Science.gov

Sample records for constitutive heterotrimer selectively

  1. Constitution, 1989. [Selected provisions].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Chapter XII of the Hungarian Constitution, 1989, details the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens. Everyone lawfully within the territory of Hungary has the right to liberty of movement and the freedom to choose his or her residence, except when restricted by law, including the right to leave his or her residence or county. The Republic of Hungary grants asylum to foreign citizens who were persecuted for racial, religious ethnic, linguistic, or political reasons. Men and women shall equally enjoy all civil, political, economic, social and political rights. Mothers are entitled to special care and protection before and after childbirth; women and juveniles are protected at work by special regulations. Every child has the right to special care an assistance from his or her family, the State, and society, for appropriate physical, spiritual, and moral development. Parents shall decide the kind of education their children receive. Hungary grants equal rights to all person within its territories, without regard to race, color, sex, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national, and social origin, property, birth and other status. Prejudicial discrimination shall be severely punished. Everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of employment and profession and to equal pay for equal work. Citizens have the right to social security, including social services necessary in old age, sickness, disability, widowhood, orphanhood an unemployment through no fault of their own. Hungary guarantees the right to culture for its citizens and realized this right by free and compulsory elementary education, by secondary and higher education which is accessible to all on the basis of capacity, and by the financial support of those receiving an education.

  2. Structural and mechanical differences between collagen homo- and heterotrimers: relevance for the molecular origin of brittle bone disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-02-01

    Collagen constitutes one-third of the human proteome, providing mechanical stability, elasticity, and strength to organisms. Normal type I collagen is a heterotrimer triple-helical molecule consisting of two α-1 chains and one α-2 chain. The homotrimeric isoform of type I collagen, which consists of three α-1 chains, is only found in fetal tissues, fibrosis, and cancer in humans. A mouse model of the genetic brittle bone disease, osteogenesis imperfect, oim, is characterized by a replacement of the α-2 chain by an α-1 chain, resulting also in a homotrimer collagen molecule. Experimental studies of oim mice tendon and bone have shown reduced mechanical strength compared to normal mice. The relationship between the molecular content and the decrease in strength is, however, still unknown. Here, fully atomistic simulations of a section of mouse type I heterotrimer and homotrimer collagen molecules are developed to explore the effect of the substitution of the α-2 chain. We calculate the persistence length and carry out a detailed analysis of the structure to determine differences in structural and mechanical behavior between hetero- and homotrimers. The results show that homotrimer persistence length is half of that of the heterotrimer (96 Å vs. 215 Å), indicating it is more flexible and confirmed by direct mechanical testing. Our structural analyses reveal that in contrast to the heterotrimer, the homotrimer easily forms kinks and freely rotates with angles much larger than heterotrimer. These local kinks may explain the larger lateral distance between collagen molecules seen in the fibrils of oim mice tendon and could have implications for reducing the intermolecular cross-linking, which is known to reduce the mechanical strength. PMID:22325288

  3. Three proliferating cell nuclear antigen homologues from Metallosphaera sedula form a head-to-tail heterotrimer

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Fumiya; Hirakawa, Hidehiko; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a sliding clamp that plays a key role in DNA metabolism. Genome sequence analysis has revealed that some crenarchaea possess three PCNA genes in their genome, but it has been reported that three PCNAs do not always form a unique heterotrimer composed of one of each molecule. The thermoacidophilic archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula, has three PCNA homologue genes. Here, we demonstrated that the three PCNA homologues, MsePCNA1, MsePCNA2 and MsePCNA3, exclusively form a heterotrimer in a stepwise fashion; MsePCNA1 and MsePCNA2 form a heterodimer, and then MsePCNA3 binds to the heterodimer. We determined that the dissociation constants between MsePCNA1 and MsePCNA2, and between MsePCNA3 and the MsePCNA1:MsePCNA2 heterodimer are 0.29 and 43 nM, respectively. Moreover, the MsePCNA1, MsePCNA2 and MsePCNA3 heterotrimer stimulated M. sedula DNA ligase 1 activity, suggesting that the heterotrimer works as a DNA sliding clamp in the organism. The stable and stepwise heterotrimerization of M. sedula PCNA homologues would be useful to generate functional protein-based materials such as artificial multi-enzyme complexes, functional hydrogels and protein fibres, which have recently been achieved by protein self-assembly. PMID:27228945

  4. Localised and delocalised excitons in star-like squaraine homo- and heterotrimers.

    PubMed

    Ceymann, Harald; Balkenhohl, Moritz; Schmiedel, Alexander; Holzapfel, Marco; Lambert, Christoph

    2016-01-28

    Exciton coupling of localised chromophore states within covalently bound superchromophores is a viable strategy to modify optical properties such as spectral broadening and red-shifting of absorption bands. These are desirable properties for e.g. organic photovoltaic applications. Attaching three squaraine dyes to a central nitrogen core in a star-shaped manner leads to the formation of superchromophores that may form localised and delocalised excitons upon photoexcitation. In this work we investigated two homotrimers, two heterotrimers and a heterodimer formed by the combination of two different squaraines SQA and SQB. Due to exciton coupling the two homotrimers display a red shift of the main absorption band by about 1000 cm(-1) compared to their monomeric reference compounds. On the other hand, the heterotrimers show a broadening of the absorption spectra with three peak maxima at the exciton manifold band. In fluorescence experiments the homotrimers display signals similar to the emission of the monomeric compounds but red shifted. However, the heterotrimers and the heterodimer show, beside emission from the delocalised lowest energy state, an additional signal that overlaps strongly with the absorption. Excitation and time-dependent emission spectra of the hetero compounds indicate that this emission stems from a localised higher energy state. This interpretation is corroborated by transient absorption measurements with fs-time resolution. PMID:26699932

  5. Crystal Structure of the Heterotrimer Core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK Homologue SNF1

    SciTech Connect

    Amodeo,G.; Rudolph, M.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis in mammals and is an attractive target for drug discovery against diabetes, obesity and other diseases. The AMPK homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as SNF1, is essential for responses to glucose starvation as well as for other cellular processes, although SNF1 seems to be activated by a ligand other than AMP. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.6 resolution of the heterotrimer core of SNF1. The ligand-binding site in the {gamma}-subunit (Snf4) has clear structural differences from that of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe enzyme, although our crystallographic data indicate that AMP can also bind to Snf4. The glycogen-binding domain in the {beta}-subunit (Sip2) interacts with Snf4 in the heterotrimer but should still be able to bind carbohydrates. Our structure is supported by a large body of biochemical and genetic data on this complex. Most significantly, the structure reveals that part of the regulatory sequence in the {alpha}-subunit (Snf1) is sequestered by Snf4, demonstrating a direct interaction between the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits and indicating that our structure may represent the heterotrimer core of SNF1 in its activated state.

  6. De Novo Self-Assembling Collagen Heterotrimers using Explicit Positive and Negative Design

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Zhang, Lei; Koder, Ronald L.; Nanda, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    We sought to computationally design model collagen peptides that specifically associate as heterotrimers. Computational design has been successfully applied to the creation of new protein folds and functions. Despite the high abundance of collagen and its key role in numerous biological processes, fibrous proteins have received little attention as computational design targets. Collagens are composed of three polypeptide chains that wind into triple-helices. We developed a discrete computational model to design heterotrimer forming collagen-like peptides. Stability and specificity of oligomerization were concurrently targeted using a combined positive and negative design approach. The sequences of three 30-residue peptides, A, B and C were optimized to favor charge-pair interactions in an ABC heterotrimer, while disfavoring the twenty-six competing oligomers (i.e. AAA, ABB, BCA, etc.). Peptides were synthesized and characterized for thermal stability and triple-helical structure by circular dichroism and NMR. A unique A:B:C-type species was not achieved. Negative design was partially successful, with only A+B and B+C competing mixtures formed. Analysis of computed versus experimental stabilities helps clarify the role of electrostatics and secondary-structure propensities determining collagen stability, and provide important insight into how subsequent designs can be improved. PMID:20170197

  7. TRAF3 forms heterotrimers with TRAF2 and modulates its ability to mediate NF-{kappa}B activation.

    PubMed

    He, Liusheng; Grammer, Amrie C; Wu, Xiaoli; Lipsky, Peter E

    2004-12-31

    FRET experiments utilizing confocal microscopy or flow cytometry assessed homo- and heterotrimeric association of human tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAF) in living cells. Following transfection of HeLa cells with plasmids expressing CFP- or YFP-TRAF fusion proteins, constitutive homotypic association of TRAF2, -3, and -5 was observed, as well as heterotypic association of TRAF1-TRAF2 and TRAF3-TRAF5. A novel heterotypic association between TRAF2 and -3 was detected and confirmed by immunoprecipitation in Ramos B cells that constitutively express both TRAF2 and -3. Experiments employing deletion mutants of TRAF2 and TRAF3 revealed that this heterotypic interaction minimally involved the TRAF-C domain of TRAF3 as well as the TRAF-N domain and zinc fingers 4 and 5 of TRAF2. A novel flow cytometric FRET analysis utilizing a two-step approach to achieve linked FRET from CFP to YFP to HcRed established that TRAF2 and -3 constitutively form homo- and heterotrimers. The functional importance of TRAF2-TRAF3 heterotrimerization was demonstrated by the finding that TRAF3 inhibited spontaneous NF-kappaB, but not AP-1, activation induced by TRAF2. Ligation of CD40 on Ramos B cells by recombinant CD154 caused TRAF2 and TRAF3 to dissociate, whereas overexpression of TRAF3 in Ramos B cells inhibited CD154-induced TRAF2-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. Together, these results reveal a novel association between TRAF2 and TRAF3 that is mediated by unique portions of each protein and that specifically regulates activation of NF-kappaB, but not AP-1.

  8. Student Rights under the Constitution: Selected Federal Decisions Affecting the Public School Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, J. Devereux

    Public school principals and teachers have a compelling need to understand student rights when teaching constitutional principles that apply to students. This book seeks to help both students and educators understand those rights. The work concerns itself with the fundamental federal constitutional rights of public school students. A study of the…

  9. Synthetic collagen heterotrimers: structural mimics of wild-type and mutant collagen type I.

    PubMed

    Gauba, Varun; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2008-06-11

    Collagen type I is an AAB heterotrimer assembled from two alpha1 chains and one alpha2 chain. Missense mutations in either of these chains that substitute a glycine residue in the ubiquitous X-Y-Gly repeat with a bulky amino acid leads to osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) of varying severity. These mutations have been studied in the past using collagen-like peptide homotrimers as a model system. However, homotrimers, which by definition will contain glycine mutations in all the three chains, do not accurately mimic the mutations in their native form and result in an exaggerated effect on stability and folding. In this article, we report the design of a novel model system based upon collagen-like heterotrimers that can mimic the glycine mutations present in either the alpha1 or alpha2 chains of type I collagen. This design utilizes an electrostatic recognition motif in three chains that can force the interaction of any three peptides, including AAA (all same), AAB (two same and one different), or ABC (all different) triple helices. Therefore, the component peptides can be designed in such a way that glycine mutations are present in zero, one, two, or all three chains of the triple helix. With this design, we for the first time report collagen mutants containing one or two glycine substitutions with structures relevant to native forms of OI. Furthermore, we demonstrate the difference in thermal stability and refolding half-life times between triple helices that vary only in the frequency of glycine mutations at a particular position. PMID:18481852

  10. State legislation on abortion after Roe v. Wade: selected constitutional issues.

    PubMed

    Bryant, M D

    1976-01-01

    Over the past three years, a great volume of legislation on abortion has been produced by state legislatures in an attempt to fill the vacuum created by the United States Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade. This Article examines several of the most common types of statutory provisions and assesses their constitutionality in light of Roe v. Wade and other applicable federal and state legal standards.

  11. Selective lignin downregulation leads to constitutive defense response expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    • Downregulation of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) reduces lignin levels and improves forage quality and saccharification efficiency for bioethanol production. However, the plants have reduced stature. It was previously reported that HCT-down-regulated Arabidopsis have impaired auxin transport, but this has recently been disproved. • To address the basis for the phenotypes of lignin-modified alfalfa, we measured auxin transport, profiled a range of metabolites including flavonoids and hormones, and performed in depth transcriptome analyses. • Auxin transport is unaffected in HCT antisense alfalfa despite increased flavonoid biosynthesis. The plants show increased cytokinin and reduced auxin levels, and gibberellin levels and sensitivity are both reduced. Levels of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids are elevated, associated with massive upregulation of pathogenesis and abiotic stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to fungal infection and drought. • We suggest that HCT downregulated alfalfa plants exhibit constitutive activation of defense responses, triggered by release of bioactive cell wall fragments and production of hydrogen peroxide as a result of impaired secondary cell wall integrity.

  12. Constitutional Law: Equal Protection--Sex Discrimination--Selective Service Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhl, Mary B.

    1976-01-01

    Examination of U.S. v. Reiser suggests that sex-based classifications should be subjected to close scrutiny regardless of whether men or women are harmed by the classification. The Reiser decision showed that discrimination in the Selective Service system is not necessary and that women are excluded merely for administrative convenience. (LBH)

  13. The Turks and Caicos Islands Constitution Order 1988, 17 February 1988. [Selected provisions].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The Turks and Caicos Islands Constitution Order 1988, Part VIII, Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the Individual, states that every person in the Islands is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, regardless of race, place of origin, political opinions, color, creed, or sex, subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest. Those rights include: life, liberty, security of the person, and protection of the law; freedom of conscience, of expression, of assembly, and association and protection for the privacy of the home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation. No person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of freedom of movement throughout the Islands, including residing in any part, entering the Island, and immunity from expulsion. Limiting movement or residence within the Islands or limiting leaving the Islands, when reasonably required, shall be permitted: in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public mortality, or public health; for protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons, unless shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society; for extradition for trail or punishment in another country for a criminal offence; public officers may have movement or residence limited when reasonable required for the purpose of ensuring the proper performance of their function; when a person does not belong to the Islands; for the imposition of restrictions on the acquisition or use by any person of land or other property in the Islands; for the imposition of restrictions, by court order in consequence of being found guilty of a criminal offence, or for purposes of ensuring a fair trial, or the persons later appearance in court; and for the imposition of restrictions reasonably required to secure the fulfillment of court-imposed obligations.

  14. Selective phthalate activation of naturally occurring human constitutive androstane receptor splice variants and the pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    DeKeyser, Joshua G; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Peterson, Eric C; Chen, Tao; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2011-04-01

    Phthalates and other endocrine-disruptive chemicals are manufactured in large quantities for use as plasticizers and other commercial applications, resulting in ubiquitous human exposure and thus, concern regarding their toxicity. Innate defense against small molecule exposures is controlled in large part by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The human CAR gene undergoes multiple alternative splicing events resulting in the CAR2 and CAR3 variant receptors. Recent studies from our laboratory show that CAR2 is potently and specifically activated by di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). We hypothesized that alternative splicing is a mechanism for increasing CAR's functional diversity, broadening the human receptors' repertoire of response to environmental xenobiotics. In these studies, we examine the interaction of alternatively spliced CARs and PXR with a range of suspected endocrine disruptors, including phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-N-nonylphenol (NP). Transactivation and two-hybrid studies in COS-1 cells revealed differential selectivity of endocrine-disrupting chemicals for the variant CAR and PXR. Ex vivo studies showed DEHP and di-isononyl phthalate potently induced CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. Mutation analysis of CAR2, in silico modeling, and ligand docking studies suggested that the SPTV amino acid insertion of CAR2 creates a unique ligand-binding pocket. Alternative gene splicing results in variant CAR receptors that selectively recognize phthalates and BPA. The interaction of phthalates with CAR and PXR suggests a xenobiotic response that is complex and biologically redundant.

  15. Human-mouse interspecies collagen I heterotrimer is functional during embryonic development of Mov13 mutant mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Bateman, J F; Schnieke, A; Sharpe, A; Barker, D; Mascara, T; Eyre, D; Bruns, R; Krimpenfort, P; Berns, A

    1990-04-01

    To investigate whether the human pro alpha 1(I) collagen chain could form an in vivo functional interspecies heterotrimer with the mouse pro alpha 2(I) collagen chain, we introduced the human COL1A1 gene into Mov13 mice which have a functional deletion of the endogenous COL1A1 gene. Transgenic mouse strains (HucI and HucII) carrying the human COL1A1 gene were first generated by microinjecting the COL1A1 gene into wild-type mouse embryos. Genetic evidence indicated that the transgene in the HucI strain was closely linked to the endogenous mouse COL1A1 gene and was X linked in the HucII transgenic strain. Northern (RNA) blot and S1 protection analyses showed that the transgene was expressed in the appropriate tissue-specific manner and as efficiently as the endogenous COL1A1 gene. HucII mice were crossed with Mov13 mice to transfer the human transgene into the mutant strain. Whereas homozygous Mov13 embryos die between days 13 and 14 of gestation, the presence of the transgene permitted apparently normal development of the mutant embryos to birth. This indicated that the mouse-human interspecies collagen I heterotrimer was functional in the animal. The rescue was, however, only partial, as all homozygotes died within 36 h after delivery, with signs of internal bleeding. This could have been due to a functional defect in the interspecies hybrid collagen. Extensive analysis failed to reveal any biochemical or morphological abnormalities of the collagen I molecules in Mov13-HucII embryos. This may indicate that there was a subtle functional defect of the interspecies hybrid protein which was not revealed by our analysis or that another gene has been mutated by the retroviral insertion in the Mov13 mutant strain.

  16. Human-mouse interspecies collagen I heterotrimer is functional during embryonic development of Mov13 mutant mouse embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H; Bateman, J F; Schnieke, A; Sharpe, A; Barker, D; Mascara, T; Eyre, D; Bruns, R; Krimpenfort, P; Berns, A

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether the human pro alpha 1(I) collagen chain could form an in vivo functional interspecies heterotrimer with the mouse pro alpha 2(I) collagen chain, we introduced the human COL1A1 gene into Mov13 mice which have a functional deletion of the endogenous COL1A1 gene. Transgenic mouse strains (HucI and HucII) carrying the human COL1A1 gene were first generated by microinjecting the COL1A1 gene into wild-type mouse embryos. Genetic evidence indicated that the transgene in the HucI strain was closely linked to the endogenous mouse COL1A1 gene and was X linked in the HucII transgenic strain. Northern (RNA) blot and S1 protection analyses showed that the transgene was expressed in the appropriate tissue-specific manner and as efficiently as the endogenous COL1A1 gene. HucII mice were crossed with Mov13 mice to transfer the human transgene into the mutant strain. Whereas homozygous Mov13 embryos die between days 13 and 14 of gestation, the presence of the transgene permitted apparently normal development of the mutant embryos to birth. This indicated that the mouse-human interspecies collagen I heterotrimer was functional in the animal. The rescue was, however, only partial, as all homozygotes died within 36 h after delivery, with signs of internal bleeding. This could have been due to a functional defect in the interspecies hybrid collagen. Extensive analysis failed to reveal any biochemical or morphological abnormalities of the collagen I molecules in Mov13-HucII embryos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1690840

  17. The structural basis of the dominant negative phenotype of the Gαi1β1γ2 G203A/A326S heterotrimer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Jia, Ming-zhu; Zhou, X Edward; De Waal, Parker W; Dickson, Bradley M; Liu, Bo; Hou, Li; Yin, Yan-ting; Kang, Yan-yong; Shi, Yi; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric; Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Dominant negative mutant G proteins have provided critical insight into the mechanisms of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, but the mechanisms underlying the dominant negative characteristics are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the structure of the dominant negative Gαi1β1γ2 G203A/A326S complex (Gi-DN) and to reveal the structural basis of the mutation-induced phenotype of Gαi1β1γ2. Methods: The three subunits of the Gi-DN complex were co-expressed with a baculovirus expression system. The Gi-DN heterotrimer was purified, and the structure of its complex with GDP was determined through X-ray crystallography. Results: The Gi-DN heterotrimer structure revealed a dual mechanism underlying the dominant negative characteristics. The mutations weakened the hydrogen bonding network between GDP/GTP and the binding pocket residues, and increased the interactions in the Gα-Gβγ interface. Concomitantly, the Gi-DN heterotrimer adopted a conformation, in which the C-terminus of Gαi and the N-termini of both the Gβ and Gγ subunits were more similar to the GPCR-bound state compared with the wild type complex. From these structural observations, two additional mutations (T48F and D272F) were designed that completely abolish the GDP binding of the Gi-DN heterotrimer. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that the mutations impede guanine nucleotide binding and Gα-Gβγ protein dissociation and favor the formation of the G protein/GPCR complex, thus blocking signal propagation. In addition, the structure provides a rationale for the design of other mutations that cause dominant negative effects in the G protein, as exemplified by the T48F and D272F mutations. PMID:27498775

  18. Distribution and isolation of four laminin variants; tissue restricted distribution of heterotrimers assembled from five different subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Engvall, E; Earwicker, D; Haaparanta, T; Ruoslahti, E; Sanes, J R

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of subunits of the basement membrane proteins laminin and merosin in human and rabbit tissue was studied by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies. The laminin A chain is present in epithelial, endothelial, and smooth muscle basement membranes. Merosin, as defined by its heavy chain M, is present in striated muscle and peripheral nerve. The A subunit colocalizes with at least two B subunits: B2 plus either B1 or the recently discovered B1 homologue S. The M subunit most often colocalizes with B1 and B2. Exceptions include the myotendinous junction, where M colocalizes with S, and the trophoblast basement membrane, where the M subunit colocalizes with S as well as B1. The presence of all five known subunits of the laminin family in placenta allowed isolation of their parent molecules in native form by the use of monoclonal antibodies in affinity chromatography. Four different heterotrimeric proteins could be identified: B1 chain-containing laminin (A-B1-B2), S chain-containing laminin (A-S-B2), B1-containing merosin (M-B1-B2), and S-containing merosin (M-S-B2). The data show that the proteins in the laminin family are heterotrimers composed of one heavy and two light chains; that most basement membranes contain predominantly one protein of the laminin family; and that laminin, as defined by the A subunit, has a much more restricted distribution than previously thought. Images PMID:2099832

  19. NADP+ binding to the regulatory subunit of methionine adenosyltransferase II increases intersubunit binding affinity in the hetero-trimer.

    PubMed

    González, Beatriz; Garrido, Francisco; Ortega, Rebeca; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Pérez-Pertejo, Yolanda; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Pajares, María A

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian methionine adenosyltransferase II (MAT II) is the only hetero-oligomer in this family of enzymes that synthesize S-adenosylmethionine using methionine and ATP as substrates. Binding of regulatory β subunits and catalytic α2 dimers is known to increase the affinity for methionine, although scarce additional information about this interaction is available. This work reports the use of recombinant α2 and β subunits to produce oligomers showing kinetic parameters comparable to MAT II purified from several tissues. According to isothermal titration calorimetry data and densitometric scanning of the stained hetero-oligomer bands on denatured gels, the composition of these oligomers is that of a hetero-trimer with α2 dimers associated to single β subunits. Additionally, the regulatory subunit is able to bind NADP(+) with a 1:1 stoichiometry, the cofactor enhancing β to α2-dimer binding affinity. Mutants lacking residues involved in NADP(+) binding and N-terminal truncations of the β subunit were able to oligomerize with α2-dimers, although the kinetic properties appeared altered. These data together suggest a role for both parts of the sequence in the regulatory role exerted by the β subunit on catalysis. Moreover, preparation of a structural model for the hetero-oligomer, using the available crystal data, allowed prediction of the regions involved in β to α2-dimer interaction. Finally, the implications that the presence of different N-terminals in the β subunit could have on MAT II behavior are discussed in light of the recent identification of several splicing forms of this subunit in hepatoma cells.

  20. NADP+ Binding to the Regulatory Subunit of Methionine Adenosyltransferase II Increases Intersubunit Binding Affinity in the Hetero-Trimer

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Rebeca; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Pérez-Pertejo, Yolanda; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Pajares, María A.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian methionine adenosyltransferase II (MAT II) is the only hetero-oligomer in this family of enzymes that synthesize S-adenosylmethionine using methionine and ATP as substrates. Binding of regulatory β subunits and catalytic α2 dimers is known to increase the affinity for methionine, although scarce additional information about this interaction is available. This work reports the use of recombinant α2 and β subunits to produce oligomers showing kinetic parameters comparable to MAT II purified from several tissues. According to isothermal titration calorimetry data and densitometric scanning of the stained hetero-oligomer bands on denatured gels, the composition of these oligomers is that of a hetero-trimer with α2 dimers associated to single β subunits. Additionally, the regulatory subunit is able to bind NADP+ with a 1∶1 stoichiometry, the cofactor enhancing β to α2-dimer binding affinity. Mutants lacking residues involved in NADP+ binding and N-terminal truncations of the β subunit were able to oligomerize with α2-dimers, although the kinetic properties appeared altered. These data together suggest a role for both parts of the sequence in the regulatory role exerted by the β subunit on catalysis. Moreover, preparation of a structural model for the hetero-oligomer, using the available crystal data, allowed prediction of the regions involved in β to α2-dimer interaction. Finally, the implications that the presence of different N-terminals in the β subunit could have on MAT II behavior are discussed in light of the recent identification of several splicing forms of this subunit in hepatoma cells. PMID:23189196

  1. Molecular Basis of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Coupling to the G Protein Heterotrimer Gαiβγ

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Joong-Youn; Ahn, Kwang H.; Kendall, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    The cannabinoid (CB1) receptor is a member of the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The human CB1 receptor, which is among the most expressed receptors in the brain, has been implicated in several disease states, including drug addiction, anxiety, depression, obesity, and chronic pain. Different classes of CB1 agonists evoke signaling pathways through the activation of specific subtypes of G proteins. The molecular basis of CB1 receptor coupling to its cognate G protein is unknown. As a first step toward understanding CB1 receptor-mediated G protein signaling, we have constructed a ternary complex structural model of the CB1 receptor and Gi heterotrimer (CB1-Gi), guided by the x-ray structure of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) in complex with Gs (β2AR-Gs), through 824-ns duration molecular dynamics simulations in a fully hydrated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer environment. We identified a group of residues at the juxtamembrane regions of the intracellular loops 2 and 3 (IC2 and IC3) of the CB1 receptor, including Ile-2183.54, Tyr-224IC2, Asp-3386.30, Arg-3406.32, Leu-3416.33, and Thr-3446.36, as potential key contacts with the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi. Ala mutations of these residues at the receptor-Gi interface resulted in little G protein coupling activity, consistent with the present model of the CB1-Gi complex, which suggests tight interactions between CB1 and the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi. The model also suggests that unique conformational changes in the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gα play a crucial role in the receptor-mediated G protein activation. PMID:24092756

  2. Selection for low or high primary dormancy in Lolium rigidum Gaud seeds results in constitutive differences in stress protein expression and peroxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Powles, Stephen B.; Steadman, Kathryn J.

    2011-01-01

    Seed dormancy in wild Lolium rigidum Gaud (annual ryegrass) populations is highly variable and not well characterized at the biochemical level. To identify some of the determinants of dormancy level in these seeds, the proteomes of subpopulations selected for low and high levels of primary dormancy were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts from mature, dry seeds. High-dormancy seeds showed higher expression of small heat shock proteins, enolase, and glyoxalase I than the low-dormancy seeds. The functional relevance of these differences in protein expression was confirmed by the fact that high-dormancy seeds were more tolerant to high temperatures imposed at imbibition and had consistently higher glyoxalase I activity over 0–42 d dark stratification. Higher expression of a putative glutathione peroxidase in low-dormancy seeds was not accompanied by higher activity, but these seeds had a slightly more oxidized glutathione pool and higher total peroxidase activity. Overall, these biochemical and physiological differences suggest that L. rigidum seeds selected for low dormancy are more prepared for rapid germination via peroxidase-mediated cell wall weakening, whilst seeds selected for high dormancy are constitutively prepared to survive environmental stresses, even in the absence of stress during seed development. PMID:20974739

  3. Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages. PMID:25044501

  4. DP97, a DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase, is a target gene-selective co-regulator of the constitutive androstane receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Serikawa, Takafumi; Inajima, Jun; Inouye, Yoshio

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 interacts with nuclear receptor CAR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 enhances CAR-mediated transcriptional activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR. -- Abstract: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that DP97, a member of the DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase protein family, is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Using HepG2 cells expressing human CAR in the presence of tetracycline, we showed that knockdown of DP97 with small interfering RNAs suppressed tetracycline-inducible mRNA expression of CYP2B6 and UGT1A1 but not CYP3A4. Thus, DP97 was found to be a gene (or promoter)-selective co-activator for hCAR. DP97-mediated CAR transactivation was synergistically enhanced by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1{alpha}, therefore it might act as mediator between hCAR and appropriate co-activators.

  5. Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages.

  6. Instabilities and constitutive modelling.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen J

    2006-12-15

    The plastics industry today sees huge wastage through product defects caused by unstable flows during the manufacturing process. In addition, many production lines are throughput-limited by a flow speed threshold above which the process becomes unstable. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the mechanisms behind these instabilities. In order to investigate the flow of a molten plastic, the first step is a model of the liquid itself, a relation between its current stress and its flow history called a constitutive relation. These are derived in many ways and tested on several benchmark flows, but rarely is the stability of the model used as a criterion for selection. The relationship between the constitutive model and the stability properties of even simple flows is not yet well understood. We show that in one case a small change to the model, which does not affect the steady flow behaviour, entirely removes a known instability. In another, a change that makes a qualitative difference to the steady flow makes only tiny changes to the stability.The long-term vision of this research is to exactly quantify what are the important properties of a constitutive relation as far as stability is concerned. If we could understand that, not only could very simple stability experiments be used to choose the best constitutive models for a particular material, but our ability to predict and avoid wasteful industrial instabilities would also be vastly improved.

  7. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions

    PubMed Central

    Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006

  8. Selective expression of constitutively active pro-apoptotic protein BikDD gene in primary mammary tumors inhibits tumor growth and reduces tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Rahal, Omar M; Nie, Lei; Chan, Li-Chuan; Li, Chia-Wei; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Jennifer; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that specifically delivering BikDD, a constitutive active mutant of pro-apoptotic protein Bik, to breast cancer cell xenografts in immunocompromised mice has a potent activity against tumor initiating cells (TICs), and that the combination between tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and BikDD gene therapy yielded synergistic effect on EGFR and HER2 positive breast cancer cells in immunodeficient nude mice. Those encouraging results have allowed us to propose a clinical trial using the liposome-complexing plasmid DNA expressing BikDD gene which has been approved by the NIH RAC Advisory committee. However, it is imperative to test whether systemic delivery of BikDD-expressing plasmid DNAs with liposomes into immunocompetent mice has therapeutic efficacy and tolerable side effects as what we observed in the nude mice model. In this study, we investigated the effects of BikDD gene-therapy on the primary mammary tumors, especially on tumor initiating cells (TICs), of a genetically engineered immunocompetent mouse harboring normal microenvironment and immune response. The effects on TIC population in tumors were determined by FACS analysis with different sets of murine specific TIC markers, CD49f(high)CD61(high) and CD24(+)Jagged1(-). First we showed in vitro that ectopic expression of BikDD in murine N202 cells derived from MMTV-HER2/Neu transgenic mouse tumors induced apoptosis and decreased the number of TICs. Consistently, systemic delivery of VISA-Claudin4-BikDD by liposome complexes significantly inhibited mammary tumor growth and slowed down residual tumor growth post cessation of therapy in MMTV-HER2/Neu transgenic mice compared to the controls. In addition, the anti-tumor effects of BikDD in vivo were consistent with decreased TIC population assessed by FACS analysis and in vitro tumorsphere formation assay of freshly isolated tumor cells. Importantly, systemic administration of BikDD did not cause significant cytotoxic response in

  9. Multi-Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Collagen Mimetic Peptides into AAB Type Heterotrimers, Nanofibers and Hydrogels Driven by Charged Pair Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Lesley Russell

    2011-12-01

    Replicating the multi-hierarchical self-assembly of collagen (peptide chain to triple helix to nanofiber and, finally, to a hydrogel) has long attracted scientists, both from the fundamental science perspective of supramolecular chemistry and for the potential biomedical applications perceived in tissue engineering. In terms of triple helical formation, collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body with at least 28 types, yet research involving collagen mimetic systems has only recently began to consider the innate ability of collagen to control helix composition and register. Collagen triple helices can be homotrimeric or heterotrimeric and while some types of natural collagen form only one specific composition of helix, others can form multiple. It is critical to fully understand and, if possible, reproduce the control that native collagen has on helix composition and register. In terms of nanofiber formation, many approaches to drive the self-assembly of synthetic systems through the same steps as natural collagen have been partially successful, but none have simultaneously demonstrated all levels of structural assembly. In this work, advancements in the ability to control helix composition and replicate the multi-hierarchical assembly of collagen are described. Both positive and negative design for the assembly of AAB type collagen heterotrimers were utilized by promoting heterotrimer formation though the use of charged amino acids to form intra-helix electrostatic interactions, while simultaneously discouraging homotrimers, resulting in the identification of multiple peptide systems with full control over the composition of the resulting triple helix. Similar salt-bridged hydrogen bonds between charged residues were incorporated into nanofiber forming peptides, one of which successfully assembled into sticky-ended triple helices, nanofibers with characteristic triple helical packing visible in the solution state, and strong hydrogels that are

  10. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  11. Identification and characterization of CTRP9, a novel secreted glycoprotein, from adipose tissue that reduces serum glucose in mice and forms heterotrimers with adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Wong, G William; Krawczyk, Sarah A; Kitidis-Mitrokostas, Claire; Ge, Guangtao; Spooner, Eric; Hug, Christopher; Gimeno, Ruth; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin is a major insulin-sensitizing, multimeric hormone derived from adipose tissue that acts on muscle and liver to regulate whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we describe a novel and highly conserved paralog of adiponectin designated as C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) 9. Of all the CTRP paralogs, CTRP9 shows the highest degree of amino acid identity to adiponectin in its globular C1q domain. CTRP9 is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue and females expresses higher levels of the transcript than males. Moreover, its expression levels in ob/ob mice changed in an age-dependent manner, with significant up-regulation in younger mice. CTRP9 is a secreted glycoprotein with multiple post-translational modifications in its collagen domain that include hydroxylated prolines and hydroxylated and glycosylated lysines. It is secreted as multimers (predominantly trimers) from transfected cells and circulates in the mouse serum with levels varying according to sex and metabolic state of mice. Furthermore, CTRP9 and adiponectin can be secreted as heterooligomers when cotransfected into mammalian cells, and in vivo, adiponectin/CTRP9 complexes can be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated from the serum of adiponectin and CTRP9 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that adiponectin and CTRP9 associate via their globular C1q domain, and this interaction does not require their conserved N-terminal cysteines or their collagen domains. Furthermore, we show that adiponectin and CTRP9 form heterotrimers. In cultured myotubes, CTRP9 specifically activates AMPK, Akt, and p44/42 MAPK signaling pathways. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of CTRP9 in obese (ob/ob) mice significantly lowered serum glucose levels. Collectively, these results suggest that CTRP9 is a novel adipokine, and further study of CTRP9 will yield novel mechanistic insights into its physiological and metabolic function.

  12. Purification and characterization of a salt-activated and organic solvent-stable heterotrimer proteinase from Virgibacillus sp. SK33 isolated from Thai fish sauce.

    PubMed

    Sinsuwan, Sornchai; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2010-01-13

    A NaCl-activated proteinase produced by Virgibacillus sp. SK33 was purified to homogeneity using phenyl-Sepharose and Sephadex G-75 with a yield of 12% and purification of 2.6-fold. A single protein was detected at approximately 32 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, three subunits with molecular weights of 27,858, 33,918, and 35,368 Da were obtained from MALDI-TOF mass spectra, implying that the enzyme was a heterotrimer. The isoelectric point of the proteinase was 5.4. Optimum catalytic activity was at 55 degrees C and pH 7.5. The enzyme showed serine characteristics as it was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. The purified proteinase showed broad specificity toward oxidized insulin B including Gln4, Cys7, Glu13, Ala14, Leu15,17, Tyr16,26, Arg22, Phe24,25, and Lys29. Dominant cleavage sites of the enzyme were Tyr16-Leu17 and Phe25-Tyr26, indicating that it preferably hydrolyzed aromatic amino acids located on the P1 site. Among various substrates studied, the enzyme hydrolyzed anchovy protein to the greatest extent at 4 M NaCl. Activity increased with either CaCl2 or NaCl concentration with the maximum 2-fold increase at either 50 mM CaCl2 or 4 M NaCl. The enzyme was also highly stable up to 500 mM CaCl2 or 4 M NaCl. The proteinase showed high stability in various organic solvents (25%, v/v) including dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, acetonitrile, and ethanol. Results of peptide mass fingerprint and de novo peptide sequencing showed that the purified proteinase is a novel proteinase. The proteinase from Virgibacillus sp. SK33 could have a potential application in high ionic strength environments and aqueous-organic solvent systems. PMID:19938835

  13. The Constitution by Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

  14. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  15. Teaching the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherman, Donald V.

    1987-01-01

    Courses on the Constitution must focus on the principles of government. Those principles and how the understanding of those principles shaped the document are appropriate subjects for consideration. The best sources for an examination of the Constitution are "The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787" and "The Federalist." (MLW)

  16. Mapping structural landmarks, ligand binding sites and missense mutations to the collagen IV heterotrimers predicts major functional domains, novel interactions and variation in phenotypes in inherited diseases affecting basement membranes

    PubMed Central

    Des Parkin, J.; San Antonio, James D.; Pedchenko, Vadim; Hudson, Billy; Jensen, Shane T.; Savige, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Collagen IV is the major protein found in basement membranes. It comprises 3 heterotrimers (α1α1α2, α3α4α5, and α5α5α6) that form distinct networks, and are responsible for membrane strength and integrity. We constructed linear maps of the collagen IV heterotrimers (‘interactomes’) that indicated major structural landmarks, known and predicted ligand-binding sites, and missense mutations, in order to identify functional and disease-associated domains, potential interactions between ligands, and genotype-phenotype relationships. The maps documented more than 30 known ligand-binding sites as well as motifs for integrins, heparin, von Willebrand factor (VWF), decorin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). They predicted functional domains for angiogenesis and haemostasis, and disease domains for autoimmunity, tumor growth and inhibition, infection and glycation. Cooperative ligand interactions were indicated by binding site proximity, for example, between integrins, matrix metalloproteinases and heparin. The maps indicated that mutations affecting major ligand-binding sites, for example for Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein in the α1 chain or integrins in the α5 chain, resulted in distinctive phenotypes (Hereditary Angiopathy, Nephropathy, Aneurysms and muscle Cramps (HANAC) syndrome, and early onset Alport syndrome respectively). These maps further our understanding of basement membrane biology and disease, and suggest novel membrane interactions, functions, and therapeutic targets. PMID:21280145

  17. Constitutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha selectively promotes the self-renewal of mesenchymal progenitors and maintains mesenchymal stromal cells in an undifferentiated state.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Shim, Jae-Seung; Whang, Soo-Young; Hahn, Sang June; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing use of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapies, factors that regulate the cellular characteristics of MSCs have been of major interest. Oxygen concentration has been shown to influence the functions of MSCs, as well as other normal and malignant stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic responses and the precise role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the master regulatory protein of hypoxia, in MSCs remain unclear, due to the limited span of Hif-1α stabilization and the complex network of hypoxic responses. In this study, to further define the significance of Hif-1α in MSC function during their self-renewal and terminal differentiation, we established adult bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs that are able to sustain high level expression of ubiquitin-resistant Hif-1α during such long-term biological processes. Using this model, we show that the stabilization of Hif-1α proteins exerts a selective influence on colony-forming mesenchymal progenitors promoting their self-renewal and proliferation, without affecting the proliferation of the MSC mass population. Moreover, Hif-1α stabilization in MSCs led to the induction of pluripotent genes (oct-4 and klf-4) and the inhibition of their terminal differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. These results provide insights into the previously unrecognized roles of Hif-1α proteins in maintaining the primitive state of primary MSCs and on the cellular heterogeneities in hypoxic responses among MSC populations. PMID:24071737

  18. Selective monoamine oxidase B inhibition by an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae extract and by its constitutive active principles phycocyanin and mycosporine-like amino acids.

    PubMed

    Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Yanina; Benvenuti, Francesca; Battistelli, Serafina; Canestrari, Franco; Benedetti, Serena

    2014-06-15

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga that has been traditionally used for over 25 years for its health-enhancing properties. Recent studies have shown the ability of a proprietary AFA extract (Klamin(®)) to improve mood, counteract anxiety, and enhance attention and learning. Aim of this study was to test the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activity of the same AFA extract and of its constituents phycocyanin (AFA-PC) and mycosporine-like aminoacids (AFA-MAAs). All compounds showed a dose-dependent selective inhibition of MAO-B activity as compared to MAO-A. The IC50 values of the AFA extract (concentration 10 mg/ml), AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs were 6.4 μl/ml, 1.33 μM and 1.98 μM, respectively, evidencing a mixed-type of inhibition for the AFA extract (Ki 0.99 μl/ml), a non-competitive inhibition for AFA-PC (Ki 1.06 μM) and a competitive inhibition for AFA-MAAs (Ki 0.585 μM). These results are important to explain the neuromodulating properties of the AFA extract Klamin(®), which is rich in phenylethylamine, a general neuromodulator, that would nevertheless rapidly destroyed by MAO-B enzymes without the inhibitory activity of the synergic active principles AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs. The present investigation thus proposes the extract as potentially relevant in clinical areas such as mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Constitution and Bylaws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Constitutions and bylaws of the American Association of Dental Schools are presented, covering organization name, statement of purpose, administrative organization, offices, membership, legislative and administrative bodies, elected and appointed officers, regular and special sessions, sections, publications, election, and finance. (MSE)

  20. Constitution, 15 August 1982.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints major provisions of the 1982 Constitution of Equatorial Guinea. The Constitution calls for protection of the family as the basic building block of society. Foreigners are afforded the same civil rights as citizens and may seek asylum but may not exercise political rights. The Constitution guarantees equality before the law and prohibits discrimination based on ethnic background, race, sex, language, religion, filiation, political or other views, social origin, economic position, or birth. Women are afforded the same rights as men regardless of their marital status. The Constitution also guarantees citizens freedom to travel nationally and internationally and to choose a place of residence. Equatoguineans are also entitled to a standard of living that insures health, nutrition, education, clothing, housing, medical care, and necessary social services. The family policy contained in the Constitution protects all types of legal marriages equally and recognizes nonattachable and inalienable family patrimony. Children are protected from the time of conception, and all inhabitants are guaranteed a basic state education which is compulsory and free. Efforts are also being made to eradicate illiteracy. Women are insured training and promotion for their integration into the active life and development of the country, and farmers are guaranteed traditional ownership of the lands they possess, although the state retains the right of eminent domain. PMID:12346662

  1. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The third and fourth years of a 4-year research program, part of the NASA HOST Program, are described. The program goals were: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analysis of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation were those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. The unified approach for elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations is a viable method for representing and predicting material response characteristics in the range where strain rate and temperature dependent inelastic deformations are experienced. This conclusion is reached by extensive comparison of model calculations against the experimental results of a test program of two high temperature Ni-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Mar-M247, over a wide temperature range for a variety of deformation and thermal histories including uniaxial, multiaxial, and thermomechanical loading paths. The applicability of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models for structural applications has been demonstrated by implementing these models into the MARC finite element code and by performing a number of analyses including thermomechanical histories on components of hot sections of gas turbine engines and benchmark notch tensile specimens. The results of the 4-year program have been published in four annual reports. The results of the base program are summarized in this report. The tasks covered include: (1) development of material test procedures, (2) thermal history effects, and (3) verification of the constitutive model for an alternative material.

  2. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  3. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  4. Sexuality and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copelon, Rhonda

    1987-01-01

    Argues for abortion rights and protection of intimate decisions and relationships. Describes the role and position of women in eighteenth century American society as a means of exposing the fallacy of the anti-abortion movement's insistence on adherence to constitutional text. Discusses the recent attempts to overturn the Roe v. Wade ruling. (PS)

  5. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  6. The Constitutional Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Maurice

    Changing political, social, economic, and intellectual conditions over the past two hundred years have demanded innovation and adjustment of legal doctrine, thus giving the United States Constitution a character which the framers of the document could not have predicted. Historically, one must not only understand developments since 1787 but also…

  7. Testing of constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    Constitutive models for computational solid mechanics codes are in LAME--the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering. These models describe complex material behavior and are used in our finite deformation solid mechanics codes. To ensure the correct implementation of these models, regression tests have been created for constitutive models in LAME. A selection of these tests is documented here. Constitutive models are an important part of any solid mechanics code. If an analysis code is meant to provide accurate results, the constitutive models that describe the material behavior need to be implemented correctly. Ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is the goal of a testing procedure that is used with the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) (see [1] and [2]). A test suite for constitutive models can serve three purposes. First, the test problems provide the constitutive model developer a means to test the model implementation. This is an activity that is always done by any responsible constitutive model developer. Retaining the test problem in a repository where the problem can be run periodically is an excellent means of ensuring that the model continues to behave correctly. A second purpose of a test suite for constitutive models is that it gives application code developers confidence that the constitutive models work correctly. This is extremely important since any analyst that uses an application code for an engineering analysis will associate a constitutive model in LAME with the application code, not LAME. Therefore, ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is essential for application code teams. A third purpose of a constitutive model test suite is that it provides analysts with example problems that they can look at to understand the behavior of a specific model. Since the choice of a constitutive model, and the properties that are used in that model, have an enormous effect on the results of an

  8. Thomas Jefferson and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Merrill D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Thomas Jefferson's role in the making and interpretation of the United States Constitution. Discusses the dominant features of Jefferson's constitutional theory; the character of Jefferson's presidency; and Jefferson's ongoing concern about constitutional preservation and change. Lists important dates in the history of the constitution.…

  9. The Constitution in Other Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill of Rights in Action, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Designed for classroom teaching, this document contains articles on the new constitutions of Japan, South Korea, and the Philippine Islands which were modeled in part on the U.S. Constitution. These countries' experiences with constitutional government are examined, and whether or not the U.S. Constitution can be a suitable model for other…

  10. Constitution, 30 September 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints provisions of Suriname's 1987 Constitution relating to freedom of movement, equality of the sexes, the right to life, the right to physical integrity, equal opportunity in employment, the family, children, maternity benefits, the right to health care, parental responsibilities, free and compulsory education, illiteracy, and housing. All citizens enjoy freedom of movement within the bounds of the law. All people within the territory may claim protection of their person and property, and discrimination is forbidden on the basis of birth, sex, race, language, religion, education, political beliefs, economic position, or other status. Torture or inhuman treatment and punishment is banned, and the right to life is protected by the law. The state guarantees the right to work, and all employees have the right to equal remuneration for equal work, safe working conditions, and sufficient rest and recreation. The family is protected, and husbands and wives are equal before the law. Children have the right to protection, and working women are entitled to paid maternity leave. The state promotes the right to good health by systematic improvements in living and working conditions and dissemination of health education. The right to education is protected by the provision of free general primary education and efforts of the state to enable all citizens to achieve the highest educational levels possible. The Constitution also calls for the institution of a plan to allow the state to create public housing.

  11. Ethics and constitutional government.

    PubMed

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  12. Ethics and constitutional government.

    PubMed

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  13. Constitutive expression of selected genes from the pentose phosphate and aromatic pathways increases the shikimic acid yield in high-glucose batch cultures of an Escherichia coli strain lacking PTS and pykF

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the last two decades many efforts have been directed towards obtaining efficient microbial processes for the production of shikimic acid (SA); however, feeding high amounts of substrate to increase the titer of this compound has invariably rendered low conversion yields, leaving room for improvement of the producing strains. In this work we report an alternative platform to overproduce SA in a laboratory-evolved Escherichia coli strain, based on plasmid-driven constitutive expression of six genes selected from the pentose phosphate and aromatic amino acid pathways, artificially arranged as an operon. Production strains also carried inactivated genes coding for phosphotransferase system components (ptsHIcrr), shikimate kinases I and II (aroK and aroL), pyruvate kinase I (pykF) and the lactose operon repressor (lacI). Results The strong and constitutive expression of the constructed operon permitted SA production from the beginning of the cultures, as evidenced in 1 L batch-mode fermentors starting with high concentrations of glucose and yeast extract. Inactivation of the pykF gene improved SA production under the evaluated conditions by increasing the titer, yield and productivity of this metabolite compared to the isogenic pykF+ strain. The best producing strain accumulated up to 43 g/L of SA in 30 h and relatively low concentrations of acetate and aromatic byproducts were detected, with SA accounting for 80% of the produced aromatic compounds. These results were consistent with high expression levels of the glycolytic pathway and synthetic operon genes from the beginning of fermentations, as revealed by transcriptomic analysis. Despite the consumption of 100 g/L of glucose, the yields on glucose of SA and of total aromatic compounds were about 50% and 60% of the theoretical maximum, respectively. The obtained yields and specific production and consumption rates proved to be constant with three different substrate concentrations. Conclusions

  14. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types.

  15. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities. PMID:12344286

  16. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities.

  17. Constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  18. How Democratic Is the Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of democracy and the Constitution. "Democracy and the Constitution" (Gordon S. Wood) looks at the popular and democratic rhetoric used to justify the federalist system in the late 1700's. "Decent,…

  19. Constitution, 3 February 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines. The state policies reprinted from Article 2 note that the state recognizes the sanctity of family life and protects the life of the mother and of the unborn from conception. Women and men are afforded equality before the law. The state prioritizes education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports and promotes comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform. Provisions reprinted from Article 13 (Social Justice and Human Rights) cover agrarian and natural resources reform, urban land reform and housing, health, and protection of women in the workforce. Sections from Article 14 (Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture, and Sports) set forth the state's duty to make quality education accessible to all citizens through a compulsory system of free public education, provision of incentives to deserving students, encouragement of informal education, and provision of adult education. Article 15, on the family, recognizes the family as the foundation of the nation and marriage as the foundation of the family. Spouses have the right to found a family, children have the right to appropriate care, the family has the right to a living wage and income, families or family associations have the right to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and programs that affect them, and the family has the duty to care for its elderly.

  20. Amendment to the Constitution.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Amendment rewrites Clause 4 of Article 10 of the Chinese Constitution to permit the right of land use to be transferred by lease in accordance with the law. In December 1988, the Government also enacted legislation amending the Land Management Law so as to allow for the transfer of Land. See Renmin Ribao (Beijing), 31 December 1988, p. 4; Foreign Broadcast Information Service, FBIS-CHI-89-003, 5 January 1989, pp. 38-39. Provisional Regulations on the Land Use Tax in Urban Areas were promulgated on 27 September 1988. See Xinhua Domestic Service (Beijing), 4 October 1988, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, FBIS-CHI-88-197, 12 October 1988, pp. 26-27, and Xinhua (Beijing), 4 October 1988, FBIS-CHI-88-193, 5 October 1988, pp. 20. Provisional Tax Regulations on Farmland Occupation and Use were proclaimed on 1 April 1987. See Xinhua Domestic Service (Beijing), 19 April 1987; Joint Publications Research Service, China, 22 April 1987, pp. K33-K35. PMID:12289449

  1. Constitutional Issues--Watergate and the Constitution. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    When U.S. President Richard Nixon resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, it was only the second time that impeachment of a president had been considered. Although the U.S. Constitution has provisions for a person removed from office to be indicted, there are no guidelines in the Constitution about a President who has resigned. The…

  2. What constitutes cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Badawi, N; Watson, L; Petterson, B; Blair, E; Slee, J; Haan, E; Stanley, F

    1998-08-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term of convenience applied to a group of motor disorders of central origin defined by clinical description. It is not a diagnosis in that its application infers nothing about pathology, aetiology, or prognosis. It is an umbrella term covering a wide range of cerebral disorders which result in childhood motor impairment. The precise inclusion criteria vary with the objectives for using the term. For meaningful comparison of rates of CP, as performed by and between CP registers, it is important that the rates should be generated using the same criteria. As generally understood there must be motor impairment, and this impairment must stem from a malfunction of the brain (rather than spinal cord or muscles). Furthermore, the brain malfunction must be non-progressive and it must be manifest early in life. For the purposes of comparisons of rates across time even when the condition meets all the above criteria, it must not historically have been excluded from the category of CP. This paper addresses the problem of standardizing the inclusion criteria for selecting people included on CP registers with particular reference to this last criterion. PMID:9746004

  3. The Origins of the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindle, Diane

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that there were three forces operating in colonial American culture which led to the drafting of the Constitution. These were: English law and tradition, the lifestyle of the colonies, and the Enlightenment. Provides examples of how these forces were expressed in the events surrounding the birth of the United States Constitution. (JDH)

  4. Constitution And Bylaws: 2004 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education and Training Council, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the constitution and bylaws of the Distance Education and Training Council. The constitution and bylaws include 13 articles. Sections include: Name; Mission and Goals; Administration of the Council; Membership; Meetings; The Commission; Terms of Office; Officers; Committees; Compensation; Dues and Assessments; Miscellaneous…

  5. The Constitution and Its Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

  6. The Constitution and American Radicalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Jules

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of the following movements' attitudes towards the Constitution: (1) abolition; (2) feminism; (3) trade unions; (4) socialism and communism; and (5) civil rights and anti-war. Maintains that the tensions in these movements' towards the Constitution represent basic contradictions in the document itself. (PS)

  7. Constitutional Change: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christofferson, Walter D.; Pergande, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson for secondary students which teaches that the U.S. Constitution has changed in a variety of ways and that it has a direct effect upon the lives of citizens. Provides a worksheet and a lecture outline covering three methods of constitutional change and Supreme Court cases such as Dred Scott and Brown vs. Board of Education. (GEA)

  8. This Constitution: A Bicentennial Chronicle, Nos. 14-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Shelia, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Each issue in this bicentennial series features articles on selected U.S. Constitution topics, along with a section on primary documents and lesson plans or class activities. Issue 14 features: (1) "The Political Economy of the Constitution" (K. Dolbeare; L. Medcalf); (2) "A 'New Historical Whooper': Creating the Art of the Constitutional…

  9. Equality v. Liberty v. Pluralism: Latinos in American Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltero, Carlos R.

    This paper examines how U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court, have applied constitutional law principles to Latino communities and individuals in three areas: public education, the status of Puerto Rico, and jury selection. Consistent with traditional views of American society as biracial (black and white), constitutional law discussions…

  10. Molecular basis of cannabinoid CB1 receptor coupling to the G protein heterotrimer Gαiβγ: identification of key CB1 contacts with the C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joong-Youn; Ahn, Kwang H; Kendall, Debra A

    2013-11-01

    The cannabinoid (CB1) receptor is a member of the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The human CB1 receptor, which is among the most expressed receptors in the brain, has been implicated in several disease states, including drug addiction, anxiety, depression, obesity, and chronic pain. Different classes of CB1 agonists evoke signaling pathways through the activation of specific subtypes of G proteins. The molecular basis of CB1 receptor coupling to its cognate G protein is unknown. As a first step toward understanding CB1 receptor-mediated G protein signaling, we have constructed a ternary complex structural model of the CB1 receptor and Gi heterotrimer (CB1-Gi), guided by the x-ray structure of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) in complex with Gs (β2AR-Gs), through 824-ns duration molecular dynamics simulations in a fully hydrated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer environment. We identified a group of residues at the juxtamembrane regions of the intracellular loops 2 and 3 (IC2 and IC3) of the CB1 receptor, including Ile-218(3.54), Tyr-224(IC2), Asp-338(6.30), Arg-340(6.32), Leu-341(6.33), and Thr-344(6.36), as potential key contacts with the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi. Ala mutations of these residues at the receptor-Gi interface resulted in little G protein coupling activity, consistent with the present model of the CB1-Gi complex, which suggests tight interactions between CB1 and the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi. The model also suggests that unique conformational changes in the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gα play a crucial role in the receptor-mediated G protein activation.

  11. Remarks on turbulent constitutive relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As examples, the constitutive relations for Reynolds stresses and scalar fluxes are derived. The results are consistent with ones from Renormalization Group (RNG) theory and two-scale Direct-Interaction Approximation (DIA) method, but with a more general form.

  12. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  13. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  14. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V. G.; Vanstone, R. H.; Dame, L. T.; Laflen, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    The unified constitutive theories for application to typical isotropic cast nickel base supperalloys used for air-cooled turbine blades were evaluated. The specific modeling aspects evaluated were: uniaxial, monotonic, cyclic, creep, relaxation, multiaxial, notch, and thermomechanical behavior. Further development of the constitutive theories to model thermal history effects, refinement of the material test procedures, evaluation of coating effects, and verification of the models in an alternate material will be accomplished in a follow-on for this base program.

  15. Immigration, naturalization and the Constitution.

    PubMed

    Vecoli, R J

    1987-03-01

    This essay focuses upon major decisions made by the US government affecting aliens and the constitutional bases for them. These include: 1) the admission and exclusion of aliens, 2) the deportation of aliens, 3) the rights of aliens within the US, and 4) naturalization and denaturalization. The recourse to the extra-constitutional doctrine of sovereignty by the Supreme Court was the source of the plenary power of the Congress over immigration, thus denying the authority of the judiciary to extend the guarantees of due process of law and the equal protection of the law to aliens. The courts in the last 2 decades have assumed a more activist posture with respect to the rights of aliens, extending a greater degree of constitutional protection to the security of acquired citizenship and to the rights of due process and equal protection of foreigners, even to undocumented aliens.

  16. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the first year of work on a program to validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials utilized in high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and to demonstrate their usefulness in computing stress-strain-time-temperature histories in complex three-dimensional structural components. The unified theories combine all inelastic strain-rate components in a single term avoiding, for example, treating plasticity and creep as separate response phenomena. An extensive review of existing unified theories is given and numerical methods for integrating these stiff time-temperature-dependent constitutive equations are discussed. Two particular models, those developed by Bodner and Partom and by Walker, were selected for more detailed development and evaluation against experimental tensile, creep and cyclic strain tests on specimens of a cast nickel base alloy, B19000+Hf. Initial results comparing computed and test results for tensile and cyclic straining for temperature from ambient to 982 C and strain rates from 10(exp-7) 10(exp-3) s(exp-1) are given. Some preliminary date correlations are presented also for highly non-proportional biaxial loading which demonstrate an increase in biaxial cyclic hardening rate over uniaxial or proportional loading conditions. Initial work has begun on the implementation of both constitutive models in the MARC finite element computer code.

  17. Constitutional Reform of School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern, Ed.; Jordan, K. Forbis, Ed.

    This book contains conference papers by experts in educational administration, law, and economics. Six of the papers are devoted to a legal analysis of fiscal inequality among school attendance units, school districts, and States. These contributions are: (1) K. Forbis Jordan and Kern Alexander, "Constitutional Methods of Financing Public…

  18. Civil Liberties under State Constitutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, G. Alan

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "new judicial federalism" as the rediscovery of state bills of rights for protecting civil liberties. Analyzes the differences in protection under state and federal bills of rights. Recommends that the growing importance of state constitutions be included in the political science curriculum and suggests bibliographic sources to be used.…

  19. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  20. Lazy Elephants and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1989-01-01

    Depicts an eighth grade unit utilizing the production of a newspaper to teach U.S. history, 1787 to 1791, in a combined social studies and language arts class at Malcolm Price Laboratory School (Iowa). Two teachers used both large- and small-group instruction to focus on the development of the U.S. Constitution. (LS)

  1. Sex Differences in Constitutive Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Oliván, Sara; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Manzano, Raquel; Zaragoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Sex bias has been described nowadays in biomedical research on animal models, although sexual dimorphism has been confirmed widely under pathological and physiological conditions. The main objective of our work was to study the sex differences in constitutive autophagy in spinal cord and skeletal muscle tissue from wild type mice. To examine the influence of sex on autophagy, mRNA and proteins were extracted from male and female mice tissues. The expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and sequestosome 1 (p62), markers to monitor autophagy, were analyzed at 40, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. We found significant sex differences in the expression of LC3 and p62 in both tissues at these ages. The results indicated that sex and tissue specific differences exist in constitutive autophagy. These data underlined the need to include both sexes in the experimental groups to minimize any sex bias. PMID:24719882

  2. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework.

  3. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework. PMID:12287889

  4. The Constitution: Perspectives on Contemporary American Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    Four articles expressing the views of nine prominent United States citizens about the Constitution provide a context for reflecting on the meaning of the Constitution in present-day America. In "Why Has the Constitution Endured So Long?" Don Edwards, chairman of the House Civil and Constitutional Rights Subcommittee, discusses why the Constitution…

  5. Constitutive equations for solid propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Oezuepek, S.; Becker, E.B.

    1997-04-01

    Mechanical behavior of the Space Shuttle redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) propellant is studied from a phenomenological point of view. Motivated by the study of the experimental data three initially isotropic constitutive models have been developed. All models represent the effect of strain rate, superimposed hydrostatic pressure, and cyclic loading on the stress and dilatation response of the material. A particular emphasis is given to the prediction of volume dilatation. The model resulting in the best representation of the available data is calibrated using only a few tests. The predictions of the model are compared with experiments for several loading conditions not used in the calibration.

  6. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the program is to evaluate and develop existing constitutive models for use in finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. The class of constitutive equation studied is considered unified in that all inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation are treated in a single term rather than a classical separation of plasticity (time independent) and creep (time dependent) behavior. The unified theories employed also do not utilize the classical yield surface or plastic potential concept. The models are constructed from an appropriate flow law, a scalar kinetic relation between strain rate, temperature and stress, and evolutionary equations for internal variables describing strain or work hardening, both isotropic and directional (kinematic). This and other studies have shown that the unified approach is particularly suited for determining the cyclic behavior of superalloy type blade and vane materials and is entirely compatible with three-dimensional inelastic finite-element formulations. The behavior was examined of a second nickel-base alloy, MAR-M247, and compared it with the Bodner-Partom model, further examined procedures for determining the material-specific constants in the models, and exercised the MARC code for a turbine blade under simulated flight spectrum loading. Results are summarized.

  7. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of the second year of work on a problem which is part of the NASA HOST Program. Its goals are: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are that of Bodner-Partom and Walker. For model evaluation purposes, a large constitutive data base is generated for a B1900 + Hf alloy by performing uniaxial tensile, creep, cyclic, stress relation, and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests as well as biaxial (tension/torsion) tests under proportional and nonproportional loading over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. Systematic approaches for evaluating material constants from a small subset of the data base are developed. Correlations of the uniaxial and biaxial tests data with the theories of Bodner-Partom and Walker are performed to establish the accuracy, range of applicability, and integability of the models. Both models are implemented in the MARC finite element computer code and used for TMF analyses. Benchmark notch round experiments are conducted and the results compared with finite-element analyses using the MARC code and the Walker model.

  8. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kwai S.; Lindholm, Ulric S.; Bodner, S. R.; Hill, Jeff T.; Weber, R. M.; Meyer, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the third year of work on a program which is part of the NASA Hot Section Technology program (HOST) are presented. The goals of this program are: (1) the development of unified constitutive models for rate dependent isotropic materials; and (2) the demonstration of the use of unified models in structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. A test procedure was developed for assisting the generation of a data base for the Bodner-Partom model using a relatively small number of specimens. This test procedure involved performing a tensile test at a temperature of interest that involves a succession of strain-rate changes. The results for B1900+Hf indicate that material constants related to hardening and thermal recovery can be obtained on the basis of such a procedure. Strain aging, thermal recovery, and unexpected material variations, however, preluded an accurate determination of the strain-rate sensitivity parameter is this exercise. The effects of casting grain size on the constitutive behavior of B1900+Hf were studied and no particular grain size effect was observed. A systematic procedure was also developed for determining the material constants in the Bodner-Partom model. Both the new test procedure and the method for determining material constants were applied to the alternate material, Mar-M247 . Test data including tensile, creep, cyclic and nonproportional biaxial (tension/torsion) loading were collected. Good correlations were obtained between the Bodner-Partom model and experiments. A literature survey was conducted to assess the effects of thermal history on the constitutive behavior of metals. Thermal history effects are expected to be present at temperature regimes where strain aging and change of microstructure are important. Possible modifications to the Bodner-Partom model to account for these effects are outlined

  9. Unborn children as constitutional persons.

    PubMed

    Roden, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the state of Texas argued that "the fetus is a 'person' within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment." To which Justice Harry Blackmun responded, "If this suggestion of personhood is established, the appellant's case, of course, collapses, for the fetus' right to life would then be guaranteed specifically by the Amendment." However, Justice Blackmun then came to the conclusion "that the word 'person,' as used in the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." In this article, it is argued that unborn children are indeed "persons" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments. As there is no constitutional text explicitly holding unborn children to be, or not to be, "persons," this argument will be based on the "historical understanding and practice, the structure of the Constitution, and thejurisprudence of [the Supreme] Court." Specifically, it is argued that the Constitution does not confer upon the federal government a specifically enumerated power to grant or deny "personhood" under the Fourteenth Amendment. Rather, the power to recognize or deny unborn children as the holders of rights and duties has been historically exercised by the states. The Roe opinion and other Supreme Court cases implicitly recognize this function of state sovereignty. The states did exercise this power and held unborn children to be persons under the property, tort, and criminal law of the several states at the time Roe was decided. As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in

  10. Written Constitution or None: Which Works Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Zelman

    1987-01-01

    Explores the differences between the U.S. Constitution and British constitutional law. Specifically examines the concept of the U.S. Bill of Rights in relation to the United Kingdom common law doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. (BSR)

  11. Theoretical Issues of the Constitutional Regulation Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhussupova, Guldaray B.; Zhailyaubayev, Rassul T.; Ukin, Symbat K.; Shunayeva, Sylu M.; Nurmagambetov, Rachit G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to define the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism." The definition of the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism" will give jurists and legislators a theoretical framework for developing legal sciences, such as the constitutional law and the theory of state and law. The…

  12. Antithetical Ethics: Kenneth Burke and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Virginia

    1995-01-01

    Shows how the textuality of the United States Constitution, the most venerable of classic democratic icons, might be exploited to nurture postmodern ethics. Shows how Kenneth Burke's reading of the Constitution accords with and augments the postmodern theories of J.-F. Lyotard and S. Jarratt. Discusses a postmodern Constitution and the…

  13. About Our Constitution: 1787-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist elementary school teachers, these materials present a series of lessons about the United States Constitution. Ten lesson plans and appropriate work sheets are included for grades K-3. The topics covered include the age of the Constitution, a constitutional convention, elected representatives, majority rule, voting, law making,…

  14. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  15. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  16. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  17. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  18. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  19. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  20. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... officer refers to a person holding a position identified as an officer by the constitution and bylaws of... constitution identifies the holder of such a position as an officer. On the other hand, legislative representatives who are required to be elected by the constitution and bylaws of a labor organization are...

  1. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... officer refers to a person holding a position identified as an officer by the constitution and bylaws of... constitution identifies the holder of such a position as an officer. On the other hand, legislative representatives who are required to be elected by the constitution and bylaws of a labor organization are...

  2. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  3. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... officer refers to a person holding a position identified as an officer by the constitution and bylaws of... constitution identifies the holder of such a position as an officer. On the other hand, legislative representatives who are required to be elected by the constitution and bylaws of a labor organization are...

  4. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  5. American Focus on World Constitutions. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stanley T., III

    This curriculum project was designed to familiarize high school students with their own constitutional roots while gaining a better understanding of governmental systems developed by other nations. The project uses the U.S. Constitution as a baseline for analyzing the constitutions of other nations, and is intended to supplement courses in such…

  6. The Justiciability Doctrine and Selected State Education Finance Constitutional Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Lange, George

    2006-01-01

    Public education funding in the past 40 years has increased significantly, with parties turning to the judiciary in order to address perceived educational opportunity inequities arising from state education finance distribution formulas. As the 21st century opens, the question of public education finance is set squarely before the courts. This…

  7. 78 FR 39721 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC (Constitution), having its principal place of...\\ Constitution further requests that the Commission grant Constitution a blanket certificate...

  8. 3 CFR 8562 - Proclamation 8562 of September 16, 2010. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 8562 Proclamation 8562 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8562 of September 16, 2010 Proc. 8562 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day... the States, the Framers advanced our national journey. On Constitution Day and Citizenship Day,...

  9. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-23898 Filed 9-21-10; 11:15 am] Billing... Proclamation 8562--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 Proclamation 8563--National... President ] Proclamation 8562 of September 16, 2010 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution...

  10. Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments...Similarities and Differences throughout History. Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallasch, Brian Thomas

    This civic education resource packet is designed to provide teachers, community leaders, and other civic educators with an understanding of the differences between constitutional and non-constitutional governments. Six papers discussing the topic are included: "The Differences bewteen Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments" (John…

  11. An engineered genetic selection for ternary protein complexes inspired by a natural three-component hitchhiker mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Portnoff, Alyse D; Rocco, Mark A; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2014-12-22

    The bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is well known to translocate correctly folded monomeric and dimeric proteins across the tightly sealed cytoplasmic membrane. We identified a naturally occurring heterotrimer, the Escherichia coli aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC, that is co-translocated by the Tat translocase according to a ternary "hitchhiker" mechanism. Specifically, the PaoB and PaoC subunits, each devoid of export signals, are escorted to the periplasm in a piggyback fashion by the Tat signal peptide-containing subunit PaoA. Moreover, export of PaoA was blocked when either PaoB or PaoC was absent, revealing a surprising interdependence for export that is not seen for classical secretory proteins. Inspired by this observation, we created a bacterial three-hybrid selection system that links the formation of ternary protein complexes with antibiotic resistance. As proof-of-concept, a bispecific antibody was employed as an adaptor that physically crosslinked one antigen fused to a Tat export signal with a second antigen fused to TEM-1 β-lactamase (Bla). The resulting non-covalent heterotrimer was exported in a Tat-dependent manner, delivering Bla to the periplasm where it hydrolyzed β-lactam antibiotics. Collectively, these results highlight the remarkable flexibility of the Tat system and its potential for studying and engineering ternary protein interactions in living bacteria.

  12. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  13. Defining the criteria for identifying constitutional epimutations.

    PubMed

    Sloane, Mathew A; Ward, Robyn L; Hesson, Luke B

    2016-01-01

    In the January 2016 issue of Clinical Epigenetics, Quiñonez-Silva et al. (Clin Epigenetics 8:1, 2016) described a possible constitutional epimutation of the RB1 gene as a cause of hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma. The term constitutional epimutation describes an epigenetic aberration in normal tissues that predisposes to disease. The data presented by Quiñonez-Silva et al. are interesting, but further analysis is required to demonstrate a constitutional epimutation in this family. Here, we define the criteria and describe the experimental approach necessary to identify an epigenetic aberration as a constitutional epimutation. PMID:27096027

  14. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  15. Constitutive Autophagy and Nucleophagy during Epidermal Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Akinduro, Olufolake; Sully, Katherine; Patel, Ankit; Robinson, Deborah J; Chikh, Anissa; McPhail, Graham; Braun, Kristin M; Philpott, Michael P; Harwood, Catherine A; Byrne, Carolyn; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F L; Bergamaschi, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes migrate through the epidermis up to the granular layer where, on terminal differentiation, they progressively lose organelles and convert into anucleate cells or corneocytes. Our report explores the role of autophagy in ensuring epidermal function providing the first comprehensive profile of autophagy marker expression in developing epidermis. We show that autophagy is constitutively active in the epidermal granular layer where by electron microscopy we identified double-membrane autophagosomes. We demonstrate that differentiating keratinocytes undergo a selective form of nucleophagy characterized by accumulation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3/lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2/p62 positive autolysosomes. These perinuclear vesicles displayed positivity for histone interacting protein, heterochromatin protein 1α, and localize in proximity with Lamin A and B1 accumulation, whereas in newborn mice and adult human skin, we report LC3 puncta coincident with misshaped nuclei within the granular layer. This process relies on autophagy integrity as confirmed by lack of nucleophagy in differentiating keratinocytes depleted from WD repeat domain phosphoinositide interacting 1 or Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1. Final validation into a skin disease model showed that impaired autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Lack of LC3 expression in psoriatic skin lesions correlates with parakeratosis and deregulated expression or location of most of the autophagic markers. Our findings may have implications and improve treatment options for patients with epidermal barrier defects. PMID:27021405

  16. A Constitutive Equation for Stratospheric Balloon Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.; Sterling, W. J.

    2004-01-01

    The selection of a suitable material for use as a reliable stratospheric balloon gas barrier and structural component is based on a variety of properties. Due to a more desirable combination of properties, the low density polyethylene that has been used for the last half century has been replaced during the last decade by linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE). This paper describes the effort to characterize the time dependent properties of a 38 micron coextrusion of LLDPE. The nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation presented may be used to accurately describe the creep and/or relaxation of this film when subjected to a biaxial state of stress, such as might be required for an extended balloon flight. Recent laboratory data have been used to mod@ an existing model of LLDPE to account for differences caused by the coextrusion process. The new model will facilitate structural design optimization and reliability assessment, and may be further utilized as a predictive tool to benefit in-flight operations. Current structural analysis tech&ques based on linear elastic properties have predicted stresses in excess of those which would actually exist.

  17. The United States and the Indian Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Jonathan S.

    India, a huge land with the second largest population in the world, socially and economically poor, and culturally and linguistically diverse, became the largest democracy in the world on November 26, 1949 with the adoption of the Indian Constitution. The goals of that constitution are: (1) the achievement of national unity and stability; (2) the…

  18. From Confederation to Constitution: 1781-1789.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urofsky, Melvin I.; Cox, Nancy

    Students should achieve a higher level of understanding and appreciation of the evolving nature of the U.S. Constitution and its relevance to contemporary societal issues by studying historical documents from the period of time between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. This document begins with a history of that period and of the…

  19. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

  20. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Constitutional torts. 536.42 Section 536.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A...

  1. Liberty, Power, and the American Constitutional Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, James H.

    The principles, values, and issues of our constitutional heritage that should be emphasized in citizenship education are based on the concepts of liberty and power. The Constitution is not a sacred icon formulated by immortals, but rather a changing and controversial framework guided by a diverse group of practical politicians, sensitive to their…

  2. An Internet Guide to Teaching the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, Congress passed and President Bush signed legislation designating every September 17 as Constitution Day and suggesting that all schools teach about the Constitution on that day. There are innumerable websites, countless lesson plans and a multitude of other teaching resources on the topic. Teachers were inundated with brochures,…

  3. We the People: Program Planning Guide for Community Forums on the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Lucinda J., Ed.

    Designed to assist organizations preparing to celebrate the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution through community and school events, this guide provides educational ideas that can be useful in directing the public's attention to the Constitution and the values it represents. Information is included on selecting forum formats, such as mock…

  4. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2009 8418 Proclamation 8418 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009 Proc. 8418 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day... citizenship, the Congress, by joint resolution of February 29, 1952 (36 U.S.C. 106), designated September...

  5. 77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... September 18, 2012 Part VI The President Proclamation 8862--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day... ] Proclamation 8862 of September 13, 2012 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 By...

  6. 3 CFR 8714 - Proclamation 8714 of September 16, 2011. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011 8714 Proclamation 8714 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8714 of September 16, 2011 Proc. 8714 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day... because they believed in what our country stands for. Every year, thousands of candidates for...

  7. 78 FR 57777 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-23014 Filed 9-18-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... September 19, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9019--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day... September 16, 2013 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013 By the President of...

  8. 3 CFR 8862 - Proclamation 8862 of September 13, 2012. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 8862 Proclamation 8862 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8862 of September 13, 2012 Proc. 8862 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day... candidates for citizenship who will commemorate this day by joining our American family. For more than...

  9. Constitutively cellulose-producing mutant of trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, S.; Gopalkrishnan, K.S.; Ghose, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    The single major factor limiting the economy of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of the cellulase enzymes. Most of the work to date in reducing this cost has centered around selection of hyperproducing strains using the standard cellulose medium. Cellulose is an insoluble substrate with obvious design disadvantages in bioreactors. It is often indicated that another reasonable approach to the problem would be the isolation of constitutive mutants which require no inducer to form cellulase. In fact, the goal of several laboratories around the world working on the hydrolysis of cellulosic substances has been to isolate a constitutive mutant. Reported here is the isolation of a constitutively cellulase producing mutant in T. reesei that produces high levels of all of the component enzymes in the cellulase complex in the presence of glucose or sucrose. With this constitutive mutant, it is hoped that a major hurdle of working with an insoluble substrate will be overcome. The mutant will allow easier operation and control of cellulose bioreactors and can be used for continuous enzyme production, as opposed to the present batch production system. Also, a number of other unusable susbtrates like whey and molasses can be used for commercial preparations of cellulases. (Refs. 2).

  10. The Constitution and the Black Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the constitutional promises to black people, early congressional efforts to fulfill these promises, early court cases construing the Fourteenth Amendment and the impact of these decisions along with their subsequent overruling. (Author/JB)

  11. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    PubMed

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  12. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  13. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  14. Unified constitutive equations of foam materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Fu S.; Song, Y.; Lu, D.X.; DeSilva, C.N.

    1998-07-01

    Foam materials, because of their energy absorbing and recovery behavior during impact as well as lightweight and moldable characteristics, have found more and more applications in the automotive industry. A unified constitutive equation with the effect of compression strain rate, tension strain, and shear strain for foam materials with very low Poisson`s ratio has been developed. The mathematical derivation of the constitutive equation is described in detail. The effect of each parameter in the constitutive equation is studied. Numerical formula and procedure are also included in the paper. The test data of two types of energy absorbing foam materials are used for correlation study: polyurethane foam, which was tested at five compressive strain rates, and polypropylene foam, which was tested for quasi-static compression, tension, and shear. Good correlations have been concluded for both cases.

  15. Acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation from surrounding medium into a soft material can generate acoustic radiation stress due to acoustic momentum transfer inside the medium and material, as well as at the interface between the two. To analyze acoustic-induced deformation of soft materials, we establish an acoustomechanical constitutive theory by combining the acoustic radiation stress theory and the nonlinear elasticity theory for soft materials. The acoustic radiation stress tensor is formulated by time averaging the momentum equation of particle motion, which is then introduced into the nonlinear elasticity constitutive relation to construct the acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials. Considering a specified case of soft material sheet subjected to two counter-propagating acoustic waves, we demonstrate the nonlinear large deformation of the soft material and analyze the interaction between acoustic waves and material deformation under the conditions of total reflection, acoustic transparency, and acoustic mismatch.

  16. Thermoelastic constitutive equations for chemically hardening materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, B. W.; Levitsky, M.

    1974-01-01

    Thermoelastic constitutive equations are derived for a material undergoing solidification or hardening as the result of a chemical reaction. The derivation is based upon a two component model whose composition is determined by the degree of hardening, and makes use of strain-energy considerations. Constitutive equations take the form of stress rate-strain rate relations, in which the coefficients are time-dependent functions of the composition. Specific results are developed for the case of a material of constant bulk modulus which undergoes a transition from an initial liquidlike state into an isotropic elastic solid. Potential applications are discussed.

  17. Salmonella typhimurium metC operator-constitutive mutations.

    PubMed

    Park, Y M; Stauffer, G V

    1989-07-15

    We used an Escherichia coli lac deletion strain lysogenized with a metC-lacZ fusion phage (lambda Clac) to select operator-constitutive mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium metC gene control region. The mutations were located in a region containing 2 tandemly repeated 8 bp palindromes previously proposed to be the MetJ repressor binding site. Lysogens carrying lambda Clac mutant phage exhibit high beta-galactosidase levels that are only partially repressible by methionine. The results suggest that the mutations disrupt the methionine control system mediated by the metJ gene product. PMID:2506106

  18. Small-molecule modulators of the constitutive androstane receptor

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Milu T.; Chai, Sergio C.; Chen, Taosheng

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) induces drug-metabolizing enzymes for xenobiotic metabolism. Areas covered This review covers recent advances in elucidating the biological functions of CAR and its modulation by a growing number of agonists and inhibitors. Expert opinion Extrapolation of animal CAR function to that of humans should be carefully scrutinized, particularly when rodents are used in evaluating the metabolic profile and carcinogenic properties of clinical drugs and environmental chemicals. Continuous efforts are needed to discover novel CAR inhibitors, with extensive understanding of their inhibitory mechanism, species selectivity, and discriminating power against other xenobiotic sensors. PMID:25979168

  19. 3 CFR 9019 - Proclamation 9019 of September 16, 2013. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Constitution Week, 2013By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In May of 1787... each year as “Constitution Week.” NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of... September, in the year of our Lord two thousand thirteen, and of the Independence of the......

  20. The constitutive equation for membrane tether extraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Yao, Da-Kang; Shao, Jin-Yu

    2010-12-01

    Membrane tethers or nanotubes play a critical role in a variety of cellular and subcellular processes such as leukocyte rolling and intercellular mass transport. The current constitutive equations that describe the relationship between the pulling force and the tether velocity during tether extraction have serious limitations. In this article, we propose a new phenomenological constitutive equation that captures all known characteristics of nanotube formation, including nonlinearity, nonzero threshold force, and possible negative tether velocity. We used tether extraction from endothelial cells as a prototype to illustrate how to obtain the material constants in the constitutive equation. With the micropipette aspiration technique, we measured tether pulling forces at both positive and negative tether velocities. We also determined the threshold force of 55 pN experimentally for the first time. This new constitutive equation unites two established ones and provides us a unified platform to better understand not only the physiological role of tether extraction during leukocyte rolling and intercellular or intracellular transport, but also the physics of membrane tether growth or retraction.

  1. Celebrating the Constitution: A Bicentennial Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walch, Timothy G., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This commemorative document was published to celebrate the Bicentennial of the signing of the U.S. Constitution and to pay tribute to the bicentennial celebration efforts of the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration staff. The included articles are: (1) "Introduction: A Celebration at the National Archives" (F. Burke); (2) "The Odyssey…

  2. James Madison and the Constitutional Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Part 1 of this three-part article traces James Madison's life and focuses primarily on those events that prepared him for leadership in the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787. It describes his early love of learning, education, and public service efforts. Part 2 chronicles Madison's devotion to study and preparation prior to the Constitutional…

  3. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  4. Censorship of Obscenity: The Developing Constitutional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, William B.; McClure, Robert C.

    1960-01-01

    To demonstrate that substantial protection has been given to published material dealing with sex, an analysis of the constitutional criteria governing recent Supreme Court decisions in the area of obscenity censorship is presented. It is found that the Supreme Court uses "hard core pornography" as the foundation of a "constant" concept of…

  5. Student Perspectives on Behaviors That Constitute Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L.; Schultz, Jennifer L.; Sanford, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A previous study conducted a decade ago determined that there can be considerable disagreement--not only between students and faculty, but also among students and among faculty--regarding behaviors that constitute cheating. This article reports the results of a research study that replicated the student survey administered for the previous study,…

  6. School Choice and State Constitutions' Religion Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komer, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," only state religion clauses represent a potential constitutional bar to the inclusion of religious options in properly designed school choice programs. The two most significant are compelled support clauses and Blaine Amendments. Both are frequently misinterpreted by state…

  7. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  8. The Search for Constitutional School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauknight, Suzanne H.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the constitutionality of tuition-voucher programs that provide access to private, parochial schools. Surveys Establishment Clause jurisprudence of the United States Supreme Court. Examines the Cleveland, Ohio, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, tuition-voucher programs, currently being litigated in the respective state courts, in an attempt to…

  9. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... land after the last constitution or reconstitution and as a result of such change the farm does not... agency programs and monitor farmer compliance with regulations, the agency must have records on what land is being farmed by a particular producer. This is accomplished by a determination of what land...

  10. Biaxial constitutive equation development for single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    Current gas turbine engines utilize large single crystal superalloy components in the hot section. Structural analysis of these components requires a valid stress strain temperature constitutive equation. The goal of the program described is to create one or more models and verify these models. A constitutive equation based on an assumed slip behavior of a single slip system was formulated, programmed, and debugged. Specifically, the basic theory for a model based on aggravating slip behavior on individual slip systems was formulated and programmed and some simulations were run using assumed values of constants. In addition, a formulation allowing strain controlled simulations was completed. An approach to structural analysis of the specimen was developed. This approach uses long tube consistancy conditions and finite elements specially formulated to take advantage of the symmetry of 100 oriented specimens.

  11. In quest of constitutional principles of "neurolaw".

    PubMed

    Pizzetti, Federico Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of brain imaging technology and the developing of cognitive neuroscience pose unaccustomed challenges to legal systems. Until now, the fields of Law much affected are the civil and criminal law and procedure, but the constitutional dimension of "neurolaw" cannot be easily underestimated. As the capacity to investigate and to trace brain mechanisms and functional neural activities increases, it becomes urgent the recognition and definition of the unalienable rights and fundamental values in respect of this new techno-scientific power, that must be protected and safeguard at "constitutional level" of norms such as: human dignity, personal identity, authenticity and the pursuit of individual "happiness". As the same as for the law regulating research and experimentation on human genome adopted in the past years, one may also argue if the above mentioned fundamental principles of "neurolaw" must be fixed and disciplined also at European and International level. PMID:23057208

  12. Constitutive Modeling of Crosslinked Nanotube Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Herzog, M. N.; Gates, T. S.; Fay, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    A non-linear, continuum-based constitutive model is developed for carbon nanotube materials in which bundles of aligned carbon nanotubes have varying amounts of crosslinks between the nanotubes. The model accounts for the non-linear elastic constitutive behavior of the material in terms of strain, and is developed using a thermodynamic energy approach. The model is used to examine the effect of the crosslinking on the overall mechanical properties of variations of the crosslinked carbon nanotube material with varying degrees of crosslinking. It is shown that the presence of the crosslinks has significant effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube materials. An increase in the transverse shear properties is observed when the nanotubes are crosslinked. However, this increase is accompanied by a decrease in axial mechanical properties of the nanotube material upon crosslinking.

  13. In quest of constitutional principles of "neurolaw".

    PubMed

    Pizzetti, Federico Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of brain imaging technology and the developing of cognitive neuroscience pose unaccustomed challenges to legal systems. Until now, the fields of Law much affected are the civil and criminal law and procedure, but the constitutional dimension of "neurolaw" cannot be easily underestimated. As the capacity to investigate and to trace brain mechanisms and functional neural activities increases, it becomes urgent the recognition and definition of the unalienable rights and fundamental values in respect of this new techno-scientific power, that must be protected and safeguard at "constitutional level" of norms such as: human dignity, personal identity, authenticity and the pursuit of individual "happiness". As the same as for the law regulating research and experimentation on human genome adopted in the past years, one may also argue if the above mentioned fundamental principles of "neurolaw" must be fixed and disciplined also at European and International level.

  14. Association of Sasang Constitutional Type with Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Choi, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique Korean traditional medicine that classifies human beings as four distinct types named Sasang constitutional types (SCTs), based on physiologic, physical, and psychological traits. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that specific constitutional types are associated with chronic diseases, but no study has investigated the relationship between SCTs and sarcopenia. The aim of this study was to examine the association in a large population-based study. Data from 1,204 participants who completed questionnaires for life style, anthropometric evaluation, and biochemical analysis were analyzed. Classification of the SCTs was done using an integrated diagnostic method. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height2 less than one standard deviation below the gender-specific normal mean of a younger group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess whole body composition. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 8.6% in the Tae-eum (TE) type, 44.7% in the So-eum (SE) type, and 20.7% in the So-yang (SY) type. Multivariate analysis revealed that the SE and SY types had 9.22 (5.06–16.81; P < 0.0001) and 2.90 (1.76–4.76; P < 0.0001) greater odds of sarcopenia compared to the TE type, respectively. Our results show that the SE and SY types are significantly associated with increased prevalence of sarcopenia. PMID:26649062

  15. A constitutive theory for rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, M.K.; Krieg, R.D.; Schreyer, H.L.

    1992-12-31

    Rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam consists of interconnected polyurethane plates which form cells. When this foam is compressed, it exhibits an initial elastic regime which is followed by a plateau regime in which the load required to compress the foam remains nearly constant. In the plateau regime, cell walls are damaged and large permanent volume changes are generated. As additional load is applied, cell walls are compressed against neighboring cell walls, and the stiffness of the foam increases and approaches a value equal to that of solid polyurethane. When the foam is loaded in tension, the cell walls are damaged and the foam fractures. A constitutive theory for rigid polyurethane foam has been developed. This theory is based on a decomposition of the foam into two parts: a skeleton and a nonlinear elastic continuum in parallel. The skeleton accounts for the foam behavior in the elastic and plateau regimes and is described using a coupled plasticity with continuum damage theory. The nonlinear elastic continuum accounts for the lock-up of the foam due to internal gas pressure and cell wall interactions. This new constitutive theory has been implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes. Numerical simulations performed using the new constitutive theory are presented.

  16. Implicit constitutive relations for nonlinear magnetoelastic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, R.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    Implicit constitutive relations that characterize the response of elastic bodies have greatly enhanced the arsenal available at the disposal of the analyst working in the field of elasticity. This class of models were recently extended to describe electroelastic bodies by the present authors. In this paper, we extend the development of implicit constitutive relations to describe the behaviour of elastic bodies that respond to magnetic stimuli. The models that are developed provide a rational way to describe phenomena that have hitherto not been adequately described by the classical models that are in place. After developing implicit constitutive relations for magnetoelastic bodies undergoing large deformations, we consider the linearization of the models within the context of small displacement gradients. We then use the linearized model to describe experimentally observed phenomena which the classical linearized magnetoelastic models are incapable of doing. We also solve several boundary value problems within the context of the models that are developed: extension and shear of a slab, and radial inflation and extension of a cylinder. PMID:25792968

  17. Rapid implementation of advanced constitutive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starman, Bojan; Halilovič, Miroslav; Vrh, Marko; Štok, Boris

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology based on the NICE integration scheme [1, 2] for simple and rapid numerical implementation of a class of plasticity constitutive models. In this regard, an algorithm is purposely developed for the implementation of newly developed advanced constitutive models into explicit finite element framework. The methodology follows the organization of the problem state variables into an extended form, which allows the constitutive models' equations to be organized in such a way, that the algorithm can be optionally extended with minimal effort to integrate also evolution equations related to a description of other specific phenomena, such as damage, distortional hardening, phase transitions, degradation etc. To confirm simplicity of the program implementation, computational robustness, effectiveness and improved accuracy of the implemented integration algorithm, a deep drawing simulation of the cylindrical cup is considered as the case study, performed in ABAQUS/Explicit. As a fairly complex considered model, the YLD2004-18p model [3, 4] is first implemented via external subroutine VUMAT. Further, to give additional proof of the simplicity of the proposed methodology, a combination of the YLD2004-18p model and Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model (GTN) is considered. As demonstrated, the implementation is really obtained in a very simple way.

  18. A constitutive law for degrading bioresorbable polymers.

    PubMed

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a constitutive law that predicts the changes in elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and ultimate tensile strength of bioresorbable polymers due to biodegradation. During biodegradation, long polymer chains are cleaved by hydrolysis reaction. For semi-crystalline polymers, the chain scissions also lead to crystallisation. Treating each scission as a cavity and each new crystal as a solid inclusion, a degrading semi-crystalline polymer can be modelled as a continuum solid containing randomly distributed cavities and crystal inclusions. The effective elastic properties of a degrading polymer are calculated using existing theories for such solid and the tensile strength of the degrading polymer is predicted using scaling relations that were developed for porous materials. The theoretical model for elastic properties and the scaling law for strength form a complete constitutive relation for the degrading polymers. It is shown that the constitutive law can capture the trend of the experimental data in the literature for a range of biodegradable polymers fairly well. PMID:26971070

  19. The Economics of the U.S. Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    In conjunction with the United States Constitution's Bicentennial, this issue is devoted to the contributions the Constitution has made in shaping the U.S. economic system. The main article, "The Economics of the Constitution," provides important insights on how the Constitution influences the economic system through answers to the following…

  20. Power: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The fourth in a special series of handbooks dealing with constitutional themes, this document looks at power in the context of the U.S. Constitution. "The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom" (L. Peach) examines the separation of powers provided for in the Constitution. "The Concept of Power" (C. Roach) is a series of strategies, some using…

  1. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when...

  2. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when...

  3. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when...

  4. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when...

  5. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when...

  6. Constitutive equations of ageing polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The constitutive equation for the relaxation behavior of time-dependent, chemically unstable materials developed by Valanis and Peng (1983), which used the irreversible thermodynamics of internal variables in Eyring's absolute reaction theory and yielded a theoretical expression for the effect of chemical crosslink density on the relaxation rate, is presently applied to the creep behavior of a network polymer which is undergoing a scission process. In particular, two equations are derived which may for the first time show the relations between mechanical models and internal variables in the creep expressions, using a three-element model with a Maxwell element.

  7. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  9. Photoreceptor cells constitutively express functional TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Zhidan; Portillo, Jose-Andres; Howell, Scott; Bu, Hong; Subauste, Carlos S.; Al-Ubaidi, Muayyad R; Pearlman, Eric; Lin, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed on a number of cells including neurons in the brain. However, it has yet to be determined if TLR4 is expressed on photoreceptor cells in the retina. In this report, we examined primary photoreceptor cells and an established photoreceptor cell line (661W). We found that functional TLR4 is constitutively expressed on photoreceptor cells, and can be activated by LPS. We conclude that TLR4 on photoreceptor cells could directly contribute to retinal inflammatory diseases and photoreceptor cell survival. PMID:20801528

  10. Constitutive parameter measurements of lossy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominek, A.; Park, A.

    1989-01-01

    The electrical constitutive parameters of lossy materials are considered. A discussion of the NRL arch for lossy coatings is presented involving analytical analyses of the reflected field using the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) and physical optics (PO). The actual values for these parameters can be obtained through a traditional transmission technique which is examined from an error analysis standpoint. Alternate sample geometries are suggested for this technique to reduce sample tolerance requirements for accurate parameter determination. The performance for one alternate geometry is given.

  11. Civil and Constitutional Rights of Adjudicated Youth.

    PubMed

    Landess, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders.

  12. Relationships among certain joint constitutive models.

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Starr, Michael James

    2004-09-01

    In a recent paper, Starr and Segalman demonstrated that any Masing model can be represented as a parallel-series Iwan model. A preponderance of the constitutive models that have been suggested for simulating mechanical joints are Masing models, and the purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate how the Iwan representation of those models can yield insight into their character. In particular, this approach can facilitate a critical comparison among numerous plausible constitutive models. It is explicitly shown that three-parameter models such as Smallwood's (Ramberg-Osgood) calculate parameters in such a manner that macro-slip is not an independent parameter, yet the model admits macro-slip. The introduction of a fourth parameter is therefore required. It is shown that when a macro-slip force is specified for the Smallwood model the result is a special case of the Segalman four-parameter model. Both of these models admit a slope discontinuity at the inception of macro-slip. A five-parameter model that has the beneficial features of Segalman's four-parameter model is proposed. This model manifests a force-displacement curve having a continuous first derivative.

  13. Space shuttle propellant constitutive law verification tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, James R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Propellants Task (Task 2.0) on the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP), a database of material properties was generated for the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) PBAN-based propellant. A parallel effort on the Propellants Task was the generation of an improved constitutive theory for the PBAN propellant suitable for use in a finite element analysis (FEA) of the RSRM. The outcome of an analysis with the improved constitutive theory would be more reliable prediction of structural margins of safety. The work described in this report was performed by Materials Laboratory personnel at Thiokol Corporation/Huntsville Division under NASA contract NAS8-39619, Mod. 3. The report documents the test procedures for the refinement and verification tests for the improved Space Shuttle RSRM propellant material model, and summarizes the resulting test data. TP-H1148 propellant obtained from mix E660411 (manufactured February 1989) which had experienced ambient igloo storage in Huntsville, Alabama since January 1990, was used for these tests.

  14. Constitutive equations for an electroactive polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier, Mireille; Pouget, Joël

    2016-07-01

    Ionic electroactive polymers can be used as sensors or actuators. For this purpose, a thin film of polyelectrolyte is saturated with a solvent and sandwiched between two platinum electrodes. The solvent causes a complete dissociation of the polymer and the release of small cations. The application of an electric field across the thickness results in the bending of the strip and vice versa. The material is modeled by a two-phase continuous medium. The solid phase, constituted by the polymer backbone inlaid with anions, is depicted as a deformable porous media. The liquid phase is composed of the free cations and the solvent (usually water). We used a coarse grain model. The conservation laws of this system have been established in a previous work. The entropy balance law and the thermodynamic relations are first written for each phase and then for the complete material using a statistical average technique and the material derivative concept. One deduces the entropy production. Identifying generalized forces and fluxes provides the constitutive equations of the whole system: the stress-strain relations which satisfy a Kelvin-Voigt model, generalized Fourier's and Darcy's laws and the Nernst-Planck equation.

  15. Constitutive mutations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens transcriptional activator virG.

    PubMed Central

    Pazour, G J; Ta, C N; Das, A

    1992-01-01

    The virulence (vir) genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmids are positively regulated by virG in conjunction with virA and plant-derived inducing molecules. A procedure that utilizes both genetic selection and a genetic screen was developed to isolate mutations in virG that led to elevated levels of vir gene expression in the absence of virA and plant phenolic inducers. Mutants were isolated at a frequency of 1 in 10(7) to 10(8). Substitution mutations at two positions in the virG coding region were found to result in the desired phenotype. One mutant had an asparagine-to-aspartic acid substitution at residue 54, and the other contained an isoleucine-to-leucine substitution at residue 106. In both cases, the mutant phenotype required the presence of the active-site aspartic acid residue at position 52. Further analysis showed that no other substitution at residue 54 resulted in a constitutive phenotype. In contrast, several substitutions at residue 106 led to a constitutive phenotype. The possible roles of the residues at positions 54 and 106 in VirG function are discussed. PMID:1597431

  16. [Functional type of the constitution (systematic analysis of individual-typological characteristics of an organism)].

    PubMed

    Kolpakov, V V; Bespalova, T V; Tomolova, E A; Shtork, T E; Mamchits, E V; Lar'kina, N Iu; Tkachuk, A A

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the statistical distribution of feature based chi2 and lambda criteria and average data somatometric, functional and psycho-physiological indices in the total sample of individuals with low, medium and high habitual physical activity (LHPA, M H PA and HHP A) at different stages of ontogenesis (the older preschool and early school children, boys and girls) has identified a fairly wide area of different quality and physiological individuality in a healthy population and the feasibility of allocating the three typological groups--functional constitution types (FTC-1 - LHPA, FTC-2 - MHPA, FTC-3 - HHPA). Set model parameters of the first and second order for each FTC, as well as performance tests of the third order, describing the current functional state. For the full specifications of the constitutional membership (synthetic constitution) of individuals with low, medium and high-held PDA integral assessment of their properties by using the principles polythetic (multidimensional) classification. Obtained by means of multivariate statistical methods results confirmed the postulate of the concept of typological variability of physiological individuality real different quality of healthy human population on the morphofunctional and psycho-physiological grounds and conducted a comprehensive physiological and statistical analysis of results allowed us to scientifically justify the selection of three functional types of constitution (PTC-1, FTC-2, FTC-3), corresponding to three types of synthetic constitutive (K 0-1, K 00, K 01). The data obtained show that the system (constitutional) approach to the evaluation of individual-typological characteristics of the organism confirms the high information private constitution(PTC-1, FTC-2, FTC-3) in human biological organization, and the selected feature set can adequately differentiate the synthetic constitutional types in a formal basis.

  17. [Body composition and constitution: a constitutional syndrome (1st of 2 parts)].

    PubMed

    Terán Díaz, E

    1999-04-01

    Constitutional syndrome alters body constitution modifying (usually decreasing) two of its dimensions--weight and perimeters--by changing the composition of one, several or every body levels. Apart of the cause, the basic physiopathological process that characterizes this new syndrome is the amino acid mobilization from the muscle (proteolysis). As soon as fat loss has no consequence to the organism, proteolysis reduces the muscle mass and life is in danger. Actually, there is no effective treatment to improve the nitrogen balance by medication or hormones in speed catabolic states but it can also approach us to more proper therapeutics for these so frequent processes in clinic.

  18. Rotational and constitutional dynamics of caged supramolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kühne, Dirk; Klappenberger, Florian; Krenner, Wolfgang; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Barth, Johannes V.

    2010-01-01

    The confinement of molecular species in nanoscale environments leads to intriguing dynamic phenomena. Notably, the organization and rotational motions of individual molecules were controlled by carefully designed, fully supramolecular host architectures. Here we use an open 2D coordination network on a smooth metal surface to steer the self-assembly of discrete trimeric guest units, identified as noncovalently bound dynamers. Each caged chiral supramolecule performs concerted, chirality-preserving rotary motions within the template honeycomb pore, which are visualized and quantitatively analyzed using temperature-controlled scanning tunneling microscopy. Furthermore, with higher thermal energies, a constitutional system dynamics appears, which is revealed by monitoring repetitive switching events of the confined supramolecules’ chirality signature, reflecting decay and reassembly of the caged units. PMID:21098303

  19. [Constitutions and generalities in traditional Tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    Rovere, P M

    1986-04-28

    The present work is the result of a preliminary study promoted by C.I.S.ME.T. (the International Tibetan Medicine Study Centre) and aims to unify the diagnostic and therapeutic language of various medical cultures. In line with the spirit of the W.H.O. aimed at safeguarding the cultural heritage represented by popular and traditional medicine, encouraged by the Tibetan Medical Centre and under the auspices of His Holiness the Dalai Lama a terminological and conceptual integration of the basic elements of traditional Tibetan medicine is proposed. The Rlung, Bad Kan, Mkris Pa constitution is correlated with embryological anatomy. The 5 exhalations, 5 biles and 5 phlegbs are analysed from a tissue viewpoint with a search for parallels with embryological tissues.

  20. Constituting objectivity: Transcendental perspectives on modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in exploring Kantian approaches in the study of the history and philosophy of physics. The most well-known examples of this trend-Friedman's (2001), Ryckman's (2005) and DiSalle's (2006)-focus on Kantianism in the context of the development of the general theory of relativity. The edited collection Constituting Objectivity seeks to develop key Kantian insights-in the most part-in the context of later developments in physics: as well as discussing relativity the volume also provides Kantian interpretations of Bohr's development of quantum theory and continues to provide Kantian insight from later interpretations of quantum mechanics all the way through to considering noncommutative geometry and loop quantum gravity. The volume contains papers on a wide variety of subjects and offers an essential introduction to the breadth of Kantian trends in modern physics.

  1. Laboratory constitutive characterization of cellular concrete.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

    2004-03-01

    To establish mechanical material properties of cellular concrete mixes, a series of quasi-static, compression and tension tests have been completed. This report summarizes the test methods, set-up, relevant observations, and results from the constitutive experimental efforts. Results from the uniaxial and triaxial compression tests established failure criteria for the cellular concrete in terms of stress invariants I{sub 1} and J{sub 2}. {radical}J{sub 2} (MPa) = 297.2 - 278.7 exp{sup -0.000455 I}{sub 1}{sup (MPa)} for the 90-pcf concrete {radical}J{sub 2} (MPa) = 211.4 - 204.2 exp {sup -0.000628 I}{sub 1}{sup (MPa)} for the 60-pcf concrete

  2. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  3. Multiscale constitutive modeling of polymer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valavala, Pavan Kumar

    Materials are inherently multi-scale in nature consisting of distinct characteristics at various length scales from atoms to bulk material. There are no widely accepted predictive multi-scale modeling techniques that span from atomic level to bulk relating the effects of the structure at the nanometer (10-9 meter) on macro-scale properties. Traditional engineering deals with treating matter as continuous with no internal structure. In contrast to engineers, physicists have dealt with matter in its discrete structure at small length scales to understand fundamental behavior of materials. Multiscale modeling is of great scientific and technical importance as it can aid in designing novel materials that will enable us to tailor properties specific to an application like multi-functional materials. Polymer nanocomposite materials have the potential to provide significant increases in mechanical properties relative to current polymers used for structural applications. The nanoscale reinforcements have the potential to increase the effective interface between the reinforcement and the matrix by orders of magnitude for a given reinforcement volume fraction as relative to traditional micro- or macro-scale reinforcements. To facilitate the development of polymer nanocomposite materials, constitutive relationships must be established that predict the bulk mechanical properties of the materials as a function of the molecular structure. A computational hierarchical multiscale modeling technique is developed to study the bulk-level constitutive behavior of polymeric materials as a function of its molecular chemistry. Various parameters and modeling techniques from computational chemistry to continuum mechanics are utilized for the current modeling method. The cause and effect relationship of the parameters are studied to establish an efficient modeling framework. The proposed methodology is applied to three different polymers and validated using experimental data available in

  4. Private Higher Education and the Constitutions; Constitutionality of State Aid to Private Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ann Van Wynen; Thomas, A. J., Jr.

    This report discusses the constitutionality of state aid to church-related institutions of higher education. The introduction deals with the important role that private institutions play in the total system of higher education, the seriousness of their financial plight, and the necessity for increased state aid to these institutions. Sections 2…

  5. Pinning down the Constitution: Interactively Teaching Congress's Power, Federalism, and Constitutional Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "Pin-the-Tail-on-the-Constitution" is an engaged-learning activity that has been conducted in 26 classes over the past four years. The activity teaches multiple themes commonly included in a variety of courses on American politics such as federalism, congressional powers, the role of the federal courts, and the relevance of the commerce…

  6. Implementing the Equal Access Act and State Constitutional Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the issue of whether implementation of the Equal Access Act would violate the constitutions of some states that require a stricter separation of church and state than the federal Constitution. (MLF)

  7. Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to show main entrance - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Perspective view looking along the Constitution Avenue facade, showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view looking along the Constitution Avenue facade, showing the twenty-seven bays and the three central arches that mark the entrance to the building - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched gateways and pedimented pavilion ("Commerce and Communication" sculpted pediment) - Interstate Commerce Commission, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    With the increasing use of advanced ceramic materials in high-temperature structural applications such as advanced heat engine components, the need arises to accurately predict thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time-dependent and that is hereditary in the sense that the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but also on the material's thermomechanical history. Most current analytical life prediction methods for both subcritical crack growth and creep models use elastic stress fields to predict the time-dependent reliability response of components subjected to elevated service temperatures. Inelastic response at high temperatures has been well documented in the materials science literature for these material systems, but this issue has been ignored by the engineering design community. From a design engineer's perspective, it is imperative to emphasize that accurate predictions of time-dependent reliability demand accurate stress field information. Ceramic materials exhibit different time-dependent behavior in tension and compression. Thus, inelastic deformation models for ceramics must be constructed in a fashion that admits both sensitivity to hydrostatic stress and differing behavior in tension and compression. A number of constitutive theories for materials that exhibit sensitivity to the hydrostatic component of stress have been proposed that characterize deformation using time-independent classical plasticity as a foundation. However, none of these theories allow different behavior in tension and compression. In addition, these theories are somewhat lacking in that they are unable to capture the creep, relaxation, and rate-sensitive phenomena exhibited by ceramic materials at high temperatures. The objective of this effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center has been to formulate a macroscopic continuum theory that captures these time-dependent phenomena. Specifically, the effort has focused on inelastic deformation behavior associated

  11. Frederick Douglass Changed My Mind about the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, James

    2008-01-01

    Frederick Douglass dramatically and publicly changed his own mind about the Constitution. Like Frederick Douglass, the author had originally viewed the Constitution as pro-slavery. Yet a close look at Douglass's writings revealed a Constitution that empowered the federal government to abolish slavery.

  12. Resolution and Letter to Congress from the Constitutional Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the drafting of the United States Constitution. The United States Constitution is the longest-lasting written national constitution in the world. Its four parchment pages serve as the blueprint for a government under which more than 290 million Americans live. It holds great significance for the American people and for others…

  13. The Separation of Church and State. Exploring the Constitution Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Darien A.

    This textbook on the separation of church and state continues the "Exploring the Constitution Series," which introduces important areas of constitutional law. Intended to serve either as a reference work, a supplement to a standard textbook, or as the textbook for a course, this volume covers the constitutional issues of prayer in public schools,…

  14. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  15. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  16. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  17. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  18. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  19. Constitution Day: Start the School Year with Civics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Eli J.

    2006-01-01

    The celebration and recognition of Constitution Day on September 17th is now required by federal law. The new law, known colloquially as the Byrd Amendment, requires all schools receiving any federal assistance, from kindergarten to higher education, to teach students about the Constitution on Constitution Day. The concept of a school's civic…

  20. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  1. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  2. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  3. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  4. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  5. Health care for Micronesians and constitutional rights.

    PubMed

    Shek, Dina; Yamada, Seiji

    2011-11-01

    Under the Compacts of Free Association (COFA), people from the Freely Associated States--the Republic of Palau (ROP), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)--have been migrating to the United States in increasing numbers. In 1996, Congress passed broad welfare reform (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) which limited certain federal benefits previously available to COFA migrants, including Medicaid benefits. Prior to July 2010, the State of Hawai'i had continued to include COFA migrants under its state-funded Medicaid program. In the face of budget constraints, the State removed these people from its Medicaid rolls. A challenge on the legal basis of the denial of equal protection of the laws, ie, the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, was successful in reinstating health care to the COFA migrants in December 2010. From the health worker's perspective, regardless of various social justice arguments that may have been marshaled in favor of delivering health care to the people, it was an appeal to the judicial system that succeeded. From the attorney's perspective, the legal victories are potentially limited to the four walls of the courtroom without community involvement and related social justice movements. Together, the authors propose that in order to better address the issue of health care access for Micronesian peoples, we must work together, as health and legal advocates, to define a more robust vision of both systems that includes reconciliation and community engagement. PMID:22235150

  6. Improvements to constitutive material model for fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morea, Mihai I.

    2011-12-01

    The high strength to weight ratio of woven fabric offers a cost effective solution to be used in a containment system for aircraft propulsion engines. Currently, Kevlar is the only Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved fabric for usage in systems intended to mitigate fan blade-out events. This research builds on an earlier constitutive model of Kevlar 49 fabric developed at Arizona State University (ASU) with the addition of new and improved modeling details. Latest stress strain experiments provided new and valuable data used to modify the material model post peak behavior. These changes reveal an overall improvement of the Finite Element (FE) model's ability to predict experimental results. First, the steel projectile is modeled using Johnson-Cook material model and provides a more realistic behavior in the FE ballistic models. This is particularly noticeable when comparing FE models with laboratory tests where large deformations in projectiles are observed. Second, follow-up analysis of the results obtained through the new picture frame tests conducted at ASU provides new values for the shear moduli and corresponding strains. The new approach for analysis of data from picture frame tests combines digital image analysis and a two-level factorial optimization formulation. Finally, an additional improvement in the material model for Kevlar involves checking the convergence at variation of mesh density of fabrics. The study performed and described herein shows the converging trend, therefore validating the FE model.

  7. Health Care for Micronesians and Constitutional Rights

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Under the Compacts of Free Association (COFA), people from the Freely Associated States — the Republic of Palau (ROP), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) — have been migrating to the United States in increasing numbers. In 1996, Congress passed broad welfare reform (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) which limited certain federal benefits previously available to COFA migrants, including Medicaid benefits. Prior to July 2010, the State of Hawai‘i had continued to include COFA migrants under its state-funded Medicaid program. In the face of budget constraints, the State removed these people from its Medicaid rolls. A challenge on the legal basis of the denial of equal protection of the laws, ie, the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, was successful in reinstating health care to the COFA migrants in December 2010. From the health worker's perspective, regardless of various social justice arguments that may have been marshaled in favor of delivering health care to the people, it was an appeal to the judicial system that succeeded. From the attorney's perspective, the legal victories are potentially limited to the four walls of the courtroom without community involvement and related social justice movements. Together, the authors propose that in order to better address the issue of health care access for Micronesian peoples, we must work together, as health and legal advocates, to define a more robust vision of both systems that includes reconciliation and community engagement. PMID:22235150

  8. Constitutive Modeling of Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M. G.; Piao, K.; Wagoner, R. H.; Lee, J. K.; Chung, K.; Kim, H. Y.

    2007-05-17

    Magnesium alloy sheets have unique mechanical properties: high in-plane anisotropy/asymmetry of yield stress and hardening response, which have not been thoroughly studied. The unusual mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys has been understood by the limited symmetry crystal structure of h.c.p metals and thus by deformation twinning. In this paper, the phenomenological continuum plasticity models considering the unusual plastic behavior of magnesium alloy sheet were developed for a finite element analysis. A new hardening law based on two-surface model was developed to consider the general stress-strain response of metal sheets such as Bauschinger effect, transient behavior and the unusual asymmetry. Three deformation modes observed during the continuous tension/compression tests were mathematically formulated with simplified relations between the state of deformation and their histories. In terms of the anisotropy and asymmetry of the initial yield stress, the Drucker-Prager's pressure dependent yield surface was modified to include the anisotropy of magnesium alloys. Also, characterization procedures of material parameters for the constitutive equations were presented and finally the correlation of simulation with measurements was performed to validate the proposed theory.

  9. Covariant constitutive relations and relativistic inhomogeneous plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gratus, J.; Tucker, R. W.

    2011-04-15

    The notion of a 2-point susceptibility kernel used to describe linear electromagnetic responses of dispersive continuous media in nonrelativistic phenomena is generalized to accommodate the constraints required of a causal formulation in spacetimes with background gravitational fields. In particular the concepts of spatial material inhomogeneity and temporal nonstationarity are formulated within a fully covariant spacetime framework. This framework is illustrated by recasting the Maxwell-Vlasov equations for a collisionless plasma in a form that exposes a 2-point electromagnetic susceptibility kernel in spacetime. This permits the establishment of a perturbative scheme for nonstationary inhomogeneous plasma configurations. Explicit formulae for the perturbed kernel are derived in both the presence and absence of gravitation using the general solution to the relativistic equations of motion of the plasma constituents. In the absence of gravitation this permits an analysis of collisionless damping in terms of a system of integral equations that reduce to standard Landau damping of Langmuir modes when the perturbation refers to a homogeneous stationary plasma configuration. It is concluded that constitutive modeling in terms of a 2-point susceptibility kernel in a covariant spacetime framework offers a natural extension of standard nonrelativistic descriptions of simple media and that its use for describing linear responses of more general dispersive media has wide applicability in relativistic plasma modeling.

  10. Constitutive model for the dynamic response of a NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xiangguo; Chen, Huayan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, based on irreversible thermodynamic theory, the Helmholtz free energy function, was selected to deduce both the master equations and evolution equations of the constitutive model of a NiTi alloy under high strain. The Helmholtz free energy function contains the parameters of the reflecting phase transition and plastic property. The constitutive model for a NiTi alloy was implemented using a semi-implicit stress integration algorithm. Four successive stages can be differentiated and simulated: parent phase elasticity, martensitic phase transition, martensitic elasticity, and dislocation yield. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. How Does Astronomy Constitute A Learning Community?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Yasemin; Sengul, R.; Unat, O.; Aknil, A.; Gurel, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in Turkey within an interdisciplinary project called "From a windowless home to a skyscraper: Let's build a home". It was realized through collaboration between a public university and a private high school. Researchers from Physics Education Department and volunteer teachers from high school, each studying on a different discipline, and volunteer high school students, all from an urban area of the country, conducted the project in a rural small town with resident secondary school students. It was implemented on the basis of history, through the use of different fields such as science, mathematics, geography, art, handcraft, architecture, engineering and astronomy in August 2008. The purpose of this study was to present the effect of the astronomical activities involved in the project. These implementations constructed a scientific and social base for the framework of astronomical activities of IYA2009, including building an amateur observatory. Since today's people are not so much acquainted with the issues of space and astronomy as much as the people of Antiquity, we attached special importance to the efforts in this field. The project, proceeded by a preparatory and informative period, involved night sky observation, initially with naked eye, followed by observation through telescope. Not only the students but also countless people, old or young, participated in our work in the field of astronomy. It provided a chance for all the people participating in or connected to the project to discover the sky. Astronomical activities aroused curiosity among students and the community and made a difference by inducing an awareness of the sky. The participants of the study had completely different social and cultural backgrounds, and this study removed all these differences bringing them together under the overarching astronomical and historical aspect. Moreover the community revealed all the characteristics that constitute a learning community.

  12. How Does Astronomy Constitute a Learning Community?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Yasemin; Sengul, R.; Unat, O.; Aknil, A.; Gurel, Z.

    2009-05-01

    This study was conducted in Turkey within an interdisciplinary project called "From a windowless home to a skyscraper: Let's build a home". It was realized through collaboration between a public university and a private high school. Researchers from Physics Education Department and volunteer teachers from high school, each studying on a different discipline, and volunteer high school students, all from an urban area of the country, conducted the project in a rural small town with resident secondary school students. It was implemented on the basis of history, through the use of different fields such as science, mathematics, geography, art, handcraft, architecture, engineering and astronomy in August 2008. The purpose of this study was to present the effect of the astronomical activities involved in the project. Since today's people are not so much acquainted with the issues of space and astronomy as much as the people of Antiquity, we attached special importance to the efforts in this field. The project, proceeded by a preparatory and informative period, involved night sky observation, initially with naked eye, followed by observation through a telescope. Not only the students but also countless people, old or young, participated in our work in the field of astronomy. It provided a chance for all the people participating in or connected to the project to discover the sky. Astronomical activities aroused curiosity among students and the community and made a difference by inducing an awareness of the sky. The participants of the study had completely different social and cultural backgrounds, and this study removed all these differences bringing them together under the overarching astronomical and historical aspect. Moreover the community revealed all the characteristics that constitute a learning community.

  13. The normative constitution of professional power.

    PubMed

    Frankford, D M

    1997-02-01

    This article concerns the manner in which we think and talk about power in health care policy and regulation, and the political and social practices allied with that discourse. I assert that in health care policy and practice we speak of and live within the era of countervailing power. In this language and practice power is a force exercised by one actor to enforce its will against another actor against whom power is exerted. I contend that this language inculcates an individual and social passivity in which citizens rely upon various types of representatives to constitute health care for them in a manner in which they do not and cannot participate. However, this language of power and the political and social practice with which it is associated is merely a contingent, historical product. I claim that an alternative discourse of power is possible, in which power consists of the social interactions in which all of us mutually participate but no one of us can control. Power in this sense is participatory by nature, and because no one is in control, it makes no sense to relegate tasks to specialized, nonparticipatory domains. This alternative discourse of power, therefore, might call forth participatory practices in health care and a concomitant diminution of specialization and expansion of the public sphere. The result would be to blur the lines separating politics from everyday interaction, politics from economy, professionals from patients, and insurers from insureds. Participation would mean much more than casting a vote or writing a check but would also include the mutual sharing of time and energy in the tasks that need to be done: long-term and short-term care, practices of prevention, caring for the chronically ill, and monitoring bureaucratic and professional activities. PMID:9057126

  14. A Method for the Construction of Hereditary Constitutive Equations of Laminates Bases on a Hereditary Constitutive Equation for a Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumansky, Alexander M.; Tairova, Lyudmila P.

    2008-09-01

    A method for the construction of hereditary constitutive equation is proposed for the laminate on the basis of hereditary constitutive equations of a layer. The method is developed from the assumption that in the directions of axes of orthotropy the layer follows elastic behavior, and obeys hereditary constitutive equations under shear. The constitutive equations of the laminate are constructed on the basis of classical laminate theory and algebra of resolvent operators. Effective matrix algorithm and relationships of operator algebra are used to derive visco-elastic stiffness and compliance of the laminate. The example of construction of hereditary constitutive equations of cross-ply carbon fiber-reinforced plastic is presented.

  15. 77 FR 63309 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping Period for the Planned Constitution Pipeline Project On October 24, 2012, the Federal... Constitution Pipeline Company's (Constitution) Constitution Pipeline Project. This notice also extends...

  16. What constitutes our understanding of a patient?

    PubMed

    Chessick, R D

    1993-01-01

    aspects of prevailing ideologies in constituting and determining what we call truth and understanding, including the "understanding" of a patient in psychotherapy. An example of the postmodern blend of philosophy and psychoanalysis is presented by Arlow's emphasis on unconscious fantasies and his insightful comments on how these unconscious fantasies organize and determine what we experience from the very beginning of life. This I believe is most consistent with Rescher's philosophical notion of "conceptual idealism," also briefly reviewed in this paper.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  17. Division G Commission 35: Stellar Constitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limongi, Marco; Lattanzio, John C.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Dominguez, Inma; Isern, Jordi; Karakas, Amanda; Leitherer, Claus; Marconi, Marcella; Shaviv, Giora; van Loon, Jacco

    2016-04-01

    Commission 35 (C35), ``Stellar Constitution'', consists of members of the International Astronomical Union whose research spans many aspects of theoretical and observational stellar physics and it is mainly focused on the comprehension of the properties of stars, stellar populations and galaxies. The number of members of C35 increased progressively over the last ten years and currently C35 comprises about 400 members. C35 was part of Division IV (Stars) until 2014 and then became part of Division G (Stars and Stellar Physics), after the main IAU reorganisation in 2015. Four Working Groups have been created over the years under Division IV, initially, and Division G later: WG on Active B Stars, WG on Massive Stars, WG on Abundances in Red Giant and WG on Chemically Peculiar and Related Stars. In the last decade the Commission had 4 presidents, Wojciech Dziembowski (2003-2006), Francesca D'Antona (2006-2009), Corinne Charbonnel (2009-2012) and Marco Limongi (2012-2015), who were assisted by an Organizing Committee (OC), usually composed of about 10 members, all of them elected by the C35 members and holding their positions for three years. The C35 webpage (http://iau-c35.stsci.edu) has been designed and continuously maintained by Claus Leitherer from the Space Telescope Institute, who deserves our special thanks. In addition to the various general information on the Commission structure and activities, it contains links to various resources, of interest for the members, such as stellar models, evolutionary tracks and isochrones, synthetic stellar populations, stellar yields and input physics (equation of state, nuclear cross sections, opacity tables), provided by various groups. The main activity of the C35 OC is that of evaluating, ranking and eventually supporting the proposals for IAU sponsored meetings. In the last decade the Commission has supported several meetings focused on topics more or less relevant to C35. Since the primary aim of this document is to

  18. Structural Basis for Receptor-Mediated Selective Autophagy of Aminopeptidase I Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akinori; Watanabe, Yasunori; Adachi, Wakana; Suzuki, Kuninori; Matoba, Kazuaki; Kirisako, Hiromi; Kumeta, Hiroyuki; Nakatogawa, Hitoshi; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Noda, Nobuo N

    2016-06-28

    Selective autophagy mediates the degradation of various cargoes, including protein aggregates and organelles, thereby contributing to cellular homeostasis. Cargo receptors ensure selectivity by tethering specific cargo to lipidated Atg8 at the isolation membrane. However, little is known about the structural requirements underlying receptor-mediated cargo recognition. Here, we report structural, biochemical, and cell biological analysis of the major selective cargo protein in budding yeast, aminopeptidase I (Ape1), and its complex with the receptor Atg19. The Ape1 propeptide has a trimeric coiled-coil structure, which tethers dodecameric Ape1 bodies together to form large aggregates. Atg19 disassembles the propeptide trimer and forms a 2:1 heterotrimer, which not only blankets the Ape1 aggregates but also regulates their size. These receptor activities may promote elongation of the isolation membrane along the aggregate surface, enabling sequestration of the cargo with high specificity. PMID:27320913

  19. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and fatigue data, tests were conducted on uncoated and coated specimens loaded in the CH76 100 CH110 , CH76 110 CH110 , CH76 111 CH110 and CH76 123 CH110 crystallographic directions. Two constitutive models are being developed and evaluated for the single crystal materials: a micromechanic model based on crystallographic slip systems, and a macroscopic model which employs anisotropic tensors to model inelastic deformation anisotropy. Based on tests conducted on the overlay coating material, constitutive models for coatings also appear feasible and two initial models were selected. A life prediction approach was proposed for coated single crystal materials, including crack initiation either in the coating or in the substrate. The coating initiated failures dominated in the tests at load levels typical of gas turbine operation. Coating life was related to coating stress/strain history which was determined from specimen data using the constitutive models.

  20. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program. Annual Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, G.A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D.M.; Norris, P.P.; Meyer, T.G.; Walker, K.P.

    1986-02-01

    This report presents the results of the first year of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and/or fatigue data, tests were conducted on coated and uncoated PWA 1480 specimens tensilely loaded in the 100, 110, 111, and 123 directions. A literature survey of constitutive models was completed for both single crystal alloys and metallic coating materials; candidate models were selected. One constitutive model under consideration for single crystal alloys applies Walker's micromechanical viscoplastic formulation to all slip systems participating in the single crystal deformation. The constitutive models for the overlay coating correlate the viscoplastic data well. For the aluminide coating, a unique test method is under development. LCF and TMF tests are underway. The two coatings caused a significant drop in fatigue life, and each produced a much different failure mechanism.

  1. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first year of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and/or fatigue data, tests were conducted on coated and uncoated PWA 1480 specimens tensilely loaded in the 100 , 110 , 111 , and 123 directions. A literature survey of constitutive models was completed for both single crystal alloys and metallic coating materials; candidate models were selected. One constitutive model under consideration for single crystal alloys applies Walker's micromechanical viscoplastic formulation to all slip systems participating in the single crystal deformation. The constitutive models for the overlay coating correlate the viscoplastic data well. For the aluminide coating, a unique test method is under development. LCF and TMF tests are underway. The two coatings caused a significant drop in fatigue life, and each produced a much different failure mechanism.

  2. Study Guide for the United States Constitution and Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagemann, Frances L.

    Presented in this document are a student's study guide and an accompanying teacher's manual. The purpose of the study guide is to present information on (1) what the U.S. Constitution means, (2) how the U.S. government is organized, (3) why the Constitution is a living document, and (4) why the Constitution is a source of pride for U.S. citizens.…

  3. Phyto-SERM Constitutes from Flemingia macrophylla

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Tsui, Ya-Ting; Singab, Abdel Nasser B.; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Du, Ying-Chi; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wu, Chin-Chung; Yen, Ming-Hong; Lee, Ching-Kuo; Hou, Ming-Feng; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Flemingia macrophylla roots exhibited significant estrogenic activity in the transgenic plant assay system which was comparable to the activity of soybean extract. Utilizing estrogenic activity-guided fractionation, one new compound, fleminigin, together with 23 known compounds were isolated from F. macrophylla roots’ methanolic extract. The structure of the new compound was identified based on intensive spectroscopic analysis and the full spectral data for one of the isolated compounds, flemichin E, was introduced for the first time in the current investigation. The estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated revealing that the isolated isoflavonoids may act as partial estrogen agonists, as well as antagonists. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory and the cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were studied. These results suggested the potential applications of F. macrophylla extract and its isolated compounds as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). PMID:23896592

  4. Nonlinear Constitutive Relations for High Temperature Application, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications were discussed. The state of the art in nonlinear constitutive modeling of high temperature materials was reviewed and the need for future research and development efforts in this area was identified. Considerable research efforts are urgently needed in the development of nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications prompted by recent advances in high temperature materials technology and new demands on material and component performance. Topics discussed include: constitutive modeling, numerical methods, material testing, and structural applications.

  5. Thermodynamic restrictions on the constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, B. D.; Dill, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    Thermodynamics second law restrictions on constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory for nonlinear materials with long-range gradually fading memory, considering dissipation principle consequences

  6. Constitutive equations for discrete electromagnetic problems over polyhedral grids

    SciTech Connect

    Codecasa, Lorenzo . E-mail: codecasa@elet.polimi.it; Trevisan, Francesco . E-mail: trevisan@uniud.it

    2007-08-10

    In this paper a novel approach is proposed for constructing discrete counterparts of constitutive equations over polyhedral grids which ensure both consistency and stability of the algebraic equations discretizing an electromagnetic field problem. The idea is to construct discrete constitutive equations preserving the thermodynamic relations for constitutive equations. In this way, consistency and stability of the discrete equations are ensured. At the base, a purely geometric condition between the primal and the dual grids has to be satisfied for a given primal polyhedral grid, by properly choosing the dual grid. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed discrete constitutive equations lead to accurate approximations of the electromagnetic field.

  7. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results from a 35 month period of a program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program is composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addresses the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigates the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involve experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material form the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: (001), (011), (111), and (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal material were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were selected for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. An initial life model used to correlate smooth and notched fatigue data obtained in the option program shows promise. Computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive models was developed.

  8. Constitutive properties of hypertrophied myocardium: cellular contribution to changes in myocardial stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Todd S.; Baicu, Catalin F.; Conrad, Chester H.; Koide, Masaaki; Buckley, J. Michael; Barnes, Mary; Cooper, George 4th; Zile, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pressure overload hypertrophy (POH) alters the viscoelastic properties of individual cardiocytes when studied in isolation. However, whether these changes in cardiocyte properties contribute causally to changes in the material properties of the cardiac muscle as a whole is unknown. Accordingly, a selective, isolated, acute change in cardiocyte constitutive properties was imposed in an in vitro system capable of measuring the resultant effect on the material properties of the composite cardiac muscle. POH caused an increase in both myocardial elastic stiffness, from 20.5 +/- 1.3 to 28.4 +/- 1.8, and viscous damping, from 15.2 +/- 1.1 to 19.8 +/- 1.5 s (normal vs. POH, P < 0.05), respectively. Recent studies have shown that cardiocyte constitutive properties could be acutely altered by depolymerizing the microtubules with colchicine. Colchicine caused a significant decrease in the viscous damping in POH muscles (19.8 +/- 1.5 s at baseline vs. 14.7 +/- 1.3 s after colchicine, P < 0.05). Therefore, myocardial material properties can be altered by selectively changing the constitutive properties of one element within this muscle tissue, the cardiocyte. Changes in the constitutive properties of the cardiocytes themselves contribute to the abnormalities in myocardial stiffness and viscosity that develop during POH.

  9. Teaching about the U.S. Constitution. A Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leming, Robert S.; And Others

    The 200th anniversary of the United States Constitution offers an excellent opportunity for encouraging renewed study of the principles and foundations of constitutional government. This resource packet provides a listing of current materials and resources to aid teachers in planning lesson units. The listings include: (1) professional…

  10. Counting for Representation: The Census and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The census is even more important today than it was 200 years ago. The census is taken to provide equal representation for everyone, and results provide figures for appointment and the distribution of federal funds. The enumeration of the population was included in the U.S. Constitution in Article I, Section 2. The constitutional order to…

  11. The American Solution: Origins of the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Robert A.

    Tracing the history of events that led to the U.S. Constitutional Convention (1787) and to the eventual ratification of the U.S. Constitution, this book presents numerous reproductions of leaders' portraits, documents, and paintings from the U.S. Library of Congress and other collections. Chapter 1, "Was the Revolution a Blessing or a Curse?"…

  12. 27 CFR 19.512 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Authorized Liquor Bottles § 19.512 Bottles not constituting...

  13. 27 CFR 26.316 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... VIRGIN ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.316 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200...

  14. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.206 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200 ml. capacity, for...

  15. 27 CFR 26.316 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... VIRGIN ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.316 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200...

  16. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.206 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200 ml. capacity, for...

  17. Helping Children To Understand the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Minna S.

    Targeted for children aged 5 through 12, this handbook contains some ideas for educational activities, a brief overview of the constitutional development period in U.S. history, and a simplified annotated outline of the Constitution. This material should prove helpful in teaching children the following: (1) the intrinsic values embedded in the…

  18. [Teaching Materials about the U.S. Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, Washington, DC.

    Issued by the Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, this collection of instructional materials is designed to help teach about the United States Constitution. The documents include: "Plant a Living Legacy"; "Teaching Guide to Accompany United States Presidents, 1789-1989"; "Skills Handbook: 200 Years of the U.S.…

  19. Guidelines for Teaching and Testing the Illinois Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield. Instructional Services Unit.

    This document sets forth guidelines for teaching and testing public school students on the principles of democratic government as expressed in the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of Illinois. Identification is made of ways of making the examination required by the state of Illinois not only an integral part of…

  20. Constitutionality of Compulsory Arbitration Statutes in Public Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudohar, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state supreme court rulings on constitutionality issues raised by compulsory arbitration for public employees. Cases are reviewed for the states of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Maine, Michigan, New York, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Washington. Concludes that courts have generally upheld the constitutionality of such…

  1. Equality: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The second in a special four-part series of law-school partnership handbooks on constitutional themes, this document focuses on equality. "Equality--the Forgotten Word" (J. A. Hughes) discusses what has been considered the U.S. Constitution's one flaw, its failure to abolish slavery, and the remedy to that flaw, the Fourteenth Amendment. The issue…

  2. Educational Research as a Reflexive Science of Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    "Constitution" is a relationship of mutual formation between people and their form of life. Neither can exist without the other. In the 1970s, proposals were made in various social sciences, including anthropology, political science, and sociology, for a new kind of inquiry that would focus squarely on constitution. It would be an explicitly…

  3. Elevation view of one of the doorways on the Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of one of the doorways on the Constitution Avenue side of the building; the door is flanked by monumental neoclassical urns carved from granite - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. What Constitution Day Means and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2014-01-01

    For almost three quarters of a century, advocates have worked to give comparable federal stature to September 17, the day on which we celebrate the anniversary of the 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution by the nation's founders. As President John F. Kennedy noted in his 1961 Constitution Day proclamation, it is a day for…

  5. Living Democracy: How Constitution High School Molds Better Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasof, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Philadelphia's Constitution High School (CHS) is committed both to the theory of education for democracy, and to its practice, as reflected by a school constitution, student elections, town hall meetings, and active student participation in school government. As its name indicates, CHS is a theme-based high school that focuses on history,…

  6. Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution Avenue and is nineteen bays long with twelve single columns and two sets of paired columns - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. The Constitutionality of School Choice in New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Charles G., III; Komer, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Does a "school choice" program, under which state funds are disbursed on a neutral basis to parents in the form of a voucher to defray the cost of sending their children to a school of their choice, run afoul of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, or of the New Hampshire Constitution? No. A school…

  8. Review of Resources: Teaching Law and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glade, Mary Elizabeth, Ed.

    This guide provides analyses of curriculum materials that have been designed for teaching about the U.S. Constitution and law-related education. The guide begins with an editor's introduction and two essays, "Constitution Study and Civic Education" (James B. Giese) and "Thinking about Law-Related Education during the Bicentennial" (Barbara…

  9. Constitutionalism and Republicanism in the American Founding: 1776-1787.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dry, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates the development of constitutionalism and republicanism from 1776 to 1787. Discusses the Declaration of Independence, arguments leading up to the Revolution, framing of the Constitution based on compromise, and opposing views of the ratification debate, all of which reveal disagreements over the precise meaning of republicanism. (TRS)

  10. Teaching about the Constitution. NCSS Bulletin No. 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Clair W., Ed.; Schillings, Denny L., Ed.

    This book provides a historical perspective on the changing nature of the United States Constitution and the society it has shaped. Part I focuses on the eighteenth century with chapters on the origins, writing, and ratification of the Constitution. Activities are designed to help students think about the difficulties associated with the creation…

  11. The Constitutionality of Racial Classifications in Public School Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Revisits the Supreme Court's school desegregation jurisprudence, examining the typical analysis applied to this issue by recent lower federal court decisions. Discusses Supreme Court cases applying constitutional provisions to the public education context, suggesting that the constitutional analysis of the use of racial classifications to further…

  12. Initiative for the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    The 200th anniversary of the United States Constitution offers a singular occasion for encouraging renewed scholarly interest in and public reflection about the principles and foundations of constitutional government. Toward that end, this publication presents categories and guidelines within each of the National Endowment for the Humanities…

  13. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... insofar as they are not inconsistent with the provisions of title IV. 53 53 Act, sec. 401(e). Under 29 CFR... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of...

  14. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... insofar as they are not inconsistent with the provisions of title IV. 53 53 Act, sec. 401(e). Under 29 CFR... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of...

  15. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... insofar as they are not inconsistent with the provisions of title IV. 53 53 Act, sec. 401(e). Under 29 CFR... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of...

  16. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... insofar as they are not inconsistent with the provisions of title IV. 53 53 Act, sec. 401(e). Under 29 CFR... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of...

  17. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... insofar as they are not inconsistent with the provisions of title IV. 53 53 Act, sec. 401(e). Under 29 CFR... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of...

  18. Constitutive relations in optics in terms of geometric algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargys, A.

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium the Maxwell equations should be supplemented by constitutive relations. At present the classification of linear constitutive relations is well established in tensorial-matrix and exterior p-form calculus. Here the constitutive relations are found in the context of Clifford geometric algebra. For this purpose Cl1,3 algebra that conforms with relativistic 4D Minkowskian spacetime is used. It is shown that the classification of linear optical phenomena with the help of constitutive relations in this case comes from the structure of Cl1,3 algebra itself. Concrete expressions for constitutive relations which follow from this algebra are presented. They can be applied in calculating the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in any anisotropic, linear and nondissipative medium.

  19. Genetic Approach to Elucidation of Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bu-Yeo; Cha, Seongwon; Jin, Hee-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Sasang Constitutional Medicine (SCM) offers a medical principle that classifies humans into four constitution groups and guides their treatment with constitution-matched medical assistance. The principle of this traditional medicine, although requires significant scientific support, appears to suggest a genetic influence on constitution type. The relative frequency of constitution types in a population, for instance, has remained relatively constant since Jema Lee first described them from his observations. In addition, the body compartment concept of SCM appears to be related to the anterio–posterior patterning of the embryonic gut and associated internal organs. This study describes the attributes of the constitution concept of SCM that can be interpreted in the language of genetics and current approaches to identity the genetic factors that make up the constitution. These efforts should make it possible to interpret the principle of this traditional medicine scientifically. Considering the recent trend in medicine that pursues individualized or tailored medical offerings, once SCM is proven to be explainable with scientific evidence, it will be able to contribute to and take a place in the rapidly evolving medicine environment. PMID:19745011

  20. Individualized medicine, health medicine, and constitutional theory in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi

    2012-03-01

    The patterns of modern science and changes in the medical model can result in the transformation of the current state of individualized and health medicines into being the primary trend in medical development. Chinese and Western medical systems are dissimilar in terms of value orientations, thinking style, and research directions because of their different historical and cultural backgrounds. Individualized treatment in modern medicine is mainly established based on individual genome information and the differences in mononucleotide polymorphisms. However, such treatment method is expensive, creates an uncertain genetic marker, and leads to different result interpretations, among other problems. The Chinese constitutional theory developed in the 1970s expresses the principle behind Chinese health medicine and individual treatment and provides the corresponding methods. The Chinese constitutional theory divides the constitution of the Chinese population into nine categories based on established classification criteria. It promotes the study of the relationship of each constitution to diseases and Chinese medicine preparation toward adjusting the constitution and preventing diseases. The theory also provides methods and tools for individualized treatment. Constitution identification shows the direction and provides the core technology for the evaluation of the health status. By combining the developments in modern biotechnology, new diagnostic techniques and treatment models of constitution-differentiation, disease-differentiation, and syndrome-differentiation can be established for the development of individualized Chinese medicine treatment and health medicine for the international medical community.

  1. Law & psychiatry: Does the constitution require an insanity defense?

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2013-10-01

    Idaho is one of four states that have abolished the insanity defense. Hence, John Delling, on trial for two murders in Idaho, was unable to plead insanity or to argue that he lacked intent to kill, the only available option under Idaho law. After being sentenced to life in prison without parole, Delling challenged the constitutionality of Idaho's law. The state's supreme court rejected his appeal, holding that--despite the long history of the insanity defense and its widespread acceptance--there was no constitutional right to an insanity defense. Delling's petition to the U.S. Supreme Court was turned away, leaving the constitutional status of the insanity defense uncertain.

  2. Study on the Constitutive Model for Jointed Rock Mass

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Jianyun; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunfeng; Yuan, Chenyang

    2015-01-01

    A new elasto-plastic constitutive model for jointed rock mass, which can consider the persistence ratio in different visual angle and anisotropic increase of plastic strain, is proposed. The proposed the yield strength criterion, which is anisotropic, is not only related to friction angle and cohesion of jointed rock masses at the visual angle but also related to the intersection angle between the visual angle and the directions of the principal stresses. Some numerical examples are given to analyze and verify the proposed constitutive model. The results show the proposed constitutive model has high precision to calculate displacement, stress and plastic strain and can be applied in engineering analysis. PMID:25885695

  3. Constitutive heterochromatin: a surprising variety of expressed sequences.

    PubMed

    Dimitri, Patrizio; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Giordano, Ennio; Carmela Accardo, Maria; Lattanzi, Giovanna; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2009-08-01

    The organization of chromosomes into euchromatin and heterochromatin is amongst the most important and enigmatic aspects of genome evolution. Constitutive heterochromatin is a basic yet still poorly understood component of eukaryotic chromosomes, and its molecular characterization by means of standard genomic approaches is intrinsically difficult. Although recent evidence indicates that the presence of transcribed genes in constitutive heterochromatin is a conserved trait that accompanies the evolution of eukaryotic genomes, the term heterochromatin is still considered by many as synonymous of gene silencing. In this paper, we comprehensively review data that provide a clearer picture of transcribed sequences within constitutive heterochromatin, with a special emphasis on Drosophila and humans.

  4. Study on Yang-Xu Using Body Constitution Questionnaire and Blood Variables in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Yii-Jeng; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsiang; Hu, Wan-Chung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Chen, Fang-Pey; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the Yang-Xu constitution using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ) and clinical blood variables. A BCQ was employed to assess the clinical manifestation of Yang-Xu. The logistic regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between BC scores and biomarkers. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) and K-fold cross-validation were performed to evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model in practice. Decision trees (DTs) were conducted to determine the possible relationships between blood biomarkers and BC scores. According to the BCQ analysis, 49% participants without any BC were classified as healthy subjects. Among them, 130 samples were selected for further analysis and divided into two groups. One group comprised healthy subjects without any BC (68%), while subjects of the other group, named as the sub-healthy group, had three BCs (32%). Six biomarkers, CRE, TSH, HB, MONO, RBC, and LH, were found to have the greatest impact on BCQ outcomes in Yang-Xu subjects. This study indicated significant biochemical differences in Yang-Xu subjects, which may provide a connection between blood variables and the Yang-Xu BC. PMID:27340421

  5. Study on Yang-Xu Using Body Constitution Questionnaire and Blood Variables in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Yii-Jeng; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsiang; Hu, Wan-Chung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Chen, Fang-Pey; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the Yang-Xu constitution using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ) and clinical blood variables. A BCQ was employed to assess the clinical manifestation of Yang-Xu. The logistic regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between BC scores and biomarkers. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) and K-fold cross-validation were performed to evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model in practice. Decision trees (DTs) were conducted to determine the possible relationships between blood biomarkers and BC scores. According to the BCQ analysis, 49% participants without any BC were classified as healthy subjects. Among them, 130 samples were selected for further analysis and divided into two groups. One group comprised healthy subjects without any BC (68%), while subjects of the other group, named as the sub-healthy group, had three BCs (32%). Six biomarkers, CRE, TSH, HB, MONO, RBC, and LH, were found to have the greatest impact on BCQ outcomes in Yang-Xu subjects. This study indicated significant biochemical differences in Yang-Xu subjects, which may provide a connection between blood variables and the Yang-Xu BC. PMID:27340421

  6. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a summary of results from a 7 year program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program was composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addressed the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigated the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involved experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material formed the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: group of zone axes (001), group of zone axes (011), group of zone axes (111), and group of zone axes (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal materials were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were developed for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. A life model was developed for smooth and notched fatigue in the option program. Finally, computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive and life models was developed.

  7. Your Board Can Help Students Learn from Our Constitution's Bicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelynski, Carol C.

    1987-01-01

    The celebration of the bicentennial of the United States Constitution will begin Fall 1987 and last until 1991. Outlines the national programs, exhibitions and festivals, and curriculum materials available for educators on the bicentennial. (MD)

  8. Celebrating the Constitution's 200th Birthday in Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Warren E.

    1987-01-01

    The former Chief Justice of the United States, Warren Burger, discusses his elementary school experience with a substitute teacher who taught the elements of government in her classroom. Includes discussion of programing on the bicentennial celebration of the Constitution. (MD)

  9. Constitution. Signed and delivered--the rules in writing.

    PubMed

    Walshe, Kieran

    2008-07-24

    The proposal tucked away in the Darzi report for an NHS constitution could be one of the most historic elements of the next stage review, limiting the health secretary's power and guaranteeing patient rights.

  10. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION CONFERENCE (NELAC): CONSTITUTION, BYLAWS, AND STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principles and operating procedures for the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) are contained in the NELAC Constitution and Bylaws. The major portion of this document (standards) contains detailed requirements for accrediting environmental labo...

  11. Constitutional Law: Right of Privacy--Possession of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, David E.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Supreme Court in Ravin v. State accepted the defendant's contention that the prohibition of possession of marihuana infringed on his constitutional right to privacy. The significance of the case is discussed. (LBH)

  12. A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, M.K.; Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Constitutive Modeling of Porcine Liver in Indentation Using 3D Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, P.; Socrate, S.; Zickler, T.E.; Howe, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present an inverse finite-element modeling framework for constitutive modeling and parameter estimation of soft tissues using full-field volumetric deformation data obtained from 3D ultrasound. The finite-element model is coupled to full-field visual measurements by regularization springs attached at nodal locations. The free ends of the springs are displaced according to the locally estimated tissue motion and the normalized potential energy stored in all springs serves as a measure of model-experiment agreement for material parameter optimization. We demonstrate good accuracy of estimated parameters and consistent convergence properties on synthetically generated data. We present constitutive model selection and parameter estimation for perfused porcine liver in indentation and demonstrate that a quasilinear viscoelastic model with shear modulus relaxation offers good model-experiment agreement in terms of indenter displacement (0.19 mm RMS error) and tissue displacement field (0.97 mm RMS error). PMID:19627823

  14. The Rhetoric of the Norwegian Constitution Day: A Topos Analysis of Young Norwegian Students' May 17 Speeches, 2011 and 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tønnesson, Johan Laurits; Sivesind, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    National Day, or Constitution Day, in Norway, May 17, is often referred to as Children's Day. On this day, thousands of young Norwegian students march in parades and participate in celebrations in schoolyards and similar meeting places. Some students are selected to give speeches, performed in front of family members, neighbors, classmates, and…

  15. Voting and Political Participation of We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution Alumni in the 2004 Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Civic Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Between November 2004, and March 2005, the Center for Civic Education conducted a survey of alumni from the We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution program. Altogether, 522 alumni responded, ranging in age from 18-34. The primary focus of the study was on voting and other forms of political engagement. Due to self-selection by respondents,…

  16. The Rights of Teachers. The Basic ACLU Guide to a Teacher's Constitutional Rights. An American Civil Liberties Union Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    The book offers a basic guide to teacher's constitutional rights. Using a question and answer format, it details the freedom to teach, to lead one's private life, to select mode of dress and grooming; the freedom of religion, of speech, and association outside the classroom; and the freedom from arbitrary or discriminatory action by school…

  17. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents development of rate constitutive theories for compressible as well as in incompressible ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids, i.e., polymeric fluids in Eulerian description. The polymeric fluids in this paper are considered as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids in which the stress rate of a desired order, i.e., the convected time derivative of a desired order ` m' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor, and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, convected time derivatives of the chosen strain tensor up to any desired order ` n' and the convected time derivative of up to orders ` m-1' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. The development of the constitutive theories is presented in contravariant and covariant bases, as well as using Jaumann rates. The polymeric fluids described by these constitutive theories will be referred to as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories are dependent on the orders ` m' and ` n' of the convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and conjugate strain tensors. The highest orders of the convected time derivative of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain tensors define the orders of the polymeric fluid. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free-energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second

  18. Numerical implementation of inelastic time dependent and time independent, finite strain constitutive equtions in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Key, S.W.; Krieg, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    A number of complex issues are addressed which will allow the incorporation of finite strain, inelastic material behavior into the piecewise numerical construction of solutions in solid mechanics. Without recourse to extensive continuum mechanics preliminaries, an elementary time independent plasticity model, an elementary time dependent creep model, and a viscoelastic model are introduced as examples of constitutive equations which are routinely used in engineering calculations. The constitutive equations are all suitable for problems involving large deformations and finite strains. The plasticity and creep models are in rate form and use the symmetric part of the velocity gradient or the stretching to compute the co-rotational time derivative of the Cauchy stress. The viscoelastic model computes the current value of the Cauchy stress from a hereditary integral of a materially invariant form of the stretching history. The current configuration is selected for evaluation of equilibrium as opposed to either the reference configuration or the last established equilibrium configuration. The process of strain incrementation is examined in some depth and the stretching evaluated at the midinterval multiplied by the time step is identified as the appropriate finite strain increment to use with the selected form of the constitutive equations. Discussed is the conversion of rotation rates based on the spin into incremental orthogonal rotations which are then used to update stresses and state variables due to rigid body rotation during the load increment. Comments and references to the literature are directed at numerical integration of the constitutive equations with an emphasis on doing this accurately, if not exactly, for any time step and stretching. This material taken collectively provides an approach to numerical implementation which is marked by its simplicity.

  19. Constitutive mutations in the Escherichia coli AraC protein.

    PubMed

    Dirla, Stephanie; Chien, John Yeh-Heng; Schleif, Robert

    2009-04-01

    The Escherichia coli AraC protein represses and induces the araBAD operon in response to the absence or presence of l-arabinose. Constitutive mutations in the AraC gene no longer require the presence of l-arabinose to convert AraC from its repressing to its inducing state. Such mutations were isolated directly by virtue of their constitutivity or by their resistance to the nonmetabolizable arabinose analog, d-fucose. The majority of the constitutive mutations lie within the same residues of the N-terminal regulatory arm of AraC. Two, however, were found in the core of the dimerization domain. As predicted by the light switch mechanism of AraC, constitutive mutations increase the susceptibility of the N-terminal arms to digestion by trypsin or chymotrypsin, suggesting that these mutations weaken or disrupt the arm structure required for repression by AraC. Fluorescence, circular dichroism, and cysteine reactivity measurements show that the constitutive mutations in the core of the dimerization domain lead to a weakening of the support for the arms and reduce the stability of the minus-arabinose arm structure. These mutations also weaken the interaction between the two-helix bundle and the beta-barrel subdomains of the dimerization domain and reduce the structural stability of the beta-barrels.

  20. Underground herbivory and the costs of constitutive defense in tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisser, Evan L.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Adler, Lynn S.; Lewis, Edwin E.

    2007-03-01

    Nicotine is both a constitutive and induced defense in cultivated tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum). Nicotine is thought primarily to defend against above-ground herbivory; however, below-ground herbivores like the nematode Meloidogyne incognita can also damage plants. We evaluated the costs and benefits of constitutive nicotine production in four near-isogenic lines of N. tabacum differing in nicotine content. We exposed the four lines to levels of nematode infection below that found to induce nicotine synthesis, and measured nematode density and each line's response to nematode presence. Nematode density did not differ among lines and was not related to leaf nicotine content in any of the lines, suggesting that constitutive nicotine content did not affect nematode survival or reproduction. Most measures of plant performance were unaffected by nematodes; however, nematode infection decreased flowering in the high nicotine line relative to the other lines. Lines with less constitutive nicotine did not incur similar costs, suggesting a tradeoff between nicotine production and tolerance of low levels of herbivory. A cost of nicotine production is also suggested by the fact that flowering was inversely correlated with leaf nicotine content in all four lines. Although nicotine conferred no resistance to nematodes, high nicotine content reduced the plant's tolerance of low levels of nematode infection and was correlated with reduced flowering. In examining the costs and benefits of a constitutive plant defense, this work complements and extends previous research addressing the relationship between plant tolerance and induced defenses.

  1. Perspective of the human body in sasang constitutional medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junhee; Jung, Yongjae; Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju; Koh, Byunghee

    2009-09-01

    The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney). Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies) found in SCM.

  2. Classification of Sasang constitutional body types using immunostimulatory activities of constitution-specific herbal extracts in human primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Ho; Chung, Mi Ja; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2012-09-01

    Sasang is a Korean traditional constitutional medicine in which individuals are classified into four constitutional types: Taeyangin, Soeumin, Taeumin, and Soyangin. However, the classification of each constitution is empirical and not scientific, and so it is difficult to consistently classify patients into these four constitutional types. Acanthopanacis cortex (AC; Taeyangin), Rehmanniae radix (RR; Soyangin), Ephedra herba (EH; Taeumin), and White ginseng (WG; Soeumin) are herbal medicines that are used to treat and prevent diseases associated with these four constitutions. Therefore, AC, RR, EH, and WG extracts (ACE, RRE, EHE, and WGE) were used as reference extracts to determine constitutional differences in the immunostimulatory activities of primary immune cells isolated from the blood of 15 volunteers. Cellular proliferation, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) protein production, TNF-α and interleukin-6, and inducible NO synthase mRNA expression were measured as the immunostimulatory parameters. The increase in cell proliferation of V2, V3, V8, V11, and V12 was highest in EHE-treated lymphocytes among the ACE-, RRE-, EHE- or WGE-treated lymphocytes, and increase in cellular proliferation of V4, V7, V13, V14, and V15 in RRE-treated lymphocytes was significantly better than the other three medicines. The cell proliferation of V1, V5, V6, V9, and V10 responded best to WGE among the four extracts. Results of cell proliferation and other immunostimulatory parameters showed similar trends in regard to individual differences. These extracts may be useful as reference extracts in the development of a rapid and dependable individual lymphocyte- or macrophage-based assay that aids in the Sasang constitutional classification. PMID:22870991

  3. New constitutionalism and the social reproduction of caring institutions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes neo-liberal economic agreements and legal and political frameworks or what has been called the "new constitutionalism," a governance framework that empowers market forces to reshape economic and social development worldwide. The article highlights some consequences of new constitutionalism for caring institutions specifically, and for what feminists call social reproduction more generally: the biological reproduction of the species; the reproduction of labor power; and the reproduction of social institutions and processes associated with the creation and maintenance of communities. New constitutional governance frameworks fundamentally reshape conditions under which the care of human beings takes place. Caring institutions once governed by enabling professions geared to universal care are now determined increasingly by market values and private forces, and driven directly by the profit motive. This is one of the reasons why neo-liberalism is increasingly contested in both the North and the global South. PMID:16532302

  4. Impact of season and constitution on lipid parameters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Byadgi, Parameswarappa S; Singh, Girish; Tripathi, Narendra Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Ayurveda prescribes daily and seasonal regimen in maintaining good health. Measures in the preservation of health have been described considering one's own Prakriti, Satva, Vayas, Bala, Agni, Ojus, season, and so on. Depending on the relative predominance of Doshas in various constitutions and seasons, certain regimens have been prescribed. The present study was done to assess the lipid profile in 54 healthy volunteers. It was observed from the present data that winter month is one of the potential risk factors for cardiovascular diseases because more lipid profile level was observed during winter. Among the constitutions, Kapha and Pitta Prakriti are more vulnerable for cardiovascular diseases because more lipid profile level is observed in these constitutions during winter. PMID:24049409

  5. Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Fossum, A.F

    1994-12-31

    There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing.

  6. Exploring patients' rights: what does the NHS Constitution tell us?

    PubMed

    McHale, Jean V

    On 8 March 2012, the NHS published the latest version of its Constitution. In this article, the author explores the background of the debate regarding patients' rights and entitlements in the NHS. The author also discusses the provisions of the NHS Constitution, noting that it is largely a statement of existing principles, rather than a bold statement of rights. The paper suggests that, in some instances, its discussion of rights may suggest that patients have broader rights than may in fact be the case. The Constitution is currently under review, and the author recommends that the way forward for a society where the provision of care is likely to be more complex would be the introduction of a Patients' Rights Act.

  7. New constitutionalism and the social reproduction of caring institutions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes neo-liberal economic agreements and legal and political frameworks or what has been called the "new constitutionalism," a governance framework that empowers market forces to reshape economic and social development worldwide. The article highlights some consequences of new constitutionalism for caring institutions specifically, and for what feminists call social reproduction more generally: the biological reproduction of the species; the reproduction of labor power; and the reproduction of social institutions and processes associated with the creation and maintenance of communities. New constitutional governance frameworks fundamentally reshape conditions under which the care of human beings takes place. Caring institutions once governed by enabling professions geared to universal care are now determined increasingly by market values and private forces, and driven directly by the profit motive. This is one of the reasons why neo-liberalism is increasingly contested in both the North and the global South.

  8. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-01-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  9. A low-cost digital image correlation based constitutive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Gun-Jin; Shang, Shen; Kunchum, Shilpa; Carletta, Joan; Nam, Si-Byung

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a low-cost digital image correlation-based constitutive sensor with a novel identification algorithm that is deployable and scalable in the field is proposed. The term 'constitutive sensor' is coined herein to describe a sensor that is capable of determining the target material constitutive parameters. The proposed method is different from existing identification methods in that it does not need to solve boundary value problems of the target materials using updated parameters. Since the development of the digital image correlation (DIC) technique in the 1980s, the DIC technique has been broadly evaluated and improved for measuring full-field displacements of test specimens, mainly in laboratory settings. Although its potential in damage and mechanical identification is immense, the high cost of current commercial DIC systems makes it difficult to apply the DIC technique to in-field health monitoring of structures. To realize a first ever application of DIC in the field, a prototypical low-cost sensing unit consisting of a high performance embedded microprocessor board, a low-cost web camera, and a communication module is suggested. In the proposed constitutive sensor, DIC displacement fields considered as true values are used in computing stress fields satisfying the equilibrium condition and strain fields using finite element concepts. The unknown constitutive law is initially assumed to be fully anisotropic and linear elastic. A steady state genetic algorithm is utilized to search for the material parameters by minimizing a cost function that measures energy residuals. The main features that allow the sensor to be deployable in the field are introduced, and a validation of the proposed constitutive sensor concept using synthetic data is presented.

  10. Constitutive response of Rene 80 under thermal mechanical loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Cook, T. S.; Mcknight, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of a classical constitutive model for stress-strain analysis of a nickel base superalloy, Rene' 80, in the gas turbine thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) environment is examined. A variety of tests were conducted to generate basic material data and to investigate the material response under cyclic thermomechanical loading. Isothermal stress-strain data were acquired at a variety of strain rates over the TMF temperature range. Creep curves were examined at 2 temperature ranges, 871 to 982 C and 760 to 871 C. The results provide optimism on the ability of the classical constitutive model for high temperature applications.

  11. Probabilistic constitutive relationships for material strength degradation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, L.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    In the present probabilistic methodology for the strength of aerospace propulsion system structural components subjected to such environmentally-induced primitive variables as loading stresses, high temperature, chemical corrosion, and radiation, time is encompassed as an interacting element, allowing the projection of creep and fatigue effects. A probabilistic constitutive equation is postulated to account for the degradation of strength due to these primitive variables which may be calibrated by an appropriately curve-fitted least-squares multiple regression of experimental data. The resulting probabilistic constitutive equation is embodied in the PROMISS code for aerospace propulsion component random strength determination.

  12. Are there reliable constitutive laws for dynamic friction?

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Jim; Putelat, Thibaut; McKay, Andrew

    2015-09-28

    Structural vibration controlled by interfacial friction is widespread, ranging from friction dampers in gas turbines to the motion of violin strings. To predict, control or prevent such vibration, a constitutive description of frictional interactions is inevitably required. A variety of friction models are discussed to assess their scope and validity, in the light of constraints provided by different experimental observations. Three contrasting case studies are used to illustrate how predicted behaviour can be extremely sensitive to the choice of frictional constitutive model, and to explore possible experimental paths to discriminate between and calibrate dynamic friction models over the full parameter range needed for real applications.

  13. Image-driven constitutive modeling of myocardial fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Vicky Y.; Niestrawska, Justyna A.; Wilson, Alexander J.; Sands, Gregory B.; Young, Alistair A.; LeGrice, Ian J.; Nash, Martyn P.

    2016-05-01

    Myocardial fibrosis is a pathological process that occurs during heart failure (HF). It involves microstructural remodeling of normal myocardial tissue, and consequent changes in both cardiac geometry and function. The role of myocardial structural remodeling in the progression of HF remains poorly understood. We propose a constitutive modeling framework, informed by high-resolution images of cardiac tissue structure, to model the mechanical response of normal and fibrotic myocardium. This image-driven constitutive modeling approach allows us to better reproduce and understand the relationship between structural and functional remodeling of ventricular myocardium during HF.

  14. Consistency of certain constitutive relations with quantum electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Horsley, S. A. R.

    2011-12-15

    Recent work by Philbin [New J. Phys. 12, 123008 (2010)] has provided a Lagrangian theory that establishes a general method for the canonical quantization of the electromagnetic field in any dispersive, lossy, linear dielectric. Working from this theory, we extend the Lagrangian description to reciprocal and nonreciprocal magnetoelectric (bianisotropic) media, showing that some versions of the constitutive relations are inconsistent with a real Lagrangian, and hence with quantization. This amounts to a restriction on the magnitude of the magnetoelectric coupling. Moreover, from the point of view of quantization, moving media are shown to be fundamentally different from stationary magnetoelectrics, despite the formal similarity in the constitutive relations.

  15. The anisotropic material constitutive models for the human cornea.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-yuan; Tighe, Brian

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents an anisotropic analysis model for the human cornea. The model is based on the assumption that the fibrils in the cornea are organised into lamellae, which may have preferential orientation along the superior-inferior and nasal-temporal directions, while the alignment of lamellae with different orientations is assumed to be random. Hence, the cornea can be regarded as a laminated composite shell. The constitutive equation describing the relationships between membrane forces, bending moments, and membrane strains, bending curvatures are derived. The influences of lamella orientations and the random alignment of lamellae on the stiffness coefficients of the constitutive equation are discussed. PMID:16426861

  16. Constitutive models for rubber networks undergoing simultaneous crosslinking and scission.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Curro, John G.; Rottach, Dana R.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Budzien, Joanne L.; Lo, David Chi S.

    2006-01-01

    Constitutive models for chemically reacting networks are formulated based on a generalization of the independent network hypothesis. These models account for the coupling between chemical reaction and strain histories, and have been tested by comparison with microscopic molecular dynamics simulations. An essential feature of these models is the introduction of stress transfer functions that describe the interdependence between crosslinks formed and broken at various strains. Efforts are underway to implement these constitutive models into the finite element code Adagio. Preliminary results are shown that illustrate the effects of changing crosslinking and scission rates and history.

  17. A preliminary ferritic-martensitic stainless steel constitution diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Balmforth, M.C.; Lippold, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary research to develop a constitution diagram that will more accurately predict the microstructure of ferritic and martensitic stainless steel weld deposits. A button melting technique was used to produce a wide range of compositions using mixtures of conventional ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, including types 403, 409, 410, 430, 439 and 444. These samples were prepared metallographically, and the vol-% ferrite and martensite was determined quantitatively. In addition, the hardness and ferrite number (FN) were measured. Using this data, a preliminary constitution diagram is proposed that provides a more accurate method for predicting the microstructures of arc welds in ferritic and martensitic stainless steels.

  18. Are there reliable constitutive laws for dynamic friction?

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Jim; Putelat, Thibaut; McKay, Andrew

    2015-09-28

    Structural vibration controlled by interfacial friction is widespread, ranging from friction dampers in gas turbines to the motion of violin strings. To predict, control or prevent such vibration, a constitutive description of frictional interactions is inevitably required. A variety of friction models are discussed to assess their scope and validity, in the light of constraints provided by different experimental observations. Three contrasting case studies are used to illustrate how predicted behaviour can be extremely sensitive to the choice of frictional constitutive model, and to explore possible experimental paths to discriminate between and calibrate dynamic friction models over the full parameter range needed for real applications. PMID:26303920

  19. Remarks on Constitutive Laws for Dry Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovine, Pasquale

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we resume some remarks upon the model for dry granular materials formulated in [19] which generalized the distributed theory of Goodman & Cowin [24] by allowing the possibility of rotations of grains. Firstly, we reconsider the balance equations for micromomentum and energy by bearing the bulk and rotational effects of granules in mind; secondly, we derive the constitutive relations and define the dissipation function; thirdly, we specify an appropriate equilibrium state for dry granular materials in order to obtain additional informations on constitutive fields.

  20. Stability of the inner structure constituting a 'kernel' in ribosomal cores probed by dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, M.; Bonincontro, A.; Calandrini, V.; Onori, G.; Risuleo, G.

    2001-05-01

    In this communication we present an investigation on ribosomal cores, i.e. ribosomes deprived of a select group of ribosomal proteins by LiCl treatment. This study was conducted by dielectric spectroscopy technique. The aim was to elucidate the role of ribosomal proteins in the stabilization of a very stable structural nucleus previously observed within the ribosome. The results show that this structure withstands relatively high concentrations of LiCl and is demolished within a limited range of salt concentration. The data discussed here corroborate the idea that this structure constitutes the ribosomal kernel.

  1. Regulation of ferric iron transport in Escherichia coli K12: isolation of a constitutive mutant.

    PubMed

    Hantke, K

    1981-01-01

    The lac genes were inserted with phage Mu(Ap, lac) into the fhuA, fepA, cir and tonB genes which specify components of iron uptake systems. The expression of lac in all these operon fusions was controlled by the availability of iron to the cells, thereby facilitating a quick and simple measurement of the expression of the genes listed above. In an iron rich medium under anaerobic conditions all systems were strongly repressed. fhuA was depressed at higher iron concentration than was fepA or cir, and tonB was repressed only under anaerobic conditions and could be induced by iron limitation. Mutants constitutive for the expression of beta-galactosidase were selected in a fhuA-lac fusion strain. The outer membrane proteins Cir, FhuA, FecA, 76K and 83K were made constitutively in such mutant strains. Therefore, they were termed fur mutants. In these fur mutant strains, the synthesis of a 19K protein was reduced. Furthermore, it was found that transport of ferric enterochelin and ferrichrome was also constitutive in the fur mutant cells, and that ferric citrate uptake could be induced by only 10 microM citrate in the growth medium in contrast to wild-type cells in which at least 100 microM citrate was necessary. The fepA gene was concluded to be under an additional control, because it was not fully derepressed by the fur mutation. PMID:7026976

  2. Paradigm Shift in Data Content and Informatics Infrastructure Required for Generalized Constitutive Modeling of Materials Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Materials property information such as composition and thermophysical/mechanical properties abound in the literature. Oftentimes, however, the corresponding response curves from which these data are determined are missing or at the very least difficult to retrieve. Further, the paradigm for collecting materials property information has historically centered on (1) properties for materials comparison/selection purposes and (2) input requirements for conventional design/analysis methods. However, just as not all materials are alike or equal, neither are all constitutive models (and thus design/ analysis methods) equal; each model typically has its own specific and often unique required materials parameters, some directly measurable and others indirectly measurable. Therefore, the type and extent of materials information routinely collected is not always sufficient to meet the current, much less future, needs of the materials modeling community. Informatics has been defined as the science concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information. A key aspect of informatics is its focus on understanding problems and applying information technology as needed to address those problems. The primary objective of this article is to highlight the need for a paradigm shift in materials data collection, analysis, and dissemination so as to maximize the impact on both practitioners and researchers. Our hope is to identify and articulate what constitutes "sufficient" data content (i.e., quality and quantity) for developing, characterizing, and validating sophisticated nonlinear time- and history-dependent (hereditary) constitutive models. Likewise, the informatics infrastructure required for handling the potentially massive amounts of materials data will be discussed.

  3. Isolation of strong constitutive promoters from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis N8.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Duolong; Liu, Fulu; Xu, Haijin; Bai, Yanling; Zhang, Xiuming; Saris, Per Erik Joakim; Qiao, Mingqiang

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of heterologous proteins in Lactococcus lactis is strongly influenced by the promoter selected for the expression. The nisin A promoter is commonly used for induced expression of proteins in L. lactis, whereas few constitutive promoters (P45 and the weaker P32) have been used for protein expression studies. In this study, eight different putative strong constitutive promoters were identified through transcriptional analysis of L. lactis N8 and were investigated for their capability to drive nisZ gene expression with promoters P45 and P32 as control. Four strong promoters (P8, P5, P3 and P2) were identified as having a transcriptional activity that was higher than that of P45 through RT-qPCR and agar-diffusion experiments. In addition, these four promoters were fused to the erythromycin resistant gene (ermC) with promoter P45 as control and inserted into the backbone of the pNZ8048 vector. The transcriptional efficiencies of promoters P8, P5, P2 and P3 were all higher than promoter P45 based on the obtained MIC50 values and they all showed different activity levels. In conclusion, four strong constitutive promoters with a wide range of promoter activities were identified and are suitable for protein production in L. lactis. PMID:26156144

  4. Training a Constitutional Dynamic Network for Effector Recognition: Storage, Recall, and Erasing of Information.

    PubMed

    Holub, Jan; Vantomme, Ghislaine; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2016-09-14

    Constitutional dynamic libraries (CDLs) of hydrazones, acylhydrazones, and imines undergo reorganization and adaptation in response to chemical effectors (herein metal cations) via component exchange and selection. Such CDLs can be subjected to training by exposition to given effectors and keep memory of the information stored by interaction with a specific metal ion. The long-term storage of the acquired information into the set of constituents of the system allows for fast recognition on subsequent contacts with the same effector(s). Dynamic networks of constituents were designed to adapt orthogonally to different metal cations by up- and down-regulation of specific constituents in the final distribution. The memory may be erased by component exchange between the constituents so as to regenerate the initial (statistical) distribution. The libraries described represent constitutional dynamic systems capable of acting as information storage molecular devices, in which the presence of components linked by reversible covalent bonds in slow exchange and bearing adequate coordination sites allows for the adaptation to different metal ions by constitutional variation. The system thus performs information storage, recall, and erase processes. PMID:27571554

  5. Constitutive activation of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway in insecticide-resistant strains of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Jyoti R.; Lam, Geanette; Thummel, Carl S.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide resistance poses a major challenge for the control of vector-borne human diseases and agricultural crop protection. Although a number of studies have defined how mutations in specific target proteins can lead to insecticide resistance, much less is known about the mechanisms by which constitutive overexpression of detoxifying enzymes contribute to metabolic pesticide resistance. Here we show that the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway is constitutively active in two laboratory-selected DDT-resistant strains of Drosophila, 91R and RDDTR, leading to the overexpression of multiple detoxifying genes. Disruption of the Drosophila Nrf2 ortholog, CncC, or overexpression of Keap1, is sufficient to block this transcriptional response. In addition, a CncC-responsive reporter is highly active in both DDT-resistant strains and this response is dependent on the presence of an intact CncC binding site in the promoter. Microarray analysis revealed that ~20% of the genes differentially expressed in the 91R strain are known CncC target genes. Finally, we show that CncC is partially active in these strains, consistent with the fitness cost associated with constitutive activation of the pathway. This study demonstrates that the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway contributes to the widespread overexpression of detoxification genes in insecticide-resistant strains and raises the possibility that inhibitors of this pathway could provide effective synergists for insect population control. PMID:24099738

  6. The Community College & the Constitution: Promoting Civic Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Warren; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Contains three essays on civic responsibility and the two-year college's role in civic education. Includes "Warren Burger and the Power of the Constitution," an interview with Burger by Dale Parnell; "Educating for Citizenship," by Herbert M. Atherton; and "Sustaining the Nation's Commitment to Civic Responsibility," by John H. Buchanan, Jr. (DMM)

  7. Women in American Constitutional History at the Bicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff-Wilson, Joan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the changing legal status of women from the American Revolution to the present. Divides discussion into five major constitutional periods. Describes the "Broken Barometer" theory in which laws passed for the benefit of women are actually an indicator of their past needs rather than their present concerns. (RW)

  8. Constitutional Issues: Separation of Powers. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    The United States subscribes to the original premise of the framers of the Constitution that the way to safeguard against tyranny is to separate the powers of government among three branches so that each branch checks the other two. At no time in the 20th century was the devotion to that principle more vigorously evoked than in 1937, when…

  9. Population Estimates Used by Congress during the Constitutional Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2006-01-01

    During the summer of 1787, when the delegates to the Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia, the issue of representation in Congress was strongly debated. Delegates from the large states favored the Virginia Plan's proposal for two houses of Congress with representation based on population. Delegates from the small states favored equal…

  10. Protecting Teacher Rights. A Summary of Constitutional Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanin, Robert H.

    This document outlines the constitutional protections available to public school teachers as a result of recent court decisions based on the First Amendment and the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. The first and largest section cites legal cases relating to First Amendment guarantees as applied to 1)…

  11. School Boards and the U.S. Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Charles A.

    As public agencies created by State legislative mandate, school districts and the officers thereof are obligated to abide by several provisions of the United States Constitution. School boards can reduce many of the sources of current student unrest by complying with these provisions. Courts have held that under the Fourteenth Amendment school…

  12. League Constitution and Bylaws for Girls' Interscholastic Programs (Suggested Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mary Ann

    This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…

  13. 20 CFR 645.300 - What constitutes an allowable match?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What constitutes an allowable match? 645.300 Section 645.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS... Governments (codified for DOL at 29 CFR 97.24). Paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii), (b)(3), and (b)(4) and...

  14. Bill of Rights in Tribal Constitutions. [First Draft].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusco, Elmer R.

    Because Native American societies are held by United States courts to possess rights of self-government where these rights have not been explicitly withdrawn, the constitutions of 280 Native American governments in the United States (exclusive of 219 in Alaska) were examined as they existed in September 1981 to determine the extent and character…

  15. State Constitution Revision: An Exercise in Federalism and Sovereignty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses classroom activities designed to enhance student learning about federalism and sovereignty. Describes classroom discussions on jurisdiction, federalism, and sovereignty generated by asking students to clarify the constitutional section referring to the Writ of Habeas Corpus. Concludes that this exercise clarifies the concepts and…

  16. 29 CFR 531.53 - Payments which constitute tips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.53 Payments which constitute... by an employee include, within the meaning of the Act, amounts paid by bank check or other...

  17. 29 CFR 531.53 - Payments which constitute tips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.53 Payments which constitute... by an employee include, within the meaning of the Act, amounts paid by bank check or other...

  18. 29 CFR 531.53 - Payments which constitute tips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.53 Payments which constitute... by an employee include, within the meaning of the Act, amounts paid by bank check or other...

  19. 29 CFR 531.53 - Payments which constitute tips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.53 Payments which constitute... by an employee include, within the meaning of the Act, amounts paid by bank check or other...

  20. New Damage Remedies for Violations of Constitutional Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Billy W.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the concept of sovereign (governmental) immunity from prosecution for violating citizens' civil liberties. Attention is given to immunity under 42 U.S.C.A. Section 1983 and under the Constitution. Available from Baylor University Law School, Waco, Texas 76703; sc $4.00. (IRT)

  1. Foundations of Our Constitution. Reflecting on September 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    This lesson plan provides background on six significant historical documents: (1) "Meeting at Runnymede--The Story of King John and the Magna Carta"; (2) "The Mayflower Compact"; (3) "The Declaration of Independence and Natural Rights"; (4) "The Federalist Papers"; (5) "Aristotle: In Search of the Best Constitution"; and (6) "The Pledge of…

  2. Constitutional and Legislative Framework for Inclusive Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Peter; Forlin, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Argues that in Australia, despite complex educational laws/policies, no legal mandate that ensures inclusive education exists. The legislative structure for education is outlined from a constitutional perspective; duties, rights, and responsibilities of teachers, specifically concerning inclusion of children with disabilities in the regular…

  3. Constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, Timothy J.; Dixon, Padraic M.; Haslett, Christopher; Murray, Joanna; McGorum, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils, including assessment of factors that potentially modulate neutrophil survival through alteration of the rate of constitutive apoptosis. Cells underwent spontaneous time-dependent constitutive apoptosis when aged in culture for up to 36 h, developing the structural and functional features of apoptosis observed in many cell types, including human neutrophils. Neutrophils undergoing apoptosis also had diminished zymosan activated serum (ZAS)-stimulated chemiluminescence, but maintained responsiveness to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The constitutive rate of equine neutrophil apoptosis was promoted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumour necrosis factor α and phagocytosis of opsonised ovine erythrocytes, while it was inhibited by dexamethasone and ZAS (a source of C5a). Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, platelet activating factor and PMA had no demonstrable effect on equine neutrophil apoptosis. There was a difference between equine and human neutrophil apoptosis in response to LPS and the time-dependence of the response to dexamethasone. PMID:25239298

  4. Constitutively active UVR8 photoreceptor variant in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Heijde, Marc; Binkert, Melanie; Yin, Ruohe; Ares-Orpel, Florence; Rizzini, Luca; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Persiau, Geert; Nolf, Jonah; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Ulm, Roman

    2013-12-10

    Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) is a UV-B photoreceptor that initiates photomorphogenic responses underlying acclimation and UV-B tolerance in plants. UVR8 is a homodimer in its ground state, and UV-B exposure results in its instantaneous monomerization followed by interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1), a major factor in UV-B signaling. UV-B photoreception by UVR8 is based on intrinsic tryptophan aromatic amino acid residues, with tryptophan-285 as the main chromophore. We generated transgenic plants expressing UVR8 with a single amino acid change of tryptophan-285 to alanine. UVR8(W285A) appears monomeric and shows UV-B-independent interaction with COP1. Phenotypically, the plants expressing UVR8(W285A) exhibit constitutive photomorphogenesis associated with constitutive activation of target genes, elevated levels of anthocyanins, and enhanced, acclimation-independent UV-B tolerance. Moreover, we have identified COP1, REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 and 2 (RUP1 and RUP2), and the SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) family as proteins copurifying with UVR8(W285A). Whereas COP1, RUP1, and RUP2 are known to directly interact with UVR8, we show that SPA1 interacts with UVR8 indirectly through COP1. We conclude that UVR8(W285A) is a constitutively active UVR8 photoreceptor variant in Arabidopsis, as is consistent with the crucial importance of monomer formation and COP1 binding for UVR8 activity.

  5. The American Constitutional Bicentennial Gazette, Issue Nos. 26-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeff, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    The Bill of Rights to the United States Constitution marks its Bicentennial in 1991. These documents are designed to educate secondary students about various aspects of the Bill of Rights and its history. Topics covered in the five issues are: a Bill of Rights for the American people; the Bill of Rights and the Supreme Court; the fourth amendment…

  6. Wide Variation in Understanding about What Constitutes "Binge-Drinking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Richard; French, David P.; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigated undergraduates' knowledge of the UK government recommendations about binge drinking and sensible drinking, and also examined how labelling oneself as a binge drinker is associated with binge drinking perceptions. In Study 1, 325 undergraduates reported how many units constitute binge drinking, and labelled themselves as a…

  7. Constitutional Literacy. A Core Curriculum for a Multicultural Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massaro, Toni Marie

    From the perspective of constitutional law, this volume reconciles the conflicting claims of educational reformers who demand a curriculum for national unity and those who call for multiculturalism. The first part of the book describes the educators' opposing views about core curriculum and the century-long history of the debate. The second part…

  8. Generalized constitutive equations for piezo-actuated compliant mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junyi; Ling, Mingxiang; Inman, Daniel J.; Lin, Jin

    2016-09-01

    This paper formulates analytical models to describe the static displacement and force interactions between generic serial-parallel compliant mechanisms and their loads by employing the matrix method. In keeping with the familiar piezoelectric constitutive equations, the generalized constitutive equations of compliant mechanism represent the input-output displacement and force relations in the form of a generalized Hooke’s law and as analytical functions of physical parameters. Also significantly, a new model of output displacement for compliant mechanism interacting with piezo-stacks and elastic loads is deduced based on the generalized constitutive equations. Some original findings differing from the well-known constitutive performance of piezo-stacks are also given. The feasibility of the proposed models is confirmed by finite element analysis and by experiments under various elastic loads. The analytical models can be an insightful tool for predicting and optimizing the performance of a wide class of compliant mechanisms that simultaneously consider the influence of loads and piezo-stacks.

  9. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  10. Constitutional and legal implications of arms control verification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Haffenden, R.

    1992-09-01

    United States law can both help and hinder the use of instrumentation as a component of arms control verification in this country. It can foster the general use of sophisticated verification technologies, where such devices are consistent with the value attached to privacy by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On the other hand, law can hinder reliance on devices that cross this constitutional line, or where such technology itself threatens health, safety, or environment as such threats are defined in federal statutes. The purpose of this conference paper is to explain some of the lessons that have been learned about the relationship between law and verification technologies in the hope that law can help more than hinder. This paper has three parts. In order to start with a common understanding, part I will briefly describe the hierarchy of treaties, the Constitution, federal statutes, and state and local laws. Part 2 will discuss how the specific constitutional requirement that the government respect the right of privacy in all of its endeavors may affect the use of verification technologies. Part 3 will explain the environmental law constraints on verification technology as exemplified by the system of on-site sampling embodied in the current Rolling Text of the Draft Chemical Weapons Convention.

  11. Elastic/viscoplastic constitutive model for fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, T. S.; Sun, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    A constitutive model to describe the elastic/viscoplastic behavior of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites under plane stress conditions is presented. Formulations are given for quasi-static plasticity and time-dependent viscoplasticity. Experimental procedures required to generate the necessary material constants are explained, and the experimental data is compared to the predicted behavior.

  12. Legal and Constitutional Problems of Public Support for Nonpublic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Charles M.; Freund, Paul A.

    Two authors analyze the problems facing aid to nonpublic school education and review relevant court decisions, emphasizing the latest Supreme Court decisions on the subject. Charles M. Whelan provides an analytical framework for determining the constitutionality of various assistance forms. He suggests that each program should be submitted to…

  13. Scaffolding the Inquiry Continuum and the Constitution of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Wayne; Bartley, Anthony; Fazio, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the impact of scaffolding on pre-service science teachers' constitution of identities as teachers of inquiry. This scaffolding has consisted of 2 major components, a unit on current electricity which encompasses the inquiry continuum and an open inquiry which is situated in context of classroom practice. Our analysis…

  14. Constitutional Obligations for Public Education: 50-State Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Within the constitution of each of the 50 states, there is language that mandates the creation of a public education system. The authority for public education falls to states because of a 1973 Supreme Court case which determined that the federal government has no responsibility to provide systems of public education. These constitutional…

  15. "Contested Rights": The Pedagogy and Logistics of Hosting Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miracle, Amanda; Smith, Michael; Anderson, Kevin; Catlett, Rob

    2016-01-01

    To seriously consider one's rights under the US Constitution, one must grapple with the realization that many rights are not absolute. Instead, they are contested. But how to introduce younger students to such a complex concept, given short attention spans? In this article, we discuss the opportunities, pitfalls, and planning logistics of the 2013…

  16. [Constitutional syndrome: clinical entity or a mixed bag].

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortega, Saturnino; Puente-Fernández, Alicia; Santana-Baez, Sergio; Godoy-Díaz, Davinia; Serrano-Fuentes, Miriam; Sanz-Peláez, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue, anorexia and involuntary weight loss have been included under the term constitutional syndrome. These manifestations accompany many diseases in which the diagnosis is made by specific symptoms and signs. However, these events are generally the main reason for consultation and the patient does not report other specific data. This forces us to rigorously investigate the possible causes of the disorder. Usually, three manifestations coexist: asthenia, anorexia and weight loss, but sometimes the patient has only one or two of them. The causes of constitutional symptoms are varied and can be divided into three groups: psychiatric diseases, neoplasms and non-neoplastic diseases. The etiological identification is usually done with a simple protocol, which rules out malignancy; the rest of the cases of uncertain etiology are subject to evolution. The constitutional syndrome correlates well with good prognosis or medical functional processes. Although no clinical guidelines have been developed, score scales may help for the etiological assessment. Given the myriad of different causes of the constitutional syndrome, the treatment of this illness depends primarily on the etiology.

  17. Civic Education for Constitutional Democracy: An International Perspective. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    Many totalitarian communist states throughout the world have broken up during the 1990's, and citizens in those countries, from Central and South American to Central and Eastern Europe, are working to build constitutional democracies out of the rubble. Part of creating these new governments is devising new school curricula to include civic…

  18. Everyday Constitutional Assessments and Their Relevance to Formal Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2014-01-01

    Background: In anthropology and related disciplines, the term "assessment" refers to the everyday activities of ordinary people as they figure out what to do next given what others have just done. The assessments, in turn, constitute what is happening, whether in encounters between policeman and person in the street, or classroom lesson,…

  19. 20 CFR 645.300 - What constitutes an allowable match?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... program income, as defined in 29 CFR 97.25, shall not count towards satisfying a cost-sharing or matching... program income is described in 29 CFR 97.25(g)). (6) Services or property financed by income earned by... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What constitutes an allowable match?...

  20. Freedom of Expression in the Original Constitution: A Bicentennial Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E.

    The original United States Constitution of 1787, specifically in the communication related provisions of Article 1, deals extensively with communication issues, and provides an illustration of the tensions that existed between freedom and suppression. Philosophically, there was support for freedom of expression while in real world events there was…

  1. The Northwest Ordinance and Constitutional Development in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, James H.

    The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 is a fundamental document in the development of the United States. It is outranked in importance only by the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. The immediate purpose of the Northwest Ordinance was to provide government for the largely unsettled lands north and west of the Ohio River. In promising…

  2. What Constitutes a Highly Qualified Physical Education Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napper-Owen, Gloria E.; Marston, Rip; Van Volkinburg, Pat; Afeman, Helene; Brewer, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) is an advocate for having highly qualified physical education teachers deliver developmentally appropriate, standards-based instruction in schools. However, a comprehensive definition of what constitutes a highly qualified physical education teacher did not exist until recently.…

  3. Generalized constitutive equations for piezo-actuated compliant mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junyi; Ling, Mingxiang; Inman, Daniel J.; Lin, Jin

    2016-09-01

    This paper formulates analytical models to describe the static displacement and force interactions between generic serial-parallel compliant mechanisms and their loads by employing the matrix method. In keeping with the familiar piezoelectric constitutive equations, the generalized constitutive equations of compliant mechanism represent the input–output displacement and force relations in the form of a generalized Hooke’s law and as analytical functions of physical parameters. Also significantly, a new model of output displacement for compliant mechanism interacting with piezo-stacks and elastic loads is deduced based on the generalized constitutive equations. Some original findings differing from the well-known constitutive performance of piezo-stacks are also given. The feasibility of the proposed models is confirmed by finite element analysis and by experiments under various elastic loads. The analytical models can be an insightful tool for predicting and optimizing the performance of a wide class of compliant mechanisms that simultaneously consider the influence of loads and piezo-stacks.

  4. Boys' Bodies and the Constitution of Adolescent Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Mona-Iren; Haavind, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    In the social transition between childhood and adolescence, boys draw on discourses of masculinity that address the male body in constituting themselves as adolescents. They make themselves as no longer children and acquire a sense of themselves as adolescents by performing bodily practices that position them within some of these discourses.…

  5. Challenging Constitutional Authority: African American Responses to "Scott v. Sandford."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDorman, Todd F.

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of extra-legal texts in contextualizing and challenging judicial authority by analyzing Black Abolitionist responses to "Scott v. Sandford" (the "Dred Scott" decision). Concludes that responses to Dred Scott demonstrate how legally excluded classes may persuasively challenge constitutional authority and have…

  6. Tryptophanase synthesis in Escherichia coli: the role of indole replacement in supplying tryptophan and the nature of the constitutive mutation tnaR3.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R M; Yudkin, M D

    1984-06-01

    The properties of the tryptophanase constitutive mutation tnaR3 have been investigated. It has previously been reported that mutants carrying tnaR3 grow poorly on medium that selects for constitutive expression of tryptophanase. Our results now show that this poor growth can be explained by the inability of tryptophanase to catalyse the synthesis of L-tryptophan from indole, pyruvate and ammonia at a rate sufficient to allow normal growth. Improved media for the characterization of tryptophanase constitutive mutants are described. The mutation tnaR3 rendered tryptophanase synthesis constitutive (at a different rate that at 37 degrees C is 30% of the fully induced wild-type) and not further inducible. Diploid studies showed that tnaR3 is cis-dominant, but no evidence was found for any effect in trans. In addition to rendering tryptophanase synthesis constitutive, tnaR3 affects the response of tryptophanase synthesis to different growth temperatures.

  7. Multiaxial probabilistic elastic-plastic constitutive simulations of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrinezhad, Arezoo

    Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation approach has recently been developed to simulate elastic-plastic constitutive behaviors of materials with uncertain material properties. The FPK equation approach transforms the stochastic constitutive rate equation, which is a stochastic, nonlinear, ordinary differential equation (ODE) in the stress-pseudo time space into a second-order accurate, deterministic, linear FPK partial differential equation (PDE) in the probability density of stress-pseudo time space. This approach does not suffer from the drawbacks of the traditional approaches such as the Monte Carlo approach and the perturbation approach for solving nonlinear ODEs with random coefficients. In this study, the existing one dimensional FPK framework for probabilistic constitutive modeling of soils is extended to multi--dimension. However, the multivariate FPK PDEs cannot be solved using the traditional mathematical techniques such as finite difference techniques due to their high computational cost. Therefore, computationally efficient algorithms based on the Fourier spectral approach are developed for solving a class of FPK PDEs that arises in probabilistic elasto-plasticity. This class includes linear FPK PDEs in (stress) space and (pseudo) time - having space-independent but time-dependent, and both space- and time-dependent coefficients - with impulse initial conditions and reflecting boundary conditions. The solution algorithms, rely on first mapping the stress space of the governing PDE between 0 and 2pi using the change of coordinates rule, followed by approximating the solution of the PDE in the 2pi-periodic domain by a finite Fourier series in the stress space and unknown time-dependent solution coefficients. Finally, the time-dependent solution coefficients are obtained from the initial condition. The accuracy and efficiency of the developed algorithms are tested. The developed algorithms are used to simulate uniaxial and multiaxial, monotonic and cyclic

  8. Inelastic Constitutive Properties and shear Localization in Tennessee Marble

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David J.; Rudnicki, J.W.

    1999-05-20

    Shear bands and faults are ubiquitous features of brittle rock deformation at a variety of length scales. Despite the prevalence of these features, understandhg of their inception remains rudimentary. Laboratory experiments suggest a casual association of localization of deformation (faulting) with peak stress, but more detailed examination reveals that localization can precede or follow the peak. Rudnicki and Rice (1975, hereafter abbreviated as RR) have suggested a the- ory of the inception of localization as a bifurcation or nonuniqueness of the so- lution for homogeneous deformation. They predict a strong dependence of local- ization on deformation state. In particular, they predict that localization can occur prepeak for deformation states near deviatoric pure shear and does not occur until well after peak for axisymmetric compression. This prediction is roughly in ac- cord with the true triaxial experiments of Mogi (1967, 1971). More recently, Ord et al. (1991) and Wwersik et al. (1991) have reported observations of localization prior to peak stress in plane strain experiments. The predictions of RR depend strongly on the constitutive properties of the rock and detailed comparison has been impeded by inadequate knowledge of those properties. Even the idealized constitutive model used by RR requires knowledge of the evolution of the constitutive properties with inelastic deformation that is not readily obtainable from the typical axisymmetric compression test. Although it is conceptually advantageous to consider inelastic deformation at fixed mean stress, the mean stress changes throughout the axisymmetric compression test. In this paper, we present a synthesis of a number of axisymmetric compres- sion tests to extract a detailed implementation of the constitutive framework used by RR. The resulting constitutive relation is then used to -predict the response for plane strain. Conditions for localization of deformation derived by RR are evalu- ated for both

  9. Matrix-dominated constitutive laws for composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yihong

    Accurate three-dimensional stress-strain constitutive properties are essential to understanding complex deformation and failure mechanisms for materials with highly anisotropic mechanical properties. The large number of different methods and specimen types currently required to generate three-dimensional allowables for structural design slow down the material characterization. Also, some of the material constitutive properties are never measured due to prohibitive cost of the specimens needed. A method for measurement of three-dimensional constitutive properties using short-beam specimens subject to three-point bend load has been recently developed [39,40]. This method is based on the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) full-field deformation measurement and closed-form stress approximation. The purpose of this work is to improve the accuracy of the constitutive properties through accurate stress solution. A method is developed based on a combination of full-field strain measurement and nonlinear finite element stress analysis in the material characterization. The nonlinear shear stress-strain relations are the major concern in this work. An iterative procedure is applied to update the nonlinear shear properties using iterative finite element simulations. The accuracy of the numerical procedure is verified by comparing the finite element strain results with full-field measurements. The procedure is further verified using the V-notched beam test results. Excellent agreement has been achieved in the verification. Simplicity of the short-beam specimens and accuracy of the constitutive property approximations make the present method attractive for measurement of three-dimensional stress-strain relations for anisotropic materials at various load rates.

  10. Is cultural group selection enough?

    PubMed

    Read, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. propose cultural group selection (CGS) as the basis for understanding the evolution of cultural systems. Their proposal does not take into account the nature of cultural idea systems as being constituted at an organizational, rather than an individual level. The sealing partners of the Netsilik Inuit exemplify the problem with their account. PMID:27562228

  11. Investment in Constitutive Immune Function by North American Elk Experimentally Maintained at Two Different Population Densities

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Cynthia J.; Stewart, Kelley M.; Dick, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection favors individuals that respond with effective and appropriate immune responses to macro or microparasites. Animals living in populations close to ecological carrying capacity experience increased intraspecific competition, and as a result are often in poor nutritional condition. Nutritional condition, in turn, affects the amount of endogenous resources that are available for investment in immune function. Our objective was to understand the relationship between immune function and density dependence mediated by trade-offs between immune function, nutritional condition, and reproduction. To determine how immune function relates to density-dependent processes, we quantified bacteria killing ability, hemolytic-complement activity, and nutritional condition of North American elk (Cervus elaphus) from populations maintained at experimentally high- and low-population densities. When compared with elk from the low-density population, those from the high-density population had higher bacteria killing ability and hemolytic-complement activity despite their lower nutritional condition. Similarly, when compared with adults, yearlings had higher bacteria killing ability, higher hemolytic-complement activity, and lower nutritional condition. Pregnancy status and lactational status did not change either measure of constitutive immunity. Density-dependent processes affected both nutritional condition and investment in constitutive immune function. Although the mechanism for how density affects immunity is ambiguous, we hypothesize two possibilities: (i) individuals in higher population densities and in poorer nutritional condition invested more into constitutive immune defenses, or (ii) had higher parasite loads causing higher induced immune responses. Those explanations are not mutually exclusive, and might be synergistic, but overall our results provide stronger support for the hypothesis that animals in poorer nutritional condition invest more in

  12. A comprehensive constitutive law for waxy crude oil: a thixotropic yield stress fluid.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Christopher J; McKinley, Gareth H

    2014-09-21

    Guided by a series of discriminating rheometric tests, we develop a new constitutive model that can quantitatively predict the key rheological features of waxy crude oils. We first develop a series of model crude oils, which are characterized by a complex thixotropic and yielding behavior that strongly depends on the shear history of the sample. We then outline the development of an appropriate preparation protocol for carrying out rheological measurements, to ensure consistent and reproducible initial conditions. We use RheoPIV measurements of the local kinematics within the fluid under imposed deformations in order to validate the selection of a particular protocol. Velocimetric measurements are also used to document the presence of material instabilities within the model crude oil under conditions of imposed steady shearing. These instabilities are a result of the underlying non-monotonic steady flow curve of the material. Three distinct deformation histories are then used to probe the material's constitutive response. These deformations are steady shear, transient response to startup of steady shear with different aging times, and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS). The material response to these three different flows is used to motivate the development of an appropriate constitutive model. This model (termed the IKH model) is based on a framework adopted from plasticity theory and implements an additive strain decomposition into characteristic reversible (elastic) and irreversible (plastic) contributions, coupled with the physical processes of isotropic and kinematic hardening. Comparisons of experimental to simulated response for all three flows show good quantitative agreement, validating the chosen approach for developing constitutive models for this class of materials. PMID:25008187

  13. The Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution: Reaching New Heights for an Enterprising Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Mark W.

    1985-01-01

    Presents the author's reflections on the importance of the United States Constitution and on the Constitution Bicentennial as an opportunity to stimulate public awareness and appreciation for the Constitution. (MCG)

  14. Being an American: Citizenship and the Constitution Today. A Discussion Program. Abridged Unit 4. The Constitution: Let's Talk about It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, Washington, DC.

    This unit examines the responsibilities of being a U.S. citizen. It surveys the need for the participation of all citizens in the governing of the United States. Lessons explain that while the United States Constitution does not require the people of the United States to be good citizens, citizens need to work hard in order to stay free. The unit…

  15. Constitutive modelling of single crystal and directionally solidified superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.; Walker, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    The trend towards improved engine efficiency and durability places increasing demands on materials that operate in the hot section of the gas turbine engine. These demands are being met by new coatings and materials such as single crystal and directionally solidified nickel-base superalloys which have greater creep/fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures and reduced susceptibility to grain boundary creep, corrosion and oxidation than conventionally cast alloys. Work carried out as part of a research program aimed at the development of constitutive equations to describe the elevated temperature stress-strain-time behavior of single crystal and directionally solidified turbine blade superalloys is discussed. The program involves both development of suitable constitutive models and their verification through elevated temperature tension-torsion testing of single crystals of PWA 1480.

  16. Constitutive equations for meeting elevated-temperature-design needs

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.E.; Robinson, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Constitutive equations for representing the inelastic behavior of structural alloys at temperatures in the creep regime are discussed from the viewpoint of advances made over the past decade. An emphasis is placed on the progress that has been made in meeting the needs of the program whose design process is based in part on a design-by-inelastic-analysis approach. In particular, the constitutive equations that have been put into place for current use in design analyses are discussed along with some material behavior background information. Equations representing short-term plastic and long-term creep behaviors are considered. Trends towards establishing improved equations for use in the future are also described. Progress relating to fundamentals of continuum mechanics, physical modeling, phenomenological modeling, and implementation is addressed.

  17. Constitutional inversion of chromosome 7 and hematologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Stanley, W S; Burkett, S S; Segel, B; Quiery, A; George, B; Lobel, J; Shah, N

    1997-07-01

    Nonrandom aberrations of chromosome 7 have been described in various hematopoietic disorders. We describe here two unrelated families with the same constitutional inversion of chromosome 7 [inv(7)(q11.2q22)]. The probands in both families had acute leukemia and cytogenetic analysis revealed that the inversion was the sole cytogenetic abnormality in the bone marrow at diagnosis. There is a history of hematologic diseases in one of these families that included a son who is a carrier of this constitutional inversion. The distal inversion breakpoint lies within the common region of chromosome loss identified in some myeloid diseases. These observations raise the possibility that this inherited chromosome rearrangement could result in a mutation of a tumor suppressor gene and possibly represent a predisposing event for the development of leukemia in these individuals.

  18. Derivation of stiffness matrix in constitutive modeling of magnetorheological elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, D.; Sun, L.; Sun, J.; Lin, Y.

    2013-02-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are a class of smart materials whose mechanical properties change instantly by the application of a magnetic field. Based on the specially orthotropic, transversely isotropic stress-strain relationships and effective permeability model, the stiffness matrix of constitutive equations for deformable chain-like MRE is considered. To valid the components of shear modulus in this stiffness matrix, the magnetic-structural simulations with finite element method (FEM) are presented. An acceptable agreement is illustrated between analytical equations and numerical simulations. For the specified magnetic field, sphere particle radius, distance between adjacent particles in chains and volume fractions of ferrous particles, this constitutive equation is effective to engineering application to estimate the elastic behaviour of chain-like MRE in an external magnetic field.

  19. Unified constitutive models for high-temperature structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.

    1988-01-01

    Unified constitutive models are characterized by the use of a single inelastic strain rate term for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation, including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation under monotonic or cyclic loading. The structure of this class of constitutive theory pertinent for high temperature structural applications is first outlined and discussed. The effectiveness of the unified approach for representing high temperature deformation of Ni-base alloys is then evaluated by extensive comparison of experimental data and predictions of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models. The use of the unified approach for hot section structural component analyses is demonstrated by applying the Walker model in finite element analyses of a benchmark notch problem and a turbine blade problem.

  20. A Continuum Constitutive Model for Cohesionless Granular Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Poloski, Adam P.; Saez, Avelino E.

    2007-03-01

    A constitutive model is developed to represent shear granular flows of cohesionless solids. The model is based on the postulate that the friction coefficient and the solids fraction in a moving granular material are exclusive functions of the inertial number, which represents the ratio of inertial to normal stress forces. The constitutive equation obtained has the same form as a multidimensional Bingham fluid model, albeit with apparent viscosity and yield stress that depend on the vertical normal stress. The model is applied to previously published experimental results dealing with shear flows of granular beds made up of cohesionless spherical particles. The first case analyzed corresponds to a granular bed moving on top of a rotating disk. The model captures the main trends of the velocity profiles with a single adjustable parameter. The second case is a conventional Couette flow, for which the model is capable of representing the velocity and solids fraction profiles measured experimentally.

  1. Crucial dimensions constituting dignity experience in persons living with dementia.

    PubMed

    Tranvåg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin Anna; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2016-07-01

    Dignity is seen as an essential need, fundamental right, and inherent quality of each human being. There is however, a need for increased knowledge on crucial dimensions constituting dignity experience in persons living with dementia. This study explored personal dimensions of life which persons with dementia perceived crucial for experiencing dignity in their daily lives. Based on the findings of eight empirical sub-dimensions, three main dimensions crucial for constituting dignity experience, were identified through hermeneutical interpretation: A historical dignity-dimension, acknowledging one's own life-projects and life-history; an intrapersonal dignity-dimension, recognizing one's own human worth, and living according to internal values; and an interpersonal dignity-dimension, experiencing being part of a caring and confirming communion. Knowledge of dignity preservation should be a crucial foundation for future dementia care.

  2. New constitutive equation for the volume viscosity in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional volume viscosity, Stokes' hypothesis, and acoustical relaxation are reviewed. The lossy Navier-Stokes Equation is applied to periodic (acoustic) flow, and it is shown that the traditional volume viscosity leads to a result which contradicts that describing acoustical relaxation. It is demonstrated that the addition of a second volume viscosity term to the constitutive equation, to account for pressure relaxation, resolves the conflict, and leads to a direct correspondence between the volume viscosity parameters and the acoustical relaxation parameters. The representation of volume viscosity is formulated for the case of multiple relaxations, as occur in air. Finally, an application of the new constitutive equation to a simple convective compressible flow, namely a linearly accelerating flow, demonstrates the impact of volume viscosity upon the flow and the physical conditions for which it is important.

  3. Constitutive Equation for Polymer Networks with Phonon Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Rasmus; Hassager, Ole; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2008-07-01

    Recent research by Xing et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 075502, 2007] has provided an expression for the Helmholtz free energy related to phonon fluctuations in polymer networks. We extend this result by constructing the corresponding nonlinear constitutive equation, usable for entirely general, volume conserving deformation fields. Constitutive equations for the sliplink and the tube model are applied. The three models are examined by comparison with each other and with data from Xu and Mark [Rubber Chem. Technol. 63, 276, 1990] and Wang and Mark [J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys. 30, 801, 1992] on end-linked polydimethylsiloxane networks. Elastic moduli are derived for the three models and compared with the moduli determined from the chemical stoichiometry. We conclude that the sliplink model and the phonon fluctuation model are relatively consistent with each other and also with the data. The tube model seems consistent neither with the other models nor with the data.

  4. Strategic approach to the globalization of sasang constitutional medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo

    2011-01-01

    The workshop on "Strategic Approach to the Globalization of Sasang Constitutional Medicine (SCM)" was held in the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) on September 18, 2009. This workshop was designed to discuss and brainstorm the strategic approach to the globalization of SCM, one of the unique systems in Korean Traditional Medicine, with three topics and an extensive panel discussion. Professor Edwin Cooper, Editor-in-Chief of eCAM, gave a commemorative lecture for publication of the second supplement of eCAM entitled "Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine". The other two presenters suggested some practical methods for globalization of SCM on the basis of their experiences. After the three main presentations, there was a panel discussion session for further development of workshop topics, extended by five other external experts. They discussed the benefits, limitations and essentials for globalization of Korean Traditional Medicine, specifically SCM, from bench to bedside.

  5. Purification and Properties of the Constitutive Arginase of Evernia prunastri.

    PubMed

    Martín-Falquina, A; Legaz, M E

    1984-12-01

    Constitutive arginase (molecular weight 330,000) 920-fold purified from Evernia prunastri thallus, is activated by putrescine, l-ornithine, and agmatine with K(a) values of 2.7, 1.1, and 5.8 millimolar, respectively. Constitutive arginase is also activated by endogenous l-arginine, reaching its maximum activity at 16 hours of incubation on Tris-HCl (pH 9.15) with a subsequent decrease. Urea behaves as a mixed inhibitor of the enzyme with a K(i) value of 2.6 millimolar. Atranorin and evernic acid behave as in vitro activators of the enzyme; usnic acid does not have any significant effect as activator. PMID:16663950

  6. Constitutive relations associated with the Mott-Smith distribution function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, M.; Baganoff, D.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the distribution function assumed by Mott-Smith determines a unique relation between heat flux, stress, and fluid velocity given by q = (3/2)??u, i.e., it provides a constitutive relation for heat flux, and it also determines a simple expression for this ratio of third-order central moments Q = . These expressions allow the equation of transfer for c x2 to be cast in a form that yields a nonlinear constitutive relation for stress. The results obtained from the Mott-Smith ansatz are compared with the theory of Baganoff and Nathenson and results from a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for shock-wave structure obtained by Hicks and Yen.

  7. Concentration of constitutional and thermal defects in UAl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargano, P. H.; Kniznik, L.; Alonso, P. R.; Forti, M. D.; Rubiolo, G. H.

    2016-09-01

    The point defect structure of intermetallic compound oI20 UAl4 is investigated using a combination of the statistical mechanical Wagner-Schottky model and first-principles calculations within a projector augmented wave pseudopotential method in conjunction with the generalized gradient approximation. The formation energies of eight point defects were calculated taking into account the four sublattices. The point defect concentrations are calculated as function of temperature and deviation from stoichiometry. Our results show that the aluminum antisite is the constitutional point defect on the Al-rich side. At this off-stoichiometric side the dominant thermal defect is an interbranch defect where four constitutional antisite aluminum atoms are replaced by five uranium vacancies. The point defect effective formation energies are obtained and these results allow us to identify the antistructure bridge mechanism as the most probable for the diffusion for Al atoms in the Al-rich UAl4 intermetallic compound.

  8. Temperature Dependent Constitutive Modeling for Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong K.; Lee, June K.; Kim, Hyung S.; Kim, Heon Y.

    2010-06-15

    Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive and electronic industries because of their excellent strength to weight ratio and EMI shielding properties. However, magnesium alloys have low formability at room temperature due to their unique mechanical behavior (twinning and untwining), prompting for forming at an elevated temperature. In this study, a temperature dependent constitutive model for magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheet is developed. A hardening law based on non linear kinematic hardening model is used to consider Bauschinger effect properly. Material parameters are determined from a series of uni-axial cyclic experiments (T-C-T or C-T-C) with the temperature ranging 150-250 deg. C. The influence of temperature on the constitutive equation is introduced by the material parameters assumed to be functions of temperature. Fitting process of the assumed model to measured data is presented and the results are compared.

  9. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity.

  10. Numerical considerations in the development and implementation of constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.; Imbrie, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    Several unified constitutive models were tested in uniaxial form by specifying input strain histories and comparing output stress histories. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate several time integration methods with regard to accuracy, stability, and computational economy. The sensitivity of the models to slight changes in input constants was also investigated. Results are presented for In100 at 1350 F and Hastelloy-X at 1800 F.

  11. Probabilistic constitutive relationships for cyclic material strength models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, L.; Chamis, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology is developed that provides a probabilistic treatment for the lifetime of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to fatigue. Material strength degradation models, based on primitive variables, include both a fatigue strength reduction model and a fatigue crack growth model. Probabilistic analysis is based on simulation, and both maximum entropy and maximum penalized likelihood methods are used for the generation of probability density functions. The resulting constitutive relationships are included in several computer programs.

  12. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation as a constitutive limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagei, Yoshiyuki; Růžička, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We derive the usual Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation as a constitutive limit of the full system describing the motion of an compressible linearly viscous fluid. To this end, the starting system is written, using the Gibbs free energy, in the variables v, θ and p. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq system is then obtained as the thermal expansion coefficient α and the isothermal compressibility coefficient β tend to zero.

  13. A biosynthetic regulated secretory pathway in constitutive secretory cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    It has frequently been proposed that while the constitutive secretory pathway is present in all cells, the regulated secretory pathway is found only in specialized cells such as neuronal, endocrine, or exocrine types. In this study we provide evidence that suggests that this distinction is not as restrictive as proposed. We have identified a population of post-Golgi storage vesicles in several constitutive secretory cells using [35S]SO4-labeled glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains as a marker. A fraction of this pool of vesicles can undergo exocytosis in response to stimuli such as cytoplasmic Ca2+ and phorbol esters. The effect of Ca2+ was demonstrated both in intact cells in the presence of the ionophore A23187 and in streptolysin-O-permeabilized semi-intact cells. N-ethylmaleiimide, under conditions known to block regulated and constitutive secretion, inhibited the stimulated secretion from these cells, suggesting that the observed release of labeled GAG chains was not due to a leakage artefact. Subcellular fractionation revealed that the stored GAG chains were in low-density membrane granules (d approximately 1.12 g/ml), whose size was greater than that of synaptic- like vesicles found in PC12 cells. In addition, in CHO cells that express epitope-tagged rab 3D, the labeled GAG chains were found to cofractionate with the exogenous rab protein. When expressed in the regulated cell line AtT-20, this tagged rab protein was found to colocalize with ACTH-containing dense-core granules by indirect immunofluorescence. Taken together, these results provide evidence for the presence of a cryptic regulated secretory pathway in "constitutive" cells and suggest that the regulated secretory pathway is more widespread amongst different cell types than previously believed. PMID:8682857

  14. Constitution aims to bring an end to health economy warfare.

    PubMed

    Harding, Mary-Louise; Martin, Daniel

    2005-02-10

    A rough new constitution is being drawn up for the NHS in a bid to prevent health economies sliding into bitter 'Bradford-style' warfare in the era of foundations trusts and payment by results. The rules of engagement are part of a package of measures designed to rescue some of the government's flagship reforms amid warnings from audit chiefs on the impact of PbR.

  15. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual. PMID:24771443

  16. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation as a constitutive limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagei, Yoshiyuki; Růžička, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We derive the usual Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation as a constitutive limit of the full system describing the motion of an compressible linearly viscous fluid. To this end, the starting system is written, using the Gibbs free energy, in the variables v, θ and p. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq system is then obtained as the thermal expansion coefficient α and the isothermal compressibility coefficient β tend to zero.

  17. International nosology and classification of constitutional disorders of bone (2001).

    PubMed

    Hall, Christine M

    2002-11-15

    The last International Classification of Constitutional Disorders of Bone was published in 1998. Since then rapid advances have been made in identifying the molecular changes responsible for defined conditions and new disorders are constantly being delineated. For these reasons a further update on the classification is appropriate. It has been expended to not only the osteochondrodysplasias (33 groups) but also genetically determined dysostoses (3 groups).

  18. New Constitutively Active Phytochromes Exhibit Light-Independent Signaling Activity.

    PubMed

    Jeong, A-Reum; Lee, Si-Seok; Han, Yun-Jeong; Shin, Ah-Young; Baek, Ayoung; Ahn, Taeho; Kim, Min-Gon; Kim, Young Soon; Lee, Keun Woo; Nagatani, Akira; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-08-01

    Plant phytochromes are photoreceptors that mediate a variety of photomorphogenic responses. There are two spectral photoisomers, the red light-absorbing Pr and far-red light-absorbing Pfr forms, and the photoreversible transformation between the two forms is important for the functioning of phytochromes. In this study, we isolated a Tyr-268-to-Val mutant of Avena sativa phytochrome A (AsYVA) that displayed little photoconversion. Interestingly, transgenic plants of AsYVA showed light-independent phytochrome signaling with a constitutive photomorphogenic (cop) phenotype that is characterized by shortened hypocotyls and open cotyledons in the dark. In addition, the corresponding Tyr-303-to-Val mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phytochrome B (AtYVB) exhibited nuclear localization and interaction with phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3) independently of light, conferring a constitutive photomorphogenic development to its transgenic plants, which is comparable to the first constitutively active version of phytochrome B (YHB; Tyr-276-to-His mutant). We also found that chromophore ligation was required for the light-independent interaction of AtYVB with PIF3. Moreover, we demonstrated that AtYVB did not exhibit phytochrome B activity when it was localized in the cytosol by fusion with the nuclear export signal and that AsYVA exhibited the full activity of phytochrome A when localized in the nucleus by fusion with the nuclear localization signal. Furthermore, the corresponding Tyr-269-to-Val mutant of Arabidopsis phytochrome A (AtYVA) exhibited similar cop phenotypes in transgenic plants to AsYVA. Collectively, these results suggest that the conserved Tyr residues in the chromophore-binding pocket play an important role during the Pr-to-Pfr photoconversion of phytochromes, providing new constitutively active alleles of phytochromes by the Tyr-to-Val mutation. PMID:27325667

  19. Constitution of the ependyma in the chicken telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shinsuke; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Furue, Masato; Ali, Safwat Ali Mohamed; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Uehara, Masato

    2011-03-01

    The constitution of ependyma derived from the ventricular zone is different from that derived from other regions of the central nervous system. In the mammalian cerebrum, the ependyma is varied by the regions to cortex or basal ganglia (BG). In the avian telencephalon (Tc), previous studies about the constitution of the ependyma have not revealed clear findings. In the present study, we performed immunostaining of ependymal cells in the chicken Tc to confirm differences in the ependyma of various regions. As a result, 4 patterns of ependyma were defined in the outer side of the lateral ventricle. In the base of the lamina pallio-subpallialis (LPS), ependyma consisted of vimentin/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double-positive cells, whereas in the base of the lamina frontalis superior, it consisted primarily of vimentin-positive cells and a small number of vimentin/GFAP double-positive cells. With the exception of the above, the pallial ependyma was a single layer containing vimentin single-positive cells. Lastly, the ependyma of the BG was rich in vimentin single-positive cells. The constitutional differences of the ependyma of the pallium and BG concerned differences in ependymal morphology and cell characteristics. These finding suggest that the bounder between pallium and BG is LPS at the point of ependyma.

  20. A constitutive model of nanocomposite hydrogels with nanoparticle crosslinkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiming; Gao, Zheming

    2016-09-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with only nanoparticle crosslinkers exhibit extraordinarily higher stretchability and toughness than the conventional organically crosslinked hydrogels, thus showing great potential in the applications of artificial muscles and cartilages. Despite their potential, the microscopic mechanics details underlying their mechanical performance have remained largely elusive. Here, we develop a constitutive model of the nanoparticle hydrogels to elucidate the microscopic mechanics behaviors, including the microarchitecture and evolution of the nanoparticle crosslinked polymer chains during the mechanical deformation. The constitutive model enables us to understand the Mullins effect of the nanocomposite hydrogels, and the effects of nanoparticle concentrations and sizes on their cyclic stress-strain behaviors. The theory is quantitatively validated by the tensile tests on a nanocomposite hydrogel with nanosilica crosslinkers. The theory can also be extended to explain the mechanical behaviors of existing hydrogels with nanoclay crosslinkers, and the necking instability of the composite hydrogels with both nanoparticle crosslinkers and organic crosslinkers. We expect that this constitutive model can be further exploited to reveal mechanics behaviors of novel particle-polymer chain interactions, and to design unprecedented hydrogels with both high stretchability and toughness.

  1. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  2. The Constitutive Modeling of Thin Films with Randon Material Wrinkles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphey, Thomas W.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2001-01-01

    Material wrinkles drastically alter the structural constitutive properties of thin films. Normally linear elastic materials, when wrinkled, become highly nonlinear and initially inelastic. Stiffness' reduced by 99% and negative Poisson's ratios are typically observed. This paper presents an effective continuum constitutive model for the elastic effects of material wrinkles in thin films. The model considers general two-dimensional stress and strain states (simultaneous bi-axial and shear stress/strain) and neglects out of plane bending. The constitutive model is derived from a traditional mechanics analysis of an idealized physical model of random material wrinkles. Model parameters are the directly measurable wrinkle characteristics of amplitude and wavelength. For these reasons, the equations are mechanistic and deterministic. The model is compared with bi-axial tensile test data for wrinkled Kaptong(Registered Trademark) HN and is shown to deterministically predict strain as a function of stress with an average RMS error of 22%. On average, fitting the model to test data yields an RMS error of 1.2%

  3. The role of theory-constitutive metaphor in nursing science.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Jennifer; Bonner, Ann

    2008-07-01

    The current view of theoretical statements in science is that they should be literal and precise; ambiguous and metaphorical statements are useful only as pre-theoretical, exegetical, and heuristic devices and as pedagogical tools. In this paper we argue that this view is mistaken. Literal, precise statements apply to those experiential phenomena which can be defined either conventionally by criterial attribution or by internal atomic constitution. Experiential phenomena which are defined relationally and/or functionally, like nursing, in virtue of their nature, require metaphorical description and explanation. In such cases, metaphor is theory-constitutive. Using insights from the philosophies of language and mind, and examples from nursing practice, education, and our own empirical research, we explore the nature of metaphor and its role in theory constitution. We argue that the apparent resistance of certain experiential phenomena to literal description and explanation is not necessarily indicative of pre-theoretic linguistic imprecision. We suggest, rather, that such resistance provides useful insights into the nature of such experiential phenomena. We also suggest that the aim of scientific theory should be methodological or epistemological precision and not merely linguistic precision.

  4. Constitutive secretion of tau protein by an unconventional mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiyun; Dage, Jeffrey L; Citron, Martin

    2012-12-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and several related disorders. In the disease tau aggregates into paired helical and straight filaments, which can form higher order neurofibrillary tangles in neurons and this pathology is associated with progressive neuronal loss and cognitive decline. Tau is a cytoplasmic protein and is thought to be released only from degenerating cells. In contrast, here we provide evidence that tau is constitutively secreted at a low level. We directly show tau release in cell culture model systems. In inducible transfected cell lines we observe that a small proportion of full-length tau is released from intact cells in a time dependent manner. We show that this tau is released by an unconventional secretion process, as the release is temperature dependent but not blocked by inhibitors of the conventional secretory pathway. We characterize the released tau as full length, not vesicle associated and containing Phospho-Tau (181P) proportional to its intracellular concentration. We demonstrate that tau secretion and its suppression by low temperature also occurs in human neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells. The constitutive tau secretion that we propose provides the most parsimonious explanation for the observed presence of tau in the CSF of healthy animals and human beings. If previously postulated pathogenic extracellular tau intermediates are released by this route, low level constitutive tau secretion could play a role in the spread of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease and other human tauopathies. PMID:22668776

  5. To Make and to Alter Their Constitutions of Government: Article V and Amendment by Convention. A Guide for Discussion of the Implications of Calling a National Constitutional Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Alice; Henze, Mary L.

    A discussion guide, one in a series on constitutional reform issues developed by The Jefferson Foundation as part of The Jefferson Meeting on the Constitution project, examines the implications for calling a National Constitutional Convention. The controversy over the power of the amending convention is explained through tracing its development in…

  6. [Comparative research into the process of forming the theory of constitution in ancient western medicine and that of four trigrams constitution in Korean medicine and contents of two theories of constitution].

    PubMed

    Park, Joo-Hong

    2009-06-01

    After conducting comparative research into the process of forming the Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine and that of Four Trigrams Constitution(Sasang Constitution) in Korean Medicine and contents of two Theories of Constitution in terms of medical history, both theories were found to be formed by an interaction between philosophy and medicine, followed by a combination of the two, on a philosophical basis. The Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine began with the Theory of Four Elements presented by Empedocles, followed by the Theory of Four Humors presented by Hippocrates and the Theory of Four Temperaments by Galenos, forming and developing the Theory of Constitution. After the Middle Ages, there was no significant advance in the Theory of Constitution by modern times ; however, it developed into the theory of constitution type of Kretschmer and others after the 19th century and into the scientific theory of constitution based on genetics presented by Garrod and others early in the 20th century. The Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution began with the Theory of Constitution in Huangdi Neijing, followed by developments and influences of existing medicine called beginning, restoration, and revival periods and DongeuisoosebowonSaSangChoBonGwon based on the original philosophy of Four Trigrams presented by Lee Je-ma, which is found in GyeokChiGo, DongMuYuGo and so on, ultimately forming and developing into the Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution in Dongeuisoosebowon. Recently, a lot of research is being conducted into making it objective in order to achieve reproducibility in diagnosis and so forth of Four Trigrams Constitution.

  7. Frictional Constitutive Parameters for Serpentine Mud from South Chamorro Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, H.; Shimamoto, T.; Ishii, T.

    2005-12-01

    The lack of great earthquakes in Izu-Ogasawara and Mariana subduction zones may be associated with low-temperature serpentinite (M. Kasahara, 2003). We have thus started experimental studies on fault constitutive properties of serpentinite gouge, using a biaxial frictional testing machine at Kyoto University. Many conically-shaped serpentine seamounts are developed behind those subduction zones. They are consisted mainly of serpentinite mud with clasts of mantle rocks and high-pressure metamorphic rocks. Previous studies imply that the serpentinite is likely to have formed at depths around 30km. We have used serpentine mud, consisted mainly of chrysotile, in the drill core from South Chamorro Seamount (ODP Leg195). Double shear frictional experiments have been conducted on about 0.3 mm thick gouge at 30 MPa normal stress, at room temperature and under wet conditions (but without pore pressure). A series of velocity-step tests were performed in velocity range from 0.015 to 150 μm/s. Rate-and-state constitutive laws were fit to experimental data, by solving specimen-apparatus interaction numerically searching for the optimum constitutive parameters. Determination of stiffness of the apparatus is essential for accurate estimate of constitutive parameters. Careful measurements have revealed that the total stiffness (9.00×107 N/m) fluctuates by up to about 10 % probably owing to loose alignment of machine elements. This induces errors in constitutive parameters depending on dc}. If dc is in the order of 10 μm or larger, the error in b value is in the order of percent or less. But if the dc is around 1 μm, it becomes tens of percents or larger. The absolute value of frictional coefficient is around 0.2, very low and consistent with that of pure chrysotile (Moore et al., 1997). a- σb value is about 0.005 for velocity steps at 0.015-0.15 μm/s, decreases with increasing slip rate down to about -0.01 for the velocity steps at 15-150 μm/s. It changes from positive to

  8. Compaction localization and constitutive behavior of weak porous sandstone.

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Dewers, Thomas A.; Issen, Kathleen

    2009-06-01

    A combined experimental and constitutive modeling program for weak porous sandstone deformation is described. A series of axisymmetric compression tests were performed over a range of mean stresses to study dilatational, compactional and transitional regimes. Experimental results were used both to derive constitutive parameters for testing localization theory and to parameterize a poroelastic-plastic model. Observed strain localization, imaged syn-deformationally using acoustic emissions, includes high- and low-angle shear and low angle compactional features or 'bands'. Isotropic elastic moduli measured via unloading loops show a progressive degradation pre-failure as decreasing functions of work-conjugate plastic strains and increasing functions of stress magnitude. The degradation pathway is unique for samples which underwent localization versus those that underwent spatially pervasive pore collapse. Total shear and volume strains are partitioned into elastic and plastic portions including the ''coupling'' strain associated with modulus degradation. Plastic strain calculated with and without the coupling term is compared with regard to localization predictions. Both coupled and uncoupled cases predict high angle shear bands for uniaxial and low mean stress conditions on the dilatational side of the yield surface. Uncoupled predictions show progressively lower angle shear bands approaching the transitional regime (stress conditions approaching the 'cap' surface). When elastic-plastic coupling is accounted for, compaction bands are predicted for the transitional regime, as are observed in the experiments. Finite element modeling efforts are described using a 3-invariant, mixed-hardening, continuous yield surface, elasto-plasticity model that includes several features important for porous sandstone constitutive behavior and observed experimentally, including non-associativity, nonlinear elasticity, elastic-plastic coupling, and kinematic hardening. Modeled

  9. Constraining fault constitutive behavior with slip and stress heterogeneity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Heaton, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    We study how enforcing self-consistency in the statistical properties of the preshear and postshear stress on a fault can be used to constrain fault constitutive behavior beyond that required to produce a desired spatial and temporal evolution of slip in a single event. We explore features of rupture dynamics that (1) lead to slip heterogeneity in earthquake ruptures and (2) maintain these conditions following rupture, so that the stress field is compatible with the generation of aftershocks and facilitates heterogeneous slip in subsequent events. Our three-dimensional fmite element simulations of magnitude 7 events on a vertical, planar strike-slip fault show that the conditions that lead to slip heterogeneity remain in place after large events when the dynamic stress drop (initial shear stress) and breakdown work (fracture energy) are spatially heterogeneous. In these models the breakdown work is on the order of MJ/m2, which is comparable to the radiated energy. These conditions producing slip heterogeneity also tend to produce narrower slip pulses independent of a slip rate dependence in the fault constitutive model. An alternative mechanism for generating these confined slip pulses appears to be fault constitutive models that have a stronger rate dependence, which also makes them difficult to implement in numerical models. We hypothesize that self-consistent ruptures could also be produced by very narrow slip pulses propagating in a self-sustaining heterogeneous stress field with breakdown work comparable to fracture energy estimates of kJ/M2. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-04-15

    Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

  11. Material modeling and structural analysis with the microplane constitutive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, Michele

    The microplane model is a versatile and powerful approach to constitutive modeling in which the stress-strain relations are defined in terms of vectors rather than tensors on planes of all possible orientations. Such planes are called the microplanes and are representative of the microstructure of the material. The microplane model with kinematic constraint has been successfully employed in the past in the modeling of concrete, soils, ice, rocks, fiber composites and other quasibrittle materials. The microplane model provides a powerful and efficient numerical and theoretical framework for the development and implementation of constitutive models for any kind of material. The dissertation presents a review of the background from which the microplane model stems, highlighting differences and similarities with other approaches. The basic structure of the microplane model is then presented, together with its extension to finite strain deformation. To show the effectiveness of the microplane model approach, some examples are given demonstrating applications of microplane models in structural analysis with the finite element method. Some new constitutive models are also introduced for materials characterized by very different properties and microstructures, showing that the approach is indeed very versatile and provides a robust basis for the study of a broad range of problems. New models are introduced for metal plasticity, shape memory alloys and cellular materials. The new models are compared quantitatively with the existing models and experimental data. In particular, the newly introduced microplane models for metal plasticity are compared with the classical J2-flow theory for incremental plasticity. An existing microplane model for concrete is employed in finite element analysis of the 'tube-squash' test, in which concrete undergoes very large deviatoric deformation, and of the size effect in compressive failure of concrete columns. The microplane model for shape

  12. A Viscoplastic Constitutive Theory for Monolithic Ceramic Materials. Series 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janosik, Lesley A.; Duffy, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    With increasing use of ceramic materials in high temperature structural applications such as advanced heat engine components, the need arises to accurately predict thermomechanical behavior. This paper, which is the first of two in a series, will focus on inelastic deformation behavior associated with these service conditions by providing an overview of a viscoplastic constitutive model that accounts for time-dependent hereditary material deformation (e.g., creep, stress relaxation, etc.) in monolithic structural ceramics. Early work in the field of metal plasticity indicated that inelastic deformations are essentially unaffected by hydrostatic stress. This is not the case, however, for ceramic-based material systems, unless the ceramic is fully dense. The theory presented here allows for fully dense material behavior as a limiting case. In addition, ceramic materials exhibit different time-dependent behavior in tension and compression. Thus, inelastic deformation models for ceramics must be constructed in a fashion that admits both sensitivity to hydrostatic stress and differing behavior in tension and compression. A number of constitutive theories for materials that exhibit sensitivity to the hydrostatic component of stress have been proposed that characterize deformation using time-independent classical plasticity as a foundation. However, none of these theories allow different behavior in tension and compression. In addition, these theories are somewhat lacking in that they are unable to capture creep, relaxation, and rate-sensitive phenomena exhibited by ceramic materials at high temperature. When subjected to elevated service temperatures, ceramic materials exhibit complex thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time-dependent, and hereditary in the sense that current behavior depends not only on current conditions, but also on thermo-mechanical history. The objective of this work is to present the formulation of a macroscopic continuum theory that

  13. Image guided constitutive modeling of the silicone brain phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzrin, Alexander; Skrinjar, Oskar; Ozan, Cem; Kim, Sihyun; Mukundan, Srinivasan

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work is to develop reliable constitutive models of the mechanical behavior of the in-vivo human brain tissue for applications in neurosurgery. We propose to define the mechanical properties of the brain tissue in-vivo, by taking the global MR or CT images of a brain response to ventriculostomy - the relief of the elevated intracranial pressure. 3D image analysis translates these images into displacement fields, which by using inverse analysis allow for the constitutive models of the brain tissue to be developed. We term this approach Image Guided Constitutive Modeling (IGCM). The presented paper demonstrates performance of the IGCM in the controlled environment: on the silicone brain phantoms closely simulating the in-vivo brain geometry, mechanical properties and boundary conditions. The phantom of the left hemisphere of human brain was cast using silicon gel. An inflatable rubber membrane was placed inside the phantom to model the lateral ventricle. The experiments were carried out in a specially designed setup in a CT scanner with submillimeter isotropic voxels. The non-communicative hydrocephalus and ventriculostomy were simulated by consequently inflating and deflating the internal rubber membrane. The obtained images were analyzed to derive displacement fields, meshed, and incorporated into ABAQUS. The subsequent Inverse Finite Element Analysis (based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm) allowed for optimization of the parameters of the Mooney-Rivlin non-linear elastic model for the phantom material. The calculated mechanical properties were consistent with those obtained from the element tests, providing justification for the future application of the IGCM to in-vivo brain tissue.

  14. Physical concepts in the development of constitutive equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassenti, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed viscoplastic material models include in their formulation observed material response but do not generally incorporate principles from thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and quantum mechanics. Numerous hypotheses were made for material response based on first principles. Many of these hypotheses were tested experimentally. The proposed viscoplastic theories and the experimental basis of these hypotheses must be checked against the hypotheses. The physics of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, and the effects of defects, are reviewed for their application to the development of constitutive laws.

  15. Molecular karyotyping: array CGH quality criteria for constitutional genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vermeesch, Joris R; Melotte, Cindy; Froyen, Guy; Van Vooren, Steven; Dutta, Binita; Maas, Nicole; Vermeulen, Stefan; Menten, Björn; Speleman, Frank; De Moor, Bart; Van Hummelen, Paul; Marynen, Peter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Devriendt, Koen

    2005-03-01

    Array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) enables the identification of chromosomal copy number changes. The availability of clone sets covering the human genome opens the possibility for the widespread use of array CGH for both research and diagnostic purposes. In this manuscript we report on the parameters that were critical for successful implementation of the technology, assess quality criteria, and discuss the potential benefits and pitfalls of the technology for improved pre- and postnatal constitutional genetic diagnosis. We propose to name the genome-wide array CGH "molecular karyotyping," in analogy with conventional karyotyping that uses staining methods to visualize chromosomes.

  16. A constitutive model for magnetostriction based on thermodynamic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kwangsoo

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a general framework for the continuum-based formulation of dissipative materials with magneto-mechanical coupling in the viewpoint of irreversible thermodynamics. The thermodynamically consistent model developed for the magnetic hysteresis is extended to include the magnetostrictive effect. The dissipative and hysteretic response of magnetostrictive materials is captured through the introduction of internal state variables. The evolution rate of magnetostrictive strain as well as magnetization is derived from thermodynamic and dissipative potentials in accordance with the general principles of thermodynamics. It is then demonstrated that the constitutive model is competent to describe the magneto-mechanical behavior by comparing simulation results with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  17. A review of nonlinear constitutive models for metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David H.; Harris, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past two decades a number of thermomechanical constitutive theories have been proposed for viscoplastic metals. These models are in most cases similar in that they utilize a set of internal state variables which provide locally averaged representations of microphysical phenomena such as dislocation rearrangement and grain boundary sliding. The state of development of several of these models is now at the point where accurate theoretical solutions can be obtained for a wide variety of structural problems at elevated temperatures. The fundamentals of viscoplasticity are briefly reviewed and a general framework is outlined. Several of the more prominent models are reviewed, and predictions from models are compared to experimental results.

  18. Solid Rocket Fuel Constitutive Theory and Polymer Cure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Solid Rocket Fuel is a complex composite material for which no general constitutive theory, based on first principles, has been developed. One of the principles such a relation would depend on is the morphology of the binder. A theory of polymer curing is required to determine this morphology. During work on such a theory an algorithm was developed for counting the number of ways a polymer chain could assemble. The methods used to develop and check this algorithm led to an analytic solution to the problem. This solution is used in a probability distribution function which characterizes the morphology of the polymer.

  19. STAT5 regulation of BCL10 parallels constitutive NFκB activation in lymphoid tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Zsuzsanna S; LeBaron, Matthew J; Ross, Jeremy A; Mitra, Abhisek; Rui, Hallgeir; Kirken, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Background Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 A and B (STAT5) are key survival factors in cells of the lymphoid lineage. Identification of novel, tissue-specific STAT5 regulated genes would advance the ability to combat diseases due to aberrant STAT5 signaling. In the present work a library of human STAT5 bound genomic elements was created and validated. Results Of several STAT5 responsive genomic regulatory elements identified, one was located within the first intron of the human BCL10 gene. Chromatin immuno-precipitation reactions confirmed constitutive in vivo STAT5 binding to this intronic fragment in various human lymphoid tumor cell lines. Interestingly, non-phosphorylated STAT5 was found in the nuclei of Kit225 and YT cells in the absence of cytokine stimulation that paralleled constitutive NFκB activation. Inhibition of the hyperactive JAK3/STAT5 pathway in MT-2 cells via the Mannich-base, NC1153, diminished the constitutive in vivo occupancy of BCL10-SBR by STAT5, reduced NFκB activity and BCL10 protein expression in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, depletion of STAT5 via selective antisense oligonucleotide treatment similarly resulted in decreased BCL10 mRNA and protein expression, cellular viability and impaired NFκB activity independent of IL-2. Conclusion These results suggest that the NFκB regulator BCL10 is an IL-2-independent STAT5 target gene. These findings proffer a model in which un-activated STAT5 can regulate pathways critical for lymphoid cell survival and inhibitors that disrupt STAT5 function independent of tyrosine phosphorylation may be therapeutically effective in treating certain leukemias/lymphomas. PMID:19709433

  20. Constitutive nitrate reductase expression and inhibition in winged bean

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenchuan; Harper, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    It was found that NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} had no effect on winged bean nitrate reductase activity (NRA). Similar NRA was expressed in plants grown on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, urea, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and nil N. This indicated that the primary NR expressed in winged bean was constitutive, rather than substrate-inducible. Maximum NRA in winged bean was obtained in the light. KClO{sub 3} was capable of inhibiting NRA of leaves if added to the root growth medium or to the NR assay medium, indicating possible competition with NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} at the reduction site. While it has previously been shown that either cycloheximide alone, or both cycloheximide and chloramphenicol impair the synthesis of NR protein, our data unexpectedly demonstrated that cycloheximide had little effect on NRA, whereas chloramphenicol greatly inhibited the expression of NRA in winged bean. One interpretation is that chloroplasts may influence the activity and/or synthesis of constitutive NR proteins.

  1. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Harik, Vasyl M.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Since the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties of the SWNT/polymer composites can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber retains the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube sizes and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyethylene composite systems, one with continuous and aligned SWNT and the other with discontinuous and randomly aligned nanotubes.

  2. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Harik, Vasyl M.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Since the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties of the SWNT/polymer composites can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber retains the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube sizes and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyethylene composite systems, one with continuous and aligned SWNT and the other with discontinuous and randomly aligned nanotubes.

  3. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Gates, T. S.; Wise, K. E.; Park, C.; Siochi, E. J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique is presented for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated by using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube lengths, concentrations, and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyimide composite systems.

  4. Micromechanics and constitutive modeling of connective soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a micromechanical model for connective soft tissues based on the available histological evidences is developed. The proposed model constituents i.e. collagen fibers and ground matrix are considered as hyperelastic materials. The matrix material is assumed to be isotropic Neo-Hookean while the collagen fibers are considered to be transversely isotropic hyperelastic. In order to take into account the effects of tissue structure in lower scales on the macroscopic behavior of tissue, a strain energy density function (SEDF) is developed for collagen fibers based on tissue hierarchical structure. Macroscopic response and properties of tissue are obtained using the numerical homogenization method with the help of ABAQUS software. The periodic boundary conditions and the proposed constitutive models are implemented into ABAQUS using the DISP and the UMAT subroutines, respectively. The existence of the solution and stable material behavior of proposed constitutive model for collagen fibers are investigated based on the poly-convexity condition. Results of the presented micromechanics model for connective tissues are compared and validated with available experimental data. Effects of geometrical and material parameters variation at microscale on macroscopic mechanical behavior of tissues are investigated. The results show that decrease in collagen content of the connective tissues like the tendon due to diseases leads 20% more stretch than healthy tissue under the same load which can results in connective tissue malfunction and hypermobility in joints. PMID:26807767

  5. Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Gates, T. S.; Wise, K. E.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique is presented for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated by using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube shapes, sizes, concentrations, and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/LaRC-SI (with a PmPV interface) composite systems, one with aligned SWNTs and the other with three-dimensionally randomly oriented SWNTs. The Young's modulus and shear modulus have been calculated for the two systems for various nanotube lengths and volume fractions.

  6. Comparison of two laryngeal tissue fiber constitutive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Eric J.; Palaparthi, Anil Kumar Reddy; Siegmund, Thomas; Chan, Roger W.

    2014-02-01

    Biological tissues are complex time-dependent materials, and the best choice of the appropriate time-dependent constitutive description is not evident. This report reviews two constitutive models (a modified Kelvin model and a two-network Ogden-Boyce model) in the characterization of the passive stress-strain properties of laryngeal tissue under tensile deformation. The two models are compared, as are the automated methods for parameterization of tissue stress-strain data (a brute force vs. a common optimization method). Sensitivity (error curves) of parameters from both models and the optimized parameter set are calculated and contrast by optimizing to the same tissue stress-strain data. Both models adequately characterized empirical stress-strain datasets and could be used to recreate a good likeness of the data. Nevertheless, parameters in both models were sensitive to measurement errors or uncertainties in stress-strain, which would greatly hinder the confidence in those parameters. The modified Kelvin model emerges as a potential better choice for phonation models which use a tissue model as one component, or for general comparisons of the mechanical properties of one type of tissue to another (e.g., axial stress nonlinearity). In contrast, the Ogden-Boyce model would be more appropriate to provide a basic understanding of the tissue's mechanical response with better insights into the tissue's physical characteristics in terms of standard engineering metrics such as shear modulus and viscosity.

  7. Micromechanics and constitutive modeling of connective soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a micromechanical model for connective soft tissues based on the available histological evidences is developed. The proposed model constituents i.e. collagen fibers and ground matrix are considered as hyperelastic materials. The matrix material is assumed to be isotropic Neo-Hookean while the collagen fibers are considered to be transversely isotropic hyperelastic. In order to take into account the effects of tissue structure in lower scales on the macroscopic behavior of tissue, a strain energy density function (SEDF) is developed for collagen fibers based on tissue hierarchical structure. Macroscopic response and properties of tissue are obtained using the numerical homogenization method with the help of ABAQUS software. The periodic boundary conditions and the proposed constitutive models are implemented into ABAQUS using the DISP and the UMAT subroutines, respectively. The existence of the solution and stable material behavior of proposed constitutive model for collagen fibers are investigated based on the poly-convexity condition. Results of the presented micromechanics model for connective tissues are compared and validated with available experimental data. Effects of geometrical and material parameters variation at microscale on macroscopic mechanical behavior of tissues are investigated. The results show that decrease in collagen content of the connective tissues like the tendon due to diseases leads 20% more stretch than healthy tissue under the same load which can results in connective tissue malfunction and hypermobility in joints.

  8. Anisotropic Effects on Constitutive Model Parameters of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Nachhatter; Joshi, Vasant

    2011-06-01

    Simulation of low velocity impact on structures or high velocity penetration in armor materials heavily rely on constitutive material models. The model constants are required input to computer codes (LS-DYNA, DYNA3D or SPH) to accurately simulate fragment impact on structural components made of high strength 7075-T651 aluminum alloys. Johnson-Cook model constants determined for Al7075-T651 alloy bar material failed to simulate correctly the penetration into 1' thick Al-7075-T651plates. When simulations go well beyond minor parameter tweaking and experimental results are drastically different it is important to determine constitutive parameters from the actual material used in impact/penetration experiments. To investigate anisotropic effects on the yield/flow stress of this alloy we performed quasi-static and high strain rate tensile tests on specimens fabricated in the longitudinal, transverse, and thickness directions of 1' thick Al7075-T651 plate. Flow stresses at a strain rate of ~1100/s in the longitudinal and transverse direction are similar around 670MPa and decreases to 620 MPa in the thickness direction. These data are lower than the flow stress of 760 MPa measured in Al7075-T651 bar stock.

  9. High rate constitutive modeling of aluminium alloy tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.

    2006-08-01

    As the need for fuel efficient automobiles increases, car designers are investigating light-weight materials for automotive bodies that will reduce the overall automobile weight. Aluminium alloy tube is a desirable material to use in automotive bodies due to its light weight. However, aluminium suffers from lower formability than steel and its energy absorption ability in a crash event after a forming operation is largely unknown. As part of a larger study on the relationship between crashworthiness and forming processes, constitutive models for 3mm AA5754 aluminium tube were developed. A nominal strain rate of 100/s is often used to characterize overall automobile crash events, whereas strain rates on the order of 1000/s can occur locally. Therefore, tests were performed at quasi-static rates using an Instron test fixture and at strain rates of 500/s to 1500/s using a tensile split Hopkinson bar. High rate testing was then conducted at rates of 500/s, 1000/s and 1500/s at 21circC, 150circC and 300circC. The generated data was then used to determine the constitutive parameters for the Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong material models.

  10. A constitutive model for ballistic gelatin at surgical strain rates.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Nishant; Noble, Christopher; Cramphorn, Edward; Taylor, Zeike A

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a constitutive model for ballistic gelatin at the low strain rates experienced, for example, by soft tissues during surgery. While this material is most commonly associated with high speed projectile penetration and impact investigations, it has also been used extensively as a soft tissue simulant in validation studies for surgical technologies (e.g. surgical simulation and guidance systems), for which loading speeds and the corresponding mechanical response of the material are quite different. We conducted mechanical compression experiments on gelatin specimens at strain rates spanning two orders of magnitude (~0.001-0.1s(-1)) and observed a nonlinear load-displacement history and strong strain rate-dependence. A compact and efficient visco-hyperelastic constitutive model was then formulated and found to fit the experimental data well. An Ogden type strain energy density function was employed for the elastic component. A single Prony exponential term was found to be adequate to capture the observed rate-dependence of the response over multiple strain rates. The model lends itself to immediate use within many commercial finite element packages. PMID:25863009

  11. Constructing constitutive relationships for seismic and aseismic fault slip

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    For the purpose of modeling natural fault slip, a useful result from an experimental fault mechanics study would be a physically-based constitutive relation that well characterizes all the relevant observations. This report describes an approach for constructing such equations. Where possible the construction intends to identify or, at least, attribute physical processes and contact scale physics to the observations such that the resulting relations can be extrapolated in conditions and scale between the laboratory and the Earth. The approach is developed as an alternative but is based on Ruina (1983) and is illustrated initially by constructing a couple of relations from that study. In addition, two example constitutive relationships are constructed; these describe laboratory observations not well-modeled by Ruina's equations: the unexpected shear-induced weakening of silica-rich rocks at high slip speed (Goldsby and Tullis, 2002) and fault strength in the brittle ductile transition zone (Shimamoto, 1986). The examples, provided as illustration, may also be useful for quantitative modeling.

  12. Constitutive modeling of calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Martina; Sousa, Maria De Fátima; Bertran, Celso; Bassi, Adalberto

    2014-11-01

    Calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixtures have attracted attention of many researchers since the deposition of CaCO3(s) from such solutions can lead to scaling problems in oil fields. However, despite their evident practical importance in petroleum engineering, the hydro and thermodynamic behaviors of these mixtures have not been well-understood yet. In this work, a constitutive model based on the foundations of the constitutive theory of continuum mechanics, and the Müller-Liu entropy principle is proposed. The calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixture is regarded as a reactive viscous fluid with heat and electrical conductions. The obtained results indicate that the thermodynamic behavior of CaCO3 supersaturated seawater mixtures is closely related to the individual dynamics of each constituent of the mixture, particularly to the linear momentum, and mass exchanges. Furthermore, the results show that, unlike classical continuum mixtures, the extra entropy flux is not null, and higher-order gradients of deformation contribute to the residual entropy production of the class of mixtures under study. The results of this work may be relevant for the prevention of the mineral scale formation in oil fields. The first author acknowledges the São Paulo Research Foundation (Grant 2013/ 20872-2) for its funding.

  13. What Constitutes Intermarriage for Multiracial People in Britain?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Miri

    2015-01-01

    Intermarriage is of great interest to analysts because a group’s tendency to partner across ethnic boundaries is usually seen as a key indicator of the social distance between groups in a multiethnic society. Theories of intermarriage as a key indicator of integration are, however, typically premised upon the union of white and nonwhite individuals, and we know very little about what happens in the unions of multiracial people, who are the children of intermarried couples. What constitutes intermarriage for multiracial people? Do multiracial individuals think that ethnic or racial ancestries are a defining aspect of their relationships with their partners? In this article, I argue that there are no conventions for how we characterize endogamous or exogamous relationships for multiracial people. I then draw on examples of how multiracial people and their partners in Britain regard their relationships with their partners and the significance of their and their partners’ ethnic and racial backgrounds. I argue that partners’ specific ancestries do not necessarily predict the ways in which multiracial individuals regard their partners’ ethnic and racial backgrounds as constituting difference or commonality within their relationships. PMID:27330193

  14. Distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in Triatoma melanocephala (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2014-09-29

    In principle, Triatoma melanocephala was included in the Brasiliensis subcomplex on the basis of morphological parameters and geographical layout, since there were no other relevant data available in the literature. On the basis of karyotype, it has been proposed to exclude T. melanocephala, as well as of T. vitticeps and T. tibiamaculata, from the subcomplex, which shows fragmentation of the X sex chromosomes, thereby approaching the species of North America. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the pattern of constitutive heterochromatin of T. melanocephala to provide new data on the cytotaxonomy of this vector of Chagas disease and especially to try to relate this species to some group, complex or subcomplex of triatomine species, aiding in their classification. This species showed no constitutive heterochromatin in the autosomes or X sex chromosome, but only the Y sex chromosome. The number of chromosomes and heterochromatin pattern of T. melanocephala proved to be identical to that described for Panstrongylus lutzi. Thus, the present study demonstrated a tentative relationship between T. melanocephala and P. lutzi. However, we emphasize that other comparative studies should be conducted between these species, such as experimental crosses and molecular, enzymatic, morphological, and morphometric analyses to determine whether these species are actually evolutionarily related or if the number of chromosomes and the heterochromatin pattern emerged as homoplasies in T. melanocephala and P. lutzi.

  15. Constitutive Soil Properties for Unwashed Sand and Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Michael A.; Chitty, Daniel E.; Gildea, Martin L.; T'Kindt, Casey M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate soil models are required for numerical simulations of land landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. This report provides constitutive material models for one soil, unwashed sand, from NASA Langley's gantry drop test facility and three soils from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The four soil models are based on mechanical and compressive behavior observed during geotechnical laboratory testing of remolded soil samples. The test specimens were reconstituted to measured in situ density and moisture content. Tests included: triaxial compression, hydrostatic compression, and uniaxial strain. A fit to the triaxial test results defines the strength envelope. Hydrostatic and uniaxial tests define the compressibility. The constitutive properties are presented in the format of LS-DYNA Material Model 5: Soil and Foam. However, the laboratory test data provided can be used to construct other material models. The four soil models are intended to be specific to the soil conditions discussed in the report. The unwashed sand model represents clayey sand at high density. The KSC models represent three distinct coastal sand conditions: low density dry sand, high density in-situ moisture sand, and high density flooded sand. It is possible to approximate other sands with these models, but the results would be unverified without geotechnical tests to confirm similar soil behavior.

  16. Constitutive Soil Properties for Mason Sand and Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Michael A.; Chitty, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate soil models are required for numerical simulations of land landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). This report provides constitutive material models for two soil conditions at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and four conditions of Mason Sand. The Mason Sand is the test sand for LaRC s drop tests and swing tests of the Orion. The soil models are based on mechanical and compressive behavior observed during geotechnical laboratory testing of remolded soil samples. The test specimens were reconstituted to measured in situ density and moisture content. Tests included: triaxial compression, hydrostatic compression, and uniaxial strain. A fit to the triaxial test results defines the strength envelope. Hydrostatic and uniaxial tests define the compressibility. The constitutive properties are presented in the format of LSDYNA Material Model 5: Soil and Foam. However, the laboratory test data provided can be used to construct other material models. The soil models are intended to be specific to the soil conditions they were tested at. The two KSC models represent two conditions at KSC: low density dry sand and high density in-situ moisture sand. The Mason Sand model was tested at four conditions which encompass measured conditions at LaRC s drop test site.

  17. Constitutive Law and Flow Mechanism in Diamond Deformation

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Xiaohui; Raterron, Paul; Zhang, Jianzhong; Lin, Zhijun; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng

    2012-11-19

    Constitutive laws and crystal plasticity in diamond deformation have been the subjects of substantial interest since synthetic diamond was made in 1950's. To date, however, little is known quantitatively regarding its brittle-ductile properties and yield strength at high temperatures. In this paper, we report, for the first time, the strain-stress constitutive relations and experimental demonstration of deformation mechanisms under confined high pressure. The deformation at room temperature is essentially brittle, cataclastic, and mostly accommodated by fracturing on {111} plane with no plastic yielding at uniaxial strains up to 15%. At elevated temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C diamond crystals exhibit significantmore » ductile flow with corresponding yield strength of 7.9 and 6.3 GPa, indicating that diamond starts to weaken when temperature is over 1000°C. Finally, at high temperature the plastic deformation and ductile flow is meditated by the <110>{111} dislocation glide and a very active {111} micro-twinning.« less

  18. Constitutive Law and Flow Mechanism in Diamond Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiaohui; Raterron, Paul; Zhang, Jianzhong; Lin, Zhijun; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng

    2012-11-19

    Constitutive laws and crystal plasticity in diamond deformation have been the subjects of substantial interest since synthetic diamond was made in 1950's. To date, however, little is known quantitatively regarding its brittle-ductile properties and yield strength at high temperatures. In this paper, we report, for the first time, the strain-stress constitutive relations and experimental demonstration of deformation mechanisms under confined high pressure. The deformation at room temperature is essentially brittle, cataclastic, and mostly accommodated by fracturing on {111} plane with no plastic yielding at uniaxial strains up to 15%. At elevated temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C diamond crystals exhibit significant ductile flow with corresponding yield strength of 7.9 and 6.3 GPa, indicating that diamond starts to weaken when temperature is over 1000°C. Finally, at high temperature the plastic deformation and ductile flow is meditated by the <110>{111} dislocation glide and a very active {111} micro-twinning.

  19. A Constitutive Model for Isothermal Pseudoelasticity Coupled with Plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dongjie; Landis, Chad M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a new constitutive model for isothermal pseudoelastic shape memory alloys is presented. The model is based upon a kinematic hardening framework that was previously developed for ferroelastic and ferroelectric switching behavior. The basis of the model includes a transformation surface, an associated flow rule for transformation strain, and kinematic hardening with the back stresses represented by a transformation potential that is dependent upon the transformation strain. In contrast to many models that introduce tension/compression asymmetry by devising transformation surfaces in terms of invariants of the stress tensor, this model achieves this capability by means of expressing the transformation potential from which the back stresses are derived as a weighted mix of two potentials that are, respectively, calibrated to measured tensile and compressive responses. Additionally, in this model, plastic deformation is allowed to occur at high stresses by employing a standard J2 -based yield surface with isotropic hardening. Finally, to demonstrate the ability of the constitutive model to perform in highly non-proportional loading states, some finite element simulations on crack tip fields are presented.

  20. Eskimo1 mutants of Arabidopsis are constitutively freezing-tolerant.

    PubMed

    Xin, Z; Browse, J

    1998-06-23

    Temperate plants develop a greater ability to withstand freezing in response to a period of low but nonfreezing temperatures through a complex, adaptive process of cold acclimation. Very little is known about the signaling processes by which plants perceive the low temperature stimulus and transduce it into the nucleus to activate genes needed for increased freezing tolerance. To help understand the signaling processes, we have isolated mutants of Arabidopsis that are constitutively freezing-tolerant in the absence of cold acclimation. Freezing tolerance of wild-type Arabidopsis was increased from -5.5 degreesC to -12.6 degreesC by cold acclimation whereas the freezing tolerance of 26 mutant lines ranged from -6.8 degreesC to -10.6 degreesC in the absence of acclimation. Plants with mutations at the eskimo1 (esk1) locus accumulated high levels of proline, a compatible osmolyte, but did not exhibit constitutively increased expression of several cold-regulated genes involved in freezing tolerance. RNA gel blot analysis suggested that proline accumulation in esk1 plants was mediated by regulation of transcript levels of genes involved in proline synthesis and degradation. The characterization of esk1 mutants and results from other mutants suggest that distinct signaling pathways activate different aspects of cold acclimation and that activation of one pathway can result in considerable freezing tolerance without activation of other pathways.

  1. Constitutive modelling of dual phase steel sheet and tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. C.; Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.

    2006-08-01

    Automobile manufacturers are currently striving to improve vehicle fuel efficiency through reduction of vehicle weight. Dual phase steels are good candidates for automotive bodies due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, and good formablity and weldability. As part of a project on the interaction between forming and crashworthiness, constitutive parameters of a dual phase steel were determined for both sheet and tube stock in order to support analysis of the tube response throughout forming processes and in crash simulations. Stress - strain data was collected at a quasi-static rate as well as rates from 0.1 to 1500 s - 1. The intermediate strain rate response was captured using an instrumented falling weight tensile tester (35 100 s - 1), while a tensile split Hopkinson bar (500 1500 s - 1) was used to capture the high-rate response. This range of strain rates is typical of the rates seen in a crash simulation. Tests were also performed at higher temperatures (150°C and 300°C) at rates of 500 and 1500 s - 1 to capture the thermal softening response. The dual phase steel sheet and tube show an appreciable amount of strain rate sensitivity throughout the complete range of strain rates. It also exhibited a large amount of thermal softening. The thermal sensitivity is identical for the sheet and tube. Fits to the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were obtained from the experimental results.

  2. Redox proteins are constitutively secreted by skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yasuko; Takagi, Mayumi; Nakamura-Yamada, Mio; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Taoka, Masato; Isobe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Nobuharu L

    2014-11-01

    Myokines are skeletal muscle-derived hormones. In this study, using a C2C12 myotube contraction system, we sought to determine whether the skeletal muscle secreted thioredoxin (TRX) and related redox proteins. Redox proteins such as TRXs, peroxiredoxins, and glutaredoxins were detected in the C2C12 myotube culture medium in the absence of any stimulation. The amounts of TRXs, peroxiredoxins, and glutaredoxins secreted by the C2C12 myotubes were not affected by the contraction, unless the myotubes were injured. Because TRX-1 was known to be a secreted protein that lacks a signal peptide, we examined whether this protein was secreted via exosome vesicles. The results indicated that TRX-1 was not secreted via exosome vesicles. We concluded that TRX-1 and related redox proteins are myokines that are constitutively secreted by the skeletal muscle cells. Although the mechanism of TRX-1 secretion remains unclear, our findings suggest that the skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ and the redox proteins that are constitutively secreted from the skeletal muscle may exert antioxidant and systemic health-promoting effects.

  3. Large Deformation Constitutive Laws for Isotropic Thermoelastic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Plohr, Bradley J.; Plohr, Jeeyeon N.

    2012-07-25

    We examine the approximations made in using Hooke's law as a constitutive relation for an isotropic thermoelastic material subjected to large deformation by calculating the stress evolution equation from the free energy. For a general thermoelastic material, we employ the volume-preserving part of the deformation gradient to facilitate volumetric/shear strain decompositions of the free energy, its first derivatives (the Cauchy stress and entropy), and its second derivatives (the specific heat, Grueneisen tensor, and elasticity tensor). Specializing to isotropic materials, we calculate these constitutive quantities more explicitly. For deformations with limited shear strain, but possibly large changes in volume, we show that the differential equations for the stress components involve new terms in addition to the traditional Hooke's law terms. These new terms are of the same order in the shear strain as the objective derivative terms needed for frame indifference; unless the latter terms are negligible, the former cannot be neglected. We also demonstrate that accounting for the new terms requires that the deformation gradient be included as a field variable

  4. Constitutive and stability behavior of soils in microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Sture, Stein; Costes, Nicholas C.

    2000-01-01

    The constitutive behavior of soils such as strength, stiffness, and localization of deformations are to a large extent derived from interparticle friction transmitted between solid particles and particle groups. Interparticle forces are highly dependent on gravitational body forces. At very low effective confining pressures, the true nature of the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope, which is the criterion most frequently used, is unclear both with respect to interparticle friction and cohesion. Because of the impossibility of eliminating gravitational body forces on earth, the weight of soil grains develops interparticle compressive stresses which mask true soil constitutive behavior even in the smallest samples of models. Therefore the microgravity environment induced by near-earth orbits of spacecraft provides unique experimental opportunities for testing theories related to the mechanical behavior of soils. Such materials may include cohesionless soils, silt, clay, industrial powders, crushed coal, etc. This paper discusses the importance of testing soils under very low confining stresses, effects of gravity on the stress-strain behavior of sand, and examples of potential future experiments on soils in microgravity environment aboard the space shuttle or the International Space Station. .

  5. Nonlinear creep damage constitutive model for soft rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. Z.; Xie, H. Q.; He, J. D.; Xiao, M. L.; Zhuo, L.

    2016-06-01

    In some existing nonlinear creep damage models, it may be less rigorous to directly introduce a damage variable into the creep equation when the damage variable of the viscous component is a function of time or strain. In this paper, we adopt the Kachanov creep damage rate and introduce a damage variable into a rheological differential constitutive equation to derive an analytical integral solution for the creep damage equation of the Bingham model. We also propose a new nonlinear viscous component which reflects nonlinear properties related to the axial stress of soft rock in the steady-state creep stage. Furthermore, we build an improved Nishihara model by using this new component in series with the correctional Nishihara damage model that describes the accelerating creep, and deduce the rheological constitutive relation of the improved model. Based on superposition principle, we obtain the damage creep equation for conditions of both uniaxial and triaxial compression stress, and study the method for determining the model parameters. Finally, this paper presents the laboratory test results performed on mica-quartz schist in parallel with, or vertical to the schistosity direction, and applies the improved Nishihara model to the parameter identification of mica-quartz schist. Using a comparative analysis with test data, results show that the improved model has a superior ability to reflect the creep properties of soft rock in the decelerating creep stage, the steady-state creep stage, and particularly within the accelerating creep stage, in comparison with the traditional Nishihara model.

  6. Phrenology, heredity and progress in George Combe's Constitution of Man.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Bill

    2015-09-01

    The Constitution of Man by George Combe (1828) was probably the most influential phrenological work of the nineteenth century. It not only offered an exposition of the phrenological theory of the mind, but also presented Combe's vision of universal human progress through the inheritance of acquired mental attributes. In the decades before the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, the Constitution was probably the single most important vehicle for the dissemination of naturalistic progressivism in the English-speaking world. Although there is a significant literature on the social and cultural context of phrenology, the role of heredity in Combe's thought has been less thoroughly explored, although both John van Wyhe and Victor L. Hilts have linked Combe's views on heredity with the transformist theories of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. In this paper I examine the origin, nature and significance of his ideas and argue that Combe's hereditarianism was not directly related to Lamarckian transformism but formed part of a wider discourse on heredity in the early nineteenth century.

  7. Dynamic rupture modeling with laboratory-derived constitutive relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okubo, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-derived state variable friction constitutive relation is used in the numerical simulation of the dynamic growth of an in-plane or mode II shear crack. According to this formulation, originally presented by J.H. Dieterich, frictional resistance varies with the logarithm of the slip rate and with the logarithm of the frictional state variable as identified by A.L. Ruina. Under conditions of steady sliding, the state variable is proportional to (slip rate)-1. Following suddenly introduced increases in slip rate, the rate and state dependencies combine to produce behavior which resembles slip weakening. When rupture nucleation is artificially forced at fixed rupture velocity, rupture models calculated with the state variable friction in a uniformly distributed initial stress field closely resemble earlier rupture models calculated with a slip weakening fault constitutive relation. Model calculations suggest that dynamic rupture following a state variable friction relation is similar to that following a simpler fault slip weakening law. However, when modeling the full cycle of fault motions, rate-dependent frictional responses included in the state variable formulation are important at low slip rates associated with rupture nucleation. -from Author

  8. Whole-Genome Screening of Newborns? The Constitutional Boundaries of State Newborn Screening Programs

    PubMed Central

    King, Jaime S.; Smith, Monica E.

    2016-01-01

    State newborn screening (NBS) programs routinely screen nearly all of the 4 million newborns in the United States each year for ~30 primary conditions and a number of secondary conditions. NBS could be on the cusp of an unprecedented expansion as a result of advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS). As WGS becomes cheaper and easier and as our knowledge and understanding of human genetics expand, the question of whether WGS has a role to play in state NBS programs becomes increasingly relevant and complex. As geneticists and state public health officials begin to contemplate the technical and procedural details of whether WGS could benefit existing NBS programs, this is an opportune time to revisit the legal framework of state NBS programs. In this article, we examine the constitutional underpinnings of state-mandated NBS and explore the range of current state statutes and regulations that govern the programs. We consider the legal refinements that will be needed to keep state NBS programs within constitutional bounds, focusing on 2 areas of concern: consent procedures and the criteria used to select new conditions for NBS panels. We conclude by providing options for states to consider when contemplating the use of WGS for NBS. PMID:26729704

  9. FLUID SELECTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stinson, W.J.

    1958-09-16

    A valve designed to selectively sample fluids from a number of sources is described. The valve comprises a rotatable operating lever connected through a bellows seal to a rotatable assembly containing a needle valve, bearings, and a rotational lock. The needle valve is connected through a flexible tube to the sample fluid outlet. By rotating the lever the needle valve is placed over . one of several fluid sources and locked in position so that the fluid is traasferred through the flexible tubing and outlet to a remote sampling system. The fluids from the nonselected sources are exhausted to a waste line. This valve constitutes a simple, dependable means of selecting a sample from one of several scurces.

  10. Calcium-sensing receptors signal constitutive macropinocytosis and facilitate the uptake of NOD2 ligands in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Canton, Johnathan; Schlam, Daniel; Breuer, Christian; Gütschow, Michael; Glogauer, Michael; Grinstein, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis can be induced in several cell types by stimulation with growth factors. In selected cell types, notably macrophages and dendritic cells, macropinocytosis occurs constitutively, supporting the uptake of antigens for subsequent presentation. Despite their different mode of initiation and contrasting physiological roles, it is tacitly assumed that both types of macropinocytosis are mechanistically identical. We report that constitutive macropinocytosis is stringently calcium dependent, while stimulus-induced macropinocytosis is not. Extracellular calcium is sensed by G-protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) that signal macropinocytosis through Gα-, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase C. These pathways promote the recruitment of exchange factors that stimulate Rac and/or Cdc42, driving actin-dependent formation of ruffles and macropinosomes. In addition, the heterologous expression of CaSR in HEK293 cells confers on them the ability to perform constitutive macropinocytosis. Finally, we show that CaSR-induced constitutive macropinocytosis facilitates the sentinel function of macrophages, promoting the efficient delivery of ligands to cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors. PMID:27050483

  11. Trade-off between constitutive and inducible resistance against herbivores is only partially explained by gene expression and glucosinolate production

    PubMed Central

    Rasmann, Sergio; Chassin, Estelle; Bilat, Julia; Glauser, Gaétan; Reymond, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that constitutive and inducible plant resistance against herbivores should trade-off because they use the same resources and impose costs to plant fitness has been postulated for a long time. Negative correlations between modes of deployment of resistance and defences have been observed across and within species in common garden experiments. It was therefore tested whether that pattern of resistance across genotypes follows a similar variation in patterns of gene expression and chemical defence production. Using the genetically tractable model Arabidopsis thaliana and different modes of induction, including the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis, the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae, and jasmonate application, constitutive and inducibility of resistance was measured across seven A. thaliana accessions that were previously selected based on constitutive levels of defence gene expression. According to theory, it was found that modes of resistance traded-off among accessions, particularly against S. littoralis, in which accessions investing in high constitutive resistance did not increase it substantially after attack and vice-versa. Accordingly, the average expression of eight genes involved in glucosinolate production negatively predicted larval growth across the seven accessions. Glucosinolate production and genes related to defence induction on healthy and herbivore-damaged plants were measured next. Surprisingly, only a partial correlation between glucosinolate production, gene expression, and the herbivore resistance results was found. These results suggest that the defence outcome of plants against herbivores goes beyond individual molecules or genes but stands on a complex network of interactions. PMID:25716695

  12. Trade-off between constitutive and inducible resistance against herbivores is only partially explained by gene expression and glucosinolate production.

    PubMed

    Rasmann, Sergio; Chassin, Estelle; Bilat, Julia; Glauser, Gaétan; Reymond, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    The hypothesis that constitutive and inducible plant resistance against herbivores should trade-off because they use the same resources and impose costs to plant fitness has been postulated for a long time. Negative correlations between modes of deployment of resistance and defences have been observed across and within species in common garden experiments. It was therefore tested whether that pattern of resistance across genotypes follows a similar variation in patterns of gene expression and chemical defence production. Using the genetically tractable model Arabidopsis thaliana and different modes of induction, including the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis, the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae, and jasmonate application, constitutive and inducibility of resistance was measured across seven A. thaliana accessions that were previously selected based on constitutive levels of defence gene expression. According to theory, it was found that modes of resistance traded-off among accessions, particularly against S. littoralis, in which accessions investing in high constitutive resistance did not increase it substantially after attack and vice-versa. Accordingly, the average expression of eight genes involved in glucosinolate production negatively predicted larval growth across the seven accessions. Glucosinolate production and genes related to defence induction on healthy and herbivore-damaged plants were measured next. Surprisingly, only a partial correlation between glucosinolate production, gene expression, and the herbivore resistance results was found. These results suggest that the defence outcome of plants against herbivores goes beyond individual molecules or genes but stands on a complex network of interactions.

  13. Efficient production and evaluation of lignocellulolytic enzymes using a constitutive protein expression system in Penicillium oxalicum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yibo; Xue, Haizhao; Liu, Guodong; Song, Xin; Qu, Yinbo

    2015-06-01

    Native lignocellulolytic enzyme systems secreted by filamentous fungi can be further optimized by protein engineering or supplementation of exogenous enzyme components. We developed a protein production and evaluation system in cellulase-producing fungus Penicillium oxalicum. First, by deleting the major amylase gene amy15A, a strain Δ15A producing few extracellular proteins on starch was constructed. Then, three lignocellulolytic enzymes (BGL4, Xyn10B, and Cel12A) with originally low expression levels were successfully expressed with selected constitutive promoters in strain Δ15A. BGL4 and Cel12A overexpression resulted in increased specific filter paper activity (FPA), while the overexpression of Xyn10B improved volumetric FPA but not specific FPA. By switching the culture medium, this platform is convenient to produce originally low-expressed lignocellulolytic enzymes in relatively high purities on starch and to evaluate the effect of their supplementation on the performance of a complex cellulase system on cellulose.

  14. Association between Albuminuria and Different Body Constitution in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Taichung Diabetic Body Constitution Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Li, Tsai-Chung; Tsai, Chia-I; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Hsin-Jung; Wu, Ya-Chi; Su, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients increases the risk of diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Because albuminuria is modifiable, identifying relevant risk factors could facilitate prevention and/or management. This cross-sectional study investigated whether body constitution (BC) independently predicts albuminuria. Method. Patients with T2DM (n = 846) received urinalysis, a blood test, and diabetic retinopathy examination. Albuminuria was defined by an elevated urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (≥30 μg/mg). BC type (Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, and Phlegm stasis) was assessed using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ). Traditional risk factors for albuminuria were also recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) of albuminuria for BC were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Albuminuria was more prevalent in patients with Yang deficiency or Phlegm stasis (both P < 0.01). After adjustment, patients with both Yang deficiency and Phlegm stasis exhibited a significantly higher risk of albuminuria (OR = 3.037; 95% confidence interval = 1.572–5.867, and P < 0.001). Conclusion. BC is strongly associated with albuminuria in T2DM patients. Using a BCQ to assess BC is noninvasive, convenient, and inexpensive and can provide information for health care professionals to identify T2DM patients who are at a high risk of albuminuria. PMID:26587046

  15. Constitutive nuclear localization of NFAT in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells independent of calcineurin activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuxia; Shakya, Arvind; Guo, Xiaohua; Zhang, Hongbo; Tantin, Dean; Jensen, Peter E; Chen, Xinjian

    2012-05-01

    Foxp3 plays an essential role in conferring suppressive functionality to CD4(+)/Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Although studies showed that Foxp3 has to form cooperative complexes with NFAT to bind to target genes, it remains unclear whether NFAT is available in the nucleus of primary Tregs for Foxp3 access. It is generally believed that NFAT in resting cells resides in the cytoplasm, and its nuclear translocation depends on calcineurin (CN) activation. We report that a fraction of NFAT protein constitutively localizes in the nucleus of primary Tregs, where it selectively binds to Foxp3 target genes. Treating Tregs with CN inhibitor does not induce export of NFAT from the nucleus, indicating that its nuclear translocation is independent of CN activity. Consistently, Tregs are resistant to CN inhibitors in the presence of IL-2 and continue to proliferate in response to anti-CD3 stimulation, whereas proliferation of non-Tregs is abrogated by CN inhibitors. In addition, PMA, which activates other transcription factors required for T cell activation but not NFAT, selectively induces Treg proliferation in the absence of ionomycin. TCR interaction with self-MHC class II is not required for PMA-induced Treg proliferation. Tregs expanded by PMA or in the presence of CN inhibitors maintain Treg phenotype and functionality. These findings shed light on Treg biology, paving the way for strategies to selectively activate Tregs.

  16. Primary packaging considerations in developing medicines for children: oral liquid and powder for constitution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gossett A; Vallejo, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The packaging presentation of oral liquid pediatric medicines is a critical step in maintaining chemical and physical stability, compliance, adherence, and proper handling by the target patient population, guardians, caregivers, and health-care professionals. The common packaging presentations for commercial oral liquid pediatric drug products are glass bottle, plastic bottle, sachet, and stick pack configurations. The type of pack presentation selected is driven by the quality target product profile (QTPP) that is designed around the physicochemical properties of the drug substance and the desired drug product suitability for the target population. The QTPP defines the intended use of the drug product, drug product quality criteria, dose strength, dosage form, container closure system, storage conditions, stability criteria, dosing device, shelf life, and attributes affecting the pharmacokinetic characteristics. Oral liquid pediatric formulations are typically prepared from a powder that is constituted at the time of use as a suspension or a solution for single or multiple use depending on the stability of the constituted formulation. Active ingredients with high aqueous solubility can be developed as a powder for oral solution and presented in a bottle for multiple use product and a stick pack, packet, or sachet for single-use product. Active ingredients with low aqueous solubility can be developed as a powder for oral suspension and presented in a bottle for multiple use product and a stick pack or sachet for single-use product. A secondary package may be used in cases where the primary pack failed to provide adequate protection against light degradation. This work will help formulation scientists select the most appropriate pack presentation in the early stages of pediatric clinical development.

  17. [Pain as an experience constituting body and identity].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, O; Tambornino, L

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the philosophical perspective of what pain actually is, how pain is defined and what functions pain has. It is unclear, for example, whether pain generally correlates with physical harm, if it is categorically unpleasant, if it can be objectified and how observable neuronal processes correlate with different experiences of pain. Particular attention is paid to investigations concerning neuro-imaging, as well as phenomenological and psychoanalytical considerations. The different functions of pain are presented, especially regarding the extent to which pain represents an experience that constitutes both the body and the identity. Some functions of pain discussed here are: defense and indicator, immediate bodily sensation, perceptibility of the body, self-reassurance of existence, congregating and materializing, psychological regulatory mechanism and communication. PMID:27351758

  18. The role of anticipation in the constitution of the subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Vijver, Gertrudis

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore some aspects of anticipation from a dynamic structuralist, and more specifically, Lacanian point of view. Against the background of Lucan's article on «Logical Time and the Assertion of Anticipated Certainty. A New Sophism» (1) a dynamical structuralist viewpoint on psychic systems is laid out, in which the emergence of psychic systems is conceived of in continuation with the emergence of biological forms of organization, and in which the mechanism of psychic closure, interpreted in terms of identification, plays a crucial role. The constitution of the subject, considered as the emergence of a specific psychic organization, is subjected to a specific logic, in which anticipation plays a crucial role.

  19. Constitutive modelling of evolving flow anisotropy including distortional hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Pietryga, Michael P.; Vladimirov, Ivaylo N.; Reese, Stefanie

    2011-05-04

    The paper presents a new constitutive model for anisotropic metal plasticity that takes into account the expansion or contraction (isotropic hardening), translation (kinematic hardening) and change of shape (distortional hardening) of the yield surface. The experimentally observed region of high curvature ('nose') on the yield surface in the loading direction and flattened shape in the reverse loading direction are modelled here by means of the concept of directional distortional hardening. The modelling of directional distortional hardening is accomplished by means of an evolving fourth-order tensor. The applicability of the model is illustrated by fitting experimental subsequent yield surfaces at finite plastic deformation. Comparisons with test data for aluminium low and high work hardening alloys display a good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data.

  20. Constitutive relationships for anisotropic high-temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.

    1982-01-01

    A constitutive theory is presented for representing the anisotropic viscoplastic behavior of high temperature alloys that posses directional properties resulting from controlled grain growth or solidification. The theory is an extension of a viscoplastic model that was applied in structural analyses involving isotropic metals. Anisotropy is introduced through the definition of a vector field that identifies a preferential (solidification) direction at each material point. Following the development of a full multiaxial theory, application is made to homogeneously stressed elements in pure shear and to a uniaxially stressed rectangular block in plane stress with the stress direction oriented at an arbitrary angle with the material direction. It is shown that an additional material parameter introduced to characterize the degree of anisotropy can be determined on the basis of simple creep tests.

  1. General constitutive model for supercooled liquids: anomalous transverse wave propagation.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Ryoichi

    2013-03-01

    A transverse acoustic wave propagates through supercooled liquids in an anomalous manner: for a macroscopic wave number k, the wave propagates long distances, as in elastic solids, whereas it attenuates rapidly for a mesoscopic to microscopic wave number k, as in viscous liquids. In this work, we theoretically describe this anomalous wave propagation using the hydrodynamics of the two-mode Maxwell constitutive model, which were determined independently from the mechanical properties under oscillatory shear strains. To ensure that the Maxwell model can be applied down to a microscopic length scale, we extended it to a k-dependent equation, taking into account the recently reported k dependences of the shear viscosity and modulus [A. Furukawa and H. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135703 (2009); A. Furukawa H. Tanaka Phys. Rev. E 84, 061503 (2011)]. The anomalous wave propagation in supercooled liquids can also be understood in terms of a linear coupling of many independent normal modes, as in amorphous solids. PMID:23496725

  2. An Experimental Study and Constitutive Modeling of Saturated Porous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S. Y.; Shao, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the experimental characterization and constitutive modeling of saturated porous rocks. A typical porous chalk is investigated. Drained hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests are first performed to characterize the basic mechanical behavior of chalk. Drained triaxial tests with constant interstitial pressure are then carried out to study the effects of interstitial pressure on the plastic deformation and failure criterion. Finally, undrained triaxial compression tests are performed to investigate poromechanical coupling in saturated conditions. Based on the experimental data and some relevant micromechanical considerations, a micromechanics-based plastic model is proposed and extended to poroplastic coupling using the effective stress concept. The proposed model is verified through comparisons between the numerical results and experimental data for both drained and undrained tests.

  3. Constitutive modelling of magnesium alloy sheets under strain path changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Young-Seon; Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Kim, Daeyong

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a continuum-based approach for the description of the plastic hardening behavior of magnesium alloy sheets subjected to non-proportional strain path changes is discussed. The constitutive model is based on an anisotropic distortional yield function combining a stable component and a fluctuating component. The stable component initiates the yield criterion that characterizes the typical strength differential between tension and compression in magnesium alloys at room temperature. The evolution of the fluctuating component is reformulated based on its cubic metal counterpart to represent the deformation nature of magnesium alloys that consist of slip and twin dominant modes. The model is not formulated with a kinematic hardening rule, but it reasonably reproduces complex features of the stress-strain responses under the load reversal in magnesium alloy sheet: i.e., asymmetric hardening behavior under tension and compression, sigmoidal nature of hardening curve during monotonic compression and compression followed by tension, strong anisotropy etc.

  4. Kv7 Channels Can Function without Constitutive Calmodulin Tethering

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, Araitz; Alaimo, Alessandro; Etxeberría, Ainhoa; Fernández-Orth, Juncal; Zamalloa, Teresa; Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Villace, Patricia; Areso, Pilar; Casis, Oscar; Villarroel, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    M-channels are voltage-gated potassium channels composed of Kv7.2-7.5 subunits that serve as important regulators of neuronal excitability. Calmodulin binding is required for Kv7 channel function and mutations in Kv7.2 that disrupt calmodulin binding cause Benign Familial Neonatal Convulsions (BFNC), a dominantly inherited human epilepsy. On the basis that Kv7.2 mutants deficient in calmodulin binding are not functional, calmodulin has been defined as an auxiliary subunit of Kv7 channels. However, we have identified a presumably phosphomimetic mutation S511D that permits calmodulin-independent function. Thus, our data reveal that constitutive tethering of calmodulin is not required for Kv7 channel function. PMID:21980481

  5. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments conducted at room and elevated temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-place calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  6. Ligand regulation of a constitutively dimeric EGF receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Daniel M.; Alvarado, Diego; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2015-06-01

    Ligand-induced receptor dimerization has traditionally been viewed as the key event in transmembrane signalling by epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans EGFR orthologue LET-23 is constitutively dimeric, yet responds to its ligand LIN-3 without changing oligomerization state. SAXS and mutational analyses further reveal that the preformed dimer of the LET-23 extracellular region is mediated by its domain II dimerization arm and resembles other EGFR extracellular dimers seen in structural studies. Binding of LIN-3 induces only minor structural rearrangements in the LET-23 dimer to promote signalling. Our results therefore argue that EGFR can be regulated by allosteric changes within an existing receptor dimer--resembling signalling by insulin receptor family members, which share similar extracellular domain compositions but form covalent dimers.

  7. Constitutional Ip36 deletion in a child with neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Biegel, J.A.; Zackai, E.H.; Scher, C.D.; Emanuel, B.S. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia ); White, P.S.; Marshall, H.N.; Fujimori, Minoru; Brodeur, G.M. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a child with dysmorphic features, as well as developmental and growth delay, who developed neuroblastoma at 5 mo of age. Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes revealed an interstitial deletion of 1p36.1 [r arrow] 1p36.2, which was apparent only with high-resolution banding. Molecular analysis with a collection of polymorphic DNA probes for 1p confirmed an interstitial deletion involving subbands of 1p36. Deletions of this region are a common finding in neuroblastoma cells from patients with advanced stages of disease. Therefore, these results (a) suggest that constitutional deletion of this region predisposed the patient to the development of neuroblastoma and (b) support the localization of a neuroblastoma tumor-suppressor locus to 1p36. 48 refs., 2 figs.

  8. The symbolic constitution of addiction: language, alienation, ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Ryan

    2012-07-01

    The author offers an articulation of addiction, via existential-phenomenology and Lacanian psychoanalysis, where it is argued that the addicted subject is constituted via a symbolic structuring evolving from societal practices, laws and the effects of language. Language carries a heritage, which bears on the knowledge and practices of designated subjects and practitioners of that discourse. Addiction, as one particular form of embodied existence and knowledgeable practice, finds expression through the speech and habits of the addict. Addiction, it is argued, is symbolically saturated with ambivalence and alienation. Also the addict is described as the complete modern technocratic subject, consumed by the ideology of consumption. The clinical implications are briefly explored where it is noted that two major approaches to addiction, namely 12-step fellowships and motivational interviewing, both attend to language as a critical component of their treatment approach.

  9. Probing the Cultural Constitution of Causal Cognition - A Research Program.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is the way people perceive, represent, and reason about causal relationships dependent on culture? While there have been sporadic attempts to explore this question, a systematic investigation is still lacking. Here, we propose that human causal cognition is not only superficially affected by cultural background, but that it is co-constituted by the cultural nature of the human species. To this end, we take stock of on-going research, with a particular focus on the methodological approaches taken: cross-species comparisons, archeological accounts, developmental studies, cross-cultural, and cross-linguistic experiments, as well as in-depth within-culture analyses of cognitive concepts, processes, and changes over time. We argue that only a combination of these approaches will allow us to integrate different components of cognition, levels of analysis, and points of view-the key requirements for a comprehensive, interdisciplinary research program to advance this field. PMID:26941695

  10. Stability of artificial oil bodies constituted with recombinant caleosins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-hang; Chyan, Chia-lin; Li, Feng-yin; Tzen, Jason T C

    2009-03-25

    Caleosin is a unique calcium binding protein anchoring to the surface of seed oil bodies by its central hydrophobic domain composed of an amphiphatic alpha-helix and a proline-knot subdomain. Stable artificial oil bodies were successfully constituted with recombinant caleosin overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The stability of artificial oil bodies was slightly or severely reduced when the amphiphatic alpha-helix or proline-knot subdomain in the hydrophobic domain of caleosin was truncated. Deletion of the entire central hydrophobic domain substantially increased the solubility of the recombinant caleosin, leading to a complete loss of its capability to stabilize these oil bodies. A recombinant protein engineered with the hydrophobic domain of caleosin replaced by that of oleosin, the abundant structural protein of seed oil bodies, could stabilize the artificial oil bodies, in terms of thermo- and structural stability, as effectively as caleosin or oleosin. PMID:19216529

  11. Constitutive modelling of aluminium alloy sheet at warm forming temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurukuri, S.; Worswick, M. J.; Winkler, S.

    2016-08-01

    The formability of aluminium alloy sheet can be greatly improved by warm forming. However predicting constitutive behaviour under warm forming conditions is a challenge for aluminium alloys due to strong, coupled temperature- and rate-sensitivity. In this work, uniaxial tensile characterization of 0.5 mm thick fully annealed aluminium alloy brazing sheet, widely used in the fabrication of automotive heat exchanger components, is performed at various temperatures (25 to 250 °C) and strain rates (0.002 and 0.02 s-1). In order to capture the observed rate- and temperature-dependent work hardening behaviour, a phenomenological extended-Nadai model and the physically based (i) Bergstrom and (ii) Nes models are considered and compared. It is demonstrated that the Nes model is able to accurately describe the flow stress of AA3003 sheet at different temperatures, strain rates and instantaneous strain rate jumps.

  12. [Microarray CGH: principle and use for constitutional disorders].

    PubMed

    Sanlaville, D; Lapierre, J M; Coquin, A; Turleau, C; Vermeesch, J; Colleaux, L; Borck, G; Vekemans, M; Aurias, A; Romana, S P

    2005-10-01

    Chips technology has allowed to miniaturize process making possible to realize in one step and using the same device a lot of chemical reactions. The application of this technology to molecular cytogenetics resulted in the development of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on microarrays technique. Using this technique it is possible to detect very small genetic imbalances anywhere in the genome. Its usefulness has been well documented in cancer and more recently in constitutional disorders. In particular it has been used to detect interstitial and subtelomeric submicroscopic imbalances, to characterize their size at the molecular level or to define the breakpoints of translocation. The challenge today is to transfer this technology in laboratory medicine. Nevertheless this technology remains expensive and the existence of numerous sequence polymorphisms makes its interpretation difficult. Finally its is unlikely that it will make karyotyping obsolete as it does not allow to detect balanced rearrangements which after meiotic segregation might result in genome imbalance in the progeny. PMID:16153813

  13. An inelastic constitutive equation of fiber reinforced plastic laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagawa, Y.; Murakami, S.; Mizobe, T.

    1998-01-01

    A constitutive model for describing the time-dependent inelastic deformation of unidirectional and symmetric angle-ply CFRP (carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) laminates is developed. The kinematic hardening creep law of Malinin and Khadjinsky and the evolution equation of Armstrong and Frederick are extended to describe the creep deformation of initially anisotropic materials. In particular, the evolution equations of the back stresses of the anisotropic material were formulated by introducing a transformed strain tensor, by which the expression of the equivalent strain rate of the anisotropic material has the identical form as that of the isotropic materials. The resulting model is applied to analyze the time-dependent inelastic deformation of symmetric angle-ply laminates. Comparison between the predictions and the experimental observations shows that the present model can describe well the time-dependent inelastic behavior under different loadings.

  14. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to

  15. Constitutive modeling and computational implementation for finite strain plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, K. W.; Atluri, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a simple alternate approach to the difficult problem of modeling material behavior. Starting from a general representation for a rate-tpe constitutive equation, it is shown by example how sets of test data may be used to derive restrictions on the scalar functions appearing in the representation. It is not possible to determine these functions from experimental data, but the aforementioned restrictions serve as a guide in their eventual definition. The implications are examined for hypo-elastic, isotropically hardening plastic, and kinematically hardening plastic materials. A simple model for the evolution of the 'back-stress,' in a kinematic-hardening plasticity theory, that is entirely analogous to a hypoelastic stress-strain relation is postulated and examined in detail in modeling finitely plastic tension-torsion test. The implementation of rate-type material models in finite element algorithms is also discussed.

  16. Finite gradient elasticity and plasticity: a constitutive thermodynamical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Albrecht

    2016-05-01

    In Bertram (Continuum Mech Thermodyn. doi: 10.1007/s00161-014-0387-0 , 2015), a mechanical framework for finite gradient elasticity and plasticity has been given. In the present paper, this is extended to thermodynamics. The mechanical theory is only briefly repeated here. A format for a rather general constitutive theory including all thermodynamic fields is given in a Euclidian invariant setting. The plasticity theory is rate-independent and unconstrained. The Clausius-Duhem inequality is exploited to find necessary and sufficient conditions for thermodynamic consistency. The residual dissipation inequality restricts the flow and hardening rules in combination with the yield criterion.

  17. Shearrate diffusion and constitutive relations during transients in simple shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Alexander; Brendel, Lothar; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2016-07-01

    Granular matter, consisting of hard, frictional, cohesionless spheres, sheared in a simple shear geometry with smooth walls undergoes a velocity driven transition from a jammed or creeping state (low wall velocity) to a flow state with a finite shear rate in the bulk (high wall velocity). In the flow state, the state variables volume fraction ν , inertial number I and the macroscopic friction μ of the bulk follow an exponential transient. The characteristic time of this progression grows with the wall velocity and the system size and is typically large compared to the inverse shear rate. It is shown that I, first being stationary in the shear zones, spreads diffusively into the bulk. The other state variables follow according to the constitutive laws, well known from the steady state.

  18. Constitutive and Stability Behavior of Soils in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Sture, Stein; Costes, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    All aspects of soil stability, bearing capacity, slope stability, the supporting capacity of deep foundations, and penetration resistance depend on soil strength. The stress-deformation and stress-deformation-time behavior of soils are of importance in any problem where ground movements are of interest. In most engineering materials, the strength is derived from internal chemical and physico-chemical forces of interaction, which bond the atoms, molecules, and particles together. In soils, the constitutive relations are mainly derived from interparticle friction between particles and particle groups and dilatancy, and to a lesser extent from particle bonding by weak electrostatic, physico-chemical, and coulomb forces. For engineering purposes, soils are classified as cohesive (clays and silts; typical particle sizes range from 10 nm to 10 micrometers) and cohesionless (sand and gravel; typical particle sizes range from 10 micrometers to 75 mm). The mechanical or constitutive properties of cohesionless soils or granular materials are highly fabric-dependent, highly non-linear, and non-conservative with engineering properties primarily depending on the effects of gravity through self-weight and on the tractions or forces applied to the soil mass. Under moderate-to-high stress levels, the influence of gravity on the behavior of laboratory test specimens may not be pronounced and, therefore, the test results in terrestrial (1-g) environment may be sufficiently conclusive. However at low interparticle stresses, which can result either from low applied (confining) stresses or from excess pore fluid pressures developed within the soil mass without corresponding changes in the applied stresses, the presence of gravitational body forces acting on solid particles and interstitial fluids exerts a pronounced influence on movement of individual particles or particle groups. Such motions, in turn, cause changes in soil fabric which results in significant changes in the

  19. Therapeutic cloning and the constitution--a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Muscati, S A

    2001-08-01

    Recent developments in the field of therapeutic cloning have been welcomed by many in the medical community as important breakthroughs that may help provide a better understanding of a variety of human diseases. Nevertheless, research in this field appears to have struck a sensitive nerve in society. A large amount of social debate has been generated regarding the validity of therapeutic cloning, and there are many seeking legislation to have the practice restricted. It is unclear, however, whether such restrictions can be legally justified. Analysing cloning in such a social and legal context raises a number of questions. What scientific procedures are behind therapeutic cloning? What is the legal status of the cultured or unimplanted embryo? Can cloning be considered an aspect of reproductive liberty as protected by the constitution? What medical advances might therapeutic cloning further? What social benefits and harms might arise from its promotion or restriction? Such questions, and the broader debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning, are addressed in this paper in three parts. Part 1 presents an overview of the basic biological principles behind cloning and the science behind the therapeutic cloning of specific cells and tissues. Part 2 analyses ss. 7, 2, 15(1) and 1 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and how they may be implicated by legal incursions into the field of human cloning. Several Charter-based arguments, both for and against the practice, are presented. Finally, Part 3 assesses some recent scientific developments in cloning technology, and how they affect the debate over the constitutionality of human therapeutic cloning.

  20. Toward a Turbulence Constitutive Relation for Rotating Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ristorcelli, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    In rapidly rotating turbulent flows the largest scales of the motion are in approximate geostrophic balance. Single-point turbulence closures, in general, cannot attain a geostrophic balance. This article addresses and resolves the possibility of constitutive relation procedures for single-point second order closures for a specific class of rotating or stratified flows. Physical situations in which the geostrophic balance is attained are described. Closely related issues of frame-indifference, horizontal nondivergence, Taylor-Proudman theorem and two-dimensionality are, in the context of both the instantaneous and averaged equations, discussed. It is shown, in the absence of vortex stretching along the axis of rotation, that turbulence is frame-indifferent. A derivation and discussion of a geostrophic constraint which the prognostic equations for second-order statistics must satisfy for turbulence approaching a frame-indifferent limit is given. These flow situations, which include rotating and nonrotating stratified flows, are slowly evolving flows in which the constitutive relation procedures are useful. A nonlinear non-constant coefficient representation for the rapid-pressure strain covariance appearing in the Reynolds stress and heat flux equations consistent with the geostrophic balance is described. The rapid-pressure strain model coefficients are not constants determined by numerical optimization but are functions of the state of the turbulence as parameterized by the Reynolds stresses and the turbulent heat fluxes. The functions are valid for all states of the turbulence attaining their limiting values only when a limit state is achieved. These issues are relevant to strongly vortical flows as well as flows such as the planetary boundary layers, in which there is a transition from a three-dimensional shear driven turbulence to a geostrophic or horizontal turbulence.

  1. [Natural selection].

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1985-05-01

    Much of the resistance against Darwin's theory of natural selection has been due to misunderstandings. It is shown that natural selection is not a tautology and that it is a two-step process. The first step, the production of variation, is under the control of chance; the second step, selection proper, is an anti-chance process, but subject to many constraints. The target of selection is the individual as a whole, and many neutral mutations can be retained as hitchhikers of successful genotypes. Sexual selection results from selection for pure reproductive success.

  2. The Whole Set of Constitutive Promoters Recognized by RNA Polymerase RpoD Holoenzyme of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Tanaka, Kan; Ishihama, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The promoter selectivity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is determined by the sigma subunit with promoter recognition activity. The model prokaryote Escherichia coli contains seven species of the sigma subunit, each recognizing a specific set of promoters. The major sigma subunit, sigma-70 encoded by rpoD, plays a major role in transcription of growth-related genes. Concomitant with the increase in detection of promoters functioning in vivo under various stressful conditions, the variation is expanding in the consensus sequence of RpoD promoters. In order to identify the canonical sequence of “constitutive promoters” that are recognized by the RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma in the absence of supporting transcription factors, an in vitro mixed transcription assay was carried out using a whole set of variant promoters, each harboring one base replacement, within the model promoter with the conserved -35 and -10 sequences of RpoD promoters. The consensus sequences, TTGACA(-35) and TATAAT(-10), were identified to be ideal for the maximum level of open complex formation and the highest rate of promoter opening, respectively. For identification of the full range of constitutive promoters on the E. coli genome, a total of 2,701 RpoD holoenzyme-binding sites were identified by Genomic SELEX screening, and using the reconfirmed consensus promoter sequence, a total of maximum 669 constitutive promoters were identified, implying that the majority of hitherto identified promoters represents the TF-dependent “inducible promoters”. One unique feature of the constitutive promoters is the high level of promoter sequence conservation, about 85% carrying five-out-of-six agreements with -35 or -10 consensus sequence. The list of constitutive promoters provides the community resource toward estimation of the inducible promoters that operate under various stressful conditions in nature. PMID:24603758

  3. Photographs of the 369th Infantry and African Americans during World War I. The Constitution Community: The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    In April 1917, President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany. Under the powers granted to it by the U.S. Constitution, Congress passed the Selective Service Act of 1917. Among the first regiments to arrive in France, and among the most highly decorated when it returned, was the 369th Infantry, more gallantly known as the…

  4. [Design method of constitution regulating and healthcare foods based on medicinal property combination mode].

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Yan, Su-rong; Ma, Li; Zu, Wen-qiang; Du, Li; Zhang, Yan-ling; Wang, Yun

    2015-09-01

    Currently, the herbal prescription therapy for corresponding constitutional diseases is a common constitution regulating method. This method has an obvious effect in treating and regulating constitution-related diseases. However, for people who do not have disease, they prefer to regulate constitution with dietary therapy. In this paper, the researchers came up with a design method of constitution regulating and healthcare foods based on medicinal property combination mode of clinical empirical formulas. With "Yupinfeng San", a common formula for Qi-insufficiency constitution and specific endowment constitution, as the example for constitution regulating and healthcare foods, the researchers proved the effectiveness and rationality of healthcare food schemes in terms of the efficacy of single herb and the modern pharmacological study.

  5. Focusing on the Constitution: Opportunities for Social Scientists in the Bicentennial Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikcunas, Diane D.

    1988-01-01

    States that the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, celebrated between 1987 and 1991, provides opportunities for the social studies curriculum. Discusses the need for increased knowledge of the Constitution and presents an approach to better understanding. (GEA)

  6. Pupil Rights in the "New" South Africa: Comparisons and Contrasts with American Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delon, Floyd G.

    1996-01-01

    Examines provisions of the South African Constitution pertaining to pupil rights in conjunction with the construction the United States Supreme Court has placed on corresponding provisions of the U.S. Constitution. (46 footnotes) (MLF)

  7. Anticipating the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution, September 17, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Warren E.

    1983-01-01

    Suggested methods for principals to enhance the constitutional literacy of their students preface a speech by the Chief Justice that analyzes the historical context of the Constitutional Convention with particular reference to the problematical fear of central power. (MJL)

  8. Role of phospholipase D and diacylglycerol in activating constitutive TRPC-like cation channels in rabbit ear artery myocytes.

    PubMed

    Albert, A P; Piper, A S; Large, W A

    2005-08-01

    Previously we have described a constitutively active Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel in freshly dispersed rabbit ear artery myocytes that has similar properties to canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel proteins. In the present study we have investigated the transduction pathways responsible for stimulating constitutive channel activity in these myocytes. Application of the pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase D (PC-PLD), butan-1-ol and C2 ceramide, produced marked inhibition of constitutive channel activity in cell-attached patches and also butan-1-ol produced pronounced suppression of resting membrane conductance measured with whole-cell recording whereas the inactive isomer butan-2-ol had no effect on constitutive whole-cell or channel activity. In addition butan-1-ol had no effect on channel activity evoked by the diacylglycerol (DAG) analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Inhibitors of PC-phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) had no effect on constitutive channel activity. Application of a purified PC-PLD enzyme and its metabolite phosphatidic acid to inside-out patches markedly increased channel activity. The phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) inhibitor dl-propranolol also inhibited constitutive and phosphatidic acid-induced increases in channel activity but had no effect on OAG-evoked responses. The DAG lipase and DAG kinase inhibitors, RHC80267 and R59949 respectively, which inhibit DAG metabolism, produced transient increases in channel activity which were mimicked by relatively high concentrations (40 microm) of OAG. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine did not prevent channel activation by OAG but blocked the secondary inhibitory response of OAG. It is proposed that endogenous DAG is involved in the activation of channel activity and that its effects on channel activity are concentration-dependent with higher concentrations of DAG also inhibiting channel

  9. Role of phospholipase D and diacylglycerol in activating constitutive TRPC-like cation channels in rabbit ear artery myocytes.

    PubMed

    Albert, A P; Piper, A S; Large, W A

    2005-08-01

    Previously we have described a constitutively active Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel in freshly dispersed rabbit ear artery myocytes that has similar properties to canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel proteins. In the present study we have investigated the transduction pathways responsible for stimulating constitutive channel activity in these myocytes. Application of the pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase D (PC-PLD), butan-1-ol and C2 ceramide, produced marked inhibition of constitutive channel activity in cell-attached patches and also butan-1-ol produced pronounced suppression of resting membrane conductance measured with whole-cell recording whereas the inactive isomer butan-2-ol had no effect on constitutive whole-cell or channel activity. In addition butan-1-ol had no effect on channel activity evoked by the diacylglycerol (DAG) analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Inhibitors of PC-phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) had no effect on constitutive channel activity. Application of a purified PC-PLD enzyme and its metabolite phosphatidic acid to inside-out patches markedly increased channel activity. The phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) inhibitor dl-propranolol also inhibited constitutive and phosphatidic acid-induced increases in channel activity but had no effect on OAG-evoked responses. The DAG lipase and DAG kinase inhibitors, RHC80267 and R59949 respectively, which inhibit DAG metabolism, produced transient increases in channel activity which were mimicked by relatively high concentrations (40 microm) of OAG. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine did not prevent channel activation by OAG but blocked the secondary inhibitory response of OAG. It is proposed that endogenous DAG is involved in the activation of channel activity and that its effects on channel activity are concentration-dependent with higher concentrations of DAG also inhibiting channel

  10. Constitutive model development for lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoi, Wa Yeung

    2005-11-01

    Rubber-soil (lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips) is a promising solution for the global scrap tire problem. It is also a promising material for various geotechnical engineering applications because of its advantageous properties such as lightweight, high permeability, high ductility and ease to cast. Intensive laboratory studies, mostly under triaxial testing, are conducted and a constitutive model is proposed. Firstly, the effective stress principle is proven applicable for Rubber-soil under normal engineering stress level although the inter-particle contact area is large. Secondly, because of the gravel-sized surface voids on the testing samples, membrane penetration is serious so an integrated remedy method is proposed, where the surface voids are patched up first and then a lubricated reinforced membrane is dressed on. It is found that the volumetric deformation of Rubber-soil is very recoverable even after 20% volume contraction but the over consolidation results illustrate a decreasing stiffness, which is believed due to volumetric damage. Shearing on the sample gives typical results as sands where clear phase transformation is observed, but the strains involved are higher and more recoverable. Besides, shear stiffness is observed decreasing with deformation, which is believed due to shear damage. There are other observations such as the difference in the curvatures of unloading and reloading curves in CD tests, which might be a frictional phenomenon. Based on the laboratory observations and on the analogy of a continuum spring-block system, a constitutive model termed as Analogical Model is proposed. Fifteen model parameters are involved but most of them are typical soil parameters. The remaining ones have clear physical meanings and can be easily calibrated. It is found that the model can satisfactorily capture many features observed from the experiments, such as hardening, softening, apparent permanent deformations, stiffness decay due to damage

  11. How Five (Partly True) Myths Can Help Teachers Teach about the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, David

    1988-01-01

    Uses five myths about the Constitution of the United States to help students better understand the basis for and the ratification of this important historical document. Among the myths included are the heart of the Constitution is the Bill of Rights and the Constitution was created by reactionary commercial interests to maintain the status quo.…

  12. 20 CFR 1002.248 - What constitutes cause for discharge under USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What constitutes cause for discharge under... constitutes cause for discharge under USERRA? The employee may be discharged for cause based either on conduct... express or can be fairly implied, that the conduct would constitute cause for discharge. (b) If, based...

  13. 20 CFR 1002.248 - What constitutes cause for discharge under USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What constitutes cause for discharge under... constitutes cause for discharge under USERRA? The employee may be discharged for cause based either on conduct... express or can be fairly implied, that the conduct would constitute cause for discharge. (b) If, based...

  14. 20 CFR 1002.248 - What constitutes cause for discharge under USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What constitutes cause for discharge under... constitutes cause for discharge under USERRA? The employee may be discharged for cause based either on conduct... express or can be fairly implied, that the conduct would constitute cause for discharge. (b) If, based...

  15. 20 CFR 1002.248 - What constitutes cause for discharge under USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What constitutes cause for discharge under... constitutes cause for discharge under USERRA? The employee may be discharged for cause based either on conduct... express or can be fairly implied, that the conduct would constitute cause for discharge. (b) If, based...

  16. Constitutionally-Legal Policy as Base Type of Legal Policy of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anichkin, Eugene S.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with reasons for formation, nature and specifics of the constitutionally legal policy of modern Russia. The special attention is spared to the exposure of the aim, long-term and short-term tasks, and principles of national constitutionally legal policy. The functions of constitutionally legal policy are separately considered:…

  17. The United States Constitution: A Non-Trivial Pursuit. Fifty-Three Radio Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Walter B.

    These 53 radio scripts present the history of the founding and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Each script is designed to fit within a 2 to 2-1/2 minute time-frame. The titles are: "Introduction to Series" (Promotional Segment); "Did You Know: Our Present Constitution Is Our Second Constitution?"; "The First American President: Peyton…

  18. Oaths of Office in Tribal Constitutions: Swearing Allegiance, but to Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, David E.; Lightfoot, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    No comprehensive analysis of tribal constitutions has ever been conducted, so this project aims to begin filling this significant gap in American, constitutional, and comparative politics research. In this study, the authors examine only one small but significant element of Native constitutions: oaths of office for incoming tribal government…

  19. Letters of Liberty: A Documentary History of the U.S. Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodehamel, John H.

    Through an exploration of essential documents and writings that led to and derived from the creation of the U.S. Constitution, this book chronicles U.S. history from 1775 to 1791. Major sections include: (1) the origins of the Constitution; (2) America in 1787; (3) the grand federal convention; (4) ratification of the Constitution; (5) the first…

  20. William Jackson: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    All 39 delegates to the Constitutional Convention signed the U.S. Constitution in September 1787, but the 40th signature, that of William Jackson, the Secretary of the Convention, authenticated the results of the session in Philadelphia. This booklet on Jackson is one in a series on Revolutionary War soldiers who signed the U.S. Constitution, and…

  1. 29 CFR 452.2 - Application of union constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of union constitution and bylaws. 452.2 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.2 Application of union constitution and... validly adopted constitution and bylaws of the labor organizations insofar as they are not...

  2. 29 CFR 452.2 - Application of union constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of union constitution and bylaws. 452.2 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.2 Application of union constitution and... validly adopted constitution and bylaws of the labor organizations insofar as they are not...

  3. 29 CFR 452.2 - Application of union constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of union constitution and bylaws. 452.2 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.2 Application of union constitution and... validly adopted constitution and bylaws of the labor organizations insofar as they are not...

  4. 29 CFR 452.2 - Application of union constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of union constitution and bylaws. 452.2 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.2 Application of union constitution and... validly adopted constitution and bylaws of the labor organizations insofar as they are not...

  5. 29 CFR 452.2 - Application of union constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of union constitution and bylaws. 452.2 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.2 Application of union constitution and... validly adopted constitution and bylaws of the labor organizations insofar as they are not...

  6. Knowing It by Heart: Americans Consider the Constitution and Its Meaning. A Report by Public Agenda for the National Constitution Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Steve; Johnson, Jean; Duffett, Ann

    A study conducted by Public Agenda Foundation, in partnership with the National Constitution Center, examined what typical adults know and believe about the U.S. Constitution, probed what they understand their rights and civic responsibilities to be, and reported their views on the document's importance and relevance in their lives today. The…

  7. Implausibility of Hydrostatic Funnels Constituting the Sun's Upper Transition Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Carpio, Melisa M.; Sheung, Janet

    2007-09-01

    Over the past thirty years, two bodies of literature have developed in parallel presenting mutually exclusive views of the Sun’s upper transition region. One model holds that the Sun’s upper-transition-region plasmas are confined primarily in hydrostatic funnels with a substantial backheating component. The other model holds that discrete structures, which are effectively isolated from the corona, predominate in the Sun’s upper transition region. Purveyors of the latter position have recently begun to present near-resolved observations of discrete structures. The funnel scenario, in contrast, has only been addressed by modeling unresolved upper transition region emission. To address this paradox we have constructed hydrostatic funnel models and tested them against a wider set of solar observations than previously performed. We reproduce the results of the previous analyses, yet find that the hydrostatic funnels are unable to self-consistently match the wider set of observations against which we test the models. We show that it is not possible for a class of funnels having peak temperatures in the transition region or in the corona to match the observations. We conclude that it is implausible that a class of hydrostatic funnels constitutes the dominant emitting component of the Sun’s upper-transition-region plasmas as has been suggested.

  8. Transcription factor effects on chromosome constitution of cell hybrids.

    PubMed

    Hines, M D; Radomska, H S; Eckhardt, L A

    1998-01-01

    When immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting plasmacytomas are fused to a T-cell lymphoma, Ig gene expression ceases in greater than 95% of the resulting hybrids. In the rare hybrids that continue to express Ig, all other tested B lymphocyte-specific genes also remain active. The low frequency with which these Ig-expressing hybrids are recovered, along with the fact that cell fusions can lead to chromosome loss, led us to propose that this rare phenotype was due to loss of a T-cell-derived chromosome encoding a factor or factors with gene silencing activity. To identify the relevant chromosome, we have used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-assisted method of chromosome mapping to analyze both Ig-silenced (common) and Ig-expressing (rare) hybrids. Although no single chromosome was found to correlate with Ig gene silencing, we discovered that the two types of hybrids had undergone distinct patterns of chromosome loss. Moreover, we found that ectopic expression of a B-cell-specific transcription factor (Oct-2) dramatically altered both the phenotype and chromosome constitution of hybrids arising in these cell fusions.

  9. Numerical tests of constitutive laws for dense granular flows.

    PubMed

    Lois, Gregg; Lemaître, Anaël; Carlson, Jean M

    2005-11-01

    We numerically and theoretically study the macroscopic properties of dense, sheared granular materials. In this process we first consider an invariance in Newton's equations, explain how it leads to Bagnold's scaling, and discuss how it relates to the dynamics of granular temperature. Next we implement numerical simulations of granular materials in two different geometries--simple shear and flow down an incline--and show that measurements can be extrapolated from one geometry to the other. Then we observe nonaffine rearrangements of clusters of grains in response to shear strain and show that fundamental observations, which served as a basis for the shear transformation zone (STZ) theory of amorphous solids [M. L. Falk and J. S. Langer, Phys. Rev. E. 57, 7192 (1998); M.R.S. Bull 25, 40 (2000)], can be reproduced in granular materials. Finally we present constitutive equations for granular materials as proposed by Lemaître [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 064303 (2002)], based on the dynamics of granular temperature and STZ theory, and show that they match remarkably well with our numerical data from both geometries.

  10. On the development of constitutive relations for metallic powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, T. J.; Wert, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the development of elastic and plastic constitutive relations as functions of relative density for partially consolidated -100 mesh aluminum powder. First, measurements of yield stress as a function of stress state and relative density are described. Measurements of the plastic strain increments associated with yielding in unconstrained compression tests and elastic properties, both as functions of relative density, are also described. The experimental results are combined with the associated flow rule to show that the yield surface is asymmetric with respect to hydrostatic tension and compression. Second, it is shown that the yield stress results can be represented by a two-part (capped Drucker-Prager) yield surface. The consolidation yield surface moves along the hydrostatic stress axis during densification, while the shear yield surface approaches the Mises yield surface. For the Al powder used in the present investigation, superposition of shear stress on a hydrostatic stress state aids the densification process. However, the hydrostatic stress requirement was found to be reduced by only about 20 pct for relative densities below 0.98.

  11. The AIDS epidemic and gay bathhouses: a constitutional analysis.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J A

    1986-01-01

    Some legal scholars propose that the right of privacy articulated by the United States Supreme Court should be extended to protect homosexual activity. In light of the advent of AIDS, should that extension include constitutional protection for homosexual men who frequent gay bathhouses? The author argues that although the government has the power to close the baths in the name of public health, it should not do so without careful and conscious balancing against the privacy rights infringed upon by its actions. Balancing the tension between public health policy and individual rights applies not only to the specific situation of the baths, but also to insurance companies' aim to test all single, young, male life and health policy applicants for exposure to the putative AIDS virus; to potential health department releases of names of those testing antibody-positive for HTLV-III; to the military's rumored plans to discharge all personnel suspected of having AIDS; and to school districts seeking to exclude children with AIDS.

  12. Homogenization of viscoplastic constitutive laws within a phase field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rancourt, Victor; Ammar, Kais; Appolaire, Benoît; Forest, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    The present work provides an original consistent framework for combining different constitutive laws, possibly nonlinear, within diffuse interface models (phase field) by homogenization rather than by mixing the material parameters, such as to offer a greater flexibility. The framework relies on the choice of relevant thermodynamic potentials such that the homogenization schemes are natural choices in the thermodynamic formulation. Thus, it justifies previously proposed classic schemes (Ammar et al., 2009b) and gives clues to explore new schemes (Durga et al., 2013; Mosler et al., 2014) by defining relevant potentials. The proposed framework is illustrated by addressing two issues. First, Reuss and Voigt homogenization schemes are shown to deliver the same kinetics of diffusion-controlled transformations in the pure elastic case in the limit of vanishing diffuse interface width. Second, using the Voigt homogenization scheme, we demonstrate that the influence of viscoplasticity, either isotropic or crystalline, on diffusion-controlled transformations is non-trivial and cannot be inferred from simple qualitative arguments. Depending on the competition between the time scales of diffusion and viscoplasticity, the growth kinetics may exhibit intermediate behaviors between purely chemical and elastic cases. Moreover, it is shown how viscoplasticity can change the morphological stability of growing circular precipitates.

  13. Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen

    2014-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity

  14. Helix 11 dynamics is critical for constitutive androstane receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Edward; Busby, Scott A; Wisecarver, Sarah; Vincent, Jeremy; Griffin, Patrick R; Fernandez, Elias J

    2011-01-12

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) transactivation can occur in the absence of exogenous ligand and this activity is enhanced by agonists TCPOBOP and meclizine. We use biophysical and cell-based assays to show that increased activity of CAR(TCPOBOP) relative to CAR(meclizine) corresponds to a higher affinity of CAR(TCPOBOP) for the steroid receptor coactivator-1. Additionally, steady-state fluorescence spectra suggest conformational differences between CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR and CAR(meclizine):RXR. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) data indicate that the CAR activation function 2 (AF-2) is more stable in CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR and CAR(meclizine):RXR than in CAR:RXR. HDX kinetics also show significant differences between CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR and CAR(meclizine):RXR. Unlike CAR(meclizine):RXR, CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR shows a higher overall stabilization that extends into RXR. We identify residues 339-345 in CAR as an allosteric regulatory site with a greater magnitude reduction in exchange kinetics in CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR than CAR(meclizine):RXR. Accordingly, assays with mutations on CAR at leucine-340 and leucine-343 confirm this region as an important determinant of CAR activity. PMID:21220114

  15. A Constitutive Model for a Maturing Fibrin Network

    PubMed Central

    van Kempen, Thomas H.S.; Bogaerds, Arjen C.B.; Peters, Gerrit W.M.; van de Vosse, Frans N.

    2014-01-01

    Blood clot formation is crucial to maintain normal physiological conditions but at the same time involved in many diseases. The mechanical properties of the blood clot are important for its functioning but complicated due to the many processes involved. The main structural component of the blood clot is fibrin, a fibrous network that forms within the blood clot, thereby increasing its mechanical rigidity. A constitutive model for the maturing fibrin network is developed that captures the evolving mechanical properties. The model describes the fibrin network as a network of fibers that become thicker in time. Model parameters are related to the structural properties of the network, being the fiber length, bending stiffness, and mass-length ratio. Results are compared with rheometry experiments in which the network maturation is followed in time for various loading frequencies and fibrinogen concentrations. Three parameters are used to capture the mechanical behavior including the mass-length ratio. This parameter agrees with values determined using turbidimetry experiments and is subsequently used to derive the number of protofibrils and fiber radius. The strength of the model is that it describes the mechanical properties of the maturing fibrin network based on it structural quantities. At the same time the model is relatively simple, which makes it suitable for advanced numerical simulations of blood clot formation during flow in blood vessels. PMID:25028892

  16. Failure behavior and constitutive model of weakly consolidated soft rock.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-ming; Zhao, Zeng-hui; Wang, Yong-ji; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Mining areas in western China are mainly located in soft rock strata with poor bearing capacity. In order to make the deformation failure mechanism and strength behavior of weakly consolidated soft mudstone and coal rock hosted in Ili No. 4 mine of Xinjiang area clear, some uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were carried out according to the samples of rocks gathered in the studied area, respectively. Meanwhile, a damage constitutive model which considered the initial damage was established by introducing a damage variable and a correction coefficient. A linearization process method was introduced according to the characteristics of the fitting curve and experimental data. The results showed that samples under different moisture contents and confining pressures presented completely different failure mechanism. The given model could accurately describe the elastic and plastic yield characteristics as well as the strain softening behavior of collected samples at postpeak stage. Moreover, the model could precisely reflect the relationship between the elastic modulus and confining pressure at prepeak stage.

  17. Failure Behavior and Constitutive Model of Weakly Consolidated Soft Rock

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-ming; Zhao, Zeng-hui; Wang, Yong-ji; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Mining areas in western China are mainly located in soft rock strata with poor bearing capacity. In order to make the deformation failure mechanism and strength behavior of weakly consolidated soft mudstone and coal rock hosted in Ili No. 4 mine of Xinjiang area clear, some uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were carried out according to the samples of rocks gathered in the studied area, respectively. Meanwhile, a damage constitutive model which considered the initial damage was established by introducing a damage variable and a correction coefficient. A linearization process method was introduced according to the characteristics of the fitting curve and experimental data. The results showed that samples under different moisture contents and confining pressures presented completely different failure mechanism. The given model could accurately describe the elastic and plastic yield characteristics as well as the strain softening behavior of collected samples at postpeak stage. Moreover, the model could precisely reflect the relationship between the elastic modulus and confining pressure at prepeak stage. PMID:24489511

  18. Applications of comparative genomic hybridisation in constitutional chromosome studies.

    PubMed

    Breen, C J; Barton, L; Carey, A; Dunlop, A; Glancy, M; Hall, K; Hegarty, A M; Khokhar, M T; Power, M; Ryan, K; Green, A J; Stallings, R L

    1999-07-01

    G band cytogenetic analysis often leads to the discovery of unbalanced karyotypes that require further characterisation by molecular cytogenetic studies. In particular, G band analysis usually does not show the chromosomal origin of small marker chromosomes or of a small amount of extra material detected on otherwise normal chromosomes. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) is one of several molecular approaches that can be applied to ascertain the origin of extra chromosomal material. CGH is also capable of detecting loss of material and thus is also applicable to confirming or further characterising subtle deletions. We have used comparative genomic hybridisation to analyse 19 constitutional chromosome abnormalities detected by G band analysis, including seven deletions, five supernumerary marker chromosomes, two interstitial duplications, and five chromosomes presenting with abnormal terminal banding patterns. CGH was successful in elucidating the origin of extra chromosomal material in 10 out of 11 non-mosaic cases, and permitted further characterisation of all of the deletions that could be detected by GTG banding. CGH appears to be a useful adjunct tool for either confirming deletions or defining their breakpoints and for determining the origin of extra chromosomal material, even in cases where abnormalities are judged to be subtle. We discuss internal quality control measures, such as the mismatching of test and reference DNA in order to assess the quality of the competitive hybridisation effect on the X chromosome.

  19. The Role of Constitutional Copy Number Variants in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Logan C.; Wiggins, George A.R.; Pearson, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional copy number variants (CNVs) include inherited and de novo deviations from a diploid state at a defined genomic region. These variants contribute significantly to genetic variation and disease in humans, including breast cancer susceptibility. Identification of genetic risk factors for breast cancer in recent years has been dominated by the use of genome-wide technologies, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-arrays, with a significant focus on single nucleotide variants. To date, these large datasets have been underutilised for generating genome-wide CNV profiles despite offering a massive resource for assessing the contribution of these structural variants to breast cancer risk. Technical challenges remain in determining the location and distribution of CNVs across the human genome due to the accuracy of computational prediction algorithms and resolution of the array data. Moreover, better methods are required for interpreting the functional effect of newly discovered CNVs. In this review, we explore current and future application of SNP array technology to assess rare and common CNVs in association with breast cancer risk in humans.

  20. Implications of fault constitutive properties for earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, J H; Kilgore, B

    1996-04-30

    The rate- and state-dependent constitutive formulation for fault slip characterizes an exceptional variety of materials over a wide range of sliding conditions. This formulation provides a unified representation of diverse sliding phenomena including slip weakening over a characteristic sliding distance Dc, apparent fracture energy at a rupture front, time-dependent healing after rapid slip, and various other transient and slip rate effects. Laboratory observations and theoretical models both indicate that earthquake nucleation is accompanied by long intervals of accelerating slip. Strains from the nucleation process on buried faults generally could not be detected if laboratory values of Dc apply to faults in nature. However, scaling of Dc is presently an open question and the possibility exists that measurable premonitory creep may precede some earthquakes. Earthquake activity is modeled as a sequence of earthquake nucleation events. In this model, earthquake clustering arises from sensitivity of nucleation times to the stress changes induced by prior earthquakes. The model gives the characteristic Omori aftershock decay law and assigns physical interpretation to aftershock parameters. The seismicity formulation predicts large changes of earthquake probabilities result from stress changes. Two mechanisms for foreshocks are proposed that describe observed frequency of occurrence of foreshock-mainshock pairs by time and magnitude. With the first mechanism, foreshocks represent a manifestation of earthquake clustering in which the stress change at the time of the foreshock increases the probability of earthquakes at all magnitudes including the eventual mainshock. With the second model, accelerating fault slip on the mainshock nucleation zone triggers foreshocks.