospective chart review was undertaken. Descriptive statistics were utilised. All patients with known advanced neoplasms admitted to Mater Health Services and St Vincent's Private Hospital Brisbane between January 2013 and October 2015; who were administered Diatrizoate Meglumine were included. Seventy-one patients received Diatrizoate Meglumine. The most common diagnoses were ovarian or primary peritoneal neoplasms (33.8%). Diatrizoate Meglumine was most commonly used for intestinal obstruction (59.2%). The median dose used per patient episode was 50 mL (range: 15-500 mL). Thirty-two patients (45%) had imaging 4-24 h post-dose with Diatrizoate Meglumine being present in the large intestine in 75% of these images. Intestinal obstruction or constipation resolved in 90% of patients post-dose. Most clinicians used 50 mL of Diatrizoate Meglumine as a single dose and repeated imaging after 4-24 h. Diatrizoate Meglumine was well tolerated and may be effective in resolving intestinal obstruction and constipation in patients with advanced neoplasms. Quality controlled studies are needed to further guide the use of Diatrizoate Meglumine in intestinal obstruction and constipation in patients with advanced neoplasms.

  12. The Efficacy of Functional Electrical Stimulation of the Abdominal Muscles in the Treatment of Chronic Constipation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Chronic constipation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is common and the current methods of treatment are ineffective in some patients. Anecdotal observations suggest that functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the abdominal muscles may be effective in the management of constipation in these patients. Patients and Methods. In this exploratory investigation we studied the effects of FES on the whole gut transit time (WGTT) and the colonic transit time (CTT). In addition, we evaluated the treatment effect on the patients' constipation-related quality of life and on the use of laxatives and the use of manual bowel evacuation. FES was given for 30 minutes twice a day for a period of six weeks. Four female patients were studied. Results. The WGTT and CTT and constipation-related quality of life improved in all patients. The patients' use of laxatives was reduced. No adverse effects of FES treatment were reported. Conclusion. The findings of this pilot study suggest that FES applied to the abdominal muscles may be an effective treatment modality for severe chronic constipation in patients with MS. PMID:27200190

  13. The immune-regulating effect of Xiao'er Qixingcha in constipated mice induced by high-heat and high-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang; Yang, Guang-Hua; Zheng, Rong-Bo; Yu, Xiu-Ting; Peng, Shao-Zhong; Xie, Jian-Hui; Chen, Jian-Nan; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Su, Zi-Ren; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-03-31

    Xiao'er Qixingcha (EXQ) has been extensively applied to relieve dyspepsia and constipation in children for hundreds of years in China. However, the therapeutic mechanism underlying its efficacy remained to be defined. The present study aimed to clarify the possible laxative and immune-regulating effects of EXQ on two models of experimental constipation in mice, which mimicked the pediatric constipation caused by high-heat and high-protein diet (HHPD). The two models of constipated mice were induced by HHPD or HHPD + atropine respectively. To investigate the laxative and immune-regulating activities of EXQ, animals were treated with three doses of EXQ (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/kg) for 7 consecutive days. The fecal output parameters (number and weight), weight of intestinal content and, the thymus and spleen indexes were measured. The levels of sIgA, IL-10, TNF-α and LPS in colon and serum were determined by ELISA. Furthermore, the pathological changes of colon tissue were examined after routine H&E staining. Both HHPD and HHPD + atropine treatments obviously inhibited the fecal output and reduced the colonic sIgA, prominently increased the levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in colonic tissue and elevated the contents of LPS in serum and colonic tissues. In contrast, oral administration of EXQ significantly improved the feces characters and dose-dependently decreased the intestinal changes in both models. In HHPD model test, EXQ efficaciously boosted the sIgA level in a dose-dependent manner, significantly elicited decreases in TNF-α and IL-10 levels, and evidently decreased the spleen and thymus indexes. In HHPD + atropine model test, EXQ treatment reversed the pathological changes by not only dramatically decreasing the spleen index and the levels of LPS and IL-10, but also markedly elevating the thymus index. Furthermore, microscopic observation revealed that EXQ treatment maintained the integrity of colonic mucosa, and protected the colonic tissues from inflammation in the

  14. Long-Lasting Orthostatic Hypotension and Constipation After Celiac Plexus Block; A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yousefshahi, Fardin; Tahmasebi, Mamak

    2018-01-01

    This case report presents a 55 years old man, presented with abdominal pain and diagnosed with a metastatic pancreatic tumor, who developed long lasting orthostatic hypotension and constipation following a celiac plexus block. PMID:29868459

  15. Characterization of Changes in Global Genes Expression in the Distal Colon of Loperamide-Induced Constipation SD Rats in Response to the Laxative Effects of Liriope platyphylla

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Eun; Park, So Hae; Kwak, Moon Hwa; Go, Jun; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Song, Sung Hwa; Sung, Ji Eun; Lee, Hee Seob; Hong, Jin Tae; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the changes in global gene expression in the distal colon of constipated SD rats in response to the laxative effects of aqueous extracts of Liriope platyphylla (AEtLP), including isoflavone, saponin, oligosaccharide, succinic acid and hydroxyproline, the total RNA extracted from the distal colon of AEtLP-treated constipation rats was hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays. The AEtLP treated rats showed an increase in the number of stools, mucosa thickness, flat luminal surface thickness, mucin secretion, and crypt number. Overall, compared to the controls, 581 genes were up-regulated and 216 genes were down-regulated by the constipation induced by loperamide in the constipated rats. After the AEtLP treatment, 67 genes were up-regulated and 421 genes were down-regulated. Among the transcripts up-regulated by constipation, 89 were significantly down-regulated and 22 were recovered to the normal levels by the AEtLP treatment. The major genes in the down-regulated categories included Slc9a5, klk10, Fgf15, and Alpi, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Cyp2b2, Ace, G6pc, and Setbp1. On the other hand, after the AEtLP treatment, ten of these genes down-regulated by constipation were up-regulated significantly and five were recovered to the normal levels. The major genes in the up-regulated categories included Serpina3n, Lcn2 and Slc5a8, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Tmem45a, Rerg and Rgc32. These results indicate that several gene functional groups and individual genes as constipation biomarkers respond to an AEtLP treatment in constipated model rats. PMID:26151867

  16. Preventive effect of resistant starch on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice

    PubMed Central

    QIAN, YU; ZHAO, XIN; KAN, JIANQUAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistant starch (RS) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were fed on diet containing 15% RS of type RS2, RS3 or RS4 for 9 days. Gastrointestinal transit, defecation time and intestinal tissue histopathological sections, as well as motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in serum were used to evaluate the preventive effects of RS on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was used as a positive control. The time to the first black stool defecation for normal, control, bisacodyl-treated (100 mg/kg, oral administration) and RS2-, RS3- and RS4-treated mice was 78, 208, 109, 181, 144 and 173 min, respectively. Following the consumption of RS2, RS3 and RS4 or the oral administration of bisacodyl (100 mg/kg), the gastrointestinal transit was reduced to 37.7, 52.1, 39.3 and 87.3%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice, respectively. Histopathological sections of intestinal tissue also underscored the protective effect of RS3. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with RS compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that RS has preventive effects on mouse constipation and RS3 demonstrated the best functional activity. PMID:23935751

  17. Randomised clinical trial: mixed soluble/insoluble fibre vs. psyllium for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, A; Rao, S S C; Thiruvaiyaru, D; Lee, Y Y; Coss Adame, E; Valestin, J; O'Banion, M

    2016-07-01

    Fibre supplements are useful, but whether a plum-derived mixed fibre that contains both soluble and insoluble fibre improves constipation is unknown. To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of mixed soluble/insoluble fibre vs. psyllium in a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Constipated patients (Rome III) received mixed fibre or psyllium, 5 g b.d., for 4 weeks. Daily symptoms and stool habit were assessed using stool diary. Subjects with ≥1 complete spontaneous bowel movement/week above baseline for ≥2/4 weeks were considered responders. Secondary outcome measures included stool consistency, bowel satisfaction, straining, gas, bloating, taste, dissolvability and quality of life (QoL). Seventy-two subjects (mixed fibre = 40; psyllium = 32) were enrolled and two from psyllium group withdrew. The mean complete spontaneous bowel movement/week increased with both mixed fibre (P < 0.0001) and psyllium (P = 0.0002) without group difference. There were 30 (75%) responders with mixed fibre and 24 (75%) with psyllium (P = 0.9). Stool consistency increased (P = 0.04), straining (P = 0.006) and bloating scores decreased (P = 0.02) without group differences. Significantly more patients reported improvement in flatulence (53% vs. 25%, P = 0.01) and felt that mixed fibre dissolved better (P = 0.02) compared to psyllium. QoL improved (P = 0.0125) with both treatments without group differences. Mixed fibre and psyllium were equally efficacious in improving constipation and QoL. Mixed fibre was more effective in relieving flatulence, bloating and dissolved better. Mixed fibre is effective and well tolerated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) for treatment of constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ruey Terng; Lee, Way Seah; Ang, Hak Lee; Teo, Kai Ming; Yik, Yee Ian; Lai, Nai Ming

    2016-07-05

    Childhood constipation is a common problem with substantial health, economic and emotional burdens. Existing therapeutic options, mainly pharmacological, are not consistently effective, and some are associated with adverse effects after prolonged use. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES), a non-pharmacological approach, is postulated to facilitate bowel movement by modulating the nerves of the large bowel via the application of electrical current transmitted through the abdominal wall. Our main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of TES when employed to improve bowel function and constipation-related symptoms in children with constipation. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) (1950 to July 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2015), EMBASE (1980 to July 2015), the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register, trial registries and conference proceedings to identify applicable studies . Randomized controlled trials that assessed any type of TES, administered at home or in a clinical setting, compared to no treatment, a sham TES, other forms of nerve stimulation or any other pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical measures used to treat constipation in children were considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of the included studies. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for categorical outcomes data and the mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% CI for continuous outcomes. One study from Australia including 46 children aged 8 to 18 years was eligible for inclusion. There were multiple reports identified, including one unpublished report, that focused on different outcomes of the same study. The study had unclear risk of selection bias, high risks of performance, detection and attrition biases, and low risks of reporting biases.There were no significant differences

  19. Effects of different oligosaccharides at various dosages on the composition of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in mice with constipation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linlin; Hu, Lujun; Yan, Shuang; Jiang, Tian; Fang, Shuguang; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2017-05-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different kinds of oligosaccharides (a fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) formulation consisting of 95% FOS (FOS95); a galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) formulation consisting of 90% GOS (GOS90) and an isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) formulation consisting of 90% IMO (IMO90)) at dosages of 0.8, 4 g per d per kg bw and 8 g per d per kg bw on the composition and activity of the microbiota in the gut of mice with constipation induced by loperamide. Oligosaccharides were intragastrically administered to specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice once per day for 17 days. Feces were collected during a feeding trial and subjected to 16S rDNA amplicon analysis. Constipation indices, changes in gut microbiota and metabolic activity were measured to evaluate the effects of the oligosaccharides. The results show that oligosaccharides treated constipation by increasing both the water content of the feces and the small intestinal transit rate. The dosage required to treat constipation was different for different oligosaccharides. High-dose GOS90 was the most effective in relieving constipation, followed by medium-dose FOS95 and IMO90. The fecal samples were investigated after the oligosaccharide treatment. All three oligosaccharides increased the ratio of acetic acid and decreased the ratio of propionic and butyric acids in the feces. The increase in the ratio of acetic acid and the concentration of butyric acid were found to have relatively larger effects on constipation. After treatment with oligosaccharides, the gut microbiotas of the mice were dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. At the genus level, oligosaccharide treatment increased the levels of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and decreased the levels of Odoribacter, Alistipes and Bacteroides. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that oligosaccharides administered as a dietary supplement increase the water content of feces, reduce intestinal transit time

  20. Colon Transit Time Test in Korean Children with Chronic Functional Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha Yeong; Kim, Mock Ryeon; Park, Hye Won; Son, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Each ethnic group has a unique life style, including diets. Life style affects bowel movement. The aim of this study is to describe the results of colon transit time (CTT) tests in Korean children who had chronic functional constipation based on highly refined data. Methods One hundred ninety (86 males) out of 415 children who performed a CTT test under the diagnosis of chronic constipation according to Rome III criteria at Konkuk University Medical Center from January 2006 through March 2015 were enrolled in this study. Two hundreds twenty-five children were excluded on the basis of CTT test result, defecation diary, and clinical setting. Shapiro-Wilk and Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were us