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Sample records for constitutive heterotrimer selectively

  1. Constitution, 1989. [Selected provisions].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Chapter XII of the Hungarian Constitution, 1989, details the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens. Everyone lawfully within the territory of Hungary has the right to liberty of movement and the freedom to choose his or her residence, except when restricted by law, including the right to leave his or her residence or county. The Republic of Hungary grants asylum to foreign citizens who were persecuted for racial, religious ethnic, linguistic, or political reasons. Men and women shall equally enjoy all civil, political, economic, social and political rights. Mothers are entitled to special care and protection before and after childbirth; women and juveniles are protected at work by special regulations. Every child has the right to special care an assistance from his or her family, the State, and society, for appropriate physical, spiritual, and moral development. Parents shall decide the kind of education their children receive. Hungary grants equal rights to all person within its territories, without regard to race, color, sex, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national, and social origin, property, birth and other status. Prejudicial discrimination shall be severely punished. Everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of employment and profession and to equal pay for equal work. Citizens have the right to social security, including social services necessary in old age, sickness, disability, widowhood, orphanhood an unemployment through no fault of their own. Hungary guarantees the right to culture for its citizens and realized this right by free and compulsory elementary education, by secondary and higher education which is accessible to all on the basis of capacity, and by the financial support of those receiving an education.

  2. Metal Ion-Assembled Micro-Collagen Heterotrimers

    PubMed Central

    LeBruin, Lyndelle Toni; Banerjee, Sunandan; O'Rourke, Bruce Delany; Case, Martin Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) provide critical insight into the assembly, stability and structure of the triple helical collagen protein. The majority of natural fibrous collagens are aab or abc heterotrimers, yet few examples of heterotrimeric CMPs have been reported. Previously CMP heterotrimers have only been accessible by total syntheses or by introducing complementary interstrand electrostatic or steric interactions. Here we describe an abc CMP heterotrimer in which each contributing CMP consists of only three amino acids: glycine, proline and 4-hydroxyproline. Assembly of the heterotrimeric triple helix is directed by a combination of metal-ion coordination to set the relative register of the CMPs, and minimization of valence frustration to direct heterotrimerization. Assembly of the four-component mixture is facile and extremely rapid, and equilibration to the abc heterotrimer occurs within a few hours at modestly elevated temperatures. The melting temperatures of the metal-assembled collagen trimers are higher by some 30 °C than the apopeptide assemblies. Two iterations of the design are described, and the outcomes suggest possibilities for designing self-assembling abc and abb heterotrimers. PMID:21590759

  3. Hydroxyproline-free single composition ABC collagen heterotrimer.

    PubMed

    Jalan, Abhishek A; Demeler, Borries; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2013-04-24

    Hydroxyproline plays a major role in stabilizing collagenous domains in eukaryotic organisms. Lack of this modification is associated with significant lowering in the thermal stability of the collagen triple helix and may also affect fibrillogenesis and folding of the peptide chains. In contrast, even though bacterial collagens lack hydroxyproline, their thermal stability is comparable to that of fibrillar collagen. This has been attributed to the high frequency of charged amino acids found in bacterial collagen. Here we report a thermally stable hydroxyproline-free ABC heterotrimeric collagen mimetic system composed of decapositive and decanegative peptides and a zwitterionic peptide. None of the peptides contain hydroxyproline, and furthermore the zwitterionic peptide does not even contain proline. The heterotrimer is electrostatically stabilized via multiple interpeptide lysine-aspartate and lysine-glutamate salt bridges and maintains good thermal stability with a melting temperature of 37 °C. The ternary peptide mixture also populates a single composition ABC heterotrimer as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This system illustrates the power of axial salt bridges to direct and stabilize the self-assembly of a triple helix and may be useful in analogous designs in expression systems where the incorporation of hydroxyproline is challenging.

  4. Retina Specific GTPase Accelerator RGS11/Gβ5S/R9AP is a Constitutive Heterotrimer Selectively Targeted to mGluR6 in ON-Bipolar Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yan; Masuho, Ikuo; Okawa, Haruhisa; Xie, Keqiang; Asami, Junko; Kammermeier, Paul J.; Maddox, Dennis M.; Furukawa, Takahisa; Inoue, Takayoshi; Sampath, Alapakkam P.; Martemyanov, Kirill A.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the R7 family of the Regulators of G protein signaling (R7 RGS) proteins form multi-subunit complexes that play crucial roles in processing the light responses of retinal neurons. The disruption of these complexes has been shown to lead to the loss of temporal resolution in retinal photoreceptors and deficient synaptic transmission to downstream neurons. Despite the well established role of one member of this family, RGS9-1, in controlling vertebrate phototransduction, the roles and organizational principles of other members in the retina are poorly understood. Here we investigate the composition, localization, and function of complexes containing RGS11, the closest homolog of RGS9-1. We find that RGS11 forms a novel obligatory trimeric complex with the short splice isoform of the type 5 G protein β subunit (Gβ5), and the RGS9 Anchor Protein (R9AP). The complex is expressed exclusively in the dendritic tips of ON-bipolar cells where its localization is accomplished through a direct association with mGluR6, the glutamate receptor essential for the ON-bipolar light response. While association with both R9AP and mGluR6 contributed to the proteolytic stabilization of the complex, postsynaptic targeting of RGS11 was not determined by its membrane anchor, R9AP. Electrophysiological recordings of the light response in mouse rod ON-bipolar cells reveal that the genetic elimination of RGS11 has little effect on the deactivation of Gαo in dark-adapted cells or during adaptation to background light. These results suggest the deactivation of mGluR6 cascade during the light response may require the contribution of multiple GTPase activating proteins. PMID:19625520

  5. Parasite Exposure Drives Selective Evolution of Constitutive versus Inducible Defense.

    PubMed

    Westra, Edze R; van Houte, Stineke; Oyesiku-Blakemore, Sam; Makin, Ben; Broniewski, Jenny M; Best, Alex; Bondy-Denomy, Joseph; Davidson, Alan; Boots, Mike; Buckling, Angus

    2015-04-20

    In the face of infectious disease, organisms evolved a range of defense mechanisms, with a clear distinction between those that are constitutive (always active) and those that are inducible (elicited by parasites). Both defense strategies have evolved from each other, but we lack an understanding of the conditions that favor one strategy over the other. While it is hard to generalize about their degree of protection, it is possible to make generalizations about their associated fitness costs, which are commonly detected. By definition, constitutive defenses are always "on," and are therefore associated with a fixed cost, independent of parasite exposure. Inducible defenses, on the other hand, may lack costs in the absence of parasites but become costly when defense is elicited through processes such as immunopathology. Bacteria can evolve constitutive defense against phage by modification/masking of surface receptors, which is often associated with reduced fitness in the absence of phage. Bacteria can also evolve inducible defense using the CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat, CRISPR associated) immune system, which is typically elicited upon infection. CRISPR-Cas functions by integrating phage sequences into CRISPR loci on the host genome. Upon re-infection, CRISPR transcripts guide cleavage of phage genomes. In nature, both mechanisms are important. Using a general theoretical model and experimental evolution, we tease apart the mechanism that drives their evolution and show that infection risk determines the relative investment in the two arms of defense. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The c-terminus of GRK3 indicates rapid dissociation of G protein heterotrimers

    PubMed Central

    Hollins, Bettye; Kuravi, Sudhakiranmayi; Digby, Gregory J.; Lambert, Nevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Signals mediated by heterotrimeric G proteins often develop over the course of tens of milliseconds, and could require either conformational rearrangement or complete physical dissociation of Gα βγ heterotrimers. Although it is known that some active heterotrimers are dissociated (into Gα and Gβγ) at steady-state, it is not clear that dissociation occurs quickly enough to participate in rapid signaling. Here we show that fusion proteins containing the c-terminus of GPCR kinase 3 (GRK3ct) and either the fluorescent protein cerulean or Renilla luciferase bind to venus-labeled Gβγ dimers (Gβγ-V), resulting in Förster or bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (FRET or BRET). GRK3ct fusion proteins are freely-diffusible, and do not form preassembled complexes with G proteins. GRK3ct fusion proteins bind to free Gβγ-V dimers but not to rearranged heterotrimers, and thus can report G protein dissociation with high temporal resolution. We find that heterotrimer dissociation can occur in living cells in less than 100 milliseconds. Under the conditions of these experiments diffusion and collision of masGRK3ct fusion proteins and Gβγ-V were not rate-limiting. These results indicate that G protein heterotrimers can dissociate quickly enough to participate in rapid signaling. PMID:19258039

  7. A novel phospholipase D2-Grb2-WASp heterotrimer regulates leukocyte phagocytosis in a two-step mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kantonen, Samuel; Hatton, Nathaniel; Mahankali, Madhu; Henkels, Karen M; Park, Haein; Cox, Dianne; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2011-11-01

    Phagocytosis is a primary innate response of both macrophages and neutrophils involving the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin)-rich protrusions that are extended around opsonized pathogens to form a phagocytic cup, resulting in their subsequent internalization. The molecular mechanism for this is still not completely understood. We now show for the first time that phospholipase D2 (PLD2) binds to growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) and to the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) to form a heterotrimer complex, PLD2-Grb2-WASp, and present the mechanism of interaction. Grb2 binds to the Y169/Y179 residues of PLD2 using its only SH2 domain, and it interacts with the poly-proline region of WASp using its two SH3 domains. The PLD2-Grb2-WASp heterotrimer can be visualized in early phagocytic cups of macrophages ingesting opsonized red blood cells, where it associates with polymerized actin. Cup colocalization and phagocytosis are disrupted with mutants that alter binding at either of the two proteins or by silencing Grb2 with RNA interference (RNAi). WASp association to PLD2-K758R, a lipase-inactive mutant, still occurs, albeit at lower levels, indicating that PLD2 plays a second role in phagocytosis, which is the production of phosphatidic acid (PA) and activation of phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase (PI5K) with subsequent synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). The latter can be blocked with RNAi, which negates phagocytosis. Lastly, a constitutively "open" active form of WASp (WASp-L270P) brings phagocytosis to its maximum level, which can be mimicked with WASp-WT plus PLD2 or plus PA. Since neither a protein-protein disruption nor lack of PLD activity completely negates cup formation or phagocytosis, we posit a two-step mechanism: PLD2 anchors WASp at the phagocytic cup through Grb2 following protein-protein interactions and also activates it, making key lipids available locally. The heterotrimer PLD2-Grb2-WASp then enables actin

  8. Three proliferating cell nuclear antigen homologues from Metallosphaera sedula form a head-to-tail heterotrimer

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Fumiya; Hirakawa, Hidehiko; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a sliding clamp that plays a key role in DNA metabolism. Genome sequence analysis has revealed that some crenarchaea possess three PCNA genes in their genome, but it has been reported that three PCNAs do not always form a unique heterotrimer composed of one of each molecule. The thermoacidophilic archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula, has three PCNA homologue genes. Here, we demonstrated that the three PCNA homologues, MsePCNA1, MsePCNA2 and MsePCNA3, exclusively form a heterotrimer in a stepwise fashion; MsePCNA1 and MsePCNA2 form a heterodimer, and then MsePCNA3 binds to the heterodimer. We determined that the dissociation constants between MsePCNA1 and MsePCNA2, and between MsePCNA3 and the MsePCNA1:MsePCNA2 heterodimer are 0.29 and 43 nM, respectively. Moreover, the MsePCNA1, MsePCNA2 and MsePCNA3 heterotrimer stimulated M. sedula DNA ligase 1 activity, suggesting that the heterotrimer works as a DNA sliding clamp in the organism. The stable and stepwise heterotrimerization of M. sedula PCNA homologues would be useful to generate functional protein-based materials such as artificial multi-enzyme complexes, functional hydrogels and protein fibres, which have recently been achieved by protein self-assembly. PMID:27228945

  9. In vitro, interaction of homotrimers with heterotrimers of type I collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sejin; Losert, Wolfgang; Leikin, Sergey

    2007-03-01

    The dominant mutations in type I collagen cause a group of diseases, often termed collagen, or connective tissue, diseases: for example, Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) characterized by bone fragility and skeletal deformity. The mechanism in which collagen mutations affect on the diseases is still unknown. To understand the fibril assembly and their interactions might provide a key to approaching the cause of the collagen diseases. This study demonstrates that the self-assembly, termed fibrillogenesis, of type I collagen homozygous mutations revealed substantial differences in the kinetics with the absence of lag time and in the morphology of 3D fibril network structure. The heterotrimers (normal) and homotrimers (mutant) in mixtures were segregated within the same fibrils during fibrillogenesis, in correspondence between confocal microscopy and thermodynamic measurements. The efficiency for self-assembly of the homotrimers into fibrils was markedly reduced, while that of the heterotrimers was not affected by the presence of homotrimers with no change in solubility.

  10. Localised and delocalised excitons in star-like squaraine homo- and heterotrimers.

    PubMed

    Ceymann, Harald; Balkenhohl, Moritz; Schmiedel, Alexander; Holzapfel, Marco; Lambert, Christoph

    2016-01-28

    Exciton coupling of localised chromophore states within covalently bound superchromophores is a viable strategy to modify optical properties such as spectral broadening and red-shifting of absorption bands. These are desirable properties for e.g. organic photovoltaic applications. Attaching three squaraine dyes to a central nitrogen core in a star-shaped manner leads to the formation of superchromophores that may form localised and delocalised excitons upon photoexcitation. In this work we investigated two homotrimers, two heterotrimers and a heterodimer formed by the combination of two different squaraines SQA and SQB. Due to exciton coupling the two homotrimers display a red shift of the main absorption band by about 1000 cm(-1) compared to their monomeric reference compounds. On the other hand, the heterotrimers show a broadening of the absorption spectra with three peak maxima at the exciton manifold band. In fluorescence experiments the homotrimers display signals similar to the emission of the monomeric compounds but red shifted. However, the heterotrimers and the heterodimer show, beside emission from the delocalised lowest energy state, an additional signal that overlaps strongly with the absorption. Excitation and time-dependent emission spectra of the hetero compounds indicate that this emission stems from a localised higher energy state. This interpretation is corroborated by transient absorption measurements with fs-time resolution.

  11. Crystal Structure of the Heterotrimer Core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK Homologue SNF1

    SciTech Connect

    Amodeo,G.; Rudolph, M.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis in mammals and is an attractive target for drug discovery against diabetes, obesity and other diseases. The AMPK homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as SNF1, is essential for responses to glucose starvation as well as for other cellular processes, although SNF1 seems to be activated by a ligand other than AMP. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.6 resolution of the heterotrimer core of SNF1. The ligand-binding site in the {gamma}-subunit (Snf4) has clear structural differences from that of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe enzyme, although our crystallographic data indicate that AMP can also bind to Snf4. The glycogen-binding domain in the {beta}-subunit (Sip2) interacts with Snf4 in the heterotrimer but should still be able to bind carbohydrates. Our structure is supported by a large body of biochemical and genetic data on this complex. Most significantly, the structure reveals that part of the regulatory sequence in the {alpha}-subunit (Snf1) is sequestered by Snf4, demonstrating a direct interaction between the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits and indicating that our structure may represent the heterotrimer core of SNF1 in its activated state.

  12. Study of a Vocal Feature Selection Method and Vocal Properties for Discriminating Four Constitution Types

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keun Ho; Ku, Boncho; Kang, Namsik; Kim, Young-Su; Jang, Jun-Su; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2012-01-01

    The voice has been used to classify the four constitution types, and to recognize a subject's health condition by extracting meaningful physical quantities, in traditional Korean medicine. In this paper, we propose a method of selecting the reliable variables from various voice features, such as frequency derivative features, frequency band ratios, and intensity, from vowels and a sentence. Further, we suggest a process to extract independent variables by eliminating explanatory variables and reducing their correlation and remove outlying data to enable reliable discriminant analysis. Moreover, the suitable division of data for analysis, according to the gender and age of subjects, is discussed. Finally, the vocal features are applied to a discriminant analysis to classify each constitution type. This method of voice classification can be widely used in the u-Healthcare system of personalized medicine and for improving diagnostic accuracy. PMID:22529874

  13. The effects of age and muscle contraction on AMPK activity and heterotrimer composition.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Shalene E; Hall, Derrick E; Cabrera, Alyssa J; Hancock, Chad R; Thomson, David M

    2014-07-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by increased skeletal muscle atrophy due in part to alterations in muscle metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of skeletal muscle metabolic pathways which regulate many cellular processes that are disrupted in old-age. Functional AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of α, β and γ subunits, and each subunit can be represented in the heterotrimer by one of two (α1/α2, β1/β2) or three (γ1/γ2/γ3) isoforms. Altered isoform composition affects AMPK localization and function. Previous work has shown that overall AMPK activation with endurance-type exercise is blunted in old vs. young skeletal muscle. However, details regarding the activation of the specific isoforms of AMPK, as well as the heterotrimeric composition of AMPK in old skeletal muscle, are unknown. Our purpose here, therefore, was to determine the effect of old-age on 1) the activation of the α1 and α2 catalytic subunits of AMPK in skeletal muscle by a continuous contraction bout, and 2) the heterotrimeric composition of skeletal muscle AMPK. We studied gastrocnemius (GAST) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles from young adult (YA; 8months old) and old (O; 30months old) male Fischer344×Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats after an in situ bout of endurance-type contractions produced via electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (STIM). AMPKα phosphorylation and AMPKα1 and α2 activities were unaffected by age at rest. However, AMPKα phosphorylation and AMPKα2 protein content and activity were lower in O vs. YA after STIM. Conversely, AMPKα1 content was greater in O vs. YA muscle, and α1 activity increased with STIM in O but not YA muscles. AMPKγ3 overall concentration and its association with AMPKα1 and α2 were lower in O vs. YA GAST. We conclude that activation of AMPKα1 is enhanced, while activation of α2 is suppressed immediately after repeated skeletal muscle contractions in O vs. YA skeletal muscle. These changes are associated with

  14. The effects of age and muscle contraction on AMPK activity and heterotrimer composition

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Shalene E.; Hall, Derrick E.; Cabrera, Alyssa J.; Hancock, Chad R.; Thomson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by increased skeletal muscle atrophy due in part to alterations in muscle metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of skeletal muscle metabolic pathways which regulate many cellular processes that are disrupted in old-age. Functional AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits, and each subunit can be represented in the heterotrimer by one of two (α1/α2, β1/β2) or three (γ1/γ2/γ3) isoforms. Altered isoform composition affects AMPK localization and function. Previous work has shown that overall AMPK activation with endurance-type exercise is blunted in old vs. young skeletal muscle. However, details regarding the activation of the specific isoforms of AMPK, as well as the heterotrimeric composition of AMPK in old skeletal muscle are unknown. Our purpose here, therefore, was to determine the effect of old-age on 1) the activation of the α1 and α2 catalytic subunits of AMPK in skeletal muscle by a continuous contraction bout, and 2) the heterotrimeric composition of skeletal muscle AMPK. We studied gastrocnemius (GAST) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles from young adult (YA; 8 mo old) and old (O; 30 mo old) male Fischer344 x Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats after an in situ bout of endurance-type contractions produced via electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (STIM). AMPKα phosphorylation and AMPKα1 and α2 activities were unaffected by age at rest. However, AMPKα phosphorylation and AMPKα2 protein content and activity were lower in O vs. YA after STIM. Conversely, AMPKα1 content was greater in O vs. YA muscle, and α1 activity increased with STIM in O but not YA muscles. AMPKγ3 overall concentration and its association with AMPKα1 and α2 was lower in O vs. YA GAST. We conclude that activation of AMPKα1 is enhanced, while activation of α2 is suppressed immediately after repeated skeletal muscle contractions in O vs. YA skeletal muscle. These changes are associated with

  15. Novel Bifidobacterium promoters selected through microarray analysis lead to constitutive high-level gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Kim, Jin Yong; Park, Myeong Soo; Ji, Geun Eog

    2012-08-01

    For the development of a food-grade expression system for Bifidobacterium, a strong promoter leading to high-level expression of cloned gene is a prerequisite. For this purpose, a promoter screening host-vector system for Bifidobacterium has been established using β-glucosidase from Bifidobacterium lactis as a reporter and Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 as a host, which is β-glucosidase negative strain. Seven putative promoters showing constitutive high-level expression were selected through microarray analysis based on the genome sequence of B. bifidum BGN4. They were cloned into upstream of β-glucosidase gene and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α and B. bifidum BGN4. Promoter activities were analyzed both in E. coli and B. bifidum BGN4 by measuring β-glucosidase activity. β-Glucosidase activities in all of the transformants showed growth-associated characteristics. Among them, P919 was the strongest in B. bifidum BGN4 and showed maximum activity at 18 h, while P895 was the strongest in E. coli DH5α at 7 h. This study shows that novel strong promoters such as P919 can be used for high-level expression of foreign genes in Bifidobacterium and will be useful for the construction of an efficient food-grade expression system.

  16. Formation of AAB-Type Collagen Heterotrimers from Designed Cationic and Aromatic Collagen-Mimetic Peptides: Evaluation of the C-Terminal Cation-π Interactions.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chu-Harn; Fu, Yi-Hsuan; Horng, Jia-Cherng

    2017-03-13

    Most of natural collagens are heterotrimers composed of two (AAB) or three (ABC) different peptide chains, and thus heterotrimeric constructs are preferable to mimic natural collagens. Exploring the forces to assemble synthetic collagen-mimetic peptides (CMPs) into heterotrimers has been an attractive topic in preparing collagen-related biomaterials. Here we designed and synthesized two cationic CMPs (CR and CK) in which multiple Arg or Lys residues are installed in their C-terminal region, and one aromatic CMP (CF) whose C-terminal end contains multiple Phe residues. Circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy showed that AAB-type heterotrimers could form in both CR-CF and CK-CF mixtures, suggesting that the C-terminal cation-π interactions between cationic and aromatic residues could serve as a nucleation force and substantially promote the folding of heterotrimers. In particular, only one major heterotrimeric fold was found in each mixture. For CR-CF mixtures, either the heterotrimer with two CR chains and one CF chain or that with one CR chain and two CF chains could form, depending on the molar ratios of CR to CF in solution. By contrast, in CK-CF mixtures only the heterotrimer consisting of two CK chains and one CF chain was found in solution even increasing the ratio of CF, implying that the heterotrimer composed of one CK chain and two CF chains is highly unstable. Additionally, differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the folding of these heterotrimers is governed by entropic effects. Together, our results provide a new design to prepare AAB-type collagen heterotrimers and reveal new insights into their folding thermodynamics.

  17. A new laboratory evolution approach to select for constitutive acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of causal mutations.

    PubMed

    González-Ramos, Daniel; Gorter de Vries, Arthur R; Grijseels, Sietske S; van Berkum, Margo C; Swinnen, Steve; van den Broek, Marcel; Nevoigt, Elke; Daran, Jean-Marc G; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid, released during hydrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks for second generation bioethanol production, inhibits yeast growth and alcoholic fermentation. Yeast biomass generated in a propagation step that precedes ethanol production should therefore express a high and constitutive level of acetic acid tolerance before introduction into lignocellulosic hydrolysates. However, earlier laboratory evolution strategies for increasing acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, based on prolonged cultivation in the presence of acetic acid, selected for inducible rather than constitutive tolerance to this inhibitor. Preadaptation in the presence of acetic acid was shown to strongly increase the fraction of yeast cells that could initiate growth in the presence of this inhibitor. Serial microaerobic batch cultivation, with alternating transfers to fresh medium with and without acetic acid, yielded evolved S. cerevisiae cultures with constitutive acetic acid tolerance. Single-cell lines isolated from five such evolution experiments after 50-55 transfers were selected for further study. An additional constitutively acetic acid tolerant mutant was selected after UV-mutagenesis. All six mutants showed an increased fraction of growing cells upon a transfer from a non-stressed condition to a medium containing acetic acid. Whole-genome sequencing identified six genes that contained (different) mutations in multiple acetic acid-tolerant mutants. Haploid segregation studies and expression of the mutant alleles in the unevolved ancestor strain identified causal mutations for the acquired acetic acid tolerance in four genes (ASG1, ADH3, SKS1 and GIS4). Effects of the mutations in ASG1, ADH3 and SKS1 on acetic acid tolerance were additive. A novel laboratory evolution strategy based on alternating cultivation cycles in the presence and absence of acetic acid conferred a selective advantage to constitutively acetic acid-tolerant mutants and may be applicable for

  18. Subunits of the Snf1 kinase heterotrimer show interdependence for association and activity.

    PubMed

    Elbing, Karin; Rubenstein, Eric M; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-09-08

    The Snf1 kinase and its mammalian orthologue, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), function as heterotrimers composed of a catalytic alpha-subunit and two non-catalytic subunits, beta and gamma. The beta-subunit is thought to hold the complex together and control subcellular localization whereas the gamma-subunit plays a regulatory role by binding to and blocking the function of an auto-inhibitory domain (AID) present in the alpha-subunit. In addition, catalytic activity requires phosphorylation by a distinct upstream kinase. In yeast, any one of three Snf1-activating kinases, Sak1, Tos3, or Elm1, can fulfill this role. We have previously shown that Sak1 is the only Snf1-activating kinase that forms a stable complex with Snf1. Here we show that the formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex requires the beta- and gamma-subunits in vivo. However, formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex is not necessary for glucose-regulated phosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop. Snf1 kinase purified from cells lacking the beta-subunits do not contain any gamma-subunit, indicating that the Snf1 kinase does not form a stable alphagamma dimer in vivo. In vitro kinase assays using purified full-length and truncated Snf1 proteins demonstrate that the kinase domain, which lacks the AID, is significantly more active than the full-length Snf1 protein. Addition of purified beta- and gamma-subunits could stimulate the kinase activity of the full-length alpha-subunit but only when all three subunits were present, suggesting an interdependence of all three subunits for assembly of a functional complex.

  19. Selection and characterization of Yersinia pestis YopN mutants that constitutively block Yop secretion.

    PubMed

    Ferracci, Franco; Schubot, Florian D; Waugh, David S; Plano, Gregory V

    2005-08-01

    Secretion of Yop effector proteins by the Yersinia pestis plasmid pCD1-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) is regulated in response to specific environmental signals. Yop secretion is activated by contact with a eukaryotic cell or by growth at 37 degrees C in the absence of calcium. The secreted YopN protein, the SycN/YscB chaperone and TyeA form a cytosolic YopN/SycN/YscB/TyeA complex that is required to prevent Yop secretion in the presence of calcium and prior to contact with a eukaryotic cell. The mechanism by which these proteins prevent secretion and the subcellular location where the block in secretion occurs are not known. To further investigate both the mechanism and location of the YopN-dependent block, we isolated and characterized several YopN mutants that constitutively block Yop secretion. All the identified amino-acid substitutions that resulted in a constitutive block in Yop secretion mapped to a central domain of YopN that is not directly involved in the interaction with the SycN/YscB chaperone or TyeA. The YopN mutants required an intact TyeA-binding domain and TyeA to block secretion, but did not require an N-terminal secretion signal, an intact chaperone-binding domain or the SycN/YscB chaperone. These results suggest that a C-terminal domain of YopN complexed with TyeA blocks Yop secretion from a cytosolic, not an extracellular, location. A hypothetical model for how the YopN/SycN/YscB/TyeA complex regulates Yop secretion is presented.

  20. Selective lignin downregulation leads to constitutive defense response expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    • Downregulation of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) reduces lignin levels and improves forage quality and saccharification efficiency for bioethanol production. However, the plants have reduced stature. It was previously reported that HCT-down-regulated Arabidopsis have impaired auxin transport, but this has recently been disproved. • To address the basis for the phenotypes of lignin-modified alfalfa, we measured auxin transport, profiled a range of metabolites including flavonoids and hormones, and performed in depth transcriptome analyses. • Auxin transport is unaffected in HCT antisense alfalfa despite increased flavonoid biosynthesis. The plants show increased cytokinin and reduced auxin levels, and gibberellin levels and sensitivity are both reduced. Levels of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids are elevated, associated with massive upregulation of pathogenesis and abiotic stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to fungal infection and drought. • We suggest that HCT downregulated alfalfa plants exhibit constitutive activation of defense responses, triggered by release of bioactive cell wall fragments and production of hydrogen peroxide as a result of impaired secondary cell wall integrity.

  1. Constitutional Law: Equal Protection--Sex Discrimination--Selective Service Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhl, Mary B.

    1976-01-01

    Examination of U.S. v. Reiser suggests that sex-based classifications should be subjected to close scrutiny regardless of whether men or women are harmed by the classification. The Reiser decision showed that discrimination in the Selective Service system is not necessary and that women are excluded merely for administrative convenience. (LBH)

  2. BAG3 induction is required to mitigate proteotoxicity via selective autophagy following inhibition of constitutive protein degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Rapino, F; Jung, M; Fulda, S

    2014-03-27

    Simultaneous inhibition of the two major constitutive protein quality control (PQC) pathways, that is, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the aggresome-autophagy system, has been suggested as a promising strategy to trigger cell death in cancer cells. However, we observed that one third of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells survives parallel inhibition of the UPS by Bortezomib and the aggresome-autophagy pathway by the cytoplasmic histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor ST80, and is able to regrow upon drug removal, thus pointing to the induction of compensatory pathways. Here, we identify Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) as a critical mediator of inducible resistance in surviving cells after concomitant blockage of constitutive PQC pathways by mitigating ST80/Bortezomib-triggered proteotoxicity via selective autophagy. ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment upregulates BAG3 mRNA and protein levels in surviving cells in addition to triggering the accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates. Intriguingly, knockdown of BAG3 by RNA interference severely impairs clearance of protein aggregates, significantly increases cell death and reduces long-term survival and clonogenic growth during recovery after ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment. Similarly, inhibition of autophagy by inducible autophagy-related protein 7 knockdown prevents removal of protein aggregates and cell regrowth during recovery after ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment. Also, the inhibition of lysosomal degradation using the V-ATPase pump inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 enhances accumulation of protein aggregates, and completely abolishes regrowth after Bortezomib/ST80-induced proteotoxic stress. By identifying BAG3 as a key mediator of inducible resistance by mitigating proteotoxicity via selective autophagy after inhibition of constitutive PQC systems, our study provides new insights into the regulation of PQC pathways in cancer cells and identifies new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  3. B-lymphocyte stimulator/a proliferation-inducing ligand heterotrimers are elevated in the sera of patients with autoimmune disease and are neutralized by atacicept and B-cell maturation antigen-immunoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family that regulate B-cell maturation, survival, and function. They are overexpressed in a variety of autoimmune diseases and reportedly exist in vivo not only as homotrimers, but also as BLyS/APRIL heterotrimers. Methods A proprietary N-terminal trimerization domain was used to produce recombinant BLyS/APRIL heterotrimers. Heterotrimer biologic activity was compared with that of BLyS and APRIL in a 4-hour signaling assay by using transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI)-transfected Jurkat cells and in a 4-day primary human B-cell proliferation assay. A bead-based immunoassay was developed to quantify native heterotrimers in human sera from healthy donors (n = 89) and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; n = 89) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 30). Heterotrimer levels were compared with BLyS and APRIL homotrimer levels in a subset of these samples. Results The recombinant heterotrimers consisted mostly of one BLyS and two APRIL molecules. Heterotrimer signaling did not show any significant difference compared with APRIL in the TACI-Jurkat assay. Heterotrimers were less-potent inducers of B-cell proliferation than were homotrimeric BLyS or APRIL (EC50, nMol/L: BLyS, 0.02; APRIL, 0.17; heterotrimers, 4.06). The soluble receptor fusion proteins atacicept and B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-immunoglobulin (Ig) neutralized the activity of BLyS, APRIL, and heterotrimers in both cellular assays, whereas B-cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family receptor (BAFF-R)-Ig neutralized only the activity of BLyS. In human sera, significantly more patients with SLE had detectable BLyS (67% versus 18%; P < 0.0001), APRIL (38% versus 3%; P < 0.0002), and heterotrimer (27% versus 8%; P = 0.0013) levels compared with healthy donors. Significantly more patients with RA had detectable APRIL, but not BLyS or heterotrimer

  4. Prevalence of MLH1 constitutional epimutations as a cause of Lynch syndrome in unselected versus selected consecutive series of patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillejo, Adela; Hernández-Illán, Eva; Rodriguez-Soler, María; Pérez-Carbonell, Lucía; Egoavil, Cecilia; Barberá, Victor M; Castillejo, María-Isabel; Guarinos, Carla; Martínez-de-Dueñas, Eduardo; Juan, María-Jose; Sánchez-Heras, Ana-Beatriz; García-Casado, Zaida; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Brea-Fernández, Alejandro; Juárez, Miriam; Bujanda, Luis; Clofent, Juan; Llor, Xavier; Andreu, Montserrat; Castells, Antoni; Carracedo, Angel; Alenda, Cristina; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Soto, José-Luis

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of MLH1 constitutional epimutations in the general population is unknown. We sought to analyse the prevalence of MLH1 constitutional epimutations in unselected and selected series of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients with diagnoses of CRC (n=2123) were included in the unselected group. For comparison, a group of 847 selected patients with CRC who fulfilled the revised Bethesda guidelines (rBG) were also included. Somatic and constitutional MLH1 methylation was assayed via methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification of cases lacking MLH1 expression. Germline alterations in mismatch-repair (MMR) genes were assessed via Sanger sequencing and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Loss of MLH1 expression occurred in 5.5% of the unselected series and 12.5% of the selected series (p<0.0001). No constitutional epimutations in MLH1 were detected in the unselected population (0/62); five cases from the selected series were positive for MLH1 epimutations (15.6%, 5/32; p=0.004). Our results suggest a negligible prevalence of MLH1 constitutional epimutations in unselected cases of CRC. Therefore, MLH1 constitutional epimutation analysis should be conducted only for patients who fulfil the rBG and who lack MLH1 expression with methylated MLH1. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Human-mouse interspecies collagen I heterotrimer is functional during embryonic development of Mov13 mutant mouse embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H; Bateman, J F; Schnieke, A; Sharpe, A; Barker, D; Mascara, T; Eyre, D; Bruns, R; Krimpenfort, P; Berns, A

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether the human pro alpha 1(I) collagen chain could form an in vivo functional interspecies heterotrimer with the mouse pro alpha 2(I) collagen chain, we introduced the human COL1A1 gene into Mov13 mice which have a functional deletion of the endogenous COL1A1 gene. Transgenic mouse strains (HucI and HucII) carrying the human COL1A1 gene were first generated by microinjecting the COL1A1 gene into wild-type mouse embryos. Genetic evidence indicated that the transgene in the HucI strain was closely linked to the endogenous mouse COL1A1 gene and was X linked in the HucII transgenic strain. Northern (RNA) blot and S1 protection analyses showed that the transgene was expressed in the appropriate tissue-specific manner and as efficiently as the endogenous COL1A1 gene. HucII mice were crossed with Mov13 mice to transfer the human transgene into the mutant strain. Whereas homozygous Mov13 embryos die between days 13 and 14 of gestation, the presence of the transgene permitted apparently normal development of the mutant embryos to birth. This indicated that the mouse-human interspecies collagen I heterotrimer was functional in the animal. The rescue was, however, only partial, as all homozygotes died within 36 h after delivery, with signs of internal bleeding. This could have been due to a functional defect in the interspecies hybrid collagen. Extensive analysis failed to reveal any biochemical or morphological abnormalities of the collagen I molecules in Mov13-HucII embryos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1690840

  6. Endocytotic elimination and domain-selective tethering constitute a potential mechanism of protein segregation at the axonal initial segment

    PubMed Central

    Fache, Marie-Pierre; Moussif, Anissa; Fernandes, Fanny; Giraud, Pierre; Garrido, Juan José; Dargent, Bénédicte

    2004-01-01

    The axonal initial segment is a unique subdomain of the neuron that maintains cellular polarization and contributes to electrogenesis. To obtain new insights into the mechanisms that determine protein segregation in this subdomain, we analyzed the trafficking of a reporter protein containing the cytoplasmic II–III linker sequence involved in sodium channel targeting and clustering (Garrido, J.J., P. Giraud, E. Carlier, F. Fernandes, A. Moussif, M.P. Fache, D. Debanne, and B. Dargent. 2003. Science. 300:2091–2094). Here, we show that this reporter protein is preferentially inserted in the somatodendritic domain and is trapped at the axonal initial segment by tethering to the cytoskeleton, before its insertion in the axonal tips. The nontethered population in dendrites, soma, and the distal part of axons is subsequently eliminated by endocytosis. We provide evidence for the involvement of two independent determinants in the II–III linker of sodium channels. These findings indicate that endocytotic elimination and domain-selective tethering constitute a potential mechanism of protein segregation at the axonal initial segment of hippocampal neurons. PMID:15302857

  7. Selective inhibition of chymotrypsin-like activity of the immunoproteasome and constitutive proteasome in Waldenström macroglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Roccaro, Aldo M.; Sacco, Antonio; Aujay, Monette; Ngo, Hai T.; Azab, Abdel Kareem; Azab, Feda; Quang, Phong; Maiso, Patricia; Runnels, Judith; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Demo, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition represents a valid antitumor approach and its use has been validated in Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), where bortezomib has been successfully tested in clinical trials. Nevertheless, a significant fraction of patients relapses, and many present toxicity due to its off-target effects. Selective inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like (CT-L) activity of constitutive proteasome 20S (c20S) and immunoproteasome 20S (i20S) represents a sufficient and successful strategy to induce antineoplastic effect in hematologic tumors. We therefore studied ONX0912, a novel selective, irreversible inhibitor of the CT-L activity of i20S and c20S. Primary WM cells express higher level of i20S compared with c20S, and that ONX0912 inhibited the CT-L activity of both i20S and c20S, leading to induction of toxicity in primary WM cells, as well as of apoptosis through c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibition, caspase cleavage, and initiation of the unfolded protein response. Importantly, ONX0912 exerted toxicity in WM cells, by reducing bone marrow (BM)–derived interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) secretion, thus inhibiting BM-induced p-Akt and phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (p-ERK) activation in WM cells. These findings suggest that targeting i20S and c20S CT-L activity by ONX0912 represents a valid antitumor therapy in WM. PMID:20110419

  8. Constitutional limits to the financing of health care in the Czech Republic and in selected European countries.

    PubMed

    Prudil, Lukás

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the constitutional limits to the financing of health care and especially of public health insurance in the Czech Republic. It describes the current situation in the financing of health care on the basis of the Czech constitutional order as it has been interpreted by the Constitutional Court. Finally it presents an overview of the incorporation of the right to health into the constitutional documents of several European countries with the stress on the right to receive health care "free of charge". It is not typical within the European region to specify in constitutional acts to what extent it is giving the right to health care free-of-charge or more precisely to what extent and for what groups health care is paid for by persons other than by the citizens (patients). The Czech Republic is one of the exceptional cases in which the basic right to health care free-of-charge on the basis of public insurance is given directly by the Constitution.

  9. The structural basis of the dominant negative phenotype of the Gαi1β1γ2 G203A/A326S heterotrimer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Jia, Ming-zhu; Zhou, X Edward; De Waal, Parker W; Dickson, Bradley M; Liu, Bo; Hou, Li; Yin, Yan-ting; Kang, Yan-yong; Shi, Yi; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric; Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Dominant negative mutant G proteins have provided critical insight into the mechanisms of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, but the mechanisms underlying the dominant negative characteristics are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the structure of the dominant negative Gαi1β1γ2 G203A/A326S complex (Gi-DN) and to reveal the structural basis of the mutation-induced phenotype of Gαi1β1γ2. Methods: The three subunits of the Gi-DN complex were co-expressed with a baculovirus expression system. The Gi-DN heterotrimer was purified, and the structure of its complex with GDP was determined through X-ray crystallography. Results: The Gi-DN heterotrimer structure revealed a dual mechanism underlying the dominant negative characteristics. The mutations weakened the hydrogen bonding network between GDP/GTP and the binding pocket residues, and increased the interactions in the Gα-Gβγ interface. Concomitantly, the Gi-DN heterotrimer adopted a conformation, in which the C-terminus of Gαi and the N-termini of both the Gβ and Gγ subunits were more similar to the GPCR-bound state compared with the wild type complex. From these structural observations, two additional mutations (T48F and D272F) were designed that completely abolish the GDP binding of the Gi-DN heterotrimer. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that the mutations impede guanine nucleotide binding and Gα-Gβγ protein dissociation and favor the formation of the G protein/GPCR complex, thus blocking signal propagation. In addition, the structure provides a rationale for the design of other mutations that cause dominant negative effects in the G protein, as exemplified by the T48F and D272F mutations. PMID:27498775

  10. Selection for low dormancy in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) seeds results in high constitutive expression of a glucose-responsive α-amylase isoform.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Danica E; Powles, Stephen B

    2012-12-01

    α-Amylase in grass caryopses (seeds) is usually expressed upon commencement of germination and is rarely seen in dry, mature seeds. A heat-stable α-amylase activity was unexpectedly selected for expression in dry annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) seeds during targeted selection for low primary dormancy. The aim of this study was to characterize this constitutive activity biochemically and determine if its presence conferred insensitivity to the germination inhibitors abscisic acid and benzoxazolinone. α-Amylase activity in developing, mature and germinating seeds from the selected (low-dormancy) and a field-collected (dormant) population was characterized by native activity PAGE. The response of seed germination and α-amylase activity to abscisic acid and benzoxazolinone was assessed. Using an alginate affinity matrix, α-amylase was purified from dry and germinating seeds for analysis of its enzymatic properties. The constitutive α-amylase activity appeared late during seed development and was mainly localized in the aleurone; in germinating seeds, this activity was responsive to both glucose and gibberellin. It migrated differently on native PAGE compared with the major activities in germinating seeds of the dormant population, but the enzymatic properties of α-amylase purified from the low-dormancy and dormant seeds were largely indistinguishable. Seed imbibition on benzoxazolinone had little effect on the low-dormancy seeds but greatly inhibited germination and α-amylase activity in the dormant population. The constitutive α-amylase activity in annual ryegrass seeds selected for low dormancy is electrophoretically different from that in germinating seeds and its presence confers insensitivity to benzoxazolinone. The concurrent selection of low dormancy and constitutive α-amylase activity may help to enhance seedling establishment under competitive conditions.

  11. Selection for low dormancy in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) seeds results in high constitutive expression of a glucose-responsive α-amylase isoform

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Powles, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims α-Amylase in grass caryopses (seeds) is usually expressed upon commencement of germination and is rarely seen in dry, mature seeds. A heat-stable α-amylase activity was unexpectedly selected for expression in dry annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) seeds during targeted selection for low primary dormancy. The aim of this study was to characterize this constitutive activity biochemically and determine if its presence conferred insensitivity to the germination inhibitors abscisic acid and benzoxazolinone. Methods α-Amylase activity in developing, mature and germinating seeds from the selected (low-dormancy) and a field-collected (dormant) population was characterized by native activity PAGE. The response of seed germination and α-amylase activity to abscisic acid and benzoxazolinone was assessed. Using an alginate affinity matrix, α-amylase was purified from dry and germinating seeds for analysis of its enzymatic properties. Key Results The constitutive α-amylase activity appeared late during seed development and was mainly localized in the aleurone; in germinating seeds, this activity was responsive to both glucose and gibberellin. It migrated differently on native PAGE compared with the major activities in germinating seeds of the dormant population, but the enzymatic properties of α-amylase purified from the low-dormancy and dormant seeds were largely indistinguishable. Seed imbibition on benzoxazolinone had little effect on the low-dormancy seeds but greatly inhibited germination and α-amylase activity in the dormant population. Conclusions The constitutive α-amylase activity in annual ryegrass seeds selected for low dormancy is electrophoretically different from that in germinating seeds and its presence confers insensitivity to benzoxazolinone. The concurrent selection of low dormancy and constitutive α-amylase activity may help to enhance seedling establishment under competitive conditions. PMID:23002268

  12. NADP+ Binding to the Regulatory Subunit of Methionine Adenosyltransferase II Increases Intersubunit Binding Affinity in the Hetero-Trimer

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Rebeca; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Pérez-Pertejo, Yolanda; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Pajares, María A.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian methionine adenosyltransferase II (MAT II) is the only hetero-oligomer in this family of enzymes that synthesize S-adenosylmethionine using methionine and ATP as substrates. Binding of regulatory β subunits and catalytic α2 dimers is known to increase the affinity for methionine, although scarce additional information about this interaction is available. This work reports the use of recombinant α2 and β subunits to produce oligomers showing kinetic parameters comparable to MAT II purified from several tissues. According to isothermal titration calorimetry data and densitometric scanning of the stained hetero-oligomer bands on denatured gels, the composition of these oligomers is that of a hetero-trimer with α2 dimers associated to single β subunits. Additionally, the regulatory subunit is able to bind NADP+ with a 1∶1 stoichiometry, the cofactor enhancing β to α2-dimer binding affinity. Mutants lacking residues involved in NADP+ binding and N-terminal truncations of the β subunit were able to oligomerize with α2-dimers, although the kinetic properties appeared altered. These data together suggest a role for both parts of the sequence in the regulatory role exerted by the β subunit on catalysis. Moreover, preparation of a structural model for the hetero-oligomer, using the available crystal data, allowed prediction of the regions involved in β to α2-dimer interaction. Finally, the implications that the presence of different N-terminals in the β subunit could have on MAT II behavior are discussed in light of the recent identification of several splicing forms of this subunit in hepatoma cells. PMID:23189196

  13. NADP+ binding to the regulatory subunit of methionine adenosyltransferase II increases intersubunit binding affinity in the hetero-trimer.

    PubMed

    González, Beatriz; Garrido, Francisco; Ortega, Rebeca; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Pérez-Pertejo, Yolanda; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Pajares, María A

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian methionine adenosyltransferase II (MAT II) is the only hetero-oligomer in this family of enzymes that synthesize S-adenosylmethionine using methionine and ATP as substrates. Binding of regulatory β subunits and catalytic α2 dimers is known to increase the affinity for methionine, although scarce additional information about this interaction is available. This work reports the use of recombinant α2 and β subunits to produce oligomers showing kinetic parameters comparable to MAT II purified from several tissues. According to isothermal titration calorimetry data and densitometric scanning of the stained hetero-oligomer bands on denatured gels, the composition of these oligomers is that of a hetero-trimer with α2 dimers associated to single β subunits. Additionally, the regulatory subunit is able to bind NADP(+) with a 1:1 stoichiometry, the cofactor enhancing β to α2-dimer binding affinity. Mutants lacking residues involved in NADP(+) binding and N-terminal truncations of the β subunit were able to oligomerize with α2-dimers, although the kinetic properties appeared altered. These data together suggest a role for both parts of the sequence in the regulatory role exerted by the β subunit on catalysis. Moreover, preparation of a structural model for the hetero-oligomer, using the available crystal data, allowed prediction of the regions involved in β to α2-dimer interaction. Finally, the implications that the presence of different N-terminals in the β subunit could have on MAT II behavior are discussed in light of the recent identification of several splicing forms of this subunit in hepatoma cells.

  14. Detection of receptor ligands by monitoring selective stabilization of a Renilla luciferase-tagged, constitutively active mutant, G-protein-coupled receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Douglas; Bevan, Nicola; Rees, Stephen; Milligan, Graeme

    2001-01-01

    The wild-type β2-adrenoceptor and a constitutively active mutant of this receptor were C-terminally tagged with luciferase from the sea pansy Renilla reniformis. C-terminal addition of Renilla luciferase did not substantially alter the levels of expression of either form of the receptor, the elevated constitutive activity of the mutant β2-adrenoceptor nor the capacity of isoprenaline to elevate cyclic AMP levels in intact cells expressing these constructs. Treatment of cells expressing constitutively active mutant β2-adrenoceptor-Renilla luciferase with antagonist/inverse agonist ligands resulted in upregulation of levels of this polypeptide which could be monitored by the elevated luciferase activity. The pEC50 for ligand-induced luciferase upregulation and ligand affinity to bind the receptor were highly correlated. Similar upregulation could be observed following sustained treatment with agonist ligands. These effects were only observed at a constitutively active mutant of the β2-adrenoceptor. Co-expression of the wild-type β2-adrenoceptor C-terminally tagged with the luciferase from Photinus pyralis did not result in ligand-induced upregulation of the levels of activity of this luciferase. Co-expression of the constitutively active mutant β2-adrenoceptor-Renilla luciferase and an equivalent mutant of the α1b-adrenoceptor C-terminally tagged with green fluorescent protein allowed pharmacological selectivity of adrenoceptor antagonists to be demonstrated. This approach offers a sensitive and convenient means, which is amenable to high throughput analysis, to monitor ligand binding to a constitutively active mutant receptor. As no prior knowledge of receptor ligands is required this approach may be suitable to identify ligands at orphan G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:11350868

  15. Molecular analysis of constitutively expressed erm(C) genes selected in vitro in the presence of the non-inducers pirlimycin, spiramycin and tylosin.

    PubMed

    Lüthje, Petra; Schwarz, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    As known from other lincosamides and 16-membered macrolides, the antimicrobial agents pirlimycin, spiramycin and tylosin, which are frequently used for the therapy of bovine mastitis, cannot induce the expression of the resistance gene erm(C). The aim of this study was to confirm the ability of these three non-inducers to select for constitutively expressed erm(C) mutants in Staphylococcus aureus. A S. aureus strain carrying an inducibly expressed erm(C) gene was incubated on agar plates containing inhibitory concentrations of each of the three antimicrobial agents. The erm(C) regulatory region of mutants obtained after overnight incubation was amplified by PCR; selected amplicons were sequenced and compared with the wild-type sequence. Mutants developed in the presence of each of the three antimicrobial agents. Constitutive expression of erm(C) was due to variations in the erm(C) regulatory region. A total of 10 different types of deletions ranging in size between 16 and 121 bp as well as 20 different types of duplications ranging between 24 and 602 bp were detected. The frequencies by which sequence alterations occurred as well as the types of alterations detected varied with regard to the antimicrobial agents used for selection. All sequence alterations observed explained constitutive erm(C) gene expression by functional inactivation of translational attenuation. In order to prevent the development of constitutively resistant isolates under therapy, the results of this study support the recommendation not to use lincosamides or 16-membered macrolides for the control of staphylococcal infections caused by strains harbouring inducibly expressed erm(C) genes.

  16. Intensive herbicide use has selected for constitutively elevated levels of stress-responsive mRNAs and proteins in multiple herbicide-resistant Avena fatua L.

    PubMed

    Keith, Barbara K; Burns, Erin E; Bothner, Brian; Carey, Charles C; Mazurie, Aurélien J; Hilmer, Jonathan K; Biyiklioglu, Sezgi; Budak, Hikmet; Dyer, William E

    2017-05-09

    Intensive use of herbicides has led to the evolution of two multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) Avena fatua (wild oat) populations in Montana that are resistant to members of all selective herbicide families available for A. fatua control in US small grain crops. We used transcriptome and proteome surveys to compare constitutive changes in MHR and herbicide-susceptible (HS) plants associated with non-target site resistance. Compared to HS plants, MHR plants contained constitutively elevated levels of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with functions in xenobiotic catabolism, stress response, redox maintenance and transcriptional regulation that are similar to abiotic stress-tolerant phenotypes. Proteome comparisons identified similarly elevated proteins including biosynthetic and multifunctional enzymes in MHR plants. Of 25 DEGs validated by RT-qPCR assay, differential regulation of 21 co-segregated with flucarbazone-sodium herbicide resistance in F3 families, and a subset of 10 of these were induced or repressed in herbicide-treated HS plants. Although the individual and collective contributions of these DEGs and proteins to MHR remain to be determined, our results support the idea that intensive herbicide use has selected for MHR populations with altered, constitutively regulated patterns of gene expression that are similar to those in abiotic stress-tolerant plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Constitutional Conservatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    After their dismal performance in election 2008, conservatives are taking stock. As they examine the causes that have driven them into the political wilderness and as they explore paths out, they should also take heart. After all, election 2008 shows that America's constitutional order is working as designed. Indeed, while sorting out their errors…

  18. Nonsterol Isoprenoids Activate Human Constitutive Androstane Receptor in an Isoform-Selective Manner in Primary Cultured Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rondini, Elizabeth A.; Duniec-Dmuchowski, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory previously reported that accumulation of nonsterol isoprenoids following treatment with the squalene synthase inhibitor, squalestatin 1 (SQ1) markedly induced cytochrome P450 (CYP)2B1 mRNA and reporter activity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes, which was dependent on activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether isoprenoids likewise activate murine CAR (mCAR) or one or more isoforms of human CAR (hCAR) produced by alternative splicing (SPTV, hCAR2; APYLT, hCAR3). We found that SQ1 significantly induced Cyp2b10 mRNA (∼3.5-fold) in primary hepatocytes isolated from both CAR–wild-type and humanized CAR transgenic mice, whereas the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor pravastatin had no effect. In the absence of CAR, basal Cyp2b10 mRNA levels were reduced by 28-fold and the effect of SQ1 on Cyp2b10 induction was attenuated. Cotransfection with an expression plasmid for hCAR1, but not hCAR2 or hCAR3, mediated SQ1-induced CYP2B1 and CYP2B6 reporter activation in hepatocytes isolated from CAR-knockout mice. This effect was also observed following treatment with the isoprenoid trans,trans-farnesol. The direct agonist CITCO increased interaction of hCAR1, hCAR2, and hCAR3 with steroid receptor coactivator-1. However, no significant effect on coactivator recruitment was observed with SQ1, suggesting an indirect activation mechanism. Further results from an in vitro ligand binding assay demonstrated that neither farnesol nor other isoprenoids are direct ligands for hCAR1. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that SQ1 activates CYP2B transcriptional responses through farnesol metabolism in an hCAR1-dependent manner. Further, this effect probably occurs through an indirect mechanism. PMID:26798158

  19. High-efficiency transformation and selective tolerance against biotic and abiotic stress in mulberry, Morus indica cv. K2, by constitutive and inducible expression of tobacco osmotin.

    PubMed

    Das, Manaswini; Chauhan, Harsh; Chhibbar, Anju; Rizwanul Haq, Qazi Mohd; Khurana, Paramjit

    2011-04-01

    Osmotin and osmotin-like proteins are stress proteins belonging to the plant PR-5 group of proteins induced in several plant species in response to various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. We report here the overexpression of tobacco osmotin in transgenic mulberry plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (CaMV 35S) as well as a stress-inducible rd29A promoter. Southern analysis of the transgenic plants revealed the stable integration of the introduced genes in the transformants. Real-time PCR analysis provided evidence for the expression of osmotin in the transgenic plants under both the constitutive and stress-inducible promoters. Transgenic plants with the stress-inducible promoter were observed to better tolerate salt and drought stress than those with the constitutive promoter. Transgenic plants when subjected to simulated salinity and drought stress conditions showed better cellular membrane stability (CMS) and photosynthetic yield than non-transgenic plants under conditions of both salinity and drought stress. Proline levels were very high in transgenic plants with the constitutive promoter relative to those with the stress-inducible promoter. Fungal challenge undertaken with three fungal species known to cause serious losses to mulberry cultivation, namely, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum dematium, revealed that transgenic plants with osmotin under control of the constitutive promoter had a better resistance than those with osmotin under the control of the stress-inducible promoter. Evaluation in next generation was undertaken by studying bud break in transgenic and non-transgenic plants under simulated drought (2% polyethylene glycol) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) conditions. The axillary buds of the selected transgenic lines had a better bud break percentage under stressed conditions than buds from non-transgenic mulberry lines. A biotic assay with Bombyx mori indicated that osmotin protein had no

  20. On constitutive functions for hindered settling velocity in 1-D settler models: Selection of appropriate model structure.

    PubMed

    Torfs, Elena; Balemans, Sophie; Locatelli, Florent; Diehl, Stefan; Bürger, Raimund; Laurent, Julien; François, Pierre; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-03-01

    Advanced 1-D models for Secondary Settling Tanks (SSTs) explicitly account for several phenomena that influence the settling process (such as hindered settling and compression settling). For each of these phenomena a valid mathematical expression needs to be selected and its parameters calibrated to obtain a model that can be used for operation and control. This is, however, a challenging task as these phenomena may occur simultaneously. Therefore, the presented work evaluates several available expressions for hindered settling based on long-term batch settling data. Specific attention is paid to the behaviour of these hindered settling functions in the compression region in order to evaluate how the modelling of sludge compression is influenced by the choice of a certain hindered settling function. The analysis shows that the exponential hindered settling forms, which are most commonly used in traditional SST models, not only account for hindered settling but partly lump other phenomena (compression) as well. This makes them unsuitable for advanced 1-D models that explicitly include each phenomenon in a modular way. A power-law function is shown to be more appropriate to describe the hindered settling velocity in advanced 1-D SST models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selection for low or high primary dormancy in Lolium rigidum Gaud seeds results in constitutive differences in stress protein expression and peroxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Powles, Stephen B.; Steadman, Kathryn J.

    2011-01-01

    Seed dormancy in wild Lolium rigidum Gaud (annual ryegrass) populations is highly variable and not well characterized at the biochemical level. To identify some of the determinants of dormancy level in these seeds, the proteomes of subpopulations selected for low and high levels of primary dormancy were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts from mature, dry seeds. High-dormancy seeds showed higher expression of small heat shock proteins, enolase, and glyoxalase I than the low-dormancy seeds. The functional relevance of these differences in protein expression was confirmed by the fact that high-dormancy seeds were more tolerant to high temperatures imposed at imbibition and had consistently higher glyoxalase I activity over 0–42 d dark stratification. Higher expression of a putative glutathione peroxidase in low-dormancy seeds was not accompanied by higher activity, but these seeds had a slightly more oxidized glutathione pool and higher total peroxidase activity. Overall, these biochemical and physiological differences suggest that L. rigidum seeds selected for low dormancy are more prepared for rapid germination via peroxidase-mediated cell wall weakening, whilst seeds selected for high dormancy are constitutively prepared to survive environmental stresses, even in the absence of stress during seed development. PMID:20974739

  2. Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages.

  3. DP97, a DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase, is a target gene-selective co-regulator of the constitutive androstane receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Serikawa, Takafumi; Inajima, Jun; Inouye, Yoshio

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 interacts with nuclear receptor CAR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 enhances CAR-mediated transcriptional activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR. -- Abstract: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that DP97, a member of the DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase protein family, is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Using HepG2 cells expressing human CAR in the presence of tetracycline, we showed that knockdown of DP97 with small interfering RNAs suppressed tetracycline-inducible mRNA expression of CYP2B6 and UGT1A1 but not CYP3A4. Thus, DP97 was found to be a gene (or promoter)-selective co-activator for hCAR. DP97-mediated CAR transactivation was synergistically enhanced by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1{alpha}, therefore it might act as mediator between hCAR and appropriate co-activators.

  4. Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages. PMID:25044501

  5. What Is a Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OAH Magazine of History, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan designed to help students better understand the concept of a constitution, distinguish constitutional law from statutory law, and recognize examples of constitutional government. (BSR)

  6. Stage 3 immature human natural killer cells found in secondary lymphoid tissue constitutively and selectively express the TH17 cytokine interleukin-22

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tiffany; Becknell, Brian; McClory, Susan; Briercheck, Edward; Freud, Aharon G.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mao, Hsiaoyin; Nuovo, Gerard; Yu, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Considerable functional heterogeneity within human natural killer (NK) cells has been revealed through the characterization of distinct NK-cell subsets. Accordingly, a small subset of CD56+NKp44+NK cells, termed NK-22 cells, was recently described within secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) as IL-22− when resting, with a minor fraction of this population becoming IL-22+ when activated. Here we discover that the vast majority of stage 3 immature NK (iNK) cells in SLT constitutively and selectively express IL-22, a TH17 cytokine important for mucosal immunity, whereas earlier and later stages of NK developmental intermediates do not express IL-22. These iNK cells have a surface phenotype of CD34−CD117+CD161+CD94−, largely lack expression of NKp44 and CD56, and do not produce IFN-γ or possess cytolytic activity. In summary, stage 3 iNK cells are highly enriched for IL-22 and IL-26 messenger RNA, and IL-22 protein production, but do not express IL-17A or IL-17F. PMID:19244159

  7. Evolutionary selection across the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily with a focus on the NR1I subfamily (vitamin D, pregnane X, and constitutive androstane receptors)

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Yasuda, Kazuto; Hagey, Lee R; Schuetz, Erin G

    2005-01-01

    Background The nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily complement in humans is composed of 48 genes with diverse roles in metabolic homeostasis, development, and detoxification. In general, NRs are strongly conserved between vertebrate species, and few examples of molecular adaptation (positive selection) within this superfamily have been demonstrated. Previous studies utilizing two-species comparisons reveal strong purifying (negative) selection of most NR genes, with two possible exceptions being the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of the pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), two proteins involved in the regulation of toxic compound metabolism and elimination. The aim of this study was to apply detailed phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood methods to the entire complement of genes in the vertebrate NR superfamily. Analyses were carried out both across all vertebrates and limited to mammals and also separately for the two major domains of NRs, the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and LBD, in addition to the full-length sequences. Additional functional data is also reported for activation of PXR and the vitamin D receptor (VDR; NR1I1) to gain further insight into the evolution of the NR1I subfamily. Results The NR genes appear to be subject to strong purifying selection, particularly in the DBDs. Estimates of the ratio of the non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates (the ω ratio) revealed that only the PXR LBD had a sub-population of codons with an estimated ω ratio greater than 1. CAR was also unusual in showing high relative ω ratios in both the DBD and LBD, a finding that may relate to the recent appearance of the CAR gene (presumably by duplication of a pre-mammalian PXR gene) just prior to the evolution of mammals. Functional analyses of the NR1I subfamily show that human and zebrafish PXRs show similar activation by steroid hormones and early bile salts, properties not shared by sea

  8. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions

    PubMed Central

    Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006

  9. Identification and characterization of CTRP9, a novel secreted glycoprotein, from adipose tissue that reduces serum glucose in mice and forms heterotrimers with adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Wong, G. William; Krawczyk, Sarah A.; Kitidis-Mitrokostas, Claire; Ge, Guangtao; Spooner, Eric; Hug, Christopher; Gimeno, Ruth; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin is a major insulin-sensitizing, multimeric hormone derived from adipose tissue that acts on muscle and liver to regulate whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we describe a novel and highly conserved paralog of adiponectin designated as C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) 9. Of all the CTRP paralogs, CTRP9 shows the highest degree of amino acid identity to adiponectin in its globular C1q domain. CTRP9 is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue and females expresses higher levels of the transcript than males. Moreover, its expression levels in ob/ob mice changed in an age-dependent manner, with significant up-regulation in younger mice. CTRP9 is a secreted glycoprotein with multiple post-translational modifications in its collagen domain that include hydroxylated prolines and hydroxylated and glycosylated lysines. It is secreted as multimers (predominantly trimers) from transfected cells and circulates in the mouse serum with levels varying according to sex and metabolic state of mice. Furthermore, CTRP9 and adiponectin can be secreted as heterooligomers when cotransfected into mammalian cells, and in vivo, adiponectin/CTRP9 complexes can be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated from the serum of adiponectin and CTRP9 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that adiponectin and CTRP9 associate via their globular C1q domain, and this interaction does not require their conserved N-terminal cysteines or their collagen domains. Furthermore, we show that adiponectin and CTRP9 form heterotrimers. In cultured myotubes, CTRP9 specifically activates AMPK, Akt, and p44/42 MAPK signaling pathways. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of CTRP9 in obese (ob/ob) mice significantly lowered serum glucose levels. Collectively, these results suggest that CTRP9 is a novel adipokine, and further study of CTRP9 will yield novel mechanistic insights into its physiological and metabolic function.—Wong, G. W., Krawczyk, S. A., Kitidis-Mitrokostas, C., Ge, G

  10. Multi-Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Collagen Mimetic Peptides into AAB Type Heterotrimers, Nanofibers and Hydrogels Driven by Charged Pair Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Lesley Russell

    2011-12-01

    Replicating the multi-hierarchical self-assembly of collagen (peptide chain to triple helix to nanofiber and, finally, to a hydrogel) has long attracted scientists, both from the fundamental science perspective of supramolecular chemistry and for the potential biomedical applications perceived in tissue engineering. In terms of triple helical formation, collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body with at least 28 types, yet research involving collagen mimetic systems has only recently began to consider the innate ability of collagen to control helix composition and register. Collagen triple helices can be homotrimeric or heterotrimeric and while some types of natural collagen form only one specific composition of helix, others can form multiple. It is critical to fully understand and, if possible, reproduce the control that native collagen has on helix composition and register. In terms of nanofiber formation, many approaches to drive the self-assembly of synthetic systems through the same steps as natural collagen have been partially successful, but none have simultaneously demonstrated all levels of structural assembly. In this work, advancements in the ability to control helix composition and replicate the multi-hierarchical assembly of collagen are described. Both positive and negative design for the assembly of AAB type collagen heterotrimers were utilized by promoting heterotrimer formation though the use of charged amino acids to form intra-helix electrostatic interactions, while simultaneously discouraging homotrimers, resulting in the identification of multiple peptide systems with full control over the composition of the resulting triple helix. Similar salt-bridged hydrogen bonds between charged residues were incorporated into nanofiber forming peptides, one of which successfully assembled into sticky-ended triple helices, nanofibers with characteristic triple helical packing visible in the solution state, and strong hydrogels that are

  11. Gbeta subunit interacts with a peptide encoding region 956-982 of adenylyl cyclase 2. Cross-linking of the peptide to free Gbetagamma but not the heterotrimer.

    PubMed

    Weng, G; Li, J; Dingus, J; Hildebrandt, J D; Weinstein, H; Iyengar, R

    1996-10-25

    The region encoded by amino acids 956-982 of adenylyl cyclase 2 is important for Gbetagamma stimulation. Interactions of a peptide encoding the 956-982 region of adenylyl cyclase 2 (QEHAQEPERQYMHIGTMVEFAYALVGK (QEHA peptide)) with Gbetagamma subunits were studied. QEHA peptide was covalently attached to beta subunit of free Gbetagamma by the cross-linker N-succinimidyl(4-iodoacetyl)aminobenzoate. Cross-linking was proportional to the amount of QEHA peptide added; other control peptides cross-linked minimally. When Go was used, very little cross-linking was observed with GDP and EDTA, but upon activation by guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate and Mg2+, specific cross-linking of the QEHA peptide to Gbeta was observed. We conclude that beta subunits of G proteins contain effector interaction domains that are occluded by Galpha subunits in the heterotrimer. Molecular modeling studies used to dock the QEHA peptide on to Gbeta indicate that amino acids 75-165 of Gbeta may be involved in effector interactions.

  12. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  13. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  14. Identification and characterization of CTRP9, a novel secreted glycoprotein, from adipose tissue that reduces serum glucose in mice and forms heterotrimers with adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Wong, G William; Krawczyk, Sarah A; Kitidis-Mitrokostas, Claire; Ge, Guangtao; Spooner, Eric; Hug, Christopher; Gimeno, Ruth; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin is a major insulin-sensitizing, multimeric hormone derived from adipose tissue that acts on muscle and liver to regulate whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we describe a novel and highly conserved paralog of adiponectin designated as C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) 9. Of all the CTRP paralogs, CTRP9 shows the highest degree of amino acid identity to adiponectin in its globular C1q domain. CTRP9 is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue and females expresses higher levels of the transcript than males. Moreover, its expression levels in ob/ob mice changed in an age-dependent manner, with significant up-regulation in younger mice. CTRP9 is a secreted glycoprotein with multiple post-translational modifications in its collagen domain that include hydroxylated prolines and hydroxylated and glycosylated lysines. It is secreted as multimers (predominantly trimers) from transfected cells and circulates in the mouse serum with levels varying according to sex and metabolic state of mice. Furthermore, CTRP9 and adiponectin can be secreted as heterooligomers when cotransfected into mammalian cells, and in vivo, adiponectin/CTRP9 complexes can be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated from the serum of adiponectin and CTRP9 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that adiponectin and CTRP9 associate via their globular C1q domain, and this interaction does not require their conserved N-terminal cysteines or their collagen domains. Furthermore, we show that adiponectin and CTRP9 form heterotrimers. In cultured myotubes, CTRP9 specifically activates AMPK, Akt, and p44/42 MAPK signaling pathways. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of CTRP9 in obese (ob/ob) mice significantly lowered serum glucose levels. Collectively, these results suggest that CTRP9 is a novel adipokine, and further study of CTRP9 will yield novel mechanistic insights into its physiological and metabolic function.

  15. Driven evolution of a constitutional dynamic library of molecular helices toward the selective generation of [2 x 2] gridlike arrays under the pressure of metal ion coordination.

    PubMed

    Giuseppone, Nicolas; Schmitt, Jean-Louis; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2006-12-27

    Constitutional dynamics, self-assembly, and helical-folding control are brought together in the efficient Sc(OTf)3/microwave-catalyzed transimination of helical oligohydrazone strands, yielding highly diverse dynamic libraries of interconverting constituents through assembly, dissociation, and exchange of components. The transimination-type mechanism of the ScIII-promoted exchange, as well as its regioselectivity, occurring only at the extremities of the helical strands, allow one to perform directional terminal polymerization/depolymerization processes when starting with dissymmetric strands. A particular library is subsequently brought to express quantitatively [2 x 2] gridlike metallosupramolecular arrays in the presence of ZnII ions by component recombination generating the correct ligand from the dynamic set of interconverting strands. This behavior represents a process of driven evolution of a constitutional dynamic chemical system under the pressure (coordination interaction) of an external effector (metal ions).

  16. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.

    1984-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review of applicable constitutive models with selection of two for detailed comparison with a wide range of experimental tests was conducted. The experimental matrix contained uniaxial and biaxial tensile, creep, stress relaxation, and cyclic fatigue tests at temperatures to 1093 C and strain rates from .0000001 to .001/sec. Some nonisothermal cycles will also be run. The constitutive models will be incorporated into the MARC finite element structural analysis program with a demonstration computation made for advanced turbine blade configuration. In the code development work, particular emphasis is being placed on developing efficient integration algorithms for the highly nonlinear and stiff constitutive equations. Another area of emphasis is the appropriate and efficient methodology for determing constitutive constants from a minimum extent of experimental data.

  17. Molecular analysis of constitutive mutations in ermB and ermA selected in vitro from inducibly MLSB-resistant enterococci.

    PubMed

    Min, Yu-Hong; Kwon, Ae-Ran; Yoon, Jong-Min; Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Shim, Mi-Ja; Choi, Eung-Chil

    2008-03-01

    Frequencies of spontaneous mutation from inducible resistance to constitutive resistance were determined for the four clinical isolates of erythromycin-resistant enterococci, including one isolate with ermB gene and three clinical isolates with ermA gene. The rate of ermB mutation was higher than that of ermA mutation by more than 10 fold. Sequence analysis of the regulatory regions of erm genes revealed that mutation type of ermB was just point mutation, by contraries the mutation type of ermA was either deletion or tandem duplication. These results showed distinct characteristics in mutation patterns of ermB and ermA.

  18. Constitutional self-selection of [2 x 2] homonuclear grids from a dynamic mixture of copper(I) and silver(I) metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Barboiu, Mihail; Petit, Eddy; van der Lee, Arie; Vaughan, Gavin

    2006-01-23

    This paper describes the controlled self-selection and quantitative parallel amplification of the homonuclear grid architectures derived from the same ligand 1 of different conformational geometries and Cu+ and Ag+ metal ions of different coordination behavior and ionic size.

  19. Contesting the Constitution: The Constitutional Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilenski, Ferdinand Alexi

    This historical dramatization, prepared for presentation at the 1985 Wyoming Chatauqua, contains three dialogues, set during the administration of President Thomas Jefferson and presenting the issues surrounding the drafting and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. The dialogues are designed to be presented in three segments to permit discussion…

  20. Contesting the Constitution: The Constitutional Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilenski, Ferdinand Alexi

    This historical dramatization, prepared for presentation at the 1985 Wyoming Chatauqua, contains three dialogues, set during the administration of President Thomas Jefferson and presenting the issues surrounding the drafting and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. The dialogues are designed to be presented in three segments to permit discussion…

  1. Mapping structural landmarks, ligand binding sites, and missense mutations to the collagen IV heterotrimers predicts major functional domains, novel interactions, and variation in phenotypes in inherited diseases affecting basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Parkin, J Des; San Antonio, James D; Pedchenko, Vadim; Hudson, Billy; Jensen, Shane T; Savige, Judy

    2011-02-01

    Collagen IV is the major protein found in basement membranes. It comprises three heterotrimers (α1α1α2, α3α4α5, and α5α5α6) that form distinct networks, and are responsible for membrane strength and integrity.We constructed linear maps of the collagen IV heterotrimers ("interactomes") that indicated major structural landmarks, known and predicted ligand-binding sites, and missense mutations, in order to identify functional and disease-associated domains, potential interactions between ligands, and genotype–phenotype relationships. The maps documented more than 30 known ligand-binding sites as well as motifs for integrins, heparin, von Willebrand factor (VWF), decorin, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). They predicted functional domains for angiogenesis and haemostasis, and disease domains for autoimmunity, tumor growth and inhibition, infection, and glycation. Cooperative ligand interactions were indicated by binding site proximity, for example, between integrins, matrix metalloproteinases, and heparin. The maps indicated that mutations affecting major ligand-binding sites, for example, for Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein in the α1 chain or integrins in the α5 chain, resulted in distinctive phenotypes (Hereditary Angiopathy, Nephropathy, Aneurysms, and muscle Cramps [HANAC] syndrome, and early-onset Alport syndrome, respectively). These maps further our understanding of basement membrane biology and disease, and suggest novel membrane interactions, functions, and therapeutic targets.

  2. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  3. Constitutional Issues and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Important constitutional issues are presented in a manner appropriate for use in the classroom. Case studies and events from the history of Iowa are used to illuminate the Constitution and Bill of Rights. Freedom of expression and students' rights are discussed in "The Black Armband Case"; free exercise of religion as won by the Iowa's…

  4. The Constitution by Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  5. Teaching About the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "The U.S. Constitution Then and Now," a two-unit program using the integrated database and word processing capabilities of AppleWorks. For grades 7-12, the units simulate the constitutional convention and the principles of free speech and privacy. Concludes that with adequate time, the program can provide a potentially powerful…

  6. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  7. The Constitution by Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  8. Investigational small-molecule drug selectively suppresses constitutive CYP2B6 activity at the gene transcription level: physiologically based pharmacokinetic model assessment of clinical drug interaction risk.

    PubMed

    Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J; Mohutsky, Michael A; Rehmel, Jessica L F; Ke, Alice B

    2014-06-01

    The glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor LY2090314 specifically impaired CYP2B6 activity during in vitro evaluation of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme induction in human hepatocytes. CYP2B6 catalytic activity was significantly decreased following 3-day incubation with 0.1-10 μM LY2090314, on average by 64.3% ± 5.0% at 10 μM. These levels of LY2090314 exposure were not cytotoxic to hepatocytes and did not reduce CYP1A2 and CYP3A activities. LY2090314 was not a time-dependent CYP2B6 inhibitor, did not otherwise inhibit enzyme activity at concentrations ≤10 μM, and was not metabolized by CYP2B6. Thus, mechanism-based inactivation or other direct interaction with the enzyme could not explain the observed reduction in CYP2B6 activity. Instead, LY2090314 significantly reduced CYP2B6 mRNA levels (Imax = 61.9% ± 1.4%; IC50 = 0.049 ± 0.043 μM), which were significantly correlated with catalytic activity (r(2) = 0.87, slope = 0.77; Imax = 57.0% ± 10.8%, IC50 = 0.057 ± 0.027 μM). Direct inhibition of constitutive androstane receptor by LY2090314 is conceptually consistent with the observed CYP2B6 transcriptional suppression (Imax = 100.0% ± 10.8% and 57.1% ± 2.4%; IC50 = 2.5 ± 1.2 and 2.1 ± 0.4 μM for isoforms 1 and 3, respectively) and may be sufficiently extensive to overcome the weak but potent activation of pregnane X receptor by ≤10 μM LY2090314 (19.3% ± 2.2% of maximal rifampin response, apparent EC50 = 1.2 ± 1.1 nM). The clinical relevance of these findings was evaluated through physiologically based pharmacokinetic model simulations. CYP2B6 suppression by LY2090314 is not expected clinically, with a projected <1% decrease in hepatic enzyme activity and <1% decrease in hydroxybupropion exposure following bupropion coadministration. However, simulations showed that observed CYP2B6 suppression could be clinically relevant for a drug with different pharmacokinetic properties from LY2090314.

  9. Constitutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha selectively promotes the self-renewal of mesenchymal progenitors and maintains mesenchymal stromal cells in an undifferentiated state

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Shim, Jae-Seung; Whang, Soo-Young; June Hahn, Sang; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing use of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapies, factors that regulate the cellular characteristics of MSCs have been of major interest. Oxygen concentration has been shown to influence the functions of MSCs, as well as other normal and malignant stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic responses and the precise role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the master regulatory protein of hypoxia, in MSCs remain unclear, due to the limited span of Hif-1α stabilization and the complex network of hypoxic responses. In this study, to further define the significance of Hif-1α in MSC function during their self-renewal and terminal differentiation, we established adult bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs that are able to sustain high level expression of ubiquitin-resistant Hif-1α during such long-term biological processes. Using this model, we show that the stabilization of Hif-1α proteins exerts a selective influence on colony-forming mesenchymal progenitors promoting their self-renewal and proliferation, without affecting the proliferation of the MSC mass population. Moreover, Hif-1α stabilization in MSCs led to the induction of pluripotent genes (oct-4 and klf-4) and the inhibition of their terminal differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. These results provide insights into the previously unrecognized roles of Hif-1α proteins in maintaining the primitive state of primary MSCs and on the cellular heterogeneities in hypoxic responses among MSC populations. PMID:24071737

  10. Constitutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha selectively promotes the self-renewal of mesenchymal progenitors and maintains mesenchymal stromal cells in an undifferentiated state.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Shim, Jae-Seung; Whang, Soo-Young; Hahn, Sang June; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2013-09-27

    With the increasing use of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapies, factors that regulate the cellular characteristics of MSCs have been of major interest. Oxygen concentration has been shown to influence the functions of MSCs, as well as other normal and malignant stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic responses and the precise role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the master regulatory protein of hypoxia, in MSCs remain unclear, due to the limited span of Hif-1α stabilization and the complex network of hypoxic responses. In this study, to further define the significance of Hif-1α in MSC function during their self-renewal and terminal differentiation, we established adult bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs that are able to sustain high level expression of ubiquitin-resistant Hif-1α during such long-term biological processes. Using this model, we show that the stabilization of Hif-1α proteins exerts a selective influence on colony-forming mesenchymal progenitors promoting their self-renewal and proliferation, without affecting the proliferation of the MSC mass population. Moreover, Hif-1α stabilization in MSCs led to the induction of pluripotent genes (oct-4 and klf-4) and the inhibition of their terminal differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. These results provide insights into the previously unrecognized roles of Hif-1α proteins in maintaining the primitive state of primary MSCs and on the cellular heterogeneities in hypoxic responses among MSC populations.

  11. Constitution, 29 October 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of chapter 2 (Rights and Duties of Citizens) of the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of Korea relating to equality of the sexes, freedom of movement, free and compulsory education, equal opportunity at work, social protection, housing, and health care. The Constitution states that all citizens are equal before the law with no discrimination in political, economic, social, or cultural life based on sex, religion, or social status. The Constitution also protects freedom of residence and mobility, the right to an equal education, free compulsory education, and working mothers (with specific protection against discrimination). The Constitution directs the state to promote the welfare and rights of women, enhance the welfare of the aged and the young, and protect those incapable of earning a living. Housing development policies will be used to ensure comfortable housing for all citizens. State protection is afforded to mothers and to the health of all citizens.

  12. Selective monoamine oxidase B inhibition by an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae extract and by its constitutive active principles phycocyanin and mycosporine-like amino acids.

    PubMed

    Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Yanina; Benvenuti, Francesca; Battistelli, Serafina; Canestrari, Franco; Benedetti, Serena

    2014-06-15

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga that has been traditionally used for over 25 years for its health-enhancing properties. Recent studies have shown the ability of a proprietary AFA extract (Klamin(®)) to improve mood, counteract anxiety, and enhance attention and learning. Aim of this study was to test the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activity of the same AFA extract and of its constituents phycocyanin (AFA-PC) and mycosporine-like aminoacids (AFA-MAAs). All compounds showed a dose-dependent selective inhibition of MAO-B activity as compared to MAO-A. The IC50 values of the AFA extract (concentration 10 mg/ml), AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs were 6.4 μl/ml, 1.33 μM and 1.98 μM, respectively, evidencing a mixed-type of inhibition for the AFA extract (Ki 0.99 μl/ml), a non-competitive inhibition for AFA-PC (Ki 1.06 μM) and a competitive inhibition for AFA-MAAs (Ki 0.585 μM). These results are important to explain the neuromodulating properties of the AFA extract Klamin(®), which is rich in phenylethylamine, a general neuromodulator, that would nevertheless rapidly destroyed by MAO-B enzymes without the inhibitory activity of the synergic active principles AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs. The present investigation thus proposes the extract as potentially relevant in clinical areas such as mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  14. Constitution, 15 August 1982.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints major provisions of the 1982 Constitution of Equatorial Guinea. The Constitution calls for protection of the family as the basic building block of society. Foreigners are afforded the same civil rights as citizens and may seek asylum but may not exercise political rights. The Constitution guarantees equality before the law and prohibits discrimination based on ethnic background, race, sex, language, religion, filiation, political or other views, social origin, economic position, or birth. Women are afforded the same rights as men regardless of their marital status. The Constitution also guarantees citizens freedom to travel nationally and internationally and to choose a place of residence. Equatoguineans are also entitled to a standard of living that insures health, nutrition, education, clothing, housing, medical care, and necessary social services. The family policy contained in the Constitution protects all types of legal marriages equally and recognizes nonattachable and inalienable family patrimony. Children are protected from the time of conception, and all inhabitants are guaranteed a basic state education which is compulsory and free. Efforts are also being made to eradicate illiteracy. Women are insured training and promotion for their integration into the active life and development of the country, and farmers are guaranteed traditional ownership of the lands they possess, although the state retains the right of eminent domain.

  15. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The third and fourth years of a 4-year research program, part of the NASA HOST Program, are described. The program goals were: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analysis of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation were those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. The unified approach for elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations is a viable method for representing and predicting material response characteristics in the range where strain rate and temperature dependent inelastic deformations are experienced. This conclusion is reached by extensive comparison of model calculations against the experimental results of a test program of two high temperature Ni-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Mar-M247, over a wide temperature range for a variety of deformation and thermal histories including uniaxial, multiaxial, and thermomechanical loading paths. The applicability of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models for structural applications has been demonstrated by implementing these models into the MARC finite element code and by performing a number of analyses including thermomechanical histories on components of hot sections of gas turbine engines and benchmark notch tensile specimens. The results of the 4-year program have been published in four annual reports. The results of the base program are summarized in this report. The tasks covered include: (1) development of material test procedures, (2) thermal history effects, and (3) verification of the constitutive model for an alternative material.

  16. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  17. The Constitutional Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Maurice

    Changing political, social, economic, and intellectual conditions over the past two hundred years have demanded innovation and adjustment of legal doctrine, thus giving the United States Constitution a character which the framers of the document could not have predicted. Historically, one must not only understand developments since 1787 but also…

  18. The Constitutional Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Maurice

    Changing political, social, economic, and intellectual conditions over the past two hundred years have demanded innovation and adjustment of legal doctrine, thus giving the United States Constitution a character which the framers of the document could not have predicted. Historically, one must not only understand developments since 1787 but also…

  19. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  20. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    PubMed

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children.

  1. Sexuality and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copelon, Rhonda

    1987-01-01

    Argues for abortion rights and protection of intimate decisions and relationships. Describes the role and position of women in eighteenth century American society as a means of exposing the fallacy of the anti-abortion movement's insistence on adherence to constitutional text. Discusses the recent attempts to overturn the Roe v. Wade ruling. (PS)

  2. Gender and the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Ruth Bader

    1975-01-01

    In discussing the constitutional aspects of the sex-role debate in the U.S. the author traces the tradition, compares the present criterion of equal protection to the equal rights argument, and analyzes the equality principle with reference to affirmative action and to childbearing and childrearing, supporting the proposed equal rights amendment.…

  3. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  4. Sexuality and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copelon, Rhonda

    1987-01-01

    Argues for abortion rights and protection of intimate decisions and relationships. Describes the role and position of women in eighteenth century American society as a means of exposing the fallacy of the anti-abortion movement's insistence on adherence to constitutional text. Discusses the recent attempts to overturn the Roe v. Wade ruling. (PS)

  5. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  6. Testing of constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    Constitutive models for computational solid mechanics codes are in LAME--the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering. These models describe complex material behavior and are used in our finite deformation solid mechanics codes. To ensure the correct implementation of these models, regression tests have been created for constitutive models in LAME. A selection of these tests is documented here. Constitutive models are an important part of any solid mechanics code. If an analysis code is meant to provide accurate results, the constitutive models that describe the material behavior need to be implemented correctly. Ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is the goal of a testing procedure that is used with the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) (see [1] and [2]). A test suite for constitutive models can serve three purposes. First, the test problems provide the constitutive model developer a means to test the model implementation. This is an activity that is always done by any responsible constitutive model developer. Retaining the test problem in a repository where the problem can be run periodically is an excellent means of ensuring that the model continues to behave correctly. A second purpose of a test suite for constitutive models is that it gives application code developers confidence that the constitutive models work correctly. This is extremely important since any analyst that uses an application code for an engineering analysis will associate a constitutive model in LAME with the application code, not LAME. Therefore, ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is essential for application code teams. A third purpose of a constitutive model test suite is that it provides analysts with example problems that they can look at to understand the behavior of a specific model. Since the choice of a constitutive model, and the properties that are used in that model, have an enormous effect on the results of an

  7. Constitution, 29 March 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Haiti's 1987 Constitution relating to the family; the protection of children, aliens, and refugees; and individual rights. The age of majority in Haiti is 18, and political and civil rights are attained at age 21 regardless of sex or marital status. Haitians are equal before the law but native-born Haitians who have never renounced their nationality have special advantages. Human rights are guaranteed in conformity with the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man. Every citizen has the right to decent housing, education, food, and social security. The state is obligated to provide citizens with appropriate means to protect, maintain, and restore their health. Primary schooling is compulsory and free. Aliens in Haiti enjoy the protection offered citizens, including a limited right to own real property. Political refugees have a right to asylum. The family is considered the foundation of society and enjoys state protection regardless of whether the family is constituted within the bonds of marriage. Legal protection is afforded mothers, children, and the aged. The Constitution also calls for creation of a Family Code to ensure protection and respect for the rights of the family.

  8. The Constitution in Other Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill of Rights in Action, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Designed for classroom teaching, this document contains articles on the new constitutions of Japan, South Korea, and the Philippine Islands which were modeled in part on the U.S. Constitution. These countries' experiences with constitutional government are examined, and whether or not the U.S. Constitution can be a suitable model for other…

  9. Thomas Jefferson and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Merrill D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Thomas Jefferson's role in the making and interpretation of the United States Constitution. Discusses the dominant features of Jefferson's constitutional theory; the character of Jefferson's presidency; and Jefferson's ongoing concern about constitutional preservation and change. Lists important dates in the history of the constitution.…

  10. Constitution, 30 September 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints provisions of Suriname's 1987 Constitution relating to freedom of movement, equality of the sexes, the right to life, the right to physical integrity, equal opportunity in employment, the family, children, maternity benefits, the right to health care, parental responsibilities, free and compulsory education, illiteracy, and housing. All citizens enjoy freedom of movement within the bounds of the law. All people within the territory may claim protection of their person and property, and discrimination is forbidden on the basis of birth, sex, race, language, religion, education, political beliefs, economic position, or other status. Torture or inhuman treatment and punishment is banned, and the right to life is protected by the law. The state guarantees the right to work, and all employees have the right to equal remuneration for equal work, safe working conditions, and sufficient rest and recreation. The family is protected, and husbands and wives are equal before the law. Children have the right to protection, and working women are entitled to paid maternity leave. The state promotes the right to good health by systematic improvements in living and working conditions and dissemination of health education. The right to education is protected by the provision of free general primary education and efforts of the state to enable all citizens to achieve the highest educational levels possible. The Constitution also calls for the institution of a plan to allow the state to create public housing.

  11. Ethics and constitutional government.

    PubMed

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  12. Constitutive expression of selected genes from the pentose phosphate and aromatic pathways increases the shikimic acid yield in high-glucose batch cultures of an Escherichia coli strain lacking PTS and pykF

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the last two decades many efforts have been directed towards obtaining efficient microbial processes for the production of shikimic acid (SA); however, feeding high amounts of substrate to increase the titer of this compound has invariably rendered low conversion yields, leaving room for improvement of the producing strains. In this work we report an alternative platform to overproduce SA in a laboratory-evolved Escherichia coli strain, based on plasmid-driven constitutive expression of six genes selected from the pentose phosphate and aromatic amino acid pathways, artificially arranged as an operon. Production strains also carried inactivated genes coding for phosphotransferase system components (ptsHIcrr), shikimate kinases I and II (aroK and aroL), pyruvate kinase I (pykF) and the lactose operon repressor (lacI). Results The strong and constitutive expression of the constructed operon permitted SA production from the beginning of the cultures, as evidenced in 1 L batch-mode fermentors starting with high concentrations of glucose and yeast extract. Inactivation of the pykF gene improved SA production under the evaluated conditions by increasing the titer, yield and productivity of this metabolite compared to the isogenic pykF+ strain. The best producing strain accumulated up to 43 g/L of SA in 30 h and relatively low concentrations of acetate and aromatic byproducts were detected, with SA accounting for 80% of the produced aromatic compounds. These results were consistent with high expression levels of the glycolytic pathway and synthetic operon genes from the beginning of fermentations, as revealed by transcriptomic analysis. Despite the consumption of 100 g/L of glucose, the yields on glucose of SA and of total aromatic compounds were about 50% and 60% of the theoretical maximum, respectively. The obtained yields and specific production and consumption rates proved to be constant with three different substrate concentrations. Conclusions

  13. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types.

  14. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities.

  15. Constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  16. This Constitution: A Bicentennial Chronicle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This Constitution, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Providing a link between constitutional scholars and the planners of school and public programs observing the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, this series of the Bicentennial Chronicles features articles that provide a link between scholars of the Constitution and the people who will be planning programs for the public and for the…

  17. How Democratic Is the Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of democracy and the Constitution. "Democracy and the Constitution" (Gordon S. Wood) looks at the popular and democratic rhetoric used to justify the federalist system in the late 1700's.…

  18. Constitution, 3 February 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines. The state policies reprinted from Article 2 note that the state recognizes the sanctity of family life and protects the life of the mother and of the unborn from conception. Women and men are afforded equality before the law. The state prioritizes education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports and promotes comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform. Provisions reprinted from Article 13 (Social Justice and Human Rights) cover agrarian and natural resources reform, urban land reform and housing, health, and protection of women in the workforce. Sections from Article 14 (Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture, and Sports) set forth the state's duty to make quality education accessible to all citizens through a compulsory system of free public education, provision of incentives to deserving students, encouragement of informal education, and provision of adult education. Article 15, on the family, recognizes the family as the foundation of the nation and marriage as the foundation of the family. Spouses have the right to found a family, children have the right to appropriate care, the family has the right to a living wage and income, families or family associations have the right to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and programs that affect them, and the family has the duty to care for its elderly.

  19. Constitutive model development for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective is to develop a unified constitutive model for finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. This effort constitutes a different approach for nonlinear finite-element computer codes which were heretofore based on classical inelastic methods. A unified constitutive theory will avoid the simplifying assumptions of classical theory and should more accurately represent the behavior of superalloy materials under cyclic loading conditions and high temperature environments. Model development will be directed toward isotropic, cast nickel-base alloys used for aircooled turbine blades and vanes. The contractor will select a base material for model development and an alternate material for verification purposes from a list of three alloys specified by NASA. The candidate alloys represent a cross-section of turbine blade and vane materials of interest to both large and small size engine manufacturers. Material stock for the base and alternate materials will be supplied to the Contractor by the government.

  20. Constitutional Issues--Watergate and the Constitution. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    When U.S. President Richard Nixon resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, it was only the second time that impeachment of a president had been considered. Although the U.S. Constitution has provisions for a person removed from office to be indicted, there are no guidelines in the Constitution about a President who has resigned. The…

  1. Bi-isotropic constitutive relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihvola, A. H.; Lindell, I. V.

    1991-03-01

    The constitutive relations of general bi-isotropic media, requiring four material parameters, can be written in different ways to describe their electromagnetic behavior. This communication contains a two-way 'dictionary' between a proposed formulation of the constitutive relations with three other sets of relations, generalized from relations used for chiral materials.

  2. The Constitution and Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Rebecca S.

    The paper takes the position that the study and understanding of the United States Constitution should be a critical part of citizenship education, especially as its Bicentennial approaches. Several factors suggest that the Constitution has become the most durable document of its kind in history, and that its teaching should be centered in both…

  3. The Constitution and American Radicalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Jules

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of the following movements' attitudes towards the Constitution: (1) abolition; (2) feminism; (3) trade unions; (4) socialism and communism; and (5) civil rights and anti-war. Maintains that the tensions in these movements' towards the Constitution represent basic contradictions in the document itself. (PS)

  4. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  5. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  6. How Capitalistic Is the Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Second in a three-part series designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of capitalism and the Constitution. "American Democracy and the Acquisitive Spirit" (Marc F. Plattner) supports the argument that the framers of the…

  7. Constitution And Bylaws: 2004 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education and Training Council, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the constitution and bylaws of the Distance Education and Training Council. The constitution and bylaws include 13 articles. Sections include: Name; Mission and Goals; Administration of the Council; Membership; Meetings; The Commission; Terms of Office; Officers; Committees; Compensation; Dues and Assessments; Miscellaneous…

  8. The Constitution and Its Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

  9. Equality v. Liberty v. Pluralism: Latinos in American Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltero, Carlos R.

    This paper examines how U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court, have applied constitutional law principles to Latino communities and individuals in three areas: public education, the status of Puerto Rico, and jury selection. Consistent with traditional views of American society as biracial (black and white), constitutional law discussions…

  10. This Constitution: A Bicentennial Chronicle, Nos. 14-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Shelia, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Each issue in this bicentennial series features articles on selected U.S. Constitution topics, along with a section on primary documents and lesson plans or class activities. Issue 14 features: (1) "The Political Economy of the Constitution" (K. Dolbeare; L. Medcalf); (2) "A 'New Historical Whooper': Creating the Art of the…

  11. A recombinant single-chain human class II MHC molecule (HLA-DR1) as a covalently linked heterotrimer of alpha chain, beta chain, and antigenic peptide, with immunogenicity in vitro and reduced affinity for bacterial superantigens.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Bavari, S; Ulrich, R; Sadegh-Nasseri, S; Ferrone, S; McHugh, L; Mage, M

    1997-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules bind to numerous peptides and display these on the cell surface for T cell recognition. In a given immune response, receptors on T cells recognize antigenic peptides that are a minor population of MHC class II-bound peptides. To control which peptides are presented to T cells, it may be desirable to use recombinant MHC molecules with covalently bound antigenic peptides. To study T cell responses to such homogeneous peptide-MHC complexes, we engineered an HLA-DR1 cDNA coding for influenza hemagglutinin, influenza matrix, or HIV p24 gag peptides covalently attached via a peptide spacer to the N terminus of the DR1 beta chain. Co-transfection with DR alpha cDNA into mouse L cells resulted in surface expression of HLA-DR1 molecules that reacted with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for correctly folded HLA-DR epitopes. This suggested that the spacer and peptide did not alter expression or folding of the molecule. We then engineered an additional peptide spacer between the C terminus of a truncated beta chain (without transmembrane or cytoplasmic domains) and the N terminus of full-length DR alpha chain. Transfection of this cDNA into mouse L cells resulted in surface expression of the entire covalently linked heterotrimer of peptide, beta chain, and alpha chain with the expected molecular mass of approximately 66 kDa. These single-chain HLA-DR1 molecules reacted with mAb specific for correctly folded HLA-DR epitopes, and identified one mAb with [MHC + peptide] specificity. Affinity-purified soluble secreted single-chain molecules with truncated alpha chain moved in electrophoresis as compact class II MHC dimers. Cell surface two-chain or single-chain HLA-DR1 molecules with a covalent HA peptide stimulated HLA-DR1-restricted HA-specific T cells. They were immunogenic in vitro for peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The two-chain and single-chain HLA-DR1 molecules with covalent HA peptide had reduced binding

  12. Constitutional aneuploidy and cancer predisposition†

    PubMed Central

    Ganmore, Ithamar; Smooha, Gil; Izraeli, Shai

    2009-01-01

    Constitutional aneuploidies are rare syndromes associated with multiple developmental abnormalities and the alterations in the risk for specific cancers. Acquired somatic chromosomal aneuploidies are the most common genetic aberrations in sporadic cancers. Thus studies of these rare constitutional aneuploidy syndromes are important not only for patient counseling and clinical management, but also for deciphering the mechanisms by which chromosomal aneuploidy affect cancer initiation and progression. Here we review the major constitutional aneuploidy syndromes and suggest some general mechanisms for the associated cancer predisposition. PMID:19297405

  13. Remarks on turbulent constitutive relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As examples, the constitutive relations for Reynolds stresses and scalar fluxes are derived. The results are consistent with ones from Renormalization Group (RNG) theory and two-scale Direct-Interaction Approximation (DIA) method, but with a more general form.

  14. The President and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toler, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Intended for ninth grade students, this ten day unit focuses on the constitutional powers of the President of the United States. Included are worksheets, vocabulary, writing assignments, tests, and quizzes. (JDH)

  15. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  16. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  18. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  19. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  20. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V. G.; Vanstone, R. H.; Dame, L. T.; Laflen, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    The unified constitutive theories for application to typical isotropic cast nickel base supperalloys used for air-cooled turbine blades were evaluated. The specific modeling aspects evaluated were: uniaxial, monotonic, cyclic, creep, relaxation, multiaxial, notch, and thermomechanical behavior. Further development of the constitutive theories to model thermal history effects, refinement of the material test procedures, evaluation of coating effects, and verification of the models in an alternate material will be accomplished in a follow-on for this base program.

  1. Kenya Promulgates a New Constitution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-10

    issues of governance , rights and individual freedoms. Subsequently a process to write a new constitution started in 2003. It was all inclusive and...all inclusive and participatory in decision-making. The process for reviewing the constitution was reactivated in earnest and delegates drawn from...changes in the separation of powers between the three arms of government , major matters of citizenship , the Bill of Rights, the devolution of government

  2. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions: Progress Since 2008.

    PubMed

    Katrina Perehudoff, S; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-06-01

    A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states' legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions.

  3. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to develop a unified constitutive model for finite element structural analysis of turbine engine hot-section components. This effort constitutes a different approach for non-linear finite-element computer codes which have heretofore been based on classical inelastic methods. The unified constitutive theory to be developed will avoid the simplifying assumptions of classical theory and should more accurately represent the behavior of superalloy materials under cyclic loading conditions and high temperature environments. During the first two years of the program, extensive experimental correlations were made with two representative unified models. The experiments were both uniaxial and biaxial at temperatures up to 1093 C (2000 F). In addition, the unified models were adopted to the MARC finite element code and used for stress analysis of notched bar and turbine blade geometries.

  4. High-temperature constitutive modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.; Ellis, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Thermomechanical service conditions for high-temperature levels, thermal transients, and mechanical loads severe enough to cause measurable inelastic deformation are studied. Structural analysis in support of the design of high-temperature components depends strongly on accurate mathematical representations of the nonlinear, hereditary, inelastic behavior of structural alloys at high temperature, particularly in the relatively small strain range. Progress is discussed in the following areas: multiaxial experimentation to provide a basis for high-temperature multiaxial constitutive relationships; nonisothermal testing and theoretical development toward a complete thermomechanically path dependent formulation of viscoplasticity; and development of viscoplastic constitutive model accounting for initial anisotropy.

  5. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the first year of work on a program to validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials utilized in high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and to demonstrate their usefulness in computing stress-strain-time-temperature histories in complex three-dimensional structural components. The unified theories combine all inelastic strain-rate components in a single term avoiding, for example, treating plasticity and creep as separate response phenomena. An extensive review of existing unified theories is given and numerical methods for integrating these stiff time-temperature-dependent constitutive equations are discussed. Two particular models, those developed by Bodner and Partom and by Walker, were selected for more detailed development and evaluation against experimental tensile, creep and cyclic strain tests on specimens of a cast nickel base alloy, B19000+Hf. Initial results comparing computed and test results for tensile and cyclic straining for temperature from ambient to 982 C and strain rates from 10(exp-7) 10(exp-3) s(exp-1) are given. Some preliminary date correlations are presented also for highly non-proportional biaxial loading which demonstrate an increase in biaxial cyclic hardening rate over uniaxial or proportional loading conditions. Initial work has begun on the implementation of both constitutive models in the MARC finite element computer code.

  6. A Venture in Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, W. Graham; Dillon, Dorothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Senior high girls and boys from two single-sex schools undertook a study of a Supreme Court case that provided insight not only into constitutional law and history but also into how men and women can work together and relate in other ways than dating. (DS)

  7. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the…

  8. The Constitution and Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Eric R.

    During the past 150 years U.S. courts have demonstrated a special protectiveness toward academics and academic institutions. Academic freedom was not a concern when the U.S. Constitution and the First Amendment were drafted and is not mentioned in the "Federalist Papers." However, decisions by a series of Supreme Court justices led to…

  9. The Geography behind the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Christopher L.; Hobbs, Gail L.

    1988-01-01

    Examines some of the geographical elements that influenced the creation of the U.S. Constitution, such as sectionalism, the Piedmont, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Focusing on aspects of geography that underlie the thinking, writing, and ratification of the document, the authors explore geography as environment, image-maker, and explicit…

  10. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the…

  11. Elastic-plastic constitutive modeling of concrete. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.

    1983-03-01

    The need to understand concrete behavior under high temperatures in the nuclear industry has become rather accute. For this purpose, a constitutive model of concrete especially developed for this severe environment is indispensable. This report reviews the presently available constitutive models of concrete at standard-temperature conditions and considers their advantages and drawbacks. A rather simple but effective approach is selected to treat concrete behavior at high temperatures. Special emphasis is devoted to the modeling of concrete up to and including failure. The derived constitutive model is checked with biaxial and triaxial benchmark experimental results. Very good agreement is obtained.

  12. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework.

  13. The Constitution: Perspectives on Contemporary American Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    Four articles expressing the views of nine prominent United States citizens about the Constitution provide a context for reflecting on the meaning of the Constitution in present-day America. In "Why Has the Constitution Endured So Long?" Don Edwards, chairman of the House Civil and Constitutional Rights Subcommittee, discusses why the…

  14. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Constitutional torts. 536.42 Section 536.42... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under...

  15. Constitution-Writing in Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    Remarks on experiences as a participant at a conference on constitution-writing that linked Czech and Slovak constitution writers with U.S. lawyers. Argues cultural traditions must be respected when advising how to write constitutions. Examines challenges facing Czech and Slovak constitution writers, including structuring the government; the…

  16. What constitutes a community placement?

    PubMed

    Temple, Jenny

    When developing pre-registration adult nursing programmes, education providers in both educational institutions and clinical areas must decide what is a community nursing placement and how much time students should spend there. This article considers definitions of what constitutes "community" in terms of clinical placements for student nurses. It suggests what might realistically be termed community nursing and home nursing and explains how these can enrich student nurses' experiences. The practice requirements for other pre-registration nursing fields, such as child, mental health and learning disabilities, have not been considered here, although some of the discussion would be relevant to these areas.

  17. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the program is to evaluate and develop existing constitutive models for use in finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. The class of constitutive equation studied is considered unified in that all inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation are treated in a single term rather than a classical separation of plasticity (time independent) and creep (time dependent) behavior. The unified theories employed also do not utilize the classical yield surface or plastic potential concept. The models are constructed from an appropriate flow law, a scalar kinetic relation between strain rate, temperature and stress, and evolutionary equations for internal variables describing strain or work hardening, both isotropic and directional (kinematic). This and other studies have shown that the unified approach is particularly suited for determining the cyclic behavior of superalloy type blade and vane materials and is entirely compatible with three-dimensional inelastic finite-element formulations. The behavior was examined of a second nickel-base alloy, MAR-M247, and compared it with the Bodner-Partom model, further examined procedures for determining the material-specific constants in the models, and exercised the MARC code for a turbine blade under simulated flight spectrum loading. Results are summarized.

  18. Radionuclides, inorganic constitutents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1994-11-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. The samples were collected from 13 irrigation wells, 1 domestic well, 1 spring, 2 stock wells, and 1 public supply well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. Most of the samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting levels. None of the samples contained reportable concentrations of purgeable organic compounds or pesticides. Total coliform bacteria was present in nine samples.

  19. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of the second year of work on a problem which is part of the NASA HOST Program. Its goals are: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are that of Bodner-Partom and Walker. For model evaluation purposes, a large constitutive data base is generated for a B1900 + Hf alloy by performing uniaxial tensile, creep, cyclic, stress relation, and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests as well as biaxial (tension/torsion) tests under proportional and nonproportional loading over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. Systematic approaches for evaluating material constants from a small subset of the data base are developed. Correlations of the uniaxial and biaxial tests data with the theories of Bodner-Partom and Walker are performed to establish the accuracy, range of applicability, and integability of the models. Both models are implemented in the MARC finite element computer code and used for TMF analyses. Benchmark notch round experiments are conducted and the results compared with finite-element analyses using the MARC code and the Walker model.

  20. Structures of human constitutive nitric oxide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Jamal, Joumana; Plaza, Carla; Pineda, Stephanie Hai; Chreifi, Georges; Jing, Qing; Cinelli, Maris A.; Silverman, Richard B.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals produce three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The overproduction of NO by nNOS is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, a desirable therapeutic goal is the design of drugs that target nNOS but not the other isoforms. Crystallography, coupled with computational approaches and medicinal chemistry, has played a critical role in developing highly selective nNOS inhibitors that exhibit exceptional neuroprotective properties. For historic reasons, crystallography has focused on rat nNOS and bovine eNOS because these were available in high quality; thus, their structures have been used in structure–activity–relationship studies. Although these constitutive NOSs share more than 90% sequence identity across mammalian species for each NOS isoform, inhibitor-binding studies revealed that subtle differences near the heme active site in the same NOS isoform across species still impact enzyme–inhibitor interactions. Therefore, structures of the human constitutive NOSs are indispensible. Here, the first structure of human neuronal NOS at 2.03 Å resolution is reported and a different crystal form of human endothelial NOS is reported at 1.73 Å resolution. PMID:25286850

  1. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kwai S.; Lindholm, Ulric S.; Bodner, S. R.; Hill, Jeff T.; Weber, R. M.; Meyer, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the third year of work on a program which is part of the NASA Hot Section Technology program (HOST) are presented. The goals of this program are: (1) the development of unified constitutive models for rate dependent isotropic materials; and (2) the demonstration of the use of unified models in structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. A test procedure was developed for assisting the generation of a data base for the Bodner-Partom model using a relatively small number of specimens. This test procedure involved performing a tensile test at a temperature of interest that involves a succession of strain-rate changes. The results for B1900+Hf indicate that material constants related to hardening and thermal recovery can be obtained on the basis of such a procedure. Strain aging, thermal recovery, and unexpected material variations, however, preluded an accurate determination of the strain-rate sensitivity parameter is this exercise. The effects of casting grain size on the constitutive behavior of B1900+Hf were studied and no particular grain size effect was observed. A systematic procedure was also developed for determining the material constants in the Bodner-Partom model. Both the new test procedure and the method for determining material constants were applied to the alternate material, Mar-M247 . Test data including tensile, creep, cyclic and nonproportional biaxial (tension/torsion) loading were collected. Good correlations were obtained between the Bodner-Partom model and experiments. A literature survey was conducted to assess the effects of thermal history on the constitutive behavior of metals. Thermal history effects are expected to be present at temperature regimes where strain aging and change of microstructure are important. Possible modifications to the Bodner-Partom model to account for these effects are outlined

  2. Unborn children as constitutional persons.

    PubMed

    Roden, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the state of Texas argued that "the fetus is a 'person' within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment." To which Justice Harry Blackmun responded, "If this suggestion of personhood is established, the appellant's case, of course, collapses, for the fetus' right to life would then be guaranteed specifically by the Amendment." However, Justice Blackmun then came to the conclusion "that the word 'person,' as used in the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." In this article, it is argued that unborn children are indeed "persons" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments. As there is no constitutional text explicitly holding unborn children to be, or not to be, "persons," this argument will be based on the "historical understanding and practice, the structure of the Constitution, and thejurisprudence of [the Supreme] Court." Specifically, it is argued that the Constitution does not confer upon the federal government a specifically enumerated power to grant or deny "personhood" under the Fourteenth Amendment. Rather, the power to recognize or deny unborn children as the holders of rights and duties has been historically exercised by the states. The Roe opinion and other Supreme Court cases implicitly recognize this function of state sovereignty. The states did exercise this power and held unborn children to be persons under the property, tort, and criminal law of the several states at the time Roe was decided. As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in

  3. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.54 Constitutional... Constitution. Insofar as the enactments of the Congress impose executive duties upon the members, they must...

  4. Native Communities and the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A loosely knit coalition of over 25 native groups, the Peruvian Amazon Peoples has prepared a statement directed at the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly for purposes of Native input into the preparation of a revised national constitution. (JC)

  5. Written Constitution or None: Which Works Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Zelman

    1987-01-01

    Explores the differences between the U.S. Constitution and British constitutional law. Specifically examines the concept of the U.S. Bill of Rights in relation to the United Kingdom common law doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. (BSR)

  6. How Does the Constitution Secure Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Third in a series designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication presents six essays addressing the issue of human rights and the Constitution. "How the Constitution Protects Our Rights: A Look at the Seminal Years" (Robert A. Rutland) focuses on James Madison's role…

  7. Theoretical Issues of the Constitutional Regulation Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhussupova, Guldaray B.; Zhailyaubayev, Rassul T.; Ukin, Symbat K.; Shunayeva, Sylu M.; Nurmagambetov, Rachit G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to define the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism." The definition of the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism" will give jurists and legislators a theoretical framework for developing legal sciences, such as the constitutional law and the theory of state and law. The…

  8. American Focus on World Constitutions. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stanley T., III

    This curriculum project was designed to familiarize high school students with their own constitutional roots while gaining a better understanding of governmental systems developed by other nations. The project uses the U.S. Constitution as a baseline for analyzing the constitutions of other nations, and is intended to supplement courses in such…

  9. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under... partially payable as a state tort. For example, a Fifth Amendment taking may be payable in an altered...

  10. Antithetical Ethics: Kenneth Burke and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Virginia

    1995-01-01

    Shows how the textuality of the United States Constitution, the most venerable of classic democratic icons, might be exploited to nurture postmodern ethics. Shows how Kenneth Burke's reading of the Constitution accords with and augments the postmodern theories of J.-F. Lyotard and S. Jarratt. Discusses a postmodern Constitution and the…

  11. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  12. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under... partially payable as a state tort. For example, a Fifth Amendment taking may be payable in an altered...

  13. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under... partially payable as a state tort. For example, a Fifth Amendment taking may be payable in an altered...

  14. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under... partially payable as a state tort. For example, a Fifth Amendment taking may be payable in an altered...

  15. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... officer refers to a person holding a position identified as an officer by the constitution and bylaws of... constitution identifies the holder of such a position as an officer. On the other hand, legislative representatives who are required to be elected by the constitution and bylaws of a labor organization are not...

  16. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... officer refers to a person holding a position identified as an officer by the constitution and bylaws of... constitution identifies the holder of such a position as an officer. On the other hand, legislative representatives who are required to be elected by the constitution and bylaws of a labor organization are not...

  17. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... officer refers to a person holding a position identified as an officer by the constitution and bylaws of... constitution identifies the holder of such a position as an officer. On the other hand, legislative representatives who are required to be elected by the constitution and bylaws of a labor organization are not...

  18. Constitutive model for porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.M.; Lee, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    A simple pressure versus porosity compaction model is developed to calculate the response of granular porous bed materials to shock impact. The model provides a scheme for calculating compaction behavior when relatively limited material data are available. While the model was developed to study porous explosives and propellants, it has been applied to a much wider range of materials. The early development of porous material models, such as that of Hermann, required empirical dynamic compaction data. Erkman and Edwards successfully applied the early theory to unreacted porous high explosives using a Gruneisen equation of state without yield behavior and without trapped gas in the pores. Butcher included viscoelastic rate dependance in pore collapse. The theoretical treatment of Carroll and Holt is centered on the collapse of a circular pore and includes radial inertia terms and a complex set of stress, strain and strain rate constitutive parameters. Unfortunately data required for these parameters are generally not available. The model described here is also centered on the collapse of a circular pore, but utilizes a simpler elastic-plastic static equilibrium pore collapse mechanism without strain rate dependence, or radial inertia terms. It does include trapped gas inside the pore, a solid material flow stress that creates both a yield point and a variation in solid material pressure with radius. The solid is described by a Mie-Gruneisen type EOS. Comparisons show that this model will accurately estimate major mechanical features which have been observed in compaction experiments.

  19. The Justiciability Doctrine and Selected State Education Finance Constitutional Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Lange, George

    2006-01-01

    Public education funding in the past 40 years has increased significantly, with parties turning to the judiciary in order to address perceived educational opportunity inequities arising from state education finance distribution formulas. As the 21st century opens, the question of public education finance is set squarely before the courts. This…

  20. Constitutive Equation for Anisotropic Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazacu, O.

    2006-12-01

    In many rocks, due to the existence of well-defined fabric elements such as bedding, layering, foliation or lamination planes, or due to the existence of linear structures, anisotropy can be important. The symmetries most frequently encountered are: transverse isotropy and orthotropy. By adopting both theoretical and experimental approaches, many authors have investigated the effect of the presence within the rock of pronounced anisotropic feature on the mechanical behavior in the elastic regime and on strength properties. Fewer attempts however have been made to capture the anisotropy of rocks in the plastic range. In this paper an elastic/viscoplastic non-associated constitutive equation for an initially transversely isotropic material is presented. The model captures the observed dependency of the elastic moduli on the stress state. The limit of the elastic domain is given by an yield function whose expression is a priori unknown and is determined from data. The basic assumption adopted is that the type of anisotropy of the rock does not change during the deformation process. The anisotropy is thus described by a fourth order tensor invariant with respect to any transformation belonging to the symmetry group of the material. This tensor is assumed to be constant: it does not depend on time nor on deformation; A is involved in the expression of the flow rule, of the yield function, and of the failure criterion in the form of a transformed stress tensor. The components of the anisotropic tensor A are determined from the compressive strengths in conjunction with an anisotropic short- term failure The irreversibility is supposed to be due to transient creep, the irreversible stress work per unit volume being considered as hardening parameter. The adequacy of the model is demonstrated by applying it to a stratified sedimentary rock, Tournemire shale.

  1. 78 FR 39721 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC (Constitution), having its principal place of...\\ Constitution further requests that the Commission grant Constitution a blanket certificate authorizing...

  2. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  3. Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments...Similarities and Differences throughout History. Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallasch, Brian Thomas

    This civic education resource packet is designed to provide teachers, community leaders, and other civic educators with an understanding of the differences between constitutional and non-constitutional governments. Six papers discussing the topic are included: "The Differences bewteen Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments" (John…

  4. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Proclamation 8562--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 Proclamation 8563--National POW/MIA Recognition Day, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... President ] Proclamation 8562 of September 16, 2010 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution...

  5. 78 FR 57777 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... September 19, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9019--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013 Proclamation 9020--Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy at the Washington Navy Yard #0... September 16, 2013 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013 By the President of...

  6. 77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... September 18, 2012 Part VI The President Proclamation 8862--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 181... ] Proclamation 8862 of September 13, 2012 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 By the...

  7. Genetic constitution of industrial yeast.

    PubMed

    Benítez, T; Martínez, P; Codón, A C

    1996-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae industrial yeast strains are highly heterogeneous. These industrial strains, including bakers', wine, brewing and distillers', have been compared with respect to their DNA content, number and size of chromosomes, homologies between their genes and those of laboratory strains, and restriction fragment lengths of their mitDNA. A high variability, and the presence of multigenic families, were observed in some industrial yeast groups. The occurrence or the lack of chromosomal polymorphism, as well as the presence of multiple copies of some genes, could be related to a selective process occurring under specific industrial conditions. This polymorphism is generated by reorganization events, that take place mainly during meiosis and are mediated by repetitive Y' and Ty elements. These elements give rise to ectopic and asymmetric recombination and to gene conversion. The polymorphism displayed by the mitDNA could also result from specific industrial conditions. However, in enological strains the selective process is masked by the mutagenic effect that ethanol exerts on this DNA.

  8. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  9. An engineered genetic selection for ternary protein complexes inspired by a natural three-component hitchhiker mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Portnoff, Alyse D; Rocco, Mark A; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2014-12-22

    The bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is well known to translocate correctly folded monomeric and dimeric proteins across the tightly sealed cytoplasmic membrane. We identified a naturally occurring heterotrimer, the Escherichia coli aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC, that is co-translocated by the Tat translocase according to a ternary "hitchhiker" mechanism. Specifically, the PaoB and PaoC subunits, each devoid of export signals, are escorted to the periplasm in a piggyback fashion by the Tat signal peptide-containing subunit PaoA. Moreover, export of PaoA was blocked when either PaoB or PaoC was absent, revealing a surprising interdependence for export that is not seen for classical secretory proteins. Inspired by this observation, we created a bacterial three-hybrid selection system that links the formation of ternary protein complexes with antibiotic resistance. As proof-of-concept, a bispecific antibody was employed as an adaptor that physically crosslinked one antigen fused to a Tat export signal with a second antigen fused to TEM-1 β-lactamase (Bla). The resulting non-covalent heterotrimer was exported in a Tat-dependent manner, delivering Bla to the periplasm where it hydrolyzed β-lactam antibiotics. Collectively, these results highlight the remarkable flexibility of the Tat system and its potential for studying and engineering ternary protein interactions in living bacteria.

  10. An engineered genetic selection for ternary protein complexes inspired by a natural three-component hitchhiker mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Portnoff, Alyse D.; Rocco, Mark A.; DeLisa, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is well known to translocate correctly folded monomeric and dimeric proteins across the tightly sealed cytoplasmic membrane. We identified a naturally occurring heterotrimer, the Escherichia coli aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC, that is co-translocated by the Tat translocase according to a ternary “hitchhiker” mechanism. Specifically, the PaoB and PaoC subunits, each devoid of export signals, are escorted to the periplasm in a piggyback fashion by the Tat signal peptide-containing subunit PaoA. Moreover, export of PaoA was blocked when either PaoB or PaoC was absent, revealing a surprising interdependence for export that is not seen for classical secretory proteins. Inspired by this observation, we created a bacterial three-hybrid selection system that links the formation of ternary protein complexes with antibiotic resistance. As proof-of-concept, a bispecific antibody was employed as an adaptor that physically crosslinked one antigen fused to a Tat export signal with a second antigen fused to TEM-1 β-lactamase (Bla). The resulting non-covalent heterotrimer was exported in a Tat-dependent manner, delivering Bla to the periplasm where it hydrolyzed β-lactam antibiotics. Collectively, these results highlight the remarkable flexibility of the Tat system and its potential for studying and engineering ternary protein interactions in living bacteria. PMID:25531212

  11. Constitutive sensitivity of the oscillatory behaviour of hyperelastic cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda-Iglesias, D.; Vadillo, G.; Rodríguez-Martínez, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Free and forced nonlinear radial oscillations of a thick-walled cylindrical shell are investigated. The shell material is taken to be incompressible and isotropic within the framework of finite nonlinear elasticity. In comparison with previous seminal works dealing with the dynamic behaviour of hyperelastic cylindrical tubes, in this paper we have developed a broader analysis on the constitutive sensitivity of the oscillatory response of the shell. In this regard, our investigation is inspired by the recent works of Bucchi and Hearn (2013) [28,29], who carried out a constitutive sensitivity analysis of similar problem with hyperelastic cylindrical membranes subjected to static inflation. In the present paper we consider two different Helmholtz free-energy functions to describe the material behaviour: Mooney-Rivlin and Yeoh constitutive models. We carry out a systematic comparison of the results obtained by application of both constitutive models, paying specific attention to the critical initial and loading conditions which preclude the oscillatory response of the cylindrical tube. It has been found that these critical conditions are strongly dependent on the specific constitutive model selected, even though both Helmholtz free-energy functions were calibrated using the same experimental data.

  12. Constitutive receptor systems for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Jayawickreme, C; Way, J; Armour, S; Queen, K; Watson, C; Ignar, D; Chen, W J; Kenakin, T

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the use of constitutively active G-protein-coupled receptor systems for drug discovery. Specifically, the ternary complex model is used to define the two major theoretical advantages of constitutive receptor screening-namely, the ability to detect antagonists as well as agonists directly and the fact that constitutive systems are more sensitive to agonists. In experimental studies, transient transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cyclic AMP response element (CRE) luciferase reporter cells with cDNA for human parathyroid hormone receptor, glucagon receptor, and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor showed cDNA concentration-dependent constitutive activity with parathyroid hormone (PTH-1) and glucagon. In contrast, no constitutive activity was observed for GLP-1 receptor, yet responses to GLP-1 indicated that receptor expression had taken place. In another functional system, Xenopus laevi melanophores transfected with cDNA for human calcitonin receptor showed constitutive activity. Nine ligands for the calcitonin receptor either increased or decreased constitutive activity in this assay. The sensitivity of the system to human calcitonin increased with increasing constitutive activity. These data indicate that, for those receptors which naturally produce constitutive activity, screening in this mode could be advantageous over other methods.

  13. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  14. A Constitutive Equation for Stratospheric Balloon Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.; Sterling, W. J.

    2004-01-01

    The selection of a suitable material for use as a reliable stratospheric balloon gas barrier and structural component is based on a variety of properties. Due to a more desirable combination of properties, the low density polyethylene that has been used for the last half century has been replaced during the last decade by linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE). This paper describes the effort to characterize the time dependent properties of a 38 micron coextrusion of LLDPE. The nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation presented may be used to accurately describe the creep and/or relaxation of this film when subjected to a biaxial state of stress, such as might be required for an extended balloon flight. Recent laboratory data have been used to mod@ an existing model of LLDPE to account for differences caused by the coextrusion process. The new model will facilitate structural design optimization and reliability assessment, and may be further utilized as a predictive tool to benefit in-flight operations. Current structural analysis tech&ques based on linear elastic properties have predicted stresses in excess of those which would actually exist.

  15. From Confederation to Constitution: 1781-1789.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urofsky, Melvin I.; Cox, Nancy

    Students should achieve a higher level of understanding and appreciation of the evolving nature of the U.S. Constitution and its relevance to contemporary societal issues by studying historical documents from the period of time between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. This document begins with a history of that period and of the…

  16. The Constitution at 200: Celebration Amidst Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sheila D.

    1987-01-01

    Current debates about the Constitution fall into the three following categories: (1) reappraisals of consitutional origins; (2) disagreements on hermeneutical principles used in contemporary applications; and (3) discussions of contemporary events whose consequences for law and political stability could not have been foreseen by the Constitution's…

  17. From Confederation to Constitution: 1781-1789.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urofsky, Melvin I.; Cox, Nancy

    Students should achieve a higher level of understanding and appreciation of the evolving nature of the U.S. Constitution and its relevance to contemporary societal issues by studying historical documents from the period of time between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. This document begins with a history of that period and of the…

  18. The Constitution at 200: Celebration Amidst Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sheila D.

    1987-01-01

    Current debates about the Constitution fall into the three following categories: (1) reappraisals of consitutional origins; (2) disagreements on hermeneutical principles used in contemporary applications; and (3) discussions of contemporary events whose consequences for law and political stability could not have been foreseen by the Constitution's…

  19. Women and the Constitution. Curriculum Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Molly Murphy

    The purpose of this curriculum unit is to give students a better understanding of the history of the relationship between women and constitutional issues. The study of women and the United States Constitution is an important reminder of the complexity of a democracy. In the United States, even today, the ideology of freedom and justice is often…

  20. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performs no executive functions and whose duties are confined to promoting the interests of members in... officer position by the union's constitution, or the holder of the position performs executive functions... constitution, are not members of any executive board or similar governing body, and do not perform...

  1. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performs no executive functions and whose duties are confined to promoting the interests of members in... officer position by the union's constitution, or the holder of the position performs executive functions... constitution, are not members of any executive board or similar governing body, and do not perform...

  2. The United States and the Indian Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Jonathan S.

    India, a huge land with the second largest population in the world, socially and economically poor, and culturally and linguistically diverse, became the largest democracy in the world on November 26, 1949 with the adoption of the Indian Constitution. The goals of that constitution are: (1) the achievement of national unity and stability; (2) the…

  3. The Educational Significance of Canada's Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Allen R.

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical relationship of Canada's educational system to its constitution. Concludes that the significance of the patriation of Canada's constitution for education includes strengthening a drive for bilingual education, promoting equality of opportunity, and continuing education as a provincial concern while unifying, nationally, the…

  4. Resources for Teaching about the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Cheryl B.

    1987-01-01

    Describes eight resources for teaching about the United States Constitution available from ERIC. Described are instructional materials for junior and senior high school students on such topics as (1) the role of the U.S. Supreme Court, (2) freedom of the press, (3) the history of the United States Constitution, and (4) problems of the…

  5. Politics, Economics, and Religion in the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Richard G.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the relationship between politics, economics, and religion through the philosophies of Smith, Hobbes, and Locke. Maintains that the unamended Constitution is a reconciliation of politics, religion, and economics. Defends this claim by examining property rights and the Constitution's regard to means in pursuance of freedom and justice.…

  6. The Five Great Ideas of Our Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Identifies five great ideas of the U.S. Constitution as power, liberty, justice, equality, and property. The first of two installments, article focuses on how ideas of power and liberty are presented in the Constitution. It also discusses how people may exercise power through voting and public protest and liberty through their First Amendment…

  7. The Meaning of Religion: A Constitutional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Edward R.

    The problems of formulating a legal definition of religion as used in the U.S. Constitution may be traced through the Supreme Court's interpretation of the word. According to the U.S. Constitution, religious tests cannot be required for any office or public trust under the central government. The Bill of Rights states that the national government…

  8. Public and Constitutional Support for Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessels, Gordon G.; Boyd, Stephen M.

    1996-01-01

    Character education thrives on an informed understanding of constitutional principles and an inclusive commitment-building process. U.S. Supreme Court opinions that clarify public school students' free speech rights have established values education as a constitutionally acceptable practice. Challenges might lie in possible violations of the First…

  9. World Studies through a Comparative Constitutional Prism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of understanding the development of democracy around the world by comparative study of constitutions. Uses the development of the Japanese constitution after World War II as a case study. Describes the work of the team appointed by General Douglas MacArthur and the significance of the clause guaranteeing equal rights for…

  10. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

  11. Constitutive modeling of inelastic anisotropic material response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    A constitutive equation was developed to predict the inelastic thermomechanical response of single crystal turbine blades. These equations are essential for developing accurate finite element models of hot section components and contribute significantly to the understanding and prediction of crack initiation and propagation. The method used was limited to unified state variable constitutive equations. Two approaches to developing an anisotropic constitutive equation were reviewed. One approach was to apply the Stouffer-Bodner representation for deformation induced anisotropy to materials with an initial anisotropy such as single crystals. The second approach was to determine the global inelastic strain rate from the contribution of the slip in each of the possible crystallographic slip systems. A three dimensional finite element is being developed with a variable constitutive equation link that can be used for constitutive equation development and to predict the response of an experiment using the actual specimen geometry and loading conditions.

  12. We the People: Program Planning Guide for Community Forums on the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Lucinda J., Ed.

    Designed to assist organizations preparing to celebrate the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution through community and school events, this guide provides educational ideas that can be useful in directing the public's attention to the Constitution and the values it represents. Information is included on selecting forum formats, such as mock…

  13. 3 CFR 8862 - Proclamation 8862 of September 13, 2012. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Constitution has guided our progress from 13 to 50 United States that stretch from sea to shining sea. It has... reach. As we mark this 225th anniversary of the signing of our Constitution, we also recognize the...

  14. Closing in on the constitution of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    The science of consciousness is a nascent and thriving field of research that is founded on identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness. However, I have argued that it is the neural constitution of consciousness that science seeks to understand and that there are no evident strategies for distinguishing the correlates and constitution of (phenomenal) consciousness. Here I review this correlation/constitution distinction problem and challenge the existing foundations of consciousness science. I present the main analyses from a longer paper in press on this issue, focusing on recording, inhibition, stimulation, and combined inhibition/stimulation strategies, including proposal of the Jenga analogy to illustrate why identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness should not be considered the ultimate target of consciousness science. Thereafter I suggest that while combined inhibition and stimulation strategies might identify some constitutive neural activities—indeed minimally sufficient constitutive neural activities—such strategies fail to identify the whole neural constitution of consciousness and thus the correlation/constitution distinction problem is not fully solved. Various clarifications, potential objections and related scientific and philosophical issues are also discussed and I conclude by proposing new foundational claims for consciousness science. PMID:25452738

  15. 3 CFR 8562 - Proclamation 8562 of September 16, 2010. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Constitution Week, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The summer of 1787 was a... Convention in Philadelphia established a Constitution for the United States of America, signing the finished... taking a solemn oath to “support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of...

  16. 3 CFR 8714 - Proclamation 8714 of September 16, 2011. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Constitution Week, 2011By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In the summer of 1787... months of fierce debate and hard-fought compromise, the delegates signed the Constitution of the United States. For more than two centuries, the Constitution has presided as the supreme law of the...

  17. 3 CFR 9019 - Proclamation 9019 of September 16, 2013. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Constitution Week, 2013By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In May of 1787... each year as “Constitution Week.” NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of... through September 23, 2013, as Constitution Week. I encourage Federal, State, and local officials, as...

  18. [The right to health. Constitutional dimensions].

    PubMed

    Pestalozza, C

    2007-09-01

    A fundamental "right to health" is expressly guaranteed by the constitutions of several Bundesländer, but unknown to the German Federal Constitution. Instead the Federal Constitutional Court has - especially on the basis of related human rights - developed the obligation of the State to protect everybody's life and physical integrity, which in some respects comes near to a "right to health". The State's autonomy in financial matters, the scarcity of its financial resources and the individual's natural responsibility for his own health though advise against exaggerated hopes set in a "right to health".

  19. Constitutively Active Rhodopsin and Retinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Paul Shin-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the light receptor in rod photoreceptor cells of the retina that initiates scotopic vision. In the dark, rhodopsin is bound to the chromophore 11-cis retinal, which locks the receptor in an inactive state. The maintenance of an inactive rhodopsin in the dark is critical for rod photoreceptor cells to remain highly sensitive. Perturbations by mutation or absence of 11-cis retinal can cause rhodopsin to become constitutively active, which leads to the desensitization of photoreceptor cells and, in some instances, retinal degeneration. Constitutive activity can arise in rhodopsin by various mechanisms and can cause a variety of inherited retinal diseases including Leber congenital amaurosis, congenital night blindness, and retinitis pigmentosa. In this review, the molecular and structural properties of different constitutively active forms of rhodopsin are overviewed and the possibility that constitutive activity can arise from different active-state conformations is discussed. PMID:24931191

  20. The Constitution and the Black Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the constitutional promises to black people, early congressional efforts to fulfill these promises, early court cases construing the Fourteenth Amendment and the impact of these decisions along with their subsequent overruling. (Author/JB)

  1. Capturing the Essence of the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorrow, Catherine

    1987-01-01

    Offers three sample lesson plans for elementary grades designed to demonstrate the religious values inherent in the United States Constitution. Each lesson plan focuses on one amendment and includes a discussion of class activities. (DMM)

  2. Symbolic derivation of potential based constitutive equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Tan, H. Q.

    1990-05-01

    Structural alloys used in high temperature applications exhibit complex thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time dependent and hereditary, as the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but on the thermomechanical history. Derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) which describe this high temperature material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved, and error-prone, thus intelligent application of symbolic systems to facilitate this tedious processes can be of significant benefit. Here a computerized package, running under MACSYMA, capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models, in analytical form (involving tensors, partial differentiation, invariants, and the like) is presented. Special purpose utility algorithms are designed and implemented to perform partial differentiation (chain rule), tensor manipulation, case distinction and simplification. Four constitutive theories reported in the literature are utilized to verify implementation accuracy. It is expected that this symbolic package can and will provide a significant incentive to the development of new constitutive theories.

  3. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; (ii) Counties do not touch because of a correction line adjustment; or (iii) The land is within 20... increase amount of program benefits received; (2) The farm was not properly constituted the previous time...

  4. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; (ii) Counties do not touch because of a correction line adjustment; or (iii) The land is within 20... increase amount of program benefits received; (2) The farm was not properly constituted the previous time...

  5. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; (ii) Counties do not touch because of a correction line adjustment; or (iii) The land is within 20... increase amount of program benefits received; (2) The farm was not properly constituted the previous time...

  6. Dynamic constitutional frameworks for DNA biomimetic recognition.

    PubMed

    Catana, Romina; Barboiu, Mihail; Moleavin, Ioana; Clima, Lilia; Rotaru, Alexandru; Ursu, Elena-Laura; Pinteala, Mariana

    2015-02-07

    Linear and cross-linked dynamic constitutional frameworks generated from reversibly interacting linear PEG/core constituents and cationic sites shed light on the dominant coiling versus linear DNA binding behaviours, closer to the histone DNA binding wrapping mechanism.

  7. Constitutive Parameter Measurement Using Double Ridge Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    CONSTITUTIVE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT USING DOUBLE RIDGE WAVEGUIDE THESIS Nathan J. Lehman, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENG-13-M-30 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-13-M-30 CONSTITUTIVE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT USING DOUBLE RIDGE WAVEGUIDE THESIS Presented to the Faculty...PARAMETER MEASUREMENT USING DOUBLE RIDGE WAVEGUIDE Nathan J. Lehman, B.S.E.E. Captain, USAF Approved: Michael Havrilla, PhD (Chairman) Maj Milo Hyde, PhD

  8. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    PubMed

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  9. Constitutive and Operational Variation of Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites

    PubMed Central

    Seiter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Learning is widely documented across animal taxa but studies stringently scrutinizing the causes of constitutive or operational variation of learning among populations and individuals are scarce. The ability to learn is genetically determined and subject to constitutive variation while the performance in learning depends on the immediate circumstances and is subject to operational variation. We assessed variation in learning ability and performance of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii, caused by population origin, rearing diet, and type of experience. Using an early learning foraging paradigm, we determined that homogeneous single prey environments did not select for reduced learning ability, as compared to natural prey-diverse environments, whereas a multi-generational pollen diet resulted in loss of learning, as compared to a diet of live prey. Associative learning produced stronger effects than non-associative learning but both types of experience produced persistent memory. Our study represents a key example of environmentally caused variation in learning ability and performance. PMID:27814380

  10. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  11. Constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Robert Aaron; Runge, Steven William; Moran, William Michael

    2004-11-01

    In Aplysia californica enterocytes, alanine-stimulated Na+ absorption increases both apical membrane exocytosis and fractional capacitance (fCa; a measure of relative apical membrane surface area). These increases are thought to reduce membrane tension during periods of nutrient absorption that cause the enterocytes to swell osmotically. In the absence of alanine, exocytosis and fCa are constant. These findings imply equal rates of constitutive endocytosis and exocytosis and constitutive recycling of the apical plasma membrane. Thus, the purpose of this study was to confirm and determine the relative extent of constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes. Biotinylated lectins are commonly used to label plasma membranes and to investigate plasma membrane recycling. Of fourteen biotinylated lectins tested, biotinylated wheat germ agglutinin (bWGA) bound preferentially to the enterocytes apical surface. Therefore, we used bWGA, avidin D (which binds tightly to biotin), and the UV fluorophore 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid (AMCA)-conjugated avidin D to assess the extent of constitutive apical membrane recycling. A temperature-dependent (20 vs. 4 degrees C) experimental protocol employed the use of two tissues from each of five snails and resulted in a approximately 60% difference in apical surface fluorescence intensity. Because the extent of membrane recycling is proportional to the difference in surface fluorescence intensity, this difference reveals a relatively high rate of constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes.

  12. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  13. The regularity theory of mechanistic constitution and a methodology for constitutive inference.

    PubMed

    Harbecke, Jens

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses a Boolean method for establishing constitutive regularity statements which, according to the regularity theory of mechanistic constitution, form the core of any mechanistic explanation in neuroscience. After presenting the regularity definition for the constitution relation, the paper develops a set of inference rules allowing one to establish constitutive hypotheses in light of certain kinds of empirical evidence. The general methodology consisting of these rules is characterized as having formed the basis of many successful explanatory projects in neuroscience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A survey of unified constitutive theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Walker, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of time temperature dependent elastic viscoplastic constitutive theories which are based on the unified approach werre assessed. This class of constitutive theories is characterized by the use of kinetic equations and internal variables with appropriate evolutionary equations for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation. More than 10 such unified theories which are shown to satisfy the uniqueness and stability criteria imposed by Drucker's postulate and Ponter's inequalities are identified. The theories are compared for the types of flow law, kinetic equation, evolutionary equation of the internal variables, and treatment of temperature dependence. The similarities and differences of these theories are outlined in terms of mathematical formulations and illustrated by comparisons of theoretical calculations with experimental results which include monotonic stress-strain curves, cyclic hysteresis loops, creep and stress relaxation rates, and thermomechanical loops. Numerical methods used for integrating these stiff time temperature dependent constitutive equations are reviewed.

  15. Molecular karyotyping in human constitutional cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Sanlaville, Damien; Lapierre, Jean-Michel; Turleau, Catherine; Coquin, Aurélie; Borck, Guntram; Colleaux, Laurence; Vekemans, Michel; Romana, Serge Pierrick

    2005-01-01

    Using array CGH it is possible to detect very small genetic imbalances anywhere in the genome. Its usefulness has been well documented in cancer and more recently in constitutional disorders. In particular it has been used to detect interstitial and subtelomeric submicroscopic imbalances, to characterize their size at the molecular level and to define the breakpoints of chromosomal translocation. Here, we review the various applications of array CGH in constitutional cytogenetics. This technology remains expensive and the existence of numerous sequence polymorphisms makes its interpretation difficult. The challenge today is to transfer this technology in the clinical setting.

  16. Thermoelastic constitutive equations for chemically hardening materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, B. W.; Levitsky, M.

    1974-01-01

    Thermoelastic constitutive equations are derived for a material undergoing solidification or hardening as the result of a chemical reaction. The derivation is based upon a two component model whose composition is determined by the degree of hardening, and makes use of strain-energy considerations. Constitutive equations take the form of stress rate-strain rate relations, in which the coefficients are time-dependent functions of the composition. Specific results are developed for the case of a material of constant bulk modulus which undergoes a transition from an initial liquidlike state into an isotropic elastic solid. Potential applications are discussed.

  17. Constitutional aspects of economic law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Tundermann, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Economic remedies for violations of environmental standards provide a better administrative approach than civil penalties based on more traditional discretionary criteria. Economic penalties are not subject to the constitutional requirements that limit the procedures for criminal penalties. Economic penalties also provide a constitutionally permissible way of accruing liability during litigation. These penalties are large enough to eliminate the benefits of delayed compliance and unnecessary litigation; however, they do not alter the rights of judicial review. Agencies can determine economic penalties with more objectivity and accuracy than under traditional penalty schemes.

  18. Small-molecule modulators of the constitutive androstane receptor

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Milu T.; Chai, Sergio C.; Chen, Taosheng

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) induces drug-metabolizing enzymes for xenobiotic metabolism. Areas covered This review covers recent advances in elucidating the biological functions of CAR and its modulation by a growing number of agonists and inhibitors. Expert opinion Extrapolation of animal CAR function to that of humans should be carefully scrutinized, particularly when rodents are used in evaluating the metabolic profile and carcinogenic properties of clinical drugs and environmental chemicals. Continuous efforts are needed to discover novel CAR inhibitors, with extensive understanding of their inhibitory mechanism, species selectivity, and discriminating power against other xenobiotic sensors. PMID:25979168

  19. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., that we are each endowed with certain unalienable rights. As the beneficiaries of these rights, all... Constitution and teach younger generations about its contents and history. By fulfilling civic duties, engaging... can better our country and breathe life into the freedoms established in the Constitution. The right...

  20. Constitutive laws, tensorial invariance and chocolate cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, John B.; Passman, S. L.

    1982-04-01

    Although constitutive modeling is a well-established branch of mathematics which has found wide industrial application, geophysicists often do not take full advantage of its known results. We present a synopsis of the theory of constitutive modeling, couched in terms of the ‘simple material’, which has been extensively studied and is complex enough to include most of the correct models proposed to describe the behavior of geological materials. Critical in the development of the theory are various invariance requirements, the principal ones being coordinate invariance, peer group invariance (isotropy), and frame-indifference. Each places distinet restrictions on constitutive equations. A noncomprehensive list of properly invariant and commonly used constitutive equations is given. To exemplify use of the equations, we consider two problems in detail: steady extension, which models the commonly performed constant strain rate triaxial test, and simple shearing. We note that each test is so restricted kinematically that only the most trivial aspects of material behavior are manifested in these tests, no matter how complex the material. Furthermore, the results of one test do not generally determine the results of the other.

  1. The Constitution: Burkeian, Brandeisian and Borkian Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewbank, Henry L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Kenneth Burke's rhetorical theory is exemplified in the statements of Justice Louis Brandeis, whose concept of "the living law" explores the contemporary scene as ground for judicial review. Contends that Robert Bork's search for "neutral principles" in Constitutional words ignores the symbolic and dialectical…

  2. School Choice and State Constitutions' Religion Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komer, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," only state religion clauses represent a potential constitutional bar to the inclusion of religious options in properly designed school choice programs. The two most significant are compelled support clauses and Blaine Amendments. Both are frequently misinterpreted by state…

  3. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  4. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  5. Contragate, Covert Action, and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Michael

    1987-01-01

    The "Iran-Contragate" hearings were indicative of serious constitutional crisis. Analyzes and disputes following three defenses used by President Reagan to justify his actions in affair: he did not know or approve; it was not a violation of law; and his authority over foreign affairs is given in war powers clause of the…

  6. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  7. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  8. North Carolina Outdoor Education Association Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Journal of Outdoor Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Gives the Association's constitution which covers membership, executive board, elections, terms of office, duties of officers, committees, parliamentary authority, amendments, and quorum. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal…

  9. Does the Constitution Protect the Despised?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Richard L; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presented is the history of the Scottsboro case, in which eight Black men were found guilty and sentenced to death for raping two White women in Alabama. At the heart of the Scottsboro trials was the issue of whether the U.S. Constitution established standards of justice in state criminal trials. (RM)

  10. Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-20

    constitutional judgment of the legislative branch,” the memorandum nonetheless declared that some encroachments would not be justiciable , and that in...the provision is justiciable ) and monitoring by Congress. A closely-related argument, also raised in the ABA Report, is that signing statements that

  11. Constitutive Modeling for Sheet Metal Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Barlat, Frederic

    2005-08-05

    This paper reviews aspects of the plastic behaviour common in sheet metals. Macroscopic and microscopic phenomena occurring during plastic deformation are described succinctly. Constitutive models of plasticity suitable for applications to forming, are discussed in a very broad manner. Approaches to plastic anisotropy are described in a somewhat more detailed manner.

  12. Constitutive Descriptions For Metal Forming Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barlat, Frederic

    2007-05-17

    This paper reviews aspects of the plastic behavior common in metals and alloys. Macroscopic and microscopic phenomena occurring during plastic deformation are described succinctly. Constitutive descriptions of plasticity at the microscopic and macroscopic scales, suitable for applications to forming, are discussed in a very broad fashion. Approaches to plastic anisotropy are reviewed in a more detailed manner.

  13. A New Perspective on Teaching Constitutional Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Robert

    1977-01-01

    The author suggests that a major failure of most law schools and traditional undergraduate constitutional law courses is that they omit an adequate analysis of the political nature of the judicial process. Political influences on a variety of court cases are discussed. (LBH)

  14. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  15. Ohio's School Finance System: Constitutional or Unconstitutional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulach, Clete

    Since June 1979, when the Ohio Supreme Court declared Ohio's finance system constitutional, that system has continued to deteriorate, as evidenced by the number of districts borrowing from the school loan fund. Moreover, the supreme courts of four other states have recently declared their state financing systems unconstitutional. This paper…

  16. Children's Constitutional Rights: Interpretations and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sametz, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a brief historical overview of constitutional law as it applies to children, delineated in the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Emphasizes the need for school psychologists and educators to have an understanding of children's developing legal rights. Specific court cases are cited. (Author/JAC)

  17. Western Canadians and the Mulroney Constitutional Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1991-01-01

    Reports findings of a survey suggesting that Edmonton, Alberta residents favor a referendum before any changes are made in Canada's constitution. Explains changes proposed by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. Examines plans for House of Commons reform, aboriginal self-government, economic union for Canada, worker training, immigration, and other…

  18. North Carolina Outdoor Education Association Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Journal of Outdoor Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Gives the Association's constitution which covers membership, executive board, elections, terms of office, duties of officers, committees, parliamentary authority, amendments, and quorum. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal…

  19. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  20. The Constitutive Equation for Membrane Tether Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Yao, Da-Kang; Shao, Jin-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Membrane tethers or nanotubes play a critical role in a variety of cellular and subcellular processes such as leukocyte rolling and intercellular mass transport. The current constitutive equations that describe the relationship between the pulling force and the tether velocity during tether extraction have serious limitations. Here we propose a new phenomenological constitutive equation that captures all known characteristics of nanotube formation, including nonlinearity, nonzero threshold force, and possible negative tether velocity. We used tether extraction from endothelial cells as a prototype to illustrate how to obtain the material constants in the constitutive equation. With the micropipette aspiration technique, we measured tether pulling forces at both positive and negative tether velocities. We also determined the threshold force of 55 pN experimentally for the first time. This new constitutive equation unites two established ones and provides us a unified platform to better understand not only the physiological role of tether extraction during leukocyte rolling and intercellular or intracellular transport, but also the physics of membrane tether growth or retraction. PMID:20614242

  1. Microplane constitutive model for porous isotropic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baant, Zdenk P.; Zi, Goangseup

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with constitutive modelling of contiguous rock located between rock joints. A fully explicit kinematically constrained microplane-type constitutive model for hardening and softening non-linear triaxial behaviour of isotropic porous rock is developed. The microplane framework, in which the constitutive relation is expressed in terms of stress and strain vectors rather than tensors, makes it possible to model various microstructural physical mechanisms associated with oriented internal surfaces, such as cracking, slip, friction and splitting of a particular orientation. Formulation of the constitutive relation is facilitated by the fact that it is decoupled from the tensorial invariance restrictions, which are satisfied automatically. In its basic features, the present model is similar to the recently developed microplane model M4 for concrete, but there are significant improvements and modifications. They include a realistic simulation of (1) the effects of pore collapse on the volume changes during triaxial loading and on the reduction of frictional strength, (2) recovery of frictional strength during shearing, and (3) the shear-enhanced compaction in triaxial tests, manifested by a deviation from the hydrostatic stress-strain curve. The model is calibrated by optimal fitting of extensive triaxial test data for Salem limestone, and good fits are demonstrated. Although these data do not cover the entire range of behaviour, credence in broad capabilities of the model is lend by its similarity to model M4 for concrete - an artificial rock. The model is intended for large explicit finite-element programs.

  2. Western Canadians and the Mulroney Constitutional Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1991-01-01

    Reports findings of a survey suggesting that Edmonton, Alberta residents favor a referendum before any changes are made in Canada's constitution. Explains changes proposed by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. Examines plans for House of Commons reform, aboriginal self-government, economic union for Canada, worker training, immigration, and other…

  3. Counterpoint: A Constitutional Right to Party?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsicker, J. Freedley, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Takes issues with Gregory Hauser's previous article positing a constitutional right of social fraternities to formal recognition at public institutions of higher education. Reanalyzes each of the associational cases cited by Hauser, cites additional cases, adds a waiver argument, and wraps up with a public policy comparison of higher education…

  4. Censorship of Obscenity: The Developing Constitutional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, William B.; McClure, Robert C.

    1960-01-01

    To demonstrate that substantial protection has been given to published material dealing with sex, an analysis of the constitutional criteria governing recent Supreme Court decisions in the area of obscenity censorship is presented. It is found that the Supreme Court uses "hard core pornography" as the foundation of a "constant" concept of…

  5. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  6. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... obligations. The members of this Commission have undertaken in their oaths of office to support the Federal... faithfully execute the laws which they are charged with administering. Members shall also carefully...

  7. The U.S. Constitution and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Betsy

    Although education is primarily a state function, its importance to our society makes it fertile ground for litigation. The Constitution--by authorizing the Congress to enact legislation--constrains and prescribes what happens in schools. Legislative histories, especially since the early 1960s, are outlined here. The major topics include:…

  8. Fetal pain, abortion, viability, and the Constitution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  9. Preliminary Validation of Composite Material Constitutive Characterization

    Treesearch

    John G. Michopoulos; Athanasios lliopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Adrian C. Orifici; Rodney S. Thomson

    2012-01-01

    This paper is describing the preliminary results of an effort to validate a methodology developed for composite material constitutive characterization. This methodology involves using massive amounts of data produced from multiaxially tested coupons via a 6-DoF robotic system called NRL66.3 developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The testing is followed by...

  10. Development of a Thermodynamically Consistent Constitutive Framework for Castlegate Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, M. C.; Ingraham, M. D.; Issen, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Development of accurate field-scale deformation models requires use of a constitutive framework that is capable of representing material behavior, and can be calibrated using available mechanical response data. This study focuses on the formulation of such a constitutive framework for Castlegate sandstone, which is a high porosity fluvial-deposited reservoir analog rock. In developing a constitutive framework, researchers must balance the complexity of the mathematics required to represent all aspects of mechanical response, with the ease of implementation. Central to this effort is identifying and modeling the most fundamental material behaviors. For Castlegate sandstone, experimentalists (e.g., AGU Abstract 30068, Issen et al.) report three behaviors that are essential in characterizing deformation response: 1) dependence of the moduli on stress (nonlinearity), 2) evolution of the moduli with plastic strain, and 3) non-normality of the plastic strain increment to the yield surface (non-associativity). This work employs the principles of hyperplasticity (e.g., Houlsby and Puzrin, 2006) to develop a thermodynamically sound constitutive framework for Castlegate sandstone. This requires selection of two potentials: 1) a thermodynamic potential (i.e., internal energy, enthalpy, Helmholtz function, or Gibbs' function) and 2) a dissipation function or yield surface. Furthermore, the elastic, plastic, and coupled strain increments are derived from these potentials. This study uses a Gibbs' function to define expressions for the evolution of the elastic moduli, from which elastic and coupled strain increments are determined. The yield surface in dissipative stress-space is used to derive the plastic strain increments. A key result of this formulation is that normality is predicted in dissipative stress space; this result is evaluated against experimental data from work discussed in AGU Abstract 30068, Issen et al.

  11. Computational and experimental investigation of constitutive behavior in AraC.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Mary; Gullotti, David; Damjanovic, Ana; Cheng, Ann; Dirla, Stephanie; Schleif, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Many mutations in the N-terminal arm of AraC result in constitutive behavior in which transcription of the araBAD genes occurs even in the absence of arabinose. To begin to understand the mechanism underlying this class of mutations, we used molecular dynamics with self-guided Langevin dynamics to simulate (1) wild-type (WT) AraC, (2) known constitutive mutants resulting from alterations in the regulatory arm, particularly alanine and glycine substitutions at residue 8 because P8G is constitutive, whereas P8A behaves like wild type, and (3) selected variant AraC proteins containing alterations in the dimerization core. In all of the constitutive arm mutants, but not the WT protein, residues 37-42, which are located in the core of the dimerization domain, became restructured. This raised the question of whether or not these structural changes are an obligatory component of constitutivity. Using molecular dynamics, we identified alterations in the core that produced a similar restructuring. The corresponding mutants were constructed and their ara constitutivity status was determined experimentally. Because the core mutants were not found to be constitutive, we conclude that restructuring of core residues 37-42 does not, itself, lead to constitutivity of AraC. The available data lead to the hypothesis that the interaction of the N-terminal arm with something other than the front lip is the primary determinant of the inducing versus repressing state of AraC.

  12. An elastoplastic damage constitutive model for concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Lin, Gao; Zhong, Hong

    2013-04-01

    An elastoplastic damage constitutive model to simulate nonlinear behavior of concrete is presented. Similar to traditional plastic theory, the irreversible deformation is modeled in effective stress space. In order to better describe different stiffness degradation mechanisms of concrete under tensile and compressive loading conditions, two damage variables, i.e., tension and compression are introduced, to quantitatively evaluate the degree of deterioration of concrete structure. The rate dependent behavior is taken into account, and this model is derived firmly in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Fully implicit backward-Euler algorithm is suggested to perform constitutive integration. Numerical results of the model accord well with the test results for specimens under uniaxial tension and compression, biaxial loading and triaxial loading. Failure processes of double-edge-notched (DEN) specimen are also simulated to further validate the proposed model.

  13. Constitutive Models Based on Compressible Plastic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajendran, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The need for describing materials under time or cycle dependent loading conditions has been emphasized in recent years by several investigators. In response to the need, various constitutive models describing the nonlinear behavior of materials under creep, fatigue, or other complex loading conditions were developed. The developed models for describing the fully dense (non-porous) materials were mostly based on uncoupled plasticity theory. The improved characterization of materials provides a better understanding of the structual response under complex loading conditions. The pesent studies demonstrate that the rate or time dependency of the response of a porous aggregate can be incorporated into the nonlinear constitutive behavior of a porous solid by appropriately modeling the incompressible matrix behavior. It is also sown that the yield function which wads determined by a continuum mechanics approach must be verified by appropriate experiments on void containing sintered materials in order to obtain meaningful numbers for the constants that appear in the yield function.

  14. Constitutive Modeling of Crosslinked Nanotube Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Herzog, M. N.; Gates, T. S.; Fay, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    A non-linear, continuum-based constitutive model is developed for carbon nanotube materials in which bundles of aligned carbon nanotubes have varying amounts of crosslinks between the nanotubes. The model accounts for the non-linear elastic constitutive behavior of the material in terms of strain, and is developed using a thermodynamic energy approach. The model is used to examine the effect of the crosslinking on the overall mechanical properties of variations of the crosslinked carbon nanotube material with varying degrees of crosslinking. It is shown that the presence of the crosslinks has significant effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube materials. An increase in the transverse shear properties is observed when the nanotubes are crosslinked. However, this increase is accompanied by a decrease in axial mechanical properties of the nanotube material upon crosslinking.

  15. Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Hongjun

    1999-06-01

    Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

  16. Constitutive modeling for single crystal superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald C.; Dame, L. Thomas; Jayaraman, N.

    1985-01-01

    A crystallographic approach to constitutive modeling of single crystal superalloys is discussed. The approach is based on identifying the active slip planes and slip directions. The shear stresses are computed on each of the slip planes from applied stress components. The slip rate is then computed on each slip system and the microscopic inelastic strain rates are the sum of the slip in the individual slip systems. The constitutive model was implemented in a finite element code using twenty noted isoparametric solid elements. Constants were determined for octahedral and cube slip systems. These constants were then used to predict tension-compression asymmetry and fatigue loops. Other data was used to model the tensile and creep response.

  17. A constitutive model for an overlay coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.; Swanson, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    Coatings are frequently applied to gas turbine blades and vanes to provide protection against oxidation and corrosion. The results of an experimental and analytical study to develop a constitutive model for an overlay coating is presented. Specimens were machined from a hot isostatically pressed billet of PWA 286. The tests consisted of isothermal stress relaxation cycles with monotonically increasing maximum strain and were conducted at various temperatures. The results were used to calculate the constants for various constitutive models, including the classical, the Walker isotropic, a simplified Walker, and Stowell models. A computerized regression analysis was used to calculate model constants from the data. The best fit was obtained for the Walker model, with the simplified Walker and classical models close behind.

  18. Washington upholds HIV exposure law as constitutional.

    PubMed

    1999-12-24

    A Washington State appeals court has rejected a constitutional challenge to a law that makes the intentional spreading of HIV to sex partners a crime. The court rejected the notion that the criminal exposure law violated the equal protection clause of the U.S. and State constitutions because it singled out those infected with HIV for unequal treatment. The court saw the law applied specific conduct to all, infected and non-infected alike, not specific groups of people. A second argument that the defendants were denied right of procreation was rejected because those rights are not protected if the defendant intended to inflict bodily injury. In this case, the defendant, [name removed], knowing his HIV status, willingly had sex with several women without warning them of his status or using a condom. The court viewed this behavior as acting with intent to inflict harm. An earlier case involving an HIV-specific criminal exposure law is described.

  19. Biaxial constitutive equation development for single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    Current gas turbine engines utilize large single crystal superalloy components in the hot section. Structural analysis of these components requires a valid stress strain temperature constitutive equation. The goal of the program described is to create one or more models and verify these models. A constitutive equation based on an assumed slip behavior of a single slip system was formulated, programmed, and debugged. Specifically, the basic theory for a model based on aggravating slip behavior on individual slip systems was formulated and programmed and some simulations were run using assumed values of constants. In addition, a formulation allowing strain controlled simulations was completed. An approach to structural analysis of the specimen was developed. This approach uses long tube consistancy conditions and finite elements specially formulated to take advantage of the symmetry of 100 oriented specimens.

  20. In quest of constitutional principles of "neurolaw".

    PubMed

    Pizzetti, Federico Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of brain imaging technology and the developing of cognitive neuroscience pose unaccustomed challenges to legal systems. Until now, the fields of Law much affected are the civil and criminal law and procedure, but the constitutional dimension of "neurolaw" cannot be easily underestimated. As the capacity to investigate and to trace brain mechanisms and functional neural activities increases, it becomes urgent the recognition and definition of the unalienable rights and fundamental values in respect of this new techno-scientific power, that must be protected and safeguard at "constitutional level" of norms such as: human dignity, personal identity, authenticity and the pursuit of individual "happiness". As the same as for the law regulating research and experimentation on human genome adopted in the past years, one may also argue if the above mentioned fundamental principles of "neurolaw" must be fixed and disciplined also at European and International level.

  1. President, Prime Minister, or Constitutional Monarch?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    however, without test cases, and the President has always been an important initiator of test cases. 6 EUGENE V. RosTOw This paper is divided into...Judge Gerhard A. Gesell in the trial of Oliver North confirms, those two issues do not raise either constitutional or significant statutory questions...expired after sixty or ninety days if congress did nothing. Section 6 of the 1973 act was never tested , but it was generally thought to be unworkable. The

  2. A constitutional 5q23 deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, H; Simi, P; Rossi, S; Pardelli, L; Di Paolo, M C

    1990-01-01

    A 14 month old girl was found to have a deletion of the whole of band 5q23. By comparing 19 other cases monosomic for a part of the 5q13-q31 segment, the constitutional 5q interstitial deletions fall into two groups: adult patients with Gardner-like symptoms and mental retardation associated with deletion 5q21-q22, and patients (mostly children) with unspecific signs and symptoms and different deletions. Images PMID:2325108

  3. Constitutional developments in Latin American abortion law.

    PubMed

    Bergallo, Paola; Ramón Michel, Agustina

    2016-11-01

    For most of the 20th Century, restrictive abortion laws were in place in continental Latin America. In recent years, reforms have caused a liberalizing shift, supported by constitutional decisions of the countries' high courts. The present article offers an overview of the turn toward more liberal rules and the resolution of abortion disputes by reference to national constitutions. For such purpose, the main legal changes of abortion laws in the last decade are first surveyed. Landmark decisions of the high courts of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Mexico are then analyzed. It is shown that courts have accepted the need to balance interests and competing rights to ground less restrictive laws. In doing so, they have articulated limits to protection of fetal interests, and basic ideas of women's dignity, autonomy, and equality. The process of constitutionalization has only just begun. Constitutional judgments are not the last word, but they are important contributions in reinforcing the legality of abortion. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Implicit constitutive relations for nonlinear magnetoelastic bodies.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, R; Rajagopal, K R

    2015-03-08

    Implicit constitutive relations that characterize the response of elastic bodies have greatly enhanced the arsenal available at the disposal of the analyst working in the field of elasticity. This class of models were recently extended to describe electroelastic bodies by the present authors. In this paper, we extend the development of implicit constitutive relations to describe the behaviour of elastic bodies that respond to magnetic stimuli. The models that are developed provide a rational way to describe phenomena that have hitherto not been adequately described by the classical models that are in place. After developing implicit constitutive relations for magnetoelastic bodies undergoing large deformations, we consider the linearization of the models within the context of small displacement gradients. We then use the linearized model to describe experimentally observed phenomena which the classical linearized magnetoelastic models are incapable of doing. We also solve several boundary value problems within the context of the models that are developed: extension and shear of a slab, and radial inflation and extension of a cylinder.

  5. Organelle size equalization by a constitutive process.

    PubMed

    Ludington, William B; Shi, Linda Z; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W; Marshall, Wallace F

    2012-11-20

    How cells control organelle size is an elusive problem. Two predominant models for size control can be distinguished: (1) induced control, where organelle genesis, maintenance, and disassembly are three separate programs that are activated in response to size change, and (2) constitutive control, where stable size results from the balance between continuous organelle assembly and disassembly. The problem has been studied in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii because the flagella are easy to measure, their size changes only in the length dimension, and the genetics are comparable to yeast. Length dynamics in Chlamydomonas flagella are quite robust: they maintain a length of about 12 μm and recover from amputation in about 90 min with a growth rate that decreases smoothly to zero as the length approaches 12 μm. Despite a wealth of experimental studies, existing data are consistent with both induced and constitutive control models for flagella. Here we developed novel microfluidic trapping and laser microsurgery techniques in Chlamydomonas to distinguish between length control models by measuring the two flagella on a single cell as they equilibrate after amputation of a single flagellum. The results suggest that cells equalize flagellar length by constitutive control.

  6. Rapid implementation of advanced constitutive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starman, Bojan; Halilovič, Miroslav; Vrh, Marko; Štok, Boris

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology based on the NICE integration scheme [1, 2] for simple and rapid numerical implementation of a class of plasticity constitutive models. In this regard, an algorithm is purposely developed for the implementation of newly developed advanced constitutive models into explicit finite element framework. The methodology follows the organization of the problem state variables into an extended form, which allows the constitutive models' equations to be organized in such a way, that the algorithm can be optionally extended with minimal effort to integrate also evolution equations related to a description of other specific phenomena, such as damage, distortional hardening, phase transitions, degradation etc. To confirm simplicity of the program implementation, computational robustness, effectiveness and improved accuracy of the implemented integration algorithm, a deep drawing simulation of the cylindrical cup is considered as the case study, performed in ABAQUS/Explicit. As a fairly complex considered model, the YLD2004-18p model [3, 4] is first implemented via external subroutine VUMAT. Further, to give additional proof of the simplicity of the proposed methodology, a combination of the YLD2004-18p model and Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model (GTN) is considered. As demonstrated, the implementation is really obtained in a very simple way.

  7. Implicit constitutive relations for nonlinear magnetoelastic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, R.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    Implicit constitutive relations that characterize the response of elastic bodies have greatly enhanced the arsenal available at the disposal of the analyst working in the field of elasticity. This class of models were recently extended to describe electroelastic bodies by the present authors. In this paper, we extend the development of implicit constitutive relations to describe the behaviour of elastic bodies that respond to magnetic stimuli. The models that are developed provide a rational way to describe phenomena that have hitherto not been adequately described by the classical models that are in place. After developing implicit constitutive relations for magnetoelastic bodies undergoing large deformations, we consider the linearization of the models within the context of small displacement gradients. We then use the linearized model to describe experimentally observed phenomena which the classical linearized magnetoelastic models are incapable of doing. We also solve several boundary value problems within the context of the models that are developed: extension and shear of a slab, and radial inflation and extension of a cylinder. PMID:25792968

  8. Glycine Substitutions in Collagen Heterotrimers Alter Triple Helical Assembly.

    PubMed

    Clements, Katherine A; Acevedo-Jake, Amanda M; Walker, Douglas R; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-13

    Osteogenesis imperfecta typically results from missense mutations in the collagen genome where the required glycine residues are replaced with another amino acid. Many models have attempted to replicate the structure of mutated collagen on the triple helix level. However, composition and register control of the triple helix is complicated and requires extreme precision, especially when these destabilizing mutations are present. Here we present mutations to a composition- and register-controlled AAB helix where one of the requisite glycines in the A chain of the triple helix is changed to serine or alanine. We see a loss of compositional control when the A chain is mutated, resulting in an A'BB composition that minimizes the number of mutations included in the triple helix. However, when both A and B chains are mutated and no nonmutated peptide chains are available, the designed A'A'B' composition is reestablished. Our work shows the ability of the mutations to influence and alter the composition and register of the collagen triple helix.

  9. Search, Seizure, and Privacy. Exploring the Constitution Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Darien A., Ed.

    This book, part of the "Exploring the Constitution Series," provides a basic introduction to important areas of constitutional law. Each volume contains a general introduction to a particular constitutional issue combined with excerpts from significant Supreme Court decisions in that area. The text of the Constitution, a chronological…

  10. The Law of the Constitution: A Bicentennial Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Edwin, III

    This paper discusses the distinction between the Constitution and constitutional law. The Constitution is the fundamental law of the United States. It creates the institutions of government, enumerates the powers of these institutions, and delineates areas government may not enter. The Constitution is the instrument by which the consent of the…

  11. Power: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The fourth in a special series of handbooks dealing with constitutional themes, this document looks at power in the context of the U.S. Constitution. "The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom" (L. Peach) examines the separation of powers provided for in the Constitution. "The Concept of Power" (C. Roach) is a series of…

  12. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when the...

  13. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when the...

  14. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when the...

  15. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when the...

  16. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when the...

  17. Amendment of the Constitution by the Convention Method under Article V. Revision of "Amending the U.S. Constitution by Means of a National Constitutional Convention" (August 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.

    This report sets forth certain conclusions reached by the Special Constitutional Convention Study Committee of the American Bar Association after conducting a two-year study. The committee was formed to evaluate the ramifications of the constitutional convention method of initiating amendments to the U. S. Constitution as set down in Article 5. It…

  18. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    PubMed

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  19. On implicit constitutive relations in elastic ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvanitakis, Antonios

    2017-10-01

    A considerable effort is being made to foster the use of implicit constitutive relations in mechanics of the continuous medium. From this point of view, the class of elastic bodies extends to a much larger category than the classical Cauchy and Green elastic bodies. In this work, a subclass of the recently proposed classes of electro-elastic bodies is taken into consideration to propose models for elastic ferroelectrics. These models, even though they are not based on thermodynamical arguments, seem capable enough to provide the hysteretic behavior of ferroelectric materials.

  20. Constitutive parameter measurements of lossy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominek, A.; Park, A.

    1989-01-01

    The electrical constitutive parameters of lossy materials are considered. A discussion of the NRL arch for lossy coatings is presented involving analytical analyses of the reflected field using the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) and physical optics (PO). The actual values for these parameters can be obtained through a traditional transmission technique which is examined from an error analysis standpoint. Alternate sample geometries are suggested for this technique to reduce sample tolerance requirements for accurate parameter determination. The performance for one alternate geometry is given.

  1. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Constitutive Laws for Dynamic Modelling of Soils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    AD-AO 733 DAMES AND MDORE LONDON (ENGLAND) F/ S/I3 CONSTITUTIVE LAWS FOR DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SOILS.(U) JAN 80 J MART1 P A CUNOALL F61708-79--087...shear history progresses. This is the type of approach followed in the endochronic models used by Bazant and co-workers ( Bazant and Krizeck, 1976...this improved model to soils (1978). Mean- while, Bazant and his co-workers have continued using the older model for 1describing concrete ( Bazant and

  3. Civil and Constitutional Rights of Adjudicated Youth.

    PubMed

    Landess, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders.

  4. Constitutive equations of ageing polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The constitutive equation for the relaxation behavior of time-dependent, chemically unstable materials developed by Valanis and Peng (1983), which used the irreversible thermodynamics of internal variables in Eyring's absolute reaction theory and yielded a theoretical expression for the effect of chemical crosslink density on the relaxation rate, is presently applied to the creep behavior of a network polymer which is undergoing a scission process. In particular, two equations are derived which may for the first time show the relations between mechanical models and internal variables in the creep expressions, using a three-element model with a Maxwell element.

  5. At law. Crack, symbolism, and the constitution.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1989-01-01

    Annas comments on two 1989 Supreme Court decisions and dissenting opinions in cases involving the testing of employees for substance abuse. Regulations promulgated under the 1970 Federal Railroad Safety Act led to a court case, Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives' Association, challenging the collection of blood and urine samples from employees involved in serious rail accidents. Another case, National Treasury Employees Union v. Von Raab, questioned the constitutionality of requiring urine samples for drug testing from candidates for certain positions with the Customs Service. Annas speculates whether the Court's reasoning in these cases will lead it to support broader mandatory testing in the future at the cost of Fourth Amendment rights.

  6. [Constitutive synthesis of cellulase by Trichoderma lignorum].

    PubMed

    Lobanok, A G; Pavlovskaia, Zh I

    1977-01-01

    The induction of cellulase synthesis by lactose was studied in the resting cells of Trichoderma lignorum OM 534. The effect depended on the concentration of lactose, pH, and the age of the mycelium. The induction of the enzyme synthesis by lactose is supressed by glucose and its metabolites. The repression by glucose is partly eliminated by Cyk 3'-5'-AMP, theophylline, and coffeine. The induction of cellulase by lactose is regarded as a derepression of the synthesis of this enzyme as a result of slow assimilation of the disaccharide. The synthesis of cellulase in T. lignorum is presumed to be constitutive.

  7. Constitutive parameter extraction for heated materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, J.; Dominek, A.

    1991-01-01

    The focus is the determination of the electrical constitutive paramaters of materials with general complex epsilon and mu values at elevated temperatures. Measurement fixtures and techniques are evaluated for frequencies between 8 and 12 GHz using a rectangular waveguide with the sample completely filling the fixture. Three different measurement techniques are evaluated to obtain the necessary measured quantities for parameter extraction. The most desirable technique used two reflection measurements from material samples of different thickness backed with a short. Temperatures up to 600 F were investigated.

  8. Towards constitutive equations for the deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, B. L. N.

    2017-09-01

    A new formulation of constitutive equations for states of high compression is introduced for isotropic media, exploiting a separation between hydrostatic and deviatoric components in strain energy. The strain energy is represented as functions of strain invariants, with one purely volumetric component and the other which vanishes for purely hydrostatic deformation. This approach preserves the form of familiar equations of state through the volumetric component, but allows the addition of volume and pressure dependence of the shear modulus from the deviatoric term. A suitable shear modulus representation to accompany a Keane equation of state is demonstrated.

  9. Constitutive equations of ageing polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The constitutive equation for the relaxation behavior of time-dependent, chemically unstable materials developed by Valanis and Peng (1983), which used the irreversible thermodynamics of internal variables in Eyring's absolute reaction theory and yielded a theoretical expression for the effect of chemical crosslink density on the relaxation rate, is presently applied to the creep behavior of a network polymer which is undergoing a scission process. In particular, two equations are derived which may for the first time show the relations between mechanical models and internal variables in the creep expressions, using a three-element model with a Maxwell element.

  10. Space shuttle propellant constitutive law verification tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, James R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Propellants Task (Task 2.0) on the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP), a database of material properties was generated for the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) PBAN-based propellant. A parallel effort on the Propellants Task was the generation of an improved constitutive theory for the PBAN propellant suitable for use in a finite element analysis (FEA) of the RSRM. The outcome of an analysis with the improved constitutive theory would be more reliable prediction of structural margins of safety. The work described in this report was performed by Materials Laboratory personnel at Thiokol Corporation/Huntsville Division under NASA contract NAS8-39619, Mod. 3. The report documents the test procedures for the refinement and verification tests for the improved Space Shuttle RSRM propellant material model, and summarizes the resulting test data. TP-H1148 propellant obtained from mix E660411 (manufactured February 1989) which had experienced ambient igloo storage in Huntsville, Alabama since January 1990, was used for these tests.

  11. Constitutive modelling of composite biopolymer networks.

    PubMed

    Fallqvist, B; Kroon, M

    2016-04-21

    The mechanical behaviour of biopolymer networks is to a large extent determined at a microstructural level where the characteristics of individual filaments and the interactions between them determine the response at a macroscopic level. Phenomena such as viscoelasticity and strain-hardening followed by strain-softening are observed experimentally in these networks, often due to microstructural changes (such as filament sliding, rupture and cross-link debonding). Further, composite structures can also be formed with vastly different mechanical properties as compared to the individual networks. In this present paper, we present a constitutive model presented in a continuum framework aimed at capturing these effects. Special care is taken to formulate thermodynamically consistent evolution laws for dissipative effects. This model, incorporating possible anisotropic network properties, is based on a strain energy function, split into an isochoric and a volumetric part. Generalisation to three dimensions is performed by numerical integration over the unit sphere. Model predictions indicate that the constitutive model is well able to predict the elastic and viscoelastic response of biological networks, and to an extent also composite structures.

  12. Constitutive equations for an electroactive polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier, Mireille; Pouget, Joël

    2016-07-01

    Ionic electroactive polymers can be used as sensors or actuators. For this purpose, a thin film of polyelectrolyte is saturated with a solvent and sandwiched between two platinum electrodes. The solvent causes a complete dissociation of the polymer and the release of small cations. The application of an electric field across the thickness results in the bending of the strip and vice versa. The material is modeled by a two-phase continuous medium. The solid phase, constituted by the polymer backbone inlaid with anions, is depicted as a deformable porous media. The liquid phase is composed of the free cations and the solvent (usually water). We used a coarse grain model. The conservation laws of this system have been established in a previous work. The entropy balance law and the thermodynamic relations are first written for each phase and then for the complete material using a statistical average technique and the material derivative concept. One deduces the entropy production. Identifying generalized forces and fluxes provides the constitutive equations of the whole system: the stress-strain relations which satisfy a Kelvin-Voigt model, generalized Fourier's and Darcy's laws and the Nernst-Planck equation.

  13. Constitutive modeling of contact angle hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Vedantam, Srikanth; Panchagnula, Mahesh V

    2008-05-15

    We introduce a phase field model of wetting of surfaces by sessile drops. The theory uses a two-dimensional non-conserved phase field variable to parametrize the Gibbs free energy of the three-dimensional system. Contact line tension and contact angle hysteresis arise from the gradient term in the free energy and the kinetic coefficient respectively. A significant advantage of this approach is in the constitutive specification of hysteresis. The advancing and receding angles of a surface, the liquid-vapor interfacial energy and three-phase line tension are the only required constitutive inputs to the model. We first simulate hysteresis on a smooth chemically homogeneous surface using this theory. Next we show that it is possible to study heterogeneous surfaces whose component surfaces are themselves hysteretic. We use this theory to examine the wetting of a surface containing a circular heterogeneous island. The contact angle for this case is found to be determined solely by the material properties at the contact line in accord with recent experimental data.

  14. Constitutional ring chromosomes and tumour suppressor genes.

    PubMed Central

    Tommerup, N; Lothe, R

    1992-01-01

    The types of malignancy reported in carriers of constitutional ring chromosomes r(11), r(13), and r(22) are concordant with the chromosomal assignment of tumour suppressor loci associated with Wilms' tumour, retinoblastoma, and meningioma. It is suggested that the somatic instability of ring chromosomes may play a role in this association and that constitutional ring chromosomes may be a source for mapping of tumour suppressor loci with the potential for covering most or all of the human genome. The hypothesis predicts the presence of a locus on chromosome 10 associated with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, in line with previous cytogenetic findings of rearrangements involving chromosome 10 in thyroid tumours, and a locus on chromosome 22 associated with testicular cancer. Development of neurofibromatoses (NF) that do not fulfil the clinical criteria of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) in carriers with r(22) suggests either the presence of an additional NF locus on chromosome 22 or that ring chromosome mediated predisposition to somatic mutation of a specific tumour suppressor may be associated with atypical development of features usually associated with germline mutations. PMID:1336057

  15. Relationships among certain joint constitutive models.

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Starr, Michael James

    2004-09-01

    In a recent paper, Starr and Segalman demonstrated that any Masing model can be represented as a parallel-series Iwan model. A preponderance of the constitutive models that have been suggested for simulating mechanical joints are Masing models, and the purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate how the Iwan representation of those models can yield insight into their character. In particular, this approach can facilitate a critical comparison among numerous plausible constitutive models. It is explicitly shown that three-parameter models such as Smallwood's (Ramberg-Osgood) calculate parameters in such a manner that macro-slip is not an independent parameter, yet the model admits macro-slip. The introduction of a fourth parameter is therefore required. It is shown that when a macro-slip force is specified for the Smallwood model the result is a special case of the Segalman four-parameter model. Both of these models admit a slope discontinuity at the inception of macro-slip. A five-parameter model that has the beneficial features of Segalman's four-parameter model is proposed. This model manifests a force-displacement curve having a continuous first derivative.

  16. Constitutional moments in governing science and technology.

    PubMed

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies (STS) have recently been called upon to advise governments on the design of procedures for public engagement. Any such instrumental function should be carried out consistently with STS's interpretive and normative obligations as a social science discipline. This article illustrates how such threefold integration can be achieved by reviewing current US participatory politics against a 70-year backdrop of tacit constitutional developments in governing science and technology. Two broad cycles of constitutional adjustment are discerned: the first enlarging the scope of state action as well as public participation, with liberalized rules of access and sympathetic judicial review; the second cutting back on the role of the state, fostering the rise of an academic-industrial complex for technology transfer, and privatizing value debates through increasing delegation to professional ethicists. New rules for public engagement in the United Sates should take account of these historical developments and seek to counteract some of the anti-democratic tendencies observable in recent decades.

  17. Constitutive Activation of the Shaker Kv Channel

    PubMed Central

    Sukhareva, Manana; Hackos, David H.; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2003-01-01

    In different types of K+ channels the primary activation gate is thought to reside near the intracellular entrance to the ion conduction pore. In the Shaker Kv channel the gate is closed at negative membrane voltages, but can be opened with membrane depolarization. In a previous study of the S6 activation gate in Shaker (Hackos, D.H., T.H. Chang, and K.J. Swartz. 2002. J. Gen. Physiol. 119:521–532.), we found that mutation of Pro 475 to Asp results in a channel that displays a large macroscopic conductance at negative membrane voltages, with only small increases in conductance with membrane depolarization. In the present study we explore the mechanism underlying this constitutively conducting phenotype using both macroscopic and single-channel recordings, and probes that interact with the voltage sensors or the intracellular entrance to the ion conduction pore. Our results suggest that constitutive conduction results from a dramatic perturbation of the closed-open equilibrium, enabling opening of the activation gate without voltage-sensor activation. This mechanism is discussed in the context of allosteric models for activation of Kv channels and what is known about the structure of this critical region in K+ channels. PMID:14557403

  18. [Animal protection in constitutional law?--On the necessity of including animal protection in the constitution].

    PubMed

    Caspar, J

    1998-03-01

    The inclusion of animal protection in the constitution poses a lengthy legal-political demand, which is again being vehemently discussed at the present time. Under consideration of juristic aspects, the following treatise attempts to clarify the legal requirements which presently exist for anchoring animal protection in constitutional law. It is therefore necessary in the first instance to explain the present situation regarding animal protection law. The legal situation in this respect is marked by a fundamental collision between special democratic rights guaranteed by the constitution on the one hand, and the norms of animal protection law on the other hand, which tend to restrict these rights. Based on concrete examples taken from court decisions, it is shown that constitutional vacuum surrounding a major part of animal protection law greatly complicates or even renders impossible the application and enforcement of the latter in practice. A prerequisite for a proper legal framework for animal protection is that the different special basic democratic rights governing animal use must be counterpoised by animal protection laws backed up by the constitution. Only by this means it is possible to prevent the ineffectiveness of animal protection legislative norms in the long term.

  19. Granular materials: constitutive equations and strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, L.; Gu, C.

    2000-08-01

    Strain localization into shear bands is commonly observed in natural soil masses, as well as in human-built embankments, footings, retaining walls and other geotechnical structures. Numerical predictions for the process of shear band formation are critically dependent on the constitutive equations employed. In this paper, the plane strain "double-shearing" constitutive model (e.g., Spencer, A.J.M., 1964. A theory of the kinematics of ideal soils under plane strain conditions. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 12, 337-351; Spencer, A.J.M., 1982, Deformation of ideal granular materials. In: Hopkins, H.G., Sewell, M.J. (Eds.), Mechanics of Solids. Pergamon Press, Oxford and New York, pp. 607-652; Mehrabadi, M.M., Cowin, S.C., 1978. Initial planar deformation of dilatant granular materials. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 26, 269-284; Nemat-Nasser, S., Mehrabadi, M.M., Iwakuma, T. 1981. On certain macroscopic and microscopic aspects of plastic flow of ductile materials. In: Nemat-Nasser, S. (Ed.), Three-dimensional Constitutive Relations and Ductile Fracture. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 157-172; Anand, L., 1983. Plane deformations of ideal granular materials. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 31, 105-122) is generalized to three dimensions including the effects of elastic deformation and pre-peak behavior. The constitutive model is implemented in a finite element program and is used to predict the formation of shear bands in plane strain compression, and plane strain cylindrical cavity expansion. The predictions from the model are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with the recent experiments of Han, C., Drescher, A., (1993. Shear bands in biaxial tests on dry coarse sand. Soils and Foundations 33, 118-132) and Alsiny, H., Vardoulakis, I., Drescher, A., (1992. Deformation localization in cavity inflation experiments on dry sand. Geotechnique 42, 395-410) on a dry sand. The constitutive model is also used to predict the

  20. Six novel constitutive promoters for metabolic engineering of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Blumhoff, Marzena; Steiger, Matthias G; Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Genetic tools for the fine-tuning of gene expression levels are a prerequisite for rational strain optimization through metabolic engineering. While Aspergillus niger is an industrially important fungus, widely used for production of organic acids and heterologous proteins, the available genetic tool box for this organism is still rather limited. Here, we characterize six novel constitutive promoters of A. niger providing different expression levels. The selection of the promoters was based on published transcription data of A. niger. The promoter strength was determined with the β-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene of Escherichia coli. The six promoters covered a GUS activity range of two to three orders of magnitude depending on the strain background. In order to demonstrate the power of the newly characterized promoters for metabolic engineering, they were used for heterologous expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cad1) gene of Aspergillus terreus, allowing the production of the building block chemical itaconic acid with A. niger. The CAD activity, dependent on the choice of promoter, showed a positive correlation with the specific productivity of itaconic acid. Product titers from the detection limit to up to 570 mg/L proved that the set of constitutive promoters is a powerful tool for the fine-tuning of metabolic pathways for the improvement of industrial production processes.

  1. A new constitutive model for nitrogen austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréchard, S.; Lichtenberger, A.; Rondot, F.; Faderl, N.; Redjaïmia, A.; Adoum, M.

    2003-09-01

    Quasi-static, quasi-dynamic and dynamic compression tests have been performed on a nitrogen alloyed austenitic stainless steel. For all strain rates, a high strain hardening rate and a good ductility have been achieved. In addition, this steel owns a great strain rate sensitivity. The temperature sensitivity bas been determined between 20°C and 400°C. Microstructural analysis has been performed after different loading conditions in relation to the behaviour of the material. Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong models have been selected to fit the experimental data into constitutive equations. These models do not reproduce properly the behaviour of this type of steel over the complete range. A new constitutive model that fits very well all the experimental data at different strain, strain rate and temperature has been determined. The model is based on empirical considerations on the separated influence of the main parameters. Single Taylor tests have been realized to validate the models. Live observations of the specimen during impact have been achieved using a special CCD camera set-up. The overall profile at different times are compared to numerical predictions using LS-DYNA code.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase-encoded dynamic constitutional libraries: toward the discovery of isozyme-specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Gihane; Petit, Eddy; Vullo, Daniela; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T; Barboiu, Mihail

    2009-08-13

    A constitutional dynamic library (CDL) was generated under thermodynamic control by using the amino-carbonyl/imine interconversion as reversible chemistry, combined with noncovalent bonding within the active site of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). Considering the pharmacological importance to find isoform-selective CA inhibitors (CAIs), two of the 15 human (h) isoform, i.e., hCAI and hCA II, have been subjected to a parallel screening of the same CDL. The use of parallel constitutional screening of CDL chemistry for the discovery of enzyme inhibitors is straightforward and it might provide initial insights toward the generation of efficient classes of selective, high affinity inhibitors. We demonstrate here that the high selectivity and specificity of inhibiting the hCA I and hCA II isozymes with some of the detected hits may be used to describe a complex constitutional behavior through component selection from the dynamic library, driven by the selective binding to the specific isoform active site. These results also point to the possibility of modulating the drug discovery methods by constitutional recomposition induced by a specific enzymatic target.

  3. [Body composition and constitution: a constitutional syndrome (1st of 2 parts)].

    PubMed

    Terán Díaz, E

    1999-04-01

    Constitutional syndrome alters body constitution modifying (usually decreasing) two of its dimensions--weight and perimeters--by changing the composition of one, several or every body levels. Apart of the cause, the basic physiopathological process that characterizes this new syndrome is the amino acid mobilization from the muscle (proteolysis). As soon as fat loss has no consequence to the organism, proteolysis reduces the muscle mass and life is in danger. Actually, there is no effective treatment to improve the nitrogen balance by medication or hormones in speed catabolic states but it can also approach us to more proper therapeutics for these so frequent processes in clinic.

  4. Constitutive activity of a UV cone opsin.

    PubMed

    Kono, Masahiro

    2006-01-09

    Vertebrate visual pigment proteins contain a conserved carboxylic acid residue in the third transmembrane helix. In rhodopsin, Glu113 serves as a counterion to the positively charged protonated Schiff base formed by 11-cis retinal attached to Lys296. Activation involves breaking of this ion pair. In UV cone pigments, the retinyl Schiff base is unprotonated, and hence such a salt bridge is not present; yet the pigment is inactive in the dark. Mutation of Glu108, which corresponds to rhodopsin's Glu113, to Gln yields a pigment that remains inactive in the dark. The apoproteins of both the wild-type and mutant, however, are constitutively active with the mutant being of significantly higher activity. Thus, one important role for preserving the negatively charged glutamate in the third helix of UV pigments is to maintain a less active opsin in a manner similar to rhodopsin. Ligand binding itself in the absence of a salt bridge is sufficient for deactivation.

  5. Pharmacy inspections: constitutional without a warrant?

    PubMed

    Simonsmeier, L M

    1979-01-01

    The implications of the 1978 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Marshall vs. Barlow's, Inc., regarding warrantless inspections of pharmacies are discussed. Reviewed are the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, related U.S. Supreme Court decisions (Camera vs. Municipal Court and See vs. City of Seattle), new "probable cause" standards, and exceptions to the requirement of warrants for inspections. The effect of the Barlow's case with specific reference to FDA, DEA and state board of pharmacy inspections is discussed. Although the Barlow's case has provided further case law in the area of administrative inspections, each case still requires individual resolution. DEA inspections are well delineated by statute and regulation. Under the "licensing exceptions," warrantless pharmacy inspections by the FDA and by boards of pharmacy are probably permissible.

  6. [Compliance with constitutional amendment 29 in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campelli, Magali Geovana Ramlow; Calvo, Maria Cristina M

    2007-07-01

    Constitutional Amendment 29, passed in 2000, set the minimum percentages of budget resources that the Federal, State, and Municipal governments are required to spend on public health. Taking a descriptive approach, this article aims to verify the compliance with Amendment 29 at various levels of government, from 2000 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Public Health System Budget Database (SIOPS). From 2000 to 2003, there was a cumulative deficit with the Unified National Health System (SUS) of R$1.8 billion on the part of the Federal government and R$5.29 billion by the States. In 2000, 59% of the States complied with Amendment 29. In 2001, only 33% complied. Some 41% reached the target in 2002 and 52% in 2003. The SIOPS database showed that the average spending on health by Municipalities reached 13.67%, 14.82%, 16.54%, and 17.4% in 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003, respectively.

  7. Constituting objectivity: Transcendental perspectives on modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in exploring Kantian approaches in the study of the history and philosophy of physics. The most well-known examples of this trend-Friedman's (2001), Ryckman's (2005) and DiSalle's (2006)-focus on Kantianism in the context of the development of the general theory of relativity. The edited collection Constituting Objectivity seeks to develop key Kantian insights-in the most part-in the context of later developments in physics: as well as discussing relativity the volume also provides Kantian interpretations of Bohr's development of quantum theory and continues to provide Kantian insight from later interpretations of quantum mechanics all the way through to considering noncommutative geometry and loop quantum gravity. The volume contains papers on a wide variety of subjects and offers an essential introduction to the breadth of Kantian trends in modern physics.

  8. Laboratory constitutive characterization of cellular concrete.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

    2004-03-01

    To establish mechanical material properties of cellular concrete mixes, a series of quasi-static, compression and tension tests have been completed. This report summarizes the test methods, set-up, relevant observations, and results from the constitutive experimental efforts. Results from the uniaxial and triaxial compression tests established failure criteria for the cellular concrete in terms of stress invariants I{sub 1} and J{sub 2}. {radical}J{sub 2} (MPa) = 297.2 - 278.7 exp{sup -0.000455 I}{sub 1}{sup (MPa)} for the 90-pcf concrete {radical}J{sub 2} (MPa) = 211.4 - 204.2 exp {sup -0.000628 I}{sub 1}{sup (MPa)} for the 60-pcf concrete

  9. Rotational and constitutional dynamics of caged supramolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kühne, Dirk; Klappenberger, Florian; Krenner, Wolfgang; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Barth, Johannes V.

    2010-01-01

    The confinement of molecular species in nanoscale environments leads to intriguing dynamic phenomena. Notably, the organization and rotational motions of individual molecules were controlled by carefully designed, fully supramolecular host architectures. Here we use an open 2D coordination network on a smooth metal surface to steer the self-assembly of discrete trimeric guest units, identified as noncovalently bound dynamers. Each caged chiral supramolecule performs concerted, chirality-preserving rotary motions within the template honeycomb pore, which are visualized and quantitatively analyzed using temperature-controlled scanning tunneling microscopy. Furthermore, with higher thermal energies, a constitutional system dynamics appears, which is revealed by monitoring repetitive switching events of the confined supramolecules’ chirality signature, reflecting decay and reassembly of the caged units. PMID:21098303

  10. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  11. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  12. Ordered Rate Constitutive Theories: Development of Rate Constitutive Equations for Solids, Liquids, and Gases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-18

    process of being submitted for journal publication, 2010). [2] Panton , R. L. Incompressible Flow, Third Edition. John Wiley and Sons, 2005. [3] White...Constitutive Theory for Ordered Thermoelastic Solids. (In the process of being submitted for journal publication, 2010). [3] Panton , R. L

  13. South Africa: constitutional court rejects constitutional challenge to law criminalizing prostitution.

    PubMed

    Nelson, John

    2003-04-01

    On 9 October 2002, a majority of South Africa's Constitutional Court dismissed appeals from convictions for prostitution and keeping a brothel, rejecting arguments that the law was unconstitutional. However, the minority decision, endorsed by five of eleven judges, found that the provision that made the sex worker but not the client guilty of a criminal offence was discriminatory and should be struck down.

  14. Pinning down the Constitution: Interactively Teaching Congress's Power, Federalism, and Constitutional Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "Pin-the-Tail-on-the-Constitution" is an engaged-learning activity that has been conducted in 26 classes over the past four years. The activity teaches multiple themes commonly included in a variety of courses on American politics such as federalism, congressional powers, the role of the federal courts, and the relevance of the commerce…

  15. 76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... America's promise to citizens of every race, gender, and creed. Americans are defined not by bloodlines or allegiance to any one leader or faith, but by our shared ideals of liberty, equality, and justice under the... importance of active citizenship, recognize the enduring strength of our Constitution, and reaffirm our...

  16. Pinning down the Constitution: Interactively Teaching Congress's Power, Federalism, and Constitutional Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "Pin-the-Tail-on-the-Constitution" is an engaged-learning activity that has been conducted in 26 classes over the past four years. The activity teaches multiple themes commonly included in a variety of courses on American politics such as federalism, congressional powers, the role of the federal courts, and the relevance of the commerce…

  17. The Balancing Act between the Constitutional Right to Strike and the Constitutional Right to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context,…

  18. Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched gateways and pedimented pavilion ("Commerce and Communication" sculpted pediment) - Interstate Commerce Commission, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to show main entrance - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    With the increasing use of advanced ceramic materials in high-temperature structural applications such as advanced heat engine components, the need arises to accurately predict thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time-dependent and that is hereditary in the sense that the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but also on the material's thermomechanical history. Most current analytical life prediction methods for both subcritical crack growth and creep models use elastic stress fields to predict the time-dependent reliability response of components subjected to elevated service temperatures. Inelastic response at high temperatures has been well documented in the materials science literature for these material systems, but this issue has been ignored by the engineering design community. From a design engineer's perspective, it is imperative to emphasize that accurate predictions of time-dependent reliability demand accurate stress field information. Ceramic materials exhibit different time-dependent behavior in tension and compression. Thus, inelastic deformation models for ceramics must be constructed in a fashion that admits both sensitivity to hydrostatic stress and differing behavior in tension and compression. A number of constitutive theories for materials that exhibit sensitivity to the hydrostatic component of stress have been proposed that characterize deformation using time-independent classical plasticity as a foundation. However, none of these theories allow different behavior in tension and compression. In addition, these theories are somewhat lacking in that they are unable to capture the creep, relaxation, and rate-sensitive phenomena exhibited by ceramic materials at high temperatures. The objective of this effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center has been to formulate a macroscopic continuum theory that captures these time-dependent phenomena. Specifically, the effort has focused on inelastic deformation behavior associated

  1. The Separation of Church and State. Exploring the Constitution Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Darien A.

    This textbook on the separation of church and state continues the "Exploring the Constitution Series," which introduces important areas of constitutional law. Intended to serve either as a reference work, a supplement to a standard textbook, or as the textbook for a course, this volume covers the constitutional issues of prayer in public…

  2. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  3. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  4. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  5. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  6. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  7. Constitutional Provisions on the Press: A World View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paraschos, Manny

    A study examined the legal treatment of the press in constitutions or other basic legal institutional documents from around the world. Sixty-three constitutions or basic documents from the Western World, the Communist Bloc, the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America were analyzed. Analysis revealed that most constitutions open with…

  8. Resolution and Letter to Congress from the Constitutional Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the drafting of the United States Constitution. The United States Constitution is the longest-lasting written national constitution in the world. Its four parchment pages serve as the blueprint for a government under which more than 290 million Americans live. It holds great significance for the American people and for others…

  9. Frederick Douglass Changed My Mind about the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, James

    2008-01-01

    Frederick Douglass dramatically and publicly changed his own mind about the Constitution. Like Frederick Douglass, the author had originally viewed the Constitution as pro-slavery. Yet a close look at Douglass's writings revealed a Constitution that empowered the federal government to abolish slavery.

  10. Reflections on the Establishment of Constitutional Government in Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varat, Jonathan D.

    Establishing constitutional government involves not simply the creation of a written document that purports to create the political structure of a nation and guarantee rights to its people, but "constitutionalism" in the sense of meaningful and effective adherence to constitutional norms of democratic organization and the protection of…

  11. The U.S. Constitution, A Model for Global Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzberg, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposes the adoption of a global constitution, similar to the U.S. Constitution, as a precondition for a peaceful planetary society. Explores the geographic roots of the U.S. Constitution and discusses the diffusion of federalism throughout the world. Advocates the teaching of global government theories in history, government, and geography…

  12. The Separation of Church and State. Exploring the Constitution Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Darien A.

    This textbook on the separation of church and state continues the "Exploring the Constitution Series," which introduces important areas of constitutional law. Intended to serve either as a reference work, a supplement to a standard textbook, or as the textbook for a course, this volume covers the constitutional issues of prayer in public…

  13. Constitution Day: Start the School Year with Civics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Eli J.

    2006-01-01

    The celebration and recognition of Constitution Day on September 17th is now required by federal law. The new law, known colloquially as the Byrd Amendment, requires all schools receiving any federal assistance, from kindergarten to higher education, to teach students about the Constitution on Constitution Day. The concept of a school's civic…

  14. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible union...

  15. Frederick Douglass Changed My Mind about the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, James

    2008-01-01

    Frederick Douglass dramatically and publicly changed his own mind about the Constitution. Like Frederick Douglass, the author had originally viewed the Constitution as pro-slavery. Yet a close look at Douglass's writings revealed a Constitution that empowered the federal government to abolish slavery.

  16. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of labor organization. Elections must be conducted in accordance with the constitution and bylaws of the organization...

  17. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of labor organization. Elections must be conducted in accordance with the constitution and bylaws of the organization...

  18. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of labor organization. Elections must be conducted in accordance with the constitution and bylaws of the organization...

  19. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible union...

  20. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of labor organization. Elections must be conducted in accordance with the constitution and bylaws of the organization...

  1. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of labor organization. Elections must be conducted in accordance with the constitution and bylaws of the organization...

  2. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible union...

  3. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible union...

  4. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible union...

  5. Improvements to constitutive material model for fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morea, Mihai I.

    2011-12-01

    The high strength to weight ratio of woven fabric offers a cost effective solution to be used in a containment system for aircraft propulsion engines. Currently, Kevlar is the only Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved fabric for usage in systems intended to mitigate fan blade-out events. This research builds on an earlier constitutive model of Kevlar 49 fabric developed at Arizona State University (ASU) with the addition of new and improved modeling details. Latest stress strain experiments provided new and valuable data used to modify the material model post peak behavior. These changes reveal an overall improvement of the Finite Element (FE) model's ability to predict experimental results. First, the steel projectile is modeled using Johnson-Cook material model and provides a more realistic behavior in the FE ballistic models. This is particularly noticeable when comparing FE models with laboratory tests where large deformations in projectiles are observed. Second, follow-up analysis of the results obtained through the new picture frame tests conducted at ASU provides new values for the shear moduli and corresponding strains. The new approach for analysis of data from picture frame tests combines digital image analysis and a two-level factorial optimization formulation. Finally, an additional improvement in the material model for Kevlar involves checking the convergence at variation of mesh density of fabrics. The study performed and described herein shows the converging trend, therefore validating the FE model.

  6. Geographical Gerontology: the constitution of a discipline.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin J; Cutchin, Malcolm; McCracken, Kevin; Phillips, David R; Wiles, Janine

    2007-07-01

    Health and healthcare have always been central considerations in geographical gerontology. This paper reviews progress in this part of the field over the past decade (1995-2006) and also looks to the future. It demonstrates how geographical gerontology is currently constituted of multiple fields of empirical interest studied by multiple academic disciplines. Specifically, the continuation and development of traditional perspectives on older population health--in terms of dynamics, distributions and movements--are traced, as well as emerging post-modern perspectives and qualitative approaches that sensitively investigate the complex relationships between older people and the varied places within which they live and are cared for. Mirroring theoretical developments and diversity in the social sciences, the future research challenges that lie ahead will involve the articulation of varied and often hidden cultural practices and social processes, and hitherto taken-for-granted--as well as new--social and spatial relations, between older people, health and place. If however geographical gerontology is to meet these challenges most effectively, there has to be greater collaboration and communication within and between its constituent disciplines and diverse empirical areas. This will help it become recognized to a greater degree as a distinct discipline.

  7. Health care for Micronesians and constitutional rights.

    PubMed

    Shek, Dina; Yamada, Seiji

    2011-11-01

    Under the Compacts of Free Association (COFA), people from the Freely Associated States--the Republic of Palau (ROP), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)--have been migrating to the United States in increasing numbers. In 1996, Congress passed broad welfare reform (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) which limited certain federal benefits previously available to COFA migrants, including Medicaid benefits. Prior to July 2010, the State of Hawai'i had continued to include COFA migrants under its state-funded Medicaid program. In the face of budget constraints, the State removed these people from its Medicaid rolls. A challenge on the legal basis of the denial of equal protection of the laws, ie, the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, was successful in reinstating health care to the COFA migrants in December 2010. From the health worker's perspective, regardless of various social justice arguments that may have been marshaled in favor of delivering health care to the people, it was an appeal to the judicial system that succeeded. From the attorney's perspective, the legal victories are potentially limited to the four walls of the courtroom without community involvement and related social justice movements. Together, the authors propose that in order to better address the issue of health care access for Micronesian peoples, we must work together, as health and legal advocates, to define a more robust vision of both systems that includes reconciliation and community engagement.

  8. Health Care for Micronesians and Constitutional Rights

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Under the Compacts of Free Association (COFA), people from the Freely Associated States — the Republic of Palau (ROP), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) — have been migrating to the United States in increasing numbers. In 1996, Congress passed broad welfare reform (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) which limited certain federal benefits previously available to COFA migrants, including Medicaid benefits. Prior to July 2010, the State of Hawai‘i had continued to include COFA migrants under its state-funded Medicaid program. In the face of budget constraints, the State removed these people from its Medicaid rolls. A challenge on the legal basis of the denial of equal protection of the laws, ie, the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, was successful in reinstating health care to the COFA migrants in December 2010. From the health worker's perspective, regardless of various social justice arguments that may have been marshaled in favor of delivering health care to the people, it was an appeal to the judicial system that succeeded. From the attorney's perspective, the legal victories are potentially limited to the four walls of the courtroom without community involvement and related social justice movements. Together, the authors propose that in order to better address the issue of health care access for Micronesian peoples, we must work together, as health and legal advocates, to define a more robust vision of both systems that includes reconciliation and community engagement. PMID:22235150

  9. Constitutive Modeling of Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M. G.; Piao, K.; Wagoner, R. H.; Lee, J. K.; Chung, K.; Kim, H. Y.

    2007-05-17

    Magnesium alloy sheets have unique mechanical properties: high in-plane anisotropy/asymmetry of yield stress and hardening response, which have not been thoroughly studied. The unusual mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys has been understood by the limited symmetry crystal structure of h.c.p metals and thus by deformation twinning. In this paper, the phenomenological continuum plasticity models considering the unusual plastic behavior of magnesium alloy sheet were developed for a finite element analysis. A new hardening law based on two-surface model was developed to consider the general stress-strain response of metal sheets such as Bauschinger effect, transient behavior and the unusual asymmetry. Three deformation modes observed during the continuous tension/compression tests were mathematically formulated with simplified relations between the state of deformation and their histories. In terms of the anisotropy and asymmetry of the initial yield stress, the Drucker-Prager's pressure dependent yield surface was modified to include the anisotropy of magnesium alloys. Also, characterization procedures of material parameters for the constitutive equations were presented and finally the correlation of simulation with measurements was performed to validate the proposed theory.

  10. Constitutive models in WONDY for penetration studies into rock targets

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, F.R.

    1981-09-01

    Computer simulation appears to be the easiest way of providing a fairly complete description of the physical problem of earth penetration by projectiles. This simulation is limited by the lack of information on the behavior of geologic targets under dynamic loading and also by the description of the constitutive model for the geologic material. Several constitutive models are presented for possible applications to the rock and rock-like materials. Using material property data for Antelope tuff, the required set of constants for each model was selected and used in predicting, for a penetration event, stress distributions on the penetrator surface and also penetration histories. For each of these three models, the average decelerations lie close to the values computed for coefficients of friction of zero and 0.1. Assuming zero friction, curves of deceleration as a function of penetration depth were calculated for the various models. These curves were higher than the experimental curve for the first meter of penetration. This seems to indicate that the models considered here do not contain all the physical details needed for a more accurate prediction. In studies of friction at high speed, the coefficient of friction has been found to increase qualitatively as an exponential function as the velocity decreases. This might possibly explain the lock-in phenomenon occurring at the end of a penetration event. As part of the present study, parameter variation studies were conducted to determine which material properties would be most significant in earth penetration by projectiles. Material compressibility, cohesive strength and internal friction angle were examined in detail. The internal friction angle was found to be the most important and cohesive strength the least important parameter in contributing to the resistive forces experienced by a projectile during penetration.

  11. Constitutions of Nature by Teacher Practice and Discourse in Ontario Grade 9 and 10 Academic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, Darren Glen

    This thesis presents an ethnographic study, based broadly on principles and methods of institutional ethnography, on the constitution of nature by nine Ontario Grade 9 and 10 Academic Science teachers. The intent of this methodological approach is to examine how the daily practice of participants works toward constituting nature in specific ways that are coordinated by the institution (Ontario public school and/or school science). Critical Discourse Analysis and general inductive analysis were performed on interview transcripts, texts related to teaching science selected by participants, and policy documents (i.e. curriculum; assessment policy) that coordinate science teacher practice. Findings indicate specific, dominant, and relatively uniform ontological and epistemological constitutions of nature. Nature was frequently constituted as a remote object, distant from and different than students studying it. More complex representations included constituting nature as a model, machine, or mathematical algorithm. Epistemological constitutions of nature were enacted through practices that engaged students in manipulating nature; controlling nature, and dominating nature. Relatively few practices that allow students to construct different constitutions of nature than those prioritized by the institution were observed. Dominant constitutions generally assume nature is simply the material to study, from which scientific knowledge can be obtained, with little ethical or moral consideration about nature itself, or how these constitutions produce discourse and relationships that may be detrimental to nature. Dominant constitutions of nature represent a type of objective knowledge that is prioritized, and made accessible to students, through science activities that attain a position of privilege in local science teacher cultures. The activities that allow students to attain the requisite knowledge of nature are collected, collated, and shared among existing science teachers

  12. Constitutive model for the dynamic response of a NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xiangguo; Chen, Huayan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, based on irreversible thermodynamic theory, the Helmholtz free energy function, was selected to deduce both the master equations and evolution equations of the constitutive model of a NiTi alloy under high strain. The Helmholtz free energy function contains the parameters of the reflecting phase transition and plastic property. The constitutive model for a NiTi alloy was implemented using a semi-implicit stress integration algorithm. Four successive stages can be differentiated and simulated: parent phase elasticity, martensitic phase transition, martensitic elasticity, and dislocation yield. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Constitutive Activation of the Aromatic Hydrocarbon Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Yi; Puga, Alvaro

    1998-01-01

    The ligand-activated aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) dimerizes with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) to form a functional complex that transactivates expression of the cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 gene and other genes in the dioxin-inducible [Ah] gene battery. Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the activity of the CYP1A1 enzyme negatively regulates this process. To study the relationship between CYP1A1 activity and Ah receptor activation we used CYP1A1-deficient mouse hepatoma c37 cells and CYP1A1- and AHR-deficient African green monkey kidney CV-1 cells. Using gel mobility shift and luciferase reporter gene expression assays, we found that c37 cells that had not been exposed to exogenous Ah receptor ligands already contained transcriptionally active AHR-ARNT complexes, a finding that we also observed in wild-type Hepa-1 cells treated with Ellipticine, a CYP1A1 inhibitor. In CV-1 cells, transient expression of AHR and ARNT leads to high levels of AHR–ARNT-dependent luciferase gene expression even in the absence of an agonist. Using a green fluorescent protein-tagged AHR, we showed that elevated reporter gene expression correlates with constitutive nuclear localization of the AHR. Transcriptional activation of the luciferase reporter gene observed in CV-1 cells is significantly decreased by (i) expression of a functional CYP1A1 enzyme, (ii) competition with chimeric or truncated AHR proteins containing the AHR ligand-binding domain, and (iii) treatment with the AHR antagonist α-naphthoflavone. These results suggest that a CYP1A1 substrate, which accumulates in cells lacking CYP1A1 enzymatic activity, is an AHR ligand responsible for endogenous activation of the Ah receptor. PMID:9418899

  14. How Does Astronomy Constitute A Learning Community?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Yasemin; Sengul, R.; Unat, O.; Aknil, A.; Gurel, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in Turkey within an interdisciplinary project called "From a windowless home to a skyscraper: Let's build a home". It was realized through collaboration between a public university and a private high school. Researchers from Physics Education Department and volunteer teachers from high school, each studying on a different discipline, and volunteer high school students, all from an urban area of the country, conducted the project in a rural small town with resident secondary school students. It was implemented on the basis of history, through the use of different fields such as science, mathematics, geography, art, handcraft, architecture, engineering and astronomy in August 2008. The purpose of this study was to present the effect of the astronomical activities involved in the project. These implementations constructed a scientific and social base for the framework of astronomical activities of IYA2009, including building an amateur observatory. Since today's people are not so much acquainted with the issues of space and astronomy as much as the people of Antiquity, we attached special importance to the efforts in this field. The project, proceeded by a preparatory and informative period, involved night sky observation, initially with naked eye, followed by observation through telescope. Not only the students but also countless people, old or young, participated in our work in the field of astronomy. It provided a chance for all the people participating in or connected to the project to discover the sky. Astronomical activities aroused curiosity among students and the community and made a difference by inducing an awareness of the sky. The participants of the study had completely different social and cultural backgrounds, and this study removed all these differences bringing them together under the overarching astronomical and historical aspect. Moreover the community revealed all the characteristics that constitute a learning community.

  15. The normative constitution of professional power.

    PubMed

    Frankford, D M

    1997-02-01

    This article concerns the manner in which we think and talk about power in health care policy and regulation, and the political and social practices allied with that discourse. I assert that in health care policy and practice we speak of and live within the era of countervailing power. In this language and practice power is a force exercised by one actor to enforce its will against another actor against whom power is exerted. I contend that this language inculcates an individual and social passivity in which citizens rely upon various types of representatives to constitute health care for them in a manner in which they do not and cannot participate. However, this language of power and the political and social practice with which it is associated is merely a contingent, historical product. I claim that an alternative discourse of power is possible, in which power consists of the social interactions in which all of us mutually participate but no one of us can control. Power in this sense is participatory by nature, and because no one is in control, it makes no sense to relegate tasks to specialized, nonparticipatory domains. This alternative discourse of power, therefore, might call forth participatory practices in health care and a concomitant diminution of specialization and expansion of the public sphere. The result would be to blur the lines separating politics from everyday interaction, politics from economy, professionals from patients, and insurers from insureds. Participation would mean much more than casting a vote or writing a check but would also include the mutual sharing of time and energy in the tasks that need to be done: long-term and short-term care, practices of prevention, caring for the chronically ill, and monitoring bureaucratic and professional activities.

  16. What constitutes our understanding of a patient?

    PubMed

    Chessick, R D

    1993-01-01

    aspects of prevailing ideologies in constituting and determining what we call truth and understanding, including the "understanding" of a patient in psychotherapy. An example of the postmodern blend of philosophy and psychoanalysis is presented by Arlow's emphasis on unconscious fantasies and his insightful comments on how these unconscious fantasies organize and determine what we experience from the very beginning of life. This I believe is most consistent with Rescher's philosophical notion of "conceptual idealism," also briefly reviewed in this paper.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  17. Division G Commission 35: Stellar Constitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limongi, Marco; Lattanzio, John C.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Dominguez, Inma; Isern, Jordi; Karakas, Amanda; Leitherer, Claus; Marconi, Marcella; Shaviv, Giora; van Loon, Jacco

    2016-04-01

    Commission 35 (C35), ``Stellar Constitution'', consists of members of the International Astronomical Union whose research spans many aspects of theoretical and observational stellar physics and it is mainly focused on the comprehension of the properties of stars, stellar populations and galaxies. The number of members of C35 increased progressively over the last ten years and currently C35 comprises about 400 members. C35 was part of Division IV (Stars) until 2014 and then became part of Division G (Stars and Stellar Physics), after the main IAU reorganisation in 2015. Four Working Groups have been created over the years under Division IV, initially, and Division G later: WG on Active B Stars, WG on Massive Stars, WG on Abundances in Red Giant and WG on Chemically Peculiar and Related Stars. In the last decade the Commission had 4 presidents, Wojciech Dziembowski (2003-2006), Francesca D'Antona (2006-2009), Corinne Charbonnel (2009-2012) and Marco Limongi (2012-2015), who were assisted by an Organizing Committee (OC), usually composed of about 10 members, all of them elected by the C35 members and holding their positions for three years. The C35 webpage (http://iau-c35.stsci.edu) has been designed and continuously maintained by Claus Leitherer from the Space Telescope Institute, who deserves our special thanks. In addition to the various general information on the Commission structure and activities, it contains links to various resources, of interest for the members, such as stellar models, evolutionary tracks and isochrones, synthetic stellar populations, stellar yields and input physics (equation of state, nuclear cross sections, opacity tables), provided by various groups. The main activity of the C35 OC is that of evaluating, ranking and eventually supporting the proposals for IAU sponsored meetings. In the last decade the Commission has supported several meetings focused on topics more or less relevant to C35. Since the primary aim of this document is to

  18. Blockade of constitutively activated ERK signaling enhances cytotoxicity of microtubule-destabilizing agents in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Susumu; Uchiyama, Aya; Watanabe, Kazushi; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Inada, Yoshiyuki; Kawabata, Takumi; Iwashita, Ken-Ichi; Noda, Sinji; Ozaki, Kei-Ichi; Kohno, Michiaki

    2009-01-16

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is constitutively activated in many human tumor cell types. Given the cytoprotective role of this pathway, we examined whether its specific blockade might sensitize human tumor cells to the induction of apoptosis by various anticancer drugs. Although blockade of ERK signaling alone did not induce substantial cell death, it resulted in marked and selective enhancement of the induction of apoptosis by microtubule-destabilizing agents in tumor cells in which the ERK pathway is constitutively activated. The synergistic activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase by the combination of an ERK pathway inhibitor and a microtubule-destabilizing agent appeared to be responsible, at least in part, for this effect. These results suggest that administration of the combination of an ERK pathway inhibitor and a microtubule-destabilizing agent is a potential chemotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of tumor cells with constitutive activation of the ERK pathway.

  19. Structural Alterations in the Translational Attenuator of Constitutively Expressed ermC Genes

    PubMed Central

    Werckenthin, Christiane; Schwarz, Stefan; Westh, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Sequence deletions of 16, 59, and 111 bp as well as a tandem duplication of 272 bp with respect to the corresponding sequence of pT48 were identified in the regulatory regions of constitutively expressed ermC genes. Constitutive ermC gene expression as a consequence of these structural alterations is based on either the prevention of the formation of mRNA secondary structures in the translational attenuator or the preferential formation of those mRNA secondary structures which do not interfere with the translation of the ermC transcripts. A model for the development of sequence deletions in the ermC translational attenuator by homologous recombination is presented and experimentally tested by in vitro selection of constitutively expressed mutants in staphylococcal strains deficient and proficient in homologous recombination. PMID:10390222

  20. Constitutive versus responsive gene expression strategies for growth in changing environments.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Microbes respond to changing environments by adjusting gene expression levels to the demand for the corresponding proteins. Adjusting protein levels is slow, consequently cells may reach the optimal protein level only by a time when the demand changed again. It is therefore not a priori clear whether expression "on demand" is always the optimal strategy. Indeed, many genes are constitutively expressed at intermediate levels, which represents a permanent cost but provides an immediate benefit when the protein is needed. Which are the conditions that select for a responsive or a constitutive expression strategy, what determines the optimal constitutive expression level in a changing environment, and how is the fitness of the two strategies affected by gene expression noise? Based on an established model of the lac- and gal-operon expression dynamics, we study the fitness of a constitutive and a responsive expression strategy in time-varying environments. We find that the optimal constitutive expression level differs from the average demand for the gene product and from the average optimal expression level; depending on the shape of the growth rate function, the optimal expression level either provides intermediate fitness in all environments, or maximizes fitness in only one of them. We find that constitutive expression can provide higher fitness than responsive expression even when regulatory machinery comes at no cost, and we determine the minimal response rate necessary for "expression on demand" to confer a benefit. Environmental and inter-cellular noise favor the responsive strategy while reducing fitness of the constitutive one. Our results show the interplay between the demand-frequency for a gene product, the genetic response rate, and the fitness, and address important questions on the evolution of gene regulation. Some of our predictions agree with recent yeast high throughput data, for others we propose the experiments that are needed to verify them.

  1. [The right to live one's own death and its constitutionality].

    PubMed

    Bussinguer, Elda Coelho de Azevedo; Barcellos, Igor Awad

    2013-09-01

    The article seeks to reflect on the legality of the early manifestation of will, established in Brazil through Resolution No. 1.995/12 of the Federal Council of Medicine in the face of the legislative omission and considering the possible linkage of physicians and relatives of terminally ill patients in drafting the Last Will and Testament. It examines the constitutionality of these policies and, therefore, the constitutionality of the resolution itself in light of the new Brazilian constitutional paradigm.

  2. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first year of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and/or fatigue data, tests were conducted on coated and uncoated PWA 1480 specimens tensilely loaded in the 100 , 110 , 111 , and 123 directions. A literature survey of constitutive models was completed for both single crystal alloys and metallic coating materials; candidate models were selected. One constitutive model under consideration for single crystal alloys applies Walker's micromechanical viscoplastic formulation to all slip systems participating in the single crystal deformation. The constitutive models for the overlay coating correlate the viscoplastic data well. For the aluminide coating, a unique test method is under development. LCF and TMF tests are underway. The two coatings caused a significant drop in fatigue life, and each produced a much different failure mechanism.

  3. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and fatigue data, tests were conducted on uncoated and coated specimens loaded in the CH76 100 CH110 , CH76 110 CH110 , CH76 111 CH110 and CH76 123 CH110 crystallographic directions. Two constitutive models are being developed and evaluated for the single crystal materials: a micromechanic model based on crystallographic slip systems, and a macroscopic model which employs anisotropic tensors to model inelastic deformation anisotropy. Based on tests conducted on the overlay coating material, constitutive models for coatings also appear feasible and two initial models were selected. A life prediction approach was proposed for coated single crystal materials, including crack initiation either in the coating or in the substrate. The coating initiated failures dominated in the tests at load levels typical of gas turbine operation. Coating life was related to coating stress/strain history which was determined from specimen data using the constitutive models.

  4. Parameter optimization for the visco-hyperelastic constitutive model of tendon using FEM.

    PubMed

    Tang, C Y; Ng, G Y F; Wang, Z W; Tsui, C P; Zhang, G

    2011-01-01

    Numerous constitutive models describing the mechanical properties of tendons have been proposed during the past few decades. However, few were widely used owing to the lack of implementation in the general finite element (FE) software, and very few systematic studies have been done on selecting the most appropriate parameters for these constitutive laws. In this work, the visco-hyperelastic constitutive model of the tendon implemented through the use of three-parameter Mooney-Rivlin form and sixty-four-parameter Prony series were firstly analyzed using ANSYS FE software. Afterwards, an integrated optimization scheme was developed by coupling two optimization toolboxes (OPTs) of ANSYS and MATLAB for estimating these unknown constitutive parameters of the tendon. Finally, a group of Sprague-Dawley rat tendons was used to execute experimental and numerical simulation investigation. The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental data. An important finding revealed that too many Maxwell elements was not necessary for assuring accuracy of the model, which is often neglected in most open literatures. Thus, all these proved that the constitutive parameter optimization scheme was reliable and highly efficient. Furthermore, the approach can be extended to study other tendons or ligaments, as well as any visco-hyperelastic solid materials.

  5. Phyto-SERM Constitutes from Flemingia macrophylla

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Tsui, Ya-Ting; Singab, Abdel Nasser B.; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Du, Ying-Chi; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wu, Chin-Chung; Yen, Ming-Hong; Lee, Ching-Kuo; Hou, Ming-Feng; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Flemingia macrophylla roots exhibited significant estrogenic activity in the transgenic plant assay system which was comparable to the activity of soybean extract. Utilizing estrogenic activity-guided fractionation, one new compound, fleminigin, together with 23 known compounds were isolated from F. macrophylla roots’ methanolic extract. The structure of the new compound was identified based on intensive spectroscopic analysis and the full spectral data for one of the isolated compounds, flemichin E, was introduced for the first time in the current investigation. The estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated revealing that the isolated isoflavonoids may act as partial estrogen agonists, as well as antagonists. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory and the cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were studied. These results suggested the potential applications of F. macrophylla extract and its isolated compounds as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). PMID:23896592

  6. Thermodynamic restrictions on the constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, B. D.; Dill, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    Thermodynamics second law restrictions on constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory for nonlinear materials with long-range gradually fading memory, considering dissipation principle consequences

  7. Constitutive equations for discrete electromagnetic problems over polyhedral grids

    SciTech Connect

    Codecasa, Lorenzo . E-mail: codecasa@elet.polimi.it; Trevisan, Francesco . E-mail: trevisan@uniud.it

    2007-08-10

    In this paper a novel approach is proposed for constructing discrete counterparts of constitutive equations over polyhedral grids which ensure both consistency and stability of the algebraic equations discretizing an electromagnetic field problem. The idea is to construct discrete constitutive equations preserving the thermodynamic relations for constitutive equations. In this way, consistency and stability of the discrete equations are ensured. At the base, a purely geometric condition between the primal and the dual grids has to be satisfied for a given primal polyhedral grid, by properly choosing the dual grid. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed discrete constitutive equations lead to accurate approximations of the electromagnetic field.

  8. Nonlinear Constitutive Relations for High Temperature Application, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications were discussed. The state of the art in nonlinear constitutive modeling of high temperature materials was reviewed and the need for future research and development efforts in this area was identified. Considerable research efforts are urgently needed in the development of nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications prompted by recent advances in high temperature materials technology and new demands on material and component performance. Topics discussed include: constitutive modeling, numerical methods, material testing, and structural applications.

  9. [The research advance of measuring techniques on corneoscleral constitutive parameters].

    PubMed

    Bao, Fangjun; Deng, Manli; Wang, Qinmei

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence and development of myopia and keratoconus is closely related to the changes of scleral and corneal biomechanical properties. The accurate measurement of biomechanical properties for corneoscleral tissure is very important on diagnosis of eye diseases, improvement of ocular operation, ocular biological parameter measurement and invention of ophthalmic instrument. Corneoscleral tissue, composed of bundles of compact and staggered collagen fiber and extracellular matrix, constitute the outer surface of the eyeball. The inhomogeneous distribution of the diameter, gap and amount of collagen fiber, makes its biomechanical characteristics really complex, characterized by nonlinear, viscoelastic, anisotropic, regional variation and age-related variation and etc. With the development of medical diagnostic technology, the importance of the ocular biomechanical property measurement is increasingly recognized. Nevertheless, measuring technology on ocular biomechanics properties are still not well understood by the majority of ophthalmologists. In order to facilitate the researchers to select a suitable measuring platform and method, the development of international corneoscleral biomechanical propertiy measuring technology was reviewed in this article.

  10. Constitutive properties of hypertrophied myocardium: cellular contribution to changes in myocardial stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Todd S.; Baicu, Catalin F.; Conrad, Chester H.; Koide, Masaaki; Buckley, J. Michael; Barnes, Mary; Cooper, George 4th; Zile, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pressure overload hypertrophy (POH) alters the viscoelastic properties of individual cardiocytes when studied in isolation. However, whether these changes in cardiocyte properties contribute causally to changes in the material properties of the cardiac muscle as a whole is unknown. Accordingly, a selective, isolated, acute change in cardiocyte constitutive properties was imposed in an in vitro system capable of measuring the resultant effect on the material properties of the composite cardiac muscle. POH caused an increase in both myocardial elastic stiffness, from 20.5 +/- 1.3 to 28.4 +/- 1.8, and viscous damping, from 15.2 +/- 1.1 to 19.8 +/- 1.5 s (normal vs. POH, P < 0.05), respectively. Recent studies have shown that cardiocyte constitutive properties could be acutely altered by depolymerizing the microtubules with colchicine. Colchicine caused a significant decrease in the viscous damping in POH muscles (19.8 +/- 1.5 s at baseline vs. 14.7 +/- 1.3 s after colchicine, P < 0.05). Therefore, myocardial material properties can be altered by selectively changing the constitutive properties of one element within this muscle tissue, the cardiocyte. Changes in the constitutive properties of the cardiocytes themselves contribute to the abnormalities in myocardial stiffness and viscosity that develop during POH.

  11. Constitutive properties of hypertrophied myocardium: cellular contribution to changes in myocardial stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Todd S.; Baicu, Catalin F.; Conrad, Chester H.; Koide, Masaaki; Buckley, J. Michael; Barnes, Mary; Cooper, George 4th; Zile, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pressure overload hypertrophy (POH) alters the viscoelastic properties of individual cardiocytes when studied in isolation. However, whether these changes in cardiocyte properties contribute causally to changes in the material properties of the cardiac muscle as a whole is unknown. Accordingly, a selective, isolated, acute change in cardiocyte constitutive properties was imposed in an in vitro system capable of measuring the resultant effect on the material properties of the composite cardiac muscle. POH caused an increase in both myocardial elastic stiffness, from 20.5 +/- 1.3 to 28.4 +/- 1.8, and viscous damping, from 15.2 +/- 1.1 to 19.8 +/- 1.5 s (normal vs. POH, P < 0.05), respectively. Recent studies have shown that cardiocyte constitutive properties could be acutely altered by depolymerizing the microtubules with colchicine. Colchicine caused a significant decrease in the viscous damping in POH muscles (19.8 +/- 1.5 s at baseline vs. 14.7 +/- 1.3 s after colchicine, P < 0.05). Therefore, myocardial material properties can be altered by selectively changing the constitutive properties of one element within this muscle tissue, the cardiocyte. Changes in the constitutive properties of the cardiocytes themselves contribute to the abnormalities in myocardial stiffness and viscosity that develop during POH.

  12. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results from a 35 month period of a program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program is composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addresses the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigates the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involve experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material form the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: (001), (011), (111), and (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal material were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were selected for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. An initial life model used to correlate smooth and notched fatigue data obtained in the option program shows promise. Computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive models was developed.

  13. [The Constitutional Court and new scenarios of biomedicine. (Constitutional reflections on the decision of the Constitutional Tribunal 116/1999, June 17)].

    PubMed

    Arruego Rodríguez, G; Chueca Rodríguez, R

    2000-01-01

    The recent ruling by the Constitutional Court (116/1999, 17 June) ended the process which had been initiated by the challenge filed by 63 conservative MPs against Law 35/1988, 22 November, on the Law on Human Assisted Reproduction Techniques. In our opinion, this ruling helps define the scope of the constitutional provisions used by the appellants in their challenge, provisions which had already been interpreted in lower rulings. The considerations given in this article are designed to establish the terms and framework which lawmakers and law experts should bear in mind when they prepare future, as will necessarily be the case. In view of some of the arguments used in the ruling, we believe it is appropriate to draw attention to some of the most salient constitutional aspects, such as the scope of the Constitutional Court's role as the ultimate judge of constitutionality, and the exact nature of the constitutional notion of fundamental right which, although complicated at times, is nonetheless a precise and accurate legal concept.

  14. Personality, coping style, and constitutional neuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Zozulya, Andrey A; Gabaeva, Marina V; Sokolov, Oleg Yu; Surkina, Ida D; Kost, Natalia V

    2008-04-01

    Risk of developing certain diseases correlates with human personality. Cardiologists have defined Type "A" personalities as coronary-prone. Associated psychological peculiarities are easily angered, competitive, impatient and hard-driving. Psychologically-opposite people who are prone to suppress emotions and avoid conflicts (Type "C"), have a high risk of infectious diseases and certain forms of cancer. The development of contemporary biology and medicine determined an important role of the neuroendocrine and immune systems in these correlations. The peculiarity of human personality, as much as of animal behavioral patterns, is strongly expressed under stress conditions. The strategies of stress coping display a normal distribution in the human and wild animal populations, with truly passive and active coping styles located at the outermost regions of the curve. However, there are a number of strategies to breed experimental animals with extreme coping styles; animals selected for a passive coping style to acute stress show marked activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and low stimulation of the sympathetic-adrenal system; both are associated with immunosuppression. An opposite reaction of the neuroendocrine system has been shown in animals with an active coping style to stress; this was associated with the signs of immunostimulation. Similarly, people with passive coping style (type "C") might be at higher risk of infectious diseases and cancer, while people with active coping style (type "A") might be predisposed to coronary, allergic, and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pain, decreased productivity, and anxiety, all common in patients with different diseases, are additional stressful entities. Thus, an adequate coping with a disease is an important approach to improve life quality and disease prognosis. Therefore, psychological and psychopharmacotherapeutic interventions that enhance effective coping should have beneficial effects in

  15. The American Solution: Origins of the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Robert A.

    Tracing the history of events that led to the U.S. Constitutional Convention (1787) and to the eventual ratification of the U.S. Constitution, this book presents numerous reproductions of leaders' portraits, documents, and paintings from the U.S. Library of Congress and other collections. Chapter 1, "Was the Revolution a Blessing or a…

  16. Constitutionality of Compulsory Arbitration Statutes in Public Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudohar, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state supreme court rulings on constitutionality issues raised by compulsory arbitration for public employees. Cases are reviewed for the states of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Maine, Michigan, New York, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Washington. Concludes that courts have generally upheld the constitutionality of such…

  17. Counting for Representation: The Census and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The census is even more important today than it was 200 years ago. The census is taken to provide equal representation for everyone, and results provide figures for appointment and the distribution of federal funds. The enumeration of the population was included in the U.S. Constitution in Article I, Section 2. The constitutional order to…

  18. Educational Research as a Reflexive Science of Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    "Constitution" is a relationship of mutual formation between people and their form of life. Neither can exist without the other. In the 1970s, proposals were made in various social sciences, including anthropology, political science, and sociology, for a new kind of inquiry that would focus squarely on constitution. It would be an explicitly…

  19. What Constitution Day Means and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2014-01-01

    For almost three quarters of a century, advocates have worked to give comparable federal stature to September 17, the day on which we celebrate the anniversary of the 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution by the nation's founders. As President John F. Kennedy noted in his 1961 Constitution Day proclamation, it is a day for…

  20. Constitutional Values and Human Dignity: Its Value in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Elmene

    2004-01-01

    Human dignity is intrinsic to every human being and is universally recognised as a fundamental right. Under a previous oppressive system, most South Africans had been denied basic human rights, including the right to human dignity. The constitutional negotiations of the 1990s abolished the apartheid system and constituted a sovereign democratic…

  1. The Religious Student in Public Education: Resolving a Constitutional Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toms, Robert L.; Whitehead, John W.

    1978-01-01

    Author contends that student religious clubs have a constitutional right to exist in the public schools, because such meetings are within the scope of the First and Fourteenth Amendments of the United States Constitution. Landmark Supreme Court church-state decisions are cited. Available from Emory University School of Law, 1722 North Decatur…

  2. What Constitution Day Means and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2014-01-01

    For almost three quarters of a century, advocates have worked to give comparable federal stature to September 17, the day on which we celebrate the anniversary of the 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution by the nation's founders. As President John F. Kennedy noted in his 1961 Constitution Day proclamation, it is a day for…

  3. The Constitutionality of School Choice in New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Charles G., III; Komer, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Does a "school choice" program, under which state funds are disbursed on a neutral basis to parents in the form of a voucher to defray the cost of sending their children to a school of their choice, run afoul of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, or of the New Hampshire Constitution? No. A…

  4. Curriculum Materials for the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Emphasizing the educational importance of the bicentennial celebration of the signing of the U.S. Constitution, Miller reviews various curriculum materials related to the topic. Recommends works for all grade levels, citing, among others, LESSONS ON THE CONSTITUTION, LAW AND THE BICENTENNIAL, and computer software entitled THE UNITED STATES…

  5. Initiative for the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    The 200th anniversary of the United States Constitution offers a singular occasion for encouraging renewed scholarly interest in and public reflection about the principles and foundations of constitutional government. Toward that end, this publication presents categories and guidelines within each of the National Endowment for the Humanities…

  6. Elevation view of one of the doorways on the Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of one of the doorways on the Constitution Avenue side of the building; the door is flanked by monumental neoclassical urns carved from granite - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution Avenue and is nineteen bays long with twelve single columns and two sets of paired columns - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Equality: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The second in a special four-part series of law-school partnership handbooks on constitutional themes, this document focuses on equality. "Equality--the Forgotten Word" (J. A. Hughes) discusses what has been considered the U.S. Constitution's one flaw, its failure to abolish slavery, and the remedy to that flaw, the Fourteenth Amendment.…

  9. Constitutional Values and Human Dignity: Its Value in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Elmene

    2004-01-01

    Human dignity is intrinsic to every human being and is universally recognised as a fundamental right. Under a previous oppressive system, most South Africans had been denied basic human rights, including the right to human dignity. The constitutional negotiations of the 1990s abolished the apartheid system and constituted a sovereign democratic…

  10. Living Democracy: How Constitution High School Molds Better Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasof, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Philadelphia's Constitution High School (CHS) is committed both to the theory of education for democracy, and to its practice, as reflected by a school constitution, student elections, town hall meetings, and active student participation in school government. As its name indicates, CHS is a theme-based high school that focuses on history,…

  11. Educational Research as a Reflexive Science of Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    "Constitution" is a relationship of mutual formation between people and their form of life. Neither can exist without the other. In the 1970s, proposals were made in various social sciences, including anthropology, political science, and sociology, for a new kind of inquiry that would focus squarely on constitution. It would be an explicitly…

  12. 20 CFR 645.300 - What constitutes an allowable match?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What constitutes an allowable match? 645.300... What constitutes an allowable match? (a) A State is entitled to receive two (2) dollars of Federal funds for every one (1) dollar of State match expenditures, up to the amount available for allotment to...

  13. 20 CFR 645.300 - What constitutes an allowable match?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What constitutes an allowable match? 645.300... What constitutes an allowable match? (a) A State is entitled to receive two (2) dollars of Federal funds for every one (1) dollar of State match expenditures, up to the amount available for allotment to...

  14. 20 CFR 645.300 - What constitutes an allowable match?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What constitutes an allowable match? 645.300... What constitutes an allowable match? (a) A State is entitled to receive two (2) dollars of Federal funds for every one (1) dollar of State match expenditures, up to the amount available for allotment to...

  15. 20 CFR 645.300 - What constitutes an allowable match?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What constitutes an allowable match? 645.300... What constitutes an allowable match? (a) A State is entitled to receive two (2) dollars of Federal funds for every one (1) dollar of State match expenditures, up to the amount available for allotment to...

  16. Teaching about the Constitutional Rights of Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    This ERIC digest presents a rationale for teaching students about their rights and responsibilities as citizens under the U.S. Constitution. Social studies teachers have a special role in shaping the lives of young citizens and influencing whether students become politically involved adults. Specific constitutional rights such as the right of a…

  17. Constitutionality of Compulsory Arbitration Statutes in Public Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudohar, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state supreme court rulings on constitutionality issues raised by compulsory arbitration for public employees. Cases are reviewed for the states of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Maine, Michigan, New York, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Washington. Concludes that courts have generally upheld the constitutionality of such…

  18. Constitutionalism and Republicanism in the American Founding: 1776-1787.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dry, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates the development of constitutionalism and republicanism from 1776 to 1787. Discusses the Declaration of Independence, arguments leading up to the Revolution, framing of the Constitution based on compromise, and opposing views of the ratification debate, all of which reveal disagreements over the precise meaning of republicanism. (TRS)

  19. Constitutionalism and Republicanism in the American Founding: 1776-1787.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dry, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates the development of constitutionalism and republicanism from 1776 to 1787. Discusses the Declaration of Independence, arguments leading up to the Revolution, framing of the Constitution based on compromise, and opposing views of the ratification debate, all of which reveal disagreements over the precise meaning of republicanism. (TRS)

  20. New Constitutive Vectors: Useful Genetic Engineering Tools for Biocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Youqiang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive vectors are useful tools for genetic engineering. Two constitutive vectors with high levels of expression and broad host ranges were developed and used in a range of Pseudomonas hosts. The vectors showed superior characteristics compared to the inducible vectors as well as the potential to be used as improved genetic tools for biocatalysis. PMID:23416993

  1. Teaching about the Constitution in American Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D., Ed.

    The components presented in this document are general and specific recommendations for improving instruction about the Constitution, including revised versions of the seven conference papers. The papers are: "Society's Expectations for School Instruction about the Constitution: An Historical Overview" (R. Freeman Butts); "What Youth…

  2. Living Democracy: How Constitution High School Molds Better Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasof, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Philadelphia's Constitution High School (CHS) is committed both to the theory of education for democracy, and to its practice, as reflected by a school constitution, student elections, town hall meetings, and active student participation in school government. As its name indicates, CHS is a theme-based high school that focuses on history,…

  3. Contemporary Perspectives on the Constitution and Separation of Powers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    A collection of essays designed to provide educators and other interested individuals with contemporary perspectives on the U.S. Constitution and separation of powers is presented. Separation of powers refers to one of the enduring principles of the U.S. constitutional system of government, in which governmental powers are subject to a division of…

  4. New constitutive vectors: useful genetic engineering tools for biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Youqiang; Tao, Fei; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-04-01

    Constitutive vectors are useful tools for genetic engineering. Two constitutive vectors with high levels of expression and broad host ranges were developed and used in a range of Pseudomonas hosts. The vectors showed superior characteristics compared to the inducible vectors as well as the potential to be used as improved genetic tools for biocatalysis.

  5. The U.S. Constitution and Its Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. Law School.

    The report presents a collection of articles on constitutional issues from a 1976 social studies conference. It is intended to be used by teachers in planning and implementing curriculum materials on development of the U.S. Constitution. The booklet is divided into eight articles. The first article discusses interpretive problems in the formation…

  6. Constitutive relations in optics in terms of geometric algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargys, A.

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium the Maxwell equations should be supplemented by constitutive relations. At present the classification of linear constitutive relations is well established in tensorial-matrix and exterior p-form calculus. Here the constitutive relations are found in the context of Clifford geometric algebra. For this purpose Cl1,3 algebra that conforms with relativistic 4D Minkowskian spacetime is used. It is shown that the classification of linear optical phenomena with the help of constitutive relations in this case comes from the structure of Cl1,3 algebra itself. Concrete expressions for constitutive relations which follow from this algebra are presented. They can be applied in calculating the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in any anisotropic, linear and nondissipative medium.

  7. Pathways Involved in Sasang Constitution from Genome-Wide Analysis in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sung-Gon; Kim, Jong-Yeol; Song, Kwang Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Sasang constitution (SC) medicine, a branch of Korean traditional medicine, classifies the individual into one of four constitutional types (Taeum, TE; Soeum, SE; Soyang, SY; and Taeyang, TY) based on physiologic characteristics. The authors of the current article recently reported individual genetic elements associated with SC types via genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. However, to understand the biologic mechanisms underlying constitution, a comprehensive approach that combines individual genetic effects was applied. Design Genotypes of 1222 subjects of defined constitution types were measured for 341,998 genetic loci across the entire genome. The biologic pathways associated with SC types were identified via GWA analysis using three different algorithms—namely, the Z-static method, a restandardized gene set assay, and a gene set enrichment assay. Results Distinct pathways were associated (p<0.05) with each constitution type. The TE type was significantly associated with cytoskeleton-related pathways. The SE type was significantly associated with cardio- and amino-acid metabolism–related pathways. The SY type was associated with enriched melanoma-related pathways. TY subjects were excluded because of the small size of that sample. Among these functionally related pathways, core-node genes regulating multiple pathways were identified. TJP1, PTK2, and SRC were selected as core-nodes for TE; RHOA, and MAOA/MAOB for SE; and GNAO1 for SY (p<0.05), respectively. Conclusions The current authors systematically identified the biologic pathways and core-node genes associated with SC types from the GWA study; this information should provide insights regarding the molecular mechanisms inherent in constitutional pathophysiology. PMID:22889377

  8. Genetic Approach to Elucidation of Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bu-Yeo; Cha, Seongwon; Jin, Hee-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Sasang Constitutional Medicine (SCM) offers a medical principle that classifies humans into four constitution groups and guides their treatment with constitution-matched medical assistance. The principle of this traditional medicine, although requires significant scientific support, appears to suggest a genetic influence on constitution type. The relative frequency of constitution types in a population, for instance, has remained relatively constant since Jema Lee first described them from his observations. In addition, the body compartment concept of SCM appears to be related to the anterio–posterior patterning of the embryonic gut and associated internal organs. This study describes the attributes of the constitution concept of SCM that can be interpreted in the language of genetics and current approaches to identity the genetic factors that make up the constitution. These efforts should make it possible to interpret the principle of this traditional medicine scientifically. Considering the recent trend in medicine that pursues individualized or tailored medical offerings, once SCM is proven to be explainable with scientific evidence, it will be able to contribute to and take a place in the rapidly evolving medicine environment. PMID:19745011

  9. Constitutive formulation and analysis of heel pad tissues mechanics.

    PubMed

    Natali, A N; Fontanella, C G; Carniel, E L

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a visco-hyperelastic constitutive model developed to describe the biomechanical response of heel pad tissues. The model takes into account the typical features of the mechanical response such as large displacement, strain phenomena, and non-linear elasticity together with time-dependent effects. The constitutive model was formulated, starting from the analysis of the complex structural and micro-structural configuration of the tissues, to evaluate the relationship between tissue histology and mechanical properties. To define the constitutive model, experimental data from mechanical tests were analyzed. To obtain information about the mechanical response of the tissue so that the constitutive parameters could be established, data from both in vitro and in vivo tests were investigated. Specifically, the first evaluation of the constitutive parameters was performed by a coupled deterministic and stochastic optimization method, accounting for data from in vitro tests. The comparison of constitutive model results and experimental data confirmed the model's capability to describe the compression behaviour of the heel pad tissues, regarding both constant strain rate and stress relaxation tests. Based on the data from additional experimental tests, some of the constitutive parameters were modified in order to interpret the in vivo mechanical response of the heel pad tissues. This approach made it possible to interpret the actual mechanical function of the tissues.

  10. Relationships among Constitution, Stress, and Discomfort in the First Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Ling; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Li-Li; Su, Yi-Chang; Chen, Lih-Mih

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlations among constitution, stress, and discomfort symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy. We adopted a descriptive and correlational research design and collected data from 261 pregnant women during their first trimester in southern Taiwan using structured questionnaires. Results showed that (1) stress was significantly and positively correlated with Yang-Xu, Yin-Xu, and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions, respectively; (2) Yin-Xu and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort, while Yang-Xu had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort except for “running nose”; (3) Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitution and stress were two indicators for “fatigue”; Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi was the indicator for “nausea”; Yang-Xu and Yin-Xu were indicators for “frequent urination.” Our findings also indicate that stress level affects constitutional changes and that stress and constitutional change affect the incidence of discomfort. This research can help healthcare professionals observe these discomforts and provide individualized care for pregnant women, to nurture pregnant women into neutral-type constitution, minimize their levels of discomfort, and promote the health of the fetus and the mother. PMID:21860652

  11. Relationships among Constitution, Stress, and Discomfort in the First Trimester.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Ling; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Li-Li; Su, Yi-Chang; Chen, Lih-Mih

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlations among constitution, stress, and discomfort symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy. We adopted a descriptive and correlational research design and collected data from 261 pregnant women during their first trimester in southern Taiwan using structured questionnaires. Results showed that (1) stress was significantly and positively correlated with Yang-Xu, Yin-Xu, and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions, respectively; (2) Yin-Xu and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort, while Yang-Xu had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort except for "running nose"; (3) Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitution and stress were two indicators for "fatigue"; Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi was the indicator for "nausea"; Yang-Xu and Yin-Xu were indicators for "frequent urination." Our findings also indicate that stress level affects constitutional changes and that stress and constitutional change affect the incidence of discomfort. This research can help healthcare professionals observe these discomforts and provide individualized care for pregnant women, to nurture pregnant women into neutral-type constitution, minimize their levels of discomfort, and promote the health of the fetus and the mother.

  12. Individualized medicine, health medicine, and constitutional theory in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi

    2012-03-01

    The patterns of modern science and changes in the medical model can result in the transformation of the current state of individualized and health medicines into being the primary trend in medical development. Chinese and Western medical systems are dissimilar in terms of value orientations, thinking style, and research directions because of their different historical and cultural backgrounds. Individualized treatment in modern medicine is mainly established based on individual genome information and the differences in mononucleotide polymorphisms. However, such treatment method is expensive, creates an uncertain genetic marker, and leads to different result interpretations, among other problems. The Chinese constitutional theory developed in the 1970s expresses the principle behind Chinese health medicine and individual treatment and provides the corresponding methods. The Chinese constitutional theory divides the constitution of the Chinese population into nine categories based on established classification criteria. It promotes the study of the relationship of each constitution to diseases and Chinese medicine preparation toward adjusting the constitution and preventing diseases. The theory also provides methods and tools for individualized treatment. Constitution identification shows the direction and provides the core technology for the evaluation of the health status. By combining the developments in modern biotechnology, new diagnostic techniques and treatment models of constitution-differentiation, disease-differentiation, and syndrome-differentiation can be established for the development of individualized Chinese medicine treatment and health medicine for the international medical community.

  13. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of directionally solidified and single crystal alloys is perhaps the most important recent advancement in hot section materials technology. The objective is to develop knowledge that enables the designer to improve anisotropic gas turbine parts to their full potential. Two single crystal alloys selected were PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The coatings selected were an overlay coating, PWA 286, and an aluminide diffusion coating, PWA 273. The constitutive specimens were solid and cylindrical; the fatigue specimens were hollow and cylindrical. Two thicknesses of substrate are utilized. Specimens of both thickness (0.4 and 1.5 mm) will be coated and then tested for tensile, creep, and fatigue properties.

  14. Social mobility and constitutional and political preferences in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Breen, R

    2001-12-01

    During the past thirty years Catholics in Northern Ireland have experienced unprecedented upward social mobility. Some commentators have suggested that this has led Catholics not merely to adopt the lifestyles of the middle class but also to modify their constitutional preferences, leading to a decline in nationalism. In this paper I examine the relationship between social mobility, on the one hand, and, on the other, both constitutional preferences and political (left or right wing) preferences among Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, using survey data collected in 1996. There is no evidence that Catholics' constitutional preferences are related to their mobility experiences.

  15. Study on the constitutive model for jointed rock mass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Jianyun; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunfeng; Yuan, Chenyang

    2015-01-01

    A new elasto-plastic constitutive model for jointed rock mass, which can consider the persistence ratio in different visual angle and anisotropic increase of plastic strain, is proposed. The proposed the yield strength criterion, which is anisotropic, is not only related to friction angle and cohesion of jointed rock masses at the visual angle but also related to the intersection angle between the visual angle and the directions of the principal stresses. Some numerical examples are given to analyze and verify the proposed constitutive model. The results show the proposed constitutive model has high precision to calculate displacement, stress and plastic strain and can be applied in engineering analysis.

  16. Law & psychiatry: Does the constitution require an insanity defense?

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2013-10-01

    Idaho is one of four states that have abolished the insanity defense. Hence, John Delling, on trial for two murders in Idaho, was unable to plead insanity or to argue that he lacked intent to kill, the only available option under Idaho law. After being sentenced to life in prison without parole, Delling challenged the constitutionality of Idaho's law. The state's supreme court rejected his appeal, holding that--despite the long history of the insanity defense and its widespread acceptance--there was no constitutional right to an insanity defense. Delling's petition to the U.S. Supreme Court was turned away, leaving the constitutional status of the insanity defense uncertain.

  17. 77 FR 63309 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and... Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission) will hold an additional public scoping meeting for Constitution Pipeline Company's (Constitution) Constitution Pipeline Project. This notice also extends the...

  18. Study on Yang-Xu Using Body Constitution Questionnaire and Blood Variables in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Yii-Jeng; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsiang; Hu, Wan-Chung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Chen, Fang-Pey; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the Yang-Xu constitution using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ) and clinical blood variables. A BCQ was employed to assess the clinical manifestation of Yang-Xu. The logistic regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between BC scores and biomarkers. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) and K-fold cross-validation were performed to evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model in practice. Decision trees (DTs) were conducted to determine the possible relationships between blood biomarkers and BC scores. According to the BCQ analysis, 49% participants without any BC were classified as healthy subjects. Among them, 130 samples were selected for further analysis and divided into two groups. One group comprised healthy subjects without any BC (68%), while subjects of the other group, named as the sub-healthy group, had three BCs (32%). Six biomarkers, CRE, TSH, HB, MONO, RBC, and LH, were found to have the greatest impact on BCQ outcomes in Yang-Xu subjects. This study indicated significant biochemical differences in Yang-Xu subjects, which may provide a connection between blood variables and the Yang-Xu BC. PMID:27340421

  19. Constitutive and inducible Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters: evidence for two distinct molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Struhl, K

    1986-01-01

    his3 and pet56 are adjacent Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes that are transcribed in opposite directions from initiation sites that are separated by 200 base pairs. Under normal growth conditions, in which his3 and pet56 are transcribed at similar basal levels, a poly(dA-dT) sequence located between the genes serves as the upstream promoter element for both. In contrast, his3 but not pet56 transcription is induced during conditions of amino acid starvation, even though the critical regulatory site is located upstream of both respective TATA regions. Moreover, only one of the two normal his3 initiation sites is subject to induction. From genetic and biochemical evidence, I suggest that the his3-pet56 intergenic region contains constitutive and inducible promoters with different properties. In particular, two classes of TATA elements, constitutive (Tc) and regulatory (Tr), can be distinguished by their ability to respond to upstream regulatory elements, by their effects on the selection of initiation sites, and by their physical structure in nuclear chromatin. Constitutive and inducible his3 transcription is mediated by distinct promoters representing each class, whereas pet56 transcription is mediated by a constitutive promoter. Molecular mechanisms for these different kinds of S. cerevisiae promoters are proposed. Images PMID:3540601

  20. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a summary of results from a 7 year program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program was composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addressed the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigated the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involved experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material formed the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: group of zone axes (001), group of zone axes (011), group of zone axes (111), and group of zone axes (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal materials were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were developed for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. A life model was developed for smooth and notched fatigue in the option program. Finally, computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive and life models was developed.

  1. Constitutional Law: Right of Privacy--Possession of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, David E.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Supreme Court in Ravin v. State accepted the defendant's contention that the prohibition of possession of marihuana infringed on his constitutional right to privacy. The significance of the case is discussed. (LBH)

  2. Constitutive modeling of superalloy single crystals with verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Eric; Walker, Kevin P.

    1985-01-01

    The goal is the development of constitutive equations to describe the elevated temperature stress-strain behavior of single crystal turbine blade alloys. The program includes both the development of a suitable model and verification of the model through elevated temperature-torsion testing. A constitutive model is derived from postulated constitutive behavior on individual crystallographic slip systems. The behavior of the entire single crystal is then arrived at by summing up the slip on all the operative crystallographic slip systems. This type of formulation has a number of important advantages, including the prediction orientation dependence and the ability to directly represent the constitutive behavior in terms which metallurgists use in describing the micromechanisms. Here, the model is briefly described, followed by the experimental set-up and some experimental findings to date.

  3. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION CONFERENCE (NELAC): CONSTITUTION, BYLAWS, AND STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principles and operating procedures for the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) are contained in the NELAC Constitution and Bylaws. The major portion of this document (standards) contains detailed requirements for accrediting environmental labo...

  4. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION CONFERENCE (NELAC): CONSTITUTION, BYLAWS, AND STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principles and operating procedures for the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) are contained in the NELAC Constitution and Bylaws. The major portion of this document (standards) contains detailed requirements for accrediting environmental labo...

  5. Your Board Can Help Students Learn from Our Constitution's Bicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelynski, Carol C.

    1987-01-01

    The celebration of the bicentennial of the United States Constitution will begin Fall 1987 and last until 1991. Outlines the national programs, exhibitions and festivals, and curriculum materials available for educators on the bicentennial. (MD)

  6. Self-sorting of equilibrating metallosupramolecular DCLs via constitutional crystallization.

    PubMed

    Barboiu, Mihail; Dumitru, Florina; Legrand, Yves-Marie; Petit, Eddy; van der Lee, Arie

    2009-04-28

    Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) and ligands and self-assemble in solution to generate DCLs of interexchanging metallosupramolecular subcomponents, which convert into robust species of unique stoichiometry via constitutional crystallization.

  7. Freedom and Creativity: Why America Flourishes under the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Mark W.

    1982-01-01

    The freedoms guaranteed to citizens by the U.S. Constitution have encouraged creativity, untrammeled thought, communication, and experimentation. Freedom has also contributed to many developments in science, technology, the arts, and human relations. (Author/GC)

  8. Constitutional Law: Right of Privacy--Possession of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, David E.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Supreme Court in Ravin v. State accepted the defendant's contention that the prohibition of possession of marihuana infringed on his constitutional right to privacy. The significance of the case is discussed. (LBH)

  9. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Neugebauer, Randy [R-TX-19

    2010-05-26

    House - 07/26/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Creationism and Evolution in the Schools: The Constitutional Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Gail Paulus; Fischer, Louis

    1983-01-01

    A review of the major legal cases concerning the curricular debate over evolution and creationism shows how the courts, in recent cases, have applied fundamental constitutional principles in a way that preserves both intellectual freedom and freedom of belief. (CM)

  11. Constitution. Signed and delivered--the rules in writing.

    PubMed

    Walshe, Kieran

    2008-07-24

    The proposal tucked away in the Darzi report for an NHS constitution could be one of the most historic elements of the next stage review, limiting the health secretary's power and guaranteeing patient rights.

  12. Celebrating the Constitution's 200th Birthday in Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Warren E.

    1987-01-01

    The former Chief Justice of the United States, Warren Burger, discusses his elementary school experience with a substitute teacher who taught the elements of government in her classroom. Includes discussion of programing on the bicentennial celebration of the Constitution. (MD)

  13. DyNAvectors: dynamic constitutional vectors for adaptive DNA transfection.

    PubMed

    Clima, Lilia; Peptanariu, Dragos; Pinteala, Mariana; Salic, Adrian; Barboiu, Mihail

    2015-12-25

    Dynamic constitutional frameworks, based on squalene, PEG and PEI components, reversibly connected to core centers, allow the efficient identification of adaptive vectors for good DNA transfection efficiency and are well tolerated by mammalian cells.

  14. A dislocation density based constitutive model for cyclic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Estrin, Y.; Braasch, H.; Brechet, Y.

    1996-10-01

    A new constitutive model describing material response to cyclic loading is presented. The model includes dislocation densities as internal variables characterizing the microstructural state of the material. In the formulation of the constitutive equations, the dislocation density evolution resulting from interactions between dislocations in channel-like dislocation patterns is considered. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated for INCONEL 738 LC and Alloy 800H.

  15. On the Problem of Constitutive Parameter of Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-29

    Casimir forms of the Maxwell equations in condensed media is made. It is shown that the Casimir form comprises sufficient informa- tion of the system...that the main difference in these forms is that the Casimir form being free from seeming spatial dispersion gives more adequate description of effects...constitutive equations in the light of their predictions. 2. Constitutive Equations in Forms Suggested by Landau-Lifshitz and by Casimir In the case of

  16. Competition is constitutional: Four fallacies in the argument that transmission access constitutes a taking

    SciTech Connect

    Schotland, S.D.

    1996-11-01

    New transmission regulations may cause a change in property value or property access, however, this alone does not constitute a regulatory taking. In an industry with a long history of regulation and some degree of shared transmission access, the utilities are going to be hard pressed to show that recent open access mandates are in violation of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment. In a recent article, John Rowe and Paige Graening of the NEES Companies argued that transmission access is the twentieth century equivalent of {open_quotes}piracy{close_quotes} - forcing utilities to provide transmission access to third parties violates the Taking Clause of the Fifth Amendment. The authors stated that transmission access represents a permanent physical invasion of property - which is unconstitutional without {open_quotes}just compensation.{close_quotes} The same arguments have been raised by Michigan utilities in a pending court challenge to the retail wheeling experiment ordered by the Michigan Public Service Commission. Rowe and Graening complain that {open_quotes}under the Jolly Roger of open competition{close_quotes} regulators will limit utilities to {open_quotes}mere embedded costs,{close_quotes} thereby committing an act of {open_quotes}piracy.{close_quotes} Contrary to Rowe and Graening`s claim, the flag of competition is better represented by the Stars and Stripes, since orders to provide transmission access at the cost of service do not result in a regulatory taking. Four fallacies led NEES down the gangplank: (1) The authors argued that reductions in the value of an investment are necessarily takings. Regulatory impairment of property value is a fact of life. (2) Contrary to NEES, transmission access does not effect a permanent physical invasion of property. (3) NEES claimed that transmission access defeats reasonable investment expectations. (4) NEES relied on case law that affords utilities the opportunity to realize a profit.

  17. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Krumm, Brian E.; Lee, Sangbae; Bhattacharya, Supriyo; Botos, Istvan; White, Courtney F.; Du, Haijuan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2016-12-07

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. In conclusion, the loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist.

  18. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    DOE PAGES

    Krumm, Brian E.; Lee, Sangbae; Bhattacharya, Supriyo; ...

    2016-12-07

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecularmore » dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. In conclusion, the loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist.« less

  19. Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Duong Duc

    2009-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i) sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii) equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii) physical features and (iv) psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids) are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies. PMID:19745007

  20. A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, M.K.; Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Krumm, Brian E.; Lee, Sangbae; Bhattacharya, Supriyo; Botos, Istvan; White, Courtney F.; Du, Haijuan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2016-12-07

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. The loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist.

  2. Geometry-dependent constitutive law for granular slow frictional drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, T.; Katou, K.; Itoh, S.; Tachibana, K.; Ishikawa, S.; Katsuragi, H.

    2017-04-01

    Frictional constitutive law for very slow vertical withdrawing of a thin rod from a granular bed is experimentally studied. Using a very precise creep meter, geometry-dependent granular frictional constitutive law is particularly examined. In some previous works, a dimensionless number I = γ˙Dg/pρg has been used to characterize granular frictional constitutive laws, where γ˙, Dg, p, and ρg are the shear strain rate, grain diameter, confining pressure, and bulk density of granular bed, respectively. It has been considered that granular frictional constitutive law expressed by I is universal (almost geometry-independent) in dense flow regime. In this study, however, we find that the geometry of the system is much more crucial to characterize granular friction in a very slow withdrawing regime. Specifically, the ratio between rod and grain diameters must be an essential parameter to describe the granular frictional constitutive law. Physical meaning of the geometry-dependent constitutive law is discussed on the basis of grains-contact-number dependence of granular behavior.

  3. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Brian E.; Lee, Sangbae; Bhattacharya, Supriyo; Botos, Istvan; White, Courtney F.; Du, Haijuan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. The loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist. PMID:27924846

  4. The NC2 Domain of Collagen IX Provides Chain Selection and Heterotrimerization*

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Sergei P.; Zientek, Keith D.; Vance, Jesse; Hacker, Jessica L.; Engel, Jürgen; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of chain selection and trimerization of fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices (FACITs) differs from that of fibrillar collagens that have special C-propeptides. We recently showed that the second carboxyl-terminal non-collagenous domain (NC2) of homotrimeric collagen XIX forms a stable trimer and substantially stabilizes a collagen triple helix attached to either end. We then hypothesized a general trimerizing role for the NC2 domain in other FACITs. Here we analyzed the NC2 domain of human heterotrimeric collagen IX, the only member of FACITs with all three chains encoded by distinct genes. Upon oxidative folding of equimolar amounts of the α1, α2, and α3 chains of NC2, a stable heterotrimer with a disulfide bridge between α1 and α3 chains is formed. Our experiments show that this heterotrimerization domain can stabilize a short triple helix attached at the carboxyl-terminal end and allows for the proper oxidation of the cystine knot of type III collagen after the short triple helix. PMID:20507993

  5. Constitutively active 5-HT2/α1 receptors facilitate muscle spasms after human spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Jessica M.; Murray, Katherine C.; Li, Yaqing; Chan, K. Ming; Finlay, Mark G.; Bennett, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In animals, the recovery of motoneuron excitability in the months following a complete spinal cord injury is mediated, in part, by increases in constitutive serotonin (5-HT2) and norepinephrine (α1) receptor activity, which facilitates the reactivation of calcium-mediated persistent inward currents (CaPICs) without the ligands serotonin and norepinephrine below the injury. In this study we sought evidence for a similar role of constitutive monoamine receptor activity in the development of spasticity in human spinal cord injury. In chronically injured participants with partially preserved sensory and motor function, the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram facilitated long-lasting reflex responses (spasms) previously shown to be mediated by CaPICs, suggesting that in incomplete spinal cord injury, functional descending sources of monoamines are present to activate monoamine receptors below the lesion. However, in participants with motor or motor/sensory complete injuries, the inverse agonist cyproheptadine, which blocks both ligand and constitutive 5-HT2/α1 receptor activity, decreased long-lasting reflexes, whereas the neutral antagonist chlorpromazine, which only blocks ligand activation of these receptors, had no effect. When tested in noninjured control participants having functional descending sources of monoamines, chlorpromazine was effective in reducing CaPIC-mediated motor unit activity. On the basis of these combined results, it appears that in severe spinal cord injury, facilitation of persistent inward currents and muscle spasms is mainly mediated by the activation of constitutive 5-HT2 and α1 receptor activity. Drugs that more selectively block these constitutively active monoamine receptors may provide better oral control of spasticity, especially in motor complete spinal cord injury where reducing motoneuron excitability is the primary goal. PMID:23221402

  6. Inhibition of constitutive endothelial NO-synthase activity by tannin and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Chiesi, M; Schwaller, R

    1995-02-14

    The effect of natural polyphenols on three isoforms of NO-synthase was investigated. Among the compounds tested, tannin was the most potent, inhibiting endothelial constitutive NO synthase (eNOS) with an IC50 of 2.2 microM. Other NOS isoforms (i.e. neuronal constitutive NOS and smooth muscle inducible NOS) were also inhibited but at much higher concentrations (selectivity ratio of approx. 20-30). Quercetin was also an effective but less potent inhibitor of eNOS (IC50 = 220 microM). The kinetics of tannin inhibition were investigated to gather information on the mechanism of action. Tannin did not interfere with the interaction of the enzyme with the co-substrates L-arginine and NADPH nor with the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. The inhibition level was also independent of free Ca2+ concentration as well as of the presence of high exogenous calmodulin concentrations.

  7. The Rights of Teachers. The Basic ACLU Guide to a Teacher's Constitutional Rights. An American Civil Liberties Union Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    The book offers a basic guide to teacher's constitutional rights. Using a question and answer format, it details the freedom to teach, to lead one's private life, to select mode of dress and grooming; the freedom of religion, of speech, and association outside the classroom; and the freedom from arbitrary or discriminatory action by school…

  8. The Rhetoric of the Norwegian Constitution Day: A Topos Analysis of Young Norwegian Students' May 17 Speeches, 2011 and 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tønnesson, Johan Laurits; Sivesind, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    National Day, or Constitution Day, in Norway, May 17, is often referred to as Children's Day. On this day, thousands of young Norwegian students march in parades and participate in celebrations in schoolyards and similar meeting places. Some students are selected to give speeches, performed in front of family members, neighbors, classmates, and…

  9. The Rhetoric of the Norwegian Constitution Day: A Topos Analysis of Young Norwegian Students' May 17 Speeches, 2011 and 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tønnesson, Johan Laurits; Sivesind, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    National Day, or Constitution Day, in Norway, May 17, is often referred to as Children's Day. On this day, thousands of young Norwegian students march in parades and participate in celebrations in schoolyards and similar meeting places. Some students are selected to give speeches, performed in front of family members, neighbors, classmates, and…

  10. Deviatoric constitutive model: domain of strain rate validity

    SciTech Connect

    Zocher, Marvin A

    2009-01-01

    A case is made for using an enhanced methodology in determining the parameters that appear in a deviatoric constitutive model. Predictability rests on our ability to solve a properly posed initial boundary value problem (IBVP), which incorporates an accurate reflection of material constitutive behavior. That reflection is provided through the constitutive model. Moreover, the constitutive model is required for mathematical closure of the IBVP. Common practice in the shock physics community is to divide the Cauchy tensor into spherical and deviatoric parts, and to develop separate models for spherical and deviatoric constitutive response. Our focus shall be on the Cauchy deviator and deviatoric constitutive behavior. Discussions related to the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor are reserved for another time. A number of deviatoric constitutive models have been developed for utilization in the solution of IBVPs that are of interest to those working in the field of shock physics, e.g. All of these models are phenomenological and contain a number of parameters that must be determined in light of experimental data. The methodology employed in determining these parameters dictates the loading regime over which the model can be expected to be accurate. The focus of this paper is the methodology employed in determining model parameters and the consequences of that methodology as it relates to the domain of strain rate validity. We shall begin by describing the methodology that is typically employed. We shall discuss limitations imposed upon predictive capability by the typically employed methodology. We shall propose a modification to the typically employed methodology that significantly extends the domain of strain rate validity.

  11. Numerical implementation of inelastic time dependent and time independent, finite strain constitutive equtions in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Key, S.W.; Krieg, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    A number of complex issues are addressed which will allow the incorporation of finite strain, inelastic material behavior into the piecewise numerical construction of solutions in solid mechanics. Without recourse to extensive continuum mechanics preliminaries, an elementary time independent plasticity model, an elementary time dependent creep model, and a viscoelastic model are introduced as examples of constitutive equations which are routinely used in engineering calculations. The constitutive equations are all suitable for problems involving large deformations and finite strains. The plasticity and creep models are in rate form and use the symmetric part of the velocity gradient or the stretching to compute the co-rotational time derivative of the Cauchy stress. The viscoelastic model computes the current value of the Cauchy stress from a hereditary integral of a materially invariant form of the stretching history. The current configuration is selected for evaluation of equilibrium as opposed to either the reference configuration or the last established equilibrium configuration. The process of strain incrementation is examined in some depth and the stretching evaluated at the midinterval multiplied by the time step is identified as the appropriate finite strain increment to use with the selected form of the constitutive equations. Discussed is the conversion of rotation rates based on the spin into incremental orthogonal rotations which are then used to update stresses and state variables due to rigid body rotation during the load increment. Comments and references to the literature are directed at numerical integration of the constitutive equations with an emphasis on doing this accurately, if not exactly, for any time step and stretching. This material taken collectively provides an approach to numerical implementation which is marked by its simplicity.

  12. The "alternative" choice of constitutive exons throughout evolution.

    PubMed

    Lev-Maor, Galit; Goren, Amir; Sela, Noa; Kim, Eddo; Keren, Hadas; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Leibman-Barak, Shelly; Pupko, Tal; Ast, Gil

    2007-11-01

    Alternative cassette exons are known to originate from two processes-exonization of intronic sequences and exon shuffling. Herein, we suggest an additional mechanism by which constitutively spliced exons become alternative cassette exons during evolution. We compiled a dataset of orthologous exons from human and mouse that are constitutively spliced in one species but alternatively spliced in the other. Examination of these exons suggests that the common ancestors were constitutively spliced. We show that relaxation of the 5' splice site during evolution is one of the molecular mechanisms by which exons shift from constitutive to alternative splicing. This shift is associated with the fixation of exonic splicing regulatory sequences (ESRs) that are essential for exon definition and control the inclusion level only after the transition to alternative splicing. The effect of each ESR on splicing and the combinatorial effects between two ESRs are conserved from fish to human. Our results uncover an evolutionary pathway that increases transcriptome diversity by shifting exons from constitutive to alternative splicing.

  13. Underground herbivory and the costs of constitutive defense in tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisser, Evan L.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Adler, Lynn S.; Lewis, Edwin E.

    2007-03-01

    Nicotine is both a constitutive and induced defense in cultivated tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum). Nicotine is thought primarily to defend against above-ground herbivory; however, below-ground herbivores like the nematode Meloidogyne incognita can also damage plants. We evaluated the costs and benefits of constitutive nicotine production in four near-isogenic lines of N. tabacum differing in nicotine content. We exposed the four lines to levels of nematode infection below that found to induce nicotine synthesis, and measured nematode density and each line's response to nematode presence. Nematode density did not differ among lines and was not related to leaf nicotine content in any of the lines, suggesting that constitutive nicotine content did not affect nematode survival or reproduction. Most measures of plant performance were unaffected by nematodes; however, nematode infection decreased flowering in the high nicotine line relative to the other lines. Lines with less constitutive nicotine did not incur similar costs, suggesting a tradeoff between nicotine production and tolerance of low levels of herbivory. A cost of nicotine production is also suggested by the fact that flowering was inversely correlated with leaf nicotine content in all four lines. Although nicotine conferred no resistance to nematodes, high nicotine content reduced the plant's tolerance of low levels of nematode infection and was correlated with reduced flowering. In examining the costs and benefits of a constitutive plant defense, this work complements and extends previous research addressing the relationship between plant tolerance and induced defenses.

  14. The “Alternative” Choice of Constitutive Exons throughout Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eddo; Keren, Hadas; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Leibman-Barak, Shelly; Pupko, Tal; Ast, Gil

    2007-01-01

    Alternative cassette exons are known to originate from two processes—exonization of intronic sequences and exon shuffling. Herein, we suggest an additional mechanism by which constitutively spliced exons become alternative cassette exons during evolution. We compiled a dataset of orthologous exons from human and mouse that are constitutively spliced in one species but alternatively spliced in the other. Examination of these exons suggests that the common ancestors were constitutively spliced. We show that relaxation of the 5′ splice site during evolution is one of the molecular mechanisms by which exons shift from constitutive to alternative splicing. This shift is associated with the fixation of exonic splicing regulatory sequences (ESRs) that are essential for exon definition and control the inclusion level only after the transition to alternative splicing. The effect of each ESR on splicing and the combinatorial effects between two ESRs are conserved from fish to human. Our results uncover an evolutionary pathway that increases transcriptome diversity by shifting exons from constitutive to alternative splicing. PMID:18020709

  15. Constitutive formulations for the mechanical investigation of colonic tissues.

    PubMed

    Carniel, Emanuele Luigi; Gramigna, Vera; Fontanella, Chiara Giulia; Stefanini, Cesare; Natali, Arturo N

    2014-05-01

    A constitutive framework is provided for the characterization of the mechanical behavior of colonic tissues, as a fundamental tool for the development of numerical models of the colonic structures. The constitutive analysis is performed by a multidisciplinary approach that requires the cooperation between experimental and computational competences. The preliminary investigation pertains to the review of the tissues histology. The complex structural configuration of the tissues and the specific distributions of fibrous elements entail the nonlinear mechanical behavior and the anisotropic response. The identification of the mechanical properties requires to perform mechanical tests according to different loading situations, as different loading directions. Because of the typical functionality of colon structures, the tissues mechanics is investigated by tensile tests, which are performed on taenia coli and haustra specimens from fresh pig colons. Accounting for the histological investigation and the results from the mechanical tests, a specific hyperelastic framework is provided within the theory of fiber-reinforced composite materials. Preliminary analytical formulations are defined to identify the constitutive parameters by the inverse analysis of the experimental tests. Finite element models of the specimens are developed accounting for the actual configuration of the colon structures to verify the quality of the results. The good agreement between experimental and numerical model results suggests the reliability of the constitutive formulations and parameters. Finally, the developed constitutive analysis makes it possible to identify the mechanical behavior and properties of the different colonic tissues.

  16. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junhee; Jung, Yongjae; Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju

    2009-01-01

    The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy–fluid metabolism and the water–food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney). Also, the concept of Seong–Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong–Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies) found in SCM. PMID:19745009

  17. Detecting constitutive activity and protean agonism at cannabinoid-2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Massimiliano; Brusa, Rossella; Mancini, Isabella; Scandroglio, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Since the cannabinoid system is involved in regulating several physiological functions such as locomotor activity, cognition, nociception, food intake, and inflammatory reaction, it has been the subject of intense study. Research on the pharmacology of this system has enormously progressed in the last 20years. One intriguing aspect that emerged from this research is that cannabinoid receptors (CBs) express a high level of constitutive activity. Investigation on this particular aspect of receptor pharmacology has largely focused on CB1, the CB subtype highly expressed in several brain regions. More recently, research on constitutive activity on the other CB subtype, CB2, was stimulated by the increasing interest on its potential as target for the treatment of various pathologies (e.g., pain and inflammation). There are several possible implications of constitutive activity on the therapeutic action of both agonists and antagonists, and consequently, it is important to have valuable methods to study this aspect of CB2 pharmacology. In the present chapter, we describe three methods to study constitutive activity at CB2: two classical methods relying on the detection of changes in cAMP level and GTPγS binding and a new one based on cell impedance measurement. In addition, we also included a section on detection of protean agonism, which is an interesting pharmacological phenomenon strictly linked to constitutive activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Perspective of the human body in sasang constitutional medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junhee; Jung, Yongjae; Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju; Koh, Byunghee

    2009-09-01

    The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney). Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies) found in SCM.

  19. Digital Materials - Evaluation of the Possibilities of using Selected Hyperelastic Models to Describe Constitutive Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mańkowski, J.; Lipnicki, J.

    2017-08-01

    The authors tried to identify the parameters of numerical models of digital materials, which are a kind of composite resulting from the manufacture of the product in 3D printers. With the arrangement of several heads of the printer, the new material can result from mixing of materials with radically different properties, during the process of producing single layer of the product. The new material has properties dependent on the base materials properties and their proportions. Digital materials tensile characteristics are often non-linear and qualify to be described by hyperelastic materials models. The identification was conducted based on the results of tensile tests models, its various degrees coefficients of the polynomials to various degrees coefficients of the polynomials. The Drucker's stability criterion was also examined. Fourteen different materials were analyzed.

  20. Atrial selectivity of antiarrhythmic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ravens, Ursula; Poulet, Claire; Wettwer, Erich; Knaut, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New antiarrhythmic drugs for treatment of atrial fibrillation should ideally be atrial selective in order to avoid pro-arrhythmic effects in the ventricles. Currently recognized atrial selective targets include atrial Nav1.5 channels, Kv1.5 channels and constitutively active Kir3.1/3.4 channels, each of which confers atrial selectivity by different mechanisms. Na+ channel blockers with potential- and frequency-dependent action preferentially suppress atrial fibrillation because of the high excitation rate and less negative atrial resting potential, which promote drug binding in atria. Kv1.5 channels are truly atrial selective because they do not conduct repolarizing current IKur in ventricles. Constitutively active IK,ACh is predominantly observed in remodelled atria from patients in permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). A lot of effort has been invested to detect compounds which will selectively block Kir3.1/Kir3.4 in their remodelled constitutively active form. Novel drugs which have been and are being developed aim at atrial-selective targets. Vernakalant and ranolazine which mainly block atrial Na+ channels are clinically effective. Newly designed selective IKur blockers and IK,ACh blockers are effective in animal models; however, clinical benefit in converting AF into sinus rhythm (SR) or reducing AF burden remains to be demonstrated. In conclusion, atrial-selective antiarrhythmic agents have a lot of potential, but a long way to go. PMID:23732646

  1. A Novel approach to the description of constitutive relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccomandi, Giuseppe; Rajagopal, Kumbakonam

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in the development of implicit constitutive relations to describe the response of both solids and fluids have greatly increased the repertoire of the modeler in his ability to describe natural phenomena more faithfully than hitherto possible. It would not be an exaggeration to claim that such constitutive relations have the potential to lead to breakthroughs in mechanics as they provide very promising novel means to study two of the most important and ill-understood problems in mechanics, that of fracturing of solids, and of turbulence in fluids, in addition to providing a means to describe a plethora of phenomena that have eluded explanation in biomechanics, response of colloids and mixtures, etc. In this article we describe these recent developments within the context of both fluid and solid mechanics. A Novel approach to the description of constitutive relations

  2. Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Fossum, A.F

    1994-12-31

    There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing.

  3. New constitutionalism and the social reproduction of caring institutions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes neo-liberal economic agreements and legal and political frameworks or what has been called the "new constitutionalism," a governance framework that empowers market forces to reshape economic and social development worldwide. The article highlights some consequences of new constitutionalism for caring institutions specifically, and for what feminists call social reproduction more generally: the biological reproduction of the species; the reproduction of labor power; and the reproduction of social institutions and processes associated with the creation and maintenance of communities. New constitutional governance frameworks fundamentally reshape conditions under which the care of human beings takes place. Caring institutions once governed by enabling professions geared to universal care are now determined increasingly by market values and private forces, and driven directly by the profit motive. This is one of the reasons why neo-liberalism is increasingly contested in both the North and the global South.

  4. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-01-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  5. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju; Kim, Chungmi; Lee, Junhee; Lixing, Lao

    2012-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart), typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology. PMID:21941592

  6. Probabilistic estimation of the constitutive parameters of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, J. R.; Jordan, J. L.; Siviour, C. R.

    2012-08-01

    The Mulliken-Boyce constitutive model predicts the dynamic response of crystalline polymers as a function of strain rate and temperature. This paper describes the Mulliken-Boyce model-based estimation of the constitutive parameters in a Bayesian probabilistic framework. Experimental data from dynamic mechanical analysis and dynamic compression of PVC samples over a wide range of strain rates are analyzed. Both experimental uncertainty and natural variations in the material properties are simultaneously considered as independent and joint distributions; the posterior probability distributions are shown and compared with prior estimates of the material constitutive parameters. Additionally, particular statistical distributions are shown to be effective at capturing the rate and temperature dependence of internal phase transitions in DMA data.

  7. Sasang constitution affects the prevalence of functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Ahn, Yo Chan; Son, Chang Gue

    2015-05-20

    Functional dyspepsia (FD), which is a very common disorder worldwide, is known to be caused by multiple factors including environmental and genetic factors. Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a component of traditional Korean medicine that emphasizes inherited characteristics of the physical and psychological patterns of a patient. This study investigated whether the prevalence of FD differs depending on Sasang classification. A total 517 subjects (190 males and 327 females) were recruited, and interviewed for the presence of FD using a Rome III-based questionnaire. The Sasang constitution of all subjects were diagnosed using a Sasang constitutional analytical tool (SCAT). A Chi-square test was performed to compare prevalence of DF among different Sasang constitutional types. Of the 517 subjects, 115 (22.2 %) met the diagnostic criteria for FD, and the prevalence was significantly higher in females (26.9 %) than males (14.2 %, p < 0.01). The Sasang-constitution-based prevalence among all subjects was 27.5 % for Taeumin, 23.1 % for Soumin, and 16.4 % for Soyangin (p = 0.055). When compared by sex, the prevalence of FD among Sasang types showed significantly different patterns between males and females (p < 0.05); in females with FD, Taeumin predominated (32.5 % compared with 29.5 % and 18.8 % for Soumin and Soyangin, respectively; p < 0.05), whereas males with FD displayed a higher prevalence of Soumin (17.3 % compared with 9.1 % and 11.3 % for Taeumin and Soyangin, respectively; p > 0.05). This study identified significant differences in FD prevalence depending on Sasang constitution and sex. Our findings provide data to guide future research on the prevention and management of FD.

  8. Randomized clinical trials of constitutional acupuncture: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Choi, Sun-Mi; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to compile and critically evaluate the evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for the effectiveness of acupuncture using constitutional medicine compared to standard acupuncture. Ten databases were searched through to December 2008 without language restrictions. We also hand-searched nine Korean journals of oriental medicine. We included prospective RCTs of any form of acupuncture with or without electrical stimulation. The included trials had to investigate constitutional medicine. There were no restrictions on population characteristics. Forty-one relevant studies were identified, and three RCTs were included. The methodological quality of the trials was variable. One RCT found Sasang constitutional acupuncture to be superior to standard acupuncture in terms of the Unified PD Rating Scale and freezing gate in Parkinson's disease (PD). Another two RCTs reported favorable effects of eight constitutional acupuncture on pain reduction in patients with herniated nucleus pulposi and knee osteoarthritis. Meta-analysis demonstrated positive results for eight constitutional acupuncture compared to standard acupuncture on pain reduction (weighted mean difference: 10 cm VAS, 1.69, 95% CI 0.85-2.54, P < 0.0001; heterogeneity: tau(2) = 0.00, chi(2) = 0.00, P = 0.96, I(2) = 0%). Our results provide suggestive evidence for the effectiveness of constitutional acupuncture in treating pain conditions compared to standard acupuncture. However, the total number of RCTs and the total sample size included in our analysis were too small to draw definite conclusions. Future RCTs should assess larger patient samples with longer treatment periods and appropriate controls.

  9. Constitutive models for rubber networks undergoing simultaneous crosslinking and scission.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Curro, John G.; Rottach, Dana R.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Budzien, Joanne L.; Lo, David Chi S.

    2006-01-01

    Constitutive models for chemically reacting networks are formulated based on a generalization of the independent network hypothesis. These models account for the coupling between chemical reaction and strain histories, and have been tested by comparison with microscopic molecular dynamics simulations. An essential feature of these models is the introduction of stress transfer functions that describe the interdependence between crosslinks formed and broken at various strains. Efforts are underway to implement these constitutive models into the finite element code Adagio. Preliminary results are shown that illustrate the effects of changing crosslinking and scission rates and history.

  10. Consistency of certain constitutive relations with quantum electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Horsley, S. A. R.

    2011-12-15

    Recent work by Philbin [New J. Phys. 12, 123008 (2010)] has provided a Lagrangian theory that establishes a general method for the canonical quantization of the electromagnetic field in any dispersive, lossy, linear dielectric. Working from this theory, we extend the Lagrangian description to reciprocal and nonreciprocal magnetoelectric (bianisotropic) media, showing that some versions of the constitutive relations are inconsistent with a real Lagrangian, and hence with quantization. This amounts to a restriction on the magnitude of the magnetoelectric coupling. Moreover, from the point of view of quantization, moving media are shown to be fundamentally different from stationary magnetoelectrics, despite the formal similarity in the constitutive relations.

  11. Probabilistic constitutive relationships for material strength degradation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, L.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    In the present probabilistic methodology for the strength of aerospace propulsion system structural components subjected to such environmentally-induced primitive variables as loading stresses, high temperature, chemical corrosion, and radiation, time is encompassed as an interacting element, allowing the projection of creep and fatigue effects. A probabilistic constitutive equation is postulated to account for the degradation of strength due to these primitive variables which may be calibrated by an appropriately curve-fitted least-squares multiple regression of experimental data. The resulting probabilistic constitutive equation is embodied in the PROMISS code for aerospace propulsion component random strength determination.

  12. Concrete creep at transient temperature: constitutive law and mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, J.C.; Bazant, Z.P.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    A constitutive law which describes the transient thermal creep of concrete is presented. Moisture and temperature are two major parameters in this constitutive law. Aside from load, creep, cracking, and thermal (shrinkage) strains, stress-induced hygrothermal strains are also included in the analysis. The theory agrees with most types of test data which include basic creep, thermal expansion, shrinkage, swelling, creep at cyclic heating or drying, and creep at heating under compression or bending. Examples are given to demonstrate agreement between the theory and the experimental data. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Image-driven constitutive modeling of myocardial fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Vicky Y.; Niestrawska, Justyna A.; Wilson, Alexander J.; Sands, Gregory B.; Young, Alistair A.; LeGrice, Ian J.; Nash, Martyn P.

    2016-05-01

    Myocardial fibrosis is a pathological process that occurs during heart failure (HF). It involves microstructural remodeling of normal myocardial tissue, and consequent changes in both cardiac geometry and function. The role of myocardial structural remodeling in the progression of HF remains poorly understood. We propose a constitutive modeling framework, informed by high-resolution images of cardiac tissue structure, to model the mechanical response of normal and fibrotic myocardium. This image-driven constitutive modeling approach allows us to better reproduce and understand the relationship between structural and functional remodeling of ventricular myocardium during HF.

  14. Constitutive response of Rene 80 under thermal mechanical loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Cook, T. S.; Mcknight, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of a classical constitutive model for stress-strain analysis of a nickel base superalloy, Rene' 80, in the gas turbine thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) environment is examined. A variety of tests were conducted to generate basic material data and to investigate the material response under cyclic thermomechanical loading. Isothermal stress-strain data were acquired at a variety of strain rates over the TMF temperature range. Creep curves were examined at 2 temperature ranges, 871 to 982 C and 760 to 871 C. The results provide optimism on the ability of the classical constitutive model for high temperature applications.

  15. Are there reliable constitutive laws for dynamic friction?

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Jim; Putelat, Thibaut; McKay, Andrew

    2015-09-28

    Structural vibration controlled by interfacial friction is widespread, ranging from friction dampers in gas turbines to the motion of violin strings. To predict, control or prevent such vibration, a constitutive description of frictional interactions is inevitably required. A variety of friction models are discussed to assess their scope and validity, in the light of constraints provided by different experimental observations. Three contrasting case studies are used to illustrate how predicted behaviour can be extremely sensitive to the choice of frictional constitutive model, and to explore possible experimental paths to discriminate between and calibrate dynamic friction models over the full parameter range needed for real applications. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. A preliminary ferritic-martensitic stainless steel constitution diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Balmforth, M.C.; Lippold, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary research to develop a constitution diagram that will more accurately predict the microstructure of ferritic and martensitic stainless steel weld deposits. A button melting technique was used to produce a wide range of compositions using mixtures of conventional ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, including types 403, 409, 410, 430, 439 and 444. These samples were prepared metallographically, and the vol-% ferrite and martensite was determined quantitatively. In addition, the hardness and ferrite number (FN) were measured. Using this data, a preliminary constitution diagram is proposed that provides a more accurate method for predicting the microstructures of arc welds in ferritic and martensitic stainless steels.

  17. Multi-species analyses of direct activators of the constitutive androstane receptor.

    PubMed

    Omiecinski, Curtis J; Coslo, Denise M; Chen, Tao; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Peffer, Richard C

    2011-10-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as an important xenochemical sensor and transcriptional modulator in mammalian cells. Upon chemical activation, CAR undergoes nuclear translocation and heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptor subsequent to its DNA target interaction. CAR is unusual among nuclear receptors in that it possesses a high level of constitutive activity in cell-based assays, obscuring the detection of ligand activators. However, a human splice variant of CAR, termed CAR3, exhibits negligible constitutive activity. In addition, CAR3 is activated by ligands with similar specificity as the reference form of the receptor. In this study, we hypothesized that similar CAR3 receptors could be constructed across various mammalian species' forms of CAR that would preserve species-specific ligand responses, thus enabling a more sensitive and differential screening assessment of CAR response among animal models. A battery of CAR3 receptors was produced in mouse, rat, and dog and comparatively evaluated with selected ligands together with human CAR1 and CAR3 in mammalian cell reporter assays. The results demonstrate that the 5-amino acid insertion that typifies human CAR3 also imparts ligand-activated receptor function in other species' CAR while maintaining signature responses in each species to select CAR ligands. These variant constructs permit in vitro evaluation of differential chemical effector responses across species and coupled with in vivo assays, the species-selective contributions of CAR in normal physiology and in disease processes such as hepatocarcinogenesis.

  18. High level constitutive expression of luciferase reporter by lsd90 promoter in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Verma, Hemant Kumar; Shukla, Poonam; Alfatah, Md; Khare, Asheesh Kumar; Upadhyay, Udita; Ganesan, Kaliannan; Singh, Jagmohan

    2014-01-01

    Because of a large number of molecular similarities with higher eukaryotes, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been considered a potentially ideal host for expressing human proteins having therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications. However, efforts in this direction are hampered by lack of a strong promoter. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a strong, constitutive promoter from S. pombe. A new expression vector was constructed by cloning the putative promoter region of the lsd90 gene (earlier reported to be strongly induced by heat stress) into a previously reported high copy number vector pJH5, which contained an ARS element corresponding to the mat2P flanking region and a truncated URA3m selectable marker. The resulting vector was used to study and compare the level of expression of the luciferase reporter with that achieved with the known vectors containing regulatable promoter nmt1 and the strong constitutive promoter adh1 in S. pombe and the methanol-inducible AOX1 promoter in Pichia pastoris. Following growth in standard media the new vector containing the putative lsd90 promoter provided constitutive expression of luciferase, at a level, which was 19-, 39- and 10-fold higher than that achieved with nmt1, adh1 and AOX1 promoters, respectively. These results indicate a great potential of the new lsd90 promoter-based vector for commercial scale expression of therapeutic proteins in S. pombe.

  19. Constitutive activation of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway in insecticide-resistant strains of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Misra, Jyoti R; Lam, Geanette; Thummel, Carl S

    2013-12-01

    Pesticide resistance poses a major challenge for the control of vector-borne human diseases and agricultural crop protection. Although a number of studies have defined how mutations in specific target proteins can lead to insecticide resistance, much less is known about the mechanisms by which constitutive overexpression of detoxifying enzymes contributes to metabolic pesticide resistance. Here we show that the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway is constitutively active in two laboratory-selected DDT-resistant strains of Drosophila, 91R and RDDTR, leading to the overexpression of multiple detoxifying genes. Disruption of the Drosophila Nrf2 ortholog, CncC, or overexpression of Keap1, is sufficient to block this transcriptional response. In addition, a CncC-responsive reporter is highly active in both DDT-resistant strains and this response is dependent on the presence of an intact CncC binding site in the promoter. Microarray analysis revealed that ∼20% of the genes differentially expressed in the 91R strain are known CncC target genes. Finally, we show that CncC is partially active in these strains, consistent with the fitness cost associated with constitutive activation of the pathway. This study demonstrates that the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway contributes to the widespread overexpression of detoxification genes in insecticide-resistant strains and raises the possibility that inhibitors of this pathway could provide effective synergists for insect population control.

  20. Paradigm Shift in Data Content and Informatics Infrastructure Required for Generalized Constitutive Modeling of Materials Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Materials property information such as composition and thermophysical/mechanical properties abound in the literature. Oftentimes, however, the corresponding response curves from which these data are determined are missing or at the very least difficult to retrieve. Further, the paradigm for collecting materials property information has historically centered on (1) properties for materials comparison/selection purposes and (2) input requirements for conventional design/analysis methods. However, just as not all materials are alike or equal, neither are all constitutive models (and thus design/ analysis methods) equal; each model typically has its own specific and often unique required materials parameters, some directly measurable and others indirectly measurable. Therefore, the type and extent of materials information routinely collected is not always sufficient to meet the current, much less future, needs of the materials modeling community. Informatics has been defined as the science concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information. A key aspect of informatics is its focus on understanding problems and applying information technology as needed to address those problems. The primary objective of this article is to highlight the need for a paradigm shift in materials data collection, analysis, and dissemination so as to maximize the impact on both practitioners and researchers. Our hope is to identify and articulate what constitutes "sufficient" data content (i.e., quality and quantity) for developing, characterizing, and validating sophisticated nonlinear time- and history-dependent (hereditary) constitutive models. Likewise, the informatics infrastructure required for handling the potentially massive amounts of materials data will be discussed.

  1. Constitutive Endocytosis and Degradation of the Pre-T Cell Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Panigada, Maddalena; Porcellini, Simona; Barbier, Eliane; Hoeflinger, Sonja; Cazenave, Pierre-André; Gu, Hua; Band, Hamid; von Boehmer, Harald; Grassi, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    The pre-T cell receptor (TCR) signals constitutively in the absence of putative ligands on thymic stroma and signal transduction correlates with translocation of the pre-TCR into glycolipid-enriched microdomains (rafts) in the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the pre-TCR is constitutively routed to lysosomes after reaching the cell surface. The cell-autonomous down-regulation of the pre-TCR requires activation of the src-like kinase p56lck, actin polymerization, and dynamin. Constitutive signaling and degradation represents a feature of the pre-TCR because the γδTCR expressed in the same cell line does not exhibit these features. This is also evident by the observation that the protein adaptor/ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl is phosphorylated and selectively translocated into rafts in pre-TCR– but not γδTCR-expressing cells. A role of c-Cbl–mediated ubiquitination in pre-TCR degradation is supported by the reduction of degradation through pharmacological inhibition of the proteasome and through a dominant-negative c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase as well as by increased pre-TCR surface expression on immature thymocytes in c-Cbl–deficient mice. The pre-TCR internalization contributes significantly to the low surface level of the receptor on developing T cells, and may in fact be a requirement for optimal pre-TCR function. PMID:12070286

  2. Constitutive activation of neuronal Src causes aberrant dendritic morphogenesis in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Takenori; Morone, Nobuhiro; Yuasa, Shigeki; Nada, Shigeyuki; Okada, Masato

    2007-02-01

    Src family tyrosine kinases are essential for neural development, but their in vivo functions remain elusive because of functional compensation among family members. To elucidate the roles of individual Src family members in vivo, we generated transgenic mice expressing the neuronal form of c-Src (n-Src), Fyn, and their constitutively active forms in cerebellar Purkinje cells using the L7 promoter. The expression of the constitutively active n-Src retarded the postnatal development of Purkinje cells and disrupted dendritic morphogenesis, whereas the wild-type n-Src had only moderate effects. Neither wild-type nor constitutively active Fyn over-expression significantly affected Purkinje-cell morphology. The aberrant Purkinje cells in n-Src transgenic mice retained multiple dendritic shafts extending in non-polarized directions and were located heterotopically in the molecular layer. Ultrastructural observation of the dendritic shafts revealed that the microtubules of n-Src transgenic mice were more densely and irregularly arranged, and had structural deformities. In primary culture, Purkinje cells from n-Src transgenic mice developed abnormally thick dendritic shafts and large growth-cone-like structures with poorly extended dendrites, which could be rescued by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Src family kinases, PP2. These results suggest that n-Src activity regulates the dendritic morphogenesis of Purkinje cells through affecting microtubule organization.

  3. Paradigm Shift in Data Content and Informatics Infrastructure Required for Generalized Constitutive Modeling of Materials Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Materials property information such as composition and thermophysical/mechanical properties abound in the literature. Oftentimes, however, the corresponding response curves from which these data are determined are missing or at the very least difficult to retrieve. Further, the paradigm for collecting materials property information has historically centered on (1) properties for materials comparison/selection purposes and (2) input requirements for conventional design/analysis methods. However, just as not all materials are alike or equal, neither are all constitutive models (and thus design/ analysis methods) equal; each model typically has its own specific and often unique required materials parameters, some directly measurable and others indirectly measurable. Therefore, the type and extent of materials information routinely collected is not always sufficient to meet the current, much less future, needs of the materials modeling community. Informatics has been defined as the science concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information. A key aspect of informatics is its focus on understanding problems and applying information technology as needed to address those problems. The primary objective of this article is to highlight the need for a paradigm shift in materials data collection, analysis, and dissemination so as to maximize the impact on both practitioners and researchers. Our hope is to identify and articulate what constitutes "sufficient" data content (i.e., quality and quantity) for developing, characterizing, and validating sophisticated nonlinear time- and history-dependent (hereditary) constitutive models. Likewise, the informatics infrastructure required for handling the potentially massive amounts of materials data will be discussed.

  4. Constitutional and legal implications of arms control verification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Haffenden, R.

    1992-09-01

    United States law can both help and hinder the use of instrumentation as a component of arms control verification in this country. It can foster the general use of sophisticated verification technologies, where such devices are consistent with the value attached to privacy by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On the other hand, law can hinder reliance on devices that cross this constitutional line, or where such technology itself threatens health, safety, or environment as such threats are defined in federal statutes. The purpose of this conference paper is to explain some of the lessons that have been learned about the relationship between law and verification technologies in the hope that law can help more than hinder. This paper has three parts. In order to start with a common understanding, part I will briefly describe the hierarchy of treaties, the Constitution, federal statutes, and state and local laws. Part 2 will discuss how the specific constitutional requirement that the government respect the right of privacy in all of its endeavors may affect the use of verification technologies. Part 3 will explain the environmental law constraints on verification technology as exemplified by the system of on-site sampling embodied in the current Rolling Text of the Draft Chemical Weapons Convention.

  5. "Contested Rights": The Pedagogy and Logistics of Hosting Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miracle, Amanda; Smith, Michael; Anderson, Kevin; Catlett, Rob

    2016-01-01

    To seriously consider one's rights under the US Constitution, one must grapple with the realization that many rights are not absolute. Instead, they are contested. But how to introduce younger students to such a complex concept, given short attention spans? In this article, we discuss the opportunities, pitfalls, and planning logistics of the 2013…

  6. Analysing Teachers' Operations When Teaching Students: What Constitutes Scientific Theories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmqvist, Mona O.; Olander, Clas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse teachers' efforts to develop secondary school students' knowledge and argumentation skills of what constitutes scientific theories. The analysis is based on Leontiev's three-level structure of activity (activity, action, and operation), as these levels correspond to the questions why, what, and how content is…

  7. Everyday Constitutional Assessments and Their Relevance to Formal Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2014-01-01

    Background: In anthropology and related disciplines, the term "assessment" refers to the everyday activities of ordinary people as they figure out what to do next given what others have just done. The assessments, in turn, constitute what is happening, whether in encounters between policeman and person in the street, or classroom lesson,…

  8. Constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, Timothy J.; Dixon, Padraic M.; Haslett, Christopher; Murray, Joanna; McGorum, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils, including assessment of factors that potentially modulate neutrophil survival through alteration of the rate of constitutive apoptosis. Cells underwent spontaneous time-dependent constitutive apoptosis when aged in culture for up to 36 h, developing the structural and functional features of apoptosis observed in many cell types, including human neutrophils. Neutrophils undergoing apoptosis also had diminished zymosan activated serum (ZAS)-stimulated chemiluminescence, but maintained responsiveness to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The constitutive rate of equine neutrophil apoptosis was promoted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumour necrosis factor α and phagocytosis of opsonised ovine erythrocytes, while it was inhibited by dexamethasone and ZAS (a source of C5a). Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, platelet activating factor and PMA had no demonstrable effect on equine neutrophil apoptosis. There was a difference between equine and human neutrophil apoptosis in response to LPS and the time-dependence of the response to dexamethasone. PMID:25239298

  9. 27 CFR 26.316 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting approved containers. 26.316 Section 26.316 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... appropriate TTB officer that such bottle is not and approved container for distilled spirits for...

  10. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting approved containers. 27.206 Section 27.206 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... officer that such bottle is not an approved container for distilled spirits for consumption in the...

  11. Women in American Constitutional History at the Bicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff-Wilson, Joan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the changing legal status of women from the American Revolution to the present. Divides discussion into five major constitutional periods. Describes the "Broken Barometer" theory in which laws passed for the benefit of women are actually an indicator of their past needs rather than their present concerns. (RW)

  12. [Constitutional syndrome: clinical entity or a mixed bag].

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortega, Saturnino; Puente-Fernández, Alicia; Santana-Baez, Sergio; Godoy-Díaz, Davinia; Serrano-Fuentes, Miriam; Sanz-Peláez, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue, anorexia and involuntary weight loss have been included under the term constitutional syndrome. These manifestations accompany many diseases in which the diagnosis is made by specific symptoms and signs. However, these events are generally the main reason for consultation and the patient does not report other specific data. This forces us to rigorously investigate the possible causes of the disorder. Usually, three manifestations coexist: asthenia, anorexia and weight loss, but sometimes the patient has only one or two of them. The causes of constitutional symptoms are varied and can be divided into three groups: psychiatric diseases, neoplasms and non-neoplastic diseases. The etiological identification is usually done with a simple protocol, which rules out malignancy; the rest of the cases of uncertain etiology are subject to evolution. The constitutional syndrome correlates well with good prognosis or medical functional processes. Although no clinical guidelines have been developed, score scales may help for the etiological assessment. Given the myriad of different causes of the constitutional syndrome, the treatment of this illness depends primarily on the etiology.

  13. Constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Timothy J; Dixon, Padraic M; Haslett, Christopher; Murray, Joanna; McGorum, Bruce C

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils, including assessment of factors that potentially modulate neutrophil survival through alteration of the rate of constitutive apoptosis. Cells underwent spontaneous time-dependent constitutive apoptosis when aged in culture for up to 36 h, developing the structural and functional features of apoptosis observed in many cell types, including human neutrophils. Neutrophils undergoing apoptosis also had diminished zymosan activated serum (ZAS)-stimulated chemiluminescence, but maintained responsiveness to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The constitutive rate of equine neutrophil apoptosis was promoted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumour necrosis factor α and phagocytosis of opsonised ovine erythrocytes, while it was inhibited by dexamethasone and ZAS (a source of C5a). Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, platelet activating factor and PMA had no demonstrable effect on equine neutrophil apoptosis. There was a difference between equine and human neutrophil apoptosis in response to LPS and the time-dependence of the response to dexamethasone.

  14. Constitutional and Legislative Framework for Inclusive Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Peter; Forlin, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Argues that in Australia, despite complex educational laws/policies, no legal mandate that ensures inclusive education exists. The legislative structure for education is outlined from a constitutional perspective; duties, rights, and responsibilities of teachers, specifically concerning inclusion of children with disabilities in the regular…

  15. The American Constitutional Order after Two Centuries: Concluding Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Ellis

    1987-01-01

    Explores the founding of the United States in terms of its theoretical and political perspectives. Identifies and discusses leading characteristics of thought that focus on the framing and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Examines the meaning of "liberty under law." (LS)

  16. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  17. Science, Technology, and the Constitution: A Never Ending Tension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Gerald W.

    The uses of modern technology present a challenge to constitutional rights. Computer technology is viewed as a serious threat to privacy, electronic bugging devices are available to everyone, and the United States government is the largest user of electronic surveillance. The fact that databases are pervasive is evidenced by the realization that…

  18. League Constitution and Bylaws for Girls' Interscholastic Programs (Suggested Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mary Ann

    This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…

  19. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  20. Religion, Education and the U.S. Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittins, Naomi E., Ed.

    Articles written primarily by practicing school attorneys who represent public school clients are compiled in this publication. Information about how the establishment and free exercise clauses of the First and the Fourteenth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution affect curriculum, student programs and activities, teacher employment, and school…