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Sample records for constraint-induced movement therapy

  1. Constraint-induced movement therapy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, Gert; Veerbeek, Janne M; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Wolf, Steven L

    2015-02-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) was developed to overcome upper limb impairments after stroke and is the most investigated intervention for the rehabilitation of patients. Original CIMT includes constraining of the non-paretic arm and task-oriented training. Modified versions also apply constraining of the non-paretic arm, but not as intensive as original CIMT. Behavioural strategies are mostly absent for both modified and original CIMT. With forced use therapy, only constraining of the non-paretic arm is applied. The original and modified types of CIMT have beneficial effects on motor function, arm-hand activities, and self-reported arm-hand functioning in daily life, immediately after treatment and at long-term follow-up, whereas there is no evidence for the efficacy of constraint alone (as used in forced use therapy). The type of CIMT, timing, or intensity of practice do not seem to affect patient outcomes. Although the underlying mechanisms that drive modified and original CIMT are still poorly understood, findings from kinematic studies suggest that improvements are mainly based on adaptations through learning to optimise the use of intact end-effectors in patients with some voluntary motor control of wrist and finger extensors after stroke.

  2. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kwakkel, Gert; Veerbeek, Janne M.; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.; Wolf, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) was developed to overcome upper limb impairments after stroke and is the most investigated intervention for treating stroke patients in the previous decades. This review describes the current evidence regarding: original CIMT and modified versions of CIMT (mCIMT). Meta-analysis showed strong evidence favoring both types of CIMT in terms of motor function, arm-hand activities and self-reported arm-hand functioning in daily life, immediately after treatment and at long-term follow-up, whereas no evidence was found for constraining alone (Forced Use (FU) therapy). No evidence was found that type of CIMT, intensity of practice or timing did affect outcome. Although the underlying mechanism that drive (m)CIMT is still poorly understood, recent kinematic conducted studies suggests that improvements introduced by original CIMT or mCIMT are mainly based on adaptation by learning to optimize the use of intact end-effectors by selecting patients with some voluntary motor control of wrist and finger extensors post stroke. PMID:25772900

  3. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT): Pediatric Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kathleen; Garcia, Teressa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe theoretical and research bases for constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), to discuss key features and variations in protocols currently in use with children, and to review the results of studies of efficacy. CIMT has been found to be an effective intervention for increasing functional use of the…

  4. The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Constraint-induced (CI) therapy is a term given to a family of efficacious neurorehabilitation treatments including to date: upper extremity CI movement therapy, lower extremity CI movement therapy, pediatric CI therapy, and CI aphasia therapy. The purpose of this article is to outline the behavior analysis origins of CI therapy and the ways in…

  5. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenqing; Wang, Aihui; Yu, Limin; Han, Xuesong; Jiang, Guiyun; Weng, Changshui; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-11-15

    Stroke patients with hemiplegia exhibit flexor spasms in the upper limb and extensor spasms in the lower limb, and their movement patterns vary greatly. Constraint-induced movement therapy is an upper limb rehabilitation technique used in stroke patients with hemiplegia; however, studies of lower extremity rehabilitation are scarce. In this study, stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia underwent conventional Bobath therapy for 4 weeks as baseline treatment, followed by constraint-induced movement therapy for an additional 4 weeks. The 10-m maximum walking speed and Berg balance scale scores significantly improved following treatment, and lower extremity motor function also improved. The results of functional MRI showed that constraint-induced movement therapy alleviates the reduction in cerebral functional activation in patients, which indicates activation of functional brain regions and a significant increase in cerebral blood perfusion. These results demonstrate that constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia.

  6. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenqing; Wang, Aihui; Yu, Limin; Han, Xuesong; Jiang, Guiyun; Weng, Changshui; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Stroke patients with hemiplegia exhibit flexor spasms in the upper limb and extensor spasms in the lower limb, and their movement patterns vary greatly. Constraint-induced movement therapy is an upper limb rehabilitation technique used in stroke patients with hemiplegia; however, studies of lower extremity rehabilitation are scarce. In this study, stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia underwent conventional Bobath therapy for 4 weeks as baseline treatment, followed by constraint-induced movement therapy for an additional 4 weeks. The 10-m maximum walking speed and Berg balance scale scores significantly improved following treatment, and lower extremity motor function also improved. The results of functional MRI showed that constraint-induced movement therapy alleviates the reduction in cerebral functional activation in patients, which indicates activation of functional brain regions and a significant increase in cerebral blood perfusion. These results demonstrate that constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia. PMID:25337108

  7. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenqing; Wang, Aihui; Yu, Limin; Han, Xuesong; Jiang, Guiyun; Weng, Changshui; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-11-15

    Stroke patients with hemiplegia exhibit flexor spasms in the upper limb and extensor spasms in the lower limb, and their movement patterns vary greatly. Constraint-induced movement therapy is an upper limb rehabilitation technique used in stroke patients with hemiplegia; however, studies of lower extremity rehabilitation are scarce. In this study, stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia underwent conventional Bobath therapy for 4 weeks as baseline treatment, followed by constraint-induced movement therapy for an additional 4 weeks. The 10-m maximum walking speed and Berg balance scale scores significantly improved following treatment, and lower extremity motor function also improved. The results of functional MRI showed that constraint-induced movement therapy alleviates the reduction in cerebral functional activation in patients, which indicates activation of functional brain regions and a significant increase in cerebral blood perfusion. These results demonstrate that constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia. PMID:25337108

  8. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy for clients with chronic stroke: interrupted time series (ITS) design.

    PubMed

    Park, JuHyung; Lee, NaYun; Cho, YongHo; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that modified constraint-induced movement therapy has on upper extremity function and the daily life of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy was conduct for 2 stroke patients with hemiplegia. It was performed 5 days a week for 2 weeks, and the participants performed their daily living activities wearing mittens for 6 hours a day, including the 2 hours of the therapy program. The assessment was conducted 5 times in 3 weeks before and after intervention. The upper extremity function was measured using the box and block test and a dynamometer, and performance daily of living activities was assessed using the modified Barthel index. The results were analyzed using a scatterplot and linear regression. [Results] All the upper extremity functions of the participants all improved after the modified constraint-induced movement therapy. Performance of daily living activities by participant 1 showed no change, but the results of participant 2 had improved after the intervention. [Conclusion] Through the results of this research, it was identified that modified constraint-induced movement therapy is effective at improving the upper extremity functions and the performance of daily living activities of chronic stroke patients.

  9. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy for clients with chronic stroke: interrupted time series (ITS) design

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung; Lee, NaYun; Cho, YongHo; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that modified constraint-induced movement therapy has on upper extremity function and the daily life of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy was conduct for 2 stroke patients with hemiplegia. It was performed 5 days a week for 2 weeks, and the participants performed their daily living activities wearing mittens for 6 hours a day, including the 2 hours of the therapy program. The assessment was conducted 5 times in 3 weeks before and after intervention. The upper extremity function was measured using the box and block test and a dynamometer, and performance daily of living activities was assessed using the modified Barthel index. The results were analyzed using a scatterplot and linear regression. [Results] All the upper extremity functions of the participants all improved after the modified constraint-induced movement therapy. Performance of daily living activities by participant 1 showed no change, but the results of participant 2 had improved after the intervention. [Conclusion] Through the results of this research, it was identified that modified constraint-induced movement therapy is effective at improving the upper extremity functions and the performance of daily living activities of chronic stroke patients. PMID:25931770

  10. Outcomes of a Clinic-Based Pediatric Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reidy, Teressa Garcia; Naber, Erin; Viguers, Emily; Allison, Kristen; Brady, Kathleen; Carney, Joan; Salorio, Cynthia; Pidcock, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A single-group pre- and post-test design was used to evaluate functional outcomes of a constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) protocol implemented in an outpatient therapy center. The participants were 29 children with hemiplegia, ages 1.6-19.1 years old. The less-involved upper limb was placed in a cast that was worn 24 hr a day, 7 days a…

  11. Examining the Use of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy in Canadian Neurological Occupational and Physical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, Alana; Che, Marion; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; MacKenzie, Diane; Page, Stephen; Eskes, Gail; McDonald, Alison; Boyce, Joy

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the use of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in Canadian neurological occupational and physical therapy. Method: An online survey was completed by occupational and physical therapists practising in Canadian adult neurological rehabilitation. We measured participants' practices, perceptions, and opinions in relation to their use of CIMT in clinical practice. Results: A total of 338 surveys were returned for a 13% response rate; 92% of respondents knew of CIMT, and 43% reported using it. The majority (88%) of respondents using CIMT employed a non-traditional protocol. Self-rating of level of CIMT knowledge was found to be a significant predictor of CIMT use (p≤0.001). Commonly identified barriers to use included “patients having cognitive challenges that prohibit use of this treatment” and “lack of knowledge regarding treatment.” Conclusions: Although the majority of respondents knew about CIMT, less than half reported using it. Barriers to CIMT use include lack of knowledge about the treatment and institutional resources to support its use. Identifying and addressing barriers to CIMT use—for example, by using continuing professional education to remediate knowledge gaps or developing new protocols that require fewer institutional resources—can help improve the feasibility of CIMT, and thus promote its clinical application. PMID:24719511

  12. The Effects of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy on Activities Important to Independent School Participation of Children with Hemiparesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of constraint-induced movement therapy (CI therapy) on activities important to school participation in children with hemiparesis. Four children, ages 4-0 to 7-10 participated in an intensive CI therapy program in a clinical setting. Constraining casts were worn 24 hours daily. Therapy was delivered 6 hours…

  13. The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Constraint-induced (CI) therapy is a term given to a family of efficacious neurorehabilitation treatments including to date: upper extremity CI movement therapy, lower extremity CI movement therapy, pediatric CI therapy, and CI aphasia therapy. The purpose of this article is to outline the behavior analysis origins of CI therapy and the ways in which its procedures incorporate behavior analysis methods and principles. The intervention is founded on the concept of learned nonuse, a mechanism now empirically demonstrated to exist, which occurs after many different types of damage to the central nervous system (CNS). It results from the dramatic alteration of the contingencies of reinforcement that results from substantial CNS damage and leads to a greater deficit than is warranted by the actual damage sustained. CI therapy produces a countervailing alteration in the contingencies of reinforcement. The intervention has been used successfully to substantially improve motor deficits after stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, with cerebral palsy in a pediatric population, and for language impairment in poststroke aphasia. The protocol of CI therapy consists primarily of standard behavior-analytic methods. It produces a marked plastic brain change that is correlated with its therapeutic effect, and therefore provides an example of the way in which behavior change can contribute to a profound remodeling of the brain. CI therapy may be viewed as an example of behavioral neurorehabilitation. PMID:23449867

  14. Constraint-induced movement therapy in stroke rehabilitation: perspectives on future clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Sarah; Wilsey, Heather; Wolf, Steven L

    2008-01-01

    Results from studies supporting the application of constraint-induced movement therapy (CI therapy) in patients with stroke have steadily increased over the past decade. The exploration of this intervention has provided a broad foundation from which to build further development of evidence-based practice in neurorehabilitation. This article first provides an update on CI therapy efficacy based on the relative chronicity of stroke and the functional levels of participants from whom data have been acquired. A review of current considerations is discussed, including guidelines for screening criteria, the role of the patient and family during the intervention, options for various delivery modes and suggestions to monitor outcomes. Finally, future directions are explored through identification of integrated approaches with CI therapy including: robotics, virtual environments, mental imagery, pharmaceutical manipulations and cortical stimulation. Clinical application of a research based intervention should not occur in isolation. CI therapy researchers should be charged to define the critical aspects of this therapy and appropriate adjunctive interventions that augment its applicability and effectiveness.

  15. Outcomes of a clinic-based pediatric constraint-induced movement therapy program.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Teressa Garcia; Naber, Erin; Viguers, Emily; Allison, Kristen; Brady, Kathleen; Carney, Joan; Salorio, Cynthia; Pidcock, Frank

    2012-11-01

    A single-group pre- and post-test design was used to evaluate functional outcomes of a constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) protocol implemented in an outpatient therapy center. The participants were 29 children with hemiplegia, ages 1.6-19.1 years old. The less-involved upper limb was placed in a cast that was worn 24 hr a day, 7 days a week. Individual therapy sessions took place 5 days/week. Children received 3 or 6 hr therapy sessions for 16-19 days followed by 2-5 days in which bimanual tasks were performed. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and following CIMT. Statistically significant gains were made on the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function, Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (except the Protective Extension subtest), Assisting Hand Assessment, and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. The effect sizes varied from 0.46 to 0.70 indicating a moderate effect size. The results support the effectiveness of CIMT provided through a center-based program.

  16. A Critical Review of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy and Forced Use in Children With Hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Jeanne; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    Hemiplegia is a physical impairment that can occur in childhood following head trauma, cerebral vascular accident or transient ischemic attack (stroke), brain tumor, or congenital or perinatal injury. One of the most disabling symptoms of hemiplegia is unilaterally impaired hand and arm function. Sensory and motor impairments in children with hemiplegia compromise movement efficiency. Such children often tend not to use the affected extremity, which may further exacerbate the impairments, resulting in a developmentally learned non-use of the involved upper extremity, termed ‘developmental disuse’. Recent studies suggest that children with hemiplegia benefit from intensive practice. Forced use and Constraint-lnduced Movement Therapy (CI therapy) are recent therapeutic interventions involving the restraint of the non-involved upper extremity and intensive practice with the involved upper extremity. These approaches were designed for adults with hemiplegia, and increasing evidence suggests that they are efficacious in this population. Recently, forced use and constraint-induced therapy have been applied to children with hemiplegia. In this review, we provide a brief description of forced use and CI therapy and their historical basis, provide a summary of studies of these interventions in children, and discuss a number of important theoretical considerations, as well as implications for postural control. We will show that whereas the studies to date suggest that both forced use and CI therapy appear to be promising for improving hand function in children with hemiplegia, the data are limited. Substantially more work must be performed before this approach can be advocated for general clinical use. PMID:16097492

  17. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: Two Single-Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesch, Francisca Eugster

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and receive preliminary information about functional improvements. Two patients (age 12 years) with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were included for a 126-h home-based CIMT…

  18. Introduction to "The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaal, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to "The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation," by Edward Taub and his colleagues (Taub, 2012). Based on extensive experimentation with animal models of peripheral nerve injury, Taub and colleagues have created an approach to overcoming…

  19. Multiple Treatments of Pediatric Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (pCIMT): A Clinical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, Stephanie C; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Trucks, Mary Rebekah; Wallace, Dorian Ainsworth

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric constraint-induced movement therapy (pCIMT) is one of the most efficacious treatments for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Distinctive components of pCIMT include constraint of the less impaired upper extremity (UE), high-intensity therapy for the more impaired UE (≥ 3 hr/day, many days per week, for multiple weeks), use of shaping techniques combined with repetitive task practice, and bimanual transfer. A critical issue is whether multiple treatments of pCIMT produce additional benefit. In a clinical cohort (mean age = 31 mo) of 28 children with asymmetrical CP whose parents sought multiple pCIMT treatments, the children gained a mean of 13.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 4.2) new functional skills after Treatment 1; Treatment 2 produced a mean of 7.3 (SD = 4.7) new skills; and Treatment 3, 6.5 (SD = 4.2). These findings support the conclusion that multiple pCIMT treatments can produce clinically important functional gains for children with hemiparetic CP.

  20. Multiple Treatments of Pediatric Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (pCIMT): A Clinical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Trucks, Mary Rebekah; Wallace, Dorian Ainsworth

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric constraint-induced movement therapy (pCIMT) is one of the most efficacious treatments for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Distinctive components of pCIMT include constraint of the less impaired upper extremity (UE), high-intensity therapy for the more impaired UE (≥3 hr/day, many days per week, for multiple weeks), use of shaping techniques combined with repetitive task practice, and bimanual transfer. A critical issue is whether multiple treatments of pCIMT produce additional benefit. In a clinical cohort (mean age = 31 mo) of 28 children with asymmetrical CP whose parents sought multiple pCIMT treatments, the children gained a mean of 13.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 4.2) new functional skills after Treatment 1; Treatment 2 produced a mean of 7.3 (SD = 4.7) new skills; and Treatment 3, 6.5 (SD = 4.2). These findings support the conclusion that multiple pCIMT treatments can produce clinically important functional gains for children with hemiparetic CP. PMID:26565094

  1. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Rehabilitation of Arm Dysfunction After Stroke in Adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to determine the effectiveness and cost of CIMT for persons with arm dysfunction after a stroke. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population A stroke is a sudden loss of brain function caused by the interruption of blood flow to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of blood vessels in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A stroke can affect any number of areas including the ability to move, see, remember, speak, reason, and read and write. Stroke is the leading cause of adult neurological disability in Canada; 300,000 people or 1% of the population live with its effects. Up to 85% of persons experiencing a complete stroke have residual arm dysfunction which will interfere with their ability to live independently. Rehabilitation interventions are the cornerstone of care and recovery after a stroke. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Constraint-Induced Movement (CIMT) is a behavioural approach to neurorehabilitation based on the principle of ‘learned non-use’. The term is derived from studies in nonhuman primates in which somatosensory deafferentation of a single forelimb was performed and after which the animal then failed to use that limb. This failure to use the limb was deemed ‘learned non-use’. The major components of CIMT include: i) intense repetitive task-oriented training of the impaired limb ii) immobilization of the unimpaired arm, and iii) shaping. With regard to the first component, persons may train the affected arm for several hours a day for up to 10-15 consecutive days. With immobilization, the unaffected arm may be restrained for up to 90% of waking hours. And finally, with shaping, the difficulty of the training tasks is progressively increased as performance improves and encouraging feedback is provided immediately when small gains are achieved. Research Question What is the effectiveness and cost of CIMT compared with physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy

  2. Training Paediatric Therapists to Deliver Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Coker-Bolt, Patty; DeLuca, Stephanie C; Ramey, Sharon L

    2015-09-01

    Hospitals and therapists in developing countries often seek to learn how to deliver new forms of evidenced-based practice (EBP), including paediatric constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). This study examines a partnership implemented in Ethiopia, which trained therapists in CIMT and proposes a framework for sustainable EBP training. The aim of this study is to apply a translational and implementation framework to build capacity for CIMT in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, that included intensive in-country training and hands-on delivery with patients, followed by clinical implementation and feedback. A goal was to develop a locally feasible, culturally relevant form of CIMT. We framed our partnership model in terms of an implementation science model for therapists from multiple hospitals in Addis Ababa. Measures included workshop attendance, delivery of the curriculum and assessment of therapist's knowledge, skills and feedback postworkshop. We established a successful partnership with a lead hospital and completed training for 12 therapists from five hospitals who demonstrated increases in knowledge and skills following training. We developed a new, practically useful, culturally appropriate form of CIMT for later implementation. This partnership was limited to training of paediatric therapists in sub-Saharan Africa. Future studies will report on therapists' ability to integrate this EBP training into clinical practice as well as future training.

  3. Neuroplastic Sensorimotor Resting State Network Reorganization in Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Treated With Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Manning, Kathryn Y; Menon, Ravi S; Gorter, Jan Willem; Mesterman, Ronit; Campbell, Craig; Switzer, Lauren; Fehlings, Darcy

    2016-02-01

    Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we aim to understand the neurologic basis of improved function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy treated with constraint-induced movement therapy. Eleven children including 4 untreated comparison subjects diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy were recruited from 3 clinical centers. MRI and clinical data were gathered at baseline and 1 month for both groups, and 6 months later for the case group only. After constraint therapy, the sensorimotor resting state network became more bilateral, with balanced contributions from each hemisphere, which was sustained 6 months later. Sensorimotor resting state network reorganization after therapy was correlated with a change in the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test score at 1 month (r = 0.79, P = .06), and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure scores at 6 months (r = 0.82, P = .05). This clinically correlated resting state network reorganization provides further evidence of the neuroplastic mechanisms underlying constraint-induced movement therapy.

  4. Neuroplastic Sensorimotor Resting State Network Reorganization in Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Treated With Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Manning, Kathryn Y; Menon, Ravi S; Gorter, Jan Willem; Mesterman, Ronit; Campbell, Craig; Switzer, Lauren; Fehlings, Darcy

    2016-02-01

    Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we aim to understand the neurologic basis of improved function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy treated with constraint-induced movement therapy. Eleven children including 4 untreated comparison subjects diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy were recruited from 3 clinical centers. MRI and clinical data were gathered at baseline and 1 month for both groups, and 6 months later for the case group only. After constraint therapy, the sensorimotor resting state network became more bilateral, with balanced contributions from each hemisphere, which was sustained 6 months later. Sensorimotor resting state network reorganization after therapy was correlated with a change in the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test score at 1 month (r = 0.79, P = .06), and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure scores at 6 months (r = 0.82, P = .05). This clinically correlated resting state network reorganization provides further evidence of the neuroplastic mechanisms underlying constraint-induced movement therapy. PMID:26078420

  5. Muscle Recruitment and Coordination following Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy with Electrical Stimulation on Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kaishou; He, Lu; Mai, Jianning; Yan, Xiaohua; Chen, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes of muscle recruitment and coordination following constraint-induced movement therapy, constraint-induced movement therapy plus electrical stimulation, and traditional occupational therapy in treating hand dysfunction. Methods In a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial, children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy were randomly assigned to receive constraint-induced movement therapy (n = 22), constraint-induced movement therapy plus electrical stimulation (n = 23), or traditional occupational therapy (n = 23). Three groups received a 2-week hospital-based intervention and a 6-month home-based exercise program following hospital-based intervention. Constraint-induced movement therapy involved intensive functional training of the involved hand during which the uninvolved hand was constrained. Electrical stimulation was applied on wrist extensors of the involved hand. Traditional occupational therapy involved functional unimanual and bimanual training. All children underwent clinical assessments and surface electromyography (EMG) at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months after treatment. Surface myoelectric signals were integrated EMG, root mean square and cocontraction ratio. Clinical measures were grip strength and upper extremity functional test. Results Constraint-induced movement therapy plus electrical stimulation group showed both a greater rate of improvement in integrated EMG of the involved wrist extensors and cocontraction ratio compared to the other two groups at 3 and 6 months, as well as improving in root mean square of the involved wrist extensors than traditional occupational therapy group (p<0.05). Positive correlations were found between both upper extremity functional test scores and integrated EMG of the involved wrist as well as grip strength and integrated EMG of the involved wrist extensors (p<0.05). Conclusions Constraint-induced movement therapy plus electrical stimulation is likely to produce the best outcome in

  6. Therapeutic application of electrical stimulation and constraint induced movement therapy in perinatal brachial plexus injury: A case report.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Jamie; Baker, Lucinda L

    2015-01-01

    Infants and children with perinatal brachial plexus injury (PBPI) have motion limitations in the shoulder, elbow, forearm and hand that are dependent on the level of injury and degree of recovery. The injury and subsequent recovery period occur during critical periods of central and spinal neural development placing infants and children at-risk for developmental disregard and disuse of the affected arm and hand. A case report outlines the therapy and surgical interventions provided in the first 2 years of life for a child with global PBPI and a positive Horner's sign. Electrical stimulation and constraint induced movement therapy provided sequentially were effective therapy interventions. Neurosurgery to repair the brachial plexus was performed at an optimal time period.(2) The Assisting Hand Assessment,(12) Modified Mallet(13) and Active Movement Scale(14) are effective outcome measures in PBPI and served as valuable guides for therapy intervention. Oxford Level of Evidence: 3b; Individual Case Control Study.

  7. Effects of constraint-induced therapy combined with eye patching on functional outcomes and movement kinematics in poststroke neglect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Yi; Wang, Tien-Ni; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chen, Yi-An; Li, Hsiang-Ting; Tsai, Pei-Luen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We investigated the effect of constraint-induced therapy (CIT) plus eye patching (EP), CIT alone, and conventional treatment on functional performance, eye movement, and trunk-arm kinematics in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. METHOD. Twenty-four participants were recruited and randomly allocated to three intervention groups. All participants received intervention 2 hr/day, 5 days/wk, for 3 wk. Outcome measures included the Catherine Bergego Scale, eye movement, and trunk-arm kinematic analysis. RESULTS. The CIT + EP and CIT groups demonstrated larger improvements in functional performance than the control group. The CIT group showed better performance with left fixation points than the CIT+EP group and shorter reaction time than the control group. The CIT + EP group improved more in preplanned control and leftward trunk shift than the other two groups. CONCLUSION. CIT + EP and CIT were more effective interventions than conventional treatment of patients with neglect syndrome in daily functional performance.

  8. FNIRS-based evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-03-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2 ± 2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger tapping task were quantified before, immediately after, and six months after CIMT. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8 ± 1.3 years old) were also imaged at the same time points to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. In children with CP the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted six months later. In contrast to this longer term improvement in localized activation response, the laterality index that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed six months later.

  9. Efficacy of constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy in an educational setting.

    PubMed

    Gelkop, Nava; Burshtein, Dikla Gol; Lahav, Anat; Brezner, Amichi; Al-Oraibi, Saleh; Ferre, Claudio L; Gordon, Andrew M

    2015-02-01

    We examined the efficacy of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy (HABIT) in a special education preschool/kindergarten in Israel. Twelve children (1.5-7 years) with congenital hemiplegic cerebral palsy were randomized to receive modified CIMT (n = 6) or HABIT (n = 6). Occupational and physical therapists administered usual and customary care for 8 weeks; children then crossed over to receive CIMT or HABIT 2 hr/day, 6 days/week for 8 weeks from their occupational therapist. The Assisting Hand Assessment and Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test were administered 2 months prior to the intervention, immediately before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months after the first baseline assessment. Both groups demonstrated no change during baseline and comparable improvement following CIMT and HABIT (p < .001), which was maintained at 6-month follow-up. Results suggest that modified CIMT and HABIT provided in school-based settings can lead to improvements in quality of bimanual skill and movement patterns.

  10. Pilot Study of the Efficacy of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Infants and Toddlers with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, Linda Pax; Mayhan, Marianne; Orr, Teresa; Batterson, Nancy; Tonneman, Jill Alyce; Meyer, Angela; Alfano, Lindsay; Wang, Wei; Whalen, Cara N; Nelin, Mary Ann; Lo, Warren David; Case-Smith, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The evidence for Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) effectiveness for infants and toddlers with unilateral cerebral palsy is minimal. We performed a pilot study of CIMT using one-month usual care, one-month intervention, and one-month maintenance (return to usual care) phases on five infants (7- to 18-month old). For the CIMT phase, the infants received 2 hr of occupational therapy and 1 hr of parent-implemented home program for five days/week. The infants were casted for the rst 23 days, and bimanual therapy was provided for the last three days. Fine motor skills for the more affected arm and gross motor skills improved significantly during the CIMT; these gains were maintained at one-month follow-up. Individual infant data show mixed effects. This pilot study provides initial evidence that CIMT is feasible for infants with unilateral cerebral palsy, and presents preliminary data for CIMT on fine and gross motor performance. PMID:23848499

  11. Motor Learning Curve and Long-Term Effectiveness of Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerdink, Yvonne; Aarts, Pauline; Geurts, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the progression of manual dexterity during 6 weeks (54 h) (modified) constraint-induced movement therapy ((m)CIMT) followed by 2 weeks (18 h) bimanual training (BiT) in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP), to establish whether and when a maximal training effect was reached and which factors…

  12. Six Years after a Modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) Program--What Happens when the Children Have Become Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrand, L.; Eliasson, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to describe the development of hand function in young adults with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP), who participated in a 2-week Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) camp 6 years earlier. Eleven participants, 16-21 years at follow-up, were assessed at three occasions during 2005 and once in 2011. At the 6-year follow-up, performance…

  13. Early constraint-induced movement therapy promotes functional recovery and neuronal plasticity in a subcortical hemorrhage model rat.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Akimasa; Misumi, Sachiyo; Ueda, Yoshitomo; Shimizu, Yuko; Cha-Gyun, Jung; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Kazuto; Hida, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) promotes functional recovery of impaired forelimbs after hemiplegic strokes, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We used a rat model of subcortical hemorrhage to compare the effects of delivering early or late CIMT after ICH. The rat model was made by injecting collagenase into the globus pallidus near the internal capsule, and then forcing rats to use the affected forelimb for 7 days starting either 1 day (early CIMT) or 17 days (late CIMT) after the lesion. Recovery of forelimb function in the skilled reaching test and the ladder stepping test was found after early-CIMT, while no significant recovery was shown after late CIMT or in the non-CIMT controls. Early CIMT was associated with greater numbers of ΔFosB-positive cells in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex layers II-III and V. Additionally, we found expression of the growth-related genes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth-related protein 43 (GAP-43), and abundant dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the sensorimotor area. Similar results were not detected in the contra-lesional cortex. In contrast to early CIMT, late CIMT failed to induce any changes in plasticity. We conclude that CIMT induces molecular and morphological plasticity in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex and facilitates better functional recovery when initiated immediately after hemorrhage.

  14. Primed low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and constraint-induced movement therapy in pediatric hemiparesis: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    GILLICK, BERNADETTE T; KRACH, LINDA E; FEYMA, TIM; RICH, TONYA L; MOBERG, KELLI; THOMAS, WILLIAM; CASSIDY, JESSICA M; MENK, JEREMIAH; CAREY, JAMES R

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of five treatments of 6Hz primed, low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) to promote recovery of the paretic hand in children with congenital hemiparesis. Method Nineteen children with congenital hemiparesis aged between 8 and 17 years (10 males, nine females; mean age 10y 10mo, SD 2y 10mo; Manual Ability Classification Scale levels I-III) underwent five sessions of either real rTMS (n=10) or sham rTMS (n=9) alternated daily with CIMT. CIMT consisted of 13 days of continuous long-arm casting with five skin-check sessions. Each child received a total of 10 hours of one-to-one therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) and the secondary outcome variables were the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and stereognosis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test was used to analyze differences between pre- and post-test scores within the groups. Analysis of covariance was used to compute mean differences between groups adjusting for baseline. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare individual change in AHA raw scores with the smallest detectable difference (SDD) of 4 points. Results All participants receiving treatment finished the study. Improvement in AHA differed significantly between groups (p=0.007). No significant differences in the secondary outcome measures were found. Eight out of 10 participants in the rTMS/CIMT group showed improvement greater than the SDD, but only two out of nine in the sham rTMS/CIMT group showed such improvement (p=0.023). No serious adverse events occurred. Interpretation Primed, low-frequency rTMS combined with CIMT appears to be safe, feasible, and efficacious in pediatric hemiparesis. Larger clinical trials are now indicated. PMID:23962321

  15. Effectiveness of Constraint induced movement therapy as compared to bimanual therapy in Upper motor function outcome in child with hemiplegic Cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Zafer, Hira; Amjad, Imran; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Shaukat, Enfall

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims at determining the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy as compared to bimanual therapy for improving functional status in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Methods: This study was a randomized control trial, children (n = 20) with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy was randomly allocated to CIMT (constraint induced movement therapy) and BMT (bimanual therapy) group. The children with spastic hemiplegia, age between 1.5 and 12 year and having 10 degrees of wrist extension and 10 degrees of finger extension were included in study. Treatment regime was two hours of daily training six days a week for two weeks. Constraint was applied to CIMT group for six hours. The outcome tool QUEST was used for baseline and post treatment assessment. Result: CIMT had superior outcome as compared to BMT in improving functional status (p=0.007). On QUEST tool grasp and dissociated movements results were significant (p=0.005) and (p=0.028) respectively. Weight bearing and protective extension resulted in no significant outcome (p=0.080) and (p=0.149) respectively. Dissociated movements and grasp are significantly improved but there is no difference for weight bearing and protective extension in CIMT treated group as compared to BMT treated group. Conclusion: CIMT approach is better in improving functional status of child with cerebral palsy as compared to BMT. Significant improvement in grasp and dissociated movement is noted in group of CIMT while there was no significant improvement in weight bearing and protective extension in CIMT group when compared to BMT. CIMT is considered the appropriate treatment approach for unilateral conditions while BMT for bilateral conditions. PMID:27022371

  16. INCITE: A randomised trial comparing constraint induced movement therapy and bimanual training in children with congenital hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Congenital hemiplegia is the most common form of cerebral palsy (CP) accounting for 1 in 1300 live births. These children have limitations in capacity to use the impaired upper limb and bimanual coordination deficits which impact on daily activities and participation in home, school and community life. There are currently two diverse intensive therapy approaches. Traditional therapy has adopted a bimanual approach (BIM training) and recently, constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT) has emerged as a promising unimanual approach. Uncertainty remains about the efficacy of these interventions and characteristics of best responders. This study aims to compare the efficacy of CIMT to BIM training to improve outcomes across the ICF for school children with congenital hemiplegia. Methods/Design A matched pairs randomised comparison design will be used with children matched by age, gender, side of hemiplegia and level of upper limb function. Based on power calculations a sample size of 52 children (26 matched pairs) will be recruited. Children will be randomised within pairs to receive either CIMT or BIM training. Both interventions will use an intensive activity based day camp model, with groups receiving the same dosage of intervention delivered in the same environment (total 60 hours over 10 days). A novel circus theme will be used to enhance motivation. Groups will be compared at baseline, then at 3, 26 and 52 weeks following intervention. Severity of congenital hemiplegia will be classified according to brain structure (MRI and white matter fibre tracking), cortical excitability using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), functional use of the hand in everyday tasks (Manual Ability Classification System) and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Outcomes will address neurovascular changes (functional MRI, functional connectivity), and brain (re)organisation (TMS), body structure and function (range of motion, spasticity, strength and

  17. Therapeutic synergism in the treatment of post-stroke arm paresis utilizing botulinum toxin, robotic therapy, and constraint-induced movement therapy.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Takashi; Amano, Satoru; Hanada, Keisuke; Umeji, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kayoko; Koyama, Tetsuo; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2014-11-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BtxA) injection, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), and robotic therapy (RT) each represent promising approaches to enhance arm motor recovery after stroke. To provide more effective treatment for a 50-year-old man with severe left spastic hemiparesis, we attempted to facilitate CIMT with adaptive approaches to extend the wrist and fingers using RT for 10 consecutive weeks after BtxA injection. This combined treatment resulted in substantial improvements in arm function and the amount of arm use in activities of daily living, and may be effective for stroke patients with severe arm paresis. However, we were unable to sufficiently prove the efficacy of combined treatment based only on a single case. To fully elucidate the efficacy of the combined approach for patients with severe hemiparesis after stroke, future studies of a larger number of patients are needed.

  18. Resting State and Diffusion Neuroimaging Predictors of Clinical Improvements Following Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy in Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Manning, Kathryn Y; Fehlings, Darcy; Mesterman, Ronit; Gorter, Jan Willem; Switzer, Lauren; Campbell, Craig; Menon, Ravi S

    2015-10-01

    The aim was to identify neuroimaging predictors of clinical improvements following constraint-induced movement therapy. Resting state functional magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging data was acquired in 7 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were acquired at baseline and 1 month later following a 3-week constraint therapy regimen. A more negative baseline laterality index characterizing an atypical unilateral sensorimotor resting state network significantly correlated with an improvement in the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure score (r = -0.81, P = .03). A more unilateral network with decreased activity in the affected hemisphere was associated with greater improvements in clinical scores. Higher mean diffusivity in the posterior limb of the internal capsule of the affect tract correlated significantly with improvements in the Jebsen-Taylor score (r = -0.83, P = .02). Children with more compromised networks and tracts improved the most following constraint therapy.

  19. To compare the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy versus motor relearning programme to improve motor function of hemiplegic upper extremity after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Sana; Soomro, Nabila; Amjad, Fareeha; Fauz, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy versus motor relearning programme to improve motor function of hemiplegic upper extremity after stroke. Method: A sample of 42 patients was recruited from the Physiotherapy Department of IPM&R and Neurology OPD of Civil Hospital Karachi through non probability purposive sampling technique. Twenty one patients were placed to each experimental and control groups. Experimental group was treated with Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and control group was treated with motor relearning programme (MRP) for three consecutive weeks. Pre and post treatment measurements were determined by upper arm section of Motor Assessment Scale (MAS) and Self Care item of Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Scale. Results: Intra group analysis showed statistically significant results (p-value<0.05) in all items of MAS in both groups. However, advanced hand activities item of MAS in MRP group showed insignificant result (p-value=0.059). Self-care items of FIM Scale also showed significant result (p-value< 0.05) in both groups except dressing upper body item (p-value=0.059) in CIMT group and grooming and dressing upper body items (p-value=0.059 & 0.063) in MRP group showed insignificant p-values. Conclusion: CIMT group showed more significant improvement in motor function and self-care performance of hemiplegic upper extremity as compared to MRP group in patients with sub-acute stroke assessed by the MAS and FIM scales. Thus CIMT is proved to be more statistically significant and clinically effective intervention in comparison to motor relearning programme among the patients aged between 35-60 years. Further studies are needed to evaluate CIMT effects in acute and chronic post stroke population. PMID:26649007

  20. Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Combined with Bimanual Training (mCIMT-BiT) in Children with Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy: How Are Improvements in Arm-Hand Use Established?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarts, Pauline B.; Jongerius, Peter H.; Geerdink, Yvonne A.; van Limbeek, Jacques; Geurts, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    A recent randomized controlled trial indicated that modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy followed by Bimanual Training (mCIMT-BiT) is an effective intervention to improve spontaneous use of the affected upper limb in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The present study aimed to investigate how the above-mentioned…

  1. A pilot randomized controlled trial of D-cycloserine and distributed practice as adjuvants to constraint-induced movement therapy after stroke.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Stephen E; Davis, Sandra E; Wu, Samuel S; Dai, Yunfeng; Richards, Lorie G

    2014-01-01

    Background. Phase III trials of rehabilitation of paresis after stroke have proven the effectiveness of intensive and extended task practice, but they have also shown that many patients do not qualify, because of severity of impairment, and that many of those who are treated are left with clinically significant deficits. Objective. To test the value of 2 potential adjuvants to normal learning processes engaged in constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT): greater distribution of treatment over time and the coadministration of d-cycloserine, a competitive agonist at the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor. Methods. A prospective randomized single-blind parallel-group trial of more versus less condensed therapy (2 vs 10 weeks) and d-cycloserine (50 mg) each treatment day versus placebo (in a 2 × 2 design), as potential adjuvants to 60 hours of CIMT. Results. Twenty-four participants entered the study, and 22 completed it and were assessed at the completion of treatment and 3 months later. Neither greater distribution of treatment nor treatment with d-cycloserine significantly augmented retention of gains achieved with CIMT. Conclusions. Greater distribution of practice and treatment with d-cycloserine do not appear to augment retention of gains achieved with CIMT. However, concentration of CIMT over 2 weeks ("massed practice") appears to confer no advantage either.

  2. Feasibility of a Day-Camp Model of Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy with and without Botulinum Toxin A Injection for Children with Hemiplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Shaw, Karin; Ponten, Eva; Boyd, Roslyn; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of modified constraint-induced (CI) therapy provided in a 2-week day-camp model with and without intramuscular botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections for children with congenital cerebral palsy. Sixteen children with congenital hemiplegia, Manual Ability Classification System (MACS)…

  3. Constraint-induced movement therapy as a rehabilitation intervention for upper extremity in stroke patients: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Etoom, Mohammad; Hawamdeh, Mohannad; Hawamdeh, Ziad; Alwardat, Mohammad; Giordani, Laura; Bacciu, Serenella; Scarpini, Claudia; Foti, Calogero

    2016-09-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is a neurorehabilitation technique designed to improve upper extremity motor functions after stroke. This review aimed to investigate evidence of the effect of CIMT on upper extremity in stroke patients and to identify optimal methods to apply CIMT. Four databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and PEDro) and reference lists of relevant articles and reviews were searched. Randomized clinical trials that studied the effect of CIMT on upper extremity outcomes in stroke patients compared with other rehabilitative techniques, usual care, or no intervention were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro score. The following data were extracted for each trial: patients' characteristics, sample size, eligibility criteria, protocols of CIMT and control groups, outcome measurements, and the PEDro score. A total of 38 trials were identified according to the inclusion criteria. The trials included were heterogeneous in CIMT protocols, time since stroke, and duration and frequency of treatment. The pooled meta-analysis of 36 trials found a heterogeneous significant effect of CIMT on upper extremity. There was no significant effect of CIMT at different durations of follow-up. The majority of included articles did not fulfill powered sample size and quality criteria. The effect of CIMT changed in terms of sample size and quality features of the articles included. These meta-analysis findings indicate that evidence for the superiority of CIMT in comparison with other rehabilitative interventions is weak. Information on the optimal dose of CIMT and optimal time to start CIMT is still limited.

  4. Evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R; Clegg, Nancy J; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2±2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger-tapping task and the resting-state functional connectivity were quantified before, immediately after, and 6 months after CIMT. These fNIRS-based metrics were used to help explain changes in clinical scores of manual performance obtained concurrently with imaging time points. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8±1.3 years old) were also imaged to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. Interestingly, the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted 6 months later. In contrast to this improved localized activation response, the laterality index and resting-state connectivity metrics that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed 6 months later. In addition, for the subjects measured in this work, there was either a trade-off between improving unimanual versus bimanual performance when sensorimotor activation patterns normalized after CIMT, or an improvement occurred in both unimanual and bimanual performance but at the cost of very abnormal plastic changes in sensorimotor activity.

  5. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes motor function recovery and downregulates phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase expression in ischemic brain tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bei; He, Qiang; Li, Ying-Ying; Li, Ce; Bai, Yu-Long; Hu, Yong-Shan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Motor function impairment is a common outcome of stroke. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) involving intensive use of the impaired limb while restraining the unaffected limb is widely used to overcome the effects of 'learned non-use' and improve limb function after stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of CIMT remains unclear. In the present study, rats were randomly divided into a middle cerebral artery occlusion (model) group, a CIMT + model (CIMT) group, or a sham group. Restriction of the affected limb by plaster cast was performed in the CIMT and sham groups. Compared with the model group, CIMT significantly improved the forelimb functional performance in rats. By western blot assay, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi of cerebral ischemic rats in the CIMT group was significantly lower than that in the model group, and was similar to sham group levels. These data suggest that functional recovery after CIMT may be related to decreased expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi.

  6. Evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2±2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger-tapping task and the resting-state functional connectivity were quantified before, immediately after, and 6 months after CIMT. These fNIRS-based metrics were used to help explain changes in clinical scores of manual performance obtained concurrently with imaging time points. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8±1.3 years old) were also imaged to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. Interestingly, the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted 6 months later. In contrast to this improved localized activation response, the laterality index and resting-state connectivity metrics that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed 6 months later. In addition, for the subjects measured in this work, there was either a trade-off between improving unimanual versus bimanual performance when sensorimotor activation patterns normalized after CIMT, or an improvement occurred in both unimanual and bimanual performance but at the cost of very abnormal plastic changes in sensorimotor activity.

  7. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes motor function recovery and downregulates phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase expression in ischemic brain tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bei; He, Qiang; Li, Ying-Ying; Li, Ce; Bai, Yu-Long; Hu, Yong-Shan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Motor function impairment is a common outcome of stroke. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) involving intensive use of the impaired limb while restraining the unaffected limb is widely used to overcome the effects of 'learned non-use' and improve limb function after stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of CIMT remains unclear. In the present study, rats were randomly divided into a middle cerebral artery occlusion (model) group, a CIMT + model (CIMT) group, or a sham group. Restriction of the affected limb by plaster cast was performed in the CIMT and sham groups. Compared with the model group, CIMT significantly improved the forelimb functional performance in rats. By western blot assay, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi of cerebral ischemic rats in the CIMT group was significantly lower than that in the model group, and was similar to sham group levels. These data suggest that functional recovery after CIMT may be related to decreased expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi. PMID:26889190

  8. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes motor function recovery and downregulates phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase expression in ischemic brain tissue of rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bei; He, Qiang; Li, Ying-ying; Li, Ce; Bai, Yu-long; Hu, Yong-shan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Motor function impairment is a common outcome of stroke. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) involving intensive use of the impaired limb while restraining the unaffected limb is widely used to overcome the effects of ‘learned non-use’ and improve limb function after stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of CIMT remains unclear. In the present study, rats were randomly divided into a middle cerebral artery occlusion (model) group, a CIMT + model (CIMT) group, or a sham group. Restriction of the affected limb by plaster cast was performed in the CIMT and sham groups. Compared with the model group, CIMT significantly improved the forelimb functional performance in rats. By western blot assay, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi of cerebral ischemic rats in the CIMT group was significantly lower than that in the model group, and was similar to sham group levels. These data suggest that functional recovery after CIMT may be related to decreased expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi. PMID:26889190

  9. Safety of primed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and modified constraint-induced movement therapy in a randomized controlled trial in pediatric hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Gillick, Bernadette; Krach, Linda E; Feyma, Tim; Rich, Tonya L; Moberg, Kelli; Menk, Jeremiah; Cassidy, Jessica; Kimberley, Teresa; Carey, James R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of combining 6-Hz primed low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) intervention in the contralesional hemisphere with a modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) program in children with congenital hemiparesis. Design Phase 1 randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pretest/posttest trial. Setting University academic facility and a pediatric specialty hospital. Participants Nineteen subjects aged 8 to 17 years with congenital hemiparesis due to ischemic stroke or periventricular leukomalacia. No subject withdrew due to adverse events. All subjects included completed the study. Interventions Subjects were randomized to one of two groups: either rTMSreal with mCIMT (n = 10) or rTMSsham with mCIMT (n = 9). Main Outcome Measures Adverse events, physician assessment, ipsilateral hand function, stereognosis, cognitive function, subject report of symptoms assessment and subject questionnaire. Results No major adverse events occurred. Minor adverse events were found in both groups. The most common were headaches (real: 50%, sham: 89%, p=0.14) and cast irritation (real: 30%, sham: 44%, p = 0.65). No differences between groups in secondary cognitive and unaffected hand motor measures were found. Conclusions Primed rTMS can be used safely with mCIMT in congenital hemiparesis. We provide new information on the use of rTMS in combination with mCIMT in children. These findings could be useful in research and future clinical applications in advancing function in congenital hemiparesis. PMID:25283350

  10. Evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2±2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger-tapping task and the resting-state functional connectivity were quantified before, immediately after, and 6 months after CIMT. These fNIRS-based metrics were used to help explain changes in clinical scores of manual performance obtained concurrently with imaging time points. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8±1.3 years old) were also imaged to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. Interestingly, the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted 6 months later. In contrast to this improved localized activation response, the laterality index and resting-state connectivity metrics that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed 6 months later. In addition, for the subjects measured in this work, there was either a trade-off between improving unimanual versus bimanual performance when sensorimotor activation patterns normalized after CIMT, or an improvement occurred in both unimanual and bimanual performance but at the cost of very abnormal plastic changes in sensorimotor activity. PMID:25900145

  11. Influences of hand dominance on the maintenance of benefits after home-based modified constraint-induced movement therapy in individuals with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Renata C. M.; Nascimento, Lucas R.; Michaelsen, Stella M.; Polese, Janaine C.; Pereira, Natália D.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of hand dominance on the maintenance of gains after home-based modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT). Method: Aprevious randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the addition of trunk restraint to the mCIMT. Twenty-two chronic stroke survivors with mild to moderate motor impairments received individual home-based mCIMT with or without trunk restraints, five times per week, three hours daily over two weeks. In this study, the participants were separated into dominant group, which had their paretic upper limb as dominant before the stroke (n=8), and non-dominant group (n=14) for analyses. The ability to perform unimanual tasks was measured by the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and the Motor Activity Log (MAL), whereas the capacity to perform bimanual tasks was measured using the Bilateral Activity Assessment Scale (BAAS). Results: Analysis revealed significant positive effects on the MAL amount of use and quality of the movement scales, as well as on the BAAS scores after intervention, with no differences between groups. Both groups maintained the bimanual improvements during follow-ups (BAAS-seconds 0.1, 95% CI -10.0 to 10.0), however only the dominant group maintained the unilateral improvements (MAL-amount of use: 1.5, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.3; MAL-quality: 1.3, 95% CI 0.5 to 2.1). Conclusions: Upper limb dominance did not interfere with the acquisition of upper limb skills after mCIMT. However, the participants whose paretic upper limb was dominant demonstrated better abilities to maintain the unilateral gains. The bilateral improvements were maintained, regardless of upper limb dominance. PMID:25372006

  12. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and functional bimanual training on upper extremity function and daily activities in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) and functional bimanual training, when applied to a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury, on upper extremity function and daily activities. [Subject and Methods] One patient, diagnosed with C4 incomplete spinal cord injury, underwent physical therapy with constraint-induced movement therapy for 3 hours and task-oriented bimanual training for 1 hour, per day. This combined 4-hour session was performed five times a week, for 3 weeks, totaling 15 sessions. Upper extremity function was measured using the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Box & Block Test (BBT). Additionally, Spinal Cord Independence Measure Version III (SCIM-III) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess functional outcomes. [Results] Mobility of the hand and overall function of upper extremities were enhanced following intervention. Moreover, the subject's quality of life and ability to carry out daily activities also improved. [Conclusion] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training was effective in enhancing upper extremity function and performance of daily routines in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies, recruiting multiple subjects, should focus on m-CIMT using diverse methods, performed during the course of daily activities. PMID:26834387

  13. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and functional bimanual training on upper extremity function and daily activities in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) and functional bimanual training, when applied to a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury, on upper extremity function and daily activities. [Subject and Methods] One patient, diagnosed with C4 incomplete spinal cord injury, underwent physical therapy with constraint-induced movement therapy for 3 hours and task-oriented bimanual training for 1 hour, per day. This combined 4-hour session was performed five times a week, for 3 weeks, totaling 15 sessions. Upper extremity function was measured using the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Box & Block Test (BBT). Additionally, Spinal Cord Independence Measure Version III (SCIM-III) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess functional outcomes. [Results] Mobility of the hand and overall function of upper extremities were enhanced following intervention. Moreover, the subject's quality of life and ability to carry out daily activities also improved. [Conclusion] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training was effective in enhancing upper extremity function and performance of daily routines in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies, recruiting multiple subjects, should focus on m-CIMT using diverse methods, performed during the course of daily activities.

  14. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and functional bimanual training on upper extremity function and daily activities in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) and functional bimanual training, when applied to a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury, on upper extremity function and daily activities. [Subject and Methods] One patient, diagnosed with C4 incomplete spinal cord injury, underwent physical therapy with constraint-induced movement therapy for 3 hours and task-oriented bimanual training for 1 hour, per day. This combined 4-hour session was performed five times a week, for 3 weeks, totaling 15 sessions. Upper extremity function was measured using the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Box & Block Test (BBT). Additionally, Spinal Cord Independence Measure Version III (SCIM-III) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess functional outcomes. [Results] Mobility of the hand and overall function of upper extremities were enhanced following intervention. Moreover, the subject’s quality of life and ability to carry out daily activities also improved. [Conclusion] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual training was effective in enhancing upper extremity function and performance of daily routines in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies, recruiting multiple subjects, should focus on m-CIMT using diverse methods, performed during the course of daily activities. PMID:26834387

  15. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy or bimanual occupational therapy following injection of Botulinum toxin-A to improve bimanual performance in young children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomised controlled trial methods paper

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Use of Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) for treatment of upper limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy has become routine clinical practice in many paediatric treatment centres worldwide. There is now high-level evidence that upper limb BoNT-A injection, in combination with occupational therapy, improves outcomes in children with cerebral palsy at both the body function/structure and activity level domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Investigation is now required to establish what amount and specific type of occupational therapy will further enhance functional outcomes and prolong the beneficial effects of BoNT-A. Methods/Design A randomised, controlled, evaluator blinded, prospective parallel-group trial. Eligible participants were children aged 18 months to 6 years, diagnosed with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy and who were able to demonstrate selective motor control of the affected upper limb. Both groups received upper limb injections of BoNT-A. Children were randomised to either the modified constraint-induced movement therapy group (experimental) or bimanual occupational therapy group (control). Outcome assessments were undertaken at pre-injection and 1, 3 and 6 months following injection of BoNT-A. The primary outcome measure was the Assisting Hand Assessment. Secondary outcomes included: the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test; Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory; Canadian Occupational Performance Measure; Goal Attainment Scaling; Pediatric Motor Activity Log; modified Ashworth Scale and; the modified Tardieu Scale. Discussion The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (a uni-manual therapy) versus bimanual occupational therapy (a bimanual therapy) on improving bimanual upper limb performance of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy following upper limb injection of Bo

  16. Constraint Induced Movement Techniques To Facilitate Upper Extremity Use in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Taub, E; Wolf, S L

    1997-01-01

    A new therapeutic approach to the rehabilitation of movement after stroke, termed constraint-induced (CI) movement therapy, has been derived from basic research with monkeys given somatosensory deafferentation. CI movement therapy consists of a family of therapies; their common element is that they induce stroke patients to greatly increase the use of an affected upper extremity for many hours a day over a period of 10 to 14 consecutive days. The signature intervention involves motor restriction of the contralateral upper extremity in a sling and training of the affected arm. The therapies result in large changes in amount of use of the affected arm in the activities of daily living outside of the clinic that have persisted for the 2 years measured to date. Patients who will benefit from Cl therapy can be identified before the beginning of treatment. PMID:27620374

  17. COMBIT: protocol of a randomised comparison trial of COMbined modified constraint induced movement therapy and bimanual intensive training with distributed model of standard upper limb rehabilitation in children with congenital hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Children with congenital hemiplegia often present with limitations in using their impaired upper limb which impacts on independence in activities of daily living, societal participation and quality of life. Traditional therapy has adopted a bimanual training approach (BIM) and more recently, modified constraint induced movement therapy (mCIMT) has emerged as a promising unimanual approach. Evidence of enhanced neuroplasticity following mCIMT suggests that the sequential application of mCIMT followed by bimanual training may optimise outcomes (Hybrid CIMT). It remains unclear whether more intensely delivered group based interventions (hCIMT) are superior to distributed models of individualised therapy. This study aims to determine the optimal density of upper limb training for children with congenital hemiplegia. Methods and analyses A total of 50 children (25 in each group) with congenital hemiplegia will be recruited to participate in this randomized comparison trial. Children will be matched in pairs at baseline and randomly allocated to receive an intensive block group hybrid model of combined mCIMT followed by intensive bimanual training delivered in a day camp model (COMBiT; total dose 45 hours direct, 10 hours of indirect therapy), or a distributed model of standard occupational therapy and physiotherapy care (SC) over 12 weeks (total 45 hours direct and indirect therapy). Outcomes will be assessed at 13 weeks after commencement, and retention of effects tested at 26 weeks. The primary outcomes will be bimanual coordination and unimanual upper-limb capacity. Secondary outcomes will be participation and quality of life. Advanced brain imaging will assess neurovascular changes in response to treatment. Analysis will follow standard principles for RCTs, using two-group comparisons on all participants on an intention-to-treat basis. Comparisons will be between treatment groups using generalized linear models. Trial registration ACTRN12613000181707

  18. The Pirate group intervention protocol: description and a case report of a modified constraint-induced movement therapy combined with bimanual training for young children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Pauline B; van Hartingsveldt, Margo; Anderson, Patricia G; van den Tillaar, Ingrid; van der Burg, Jan; Geurts, Alexander C

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe a child-friendly modified constraint-induced movement therapy protocol that is combined with goal-directed task-specific bimanual training (mCIMT-BiT). This detailed description elucidates the approach and supports various research reports. This protocol is used in a Pirate play group setting and aims to extend bimanual skills in play and self-care activities for children with cerebral palsy and unilateral spastic paresis of the upper limb. To illustrate the content and course of treatment and its effect, a case report of a two-year-old boy is presented. After the eight-week mCIMT-BiT intervention, the child improved the capacity of his affected arm and hand in both quantitative and qualitative terms and his bimanual performance in daily life as assessed by the Assisting Hand Assessment, ABILHAND-Kids, Video Observations Aarts and Aarts Module Determine Developmental Disregard, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and Goal Attainment Scaling. It is argued that improvement of affected upper-limb capacity in a test situation may be achieved and retained relatively easily, but it may take a lot more training to stabilize the results and automate motor control of the upper limb. Future studies with groups of children should elaborate on these intensity and generalization issues.

  19. Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy combined with Bimanual Training (mCIMT-BiT) in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy: how are improvements in arm-hand use established?

    PubMed

    Aarts, Pauline B; Jongerius, Peter H; Geerdink, Yvonne A; van Limbeek, Jacques; Geurts, Alexander C

    2011-01-01

    A recent randomized controlled trial indicated that modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy followed by Bimanual Training (mCIMT-BiT) is an effective intervention to improve spontaneous use of the affected upper limb in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The present study aimed to investigate how the above-mentioned improvements as a result of 8 weeks mCIMT-BiT were established. 52 children with unilateral spastic CP with Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) scores I, II or III and aged 2.5-8 years were randomly allocated to either mCIMT-BiT (n = 28) or Usual Care (UC) (n = 24). Developmental disregard ('learned non-use') and upper limb capacity and performance scores were derived from the Video Observations Aarts and Aarts, module Determine Developmental Disregard. Active and passive range of motion at the affected wrist and elbow were assessed using goniometry during isolated movements. Upper limb capacity and performance demonstrated significantly greater improvements after mCIMT-BiT compared to UC, which lasted up to 8 weeks follow-up, whereas developmental disregard and passive and active range of motion did not show differential effects. The results support the notion that improvement of capacity and performance of the upper limb through mCIMT-BiT in children with unilateral spastic CP is based on a better utilization of existing motor functions of the affected arm and hand. However, enhancement of the overall amount of use (or the reduction of learned non-use) may still be suboptimal leaving room for improvement of this treatment.

  20. Constraint-induced sound therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss--behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Fukushima, Munehisa; Teismann, Henning; Lagemann, Lothar; Kitahara, Tadashi; Inohara, Hidenori; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-29

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by acute, idiopathic hearing deterioration. We report here the development and evaluation of "constraint-induced sound therapy", which is based on a well-established neuro-rehabilitation approach, and which is characterized by the plugging of the intact ear ("constraint") and the simultaneous, extensive stimulation of the affected ear with music. The sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients who received the constraint-induced sound therapy in addition to the standard corticosteroid therapy showed significantly better recovery of hearing function compared to those who had only received corticosteroid treatments. Additionally, the brain activity obtained in a subgroup of patients suggested that the constraint-induced sound therapy could have prevented maladaptive auditory cortex reorganization. Constraint-induced sound therapy thus appears to be an effective, practical, and safe treatment option for sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  1. Constraint-induced sound therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss – behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Fukushima, Munehisa; Teismann, Henning; Lagemann, Lothar; Kitahara, Tadashi; Inohara, Hidenori; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by acute, idiopathic hearing deterioration. We report here the development and evaluation of “constraint-induced sound therapy”, which is based on a well-established neuro-rehabilitation approach, and which is characterized by the plugging of the intact ear (“constraint”) and the simultaneous, extensive stimulation of the affected ear with music. The sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients who received the constraint-induced sound therapy in addition to the standard corticosteroid therapy showed significantly better recovery of hearing function compared to those who had only received corticosteroid treatments. Additionally, the brain activity obtained in a subgroup of patients suggested that the constraint-induced sound therapy could have prevented maladaptive auditory cortex reorganization. Constraint-induced sound therapy thus appears to be an effective, practical, and safe treatment option for sudden sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:24473277

  2. Functional Improvement after Photothrombotic Stroke in Rats Is Associated with Different Patterns of Dendritic Plasticity after G-CSF Treatment and G-CSF Treatment Combined with Concomitant or Sequential Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Frauenknecht, Katrin; Diederich, Kai; Leukel, Petra; Bauer, Henrike; Schäbitz, Wolf-Rüdiger; Sommer, Clemens J; Minnerup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment alone, or in combination with constraint movement therapy (CIMT) either sequentially or concomitantly, results in significantly improved sensorimotor recovery after photothrombotic stroke in rats in comparison to untreated control animals. CIMT alone did not result in any significant differences compared to the control group (Diederich et al., Stroke, 2012;43:185-192). Using a subset of rat brains from this former experiment the present study was designed to evaluate whether dendritic plasticity would parallel improved functional outcomes. Five treatment groups were analyzed (n = 6 each) (i) ischemic control (saline); (ii) CIMT (CIMT between post-stroke days 2 and 11); (iii) G-CSF (10 μg/kg G-CSF daily between post-stroke days 2 and 11); (iv) combined concurrent group (CIMT plus G-CSF) and (v) combined sequential group (CIMT between post-stroke days 2 and 11; 10 μg/kg G-CSF daily between post-stroke days 12 and 21, respectively). After impregnation of rat brains with a modified Golgi-Cox protocol layer V pyramidal neurons in the peri-infarct cortex as well as the corresponding contralateral cortex were analyzed. Surprisingly, animals with a similar degree of behavioral recovery exhibited quite different patterns of dendritic plasticity in both peri-lesional and contralesional areas. The cause for these patterns is not easily to explain but puts the simple assumption that increased dendritic complexity after stroke necessarily results in increased functional outcome into perspective.

  3. Determinants of Change in Stroke-Specific Quality of Life After Distributed Constraint-Induced Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Snow, Wilaiwan M.; Wang, Tien-Ni

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We identified the predictive factors of change in quality of life (QOL) after a distributed form of constraint-induced therapy (dCIT) among stroke survivors. METHOD. Seventy-four participants were treated with dCIT. We identified eight potential determinants of change: age, gender, side of lesion, time since stroke, cognitive status, motor impairment of the upper extremity, activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). The Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS–QOL) was used to assess QOL. RESULTS. Right-sided lesion and onset >17 mo earlier determined greater improvement in the SS–QOL Energy domain. Onset >10 mo earlier, poorer IADL performance, and age >68 yr predicted improvement in the Family Role, Mobility, and Mood domains, respectively. CONCLUSION. Side of lesion, time since stroke, IADL performance, and age were the most important determinants of QOL in patients receiving stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:23245783

  4. Efficacy of constraint-induced therapy on functional performance and health-related quality of life for children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Yi-jung; Chen, Fei-Chuan; Lin, Keh-chung; Kang, Lin-ju; Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao

    2012-08-01

    To better generalize training effects to the context of daily living, home-based constraint-induced therapy has been proposed. Therapeutic success of constraint-induced therapy is limited as to whether the improvements in functional performance can be transferred to quality of life. This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the efficacy of home-based constraint-induced therapy on functional performance and health-related quality of life. Twenty-two children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy (6-8 years, 10 boys) were randomly assigned to receive constraint-induced therapy or traditional rehabilitation. Home-based constraint-induced therapy had immediate and maintaining effects on motor efficacy and functional performance and induced greater gains in health-related quality of life in the long run than in the short term. The home-based constraint-induced therapy protocol (relatively moderate intensity and shortened constraint time), which might balance the effectiveness and compliance of participants and caregivers, may be an effective alternative to conventional constraint-induced therapy.

  5. Sequential combination of robot-assisted therapy and constraint-induced therapy in stroke rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Lin, Keh-Chung; Horng, Yi-Shiung; Wu, Ching-Yi; Wu, Tai-Chieh; Ku, Fang-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted therapy (RT) and constraint-induced therapy (CIT) both show great promise to improve stroke rehabilitation outcomes. Although the respective treatment efficacy of RT and CIT has been validated, the additive effects of RT combined with CIT remain unknown. This study investigated the treatment effects of RT in sequential combination with a distributed form of CIT (RT + dCIT) compared with RT and conventional rehabilitation (CR). Forty-eight patients with stroke were enrolled and randomized to receive one of the three interventions for 4 weeks. Primary outcomes assessed the changes of motor impairment and motor function on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Secondary outcomes, including the Motor Activity Log (MAL) and accelerometers, examined functional performance during daily activities. The three treatment groups improved significantly on most primary and secondary outcomes over time. The combined RT + dCIT group exhibited significantly greater improvement on the FMA and functional ability subscale of the WMFT than the RT and CR groups. The improvements on the MAL and accelerometers were not significantly different among the three groups. RT in sequential combination with CIT led to additive effects on participants' motor ability and functional ability to perform motor tasks after stroke, which support that combined therapy can be an effective means to intensify outcomes. Further research investigating the potential long-term effects of combination therapy, especially on real-life performance, would be valuable.

  6. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  7. Potential predictors of functional outcomes after home-based constraint-induced therapy for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-ling; Lin, Keh-chung; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Hsieh-ching; Hsieh, Yu-wei

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our objective was to identify predictors for treatment outcomes after home-based constraint-induced therapy (CIT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD. Forty-three children (aged 4-12 yr) with CP were treated with individualized CIT at home for 4 wk. Potential predictors were age, sex, affected hand, and upper-extremity motor capacity measured by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, 2nd edition (PDMS-2). Outcomes were the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) Amount of Hand Use and Quality of Hand Use subscales and the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM). RESULTS. A higher PDMS-2 Visual-Motor Integration subscale score predicted a better WeeFIM score after home-based CIT (adjusted R² = .35). Younger age predicted better performance on the PMAL Amount of Hand Use and Quality of Hand Use subscales (adjusted R² = .06-.08) after home-based CIT. CONCLUSION. The potential predictors may allow occupational therapy practitioners to target those children who will benefit most after home-based constraint-induced therapy.

  8. Modified Constraint-Induced Therapy for Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Margaret; Ziviani, Jenny; Naylor, Olivia; Evans, Ruth; Novak, Iona; Herbert, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Conventional constraint-based therapies are intensive and demanding to implement, particularly for children. Modified forms of constraint-based therapies that are family-centred may be more acceptable and feasible for families of children with cerebral palsy (CP)-but require rigorous evaluation using randomized trials. The aim of this study…

  9. The effects of modified constraint-induced therapy combined with mental practice on patients with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hyuck

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the modified constraint-induced therapy (mCIT) combined with mental practice (MP) on patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] The subjects were 26 patients with chronic stroke. [Methods] Patients were randomly assigned to the mCIMT + MP group or the MP group. All subjects were administered mCIT consisting of (1) therapy emphasizing affected arm use in functional activities 5 days/week for 6 weeks and (2) 4 hours of restraint of the less affected arm 5 days/week. The mCIT + MP subjects received 30-minute MP sessions provided directly after therapy sessions. To compare the two groups, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Recovery after stroke (FM), and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were performed. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvement in ARAT, FM, and K-MBI after the interventions. Also, there were significant difference in ARAT, FM, and K-MBI between the two groups. [Conclusion] mCIT remains a promising intervention. However, its efficacy appears to be enhanced by use of MP after mCIT clinical sessions.

  10. Effects of Home-Based Constraint-Induced Therapy versus Dose-Matched Control Intervention on Functional Outcomes and Caregiver Well-Being in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling; Chang, Kai-chieh; Lin, Yu-chan; Chen, Yi-ju

    2011-01-01

    This study compared home-based constraint-induced therapy (CIT) with a dose-matched home-based control intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The differences in unilateral and bilateral motor performance, daily functions, and quality of parental well-being (i.e., the stress level of their parents) were evaluated. The study included 21…

  11. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Intensity of Treatment and Constraint-Induced Language Therapy for Individuals with Stroke-Induced Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Leora R.; Patterson, Janet P.; Raymer, Anastasia; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review summarizes evidence for intensity of treatment and constraint-induced language therapy (CILT) on measures of language impairment and communication activity/participation in individuals with stroke-induced aphasia. Method: A systematic search of the aphasia literature using 15 electronic databases (e.g., PubMed,…

  12. Logistic Regression Analyses for Predicting Clinically Important Differences in Motor Capacity, Motor Performance, and Functional Independence after Constraint-Induced Therapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling; Shieh, Jeng-yi; Lu, Lu; Lin, Keh-chung

    2013-01-01

    Given the growing evidence for the effects of constraint-induced therapy (CIT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP), there is a need for investigating the characteristics of potential participants who may benefit most from this intervention. This study aimed to establish predictive models for the effects of pediatric CIT on motor and functional…

  13. Similar Effects of Two Modified Constraint-Induced Therapy Protocols on Motor Impairment, Motor Function and Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Wilma Costa; Conforto, Adriana B.; Orsini, Marco; Stern, Annette; André, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) protocols show motor function and real-world arm use improvement. Meanwhile it usually requires constant supervision by physiotherapists and is therefore more expensive than customary care. This study compared the preliminary efficacy of two modified CIMT protocols. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pre and post treatment measures and six months follow-up was conducted. Nineteen patients with chronic stroke received 10 treatment sessions distributed three to four times a week over 22 days. CIMT3h_direct group received 3 hours of CIMT supervised by a therapist (n=10) while CIMT1.5h_direct group had 1.5 hours of supervised CIMT+1.5 hours home exercises supervised by a caregiver (n=9). Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. The modified CIMT protocols were feasible and well tolerated. Improvements in motor function, real-world arm use and quality of life did not differ significantly between treated groups receiving either 3 or 1.5 hours mCIMT supervised by a therapist. PMID:26294941

  14. Similar Effects of Two Modified Constraint-Induced Therapy Protocols on Motor Impairment, Motor Function and Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wilma Costa; Conforto, Adriana B; Orsini, Marco; Stern, Annette; André, Charles

    2015-03-23

    Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) protocols show motor function and real-world arm use improvement. Meanwhile it usually requires constant supervision by physiotherapists and is therefore more expensive than customary care. This study compared the preliminary efficacy of two modified CIMT protocols. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pre and post treatment measures and six months follow-up was conducted. Nineteen patients with chronic stroke received 10 treatment sessions distributed three to four times a week over 22 days. CIMT3h_direct group received 3 hours of CIMT supervised by a therapist (n=10) while CIMT1.5h_direct group had 1.5 hours of supervised CIMT+1.5 hours home exercises supervised by a caregiver (n=9). Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. The modified CIMT protocols were feasible and well tolerated. Improvements in motor function, real-world arm use and quality of life did not differ significantly between treated groups receiving either 3 or 1.5 hours mCIMT supervised by a therapist.

  15. Bilateral brain reorganization with memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy in chronic post-stroke aphasia: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Barbancho, Miguel A; Berthier, Marcelo L; Navas-Sánchez, Patricia; Dávila, Guadalupe; Green-Heredia, Cristina; García-Alberca, José M; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; López-González, Manuel V; Dawid-Milner, Marc S; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Lara, J Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ERP (P100 and N400) and root mean square (RMS) were obtained during a silent reading task in 28 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of both memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). Participants received memantine/placebo alone (weeks 0-16), followed by drug treatment combined with CIAT (weeks 16-18), and then memantine/placebo alone (weeks 18-20). ERP/RMS values (week 16) decreased more in the memantine group than in the placebo group. During CIAT application (weeks 16-18), improvements in aphasia severity and ERP/RMS values were amplified by memantine and changes remained stable thereafter (weeks 18-20). Changes in ERP/RMS occurred in left and right hemispheres and correlated with gains in language performance. No changes in ERP/RMS were found in a healthy group in two separated evaluations. Our results show that aphasia recovery induced by both memantine alone and in combination with CIAT is indexed by bilateral cortical potentials. PMID:25932618

  16. Bilateral brain reorganization with memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy in chronic post-stroke aphasia: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Barbancho, Miguel A; Berthier, Marcelo L; Navas-Sánchez, Patricia; Dávila, Guadalupe; Green-Heredia, Cristina; García-Alberca, José M; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; López-González, Manuel V; Dawid-Milner, Marc S; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Lara, J Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ERP (P100 and N400) and root mean square (RMS) were obtained during a silent reading task in 28 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of both memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). Participants received memantine/placebo alone (weeks 0-16), followed by drug treatment combined with CIAT (weeks 16-18), and then memantine/placebo alone (weeks 18-20). ERP/RMS values (week 16) decreased more in the memantine group than in the placebo group. During CIAT application (weeks 16-18), improvements in aphasia severity and ERP/RMS values were amplified by memantine and changes remained stable thereafter (weeks 18-20). Changes in ERP/RMS occurred in left and right hemispheres and correlated with gains in language performance. No changes in ERP/RMS were found in a healthy group in two separated evaluations. Our results show that aphasia recovery induced by both memantine alone and in combination with CIAT is indexed by bilateral cortical potentials.

  17. Examining the use of constraint-induced movement therapy in canadian neurological occupational and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Alana; Che, Marion; Mackay-Lyons, Marilyn; Mackenzie, Diane; Page, Stephen; Eskes, Gail; McDonald, Alison; Boyce, Joy; Boe, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Étudier l'utilisation de la thérapie par le mouvement par contrainte induite (TMCI) en ergothérapie et en physiothérapie neurologiques au Canada. Méthode : Des ergothérapeutes et des physiothérapeutes pratiquant dans le secteur de la réadaptation neurologique des adultes au Canada ont répondu à un questionnaire en ligne. Nous avons mesuré les pratiques des participants, leurs perceptions et leurs opinions au sujet de leur utilisation de la TMCI en pratique clinique. Résultats : Au total, 338 questionnaires ont été renvoyés, ce qui donne un taux de réponse de 13 %; 92 % des répondants connaissaient la TMCI et 43 % ont déclaré l'utiliser. Les répondants utilisant la TMCI suivaient en majorité (88 %) un protocole non traditionnel. On a constaté que l'autoévaluation du niveau de connaissance de la TMCI constituait un prédicteur important de l'utilisation de la thérapie (p≤0,001). Les obstacles à l'utilisation mentionnés couramment incluaient « le fait que des patients ont des problèmes de cognition qui empêchent d'utiliser le traitement » et « le manque de connaissance du traitement ». Conclusions : Même si la majorité des répondants connaissait la TMCI, moins de la moitié a déclaré l'utiliser. Les obstacles à l'utilisation de la TMCI comprennent le manque de connaissance du traitement et de ressources institutionnelles pour en appuyer l'utilisation. La détermination et l'élimination des obstacles à l'utilisation de la TMCI—par exemple, en recourant à l'enseignement supérieur professionnel continu pour corriger les lacunes des connaissances et en créant de nouveaux protocoles qui nécessitent moins de ressources institutionnelles—peuvent aider à améliorer la faisabilité de la TMCI et en promouvoir ainsi l'application clinique.

  18. Changes of right-hemispheric activation after constraint-induced, intensive language action therapy in chronic aphasia: fMRI evidence from auditory semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Bettina; Difrancesco, Stephanie; Harrington, Karen; Evans, Samuel; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in the neurorehabilitation of language is still under dispute. This study explored the changes in language-evoked brain activation over a 2-week treatment interval with intensive constraint induced aphasia therapy (CIAT), which is also called intensive language action therapy (ILAT). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess brain activation in perilesional left hemispheric and in homotopic right hemispheric areas during passive listening to high and low-ambiguity sentences and non-speech control stimuli in chronic non-fluent aphasia patients. All patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements of language functions after therapy. In an event-related fMRI experiment, a significant increase of BOLD signal was manifest in right inferior frontal and temporal areas. This activation increase was stronger for highly ambiguous sentences than for unambiguous ones. These results suggest that the known language improvements brought about by intensive constraint-induced language action therapy at least in part relies on circuits within the right-hemispheric homologs of left-perisylvian language areas, which are most strongly activated in the processing of semantically complex language.

  19. Effects of home-based constraint-induced therapy versus dose-matched control intervention on functional outcomes and caregiver well-being in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling; Chang, Kai-chieh; Lin, Yu-chan; Chen, Yi-ju

    2011-01-01

    This study compared home-based constraint-induced therapy (CIT) with a dose-matched home-based control intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The differences in unilateral and bilateral motor performance, daily functions, and quality of parental well-being (i.e., the stress level of their parents) were evaluated. The study included 21 children with CP (age range, 48-119 months) who were randomly assigned to the CIT or control group. All participants received individualized home-based interventions, 3.5-4h a day, twice a week for 4weeks. Primary outcomes were measured by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales II (PDMS-2) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) is the whole name of the assessment. All first letters of this instrument title should be in upper case. Secondary outcome measures were the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL), the Caregiver Functional Use Survey (CFUS), and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI). Outcome measures were performed at baseline (pretreatment), 4weeks (posttreatment), and 6-month (follow-up). Compared with the control group, the CIT group exhibited significantly better performance in grasping control as measured by the PDMS-2, unilateral/bilateral motor efficacy as measured by the BOTMP, and unilateral hand function as measured by the PMAL immediately after the treatment. At the 6-month follow-up, CIT had beneficial effects on grasping control assessed by PDMS-2 and on unilateral/bilateral functional performance measured by the PMAL and CFUS. Parents in both groups reported comparable stress levels at the 6-month follow-up, although the parent-child dysfunctional interaction deteriorated more immediately after CIT than after the control intervention. The follow-up of this randomized controlled trial suggested beneficial effects of home-based CIT on unilateral grasping skills and unilateral/bilateral functional performance at 6 months. The higher stress level reported by the parents in the

  20. Movement-Based VR Gameplay Therapy For A Child With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Sharon; Dennis, Carole; Larin, Hélène; Gallagher, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a single-subject feasibility study of a motion-based VR game designed to provide benefits similar to constraint-induced movement therapy for children with cerebral palsy, while providing a more enjoyable experience. The game was designed to encourage the child to perform the desired therapeutic movements by allowing him to interact with the game using only his more-affected arm. The study used an AB design: Performance across baseline and intervention phases was assessed to determine whether the intervention resulted in changes to repeated measures. Results of the study showed that compared with baseline measurements done prior to his game experience, the participant's post-intervention performance showed improvement in speed of reach, dissociated movement, and bilateral integration of upper extremities in functional tasks. The child's mother, as well as one of his therapists, reported better performance outside of the study environment as well.

  1. An Ecological Approach of Constraint Induced Movement Therapy for 2-3-Year-Old Children: A Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Shaw, Karin; Berg, Elisabeth; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of Eco-CIMT in young children with unilateral cerebral palsy in a randomized controlled crossover design. The training was implemented within the regular pediatric services, provided by the child's parents and/or preschool teacher and supervised by the child's regular therapist. Methods: Twenty-five children…

  2. Dance/Movement Therapy with Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Veronica

    This outline profiles two programs that use dance/movement therapy to help students with low self-esteem, poor body image, poor self-control, lack of trust in others, difficulty identifying and expressing feelings, and poor interpersonal relating skills. Students referred for dance/movement therapy services are assessed for appropriateness, and…

  3. Directive and Non-Directive Movement in Child Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krason, Katarzyna; Szafraniec, Grazyna

    1999-01-01

    Presents a new authorship method of child therapy based on visualization through motion. Maintains that this method stimulates motor development and musical receptiveness, and promotes personality development. Suggests that improvised movement to music facilitates the projection mechanism and that directed movement starts the channeling phase.…

  4. Physical therapy and occupational therapy: partners in rehabilitation for persons with movement impairments.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David L; Cipriani, Daniel J; Thomas, Julie J

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY The professions of physical therapy and occupational therapy have legitimate roles in the restoration of human movement in the rehabilitation process. This paper first presents a physical therapy perspective on changing trends in therapeutic exercise. Recent trends in physical therapy reflect a shift away from isolating patterns of movement and open kinetic chain exercises toward a new emphasis on functional patterns of movement and closed kinetic chain exercises. Rehabilitation of persons with hip fracture is used as an example of these shifting trends. Next, the paper presents an occupational therapy perspective. Occupational therapy's historical emphasis on the use of naturalistic occupations as the context for therapeutic exercise is described. Theoretical advantages of occupationally embedded movement are listed, and recent research in support of naturalistic occupations is summarized. Physical therapy and occupational therapy are distinct professions with autonomous outlooks and terminologies, but the responsibilities of physical therapists and occupational therapists potentially overlap in the restoration of movement. Suggestions are made for interdisciplinary teamwork whereby the holistically considered welfare of the patient is always the primary concern of all therapists.

  5. Developmental stages of occupational therapy and the feminist movement.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, M B

    1976-10-01

    Developmental stages characterize the growth of both the feminist movement and the field of occupational therapy. The human development stages described by Erik Erikson are used to compare the growth stages of these two groups to the human sequence. It is hypothesized that both female-dominated groups began with an "infancy" period in the early 1900s characterized by the beginnings of identity and confidence in their respective groups. Both continued to develop through stages corresponding to the childhood stages characterized by Erikson and into the adolescent acting out stages as characterized by the demonstrations of the 1960s. Present and future trends are explored in relation to developmental stages, as well as to implications for the field of occupational therapy in education, theory, and practice.

  6. Developmental stages of occupational therapy and the feminist movement.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, M B

    1976-10-01

    Developmental stages characterize the growth of both the feminist movement and the field of occupational therapy. The human development stages described by Erik Erikson are used to compare the growth stages of these two groups to the human sequence. It is hypothesized that both female-dominated groups began with an "infancy" period in the early 1900s characterized by the beginnings of identity and confidence in their respective groups. Both continued to develop through stages corresponding to the childhood stages characterized by Erikson and into the adolescent acting out stages as characterized by the demonstrations of the 1960s. Present and future trends are explored in relation to developmental stages, as well as to implications for the field of occupational therapy in education, theory, and practice. PMID:788519

  7. The Benefit of Movement: Dance/Movement Therapy and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albin, Chloe M.

    2016-01-01

    There are various forms of therapies for children with disabilities, including physical therapy, speech therapy, and alternative therapies such as music and dance therapy. Each form of therapy has its benefits for those with disabilities, but ultimately the success of the therapy rests on the attention paid to the individual. Especially for…

  8. Behavioral therapy for treatment of stereotypic movements in nonautistic children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonathan M; Singer, Harvey S; Bridges, Dana D; Waranch, H Richard

    2006-02-01

    Although typically described in autistic, mentally retarded, and sensory-deprived individuals, motor stereotypies also occur in normal children. In this preliminary report, the behavior modification techniques of habit reversal and differential reinforcement of other behavior were evaluated as a therapeutic modality for the suppression of stereotypic movements in nonautistic subjects. Twelve children, ages 6 to 14 years, with physiologic stereotypies were treated using a standardized treatment protocol. Clinical outcomes were based on differences between assessments obtained at baseline and on telephone follow-up. Evaluation scales included measures of the frequency, intensity, interference, and number of stereotypies (Stereotypy Severity Scale motor portion and Stereotypy Linear Analog Scale) and assessment of global function (Child Global Assessment Scale and Stereotypy Severity Scale global portion). The results were correlated with the child's level of motivation and the number of treatment sessions. After a mean follow-up of 12.1 months, motor stereotypies showed significant improvement on the Stereotypy Linear Analog Scale and Stereotypy Severity Scale total score, P = .009 and P = .046, respectively. Both scales showed a relationship between the number of treatment sessions attended and a reduction in movements. The Child Global Assessment Scale also improved with therapy, but there was no correlation with the number of treatment sessions. Highly motivated patients had greater improvement on the Stereotypy Linear Analog Scale and Stereotypy Severity Scale scales compared with less motivated patients, but motivation had no impact on the Child Global Assessment Scale. The combined use of habit reversal and differential reinforcement of other behavior is beneficial in reducing motor stereotypies in nonautistic children.

  9. Movement-Based Interaction Applied to Physical Rehabilitation Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Penichet, Victor Manuel; Lozano Pérez, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Background Health care environments are continuously improving conditions, especially regarding the use of current technology. In the field of rehabilitation, the use of video games and related technology has helped to develop new rehabilitation procedures. Patients are able to work on their disabilities through new processes that are more motivating and entertaining. However, these patients are required to leave their home environment to complete their rehabilitation programs. Objective The focus of our research interests is on finding a solution to eliminate the need for patients to interrupt their daily routines to attend rehabilitation therapy. We have developed an innovative system that allows patients with a balance disorder to perform a specific rehabilitation exercise at home. Additionally, the system features an assistive tool to complement the work of physiotherapists. Medical staff are thus provided with a system that avoids the need for them to be present during the exercise in specific cases in which patients are under suitable supervision. Methods A movement-based interaction device was used to achieve a reliable system for monitoring rehabilitation exercises performed at home. The system accurately utilizes parameters previously defined by the specialist for correct performance of the exercise. Accordingly, the system gives instructions and corrects the patient’s actions. The data generated during the session are collected for assessment by the specialist to adapt the difficulty of the exercise to the patient’s progress. Results The evaluation of the system was conducted by two experts in balance disorder rehabilitation. They were required to verify the effectiveness of the system, and they also facilitated the simulation of real patient behavior. They used the system freely for a period of time and provided interesting and optimistic feedback. First, they evaluated the system as a tool for real-life rehabilitation therapy. Second, their

  10. The influence of the arts-and-crafts movement on the professional status of occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Levine, R E

    1987-04-01

    This paper explores why occupational therapists use arts and crafts as therapeutic modalities. Beginning with the turn-of-the-century origins of occupational therapy, the paper traces the similarities and differences in the ideas and beliefs of the founders of occupational therapy and the proponents of the arts-and-crafts movement. PMID:3318480

  11. Therapeutic Eurythmy-movement therapy for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Majorek, Magdalena; Tüchelmann, Tobias; Heusser, Peter

    2004-02-01

    This paper considers Therapeutic Eurythmy (TE) as a possible therapy for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).ADHD manifests as a complex psychological disturbance in which deficit of attention such as forgetfulness or distraction is the main symptom. It would seem that a growing number of children seem to be affected by this syndrome and an increasing number of alternative approaches to treatment are being sought. Therapeutic Eurythmy is a movement Therapy in the context of anthroposophical medicine. As a holistic therapy TE affects both physical and spiritual aspects of illness. TE entails the practice of movement exercises learned from a trained therapist. In this exploratory study, the effects of TE on behavioural functioning were examined.This paper addresses five single cases where the therapy induced positive changes to client's attention span, concentration, tempo of work and motor skills such as coordination, dexterity and social behaviour. Standard psychological tests parameters for movement, and for attention were used to assess aspects of performance.A positive shift was observed with reference to concentration and development of movement skills. Results were less pronounced but showed positive improvements on working speed and social behaviour problems. Hyperactivity also diminished to some extent. Generally, children were considered to be more mature in their development after therapy. The results of these case studies suggest that TE may be helpful for children with ADHD. However, more systematic research is warranted.

  12. Becoming a Client, Becoming a Practitioner: Student Narratives of a Dance Movement Therapy Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents one of several themes arising from a larger research study which invited trainees' views on their experience in a weekly, 2 year, dance movement therapy (DMT) personal development group. This group formed part of their post-graduate training. The study used a phenomenological, grounded theory and collaborative methodology…

  13. Developing Emotional Literacy through Individual Dance Movement Therapy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meekums, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a pragmatic mixed methods pilot study of teacher perceptions regarding a school-based Dance Movement therapy (DMT) service for six children aged four to seven in a North of England primary school. No previous studies have systematically evaluated DMT in terms of the development of Emotional Literacy (EL), though theoretical…

  14. The Core Competency Movement in Marriage and Family Therapy: Key Considerations from Other Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.; Todahl, Jeff L.; Platt, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing movement to define competency within the field of marriage and family therapy (MFT), particularly with respect to the training of practitioners and the evaluation of clinical practice. Efforts to define competency, however, transcend the practice of MFT and much can be learned from the experiences of other disciplines.…

  15. Fixing the Mirrors: A Feasibility Study of the Effects of Dance Movement Therapy on Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Sabine C.; Mehl, Laura; Sobanski, Esther; Sieber, Maik; Fuchs, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    From the 1970s on, case studies reported the effectiveness of therapeutic mirroring in movement with children with autism spectrum disorder. In this feasibility study, we tested a dance movement therapy intervention based on mirroring in movement in a population of 31 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (mainly high-functioning and…

  16. Sonification of Arm Movements in Stroke Rehabilitation - A Novel Approach in Neurologic Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Daniel S; Rohde, Sönke; Nikmaram, Nikou; Brückner, Hans-Peter; Großbach, Michael; Rollnik, Jens D; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor impairments are common after stroke, but efficient and motivating therapies for these impairments are scarce. We present an innovative musical sonification therapy, especially designed to retrain patients' gross motor functions. Sonification should motivate patients and provide additional sensory input informing about relative limb position. Twenty-five stroke patients were included in a clinical pre-post study and took part in the sonification training. The patients' upper extremity functions, their psychological states, and their arm movement smoothness were assessed pre and post training. Patients were randomly assigned to either of two groups. Both groups received an average of 10 days (M = 9.88; SD = 2.03; 30 min/day) of musical sonification therapy [music group (MG)] or a sham sonification movement training [control group (CG)], respectively. The only difference between the two protocols was that in the CG no sound was played back during training. In the beginning, patients explored the acoustic effects of their arm movements in space. At the end of the training, the patients played simple melodies by coordinated arm movements. The 15 patients in the MG showed significantly reduced joint pain (F = 19.96, p < 0.001) in the Fugl-Meyer assessment after training. They also reported a trend to have improved hand function in the stroke impact scale as compared to the CG. Movement smoothness at day 1, day 5, and the last day of the intervention was compared in MG patients and found to be significantly better after the therapy. Taken together, musical sonification may be a promising therapy for motor impairments after stroke, but further research is required since estimated effect sizes point to moderate treatment outcomes. PMID:27445970

  17. Sonification of Arm Movements in Stroke Rehabilitation – A Novel Approach in Neurologic Music Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Daniel S.; Rohde, Sönke; Nikmaram, Nikou; Brückner, Hans-Peter; Großbach, Michael; Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart O.

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor impairments are common after stroke, but efficient and motivating therapies for these impairments are scarce. We present an innovative musical sonification therapy, especially designed to retrain patients’ gross motor functions. Sonification should motivate patients and provide additional sensory input informing about relative limb position. Twenty-five stroke patients were included in a clinical pre–post study and took part in the sonification training. The patients’ upper extremity functions, their psychological states, and their arm movement smoothness were assessed pre and post training. Patients were randomly assigned to either of two groups. Both groups received an average of 10 days (M = 9.88; SD = 2.03; 30 min/day) of musical sonification therapy [music group (MG)] or a sham sonification movement training [control group (CG)], respectively. The only difference between the two protocols was that in the CG no sound was played back during training. In the beginning, patients explored the acoustic effects of their arm movements in space. At the end of the training, the patients played simple melodies by coordinated arm movements. The 15 patients in the MG showed significantly reduced joint pain (F = 19.96, p < 0.001) in the Fugl–Meyer assessment after training. They also reported a trend to have improved hand function in the stroke impact scale as compared to the CG. Movement smoothness at day 1, day 5, and the last day of the intervention was compared in MG patients and found to be significantly better after the therapy. Taken together, musical sonification may be a promising therapy for motor impairments after stroke, but further research is required since estimated effect sizes point to moderate treatment outcomes. PMID:27445970

  18. Effect of Ocular Movements during Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Liboni, William; Darò, Roberta; Viotti, Erika; Fernandez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapeutic treatment resolving emotional distress caused by traumatic events. With EMDR, information processing is facilitated by eye movements (EM) during the recall of a traumatic memory (RECALL). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ocular movements of EMDR on the hemodynamics of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Material and Methods Two groups were recruited: a trial group (wEM) received a complete EMDR treatment, whereas a control group (woEM) received a therapy without EM. PFC hemodynamics was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy during RECALL and during focusing on the worst image of the trauma (pre-RECALL). The parameters of oxy- (oxy-Hb), and deoxy-hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) were acquired and analyzed in time domain, by calculating the slope within pre-RECALL and RECALL periods, and in the frequency domain, by calculating the mean power of oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb in the very-low frequency (VLF, 20–40 mHz) and low frequency (LF, 40–140 mHz) bandwidths. We compared pre-RECALL with RECALL periods within subjects, and pre-RECALL and RECALL parameters of wEM with the corresponding of woEM. Results An effect of group on mean slope of oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb in pre-RECALL and oxy-Hb in RECALL periods was observed. wEM showed a lower percentage of positive angular coefficients during pre-RECALL with respect to RECALL, on the opposite of woEM. In the frequency domain, wEM had significant difference in oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb LF of left hemisphere, whereas woEM showed no difference. Discussion and Conclusion We observed the effect of EM on PFC oxygenation during EMDR, since wEM subjects showed a mean increase of oxy-Hb during RECALL and a decrease during pre-RECALL, as opposed to woEM. Frequency analysis evidenced a reduction of activity of sympathetic nervous system in wEM group during pre-RECALL. Our outcomes revealed a different hemodynamics induced by eye movements in wEM with

  19. Changes in Saccadic Eye Movements produced by Novel Brain and Vestibular rehabilitation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Frederick R; Pagnacco, Guido; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggerd, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements offer several insights into the functional status of many areas of the central nervous system. As suchtheir observation is an important component of any neurological assessment. Unfortunately, these types of eye movementsare very fast and therefore cannot be evaluated in detail without high speed instrumentation. Direct infrared (IR) technologyallows to easily quantify standard saccades parameters such as latency, peak and mean velocity, and Q factor, as well as torecord the actual shape of the movement and its velocity. Using a direct IR device, we investigated if it is possible to changesaccades using a novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation therapy in subjects suffering a variety of neurological dysfunctions.Pre-post therapy comparison of saccade parameters showed that this type of subject's specific therapy can improve withstatistical significance the parameters of interest. However, the effects were not limited to the parameters of interest:subject-specific brain and vestibular rehabilitation therapy can improve the other parameters as well, although thisimprovement was not always statistically significant. Furthermore, we found that for the infrequent cases where thesubject-specific brain and vestibular rehabilitation therapy produced a deterioration of the other parameters, it was notstatistically significant. PMID:25996693

  20. Technologies and combination therapies for enhancing movement training for people with a disability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase over the last decade in research on technologies for enhancing movement training and exercise for people with a disability. This paper reviews some of the recent developments in this area, using examples from a National Science Foundation initiated study of mobility research projects in Europe to illustrate important themes and key directions for future research. This paper also reviews several recent studies aimed at combining movement training with plasticity or regeneration therapies, again drawing in part from European research examples. Such combination therapies will likely involve complex interactions with motor training that must be understood in order to achieve the goal of eliminating severe motor impairment. PMID:22463132

  1. The Influence of Shockwave Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement Induced in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Hazan-Molina, Hagai; Aizenbud, Itay; Kaufman, Hana; Teich, Sorin; Aizenbud, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Shockwave therapy is used in medicine due to its ability to stimulate healing processes. The application of orthodontic force evokes an inflammatory reaction resulting in tooth movement. Shockwave therapy might have an effect on both inflammatory and periodonal ligament cytokine profiles. Our aim was to evaluate the fluctuations of different inflammatory cytokines after orthodontic force induction with and without shockwave therapy. An orthodontic appliance was applied between the rats' molars and incisors. In conjunction with the commencement of orthodontic force, the rats were treated with a single episode of 1000 shock waves and the gingival crevicular fluid was collected for 3 days. The expression and concentration of different cytokines was evaluated by a commercial 4-multiplex fluorescent bead-based immunoassay. The level of all cytokines displayed a similar trend in both shockwave-treated and untreated groups; the concentration peaked on the first day and declined thereafter. In all cases, however, the cytokine levels were smaller in the shockwave-treated than in untreated animals; a significant difference was found for sRANKL and borderline difference for IL-6 on Day 1. We conclude that shockwave therapy during the induction of orthodontic tooth movement influences the expression of inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Modeling and Predicting Tissue Movement and Deformation for High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiangyun; Yuan, Zhiyong; Lai, Qianfeng; Guo, Jiaxiang; Zheng, Qi; Yu, Sijiao; Tong, Qianqian; Si, Weixin; Sun, Mingui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In ultrasound-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, the target tissue (such as a tumor) often moves and/or deforms in response to an external force. This problem creates difficulties in treating patients and can lead to the destruction of normal tissue. In order to solve this problem, we present a novel method to model and predict the movement and deformation of the target tissue during ultrasound-guided HIFU therapy. Methods Our method computationally predicts the position of the target tissue under external force. This prediction allows appropriate adjustments in the focal region during the application of HIFU so that the treatment head is kept aligned with the diseased tissue through the course of therapy. To accomplish this goal, we utilize the cow tissue as the experimental target tissue to collect spatial sequences of ultrasound images using the HIFU equipment. A Geodesic Localized Chan-Vese (GLCV) model is developed to segment the target tissue images. A 3D target tissue model is built based on the segmented results. A versatile particle framework is constructed based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to model the movement and deformation of the target tissue. Further, an iterative parameter estimation algorithm is utilized to determine the essential parameters of the versatile particle framework. Finally, the versatile particle framework with the determined parameters is used to estimate the movement and deformation of the target tissue. Results To validate our method, we compare the predicted contours with the ground truth contours. We found that the lowest, highest and average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) values between predicted and ground truth contours were, respectively, 0.9615, 0.9770 and 0.9697. Conclusion Our experimental result indicates that the proposed method can effectively predict the dynamic contours of the moving and deforming tissue during ultrasound-guided HIFU therapy. PMID:25993644

  3. Assistive acting movement therapy devices with pneumatic rotary-type soft actuators.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, André; Baiden, David; Ivlev, Oleg

    2012-12-01

    Inherent compliance and assistive behavior are assumed to be essential properties for safe human-robot interaction. Rehabilitation robots demand the highest standards in this respect because the machine interacts directly with weak persons who are often sensitive to pain. Using novel soft fluidic actuators with rotary elastic chambers (REC actuators), compact, lightweight, and cost-effective therapeutic devices can be developed. This article describes modular design and control strategies for new assistive acting robotic devices for upper and lower extremities. Due to the inherent compliance and natural back-drivability of pneumatic REC actuators, these movement therapy devices provide gentle treatment, whereby the interaction forces between humans and the therapy device are estimated without the use of expensive force/torque sensors. An active model-based gravity compensation based on separated models of the robot and of the individual patient's extremity provides the basis for effective assistive control. The utilization of pneumatic actuators demands a special safety concept, which is merged with control algorithms to provide a sufficient level of safeness and to catch any possible system errors and/or emergency situations. A self-explanatory user interface allows for easy, intuitive handling. Prototypes are very comfortable for use due to several control routines that work in the background. Assistive devices have been tested extensively with several healthy persons; the knee/hip movement therapy device is now under clinical trials at the Clinic for Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery at the Klinikum Stuttgart.

  4. Assistive acting movement therapy devices with pneumatic rotary-type soft actuators.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, André; Baiden, David; Ivlev, Oleg

    2012-12-01

    Inherent compliance and assistive behavior are assumed to be essential properties for safe human-robot interaction. Rehabilitation robots demand the highest standards in this respect because the machine interacts directly with weak persons who are often sensitive to pain. Using novel soft fluidic actuators with rotary elastic chambers (REC actuators), compact, lightweight, and cost-effective therapeutic devices can be developed. This article describes modular design and control strategies for new assistive acting robotic devices for upper and lower extremities. Due to the inherent compliance and natural back-drivability of pneumatic REC actuators, these movement therapy devices provide gentle treatment, whereby the interaction forces between humans and the therapy device are estimated without the use of expensive force/torque sensors. An active model-based gravity compensation based on separated models of the robot and of the individual patient's extremity provides the basis for effective assistive control. The utilization of pneumatic actuators demands a special safety concept, which is merged with control algorithms to provide a sufficient level of safeness and to catch any possible system errors and/or emergency situations. A self-explanatory user interface allows for easy, intuitive handling. Prototypes are very comfortable for use due to several control routines that work in the background. Assistive devices have been tested extensively with several healthy persons; the knee/hip movement therapy device is now under clinical trials at the Clinic for Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery at the Klinikum Stuttgart. PMID:23241570

  5. Using epigenetic networks for the analysis of movement associated with levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alexander P; Lones, Michael A; Trefzer, Martin A; Smith, Stephen L; Jamieson, Stuart; Alty, Jane E; Cosgrove, Jeremy; Tyrrell, Andy M

    2016-08-01

    Levodopa is a drug that is commonly used to treat movement disorders associated with Parkinson's disease. Its dosage requires careful monitoring, since the required amount changes over time, and excess dosage can lead to muscle spasms known as levodopa-induced dyskinesia. In this work, we investigate the potential for using epiNet, a novel artificial gene regulatory network, as a classifier for monitoring accelerometry time series data collected from patients undergoing levodopa therapy. We also consider how dynamical analysis of epiNet classifiers and their transitions between different states can highlight clinically useful information which is not available through more conventional data mining techniques. The results show that epiNet is capable of discriminating between different movement patterns which are indicative of either insufficient or excessive levodopa. PMID:27350649

  6. [Movement therapy and depression--evaluation study of a disorder-oriented and an unspecific movement-therapeutic support in clinical context].

    PubMed

    Heimbeck, Alexander; Hölter, Gerd

    2011-05-01

    In recent years body-orientated concepts have gained more and more importance in the therapy of mental disorders. But there is still a widespread skepticism about the effectiveness of movement-therapeutic measures. In the present study the effectiveness of an unspecific versus a disorder-orientated movement-therapy was tested in the clinical setting including a 6-month catamnesis with depressive patients (n=103) with a BDI >18. The results show, at every data point, the effectiveness of the measures for all investigated parameters. Both forms of movement-orientated interventions differ only slightly with regard to the therapeutic success. The catamnesis shows a big gap between resolution and actually realized activities. On the basis of the results it can be assumed that mainly general unspecific determinants play a more important role for the therapeutic success than assumed so far.

  7. Intracellular Trafficking of Plasmids for Gene Therapy: Mechanisms of Cytoplasmic Movement and Nuclear Import

    PubMed Central

    Dean, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Under physiologically relevant conditions, the levels of non-viral gene transfer are low at best. The reason for this is that many barriers exist for the efficient transfer of genes to cells, even before any gene expression can occur. While many transfection strategies focus on DNA condensation and overcoming the plasma membrane, events associated with the intracellular trafficking of the DNA complexes have not been as extensively studied. Once internalized, plasmids must travel potentially long distances through the cytoplasm to reach their next barrier, the nuclear envelope. This review summarizes the current progress on the cytoplasmic trafficking and nuclear transport of plasmids used for gene therapy applications. Both of these processes utilize specific and defined mechanisms to facilitate movement of DNA complexes through the cell. The continued elucidation and exploitation of these mechanisms will lead to improved strategies for transfection and successful gene therapy. PMID:17168698

  8. Effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Genc, Ghizlane; Kocadereli, Ilken; Tasar, Ferda; Kilinc, Kamer; El, Sibel; Sarkarati, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on (1) the velocity of orthodontic tooth movement and (2) the nitric oxide levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic treatment. The sample consisted of 20 patients (14 girls, six boys) whose maxillary first premolars were extracted and canines distalized. A gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) diode laser was applied on the day 0, and the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days when the retraction of the maxillary lateral incisors was initiated. The right maxillary lateral incisors composed the study group (the laser group), whereas the left maxillary lateral incisors served as the control. The teeth in the laser group received a total of ten doses of laser application: five doses from the buccal and five doses from the palatal side (two cervical, one middle, two apical) with an output power of 20 mW and a dose of 0.71 J /cm(2). Gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained on the above-mentioned days, and the nitric oxide levels were analyzed. Bonferroni and repeated measures variant analysis tests were used for statistical analysis with the significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. The application of low-level laser therapy accelerated orthodontic tooth movement significantly; there were no statistically significant changes in the nitric oxide levels of the gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic treatment.

  9. Tumour Movement in Proton Therapy: Solutions and Remaining Questions: A Review

    PubMed Central

    De Ruysscher, Dirk; Sterpin, Edmond; Haustermans, Karin; Depuydt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Movement of tumours, mostly by respiration, has been a major problem for treating lung cancer, liver tumours and other locations in the abdomen and thorax. Organ motion is indeed one component of geometrical uncertainties that includes delineation and target definition uncertainties, microscopic disease and setup errors. At present, minimising motion seems to be the easiest to implement in clinical practice. If combined with adaptive approaches to correct for gradual anatomical variations, it may be a practical strategy. Other approaches such as repainting and tracking could increase the accuracy of proton therapy delivery, but advanced 4D solutions are needed. Moreover, there is a need to perform clinical studies to investigate which approach is the best in a given clinical situation. The good news is that existing and emerging technology and treatment planning systems as will without doubt lead in the forthcoming future to practical solutions to tackle intra-fraction motion in proton therapy. These developments may also improve motion management in photon therapy as well. PMID:26132317

  10. The core competency movement in marriage and family therapy: key considerations from other disciplines.

    PubMed

    Miller, John K; Todahl, Jeff L; Platt, Jason J

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing movement to define competency within the field of marriage and family therapy (MFT), particularly with respect to the training of practitioners and the evaluation of clinical practice. Efforts to define competency, however, transcend the practice of MFT and much can be learned from the experiences of other disciplines. Professions such as education, law, and medicine have made strides toward addressing the complex issue of competency standards in their respective fields. This article describes some ways in which the issue of competency has been approached in other professions, as well as some common dilemmas posed by adopting a competency-based orientation, to shed light on the process of defining competency in MFT. Moreover, this article identifies some of the more useful conceptualizations, modes of pedagogy, and evaluative practices found in other professions.

  11. Efficiency of low-level laser therapy within induced dental movement: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Vinicius Lima; de Andrade Gois, Vanessa Lima; Andrade, Ramon Nazareno Menezes; Cesar, Carla Patrícia Hernandez Alves Ribeiro; de Albuquerque-Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; de Mello Rode, Sigmar; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2016-05-01

    The low level laser is widely used in Dentistry, in particular, to decrease pain and increase the speed of tooth movement. This study was to perform a systematic literature search to investigate the effectiveness of low level laser and low energy density therapy of the induced tooth movement. This research was performed following the PRISMA instructions and was registered in the PROSPERO. The articles were searched in six electronic databases, with no date and language restriction. Only randomized clinical trials were selected. Articles that did not use the extraction of first premolars as orthodontic planning were excluded, as well as articles using high energy density laser therapy. The articles were assessed for risk of bias and individual quality. The results were analyzed using meta-analysis, using randomized effect. The initial sample consisted of 161 articles. Six articles remained eligible for qualitative analysis and five for quantitative analysis. According to the individual quality, most articles were classified as high quality. Three articles detected statistically significant differences in induced movement by comparing the orthodontic movement between the experimental and control groups. For the maxilla, there was a statistically significant influence of the laser in three months and, for the mandible, in one month. It may be concluded that there is no evidence that laser therapy can accelerate the induced tooth movement. PMID:27016661

  12. Emotional processing during eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy of Vietnam veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Pitman, R K; Orr, S P; Altman, B; Longpre, R E; Poiré, R E; Macklin, M L

    1996-01-01

    This study examined emotional processing and outcome in 17 Vietnam veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who underwent eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, with and without the eye movement component, in a crossover design. Results supported the occurrence of partial emotional processing, but there were no differences in its extent in the eye-movement versus eyes-fixed conditions. Therapy produced a modest to moderate overall improvement, mostly on the impact of Event Scale. There was slightly more improvement in the eyes-fixed than eye-movement condition. There was little association between the extent of emotional processing and therapeutic outcome. In our hands, EMDR was at least as efficacious for combat-related PTSD as imaginal flooding proved to be in a previous study, and was better tolerated by subjects. However, results suggest that eye movements do not play a significant role in processing of traumatic information in EMDR and that factors other than eye movements are responsible for EMDR's therapeutic effect.

  13. Therapies for children with cerebral palsy: A Web of Science-based literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yaping; Li, Na; Guan, Lijun; Wang, Chunnan; Shang, Shuyun; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify global research trends in three therapies for children with cerebral palsy. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on therapies for children with cerebral palsy from 2002 to 2011 retrieved from Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed published articles on botulinum toxin, constraint-induced movement therapy, or acupuncture for children with cerebral palsy indexed in Web of Science; (b) original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material, and news items; and (c) publication between 2002 and 2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) documents that were not published in the public domain; and (c) a number of corrected papers from the total number of articles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Number of publications on the three therapies; (2) annual publication output, distribution by journals, distribution by institution, and top-cited articles on botulinum toxin; (3) annual publication output, distribution by journal, distribution by institution, and top-cited articles on constraint-induced movement therapy; (4) annual publication, distribution by journal, distribution by institution, and top-cited articles on acupuncture. RESULTS: This analysis, based on Web of Science articles, identified several research trends in studies published over the past 10 years of three therapies for children with cerebral palsy. More articles on botulinum toxin for treating children with cerebral palsy were published than the articles regarding constraint-induced movement therapy or acupuncture. The numbers of publications increased over the 10-year study period. Most papers appeared in journals with a focus on neurology, such as Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology and Journal of Child Neurology. Research institutes publishing on botulinum toxin treatments for this population are mostly in the

  14. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D’Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization. PMID:26504391

  15. Re-presentation of Olfactory Exposure Therapy Success Cues during Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep did not Increase Therapy Outcome but Increased Sleep Spindles

    PubMed Central

    Rihm, Julia S.; Sollberger, Silja B.; Soravia, Leila M.; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Exposure therapy induces extinction learning and is an effective treatment for specific phobias. Sleep after learning promotes extinction memory and benefits therapy success. As sleep-dependent memory-enhancing effects are based on memory reactivations during sleep, here we aimed at applying the beneficial effect of sleep on therapy success by cueing memories of subjective therapy success during non-rapid eye movement sleep after in vivo exposure-based group therapy for spider phobia. In addition, oscillatory correlates of re-presentation during sleep (i.e., sleep spindles and slow oscillations) were investigated. After exposure therapy, spider-phobic patients verbalized their subjectively experienced therapy success under presence of a contextual odor. Then, patients napped for 90 min recorded by polysomnography. Half of the sleep group received the odor during sleep while the other half was presented an odorless vehicle as control. A third group served as a wake control group without odor presentation. While exposure therapy significantly reduced spider-phobic symptoms in all subjects, these symptoms could not be further reduced by re-presenting the odor associated with therapy success, probably due to a ceiling effect of the highly effective exposure therapy. However, odor re-exposure during sleep increased left-lateralized frontal slow spindle (11.0–13.0 Hz) and right-lateralized parietal fast spindle (13.0–15.0 Hz) activity, suggesting the possibility of a successful re-presentation of therapy-related memories during sleep. Future studies need to further examine the possibility to enhance therapy success by targeted memory reactivation (TMR) during sleep. PMID:27445775

  16. Re-presentation of Olfactory Exposure Therapy Success Cues during Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep did not Increase Therapy Outcome but Increased Sleep Spindles.

    PubMed

    Rihm, Julia S; Sollberger, Silja B; Soravia, Leila M; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Exposure therapy induces extinction learning and is an effective treatment for specific phobias. Sleep after learning promotes extinction memory and benefits therapy success. As sleep-dependent memory-enhancing effects are based on memory reactivations during sleep, here we aimed at applying the beneficial effect of sleep on therapy success by cueing memories of subjective therapy success during non-rapid eye movement sleep after in vivo exposure-based group therapy for spider phobia. In addition, oscillatory correlates of re-presentation during sleep (i.e., sleep spindles and slow oscillations) were investigated. After exposure therapy, spider-phobic patients verbalized their subjectively experienced therapy success under presence of a contextual odor. Then, patients napped for 90 min recorded by polysomnography. Half of the sleep group received the odor during sleep while the other half was presented an odorless vehicle as control. A third group served as a wake control group without odor presentation. While exposure therapy significantly reduced spider-phobic symptoms in all subjects, these symptoms could not be further reduced by re-presenting the odor associated with therapy success, probably due to a ceiling effect of the highly effective exposure therapy. However, odor re-exposure during sleep increased left-lateralized frontal slow spindle (11.0-13.0 Hz) and right-lateralized parietal fast spindle (13.0-15.0 Hz) activity, suggesting the possibility of a successful re-presentation of therapy-related memories during sleep. Future studies need to further examine the possibility to enhance therapy success by targeted memory reactivation (TMR) during sleep. PMID:27445775

  17. Effect of low level laser therapy on dental pulp during orthodontic movement

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Ángela; Ballesteros, Rosa Emilia; Viáfara, Jairo Hernán; Tamayo, Oscar Mario

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To validate the protocol described here to be used in future clinical trials related to the effect of laser therapy on dental pulp. METHODS: Histologically treated samples from eight human healthy premolar teeth obtained from the middle root level were distributed in four groups: group 1 (G1) absolute control; group 2 (G2) only laser irradiation; group 3 (G3) exposed only to orthodontics; and group 4 (G4) treated with orthodontics and laser. Laser treatment was performed at 830 nm wavelength, 100 mW (energy 80 J/cm2, 2.2 J), for 22 s in the vestibular surface and 22 s in the palatal surface, 1 mm away from the dental root mucosa. Three staining methods were performed: hematoxylin-eosin (HE), Masson’s Trichrome method and Gomori’s method. RESULTS: The pulp histology parameters were evaluated and the results classified in to 3 parts: an inflammatory response, soft tissue response (dental pulp) and hard tissue response (dentin and predentin). There was no inflammation (chronic or acute) in any of the evaluated groups. The zones of pulp necrosis were found in one premolar of G3 and in one of G4; in groups G2 and G4 there was higher angiogenesis than in the other two groups. G4 group presented the highest level of vascularization. A reduced nerve density was observed in G3. A G2 specimen showed increased nerve density. A higher rate of calcification was observed in G1 compared to G2. Denticles, either real or false, were observed in G1, G2 and G3. Sclerosis of dentin and focal dentin loss was observed among all the groups. Secondary dentin was present in one sample in G1 and G2. A necrosis zone was found in one sample of G3 and G4. No differences between groups were observed in the odontoblast irregularity layer but the layer was wider in the group treated with laser only. A notable difference was detected in reduction of the cell-free layer between the groups G1 and G4. The findings in pulp tissue favor its adaptative response against dental movement induced

  18. Overcoming Disembodiment: The Effect of Movement Therapy on Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia—A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lily A. L.; Koch, Sabine C.; Hirjak, Dusan; Fuchs, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Negative symptoms of patients with Schizophrenia are resistant to medical treatment or conventional group therapy. Understanding schizophrenia as a form of disembodiment of the self, a number of scientists have argued that the approach of embodiment and associated embodied therapies, such as Dance and Movement Therapy (DMT) or Body Psychotherapy (BPT), may be more suitable to explain the psychopathology underlying the mental illness and to address its symptoms. Hence the present randomized controlled trial (DRKS00009828, http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/) aimed to examine the effectiveness of manualized movement therapy (BPT/DMT) on the negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. Method:A total of 68 out-patients with a diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder were randomly allocated to either the treatment (n = 44, 20 sessions of BPT/DMT) or the control condition [n = 24, treatment as usual (TAU)]. Changes in negative symptom scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS) scores as covariates in order to control for side effects of antipsychotic medication. Results:After 20 sessions of treatment (BPT/DMT or TAU), patients receiving movement therapy had significantly lower negative symptom scores (SANS total score, blunted affect, attention). Effect sizes were moderate and mean symptom reduction in the treatment group was 20.65%. Conclusion:The study demonstrates that embodied therapies, such as BPT/DMT, are highly effective in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Results strongly suggest that BPT/DMT should be embedded in the daily clinical routine. PMID:27064347

  19. State of the Art for Deep Brain Stimulation Therapy in Movement Disorders: A Clinical and Technological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Okun, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is a widely used brain surgery that can be applied for many neurological and psychiatric disorders. DBS is American Food and Drug Administration approved for medication refractory Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and dystonia. Although DBS has shown consistent success in many clinical trials, the therapy has limitations and there are well-recognized complications. Thus, only carefully selected patients are ideal candidates for this surgery. Over the last two decades, there have been significant advances in clinical knowledge on DBS. In addition, the surgical techniques and technology related to DBS has been rapidly evolving. The goal of this review is to describe the current status of DBS in the context of movement disorders, outline the mechanisms of action for DBS in brief, discuss the standard surgical and imaging techniques, discuss the patient selection and clinical outcomes in each of the movement disorders, and finally, introduce the recent advancements from a clinical and technological perspective.

  20. Cherenkoscopy based patient positioning validation and movement tracking during post-lumpectomy whole breast radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rongxiao; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Gladstone, David J.; Hitchcock, Whitney L.; Glaser, Adam K.; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Jarvis, Lesley A.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate Cherenkov imaging (Cherenkoscopy) based patient positioning and movement tracking during external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). In a phase 1 clinical trial, including 12 patients undergoing post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation, Cherenkov emission was imaged with a time-gated ICCD camera synchronized to the LINAC pulse output, during different fractions of the treatment. Patients were positioned with the aid of the AlignRT system in the beginning of each treatment session. Inter-fraction setup variation was studied by rigid image registrations between images acquired at individual treatments to the average image from all imaged treatment fractions. The amplitude of respiratory motion was calculated from the registration of each frame of Cherenkov images to the reference. A Canny edge detection algorithm was utilized to highlight the beam field edges and biological features provided by major blood vessels apparent in the images. Real-time Cherenkoscopy can monitor the treatment delivery, patient motion and alignment of the beam edge to the treatment region simultaneously. For all the imaged fractions, the patient positioning discrepancies were within our clinical tolerances (3 mm in shifts and 3 degree in pitch angle rotation), with 4.6% exceeding 3 mm but still within 4 mm in shifts. The average discrepancy of repetitive patient positioning was 1.22 mm in linear shift and 0.34 degrees in rotational pitch, consistent with the accuracy reported by the AlignRT system. The edge detection algorithm enhanced features such as field edges and blood vessels. Patient positioning discrepancies and respiratory motion retrieved from rigid image registration were consistent with the edge enhanced images. Besides positioning discrepancies caused by globally inaccurate setups, edge enhanced blood vessels indicate the existence of deformations within the treatment region, especially for large patients. Real-time Cherenkoscopy imaging during EBRT is a

  1. Robustness Against Interfraction Prostate Movement in Scanned Ion Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jelen, Urszula; Ammazzalorso, Filippo; Chanrion, Marie-Anne; Graef, Sebastian; Zink, Klemens; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Wittig, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the robustness of scanned ion beam treatment plans against the interfraction internal target motion and evaluate the limits of validity of target-based isocenter realignment for prostate cancer radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: For 12 prostate patients, scanned beam carbon ion treatment plans were prepared using 2 lateral opposed beams and the raster scanning technique with different clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins (2-10 mm). Internal target motion of 2-15 mm in anteroposterior (AP), superoinferior (SI), and left-to-right (LR) directions was simulated by displacing the CTV contours with respect to the computed tomography data. The plans were recalculated with and without target-based isocenter realignment and the CTV coverage was assessed. Results: For CTV shifts within the applied planning margin, the CI-98% is greater than 98.0%, both with and without isocenter realignment. Without realignment, because of the sharp lateral gradients, the CI-98% shows rapid fall as soon as the target shift exceeds the applied planning margin for all displacement directions. With isocenter realignment, the coverage improves notably for shifts in AP and SI directions and the CI-98% is restored to >95.0% for plans optimized with a 2-mm margin, >97% with a 3-mm margin, and >98% with larger margins. For large corrections, predominately in AP direction, cold spots in the CTV may occur. Their magnitude is dependent on the patients' individual anatomies. Conclusions: Within the physiological limits of internal prostate movement, target-based isocenter realignment results in improved CTV coverage for shifts in AP and SI directions exceeding the applied planning margin. Assuming optimal patient setup reproducibility (eg, immobilization, setup error correction, patient preparation protocols), hence negligible interfraction bone and soft-tissue variations, changes in traversed densities resulting from target-based realignment

  2. Cherenkoscopy based patient positioning validation and movement tracking during post-lumpectomy whole breast radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongxiao; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M; Gladstone, David J; Hitchcock, Whitney L; Glaser, Adam K; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W; Jarvis, Lesley A

    2015-01-01

    To investigate Cherenkov imaging (Cherenkoscopy) based patient positioning and movement tracking during external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). In a phase 1 clinical trial, including 12 patients undergoing post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation, Cherenkov emission was imaged with a time-gated ICCD camera synchronized to the LINAC pulse output, during different fractions of the treatment. Patients were positioned with the aid of the AlignRT system in the beginning of each treatment session. Inter-fraction setup variation was studied by rigid image registrations between images acquired at individual treatments to the average image from all imaged treatment fractions. The amplitude of respiratory motion was calculated from the registration of each frame of Cherenkov images to the reference. A Canny edge detection algorithm was utilized to highlight the beam field edges and biological features provided by major blood vessels apparent in the images. Real-time Cherenkoscopy can monitor the treatment delivery, patient motion and alignment of the beam edge to the treatment region simultaneously. For all the imaged fractions, the patient positioning discrepancies were within our clinical tolerances (3 mm in shifts and 3 degree in pitch angle rotation), with 4.6% exceeding 3 mm but still within 4 mm in shifts. The average discrepancy of repetitive patient positioning was 1.22 mm in linear shift and 0.34 degrees in rotational pitch, consistent with the accuracy reported by the AlignRT system. The edge detection algorithm enhanced features such as field edges and blood vessels. Patient positioning discrepancies and respiratory motion retrieved from rigid image registration were consistent with the edge enhanced images. Besides positioning discrepancies caused by globally inaccurate setups, edge enhanced blood vessels indicate the existence of deformations within the treatment region, especially for large patients. Real-time Cherenkoscopy imaging during EBRT is a

  3. Feasibility of using a large amplitude movement therapy to improve ambulatory function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Robbin; Dufek, Janet S; Lee, Szu-Ping; Blahovec, Andrea; Kuiken, Andrea; Riggins, Heather; McClellan, Jeffrey Ray

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of motor disability among children. Limited evidence exists regarding the efficacy of traditional rehabilitation strategies on improving ambulatory function in this population. The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility and short-term effects of a novel large amplitude movement therapy on ambulatory functions in children with CP. Temporal-spatial gait characteristics were examined before and after a single intervention session, replicated over five children. Five children with CP (7.0 ± 1.0 years); Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels I-II, participated. Baseline gait parameters were obtained as the participant walked across an instrumented walkway at self-selected and fast speeds. Children then participated in a 20-30 min intervention focused on making body and limb movements as large as possible with gait assessment repeated immediately. All children tolerated testing and therapy with no adverse effects. Outcomes after one intervention included: significantly greater stride velocity; reduced double support time; and greater stride length after training for three of the five participants. Results for this pilot study suggested that the large amplitude movement therapy was feasible for children with CP. There is a need for a larger scale study to determine if the protocol can be effective at an appropriate clinical dose.

  4. Psychogenic Movement

    MedlinePlus

    ... also look for marked improvement in symptoms following psychotherapy, use of a placebo (a medicine with no ... multi-therapy approach to treating psychogenic movement includes psychotherapy, placebo, or suggestion; antidepressants for symptoms related to ...

  5. The effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Subjects] The subjects were chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to either the control group or experimental group. All subjects received 20 sessions (5 days in a week) of virtual reality movement therapy using the Nintendo Wii. In addition to Wii-based virtual reality movement therapy, experimental group subjects performed mental practice consisting of 5 minutes of relaxation, Wii games imagination, and normalization phases before the beginning of Wii games. To compare the two groups, the upper extremity subtest of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log were performed. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of the movement subscale of Motor Activity Log after the interventions. Also, there were significant differences in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log between the two groups. [Conclusion] Game-based virtual reality movement therapy alone may be helpful to improve functional recovery of the upper extremity, but the addition of MP produces a lager improvement.

  6. The effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Subjects] The subjects were chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to either the control group or experimental group. All subjects received 20 sessions (5 days in a week) of virtual reality movement therapy using the Nintendo Wii. In addition to Wii-based virtual reality movement therapy, experimental group subjects performed mental practice consisting of 5 minutes of relaxation, Wii games imagination, and normalization phases before the beginning of Wii games. To compare the two groups, the upper extremity subtest of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log were performed. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of the movement subscale of Motor Activity Log after the interventions. Also, there were significant differences in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log between the two groups. [Conclusion] Game-based virtual reality movement therapy alone may be helpful to improve functional recovery of the upper extremity, but the addition of MP produces a lager improvement. PMID:27134363

  7. The effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of game-based virtual reality movement therapy plus mental practice on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Subjects] The subjects were chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. [Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to either the control group or experimental group. All subjects received 20 sessions (5 days in a week) of virtual reality movement therapy using the Nintendo Wii. In addition to Wii-based virtual reality movement therapy, experimental group subjects performed mental practice consisting of 5 minutes of relaxation, Wii games imagination, and normalization phases before the beginning of Wii games. To compare the two groups, the upper extremity subtest of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log were performed. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of the movement subscale of Motor Activity Log after the interventions. Also, there were significant differences in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and quality of movement subscale of the Motor Activity Log between the two groups. [Conclusion] Game-based virtual reality movement therapy alone may be helpful to improve functional recovery of the upper extremity, but the addition of MP produces a lager improvement. PMID:27134363

  8. Evolution of Movement Disorders Surgery Leading to Contemporary Focused Ultrasound Therapy for Tremor.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hena; Field, Wesley; Hayes, Michael T; Lopez, William Omar Contreras; McDannold, Nathan; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Tierney, Travis S

    2015-11-01

    Progressively less invasive neurosurgical approaches for the treatment of movement disorders have evolved, beginning with open craniotomy for placement of lesions within pyramidal structures followed by refined stereotactic ablation of extrapyramidal targets that encouraged nondestructive electrode stimulation of deep brain structures. A noninvasive approach using transcranial high-energy focused ultrasound has emerged for the treatment of intractable tremor. The ability to target discreet intracranial sites millimeters in size through the intact skull using focused acoustic energy marks an important milestone in movement disorders surgery. This article describes the evolution of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound for ventrolateral thalamotomy for tremor. PMID:26499271

  9. Evolution of Movement Disorders Surgery Leading to Contemporary Focused Ultrasound Therapy for Tremor.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hena; Field, Wesley; Hayes, Michael T; Lopez, William Omar Contreras; McDannold, Nathan; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Tierney, Travis S

    2015-11-01

    Progressively less invasive neurosurgical approaches for the treatment of movement disorders have evolved, beginning with open craniotomy for placement of lesions within pyramidal structures followed by refined stereotactic ablation of extrapyramidal targets that encouraged nondestructive electrode stimulation of deep brain structures. A noninvasive approach using transcranial high-energy focused ultrasound has emerged for the treatment of intractable tremor. The ability to target discreet intracranial sites millimeters in size through the intact skull using focused acoustic energy marks an important milestone in movement disorders surgery. This article describes the evolution of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound for ventrolateral thalamotomy for tremor.

  10. The promises of stem cells: stem cell therapy for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Hideki; Choong, Chi-Jing; Yasuda, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Despite the multitude of intensive research, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and Huntington's disease remain more or less elusive. Treatments to halt these disease progressions are currently unavailable. With the recent induced pluripotent stem cells breakthrough and accomplishment, stem cell research, as the vast majority of scientists agree, holds great promise for relieving and treating debilitating movement disorders. As stem cells are the precursors of all cells in the human body, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern how they develop and work would provide us many fundamental insights into human biology of health and disease. Moreover, stem-cell-derived neurons may be a renewable source of replacement cells for damaged neurons in movement disorders. While stem cells show potential for regenerative medicine, their use as tools for research and drug testing is thought to have more immediate impact. The use of stem-cell-based drug screening technology could be a big boost in drug discovery for these movement disorders. Particular attention should also be given to the involvement of neural stem cells in adult neurogenesis so as to encourage its development as a therapeutic option.

  11. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in the treatment of depression: a matched pairs study in an inpatient setting

    PubMed Central

    Hase, Michael; Balmaceda, Ute Mirian; Hase, Adrian; Lehnung, Maria; Tumani, Visal; Huchzermeier, Christian; Hofmann, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a severe mental disorder that challenges mental health systems worldwide as the success rates of all established treatments are limited. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a scientifically acknowledged psychotherapeutic treatment for PTSD. Given the recent research indicating that trauma and other adverse life experiences can be the basis of depression, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of EMDR therapy with this disorder. Method In this study, we recruited a group of 16 patients with depressive episodes in an inpatient setting. These 16 patients were treated with EMDR therapy by reprocessing of memories related to stressful life events in addition to treatment as usual (TAU). They were compared to a group of 16 controls matched regarding diagnosis, degree of depression, sex, age and time of admission to hospital, which were receiving TAU only. Results Sixty-eight percent of the patients in the EMDR group showed full remission at end of treatment. The EMDR group showed a greater reduction in depressive symptoms as measured by the SCL-90-R depression subscale. This difference was significant even when adjusted for duration of treatment. In a follow-up period of more than 1 year the EMDR group reported less problems related to depression and less relapses than the control group. Conclusions EMDR therapy shows promise as an effective treatment for depressive disorders. Larger controlled studies are necessary to replicate our findings. PMID:26085967

  12. Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement therapy-Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong

    2014-03-01

    Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults.

  13. Music therapy to promote movement from isolation to community in homeless veterans.

    PubMed

    Powers, James S; Heim, Daniel; Grant, Brian; Rollins, John

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' Operation Stand Down has done much to address homeless needs among veterans. Gaining client trust is central to the effectiveness of the program. Music therapy has been found beneficial in moving individuals from isolation to community. We report our experience with participatory music therapy in Operation Stand Down and offer this as a legitimate intervention to enhance client participation.

  14. Biomechanical studies of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT): quantifying the movements of vertebral bodies during SMT

    PubMed Central

    Gál, Julianna; Herzog, Walter; Kawchuk, Gregory; Conway, Phillip; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    1994-01-01

    The relative movements between vertebral bodies T10 and T11, and T11 and T12 were measured during clinical-type SMTs to T11 in unembalmed post-rigor human cadavers, using embedded stainless steel bone pins and high speed cinematography. Significant relative movements between target and adjacent vertebrae occurred primarily in sagittal and axial rotation during the thrust phases of the SMTs. The relative positions of the vertebral bodies were compared at similar force levels, before and after the rapid thrust phases. The sagittal angles between T11 and T12 following the SMTs, were significantly different from their pre-thrust values. Two non-invasive methods (surface markers and uni-axial accelerometers) were compared to the invasive bone pins, in order to assess their suitability to accurately measure posterior-anterior translation. The results showed that both non-invasive techniques significantly underestimated the absolute movements of all vertebral bodies during the SMTs. The relative posterior-anterior translations using the non-invasive techniques however, were not significantly different from those determined from the bone pins. ImagesFigure 2

  15. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption after artificial socket preservation

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Massoud; Atri, Faezeh; Yazdani, Mohammad Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low- level laser therapy has been used to stimulate the orthodontic tooth movements (OTM) previously. Furthermore, in the orthodontic treatments accompanying tooth extractions, the adjacent teeth move towards the extraction sites and close the space in some cases. Then, the adjacent tooth movements must be prevented in the treatments requiring space. Laser stimulates and at some doses decelerates tooth movement; it also improves healing process and enhances osteogenesis. Hence, it can prevent movement by osteogenesis adjacent to the tooth. The present study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy on the OTM and root resorption following artificial socket preservation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal trial, 16 male albino rabbits were selected with similar characteristics and randomly divided in two groups. Under general anesthesia, an artificial socket, 8 mm in height, was created in the mesial aspect of the first premolars of the rabbits and filled with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA). The first premolars were connected to the incisors using nickel titanium coil springs. In experimental group, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser was irritated mesial to first premolar where artificial socket was created continuously (808 nm). The cycle was 10 days irritation, 14 days rest, 10 days irritation, 14 days rest (Biostimulation mode). Control group was not laser irradiated. All animals were sacrificed after 48 days and the distance between the distal aspect of the first premolars, and the mesial surface of the second premolars was measured with leaf gauge. The specimens underwent histological assessments. Integrity of root and its resorption was observed under microscope calibration. The size of resorption lacunae was calculated in mm2. Normality of data was proved according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis, and Student's t-test was done. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean

  16. [Orthodontic tooth movement under extracorporeal shock wave therapy: the characteristics of the inflammatory reaction--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Hazan-Molina, H; Kaufman, H; Reznick, Z A; Aizenbud, D

    2011-07-01

    Extracorporeal generated shock waves were introduced in medical therapy approximately 20 years ago in order to disintegrate kidney stones. Over the last 10 years, extracorporeal generated shock waves have been used to stimulate healing processes. No report to date has examined its influence on different inflammation mediators and growth factors in the periodontium. Orthodontic tooth movement is a model including the induction of an aseptic inflammation and its resolution. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the periodontium cytokine concentration fluctuations after induction of orthodontic force with and without extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in a rat model. An orthodontic appliance was fabricated and applied between the molars and the incisors of rats. The rats were treated by a single episode of 1000 shock waves and gingival crevicular fluid was collected for 3 days. The concentration of typical acute phase cytokines was evaluated by ELISA assay. Of the three tested cytokines, IL-1beta was the only detected cytokine along the study timeframe. IL-1beta concentration rose in both the treated and non treated shockwave groups on the first day, however it was statistically significantly higher in the treated group on day 2. On day 3, IL-1beta concentrations in both groups decreased and reached a lower level in the treated group, revealing a statistically significant difference than its level on the previous day. The application of ESWT during orthodontic force induction enhances IL-1beta production as part of mechanical forces transduction triggering a biologic response, which may contribute to accelerated periodontal remodeling and therefore foreshortening the orthodontic tooth movement period.

  17. [Orthodontic tooth movement under extracorporeal shock wave therapy: the characteristics of the inflammatory reaction--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Hazan-Molina, H; Kaufman, H; Reznick, Z A; Aizenbud, D

    2011-07-01

    Extracorporeal generated shock waves were introduced in medical therapy approximately 20 years ago in order to disintegrate kidney stones. Over the last 10 years, extracorporeal generated shock waves have been used to stimulate healing processes. No report to date has examined its influence on different inflammation mediators and growth factors in the periodontium. Orthodontic tooth movement is a model including the induction of an aseptic inflammation and its resolution. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the periodontium cytokine concentration fluctuations after induction of orthodontic force with and without extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in a rat model. An orthodontic appliance was fabricated and applied between the molars and the incisors of rats. The rats were treated by a single episode of 1000 shock waves and gingival crevicular fluid was collected for 3 days. The concentration of typical acute phase cytokines was evaluated by ELISA assay. Of the three tested cytokines, IL-1beta was the only detected cytokine along the study timeframe. IL-1beta concentration rose in both the treated and non treated shockwave groups on the first day, however it was statistically significantly higher in the treated group on day 2. On day 3, IL-1beta concentrations in both groups decreased and reached a lower level in the treated group, revealing a statistically significant difference than its level on the previous day. The application of ESWT during orthodontic force induction enhances IL-1beta production as part of mechanical forces transduction triggering a biologic response, which may contribute to accelerated periodontal remodeling and therefore foreshortening the orthodontic tooth movement period. PMID:21939106

  18. A dance movement therapy group for depressed adult patients in a psychiatric outpatient clinic: effects of the treatment.

    PubMed

    Pylvänäinen, Päivi M; Muotka, Joona S; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    We were interested in investigating the effects of dance movement therapy (DMT) in a psychiatric outpatient clinic with patients diagnosed with depression. DMT aims to engage the patients in physical and verbal exploration of their experiences generated in movement based interaction. The assumption was that DMT, which includes both physical engagement as well as emotional and social exploration, would alleviate the mood and psychiatric symptoms. All adult patients (n = 33) included in the study received treatment as usual (TAU). Twenty-one patients participated in a 12-session DMT group intervention, and the remaining 12 patients chose to take TAU only. The majority of the patients suffered from moderate or severe depression, recurrent and/or chronic type. The effects of the interventions were investigated after the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Compared to the TAU, adding DMT seemed to improve the effect of the treatment. The effect of the DMT was observable whether the patient was taking antidepressant medication or not. At follow-up, between group effect sizes (ES) were medium in favor for the DMT group (d = 0.60-0.79). In the DMT group, the within ES at the 3 months follow-up varied from 0.62 to 0.82 as compared to TAU 0.15-0.37. The results indicated that DMT is beneficial in the treatment of depressed patients.

  19. The Role of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Medicine: Addressing the Psychological and Physical Symptoms Stemming from Adverse Life Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: A substantial body of research shows that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an empirically validated treatment for trauma, including such negative life experiences as commonly present in medical practice. The positive therapeutic outcomes rapidly achieved without homework or detailed description of the disturbing event offer the medical community an efficient treatment approach with a wide range of applications. Methods: All randomized studies and significant clinical reports related to EMDR therapy for treating the experiential basis of both psychological and somatic disorders are reviewed. Also reviewed are the recent studies evaluating the eye movement component of the therapy, which has been posited to contribute to the rapid improvement attributable to EMDR treatment. Results: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials support the positive effects of EMDR therapy in the treatment of emotional trauma and other adverse life experiences relevant to clinical practice. Seven of 10 studies reported EMDR therapy to be more rapid and/or more effective than trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Twelve randomized studies of the eye movement component noted rapid decreases in negative emotions and/or vividness of disturbing images, with an additional 8 reporting a variety of other memory effects. Numerous other evaluations document that EMDR therapy provides relief from a variety of somatic complaints. Conclusion: EMDR therapy provides physicians and other clinicians with an efficient approach to address psychological and physiologic symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. Clinicians should therefore evaluate patients for experiential contributors to clinical manifestations. PMID:24626074

  20. Neural processing of emotions in traumatized children treated with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy: a hdEEG study

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Cristina; Pagani, Marco; Fania, Piercarlo; Speranza, Anna Maria; Nicolais, Giampaolo; Sibilia, Alessandra; Inguscio, Lucio; Verardo, Anna Rita; Fernandez, Isabel; Ammaniti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been proven efficacious in restoring affective regulation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. However, its effectiveness on emotion processing in children with complex trauma has yet to be explored. High density electroencephalography (hdEEG) was used to investigate the effects of EMDR on brain responses to adults’ emotions on children with histories of early maltreatment. Ten school-aged children were examined before (T0) and within one month after the conclusion of EMDR (T1). hdEEGs were recorded while children passively viewed angry, afraid, happy, and neutral faces. Clinical scales were administered at the same time. Correlation analyses were performed to detect brain regions whose activity was linked to children’s traumatic symptom-related and emotional-adaptive problem scores. In all four conditions, hdEEG showed similar significantly higher activity on the right medial prefrontal and fronto-temporal limbic regions at T0, shifting toward the left medial and superior temporal regions at T1. Moreover, significant correlations were found between clinical scales and the same regions whose activity significantly differed between pre- and post-treatment. These preliminary results demonstrate that, after EMDR, children suffering from complex trauma show increased activity in areas implicated in high-order cognitive processing when passively viewing pictures of emotional expressions. These changes are associated with the decrease of depressive and traumatic symptoms, and with the improvement of emotional-adaptive functioning over time. PMID:26594183

  1. A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in disaster-exposed children

    PubMed Central

    de Roos, Carlijn; Greenwald, Ricky; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; Noorthoorn, Eric; van Buuren, Stef; de Jongh, Ad

    2011-01-01

    Background Building on previous research with disaster-exposed children and adolescents, a randomised clinical trial was performed in the treatment of trauma-related symptoms. In the current study two active treatments were compared among children in a broad age range and from a wide diversity of ethnic populations. Objective The primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). Design Children (n=52, aged 4–18) were randomly allocated to either CBT (n=26) or EMDR (n=26) in a disaster mental health after-care setting after an explosion of a fireworks factory. All children received up to four individual treatment sessions over a 4–8 week period along with up to four sessions of parent guidance. Blind assessment took place pre- and post-treatment and at 3 months follow-up on a variety of parent-rated and self-report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology, depression, anxiety, and behaviour problems. Analyses of variance (general linear model repeated measures) were conducted on the intention-to-treat sample and the completers. Results Both treatment approaches produced significant reductions on all measures and results were maintained at follow-up. Treatment gains of EMDR were reached in fewer sessions. Conclusion Standardised CBT and EMDR interventions can significantly improve functioning of disaster-exposed children. PMID:22893815

  2. Feasibility of visual instrumented movement feedback therapy in individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury walking on a treadmill

    PubMed Central

    Schließmann, Daniel; Schuld, Christian; Schneiders, Matthias; Derlien, Steffen; Glöckner, Maria; Gladow, Till; Weidner, Norbert; Rupp, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) leads to motor and sensory deficits. Even in ambulatory persons with good motor function an impaired proprioception may result in an insecure gait. Limited internal afferent feedback (FB) can be compensated by provision of external FB by therapists or technical systems. Progress in computational power of motion analysis systems allows for implementation of instrumented real-time FB. The aim of this study was to test if individuals with iSCI can normalize their gait kinematics during FB and more importantly maintain an improvement after therapy. Methods: Individuals with chronic iSCI had to complete 6 days (1 day per week) of treadmill-based FB training with a 2 weeks pause after 3 days of training. Each day consists of an initial gait analysis followed by 2 blocks with FB/no-FB. During FB the deviation of the mean knee angle during swing from a speed matched reference (norm distance, ND) is visualized as a number. The task consists of lowering the ND, which was updated after every stride. Prior to the tests in patients the in-house developed FB implementation was tested in healthy subjects with an artificial movement task. Results: Four of five study participants benefited from FB in the short and medium term. Decrease of mean ND was highest during the first 3 sessions (from 3.93 ± 1.54 to 2.18 ± 1.04). After the pause mean ND stayed in the same range than before. In the last 3 sessions the mean ND decreased slower (2.40 ± 1.18 to 2.20 ± 0.90). Direct influences of FB ranged from 60 to 15% of reduction in mean ND compared to initial gait analysis and from 20 to 1% compared to no-FB sessions. Conclusions: Instrumented kinematic real-time FB may serve as an effective adjunct to established gait therapies in normalizing the gait pattern after incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies with larger patient groups need to prove long term learning and the successful transfer of newly acquired skills to activities of

  3. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in subsyndromal bipolar patients with a history of traumatic events: a randomized, controlled pilot-study.

    PubMed

    Novo, Patricia; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Radua, Joaquim; Vicens, Victor; Fernandez, Isabel; Garcia, Francisca; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; McKenna, Peter J; Shapiro, Francine; Amann, Benedikt L

    2014-09-30

    Traumatic events are frequent in bipolar patients and can worsen the course of the disease. Psychotherapeutic interventions for these events have not been studied so far. Twenty DSM-IV bipolar I and II patients with subsyndromal mood symptoms and a history of traumatic events were randomly assigned to Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy (n=10) or treatment as usual (n=10). The treatment group received between 14 and 18 Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing sessions during 12 weeks. Evaluations of affective symptoms, symptoms of trauma and trauma impact were carried out by a blind rater at baseline, 2 weeks, 5 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and at 24 weeks follow-up. Patients in the treatment group showed a statistically significant improvement in depressive and hypomanic symptoms, symptoms of trauma and trauma impact compared to the treatment as usual group after intervention. This effect was only partly maintained in trauma impact at the 24 weeks follow-up visit. One patient dropped from Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing group whereas four from the treatment as usual group. This pilot study suggests that Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy may be an effective and safe intervention to treat subsyndromal mood and trauma symptoms in traumatized bipolar patients.

  4. Rehabilitation, exercise therapy and music in patients with Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of the effects of music-based movement therapy on walking ability, balance and quality of life.

    PubMed

    de Dreu, M J; van der Wilk, A S D; Poppe, E; Kwakkel, G; van Wegen, E E H

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that music-based movement (MbM) therapy may be a promising intervention to improve gait and gait-related activities in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, because it naturally combines cognitive movement strategies, cueing techniques, balance exercises and physical activity while focussing on the enjoyment of moving on music instead of the current mobility limitations of the patient. A meta-analysis of RCTs on the efficacy of MbM-therapy, including individual rhythmic music training and partnered dance classes, was performed. Identified studies (K = 6) were evaluated on methodological quality, and summary effect sizes (SES) were calculated. Studies were generally small (total N= 168). Significant homogeneous SESs were found for the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test and stride length (SESs: 4.1,2.2,0.11; P-values <0.01; I(2) 0,0,7%, respectively). A sensitivity analysis on type of MbM-therapy (dance- or gait-related interventions) revealed a significant improvement in walking velocity for gait-related MbM-therapy, but not for dance-related MbM-therapy. No significant effects were found for UPDRS-motor score, Freezing of Gait and Quality of Life. Overall, MbM-therapy appears promising for the improvement of gait and gait-related activities in PD. Future studies should incorporate larger groups and focus on long-term compliance and follow-up. PMID:22166406

  5. Progress in sensorimotor rehabilitative physical therapy programs for stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-08-16

    Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs. The concept of combining valuable rehabilitative procedures into "a training package", based on the patient's functional status during different recovery phases after stroke is proposed. Integrated sensorimotor rehabilitation programs with appropriate temporal arrangements might provide great functional benefits for stroke patients. PMID:25133141

  6. The Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Technique in the Treatment of Test Anxiety of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Matthew; Baldo, Tracy D.; Wykes, Scott D.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of test anxiety. Thirty-five college students with test anxiety were assigned to either a treatment or delayed treatment control group. EMDR was shown to be effective in reducing overall test anxiety as well as "emotionality" and "worry" components of…

  7. Implications of CI therapy for visual deficit training.

    PubMed

    Taub, Edward; Mark, Victor W; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2014-01-01

    We address here the question of whether the techniques of Constraint Induced (CI) therapy, a family of treatments that has been employed in the rehabilitation of movement and language after brain damage might apply to the rehabilitation of such visual deficits as unilateral spatial neglect and visual field deficits. CI therapy has been used successfully for the upper and lower extremities after chronic stroke, cerebral palsy (CP), multiple sclerosis (MS), other central nervous system (CNS) degenerative conditions, resection of motor areas of the brain, focal hand dystonia, and aphasia. Treatments making use of similar methods have proven efficacious for amblyopia. The CI therapy approach consists of four major components: intensive training, training by shaping, a "transfer package" to facilitate the transfer of gains from the treatment setting to everyday activities, and strong discouragement of compensatory strategies. CI therapy is said to be effective because it overcomes learned nonuse, a learned inhibition of movement that follows injury to the CNS. In addition, CI therapy produces substantial increases in the gray matter of motor areas on both sides of the brain. We propose here that these mechanisms are examples of more general processes: learned nonuse being considered parallel to sensory nonuse following damage to sensory areas of the brain, with both having in common diminished neural connections (DNCs) in the nervous system as an underlying mechanism. CI therapy would achieve its therapeutic effect by strengthening the DNCs. Use-dependent cortical reorganization is considered to be an example of the more general neuroplastic mechanism of brain structure repurposing. If the mechanisms involved in these broader categories are involved in each of the deficits being considered, then it may be the principles underlying efficacious treatment in each case may be similar. The lessons learned during CI therapy research might then prove useful for the treatment

  8. Implications of CI therapy for visual deficit training

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Edward; Mark, Victor W.; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2014-01-01

    We address here the question of whether the techniques of Constraint Induced (CI) therapy, a family of treatments that has been employed in the rehabilitation of movement and language after brain damage might apply to the rehabilitation of such visual deficits as unilateral spatial neglect and visual field deficits. CI therapy has been used successfully for the upper and lower extremities after chronic stroke, cerebral palsy (CP), multiple sclerosis (MS), other central nervous system (CNS) degenerative conditions, resection of motor areas of the brain, focal hand dystonia, and aphasia. Treatments making use of similar methods have proven efficacious for amblyopia. The CI therapy approach consists of four major components: intensive training, training by shaping, a “transfer package” to facilitate the transfer of gains from the treatment setting to everyday activities, and strong discouragement of compensatory strategies. CI therapy is said to be effective because it overcomes learned nonuse, a learned inhibition of movement that follows injury to the CNS. In addition, CI therapy produces substantial increases in the gray matter of motor areas on both sides of the brain. We propose here that these mechanisms are examples of more general processes: learned nonuse being considered parallel to sensory nonuse following damage to sensory areas of the brain, with both having in common diminished neural connections (DNCs) in the nervous system as an underlying mechanism. CI therapy would achieve its therapeutic effect by strengthening the DNCs. Use-dependent cortical reorganization is considered to be an example of the more general neuroplastic mechanism of brain structure repurposing. If the mechanisms involved in these broader categories are involved in each of the deficits being considered, then it may be the principles underlying efficacious treatment in each case may be similar. The lessons learned during CI therapy research might then prove useful for the

  9. The Integration of Speech Therapy Techniques with Those of Movement, Music, and Sensory Integrative Therapies in Order to Provide Communication Systems for Severely Emotionally Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeShay, Debra N.

    Project LINK at the Developmental Center for Autistic Children in Philadelphia provides therapy to emotionally disturbed children and training and consultation for teachers and mental health professionals. Each child is evaluated by treatment team members through repeated observations and informal assessments. The primary goal of treatment is the…

  10. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part II: A Collaborative, Appreciative Approach for Supporting Mental Health Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    A continuation of Part I, which introduced mental health recovery concepts to family therapists, Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts. This approach draws primarily upon postmodern therapies, which have numerous social justice and strength-based practices that are easily…

  11. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontics: rate of tooth movement, pain, and release of RANKL and OPG in GCF.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Arantza; Gómez, Clara; Palma, Juan Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was evaluate tooth movement, receptor activator of nuclear factor KB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and RANKL/OPG ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in compression side and pain level during initial orthodontic tooth treatment to determine the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Ten volunteers who required fixed appliance positioned from the upper first premolars to upper first molars were selected. For each patient, the upper first premolar of the quadrant 1 was chosen to be irradiated with a laser diode at 670 nm, 200 mW, and 6.37 W/cm(2), applied on the distal, buccal, and lingual sides during 9 min on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. The same procedure was applied in the first premolar of the contralateral quadrant inserting the tip but without laser emission. Samples of GCF from the compression side of the upper first premolars to distalize were collected at baseline and after 2, 7, 30, and 45 days posttreatment for determination of RANKL and OPG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, tooth movement was assessed by scanning models and pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. There was improvement in the parameters studied (pain, tooth movement, levels of RANKL in GCF, and RANKL/OPG ratio) in the laser group when compared to the control group, although differences were not statistically significant. The accumulated retraction of the upper premolar at 30 days was higher in the laser group, and this difference was statistically significant between groups. LLLT delivered in repeated doses (six times in the initial 2 weeks) leads in some extent to a slight orthodontical improvement.

  12. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  13. Treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Relaxation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Carletto, Sara; Borghi, Martina; Bertino, Gabriella; Oliva, Francesco; Cavallo, Marco; Hofmann, Arne; Zennaro, Alessandro; Malucchi, Simona; Ostacoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease that imposes a significant emotional burden with heavy psychosocial consequences. Several studies have investigated the association between MS and mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, and recently researchers have focused also on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This is the first study that investigates the usefulness of proposing a treatment for PTSD to patients with MS. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with patients with MS diagnosed with PTSD comparing Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR; n = 20) and Relaxation Therapy (RT; n = 22). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants that no longer meet PTSD diagnosis as measured with Clinician Administered PTSD Scale 6-months after the treatment. Results: The majority of patients were able to overcome their PTSD diagnosis after only 10 therapy sessions. EMDR treatment appears to be more effective than RT in reducing the proportion of patients with MS suffering from PTSD. Both treatments are effective in reducing PTSD severity, anxiety and depression symptoms, and to improve Quality of Life. Conclusion: Although our results can only be considered preliminary, this study suggests that it is essential that PTSD symptoms are detected and that brief and cost-effective interventions to reduce PTSD and associated psychological symptoms are offered to patients, in order to help them to reduce the psychological burden associated with their neurological condition. Trial registration: NCT01743664, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01743664 PMID:27148134

  14. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

  15. Intrathecal Baclofen therapy in Germany: Proceedings of the IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders Consensus Meeting.

    PubMed

    Dressler, D; Berweck, S; Chatzikalfas, A; Ebke, M; Frank, B; Hesse, S; Huber, M; Krauss, J K; Mücke, K-H; Nolte, A; Oelmann, H-D; Schönle, P W; Schmutzler, M; Pickenbrock, H; Van der Ven, C; Veelken, N; Vogel, M; Vogt, T; Saberi, F Adib

    2015-11-01

    Continuous intrathecal Baclofen application (ITB) through an intracorporeal pump system is widely used in adults and children with spasticity of spinal and supraspinal origin. Currently, about 1200 new ITB pump systems are implanted in Germany each year. ITB is based on an interdisciplinary approach with neurologists, rehabilitation specialists, paediatricians and neurosurgeons. We are presenting the proceedings of a consensus meeting organised by IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders. The ITB pump system consists of the implantable pump with its drug reservoir, the refill port, an additional side port and a flexible catheter. Non-programmable pumps drive the Baclofen flow by the reservoir pressure. Programmable pumps additionally contain a radiofrequency control unit, an electrical pump and a battery. They have major advantages during the dose-finding phase. ITB doses vary widely between 10 and 2000 μg/day. For spinal spasticity, they are typically in the order of 100-300 μg/day. Hereditary spastic paraplegia seems to require particularly low doses, while dystonia and brain injury require particularly high ones. Best effects are documented for tonic paraspasticity of spinal origin and the least effects for phasic muscle hyperactivity disorders of supraspinal origin. Oral antispastics are mainly effective in mild spasticity. Botulinum toxin is most effective in focal spasticity. Myotomies and denervation operations are restricted to selected cases of focal spasticity. Due to its wide-spread distribution within the cerebrospinal fluid, ITB can tackle wide-spread and severe spasticity. PMID:26179478

  16. Comparison of dosage of intensive upper limb therapy for children with unilateral cerebral palsy: how big should the therapy pill be?

    PubMed

    Sakzewski, Leanne; Provan, Kerry; Ziviani, Jenny; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to compare efficacy of two dosages of modified constraint induced movement therapy (mCIMT) and bimanual therapy on upper limb and individualized outcomes for children with unilateral cerebral palsy. This secondary analysis included two separate randomized trials that compared equal doses (high or low) of mCIMT to bimanual therapy; Study 1 (full dose--60 h) n=64 and; Study 2 (half dose--30 h) n=18 for children aged five to 16 years with unilateral cerebral palsy. Outcomes for both studies included the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function, Assisting Hand Assessment, Jebsen Taylor Test of Hand Function and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure which were administered at baseline, three and 26 weeks. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare between dose (e.g. "full dose" to "half dose" of either mCIMT or bimanual therapy) on outcomes at three and 26 weeks post-intervention. There were no significant differences between groups at baseline, however, on average the half dose mCIMT group was younger with better hand function compared to the other groups. The full compared to half dose mCIMT group achieved greater gains in bimanual performance at three weeks and dexterity and quality of movement at 26 weeks. There were no between group differences for bimanual therapy doses. Half dose groups receiving either mCIMT or bimanual therapy did not make significant within group gains on any upper limb motor outcome, however gains in occupational performance were clinically meaningful. These results suggest that a half dose (30 h) of either mCIMT or bimanual therapy may not be sufficient to impact upper limb outcomes, but made clinically meaningful gains in occupational performance for school aged children with UCP. PMID:25460215

  17. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult posttraumatic stress disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Guiqing; Hu, Min; Liang, Xia

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively common mental disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of ∼5.7%. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are the most often studied and most effective psychotherapies for PTSD. However, evidence is inadequate to conclude which treatment is superior. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to confirm the effectiveness of EMDR compared to CBT for adult PTSD. We searched Medline, PubMed, Ebsco, Proquest, and Cochrane (1989-2013) to identify relevant randomized control trials comparing EMDR and CBT for PTSD. We included 11 studies (N = 424). Although all the studies had methodological limitations, meta-analyses for total PTSD scores revealed that EMDR was slightly superior to CBT. Cumulative meta-analysis confirmed this and a meta-analysis for subscale scores of PTSD symptoms indicated that EMDR was better for decreased intrusion and arousal severity compared to CBT. Avoidance was not significantly different between groups. EMDR may be more suitable than CBT for PTSD patients with prominent intrusion or arousal symptoms. However, the limited number and poor quality of the original studies included suggest caution when drawing final conclusions.

  18. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out ... rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after ...

  19. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: what works in children with posttraumatic stress symptoms? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Diehle, Julia; Opmeer, Brent C; Boer, Frits; Mannarino, Anthony P; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-02-01

    To prevent adverse long-term effects, children who suffer from posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) need treatment. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an established treatment for children with PTSS. However, alternatives are important for non-responders or if TF-CBT trained therapists are unavailable. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a promising treatment for which sound comparative evidence is lacking. The current randomized controlled trial investigates the effectiveness and efficiency of both treatments. Forty-eight children (8-18 years) were randomly assigned to eight sessions of TF-CBT or EMDR. The primary outcome was PTSS as measured with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA). Secondary outcomes included parental report of child PTSD diagnosis status and questionnaires on comorbid problems. The Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale was administered during the course of treatment. TF-CBT and EMDR showed large reductions from pre- to post-treatment on the CAPS-CA (-20.2; 95% CI -12.2 to -28.1 and -20.9; 95% CI -32.7 to -9.1). The difference in reduction was small and not statistically significant (mean difference of 0.69, 95% CI -13.4 to 14.8). Treatment duration was not significantly shorter for EMDR (p = 0.09). Mixed model analysis of monitored PTSS during treatment showed a significant effect for time (p < 0.001) but not for treatment (p = 0.44) or the interaction of time by treatment (p = 0.74). Parents of children treated with TF-CBT reported a significant reduction of comorbid depressive and hyperactive symptoms. TF-CBT and EMDR are effective and efficient in reducing PTSS in children.

  20. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    MedlinePlus

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  1. [Stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  2. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  3. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases. PMID:25577484

  4. Constraints-induced emergence of functional novelty in complex neurobiological systems: a basis for creativity in sport.

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Robert; Davids, Keith; Araujo, Duarte; Passos, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present a model of creativity captured as exploration and production of novel and functionally efficient behaviors, based on the statistical mechanics of disordered systems. In support of the modelling, we highlight examples of creative behaviors from our research in sports like boxing and rugby union. Our experimental results show how manipulation of practice task constraints changes the exploratory breadth of the hierarchically soft-assembled action landscape. Because of action metastability and differing task constraints, the specificity of each assembled movement configuration is unique. Empirically, a movement pattern's degree of novelty may be assessed by the value of the order parameter describing action. We show that creative and adaptive movement behavior may be induced by at least two types of interven-tions, based on relaxing task constraints which we term direct and indirect. Direct relaxing is typically a function of changing task constraints so that the number of affordances that can satisfy goal constraints increases. Indirect relaxing of constraints occurs when a habitual action is suppressed by, for example, stringent instructional constraints during sports training. That suppression simultaneously relaxes other correlated constraints that enable larger exploratory capacity and new affordances to emerge for the athlete or team.

  5. Early childhood constraint therapy for sensory/motor impairment in cerebral palsy: a randomised clinical trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chorna, Olena; Heathcock, Jill; Key, Alexandra; Noritz, Garey; Carey, Helen; Hamm, Ellyn; Nelin, Mary Ann; Murray, Micah; Needham, Amy; Slaughter, James C; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in childhood. It is a disorder resulting from sensory and motor impairments due to perinatal brain injury, with lifetime consequences that range from poor adaptive and social function to communication and emotional disturbances. Infants with CP have a fundamental disadvantage in recovering motor function: they do not receive accurate sensory feedback from their movements, leading to developmental disregard. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is one of the few effective neurorehabilitative strategies shown to improve upper extremity motor function in adults and older children with CP, potentially overcoming developmental disregard. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised controlled trial of children 12–24 months corrected age studying the effectiveness of CIMT combined with motor and sensory-motor interventions. The study population will comprise 72 children with CP and 144 typically developing children for a total of N=216 children. All children with CP, regardless of group allocation will continue with their standard of care occupational and physical therapy throughout the study. The research material collected will be in the form of data from high-density array event-related potential scan, standardised assessment scores and motion analysis scores. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Trial registration number NCT02567630. PMID:26644127

  6. SU-E-J-179: Assessment of Tumor Volume Change and Movement During Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Lung Cancer: Is Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART) Necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C; Lee, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Delineation of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) is important for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). However, tumor volume changes during treatment response. Here, we have investigated tumor volume changes and movement during SBRT for lung cancer, as a means of examining the need for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: Fifteen tumors in 15 patients with lung cancer were treated with SBRT (total dose: 60 Gy in 4 fractions). GTVs were obtained from cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCT1–4) taken before each of the 4 fractions was administered. GTVs were delineated and measured by radiation oncologists using a treatment planning system. Variance in the tumor position was assessed between the planning CT and the CBCT images. To investigate the dosimetric effects of tumor volume changes, planning CT and CBCT4 treatment plans were compared using the conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and Paddick’s index (PCI). Results: The GTV on CBCT1 was employed as a baseline for comparisons. GTV had decreased by a mean of 20.4% (range: 0.7% to 47.2%) on CBCT4. Most patients had smaller GTVs on CBCT4 than on CBCT1. The interfractional shifts of the tumor position between the planning CT and CBCT1–4 were as follows: right-left, −0.4 to 1.3 mm; anterior-posterior, −0.8 to 0.5 mm; and superiorinferior, −0.9 to 1.1 mm. Indices for plans from the planning CT and CBCT4 were as follows: CI = 0.94±0.02 and 1.11±0.03; HI= 1.1±0.02 and 1.10±0.03; and PCI = 1.35±0.16 and 1.11±0.02, respectively. Conclusion: CI, HI, and PCI did not differ between the planning CT and CBCTs. However, daily CBCT revealed a significant decrease in the GTV during lung SBRT. Furthermore, there was an obvious interfractional shift in tumor position. Using ART could potentially lead to a reduced GTV margin and improved regional tumor control for lung cancer patients with significantly decreased GTV.

  7. SU-E-T-603: Analysis of Optical Tracked Head Inter-Fraction Movements Within Masks to Access Intracranial Immobilization Techniques in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, W; Zeidan, O

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We present a quantitative methodology utilizing an optical tracking system for monitoring head inter-fraction movements within brain masks to assess the effectiveness of two intracranial immobilization techniques. Methods and Materials: A 3-point-tracking method was developed to measure the mask location for a treatment field at each fraction. Measured displacement of mask location to its location at first fraction is equivalent to the head movement within the mask. Head movements for each of treatment fields were measured over about 10 fractions at each patient for seven patients; five treated in supine and two treated in prone. The Q-fix Base-of-Skull head frame was used in supine while the CIVCO uni-frame baseplate was used in prone. Displacements of recoded couch position of each field post imaging at each fraction were extracted for those seven patients. Standard deviation (S.D.) of head movements and couch displacements was scored for statistical analysis. Results: The accuracy of 3PtTrack method was within 1.0 mm by phantom measurements. Patterns of head movement and couch displacement were similar for patients treated in either supine or prone. In superior-inferior direction, mean value of scored standard deviations over seven patients were 1.6 mm and 3.4 mm for the head movement and the couch displacement, respectively. The result indicated that the head movement combined with a loose fixation between the mask-to-head frame results large couch displacements for each patient, and also large variation between patients. However, the head movement is the main cause for the couch displacement with similar magnitude of around 1.0 mm in anterior-posterior and lateral directions. Conclusions: Optical-tracking methodology independently quantifying head movements could improve immobilization devices by correctly acting on causes for head motions within mask. A confidence in the quality of intracranial immobilization techniques could be more efficient by

  8. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of coordination; Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... are passed through families (such as congenital cerebellar ataxia, Friedreich ataxia , ataxia - telangiectasia , or Wilson disease ) Multiple ...

  9. [Hereditary movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Schulz, J B

    2007-12-01

    Hereditary movement disorders comprise a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by an impaired control of movements, ataxia and/or spasticity. Affected individuals are disabled, their quality of life significantly reduced and their life expectancy shortened. One or more genetic causes have been identified for many of these diseases, including Huntington's disease, Wilson's disease, spinocerebellar ataxias, recessive ataxias, hereditary spastic paraplegia and hereditary dystonias. Due to their characteristic molecular and biochemical pathogenesis, these rare diseases can often serve as models for more common disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. The primary tasks of the German Network of Hereditary Movement Disorders (GeNeMove), funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF), are to co-ordinate basic scientific research and clinical research into rare hereditary movement disorders and to improve the cooperation between the German centers specializing in hereditary movement disorders. For each of the diseases in its scope, GeNeMove works at creating standardized documentation of symptoms and the disease's progressive course over time; developing rating scales for clinical examinations and guidelines for therapy; improving genetic testing; fostering genetic research; and collecting samples of DNA, tissue, CSF and blood from sufferers of the disease for biobanks.

  10. Movement - uncontrollable

    MedlinePlus

    Physical therapy that includes swimming, stretching, walking, and balancing exercises can help with coordination and slow the damage. Family support is important. It helps to openly discuss your feelings. Self-help groups are available in many communities.

  11. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable.

  12. Recent progress in physical therapy of the upper-limb rehabilitation after stroke: emphasis on thermal intervention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2006-01-01

    Poor recovery of arm function after stroke can often have a negative impact on the patient and his/her family. These patients often need assistance from the society and may need to rely on government resources. Numerous therapeutic treatments are currently available for stroke rehabilitation. Traditional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, and motor relearning) have been used for many years. However, few of these interventions have been tested in clinical trials and are thus practiced on an empirical basis. Various evidence-based therapies (electric stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotic aided system, and virtual reality) have been added to classic rehabilitation approaches and seem to improve function. Recently, we demonstrated that a novel intervention, thermal stimulation, facilitated upper-limb functional recovery after acute stroke. In this review, we describe detailed thermal stimulation procedures and outcomes in stroke patients. We found that thermal stimulation in combination with other physiotherapies or chemotherapies was of great benefit to stroke patients. Development of a better rehabilitation paradigm that maximizes rapid recovery of arm function is a priority to help stroke patients and society.

  13. Comparison of Efficacy of Eye Movement, Desensitization and Reprocessing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Therapeutic Methods for Reducing Anxiety and Depression of Iranian Combatant Afflicted by Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narimani, M.; Sadeghieh Ahari, S.; Rajabi, S.

    This research aims to determine efficacy of two therapeutic methods and compare them; Eye Movement, Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for reduction of anxiety and depression of Iranian combatant afflicted with Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after imposed war. Statistical population of current study includes combatants afflicted with PTSD that were hospitalized in Isar Hospital of Ardabil province or were inhabited in Ardabil. These persons were selected through simple random sampling and were randomly located in three groups. The method was extended test method and study design was multi-group test-retest. Used tools include hospital anxiety and depression scale. This survey showed that exercise of EMDR and CBT has caused significant reduction of anxiety and depression.

  14. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. PMID:26581970

  15. The functional significance of cortical reorganization and the parallel development of CI therapy

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Edward; Uswatte, Gitendra; Mark, Victor W.

    2014-01-01

    For the nineteenth and the better part of the twentieth centuries two correlative beliefs were strongly held by almost all neuroscientists and practitioners in the field of neurorehabilitation. The first was that after maturity the adult CNS was hardwired and fixed, and second that in the chronic phase after CNS injury no substantial recovery of function could take place no matter what intervention was employed. However, in the last part of the twentieth century evidence began to accumulate that neither belief was correct. First, in the 1960s and 1970s, in research with primates given a surgical abolition of somatic sensation from a single forelimb, which rendered the extremity useless, it was found that behavioral techniques could convert the limb into an extremity that could be used extensively. Beginning in the late 1980s, the techniques employed with deafferented monkeys were translated into a rehabilitation treatment, termed Constraint Induced Movement therapy or CI therapy, for substantially improving the motor deficit in humans of the upper and lower extremities in the chronic phase after stroke. CI therapy has been applied successfully to other types of damage to the CNS such as traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury, and it has also been used to improve function in focal hand dystonia and for aphasia after stroke. As this work was proceeding, it was being shown during the 1980s and 1990s that sustained modulation of afferent input could alter the structure of the CNS and that this topographic reorganization could have relevance to the function of the individual. The alteration in these once fundamental beliefs has given rise to important recent developments in neuroscience and neurorehabilitation and holds promise for further increasing our understanding of CNS function and extending the boundaries of what is possible in neurorehabilitation. PMID:25018720

  16. The functional significance of cortical reorganization and the parallel development of CI therapy.

    PubMed

    Taub, Edward; Uswatte, Gitendra; Mark, Victor W

    2014-01-01

    For the nineteenth and the better part of the twentieth centuries two correlative beliefs were strongly held by almost all neuroscientists and practitioners in the field of neurorehabilitation. The first was that after maturity the adult CNS was hardwired and fixed, and second that in the chronic phase after CNS injury no substantial recovery of function could take place no matter what intervention was employed. However, in the last part of the twentieth century evidence began to accumulate that neither belief was correct. First, in the 1960s and 1970s, in research with primates given a surgical abolition of somatic sensation from a single forelimb, which rendered the extremity useless, it was found that behavioral techniques could convert the limb into an extremity that could be used extensively. Beginning in the late 1980s, the techniques employed with deafferented monkeys were translated into a rehabilitation treatment, termed Constraint Induced Movement therapy or CI therapy, for substantially improving the motor deficit in humans of the upper and lower extremities in the chronic phase after stroke. CI therapy has been applied successfully to other types of damage to the CNS such as traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury, and it has also been used to improve function in focal hand dystonia and for aphasia after stroke. As this work was proceeding, it was being shown during the 1980s and 1990s that sustained modulation of afferent input could alter the structure of the CNS and that this topographic reorganization could have relevance to the function of the individual. The alteration in these once fundamental beliefs has given rise to important recent developments in neuroscience and neurorehabilitation and holds promise for further increasing our understanding of CNS function and extending the boundaries of what is possible in neurorehabilitation. PMID:25018720

  17. Constrained versus Unconstrained Intensive Language Therapy in Two Individuals with Chronic, Moderate-to-Severe Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech: Behavioral and fMRI Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jacquie; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Silva, Nicole; Burke, Katherine; Andrianopoulos, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase I study investigated behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) outcomes of 2 intensive treatment programs to improve naming in 2 participants with chronic moderate-to-severe aphasia with comorbid apraxia of speech (AOS). Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT; Pulvermuller et al., 2001) has demonstrated positive outcomes in some…

  18. Movement disorders induced by deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Jankovic, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation represents a major advance in the treatment of several types of movement disorders. However, during stimulation new movement disorders may emerge, thus limiting the positive effects of this therapy. These movement disorders may be induced by: 1) stimulation of the targeted nucleus, 2) stimulation of surrounding tracts and nuclei, and 3) as a result of dose adjustment of accompanying medications, such as reduction of dopaminergic drugs in patients with Parkinson's disease. Various dyskinesias, blepharospasm, and apraxia of eyelid opening have been described mainly with subthalamic nucleus stimulation, whereas hypokinesia and freezing of gait have been observed with stimulation of the globus pallidus internus. Other deep brain stimulation-related movement disorders include dyskinesias associated with stimulation of the globus pallidus externus and ataxic gait as a side effect of chronic bilateral stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of thalamus. These movement disorders are generally reversible and usually resolved once the stimulation is reduced or turned off. This, however, typically leads to loss of benefit of the underlying movement disorder which can be re-gained by using different contacts, changing targets or stimulation parameters, and adjusting pharmacological therapy. New and innovative emerging technologies and stimulation techniques may help to prevent or overcome the various deep brain stimulation-induced movement disorders. In this review we aim to describe the clinical features, frequency, pathophysiology, and strategies for treatment of these iatrogenic movement disorders. PMID:26806438

  19. Teaching Creative Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exiner, Johanna; Lloyd, Phyllis

    This guide to creative movement, relevant to all age groups, opens with a discussion of historical and present trends in movement and dance. Chapters treat (a) the body--body awareness, body activities, and relationships; (b) principles of movement--space, force, time, dynamics, and fluency; (c) topics within the sphere of movement, from the world…

  20. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  1. Movement Recognition Technology as a Method of Assessing Spontaneous General Movements in High Risk Infants

    PubMed Central

    Marcroft, Claire; Khan, Aftab; Embleton, Nicholas D.; Trenell, Michael; Plötz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool, which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants. Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This article aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration, which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment. PMID:25620954

  2. Abnormal movements in children with migraine.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Paul E; Mack, Kenneth J

    2015-03-01

    The cause and treatment of functional movement disorders and nonepileptic spells in children is poorly understood, and an association with migraine has not previously been reported. We retrospectively reviewed children diagnosed with chronic or episodic migraine at our institution from 2006 to 2013 to determine the proportion with nonorganic movement disorders, their phenomenology, provoking factors, and natural history. Thirty-two patients were identified, representing 4.3% of patients with chronic migraine and 0.9% of patients with episodic migraine. Twenty-four of the 32 (75%) had chronic migraine, whereas 8 (25%) had episodic migraine. Nonepileptic spells was the most common phenomenon in both cohorts, followed by tremor and functional gait disorders. Severe migraine attacks preceded these movements in the majority of patients. With appropriate migraine therapy, significant reduction or resolution of these movements was reported. We conclude that nonorganic movement disorders are observed in pediatric migraine, are more prevalent among chronic migraineurs, and can resolve with improved pain control.

  3. Paraneoplastic disorders of eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Shirley H.; Dalmau, Josep; Chen, Athena; King, Susan; Leigh, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the brainstem and cerebellum are reported to cause a variety of abnormalities of eye movements. Recent studies have begun to account for the mechanisms underlying several syndromes, characterized by opsoclonus, slow, or dysmetric saccades, as well as downbeat nystagmus. We provide evidence that upbeat nystagmus in a patient with pancreatic cancer reflected a cerebellar-induced imbalance of otolithic pathways: she showed marked retropulsion, and her nystagmus was dependent on head position, being absent when supine, and suppressed with convergence. In addition to anti-Hu antibodies, we demonstrated antibodies to a novel neuronal cell surface antigen. Taken with other recent studies, our findings suggest that paraneoplastic syndromes arise due to antibodies against surface neuronal antigens, including receptors and channels. Abnormal eye movements in paraneoplastic syndromes offer insights into the pathogenesis of these disorders and the opportunity to test potential therapies, such as new drugs with effects on neuronal channels. PMID:21951005

  4. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  5. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy (chorea gravidarum) Stroke Systemic lupus erythematosus Tardive dyskinesia (a condition that can be caused by medicines ... uncontrolled); Hyperkinetic movements References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ...

  6. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  7. Tips for Daily Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Stroke Weight Training After Stroke Tips for Improving Fine Motor Skills Functional Tone Management Arm Training Program Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Emotional & Behavioral Challenges Self-Esteem after Stroke Post-Stroke Mood Disorders One-side ...

  8. Healthy Living after Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Stroke Weight Training After Stroke Tips for Improving Fine Motor Skills Functional Tone Management Arm Training Program Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Emotional & Behavioral Challenges Self-Esteem after Stroke Post-Stroke Mood Disorders One-side ...

  9. Emerging Identity through Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowen, Betty

    Movement is one of the primary ways in which the young child finds out about his world. Experiences in movement help the young child to develop a healthy sense of identity. Through movement, children: (1) learn, as infants, to distinguish themselves from the outside world; (2) find out what they can do and how they can affect their environment;…

  10. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  11. [The "Participatory" Movement].

    PubMed

    Rossi, M J

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the trajectory of the Participatory Movement (MP), which was created in opposition to the policies carried out by the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn). This article, written by the first president elected of the "participatory" movement, presents the principles of the movement, its organization, the struggle for leadership, and the work developed in the first administration.

  12. The Power of Rhetoric: Two Healing Movements

    PubMed Central

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Though we might suppose that our sensations are unaffected by the talk around us, the rhetoric surrounding a treatment can in fact color the experience of those having the treatment. So it is with both Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and the 18th-century therapy that has been cited as its predecessor: mesmerism. In both cases, rhetoric itself is conscripted into the service of therapeutic ends. Reports of cures are advertised and celebrated in a way that builds the expectation and feeds the experience of more of the same. Precisely because they are rooted in and speak to their time and place, however, the efficacy of these therapies may be limited. An investigation of the kinship between the two healing movements — and the driving force of a movement is nothing other than rhetoric — throws light on possibly social sources of therapeutic efficacy. PMID:21451780

  13. Cervical demyelinating lesion presenting with choreoathetoid movements and dystonia.

    PubMed

    de Pasqua, Silvia; Cevoli, Sabina; Calbucci, Fabio; Liguori, Rocco

    2016-09-15

    Pseudoathetosis and dystonia are rare manifestations of spinal cord disease that have been already reported in lesions involving the posterior columns at the cervical level. We report two patients with a cervical demyelinating lesion at C3-C4 level presenting with hand dystonia and pseudoathetoid movements. The movement disorder disappeared after steroid treatment. The cases we described highlight the importance of identifying secondary causes of movement disorders that can be reversible with appropriate therapy. PMID:27538633

  14. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  15. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  16. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  17. Measuring infant movement. Clinical and technological assessment techniques.

    PubMed

    Harris, S R; Heriza, C B

    1987-12-01

    Assessment of infant movement patterns is an important evaluation component in the early identification and management of high-risk and handicapped infants. Differences in infant movement patterns may provide early clues to the diagnosis of cerebral palsy and other developmental disabilities. The ultimate goal of early identification of movement disorders is the provision of early intervention services, such as developmental physical therapy. Qualitative analysis of infant movement differences can assist the clinician in developing treatment strategies aimed at facilitating normal movement patterns during the critical period of early central nervous system plasticity. This article presents four measurement strategies for quantifying such qualitative differences. Three clinical assessment tools--the Movement Assessment of Infants, the Bayley Motor Scale, and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales--are described. Finally, new technological advances for kinematic analysis of infant movement are presented.

  18. The mathematics of movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  19. Activity Therapy: An Alternative Therapy for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of activity therapy for preteens and adolescents, where the client is engaged in nonverbal modes of relationship--games, free play, movement, drama, music, art or other activities, as the chief therapeutic media in which conflicts are resolved and intellectual and emotional energies freed. Reviews the literature, describes…

  20. Effects of object size on unimanual and bimanual movements in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Ouyang, Wen-Chen; Hsu, Hsiao-Man; Lin, Keh-Chung; Ma, Hui-Ing

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia affects not only mental function but also movement. We compared the movement of patients with mild schizophrenia and healthy control participants during a bimanual assembly task and examined whether changes in object size affected unimanual and bimanual movements. Fifteen patients with schizophrenia and 15 age- and gender-matched control participants were instructed to bimanually reach for and assemble objects. We manipulated the object size for the left hand (large vs. small) and measured movement time, peak velocity, and bimanual synchronization to represent movement speed, forcefulness, and bimanual coordination. Patients with schizophrenia showed slower and less forceful unimanual movements and less coordinated bimanual movements than control participants. Increasing the object size elicited faster and more forceful unimanual movements and more coordinated bimanual movements in patients. The results suggest the need for movement rehabilitation in patients with schizophrenia and the possibility of manipulating object size to optimize patients' movements. These results benefit the practice of evidence-based therapy.

  1. Randomness Of Amoeba Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kuwajima, T.; Ohki, M.; Tacano, M.; Sikula, J.

    2005-11-01

    Movements of amoebas were automatically traced using the difference between two successive frames of the microscopic movie. It was observed that the movements were almost random in that the directions and the magnitudes of the successive two steps are not correlated, and that the distance from the origin was proportional to the square root of the step number.

  2. The Human Potential Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamashiro, Roy T.

    The advent of the human potential movement has generated the expectation that educators unleash the intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual talents of students. This movement is characterized by its focus on (1) the person as a total being, (2) the needs and concerns of students, (3) phenomenology, (4) personal values and goals, and (5)…

  3. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  4. National CARES Mentoring Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Harsh and cruel experiences have led many of our young to believe that they are alone in the world and that no one cares. In this article, Martin L Mitchell introduces us to the "National CARES Mentoring Movement" founded by Susan L.Taylor. This movement provides young people with role models who help shape their positive development.…

  5. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins.

  6. Hyperkinetic movement disorder in a child treated by globus pallidus stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ken; Nakagawa, Eiji; Saito, Yoshiaki; Komaki, Hirofumi; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki; Kaido, Takanobu; Nakama, Hideyuki; Otsuki, Taisuke

    2009-06-01

    We report herein the case of a 9-year-old girl with life-threatening hyperkinetic involuntary movement of unknown etiology. Medical treatment was ineffective for her stereotypy and choreoathetotic/ballistic movements, but bilateral stimulation of the globus pallidus immediately alleviated these symptoms. Pallidal deep-brain stimulation may be considered the therapy of choice for children with intractable hyperkinetic movement disorders.

  7. Movement disorders in women: a review.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Marcie L; Stevens-Haas, Claire; Havrilla, Emilyrose; Devi, Tanvi; Kurlan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    The field of women's health developed based on the recognition that there are important sex-based differences regarding several aspects of medical illnesses. We performed a literature review to obtain information about differences between women and men for neurological movement disorders. We identified important differences in prevalence, genetics, clinical expression, course, and treatment responses. In addition, we found that female life events, including menstruation, pregnancy, breast feeding, menopause, and medications prescribed to women (such as oral contraceptives and hormone-replacement therapy), have significant implications for women with movement disorders. Understanding this biological sex-specific information can help improve the quality and individualization of care for women with movement disorders and may provide insights into neurobiological mechanisms.

  8. Movement coordination during conversation.

    PubMed

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V; Vatikiotis-Bateson, Eric; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S; Munhall, K G

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers' perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  9. Movement Coordination during Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  10. Fluid movement and creativity.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation, cognitive flexibility, and remote associations. Alternative mechanisms such as enhanced mood and motivation were also examined. These results suggest that creativity can be influenced by certain types of physical movement.

  11. Adlerian Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the competencies basic to Adlerian therapy--including influencing psychological movement, working with the family communication system, focusing on the real issue, aligning goals and dealing with resistance, stimulating social interest, encouragement, and tentative hypotheses, and antisuggestion. A specific process for helping the family…

  12. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  13. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  14. Movement as utopia.

    PubMed

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination. PMID:20027697

  15. Movement as utopia.

    PubMed

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  16. The Black Civil Rights Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, George

    1986-01-01

    Presents part of the Aspen High School curriculum about the United States civil rights movement. Focuses on why Blacks were segregated and disenfranchised prior to the movement, why the movement took place, what were the results of the movement, and what is the present condition of Blacks in American society. (JDH)

  17. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  18. Combining modules for movement.

    PubMed

    Bizzi, E; Cheung, V C K; d'Avella, A; Saltiel, P; Tresch, M

    2008-01-01

    We review experiments supporting the hypothesis that the vertebrate motor system produces movements by combining a small number of units of motor output. Using a variety of approaches such as microstimulation of the spinal cord, NMDA iontophoresis, and an examination of natural behaviors in intact and deafferented animals we have provided evidence for a modular organization of the spinal cord. A module is a functional unit in the spinal cord that generates a specific motor output by imposing a specific pattern of muscle activation. Such an organization might help to simplify the production of movements by reducing the degrees of freedom that need to be specified.

  19. Harnessing Brain Plasticity through Behavioral Techniques to Produce New Treatments in Neurorehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Basic behavioral neuroscience research with monkeys has given rise to an efficacious new approach to the rehabilitation of movement after stroke, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, and other types of neurological injury in humans termed Constraint-Induced Movement therapy or CI therapy. For the upper extremity, the treatment involves…

  20. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  1. Protein constraints induced by multiframe encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.F.; Waterman, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent sequencing of viral genomes supports the existence of multiframe codon reading. This study considers the restrictions imposed on proteins coded for in overlapping regions. Calculation of conditional probabilities shows that the restrictions imposed are severe, even at the amino acid-protein structural level. These conditional probabilities are used to calculate conditional information per codon, showing the nonequivalence of the various pairs of reading frames. In addition, the coevolution or primary-secondary evolution of two overlapping proteins should be distinguishable.

  2. [Abnormal movements. Historical notes].

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, P J

    Most of the knowledge about movement disorders comes from the last fifty years. However, the ancients made some remarkable neurological depictions. We still can find some neurological descriptions including Parkinson's disease in the Bible, and the ancient writings of Atreya and Susruta. In addition, classic tests provide us of valuable information on historical personages, including the dystonia of Alexander the Great.

  3. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  4. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  5. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  6. [Architecture and movement].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  7. Managing Movement as Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  8. Teaching the Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal Eric

    2012-01-01

    Every January, Charles Cobb Jr. makes the 1,100-mile trek from sunny Jacksonville, Florida, to chilly Providence, Rhode Island. For the past eight years, Cobb--a veteran of the civil rights movement who in the 1960s served as a field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi--becomes a visiting professor of…

  9. Movement Coordination or Movement Interference: Visual Tracking and Spontaneous Coordination Modulate Rhythmic Movement Interference

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Veronica; Coey, Charles; Schmidt, R. C.; Richardson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    When an actor performs a rhythmic limb movement while observing a spatially incongruent movement he or she exhibits increased movement orthogonal to the instructed motion. Known as rhythmic movement interference, this phenomenon has been interpreted as a motor contagion effect, whereby observing the incongruent movement interferes with the intended movement and results in a motor production error. Here we test the hypothesis that rhythmic movement interference is an emergent property of rhythmic coordination. Participants performed rhythmic limb movements at a self-selected tempo while observing a computer stimulus moving in a congruent or incongruent manner. The degree to which participants visually tracked the stimulus was manipulated to influence whether participants became spontaneously entrained to the stimulus or not. Consistent with the rhythmic coordination hypothesis, participants only exhibited the rhythmic movement interference effect when they became spontaneously entrained to the incongruent stimulus. PMID:23028607

  10. On quantifying insect movements

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.; Crist, T.O. ); Milne, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    We elaborate on methods described by Turchin, Odendaal Rausher for quantifying insect movement pathways. We note the need to scale measurement resolution to the study insects and the questions being asked, and we discuss the use of surveying instrumentation for recording sequential positions of individuals on pathways. We itemize several measures that may be used to characterize movement pathways and illustrate these by comparisons among several Eleodes beetles occurring in shortgrass steppe. The fractal dimension of pathways may provide insights not available from absolute measures of pathway configuration. Finally, we describe a renormalization procedure that may be used to remove sequential interdependence among locations of moving individuals while preserving the basic attributes of the pathway.

  11. Movement and Movement Patterns of Early Childhood. [Complete Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Caroline

    This study investigated the progressive development in movement and movement patterns of children ages 2-6. Data were collected over a 3-year period at six-month intervals, based on films of 57 children performing 25 motor tasks. The results are presented along two dimensions: (1) Descriptive analysis of progress of young children in movement with…

  12. The Human Potential Movement: Body/Movement/Non-Verbal Experiencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Stratton F.

    A social, humanistic movement focusing on the needs and concerns of more advantaged, affluent persons has emerged, called the "Human Potential Movement." The emphasis of the movement centers around group processes, small group experiences, and the search for personal, interpersonal, and organizational growth. The development and emergence of…

  13. Islamist Movements in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When the United States invaded Iraq in March 2003, one of its stated intentions was to inaugurate an era of Iraqi politics in which new kinds of democratic parties would emerge. However, one of the most dramatic effects of the U.S. invasion has been the boost it has given to the Islamist parties and movements that were banned under Saddam Hussein.…

  14. A Computational Framework for Quantitative Evaluation of Movement during Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; Lehrer, Nicole; Sundaram, Hari; He, Jiping; Wolf, Steven L.; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a novel generalized computational framework for quantitative kinematic evaluation of movement in a rehabilitation clinic setting. The framework integrates clinical knowledge and computational data-driven analysis together in a systematic manner. The framework provides three key benefits to rehabilitation: (a) the resulting continuous normalized measure allows the clinician to monitor movement quality on a fine scale and easily compare impairments across participants, (b) the framework reveals the effect of individual movement components on the composite movement performance helping the clinician decide the training foci, and (c) the evaluation runs in real-time, which allows the clinician to constantly track a patient's progress and make appropriate adaptations to the therapy protocol. The creation of such an evaluation is difficult because of the sparse amount of recorded clinical observations, the high dimensionality of movement and high variations in subject's performance. We address these issues by modeling the evaluation function as linear combination of multiple normalized kinematic attributes y = Σwiφi(xi) and estimating the attribute normalization function φi(ṡ) by integrating distributions of idealized movement and deviated movement. The weights wi are derived from a therapist's pair-wise comparison using a modified RankSVM algorithm. We have applied this framework to evaluate upper limb movement for stroke survivors with excellent results—the evaluation results are highly correlated to the therapist's observations.

  15. Movement disorders in catatonia.

    PubMed

    Wijemanne, Subhashie; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Catatonia is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome characterised by a broad range of motor, speech and behavioural abnormalities. 'Waxy flexibility', 'posturing' and 'catalepsy' are among the well-recognised motor abnormalities seen in catatonia. However, there are many other motor abnormalities associated with catatonia. Recognition of the full spectrum of the phenomenology is critical for an accurate diagnosis. Although controlled trials are lacking benzodiazepines are considered first-line therapy and N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists also appears to be effective. Electroconvulsive therapy is used in those patients who are resistant to medical therapy. An underlying cause of the catatonia should be identified and treated to ensure early and complete resolution of symptoms.

  16. Axial movements in ideomotor apraxia

    PubMed Central

    Poeck, K; Lehmkuhl, G; Willmes, K

    1982-01-01

    Non-symbolic axial movements were examined and compared to oral and limb movements in a group of 60 aphasic patients (15 of each major subgroup) with exclusively left-sided brain damage. The contention in the literature that axial movements are preserved in patients with ideomotor limb apraxia was not confirmed. PMID:6186771

  17. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  18. A Discovery Approach to Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hagin, Isabel B.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the discovery approach to movement-based instruction on children's level of musicality. Finds that the students with the highest musicality were girls, demonstrated reflective movements and a personal sense of style while moving, and made sense of the music by organizing, categorizing, and developing movement ideas.…

  19. Yahak Movement in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Sik

    2004-01-01

    "Yahak" means "night school" in Korean and its history can be traced back to the 1920s when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. This paper will focus on the yahak movement during the years from 1960 to the 1990s. Yahak played an important role in raising workers' consciousness during this democratic movement. Yahak started as a movement trying…

  20. The Evolution of Modern Dance Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Fran

    1988-01-01

    The article traces the impact of the modern dance movement from the early 1900s and its emphasis on creativity and self-expression on the professional and institutional development of dance therapy. (CB)

  1. Orofacial Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Clark, Glenn T; Ram, Saravanan

    2016-08-01

    Orofacial movement disorders (OMDs) include dystonia, dyskinesia, drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, and bruxism. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and management are detailed. OMDs are often disabling and affect patients' overall quality of life with pain, difficulty chewing food, speech difficulty, drooling, and social embarrassment. Management involves medications, botulinum toxin injections, and peripheral or central surgery. Botulinum toxin injections are the most effective management, often used in conjunction with medications. Surgery is the last resort for patients who fail to respond to medications or develop resistance to botulinum toxin type A. PMID:27475514

  2. Orofacial Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Clark, Glenn T; Ram, Saravanan

    2016-08-01

    Orofacial movement disorders (OMDs) include dystonia, dyskinesia, drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, and bruxism. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and management are detailed. OMDs are often disabling and affect patients' overall quality of life with pain, difficulty chewing food, speech difficulty, drooling, and social embarrassment. Management involves medications, botulinum toxin injections, and peripheral or central surgery. Botulinum toxin injections are the most effective management, often used in conjunction with medications. Surgery is the last resort for patients who fail to respond to medications or develop resistance to botulinum toxin type A.

  3. [Releasing phenomenon of learned movements].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Y; Ohno, K; Kashiwagi, T; Tanabe, H

    1998-10-01

    Involuntary movements that resembled the shooting of a basketball and piano playing were observed after brain damage in a 13-year-old female and a 74-year-old female, respectively. The movements were characterized as involuntarily triggered movements that occurred in the presence and absence of exteroceptive stimuli, movements had been practiced repeatedly just before the occurrence of the brain damage, and that could be stopped on command. According to the MRI findings, the lesions extended into the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). The characteristics of the patients movements were different from previously reported involuntary movements such as compulsive manipulation of tools, utilization behavior, and imitation behavior. Hikosaka et al (1996) reported the role of the pre-SMA in learning new sequential procedures. We speculate that damage to the pre-SMA may be associated with the etiology of these movements.

  4. Molecular imaging of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-01-01

    caudal-to-rostral direction. Uptake declines prior to symptom presentation and progresses from contralateral to the most symptomatic side to bilateral, correlating with symptom severity. In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), striatal activity is symmetrically and diffusely decreased. The caudal-to-rostral pattern is lost in PSP, but could be present in MSA. In corticobasal degeneration (CBD), there is asymmetric, diffuse reduction of striatal activity, contralateral to the most symptomatic side. Additionally, there is hypometabolism in contralateral parieto-occipital and frontal cortices in PD; bilateral putamen and cerebellum in MSA; caudate, thalamus, midbrain, mesial frontal and prefrontal cortices in PSP; and contralateral cortices in CBD. Finally, cardiac sympathetic SPECT signal is decreased in PD. The capacity of molecular imaging to provide in vivo time courses of gene expression, protein synthesis, receptor and transporter binding, could facilitate the development and evaluation of novel medical, surgical and genetic therapies in movement disorders. PMID:27029029

  5. Use of Movement Imagery in Neurorehabilitation: Researching Effects of a Complex Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Susy M.; Wade, Derick T.; Beurskens, Anna J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the use of mental practice and movement imagery within several medical professions in rehabilitation and therapy has received an increased attention. Before this introduction in healthcare, the use of movement imagery was mainly researched in sports science. Mental practice is a complex intervention. When…

  6. [Primary versus secondary stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernandez Alvarez, E

    2004-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movements whose physiopathology and relations to other neurobehavioural disorders are still only poorly understood. In this paper our aim is to distinguish between primary stereotypic movements, which are the sole manifestation of an anomaly, while the complementary examinations, except for those involving molecular genetics, are normal; associated stereotypic movements, when they meet primary disorder criteria but there are other coexisting independent neurological signs, that is to say, they are neither the cause nor the consequence of the movement disorder; and secondary stereotypic movements, when they are the consequence of a lesion or acquired neurological dysfunction. Examples of primary stereotypic movements include episodes of parasomnia, such as head rocking, in subjects who are otherwise normal, and stereotypic movements due to emotional disorders, severe environmental deprivation or in institutionalised infants. Examples of associated stereotypic movements are those observed in Rett syndrome, in subjects with sensory defects or with mental retardation due to a variety of causes. And as instances of secondary stereotypic movements we have those that can be seen in infinite like syndrome caused by congenital cerebellar lesions. The purpose of the classification is to lay the foundations for the identification of new syndromes, which would without a doubt facilitate research into their physiopathology, their aetiology and the possible therapeutic attitude to be adopted.

  7. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  8. Measurement of tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, R J; Worms, F W; Speidel, T M

    1976-09-01

    1. Tooth movement relative to the alveolar bone can be precisely described only by superimposing on fixed points in the bone. Implants are the best known way today. Over short-term studies laminagraphy and the use of bony trabeculations are also useful. Remodeling occurs extensively on bony surfaces, making them too labile for use as stable landmarks. To project small amounts of tooth movement based on the use of such methods is so questionable as to represent little better than a guess or a clinical impression. 2. Growth can be separated into vertical and anteroposterior vectors with respect to the dentition. Since the occlusion is the concern, orientation of vertical and anteroposterior vectors to the occlusal plane is a reasonable baseline. The vertical and anteroposterior dental changes may not show a linear relationship in the anterior and posterior parts of the mouth when jaw rotations are occurring. 3. Growth can be disproportionate in either the vertical and/or the anteroposteroir plane of space. If the vertical increments of the anterior face differ from the vertical increments at the posterior face, mandibular rotations occur. This growth is accompanied by dental compensations that tend to mask the rotation. Therefore, open bite and deep bite are frequently skeletal growth problems. 4. Disproportional forward growth of the maxilla or mandible in an anteroposterior direction can lead to Class II or III relations. The growth that leads to Class II or Class III is accompanied by dental migrations that tend to mask this disproportionate growth. Orthodontic treatment of growth disproportionalities usually represents attempts to make the teeth further compensate. If surgical options are elected, the dental compensations should be removed prior to surgery in order to achieve a full surgical correction. 5. The teeth tend to move and grow in the opposite direction of the growth disproportionality. The teeth tend to mask the disproportionality. Thus, in an open

  9. Postural constraints on movement variability.

    PubMed

    Lametti, Daniel R; Ostry, David J

    2010-08-01

    Movements are inherently variable. When we move to a particular point in space, a cloud of final limb positions is observed around the target. Previously we noted that patterns of variability at the end of movement to a circular target were not circular, but instead reflected patterns of limb stiffness-in directions where limb stiffness was high, variability in end position was low, and vice versa. Here we examine the determinants of variability at movement end in more detail. To do this, we have subjects move the handle of a robotic device from different starting positions into a circular target. We use position servocontrolled displacements of the robot's handle to measure limb stiffness at the end of movement and we also record patterns of end position variability. To examine the effect of change in posture on movement variability, we use a visual motor transformation in which we change the limb configuration and also the actual movement target, while holding constant the visual display. We find that, regardless of movement direction, patterns of variability at the end of movement vary systematically with limb configuration and are also related to patterns of limb stiffness, which are likewise configuration dependent. The result suggests that postural configuration determines the base level of movement variability, on top of which control mechanisms can act to further alter variability.

  10. Eye movements during transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Tebēcis, A K

    1976-01-01

    Characteristic changes in eye movements occurred during meditation with closed eyes in a proportion of subjects experienced in TM. The most common changes were an increase in slow, large-amplitude, 'rolling' eye movements and a concomitant decrease in rapid, low-amplitude, 'jerky' eye movements. Much variation occurred between individuals, however, some subjects showing no differences between TM and non-meditation. Any changes that occurred were not necessarily constant for the whole recording period nor consistent between sessions. The physiological effects of TM are far more variable than previously publicized. In general, the main changes in eye movements during TM are similar to those during passive hypnosis.

  11. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  12. The Effect of Repetitive Passive and Active Movements on Proprioception Ability in Forearm Supination

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, OhSung; Lee, SeungWon; Lee, YoungWoo; Seo, DongKwon; Jung, SangWoo; Choi, WonJae

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of repetitive passive movement and repetitive active movement on proprioception in forearm supination. [Subjects] This study had a cross-sectional design. Twenty-three right-handed healthy subjects were recruited. All subjects randomly received both repetitive passive movement and repetitive active movement (repetitive passive/active movement at 120°/s with 60 repetitions over a 0–80° range). Active and passive joint repositioning of all subjects was measured using the error score for position sense, both before and after repositioning intervention. [Results] In the repetitive passive movement test, there was a statistically significant decrease in the pre- versus post-repositioning error scores in the active and passive angle examinations. In the repetitive active movement test, there was a statistically significant increase in pre- versus post-repositioning error scores in the active and passive angle examinations. In the comparison of position sense, there was a statistically significant decrease in both active and passive angle repositioning error scores in repetitive passive movement versus repetitive active movement. [Conclusion] Repetitive passive movement improved the proprioception results for forearm supination, compared to repetitive active movement. Results of this study indicate that repetitive passive movement can be recommended to clinicians for rehabilitation therapy as it provides greater proprioception benefits. PMID:24259808

  13. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  14. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  15. Wither Couple/Family Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Michael F.; Gurman, Alan S.

    2012-01-01

    Attention is called to disturbing developments in insurance reimbursement that threaten the practice of therapy involving more than one person. This can be seen as part of the movement to marginalize psychotherapy as first-line treatment and replace it with the inappropriate and excessive (and often exclusive) use of medication.

  16. Movement Coordination in Psychotherapy: Synchrony of Hand Movements is Associated with Session Outcome. A Single-Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has shown that nonverbal behavior was associated with both session-level outcome and global outcome in psychotherapy. Nonverbal synchrony--here the coordination between patient's and psychotherapist's movement behavior--is a facet of nonverbal behavior that has recently been studied with video-based motion energy analysis (MEA). The present study aimed to replicate and extend these findings by using direct acquisition of movement data. In a single-case analysis, we monitored patient's and therapist's hand movements with a high-resolution accelerometric measurement system (Vitaport (r)). In addition to these behavioral data, both patient and therapist provided session-level ratings of various factors relevant to the psychotherapy process, which were assessed with post-session questionnaires. The patient-therapist coordination of hand movements, i.e. nonverbal synchrony, in (N = 27) sessions of this dyadic psychotherapy was positively associated with progress reported in post-session questionnaires. Sessions with good evaluations concerning the quality of therapeutic alliance were characterized by high movement coordination. Thus, accelerometric data of this therapy dyad confirmed previous findings gained through video analyses: The coordination of nonverbal behavior shown by patient and therapist was an indicator of beneficial processes occurring within sessions. This replication study showed that nonverbal synchrony embodies important aspects of the alliance. Its assessment and quantification may provide therapists important additional information on processes that usually occur outside conscious awareness, but that nevertheless influence core aspects of the therapy.

  17. Movement Coordination in Psychotherapy: Synchrony of Hand Movements is Associated with Session Outcome. A Single-Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has shown that nonverbal behavior was associated with both session-level outcome and global outcome in psychotherapy. Nonverbal synchrony--here the coordination between patient's and psychotherapist's movement behavior--is a facet of nonverbal behavior that has recently been studied with video-based motion energy analysis (MEA). The present study aimed to replicate and extend these findings by using direct acquisition of movement data. In a single-case analysis, we monitored patient's and therapist's hand movements with a high-resolution accelerometric measurement system (Vitaport (r)). In addition to these behavioral data, both patient and therapist provided session-level ratings of various factors relevant to the psychotherapy process, which were assessed with post-session questionnaires. The patient-therapist coordination of hand movements, i.e. nonverbal synchrony, in (N = 27) sessions of this dyadic psychotherapy was positively associated with progress reported in post-session questionnaires. Sessions with good evaluations concerning the quality of therapeutic alliance were characterized by high movement coordination. Thus, accelerometric data of this therapy dyad confirmed previous findings gained through video analyses: The coordination of nonverbal behavior shown by patient and therapist was an indicator of beneficial processes occurring within sessions. This replication study showed that nonverbal synchrony embodies important aspects of the alliance. Its assessment and quantification may provide therapists important additional information on processes that usually occur outside conscious awareness, but that nevertheless influence core aspects of the therapy. PMID:27033131

  18. Congenital mirror movements

    PubMed Central

    Méneret, Aurélie; Depienne, Christel; Riant, Florence; Trouillard, Oriane; Bouteiller, Delphine; Cincotta, Massimo; Bitoun, Pierre; Wickert, Julia; Lagroua, Isabelle; Westenberger, Ana; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Doummar, Diane; Romano, Marcello; Rossi, Simone; Defebvre, Luc; De Meirleir, Linda; Espay, Alberto J.; Fiori, Simona; Klebe, Stephan; Quélin, Chloé; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Plessis, Ghislaine; Dale, Russell C.; Sklower Brooks, Susan; Dziezyc, Karolina; Pollak, Pierre; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Vidailhet, Marie; Brice, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We screened a large series of individuals with congenital mirror movements (CMM) for mutations in the 2 identified causative genes, DCC and RAD51. Methods: We studied 6 familial and 20 simplex CMM cases. Each patient had a standardized neurologic assessment. Analysis of DCC and RAD51 coding regions included Sanger sequencing and a quantitative method allowing detection of micro rearrangements. We then compared the frequency of rare variants predicted to be pathogenic by either the PolyPhen-2 or the SIFT algorithm in our population and in the 4,300 controls of European origin on the Exome Variant Server. Results: We found 3 novel truncating mutations of DCC that segregate with CMM in 4 of the 6 families. Among the 20 simplex cases, we found one exonic deletion of DCC, one DCC mutation leading to a frameshift, 5 missense variants in DCC, and 2 missense variants in RAD51. All 7 missense variants were predicted to be pathogenic by one or both algorithms. Statistical analysis showed that the frequency of variants predicted to be deleterious was significantly different between patients and controls (p < 0.001 for both RAD51 and DCC). Conclusion: Mutations and variants in DCC and RAD51 are strongly associated with CMM, but additional genes causing CMM remain to be discovered. PMID:24808016

  19. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress.

  20. The Siraiki Movement in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Tariq

    1995-01-01

    Documents the rise of the Siraiki ethnonationalist movement in economically underdeveloped Southern Pakistani Punjab. Although the Siraiki intellectuals emphasize the differences of their language from Punjabi to mobilize public opinion against the injustice of their deprivation, the Punjabi elite view the Siraiki movement as a conspiracy to…

  1. Developing Movement as Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Melanie; Walter, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    This article details the emergence of a training framework to support professional development in inclusive Movement teaching. This arose from a collaborative research project in spring 2008 (supported by the Training and Development Agency, UK), between two universities in England and Israel. Movement education is surprisingly underused globally,…

  2. Rosa Parks: The Movement Organizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Kai

    This biography for younger readers describes the life of Rosa Parks, the Alabama black woman whose refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus helped establish the civil rights movement. The book is introduced by an overview of the movement by Andrew Young and a timeline indicating major historical events from 1954 through 1968. Highlights in…

  3. Movement Education For Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Maida L., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet explores why movement education is important for preschool children, what activities to include in a program, how and where to conduct a program, and criteria that can help to structure the program environment. The first section presents a rationale for the use of movement education for helping preschool children to develop…

  4. Antecedents of the Theory Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the conceptual roots of the theory movement in educational administration, highlighting the ideas of Auguste Comte and the logical positivists. Explains how core concepts that shaped the theory movement were diffused into educational administration and sets forth implications for future study. (Author/WD)

  5. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of Differing Abilities" (Carol Stock…

  6. Assessing the Gap Between Current Movement Ability and Preferred Movement Ability as a Measure of Disability

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Joanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background If disability is the gap between what an individual can do and what that individual would like to be able to do, then measures that assess only current ability fall short of describing the impact of disability on the individual. Objective The aim of this study was to examine a potential measure of disability, the gap between current movement ability and preferred movement ability, as recorded with the Movement Ability Measure (MAM). This investigation was performed by establishing the relationship between self-perceived current ability and other measures and examining the evidence of convergence or divergence between the gap and other measures. Design This investigation was a descriptive study. Methods Thirty people who had multiple sclerosis and were ambulatory completed the MAM and 18 other measures of bodily function, activity, and participation. Item response theory methods were used to generate logit estimates of average current movement ability and separate abilities in the 6 dimensions of movement on the MAM. Pearson correlations were calculated between estimated abilities from the MAM and scores from measures expected to be associated with these estimated abilities, as well as between the MAM and additional measures in exploratory analyses of relationships. Results The average current ability and the separate dimensions correlated moderately to strongly (.5–.8) with many of the measures expected to be related and showed additional moderately strong correlations in exploratory analyses. The average gap between current ability and preferred ability correlated moderately with pain (−.56) and a scale of current ability (.46) but diverged from many of the measures. Limitations The limitations of this study included the lack of an intervention to assess the response of the gap to therapy and the use of multiple statistical tests with a small sample. Conclusions The evidence supports the convergent validity for current ability on the MAM but mostly

  7. Pioneers of eye movement research.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined.

  8. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  9. Control of arm movements for quick change of movement direction.

    PubMed

    Takatoku, Nozomi; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the control strategy for changing movement direction during arm movements by analyzing the changes in a triphasic electromyographic pattern. Subjects performed a 40° flexion (basic) and a 40° flexion-extension to return to the start position (return) under two conditions: performing a predetermined task (SF) and performing each task in response to a signal (ST). The results revealed the agonist burst for the return task under the ST condition resembled that of the basic task under the SF condition, and the antagonist burst increased after presenting the modification signal. In conclusion, the strategy for quick change of movement direction was to increase the antagonist burst by an additional command from the central nervous system without cancelling the planned movement.

  10. Biological soliton in multicellular movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Ishida, Shuji

    2013-07-01

    Solitons have been observed in various physical phenomena. Here, we show that the distinct characteristics of solitons are present in the mass cell movement of non-chemotactic mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. During starvation, D. discoideum forms multicellular structures that differentiate into spore or stalk cells and, eventually, a fruiting body. Non-chemotactic mutant cells do not form multicellular structures; however, they do undergo mass cell movement in the form of a pulsatile soliton-like structure (SLS). We also found that SLS induction is mediated by adhesive cell-cell interactions. These observations provide novel insights into the mechanisms of biological solitons in multicellular movement.

  11. Neuromechanical principles underlying movement modularity and their implications for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ting, Lena H; Chiel, Hillel J; Trumbower, Randy D; Allen, Jessica L; McKay, J Lucas; Hackney, Madeleine E; Kesar, Trisha M

    2015-04-01

    Neuromechanical principles define the properties and problems that shape neural solutions for movement. Although the theoretical and experimental evidence is debated, we present arguments for consistent structures in motor patterns, i.e., motor modules, that are neuromechanical solutions for movement particular to an individual and shaped by evolutionary, developmental, and learning processes. As a consequence, motor modules may be useful in assessing sensorimotor deficits specific to an individual and define targets for the rational development of novel rehabilitation therapies that enhance neural plasticity and sculpt motor recovery. We propose that motor module organization is disrupted and may be improved by therapy in spinal cord injury, stroke, and Parkinson's disease. Recent studies provide insights into the yet-unknown underlying neural mechanisms of motor modules, motor impairment, and motor learning and may lead to better understanding of the causal nature of modularity and its underlying neural substrates. PMID:25856485

  12. Neuromechanical principles underlying movement modularity and their implications for rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Lena H.; Chiel, Hillel J.; Trumbower, Randy D.; Allen, Jessica L.; McKay, J. Lucas; Hackney, Madeleine E.; Kesar, Trisha M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neuromechanical principles define the properties and problems that shape neural solutions for movement. Although the theoretical and experimental evidence is debated, we present arguments for consistent structures in motor patterns, i.e. motor modules, that are neuromechanical solutions for movement particular to an individual and shaped by evolutionary, developmental, and learning processes. As a consequence, motor modules may be useful in assessing sensorimotor deficits specific to an individual, and define targets for the rational development of novel rehabilitation therapies that enhance neural plasticity and sculpt motor recovery. We propose that motor module organization is disrupted and may be improved by therapy in spinal cord injury, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease. Recent studies provide insights into the yet unknown underlying neural mechanisms of motor modules, motor impairment and motor learning, and may lead to better understanding of the causal nature of modularity and its underlying neural substrates. PMID:25856485

  13. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics

    MedlinePlus

    ... devised improved treatments for movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Joints are a common source ... which patients could benefit from surgery. People with cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis could also benefit ...

  14. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  15. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  16. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  17. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  18. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  19. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  20. 9 CFR 78.13 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.13 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of cattle not otherwise provided for in...

  1. 9 CFR 78.13 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.13 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of cattle not otherwise provided for in...

  2. 9 CFR 78.13 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.13 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of cattle not otherwise provided for in...

  3. Invarient patterns in articulatory movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaventura, Patrizia

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the reported study is to discover an effective method of characterizing movement patterns of the crucial articulator as the function of an abstract syllable magnitude and the adjacent boundary, and at the same time to investigate effects of prosodic control on utterance organization. In particular, the speed of movement when a flesh point on the tongue blade or the lower lip crosses a selected position relative to the occlusion plane is examined. The time of such crossing provides an effective measure of syllable timing and syllable duration according to previous work. In the present work, using a very limited vocabulary with only a few consonants and one vowel as the key speech materials, effects of contrastive emphasis on demisyllabic movement patterns were studied. The theoretical framework for this analysis is the C/D model of speech production in relation to the concept of an invariant part of selected articulatory movements. The results show evidence in favor of the existence of ``iceberg'' patterns, but a linear dependence of slope on the total excursion of the demisyllabic movement, instead of the approximate constancy of the threshold crossing speed as suggested in the original proposal of the iceberg, has been found. Accordingly, a revision of the original concept of iceberg, seems necessary. This refinement is consistent with the C/D model assumption on ``prominence control'' that the syllable magnitude determines the movement amplitude, accompanying directly related syllable duration change. In this assumption, the movement of a consonantal component should also be proportional to syllable magnitude. The results suggests, however, systematic outliers deviating from the linear dependence of movement speed on excursion. This deviation may be caused by the effect of the immediately following boundary, often referred to as phrase-final elongation. Thesis advisor: Osamu Fujimura Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from

  4. Emotional processing affects movement speed.

    PubMed

    Hälbig, Thomas D; Borod, Joan C; Frisina, Pasquale G; Tse, Winona; Voustianiouk, Andrei; Olanow, C Warren; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Emotions can affect various aspects of human behavior. The impact of emotions on behavior is traditionally thought to occur at central, cognitive and motor preparation stages. Using EMG to measure the effects of emotion on movement, we found that emotional stimuli differing in valence and arousal elicited highly specific effects on peripheral movement time. This result has conceptual implications for the emotion-motion link and potentially practical implications for neurorehabilitation and professional environments where fast motor reactions are critical.

  5. Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

  6. The movement ecology of seagrasses

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space–time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified. PMID:25297859

  7. Stochastic modelling of animal movement

    PubMed Central

    Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal points that attract the animal's movements. (ii) Memory-based models are used to predict how accumulated experience translates into biased movement choices, employing reinforced random walk behaviour, with previous visitation increasing or decreasing the probability of repetition. (iii) Lévy movement involves a step-length distribution that is over-dispersed, relative to standard probability distributions, and adaptive in exploring new environments or searching for rare targets. Each of these modelling arenas implies more detail in the movement pattern than general models of movement can accommodate, but realistic empiric evaluation of their predictions requires dense locational data, both in time and space, only available with modern GPS telemetry. PMID:20566497

  8. Eye Movements in Risky Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, Frouke; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We asked participants to make simple risky choices while we recorded their eye movements. We built a complete statistical model of the eye movements and found very little systematic variation in eye movements over the time course of a choice or across the different choices. The only exceptions were finding more (of the same) eye movements when choice options were similar, and an emerging gaze bias in which people looked more at the gamble they ultimately chose. These findings are inconsistent with prospect theory, the priority heuristic, or decision field theory. However, the eye movements made during a choice have a large relationship with the final choice, and this is mostly independent from the contribution of the actual attribute values in the choice options. That is, eye movements tell us not just about the processing of attribute values but also are independently associated with choice. The pattern is simple—people choose the gamble they look at more often, independently of the actual numbers they see—and this pattern is simpler than predicted by decision field theory, decision by sampling, and the parallel constraint satisfaction model. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27522985

  9. Subjective awareness of abnormal involuntary movements in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Kay, S R; Awerbuch, G I

    1993-01-01

    A wide majority of schizophrenic patients with Tardive dyskinesia, a neurological disorder produced by chronic neuroleptic therapy, lack awareness of their involuntary movements. This by contrast to patients with Parkinsonism who usually are aware of their abnormal movements. In the following communication we present a series of studies which are aimed at providing further insight into the issue of awareness of involuntary movements in schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia. In addition, we investigated whether edentulosness, which may be a risk factor for orofacial dyskinesias in the elderly, is also a risk factor for neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesias. We found that: (a) one's awareness of involuntary movements is related to some but not all muscle groups, (b) tardive dyskinesia may be associated with a significant distress, (c) lack of awareness may be a feature of frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia, (d) patients who lack awareness of their involuntary movements have a higher prevalence of pineal calcification, and (e) edentulosness, which is related to deficits in the orofacial sensorimotor system, increases the risk for neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesias. PMID:7916006

  10. Immune-mediated extrapyramidal movement disorders, including Sydenham chorea.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C

    2013-01-01

    Immune-mediated extrapyramidal movement disorders typically occur in previously healthy children. Immune-mediated movement disorders may occur as a postinfectious, paraneoplastic, or idiopathic process. Sydenham chorea (SC) is the classical poststreptococcal movement and psychiatric disorder, and may be associated with other features of rheumatic fever. The outcome is typically good, although residual chorea, psychiatric disturbance, and relapses are possible. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a syndrome of streptococcal-induced tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although a number of investigators have reported an association between streptococcal infection and neuropsychiatric syndromes, the PANDAS hypothesis is controversial. Encephalitis lethargica is an encephalitic illness with parkinsonism, dyskinesias, and psychiatric disturbance as dominant features. The exact disease mechanism is not understood, although an autoimmune process is suspected. NMDA-R encephalitis is a new entity characterized by encephalitis with dramatic psychiatric disturbance, dyskinesias, cognitive alteration, and seizures. Patients have autoantibodies against the NMDA-R that appear to be pathogenic: immune therapies appear warranted to minimize disability. Movement disorders are also described associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. The differential diagnosis and investigation approach of acute-onset movement disorders are also discussed. PMID:23622334

  11. Psychopathology and Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kranick, Sarah; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Martinez, Valeria; Ameli, Rezvan; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorder is defined as abnormal movements unrelated to a medical cause and presumed related to underlying psychological factors. Although psychological factors are of both clinical and pathophysiological relevance, very few studies to date have systematically assessed their role in psychogenic movement disorder. We sought to assess the role of previous life stress using validated quantitative measures in patients with psychogenic movement disorder compared with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as well as a convenience sample of patients with focal hand dystonia. Sixty-four patients with psychogenic movement disorder (72% female; mean age, 45.2 years [standard deviation, 15.2 years]), 38 healthy volunteers (74% female; mean age, 49 years [standard deviation, 13.7 years]), and 39 patients with focal hand dystonia (37% female; mean age, 48.7 years [standard deviation, 11.7 years]) were evaluated using a standardized psychological interview as well as validated quantitative scales to assess trauma and previous stressors, depression, anxiety, and personality traits. Patients with psychogenic movement disorder reported higher rates of childhood trauma, specifically greater emotional abuse and physical neglect, greater fear associated with traumatic events, and a greater number of traumatic episodes compared with healthy volunteers and patients with focal hand dystonia controlled for depressive symptoms and sex (Bonferroni corrected P < .005). There were no differences in categorical psychiatric diagnoses or scores on childhood physical or sexual abuse subscales, personality traits, or the dissociative experience scale. Our findings highlight a biopsychosocial approach toward the pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorder, although the association with psychological issues is much less prominent than expected compared with the nonepileptic seizure population. A careful psychological assessment is indicated to optimize therapeutic

  12. Mass movement in northeast Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Weihs, Brandon J.; Schettler, Megan Jensen

    Mass movements of nearly all types occur in Afghanistan but in the high relief, rugged Pamir and Hindu Kush mountains of northeastern Afghanistan, mass-movement threats to lives and property necessitated study to elucidate problems to development. Twenty-two different mass movements in bedrock in the Badakhshan Province of northeastern Afghanistan were studied for this paper, including large rock falls and rock slides, along with massive slope-failure complexes with many types and rates of movement. Where higher altitudes prevail in the region, ice-cemented and ice-cored rock glaciers are also common and overlie some of the other mass movements. Inasmuch as seismic energy sources in the Eastern Hindu Kush are maximal in southern Badakhshan, and relief, slope angles and precipitation all increase from west to east as well, the causes of the pervasive mass movement are plentiful enough, although direct cause and slope-failure effect are not known. Some weak sedimentary lithologies downfaulted into, or draped across crystalline rocks, also failed. Some intermixed tills also occur but are not easily differentiated, even with analysis on the ground. Using high resolution satellite imagery and digital elevation models, we assessed geomorphologic parameters to characterize spatial-organization structures related to zones of erosion, deposition and further hazard potential. Analyses indicate that many of the massive slope failures can be characterized and differentiated into various process domains and chronologic-development zones with their different impacts upon the landscape. Mass movements in Afghanistan can exhibit unique topographic signatures that can be used to better assess hazards in other mountain areas, especially where landslide-dam breakout floods threaten. Development of roads, bridges, buildings, and irrigation networks should be done with care in these regions of Afghanistan.

  13. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    PubMed

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  14. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  15. Dance as a therapy for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Gurbuz; Ogce, Filiz

    2005-01-01

    Even though the field of medicine has developed tremendously, the wide variety of cancer is still among chronic and life threatening disease today. Therefore, the specialists constantly research and try every possible way to find cure or preventive ways to stop its further development. For this reason, studies concerning the chronic disease such as cancer have been spread to many different fields. In this regard, many other alternative ways besides medicine, are used in prevention of cancer. Nutritional therapy, herbal therapy, sportive activities, art therapy, music therapy, dance therapy, imagery, yoga and acupuncture can be given as examples. Among these, dance/movement therapy which deals with individuals physical, emotional, cognitive as well as social integration is widely used as a popular form of physical activity. The physical benefits of dance therapy as exercise are well documented. Studies have shown that physical activity is known to increase special neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins), which create a state of well-being. And total body movement such as dance enhances the functions of other body systems, such as circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, and muscular systems. Regarding its unique connection to the field of medicine, many researches have been undertaken on the effects of dance/movement therapy in special settings with physical problems such as amputations, traumatic brain injury, and stroke, chronic illnesses such as anorexia, bulimia, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, AIDS, and arthritis. Today dance/movement therapy is a well recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals as well as at the comprehensive clinical cancer centres. PMID:16236009

  16. Eye movements in vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, A; Colpak, A I; Zee, D S

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of patients with vestibular symptoms usually begins with the question: is the lesion central or is it peripheral? The answer commonly emerges from a careful examination of eye movements, especially when the lesion is located in otherwise clinically silent areas of the brain such as the vestibular portions of the cerebellum (flocculus, paraflocculus which is called the tonsils in humans, nodulus, and uvula) and the vestibular nuclei as well as immediately adjacent areas (the perihypoglossal nuclei and the paramedian nuclei and tracts). The neural circuitry that controls vestibular eye movements is intertwined with a larger network within the brainstem and cerebellum that also controls other types of conjugate eye movements. These include saccades and pursuit as well as the mechanisms that enable steady fixation, both straight ahead and in eccentric gaze positions. Navigating through this complex network requires a thorough knowledge about all classes of eye movements to help localize lesions causing a vestibular disorder. Here we review the different classes of eye movements and how to examine them, and then describe common ocular motor findings associated with central vestibular lesions from both a topographic and functional perspective. PMID:27638066

  17. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  18. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who have radiation therapy may feel more tired than usual, not feel hungry, or lose their ... of radiation therapy include: Fatigue. Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common side effect of radiation ...

  19. Radiation therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Because radiation is most harmful to quickly growing cells, radiation therapy damages cancer cells more than normal cells. ... cells from growing and dividing, and leads to cell death. Radiation therapy is used to fight many types of ...

  20. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb ... in your home. A different kind of oxygen therapy is called hyperbaric oxygen therapy. It uses oxygen ...

  1. Movements of Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R.

    1991-01-01

    Ninety-seven grizzly bears Ursus arctos horribilis were radio-located 6299 times during 1975–1987. Annual range sizes differed by sex, age, reproductive status and amount of precipitation. Females exhibited greater fidelity to seasonal and annual ranges than males. Weaned female offspring generally remained in the vicinity of the maternal range, while weaned males often made substantial movements to unexplored country. Average total home range size was 884 km2 for females and 3757 km2 for males. Males consistently exhibited greater indices of movement and range sizes than females. All cohorts had larger mean ranges during this study than during the period 1959–1969 when the population had access to open garbage dumps. Movements and elevational distribution of all cohorts were related to availability of whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis seeds. We hypothesized that females with cubs-of-the-year and yearlings were displaced from most productive habitats during seasons and years of limited food availability.

  2. The Cycle of Movement. Spotlight: Physical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the important role of movement in Montessori early childhood education. Focuses on the cycle of movement: (1) free exploration; (2) concentration; (3) coordination; and (4) independence. Discusses the contributions of movement to abstract thought and presents information on current theories regarding the connection between movement and…

  3. A Theatre Movement Bibliography, 1978 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Lynne

    Reference materials that deal with various aspects of theater movement are grouped in this partially annotated bibliography under the following headings: anatomy, kinesiology, and physiology; combat and martial arts; integrated approaches to movement; mime; miscellaneous acting and movement approaches; movement notations systems; movement…

  4. Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods

    DOEpatents

    Skorpik, James R.

    2006-10-31

    Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods are described. In one aspect, a wireless communication device includes a housing, wireless communication circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to communicate wireless signals, movement circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to provide movement data regarding movement sensed by the movement circuitry, and event processing circuitry coupled with the housing and the movement circuitry, wherein the event processing circuitry is configured to process the movement data, and wherein at least a portion of the event processing circuitry is configured to operate in a first operational state having a different power consumption rate compared with a second operational state.

  5. Movement Perception and Movement Production in Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kelly J.; Shiffrar, Maggie; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether motor difficulties documented in Asperger's Syndrome (AS) are related to compromised visual abilities, this study examined perception and movement in response to dynamic visual environments. Fourteen males with AS and 16 controls aged 7-23 completed measures of motor skills, postural response to optic flow, and visual…

  6. Proprioceptive Control of Human Movement. The Human Movement Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, John

    Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…

  7. Alterations of eye movement control in neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Martin; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the fovea centralis, the most central part of the retina and the area of the highest visual accuracy, requires humans to shift their gaze rapidly (saccades) to bring some object of interest within the visual field onto the fovea. In addition, humans are equipped with the ability to rotate the eye ball continuously in a highly predicting manner (smooth pursuit) to hold a moving target steadily upon the retina. The functional deficits in neurodegenerative movement disorders (e.g., Parkinsonian syndromes) involve the basal ganglia that are critical in all aspects of movement control. Moreover, neocortical structures, the cerebellum, and the midbrain may become affected by the pathological process. A broad spectrum of eye movement alterations may result, comprising smooth pursuit disturbance (e.g., interrupting saccades), saccadic dysfunction (e.g., hypometric saccades), and abnormal attempted fixation (e.g., pathological nystagmus and square wave jerks). On clinical grounds, videooculography is a sensitive noninvasive in vivo technique to classify oculomotion function alterations. Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention. PMID:24955249

  8. Play Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kool, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Play therapy represents a unique form of treatment that is not only geared toward young children, but is translated into a language children can comprehend and utilize—the language of play. For the referring provider or practitioner, questions may remain regarding the nature, course, and efficacy of play therapy. This article reviews the theoretical underpinnings of play therapy, some practical considerations, and finally a summary of the current state of research in regard to play therapy. The authors present the practicing psychiatrist with a road map for referring a patient to play therapy or initiating it in appropriate cases. PMID:21103141

  9. Movement of Movements: Culture Moves in the Long Civil Rights Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Larry

    2008-01-01

    In what way do movements move? What do we mean by the movement of movements? While still a rather unconventional stance, I advance the argument that social movements are, at root, culture production agents. Regardless of whatever else they may accomplish, movements produce new cultural forms in the course of struggle; they often change and augment…

  10. Naturalistic arm movements during obstacle avoidance in 3D and the identification of movement primitives.

    PubMed

    Grimme, Britta; Lipinski, John; Schöner, Gregor

    2012-10-01

    By studying human movement in the laboratory, a number of regularities and invariants such as planarity and the principle of isochrony have been discovered. The theoretical idea has gained traction that movement may be generated from a limited set of movement primitives that would encode these invariants. In this study, we ask if invariants and movement primitives capture naturalistic human movement. Participants moved objects to target locations while avoiding obstacles using unconstrained arm movements in three dimensions. Two experiments manipulated the spatial layout of targets, obstacles, and the locations in the transport movement where an obstacle was encountered. We found that all movement trajectories were planar, with the inclination of the movement plane reflecting the obstacle constraint. The timing of the movement was consistent with both global isochrony (same movement time for variable path lengths) and local isochrony (same movement time for two components of the obstacle avoidance movement). The identified movement primitives of transport (movement from start to target position) and lift (movement perpendicular to transport within the movement plane) varied independently with obstacle conditions. Their scaling accounted for the observed double peak structure of movement speed. Overall, the observed naturalistic movement was astoundingly regular. Its decomposition into primitives suggests simple mechanisms for movement generation.

  11. The consumer movement in India.

    PubMed

    Girimaji, P

    1993-10-01

    It was thought that passage of the Consumer Protection Act in India in 1986 would encourage consumers to stand up for their rights and lead to an overwhelming number of disputes in consumer courts. Although a consumer movement has yet to get going in India, existence of the act has stimulated the creation of many consumer organizations across the country. The number has such organizations has more the doubled in the last few years so that there are now 600-800 organizations in the voluntary sector. The movement has not blossomed because not all of the organizations are active enough to make an impact, there has hardly been any unified action which would demonstrate their strength, and there has been no active consumer participation in the movements. Consumers claim that the lack of consumer education makes them passive and apathetic, and blame consumer organizations. The majority of consumers in the country are even unaware of the existence of consumer courts to which they make take their grievances. Consumer rights organizations, however, counter that they lack sufficient funds and blame the government for their inaction. The author acknowledges criticism that the Indian consumer movement is elitist and considers the need to focus upon rural consumers, the significant contributions that organizations have made in laying the foundations for change, the need for consumer education, the need for specialists, the particular need for consumer protection with regard to health-related products, and support by voluntary health groups.

  12. THE INTERNATIONAL WALDORF SCHOOL MOVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN

    AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…

  13. Eye movements and information geometry.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Reiner

    2016-08-01

    The human visual system uses eye movements to gather visual information. They act as visual scanning processes and can roughly be divided into two different types: small movements around fixation points and larger movements between fixation points. The processes are often modeled as random walks, and recent models based on heavy tail distributions, also known as Levý flights, have been used in these investigations. In contrast to these approaches we do not model the stochastic processes, but we will show that the step lengths of the movements between fixation points follow generalized Pareto distributions (GPDs). We will use general arguments from the theory of extreme value statistics to motivate the usage of the GPD and show empirically that the GPDs provide good fits for measured eye tracking data. In the framework of information geometry the GPDs with a common threshold form a two-dimensional Riemann manifold with the Fisher information matrix as a metric. We compute the Fisher information matrix for the GPDs and introduce a feature vector describing a GPD by its parameters and different geometrical properties of its Fisher information matrix. In our statistical analysis we use eye tracker measurements in a database with 15 observers viewing 1003 images under free-viewing conditions. We use Matlab functions with their standard parameter settings and show that a naive Bayes classifier using the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix provides a high classification rate identifying the 15 observers in the database. PMID:27505658

  14. Connecting with New Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the emergence of unions and social movements which provide opportunities for adult educators in forwarding their adult literacy campaigns. The author describes the recent World Social Forum (WSF), held at the end of January in Porto Alegre, that provides ample opportunities for adult educators to make…

  15. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  16. Threats to the Inclusive Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiler, Anthony; Gibson, Howard

    1999-01-01

    This article explores four key threats to the movement toward inclusion within the field of special educational needs: the lack of precision in definitions of inclusion; the lack of research evidence, the tendency for some children to experience internal exclusion in the schools, and the continuing inclination to label children. (Author/CR)

  17. Modeling moisture movement in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is one of the leading food crops in the world. At harvest, rice normally has higher moisture content than the moisture content considered safe for its storage, which creates the necessity for a drying process before its storage. In addition to drying, moisture movement within the rice kernels a...

  18. Movement in the Choral Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Briana

    2007-01-01

    Associating movement with specific musical concepts is a natural way for people to broaden their musical understanding. Kinesthetic exercises in the choral rehearsal strengthen vocal technique and musicianship skills and enhance artistic expression. This approach helps all types of learners because it focuses attention and promotes active…

  19. Movement Exploration and Locomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 23 materials for teaching movement exploration and locomotor skills to handicapped students at all educational levels. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS…

  20. Analysis of Circadian Leaf Movements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616

  1. Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

  2. An Analysis of Overcorrection Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Pamela; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results suggested that although overcorrection is a valuable technique in reducing stereotyped behavior in profoundly retarded adults, the overcorrection responses (e.g., restitutional acts, positive practice, functional movement training) may not increase in the absence of specific reinforcement contingencies. (DLS)

  3. Magnetic movement of a brain thermoceptor.

    PubMed

    Howard, M A; Grady, M S; Ritter, R C; Gillies, G T; Quate, E G; Molloy, J A

    1989-03-01

    Hyperthermia has significant potential as an adjuvant form of brain tumor therapy. Current intracranial hyperthermia methods, however, are limited in their ability to control spatiotemporal thermal distribution. A stereotaxic magnetic movement system that may be capable of heating discrete regions of brain to a preselected temperature is described. With this system, a ferromagnetic object (referred to as a thermoceptor) is directed through the brain by an external drive magnet. Real time thermoceptor position is monitored with biplanar fluoroscopy and superimposed on a preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scan using a computer. Once in position, the thermoceptor can be inductively heated by externally generated radiofrequency signals. Experiments on the magnetic drive and imaging aspects of this system have been conducted in vitro and in vivo. Mechanical studies of cadaver dog brains revealed that a mean force of 0.07 +/- 0.03 N was required to move a 3-mm diameter sphere through brain at a speed of less than 1 cm/15 s. A cranial phantom with mechanical properties similar to brain was constructed of gelatin and Plexiglas. With the use of a "neck loop" design drive magnet with a maximum magnetic field strength of 0.10 T, a 3 x 3 mm cylindrical neodymium iron boron thermoceptor was smoothly directed through the phantom in two dimensions. Additional experiments were conducted with a larger drive magnet in five anesthetized dogs. Neodymium iron boron and samarium cobalt thermoceptors of various shapes and sizes were placed into the cerebral cortex through a burr hole, then directed with the drive magnet. Fluoroscopy was used to follow the thermoceptor movements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Leg-robot with MR clutch to realize virtual spastic movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Oda, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Furusho, J.

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we propose a leg-robot with an MR clutch to realize virtual haptic control for spastic movements of brain-injured patients. This system can be used in the practical training for trainees of physical therapy. Additionally, we will study to figure out the physiological mechanism of spastic movements of human with the process to simulate patientlike spastic motion by this robot. In this paper, basic structure and mechanism of the leg-robot with the MR clutch are explained. Finally, experimental results of some kinds of haptic control for spastic movements are described.

  5. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and, particularly, for neurological conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science as well as preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. The pharmacology of cannabis is complex, with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits, but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia, or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or RLS. Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological, and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders. PMID:25649017

  6. The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and particularly for neurologic conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science, preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. Results The pharmacology of cannabis is complex with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or restless legs syndrome. Conclusions Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders. PMID:25649017

  7. Daily Quantity of Infant Leg Movement: Wearable Sensor Algorithm and Relationship to Walking Onset

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Beth A.; Trujillo-Priego, Ivan A.; Lane, Christianne J.; Finley, James M.; Horak, Fay B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Normative values are lacking for daily quantity of infant leg movements. This is critical for understanding the relationship between the quantity of leg movements and onset of independent walking, and will begin to inform early therapy intervention for infants at risk for developmental delay. Methods: We used wearable inertial movement sensors to record full-day leg movement activity from 12 infants with typical development, ages 1–12 months. Each infant was tested three times across 5 months, and followed until the onset of independent walking. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify infant-produced leg movements. Results: Infants moved their legs tens of thousands of times per day. There was a significant effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset. Infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less, even when adjusting for age, developmental level or percentile length. We will need a much larger sample to adequately capture and describe the effect of movement experience on developmental rate. Our algorithm defines a leg movement in a specific way (each pause or change in direction is counted as a new movement), and further assessment of movement characteristics are necessary before we can fully understand and interpret our finding that infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less. Conclusions: We have shown that typically-developing infants produce thousands of leg movements in a typical day, and that this can be accurately captured in the home environment using wearable sensors. In our small sample we can identify there is an effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset, however we cannot fully explain it. PMID:26247951

  8. Physiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Elofsson, Ulf O E; von Schèele, Bo; Theorell, Töres; Söndergaard, Hans Peter

    2008-05-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an established treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, its working mechanism remains unclear. This study explored physiological correlates of eye movements during EMDR in relation to current hypotheses; distraction, conditioning, orienting response activation, and REM-like mechanisms. During EMDR therapy, fingertip temperature, heart rate, skin conductance, expiratory carbon dioxide level, and blood pulse oximeter oxygen saturation, were measured in male subjects with PTSD. The ratio between the low and high frequency components of the heart rate power spectrum (LF/HF) were computed as measures of autonomic balance. Respiratory rate was calculated from the carbon dioxide trace. Stimulation shifted the autonomic balance as indicated by decreases in heart rate, skin conductance and LF/HF-ratio, and an increased finger temperature. The breathing frequency and end-tidal carbon dioxide increased; oxygen saturation decreased during eye movements. In conclusion, eye movements during EMDR activate cholinergic and inhibit sympathetic systems. The reactivity has similarities with the pattern during REM-sleep.

  9. Orthodontic microsurgery: a new surgically guided technique for dental movement.

    PubMed

    Vercellotti, Tomaso; Podesta, Andrea

    2007-08-01

    Eight patients with malocclusions were treated with a new orthodontic-surgical technique that reduces the duration of treatment compared to conventional techniques. The monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament distraction (MTDLD) technique combines two different dental movements that work separately but simultaneously on opposite root surfaces. On the root surface corresponding to the direction of movement, vertical and horizontal microsurgical corticotomies are performed around each tooth root with a piezosurgical microsaw to eliminate cortical bone resistance. The immediate application of strong biomechanical forces produces rapid dislocation of the root and the cortical bone together. On the root surface opposite the direction of movement, the force of dislocation produces rapid distraction of ligament fibers. During the osteogenic process that follows, application of normal orthodontic biomechanics achieves the final tooth movement. All eight patients underwent periodontal and radiologic examinations for more than 1 year after treatment. No periodontal defects were observed in any of the patients, including one with a severe malocclusion and a thin periodontal tissue biotype. Compared to traditional orthodontic therapy, the average treatment time with the MTDLD technique in the mandible and maxilla was reduced by 60% and 70%, respectively.

  10. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    PubMed

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory. PMID:12929791

  11. Electroconvulsive therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Shock treatment; Shock therapy; ECT; Depression - ECT; Bipolar - ECT ... ECT is a highly effective treatment for depression, most commonly ... who: Are having delusions or other psychotic symptoms with ...

  12. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  13. Zero-gravity movement studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  14. [Movement disorders in David Copperfield].

    PubMed

    Garćia Ruiz, P J; Gulliksen, L L

    1999-01-01

    Charles Dickens' novels are a source of vivid neurological descriptions. Besides Pickwickian syndrome, many other neurological descriptions can be found in Dickens' novels. David Copperfield contains several characters with movement disorders including generalized dystonia (Mr. Uriah Heep), restless legs syndrome (the waiter), cervical dystonia (Mr. Sharp) and spasmodic dysphonia (Mr. Creakle). These neurological descriptions an probably based on the observation of actual patients. PMID:10570623

  15. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-12-12

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement.

  16. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264

  17. The hospice movement: institutionalizing innovation.

    PubMed

    Abel, E K

    1986-01-01

    The early leaders of the hospice movement shared a number of attitudes with the founders of the alternative institutions of the 1960s and early 1970s: nostalgia for simple, old fashioned ways, dissatisfaction with bureaucratic and authoritarian institutions, faith in the power of nature, a determination to avoid domination by experts, and a desire to improve the quality of personal relationships. However, as hospices have become better established, they gradually have been incorporated into the dominant health care system and have lost their uniqueness. Some have affiliated with hospitals or home health agencies. Even autonomous organizations are subject to pressures for accommodation because they rely on the established order for resources, personnel, and political acceptance. Organizations receiving payment under the new Medicare benefit must adhere to a set of regulations that may distort the movement. Though creation of this benefit may have been facilitated by increased support for hospice ideals, the government views hospices primarily as a way to save money. Paradoxically, as hospices have grown in popularity, the critical force of the movement has been blunted. PMID:3514497

  18. Random root movements in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsson, A.; Karlsson, C.; Iversen, T. H.; Chapman, D. K.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of root growth was studied in weightlessness. In the absence of the gravitropic reference direction during weightlessness, root movements could be controlled by spontaneous growth processes, without any corrective growth induced by the gravitropic system. If truly random of nature, the bending behavior should follow so-called 'random walk' mathematics during weightlessness. Predictions from this hypothesis were critically tested. In a Spacelab ESA-experiment, denoted RANDOM and carried out during the IML-2 Shuttle flight in July 1994, the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) roots was followed by time lapse photography at 1-h intervals. The growth pattern was recorded for about 20 h. Root growth was significantly smaller in weightlessness as compared to gravity (control) conditions. It was found that the roots performed spontaneous movements in weightlessness. The average direction of deviation of the plants consistently stayed equal to zero, despite these spontaneous movements. The average squared deviation increased linearly with time as predicted theoretically (but only for 8-10 h). Autocorrelation calculations showed that bendings of the roots, as determined from the 1-h photographs, were uncorrelated after about a 2-h interval. It is concluded that random processes play an important role in root growth. Predictions from a random walk hypothesis as to the growth dynamics could explain parts of the growth patterns recorded. This test of the hypothesis required microgravity conditions as provided for in a space experiment.

  19. Parents' Experiences with Services and Treatment for Their Children Diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knis-Matthews, Laurie; Falzarano, Mary; Baum, Deborah; Manganiello, Jennifer; Patel, Sargam; Winters, Laura

    2011-01-01

    While there is a considerable body of knowledge investigating the efficacy of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), there is a need for information focusing on parents' experiences when their children receive these services. This qualitative research study initially explored the experiences of four parents with children who are diagnosed…

  20. To Constrain or Not to Constrain, and Other Stories of Intensive Upper Extremity Training for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired hand function is among the most functionally disabling symptoms of unilateral cerebral palsy. Evidence-based treatment approaches are generally lacking. However, recent approaches providing intensive upper extremity training appear promising. In this review, we first describe two such approaches, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT)…

  1. The Transformation of the "Old Feminist" Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates how the "Old Feminist" movement, originating in broad humanitarian concerns that affirmed woman's selfhood, eventually was transformed into the essentially different "Woman Suffrage" movement. Analyzes a key episode, the 1860 divorce debate. (PD)

  2. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    PubMed

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. PMID:26599117

  3. Social Change Movements and Transformative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auretto, Vera

    2001-01-01

    Defines social change movements and the role played by individual and collective transformation. Addresses the debate over Mezirow's transformation theory and shows how transformative learning was used in the women's movement. (SK)

  4. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    PubMed

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled.

  5. Human movement tracking based on Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Luo, Yuan

    2006-11-01

    During the rehabilitation process of the post-stroke patients is conducted, their movements need to be localized and learned so that incorrect movement can be instantly modified or tuned. Therefore, tracking these movement becomes vital and necessary for the rehabilitative course. In the technologies of human movement tracking, the position prediction of human movement is very important. In this paper, we first analyze the configuration of the human movement system and choice of sensors. Then, The Kalman filter algorithm and its modified algorithm are proposed and to be used to predict the position of human movement. In the end, on the basis of analyzing the performance of the method, it is clear that the method described can be used to the system of human movement tracking.

  6. A central source of movement variability

    PubMed Central

    Churchland, Mark M.; Afshar, Afsheen; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Movements are universally, sometimes frustratingly, variable. When such variability causes error, we typically assume that something went wrong during the movement. The same assumption is made by recent and influential models of motor control. These posit that the principal limit on repeatable performance is neuro-muscular noise that corrupts movement as it occurs. An alternative hypothesis is that movement variability arises before movements begin, during motor preparation. We examined this possibility directly by recording the preparatory activity of single cortical neurons during a highly-practiced reach task. Small variations in preparatory neural activity were predictive of small variations in the upcoming reach. Effect magnitudes were such that at least half of the observed movement variability likely had its source during motor preparation. Thus, even for a highly-practiced task, the ability to repeatedly plan the same movement limits our ability to repeatedly execute the same movement. PMID:17178410

  7. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... throughout life, without other associated signs and symptoms. Intelligence and lifespan are not affected. People with congenital ... movement. Normally, signals from each half of the brain control movements on the opposite side of the ...

  8. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  9. Sweat Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  10. Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  11. Poetry Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald V.

    Poetry therapy is the method of therapy based on the principle that a poem is a special medium for expressing emotions and that this expression can have psychotherapeutic value. A survey taken in 1973 showed there were over 400 therapists treating 3,500 drug addicts, alcoholics, and mental retardates around the country. Poetry therapists…

  12. Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases. PMID:24372817

  13. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  14. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Christopher A.; Rounds, James; Hannum, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Massage therapy (MT) is an ancient form of treatment that is now gaining popularity as part of the complementary and alternative medical therapy movement. A meta-analysis was conducted of studies that used random assignment to test the effectiveness of MT. Mean effect sizes were calculated from 37 studies for 9 dependent variables. Single…

  16. The Problem of Strategy within the Systemic Therapies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Held, Barbara S.

    1992-01-01

    Examines variety of positions regarding strategic principles that have been taken in the debate within systemic therapy movement. Considers strategic therapy in terms of distinction between therapeutic process and content and distinction between realist and antirealist epistemologies, arguing that there is more convergence among proponents of…

  17. Teaching the Three R's Through Movement Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    This book, which is geared toward K-6 classroom teachers with little or no experience in movement education, emphasizes the integration of movement with the academic subjects taught in the classroom. Movement experiences are presented through specific problems that children can solve by using their bodies in a variety of ways. The problems can be…

  18. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  19. Techniques for the Analysis of Human Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieve, D. W.; And Others

    This book presents the major analytical techniques that may be used in the appraisal of human movement. Chapter 1 is devoted to the photopgraphic analysis of movement with particular emphasis on cine filming. Cine film may be taken with little or no restriction on the performer's range of movement; information on the film is permanent and…

  20. Movement times of different arm components.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Hui, Michael C

    2010-08-01

    Data for ballistic and visually controlled movement times of different arm components are presented. Ballistic movement times gave strong support to the theoretical model that movement time is linearly related to the square-root of movement amplitude, for all arm components. It was found that there was a significant effect on movement time of the arm component being used. A scaling analysis showed that this time was linearly related to the product of the square-root of amplitude and the one-tenth power of limb mass moment of inertia. This relationship was found to be approximately true in the experiment. For visually controlled movements, movement time showed a significant interaction between Fitts' Index of Difficulty and arm component. The effect of arm component on movement time was stronger in visually controlled movements than in ballistic movements and did not allow the simple modelling in terms of limb mass moment of inertia as was possible with ballistic moves. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Different arm components take different times to move the same distance, dependent on their mass moments of inertia and muscle strength. The work investigated times for finger, wrist, forearm, and full-arm movements that are relevant to tasks such as manual assembly where there are alternative movement methods available for an operator. PMID:20658392

  1. Movement Education Framework (MEF) Made EZ!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiller-Abels, Karen; Bridges, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    All physical educators want to provide lessons that foster success. Particularly essential to the movement education framework is not only providing lessons that foster motor success, but also to develop knowledge about movement to help the learner develop skill in executing all different types of movement. The framework and examples provided in…

  2. Defining Movements Rhetorically: Casting the Widest Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.

    1980-01-01

    Examines four problems with current rhetorical definitions of movements: the assumption that movements are linear phenomena; over-emphasis on cause and effect analysis; stress on intentional analysis; and rigid definitions. Suggests a more open study which lets the critic define the movement by the study done and argue for its usefulness and…

  3. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  4. Coding and Interpreting Movement on the Rorschach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holaday, Margot

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 26 Rorschach experts and 19 students of Rorschach use was conducted to help students using the Exner Comprehensive System determine whether to code movement for nouns with definitions that include movement. Experts and students did not reach agreement, but a literature review suggests such nouns should often be coded as movement. (SLD)

  5. Movement and Creative Drama for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowndes, Betty

    The relationships among improvisational movement, creative drama, "movement thinking," and motivation for learning in children are explored in this book. Chapters deal with (1) the meaning of movement and drama, (2) a clarification of the teacher's role and the capabilities of children, (3) sensory awareness activities, (4) body awareness--e.g.,…

  6. Latino Movement: A Target for Harassment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Members of the Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan (MEChA), which translates to Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan, report that their movement is being targeted by school administrators across the country due to its demands for Chicano/Latino studies programs and protests against anti-immigration and anti-affirmative action movements.…

  7. Human Movement Potential: Its Ideokinetic Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweigard, Lulu E.

    This book focuses on the interdependence of postural alignment and the performance of movement. It provides an educational method (ideokinesis), which stresses the inherent capacity of the nervous system to determine the most efficient neuromuscular coordination for each movement. This method of teaching body balance and efficient movement has…

  8. Mexican-American: Movements and Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larralde, Carlos

    Biographical studies of 20 influential Chicano leaders trace Mexican American history from 1848 to the present. The book is organized chronologically by four historical periods: (1) The Cortinista Movement, 1848-1876; (2) The Teresita Movement, 1888-1905; (3) The Magonista Movement, 1904-1919; and (4) The Chicano Activists, 1920 ;o the present.…

  9. Music Therapy for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Anita Louise; Crawford, Celeste

    1982-01-01

    The development and implementation of a music therapy program to achieve behavioral change in visually impaired children and adolescents are described. Goals targeted by the music therapist at the Cleveland Society for the Blind include altering unusual body movements, poor posture, and other mannerisms often associated with blindness. (SEW)

  10. PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 and PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED1 Mediate Photorelocation Movements of Both Chloroplasts and Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Higa, Takeshi; Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Organelle movement and positioning play important roles in fundamental cellular activities and adaptive responses to environmental stress in plants. To optimize photosynthetic light utilization, chloroplasts move toward weak blue light (the accumulation response) and escape from strong blue light (the avoidance response). Nuclei also move in response to strong blue light by utilizing the light-induced movement of attached plastids in leaf cells. Blue light receptor phototropins and several factors for chloroplast photorelocation movement have been identified through molecular genetic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 (PMI1) is a plant-specific C2-domain protein that is required for efficient chloroplast photorelocation movement. There are two PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED (PMIR) genes, PMIR1 and PMIR2, in the Arabidopsis genome. However, the mechanism in which PMI1 regulates chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements and the involvement of PMIR1 and PMIR2 in these organelle movements remained unknown. Here, we analyzed chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mutant lines of PMI1, PMIR1, and PMIR2. In mesophyll cells, the pmi1 single mutant showed severe defects in both chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements resulting from the impaired regulation of chloroplast-actin filaments. In pavement cells, pmi1 mutant plants were partially defective in both plastid and nuclear photorelocation movements, but pmi1pmir1 and pmi1pmir1pmir2 mutant lines lacked the blue light-induced movement responses of plastids and nuclei completely. These results indicated that PMI1 is essential for chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mesophyll cells and that both PMI1 and PMIR1 are indispensable for photorelocation movements of plastids and thus, nuclei in pavement cells. PMID:26324877

  11. PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 and PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED1 Mediate Photorelocation Movements of Both Chloroplasts and Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Higa, Takeshi; Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Organelle movement and positioning play important roles in fundamental cellular activities and adaptive responses to environmental stress in plants. To optimize photosynthetic light utilization, chloroplasts move toward weak blue light (the accumulation response) and escape from strong blue light (the avoidance response). Nuclei also move in response to strong blue light by utilizing the light-induced movement of attached plastids in leaf cells. Blue light receptor phototropins and several factors for chloroplast photorelocation movement have been identified through molecular genetic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 (PMI1) is a plant-specific C2-domain protein that is required for efficient chloroplast photorelocation movement. There are two PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED (PMIR) genes, PMIR1 and PMIR2, in the Arabidopsis genome. However, the mechanism in which PMI1 regulates chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements and the involvement of PMIR1 and PMIR2 in these organelle movements remained unknown. Here, we analyzed chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mutant lines of PMI1, PMIR1, and PMIR2. In mesophyll cells, the pmi1 single mutant showed severe defects in both chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements resulting from the impaired regulation of chloroplast-actin filaments. In pavement cells, pmi1 mutant plants were partially defective in both plastid and nuclear photorelocation movements, but pmi1pmir1 and pmi1pmir1pmir2 mutant lines lacked the blue light-induced movement responses of plastids and nuclei completely. These results indicated that PMI1 is essential for chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mesophyll cells and that both PMI1 and PMIR1 are indispensable for photorelocation movements of plastids and thus, nuclei in pavement cells.

  12. The Effects of Increasing Mass on the Variability of Movement & Segmental Movement Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Connell M. J.; And Others

    The effects of increasing the load of materials to be moved on rapid movement of these materials were measured using two dependent variables. The first analysis involved overall mean movement time (MT) and segmental movement times. The second analysis dealt with movement time variability evidenced by within subject MT and segmental MT standard…

  13. Effects of Risperidone on Cognitive-Motor Performance and Motor Movements in Chronically Medicated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; Hollway, Jill A.; Leone, Sarah; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald; Nash, Patricia; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the placebo-controlled effects of risperidone on cognitive-motor processes, dyskinetic movements, and behavior in children receiving maintenance risperidone therapy. Sixteen children aged 4-14 years with disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to drug order in a crossover study of risperidone and placebo for 2…

  14. Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing To Enhance Treatment of Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protinsky, Howard; Sparks, Jennifer; Flemke, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a clinical technique may enhance treatment effectiveness when applied in couple therapy that is emotionally and experientially oriented. Clinical experience indicates EMDR-based interventions are useful for accessing and reprocessing intense emotions in couple interactions. EMDR can amplify…

  15. Lateral movement of auxin in phototropism.

    PubMed

    Dela Fuente, R K; Leopold, A C

    1968-07-01

    Lateral movement of indoleacetic acid-1-(14)C in corn coleoptiles was measured as radioactivity moving laterally following unilateral application of the auxin. The data suggest that there is an endogenous lateral movement of auxin, and that phototropic stimulation of the coleoptile depresses lateral movement towards the light and enhances lateral movement away from the light. The lateral movement was found to be principally as indoleacetic acid. In experiments using sunflower hypocotyl sections, evidence is also presented to support the suggestion that lateral redistribution of auxin may be effected by a deflection of auxin around a barrier to basipetal transport.

  16. Reading without saccadic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G S; Turano, K

    1992-05-01

    To assess the limitation on reading speed imposed by saccadic eye movements, we measured reading speed in 13 normally-sighted observers using two modes of text presentations: PAGE text which presents an entire passage conventionally in static, paragraph format, and rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) which presents text sequentially, one word at a time at the same location in the visual field. In Expt 1, subjects read PAGE and RSVP text orally across a wide range of letter sizes (2X to 32X single-letter acuity) and reading speed was computed from the number of correct words read per minute. Reading speeds were consistently faster for RSVP compared to PAGE text at all letter sizes tested. The average speeds for text of an intermediate letter size (8X acuity) were 1171 words/min for RSVP and 303 words/min for PAGE text. In Expt 2 subjects read PAGE and RSVP text silently and a multiple-choice comprehension test was administered after each passage. All subjects continued to read RSVP text faster, and 6 subjects read at the maximum testable rate (1652 words/min) with at least 75% correct on the comprehension tests. Experiment 3 assessed the minimum word exposure time required for decoding text using RSVP to minimize potential delays due to saccadic eye movement control. Successive words were presented for a fixed duration (word duration) with a blank interval (ISI) between words. The minimum word duration required for accurate oral reading averaged 69.4 msec and was not reduced by increasing ISI. We interpret these results as an indication that the programming and execution of saccadic eye movements impose an upper limit on conventional reading speed.

  17. Antiparasitic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kappagoda, Shanthi; Singh, Upinder; Blackburn, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect more than 2 billion people globally and cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly among the world's poorest people. This overview focuses on the treatment of the major protozoan and helminth infections in humans. Recent developments in antiparasitic therapy include the expansion of artemisinin-based therapies for malaria, new drugs for soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa, expansion of the indications for antiparasitic drug treatment in patients with Chagas disease, and the use of combination therapy for leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21628620

  18. Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

  19. Visually Guided Control of Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W. (Editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The papers given at an intensive, three-week workshop on visually guided control of movement are presented. The participants were researchers from academia, industry, and government, with backgrounds in visual perception, control theory, and rotorcraft operations. The papers included invited lectures and preliminary reports of research initiated during the workshop. Three major topics are addressed: extraction of environmental structure from motion; perception and control of self motion; and spatial orientation. Each topic is considered from both theoretical and applied perspectives. Implications for control and display are suggested.

  20. Eye movement monitoring of memory.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

    2010-08-15

    Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior

  1. Protein phosphorylation in stomatal movement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Chen, Sixue; Harmon, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    As research progresses on how guard cells perceive and transduce environmental cues to regulate stomatal movement, plant biologists are discovering key roles of protein phosphorylation. Early research efforts focused on characterization of ion channels and transporters in guard cell hormonal signaling. Subsequent genetic studies identified mutants of kinases and phosphatases that are defective in regulating guard cell ion channel activities, and recently proteins regulated by phosphorylation have been identified. Here we review the essential role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-induced stomatal closure and in blue light-induced stomatal opening. We also highlight evidence for the cross-talk between different pathways, which is mediated by protein phosphorylation. PMID:25482764

  2. Kinematic parameters of hand movement during a disparate bimanual movement task in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Rudisch, Julian; Butler, Jenny; Izadi, Hooshang; Zielinski, Ingar Marie; Aarts, Pauline; Birtles, Deirdre; Green, Dido

    2016-04-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (uCP) experience problems performing tasks requiring the coordinated use of both hands (bimanual coordination; BC). Additionally, some children with uCP display involuntary symmetrical activation of the opposing hand (mirrored movements). Measures, used to investigate therapy-related improvements focus on the functionality of the affected hand during unimanual or bimanual tasks. None however specifically address spatiotemporal integration of both hands. We explored the kinematics of hand movements during a bimanual task to identify parameters of BC. Thirty-seven children (aged 10.9±2.6years, 20 male) diagnosed with uCP participated. 3D kinematic motion analysis was performed during the task requiring opening of a box with their affected- (AH) or less-affected hand (LAH), and pressing a button inside with the opposite hand. Temporal and spatial components of data were extracted and related to measures of hand function and level of impairment. Total task duration was correlated with the Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function in both conditions (either hand leading with the lid-opening). Spatial accuracy of the LAH when the box was opened with their AH was correlated with outcomes on the Children's Hand Use Experience Questionnaire. Additionally, we found a subgroup of children displaying non-symmetrical movement interference associated with greater movement overlap when their affected hand opened the box. This subgroup also demonstrated decreased use of the affected hand during bimanual tasks. Further investigation of bimanual interference, which goes beyond small scaled symmetrical mirrored movements, is needed to consider its impact on bimanual task performance following early unilateral brain injury. PMID:26803675

  3. Kinematic parameters of hand movement during a disparate bimanual movement task in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Rudisch, Julian; Butler, Jenny; Izadi, Hooshang; Zielinski, Ingar Marie; Aarts, Pauline; Birtles, Deirdre; Green, Dido

    2016-04-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (uCP) experience problems performing tasks requiring the coordinated use of both hands (bimanual coordination; BC). Additionally, some children with uCP display involuntary symmetrical activation of the opposing hand (mirrored movements). Measures, used to investigate therapy-related improvements focus on the functionality of the affected hand during unimanual or bimanual tasks. None however specifically address spatiotemporal integration of both hands. We explored the kinematics of hand movements during a bimanual task to identify parameters of BC. Thirty-seven children (aged 10.9±2.6years, 20 male) diagnosed with uCP participated. 3D kinematic motion analysis was performed during the task requiring opening of a box with their affected- (AH) or less-affected hand (LAH), and pressing a button inside with the opposite hand. Temporal and spatial components of data were extracted and related to measures of hand function and level of impairment. Total task duration was correlated with the Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function in both conditions (either hand leading with the lid-opening). Spatial accuracy of the LAH when the box was opened with their AH was correlated with outcomes on the Children's Hand Use Experience Questionnaire. Additionally, we found a subgroup of children displaying non-symmetrical movement interference associated with greater movement overlap when their affected hand opened the box. This subgroup also demonstrated decreased use of the affected hand during bimanual tasks. Further investigation of bimanual interference, which goes beyond small scaled symmetrical mirrored movements, is needed to consider its impact on bimanual task performance following early unilateral brain injury.

  4. Conservation law for self-paced movements.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-08-01

    Optimal control models of biological movements introduce external task factors to specify the pace of movements. Here, we present the dual to the principle of optimality based on a conserved quantity, called "drive," that represents the influence of internal motivation level on movement pace. Optimal control and drive conservation provide equivalent descriptions for the regularities observed within individual movements. For regularities across movements, drive conservation predicts a previously unidentified scaling law between the overall size and speed of various self-paced hand movements in the absence of any external tasks, which we confirmed with psychophysical experiments. Drive can be interpreted as a high-level control variable that sets the overall pace of movements and may be represented in the brain as the tonic levels of neuromodulators that control the level of internal motivation, thus providing insights into how internal states affect biological motor control.

  5. Conservation law for self-paced movements.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-08-01

    Optimal control models of biological movements introduce external task factors to specify the pace of movements. Here, we present the dual to the principle of optimality based on a conserved quantity, called "drive," that represents the influence of internal motivation level on movement pace. Optimal control and drive conservation provide equivalent descriptions for the regularities observed within individual movements. For regularities across movements, drive conservation predicts a previously unidentified scaling law between the overall size and speed of various self-paced hand movements in the absence of any external tasks, which we confirmed with psychophysical experiments. Drive can be interpreted as a high-level control variable that sets the overall pace of movements and may be represented in the brain as the tonic levels of neuromodulators that control the level of internal motivation, thus providing insights into how internal states affect biological motor control. PMID:27418602

  6. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  7. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy works, it helps to understand how your respiratory system works. This system is a group of organs and tissues that help you breathe. The respiratory system includes the airways and lungs. The airways carry ...

  8. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nucleus is surrounded by electrons. In proton therapy, beams of fast-moving protons are used to destroy ... atoms to release proton, neutron, and helium ion beams. In this highly specialized form of radiosurgery , proton ...

  9. Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaščáková, Slávka; Giuliani, Alexandre; Jamme, Frédéric; Refregiers, Matthieu

    Treatments based on absorption of electromagnetic radiation may be categorized according to the photon wavelength range. On the one hand, radiotherapy is based on X-rays delivery to tissues and is widely spread and recognized for cancer treatment. On the other hand, photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves low energy radiation in the visible and near infrared range in combination with a drug referred to as the photosensitizer. A short overview of conventional radiotherapy and accelerator-based therapy is first presented. Then PDT is introduced and its mechanisms are reviewed along with the factors affecting its outcome. The domains of application of this therapy are presented through a discussion of the most used photosentizers. Finally we present new developments in the field that would permit the combination of potentialized radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy.

  10. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a much more confined way than conventional photon therapy thus allowing the radiation oncologist to use ... charge. Just as x-rays (also known as photons) are used to treat both benign and malignant ...

  11. Proton therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... direction of the tumor. A machine called a synchrotron or cyclotron creates and speeds up the protons. ... redness in the radiation area, and temporary hair loss. AFTER THE PROCEDURE Following proton therapy, you should ...

  12. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  13. Susceptibility genes in movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Sonja; Singleton, Andrew

    2008-05-15

    During the last years, remarkable progress in our understanding of molecular genetic mechanisms underlying movement disorders has been achieved. The successes of linkage studies, followed by positional cloning, have dominated the last decade and several genes underlying monogenic disorders have been discovered. The pathobiological understanding garnered from these mutations has laid the foundation for much of the search for genetic loci that confer risk for, rather than cause, disease. With the introduction of whole genome association studies as a novel tool to investigate genetic variation underlying common, complex diseases, a new era in neurogenomics has just begun. As the field rapidly moves forward several new challenges and critical questions in clinical care have to be addressed. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the discovery of susceptibility loci underlying major movement disorders, explain the newest methodologies and tools employed for finding and characterizing genes and discuss how insights into the molecular genetic basis of neurological disorders will impact therapeutic concepts in patient care.

  14. Movelets: A dictionary of movement

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiawei; Goldsmith, Jeff; Caffo, Brian; Glass, Thomas A.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances provide researchers with a way of gathering real-time information on an individual's movement through the use of wearable devices that record acceleration. In this paper, we propose a method for identifying activity types, like walking, standing, and resting, from acceleration data. Our approach decomposes movements into short components called “movelets”, and builds a reference for each activity type. Unknown activities are predicted by matching new movelets to the reference. We apply our method to data collected from a single, three-axis accelerometer and focus on activities of interest in studying physical function in elderly populations. An important technical advantage of our methods is that they allow identification of short activities, such as taking two or three steps and then stopping, as well as low frequency rare(compared with the whole time series) activities, such as sitting on a chair. Based on our results we provide simple and actionable recommendations for the design and implementation of large epidemiological studies that could collect accelerometry data for the purpose of predicting the time series of activities and connecting it to health outcomes. PMID:23293708

  15. Winter movement dynamics of Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998-Mar 2000) using capture-recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  16. Involuntary movements due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Aaron; Moloi, M W

    2014-12-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 produces protean effects on the nervous system, most commonly neuropathy, myelopathy, cognitive and behavioural symptoms, and optic atrophy. Involuntary movements comprise a relatively rare manifestation of this readily treatable disorder. Both adults and infants deficient in vitamin B12 may present with chorea, tremor, myoclonus, Parkinsonism, dystonia, or a combination of these, which may precede diagnosis or become apparent only a few days after parenteral replacement therapy has begun. The pathogenesis of these movement disorders shows interesting parallels to certain neurodegenerative conditions. The clinical syndrome responds well to vitamin B12 supplementation in most cases, and an early diagnosis is essential to reverse the haematological and neurological dysfunction characteristic of this disorder. In this article, we elucidate the association of vitamin B12 deficiency with movement disorders in adults and in infants, discuss the pathogenesis of this association, review previously reported cases, and present a young adult male with severe generalized chorea that showed a salutary response to vitamin B12 supplementation. PMID:24852503

  17. New therapeutic modalities to modulate orthodontic tooth movement

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Ildeu; Sousa, Ana Beatriz dos Santos; da Silva, Gabriela Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is desirable not only to patients because it shortens treatment time, but also to orthodontists, since treatment duration is associated with increased risk of gingival inflammation, decalcification, dental caries, and root resorption. The increased focus on the biological basis of tooth movement has rendered Orthodontics a more comprehensive specialty that incorporates facets of all fields of medicine. Current knowledge raises the possibility of using new therapeutic modalities for modulation of OTM, such as corticotomy, laser therapy, vibration (low-intensity pulsed ultrasound), local injections of biomodulators and gene therapy; with the latter being applicable in the near future. They are intended to enhance or inhibit recruitment, differentiation and/or activation of bone cells, accelerate or reduce OTM, increase stability of orthodontic results, as well as assist with the prevention of root resorption. This article summarizes recent studies on each one of these therapeutic modalities, provides readers with information about how they affect OTM and points out future clinical perspectives. PMID:25628089

  18. Early alcoholism treatment: the Emmanuel Movement and Richard Peabody.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K

    1984-01-01

    The history of alcoholism treatment in the early twentieth century is outlined. The methods of the Emmanuel Movement and of Richard Peabody are described, biographical details of their main practitioners are given, the populations treated are described, and the predecessors and successors of the two methods are discussed. In addition, the two methods are compared with each other and with the methods of Alcoholics Anonymous and Freudian psychoanalysis. The founder of the E. Movement was a clergyman, Dr. Elwood Worcester, whose method was designed to treat a variety of neurotic disorders. He felt that all diseases, including alcoholism, had physical, mental and spiritual components. His principal techniques of relaxation therapy and suggestion (including autosuggestion) were used to reach the unconscious. Worcester felt that alcoholics could be helped by redirecting their attention away from their problems to a life of service and spirituality. Prayer, group support and self-help were important. Worcester tried to reduce patients' guilt and rejected temperance preaching. He felt that recovery must come from surrender to external forces and to the healing capacities of the unconscious. One patient of his, Courtenay Baylor, began to work with him at the E. Church. Like Worcester, Baylor believed that alcohol, and not one's life history, caused alcoholism. Baylor believed that alcoholism resulted from mental and physical "tenseness" and, like Worcester, he used relaxation therapy. He believed in giving a longer period of treatment than did Worcester and in providing more treatment for the families of alcoholics. One of Baylor's most famous patients was Peabody. Peabody had no credentials but he refined and professionalized the E. treatment method. He was a strong believer in the control of one's feelings and in increased efficiency--his patients were told to follow detailed time plans. He believed that early family history caused alcoholism. Like the E. Movement, he

  19. Phantom hand and wrist movements in upper limb amputees are slow but naturally controlled movements.

    PubMed

    De Graaf, J B; Jarrassé, N; Nicol, C; Touillet, A; Coyle, T; Maynard, L; Martinet, N; Paysant, J

    2016-01-15

    After limb amputation, patients often wake up with a vivid perception of the presence of the missing limb, called "phantom limb". Phantom limbs have mostly been studied with respect to pain sensation. But patients can experience many other phantom sensations, including voluntary movements. The goal of the present study was to quantify phantom movement kinematics and relate these to intact limb kinematics and to the time elapsed since amputation. Six upper arm and two forearm amputees with various delays since amputation (6months to 32years) performed phantom finger, hand and wrist movements at self-chosen comfortable velocities. The kinematics of the phantom movements was indirectly obtained via the intact limb that synchronously mimicked the phantom limb movements, using a Cyberglove® for measuring finger movements and an inertial measurement unit for wrist movements. Results show that the execution of phantom movements is perceived as "natural" but effortful. The types of phantom movements that can be performed are variable between the patients but they could all perform thumb flexion/extension and global hand opening/closure. Finger extension movements appeared to be 24% faster than finger flexion movements. Neither the number of types of phantom movements that can be executed nor the kinematic characteristics were related to the elapsed time since amputation, highlighting the persistence of post-amputation neural adaptation. We hypothesize that the perceived slowness of phantom movements is related to altered proprioceptive feedback that cannot be recalibrated by lack of visual feedback during phantom movement execution.

  20. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    PubMed

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. PMID:26972261

  1. Physical constraints for pathogen movement.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2015-10-01

    In this pedagogical review, we discuss the physical constraints that pathogens experience when they move in their host environment. Due to their small size, pathogens are living in a low Reynolds number world dominated by viscosity. For swimming pathogens, the so-called scallop theorem determines which kinds of shape changes can lead to productive motility. For crawling or gliding cells, the main resistance to movement comes from protein friction at the cell-environment interface. Viruses and pathogenic bacteria can also exploit intracellular host processes such as actin polymerization and motor-based transport, if they present the appropriate factors on their surfaces. Similar to cancer cells that also tend to cross various barriers, pathogens often combine several of these strategies in order to increase their motility and therefore their chances to replicate and spread.

  2. Aspectual coercion in eye movements.

    PubMed

    Townsend, David J

    2013-06-01

    Comprehension includes interpreting sentences in terms of aspectual categories such as processes (Harry climbed) and culminations (Harry reached the top). Adding a verbal modifier such as for many years to a culmination coerces its interpretation from one to many culminations. Previous studies have found that coercion increases lexical decision and meaning judgment time, but not eye fixation time. This study recorded eye movements as participants read sentences in which a coercive adverb increased the interpretation of multiple events. Adverbs appeared at the end of a clause and line; the post-adverb region appeared at the beginning of the next line; follow-up questions occasionally asked about aspectual meaning; and clause type varied systematically. Coercive adverbs increased eye fixation time in the post-adverb region and in the adverb and post-adverb regions combined. Factors that influence the appearance of aspectual coercion may include world knowledge, follow-up questions, and the location and ambiguity of adverbs.

  3. Classification of offshore mass movements

    SciTech Connect

    Mulder, T. |; Cochonat, P.

    1996-01-01

    More than 100 offshore mass-movement deposits have been studied in Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The processes can be divided into three main types: slides/slumps, plastic flows, and turbidity currents, of which 13 main varieties have been recognized. The three types are differentiated mainly by motion, architecture, and shape of failure surface. For slides, the morphology of deposits can usually be linked to a process, but for plastic flows and turbidity currents, information about the motion is mainly provided by the sedimentary record. A static classification based on these features is given, and is related to a dynamic classification system to try to underline the morphological transformation of an offshore event from initiation to deposition.

  4. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    PubMed

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes.

  5. [Gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fragoso, L

    1997-01-01

    In the last years there has been much progress in our understanding of molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of disease. In this review we provide an overview of gene therapy, its most actualized techniques for gene delivery, and we give specific examples of laboratory and clinical achievements to date. The development of methods for delivering genes to mammalian cells has stimulated great interest in the possibility of treating human disease by gene-based therapies. As a result, concepts and methods that would have been considered purely science fiction 50 years ago are now used in the treatment of diseases. The widespread application of gene therapy technology to many diseases is already breaking down the traditional boundaries of modern medicine. However, despite its progress, several key technical drawbacks need to be overcome before gene therapy can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings. Technological developments, particularly in the areas of gene delivery and cell transplantation, will be critical for the successful practice of gene therapy.

  6. Behavioral evaluation of movement cancellation.

    PubMed

    Walton, Mark M G; Gandhi, Neeraj J

    2006-10-01

    The countermanding saccade task has been used in many studies to investigate the neural mechanisms that underlie the decision to execute or restrain rapid eye movements. In this task, the presentation of a saccade target is sometimes followed by the appearance of a stop cue that indicates that the subject should cancel the planned movement. Performance has been modeled as a race between motor preparation and cancellation processes. The signal that reaches its activation threshold first determines whether a saccade is generated or cancelled. In these studies, an important parameter is the time required to process the stop cue, referred to as the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). The SSRT is estimated using statistical approaches, the validity of which has not been unequivocally established. A more direct measure of this parameter might be obtainable if a method was available to "unmask" the developing motor command. This can be accomplished by air-puff-evoked blinks, which inhibit pontine omnipause neurons that serve as an inhibitory gate for the saccadic system. In the present study, brief puffs of air were used to elicit blinks at various times while rhesus monkeys performed a countermanding saccade task. If the developing motor command has not yet been cancelled, this should trigger a saccade. When blinks occurred between approximately 50 and 200 ms after target onset, saccades were often evoked. Saccades were rarely evoked more than approximately 70 ms after stop cue onset; this value represents a behavioral evaluation of SSRT and was comparable to the estimates obtained using standard statistical approaches. When saccades occurred near the SSRT on blink trials, they were often hypometric. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to model the effects of blink time on the race model. Overall, the study supports the validity of the statistical methods currently in use. PMID:16760340

  7. Adaptive Variability in Skilled Human Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Kazutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    Human movements are produced in variable external/internal environments. Because of this variability, the same motor command can result in quite different movement patterns. Therefore, to produce skilled movements humans must coordinate the variability, not try to exclude it. In addition, because human movements are produced in redundant and complex systems, a combination of variability should be observed in different anatomical/physiological levels. In this paper, we introduce our research about human movement variability that shows remarkable coordination among components, and between organism and environment. We also introduce nonlinear dynamical models that can describe a variety of movements as a self-organization of a dynamical system, because the dynamical systems approach is a major candidate to understand the principle underlying organization of varying systems with huge degrees-of-freedom.

  8. Air movement preferences observed in office buildings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Fard, Sahar Abbaszadeh; Huizenga, Charlie; Paliaga, Gwelen; Brager, Gail; Zagreus, Leah

    2007-05-01

    Office workers' preferences for air movement have been extracted from a database of indoor environmental quality surveys performed in over 200 buildings. Dissatisfaction with the amount of air motion is very common, with too little air movement cited far more commonly than too much air movement. Workers were also surveyed in a detailed two-season study of a single naturally ventilated building. About one-half the building's population wanted more air movement and only 4% wanted less. This same ratio applied when the air movement in workspaces was higher than 0.2 m/s, the de facto draft limit in the current ASHRAE and ISO thermal environment standards. Preference for "less air motion" exceeded that for "more" only at thermal sensations of -2 (cool) or colder. These results raise questions about the consequences of the ASHRAE and ISO standards' restrictions on air movement, especially for neutral and warm conditions.

  9. "FITS" concept Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bialek, Marianna; M'hango, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis--FITS concept may be used as a separate system of scoliosis correction, a supportive therapy to bracing, children preparation to surgery and also shoulder and pelvic girdle correction after surgical interventions. Taking into account the dysfunctions accompanying scoliosis, the authors of the concept propose an individually adjusted programme of exercises depending on a curvature angle and a result of clinical examination of a patient. On this basis both general and specific goals are set. FITS concept consists of two stages: --Elimination of myofascial restrictions which limit a three-plane corrective movement, by using different techniques of muscle energization; --building new corrective posture patterns in functional positions. By sensory motor balance training and exercising the lower trunk stabilization we can start teaching corrective breathing (with the scoliosis convexities) and adjust corrective movement patterns (in open and close chains). A selection of corrective movement patterns will depend on a type of scoliosis, a direction of spine rotation and a place of building functional compensation. Every corrective pattern includes three components: flexion/extension (the saggital plane correction), elevation/depression (the frontal plane correction) and external/internal rotation (the transverse plane correction). In the processs of therapy the corrective movement patterns are being changed depending on curvature angle behaving and clinical picture of a patient.

  10. A Short Term Therapy Approach to Processing Trauma: Art Therapy and Bilateral Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Tally

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a dynamic, short-term art therapy approach that has been developed for the treatment of trauma related disorders. Using a modified Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol with alternating tactile and auditory bilateral stimulation, associations are rapidly brought to conscious awareness and expressed in…

  11. Cortical Tremor (CT) with coincident orthostatic movements.

    PubMed

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Frucht, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Cortical tremor (CT) is a form of cortical reflex myoclonus that can mimic essential tremor (ET). Clinical features that are helpful in distinguishing CT from ET are the irregular and jerky appearance of the movements. We report two patients with CT with coexisting orthostatic movements, either orthostatic tremor (OT) or myoclonus, who experienced functional improvement in both cortical myoclonus and orthostatic movements when treated with levetiracetam. PMID:26788343

  12. Movement disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jagota, Priya; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Lang, Anthony E

    2012-03-15

    Movement disorders are not infrequent in patients with diabetes mellitus. These may occur on the basis of both central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction and can be secondary to severe hyperglycemia, complications of diabetes or its treatment and less often to diseases in which both diabetes and a movement disorder are primary manifestations of the same underlying disease. We present a typical case of a severe movement disorder complicating diabetes as a springboard to review the spectrum of disorders associated with this condition.

  13. The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, A.

    1986-11-01

    The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad is a mountain-slide type of movement. Estimations of the thickness of the layer which is moving range between 10 and 100 m. There is no proof that the movement is water induced, but it could be influenced by the water household. The slope of the slide area is H: D = 1: 2. The height difference in the moving area studied, according to this paper, is 1 km. The actual rate of movement is about 12 cm/yr.

  14. Sensorimotor organization of a sustained involuntary movement

    PubMed Central

    De Havas, Jack; Ghosh, Arko; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Involuntary movements share much of the motor control circuitry used for voluntary movement, yet the two can be easily distinguished. The Kohnstamm phenomenon (where a sustained, hard push produces subsequent involuntary arm raising) is a useful experimental model for exploring differences between voluntary and involuntary movement. Both central and peripheral accounts have been proposed, but little is known regarding how the putative Kohnstamm generator responds to afferent input. We addressed this by obstructing the involuntary upward movement of the arm. Obstruction prevented the rising EMG pattern that characterizes the Kohnstamm. Importantly, once the obstruction was removed, the EMG signal resumed its former increase, suggesting a generator that persists despite peripheral input. When only one arm was obstructed during bilateral involuntary movements, only the EMG signal from the obstructed arm showed the effect. Upon release of the obstacle, the obstructed arm reached the same position and EMG level as the unobstructed arm. Comparison to matched voluntary movements revealed a preserved stretch response when a Kohnstamm movement first contacts an obstacle, and also an overestimation of the perceived contact force. Our findings support a hybrid central and peripheral account of the Kohnstamm phenomenon. The strange subjective experience of this involuntary movement is consistent with the view that movement awareness depends strongly on efference copies, but that the Kohnstamm generator does not produces efference copies. PMID:26283934

  15. Is movement variability important for sports biomechanists?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Roger; Wheat, Jon; Robins, Matthew

    2007-05-01

    This paper overviews the importance for sports biomechanics of movement variability, which has been studied for some time by cognitive and ecological motor skills specialists but, until quite recently, had somewhat been overlooked by sports biomechanists. The paper considers biomechanics research reporting inter- and intra-individual movement variability in javelin and discus throwing, basketball shooting, and locomotion. The overview does not claim to be comprehensive and we exclude such issues as the theoretical background to movement and coordination variability and their measurement. We overview evidence, both theoretical and empirical, of inter-individual movement variability in seeking to achieve the same task goal, in contrast to the concept of "optimal" movement patterns. Furthermore, even elite athletes cannot reproduce identical movement patterns after many years of training, contradicting the ideas of motor invariance and "representative" trials. We contend that movement variability, far from being solely due to neuromuscular system or measurement "noise"--as sports biomechanists may have previously supposed--is, or could be, functional. Such functionality could allow environmental adaptations, reduce injury risk, and facilitate changes in coordination patterns. We conclude by recommending that sports biomechanists should focus more of their research on movement variability and on important related topics, such as control and coordination of movement, and implications for practice and skill learning.

  16. Striatal firing rate reflects head movement velocity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Barter, Joseph W; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Yin, Henry H

    2014-11-01

    Although the basal ganglia have long been implicated in the initiation of actions, their contribution to movement remains a matter of dispute. Using wireless multi-electrode recording and motion tracking, we examined the relationship between single-unit activity in the sensorimotor striatum and movement kinematics. We recorded single-unit activity from medium spiny projection neurons and fast-spiking interneurons while monitoring the movements of mice using motion tracking. In Experiment 1, we trained mice to generate movements reliably by water-depriving them and giving them periodic cued sucrose rewards. We found high correlations between single-unit activity and movement velocity in particular directions. This correlation was found in both putative medium spiny projection neurons and fast-spiking interneurons. In Experiment 2, to rule out the possibility that the observed correlations were due to reward expectancy, we repeated the same procedure but added trials in which sucrose delivery was replaced by an aversive air puff stimulus. The air puff generated avoidance movements that were clearly different from movements on rewarded trials, but the same neurons that showed velocity correlation on reward trials exhibited a similar correlation on air puff trials. These experiments show for the first time that the firing rate of striatal neurons reflects movement velocity for different types of movements, whether to seek rewards or to avoid harm. PMID:25209171

  17. Sensorimotor organization of a sustained involuntary movement.

    PubMed

    De Havas, Jack; Ghosh, Arko; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Involuntary movements share much of the motor control circuitry used for voluntary movement, yet the two can be easily distinguished. The Kohnstamm phenomenon (where a sustained, hard push produces subsequent involuntary arm raising) is a useful experimental model for exploring differences between voluntary and involuntary movement. Both central and peripheral accounts have been proposed, but little is known regarding how the putative Kohnstamm generator responds to afferent input. We addressed this by obstructing the involuntary upward movement of the arm. Obstruction prevented the rising EMG pattern that characterizes the Kohnstamm. Importantly, once the obstruction was removed, the EMG signal resumed its former increase, suggesting a generator that persists despite peripheral input. When only one arm was obstructed during bilateral involuntary movements, only the EMG signal from the obstructed arm showed the effect. Upon release of the obstacle, the obstructed arm reached the same position and EMG level as the unobstructed arm. Comparison to matched voluntary movements revealed a preserved stretch response when a Kohnstamm movement first contacts an obstacle, and also an overestimation of the perceived contact force. Our findings support a hybrid central and peripheral account of the Kohnstamm phenomenon. The strange subjective experience of this involuntary movement is consistent with the view that movement awareness depends strongly on efference copies, but that the Kohnstamm generator does not produces efference copies. PMID:26283934

  18. Animal therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed. PMID:9110848

  19. Anabolic therapies.

    PubMed

    Lane, Nancy E; Silverman, Stuart L

    2010-03-01

    The striking clinical benefits of intermittent parathyroid hormone in osteoporosis have begun a new era of skeletal anabolic agents. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) (1-34) is the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved anabolic therapy. Its use has been limited by the need for subcutaneous injection. Newer delivery systems include transdermal and oral preparations. Newer anabolic therapies include monoclonal antibody to sclerostin, a potent inhibitor of osteoblastogenesis; and use of bone morphogenetic proteins and parathyroid hormone-related protein PTHrP, a calcium-regulating hormone similar to PTH. PMID:20425087

  20. Truth therapy/lie therapy.

    PubMed

    Langs, R

    In this paper an attempt is made to conceptualize a basic dimension of various psychotherapeutic treatment modalities, especially psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. The central variable under consideration is the extent to which each endeavors to approach the truth within both patient and therapist as it exists dynamically in terms of their spiraling unconscious communicative interaction. That treatment modality which takes into account every possible dimension of such truths is termed truth therapy. Treatment modalities that make no attempt to arrive at these truths or that deliberately or inadvertently falsify their nature are termed lie or barrier therapies. Extensive consideration is given to truth therapy and the truth system on which it is based. The basis for the need for lie therapies is explored, and lie systems, which may arise from either patient or therapist, or both, are identified. A classification of common types of lie patients and lie therapists (and their main techniques) is offered. The implications of this delineation for our understanding of the dynamic therapies are discussed, and a number of new clinical issues arising from this perspective are addressed.

  1. Equine rehabilitation therapy for joint disease.

    PubMed

    Porter, Mimi

    2005-12-01

    The principles of physical rehabilitation therapy can be applied to the horse to provide a reduction in discomfort and dysfunction associated with the various forms of joint disease. Physical agents,such as ice, heat, electricity, sound, light, magnetic fields, compression, and movement, can be used by the rehabilitation therapist to attempt to control pain, reduce swelling, and restore optimal movement and function in the affected joint. The equine therapist's attention is focused not only on the affected joint but on the body as a whole to manage secondary or compensatory problems.

  2. Perceptual, durational and tongue displacement measures following articulation therapy for rhotic sound errors.

    PubMed

    Bressmann, Tim; Harper, Susan; Zhylich, Irina; Kulkarni, Gajanan V

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of articulation therapy for rhotic errors are usually assessed perceptually. However, our understanding of associated changes of tongue movement is limited. This study described perceptual, durational and tongue displacement changes over 10 sessions of articulation therapy for /ɹ/ in six children. Four of the participants also received ultrasound biofeedback of their tongue shape. Speech and tongue movement were recorded pre-therapy, after 5 sessions, in the final session and at a one month follow-up. Perceptually, listeners perceived improvement and classified more productions as /ɹ/ in the final and follow-up assessments. The durations of VɹV syllables at the midway point of the therapy were longer. Cumulative tongue displacement increased in the final session. The average standard deviation was significantly higher in the middle and final assessments. The duration and tongue displacement measures illustrated how articulation therapy affected tongue movement and may be useful for outcomes research about articulation therapy. PMID:26979162

  3. What Is Music Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is the ...

  4. Intravenous therapy

    PubMed Central

    Waitt, C; Waitt, P; Pirmohamed, M

    2004-01-01

    Intravenous administration of fluids, drugs, and nutrition is very common in hospitals. Although insertion of peripheral and central cannulae and subsequent intravenous therapy are usually well tolerated, complications that prolong hospitalisation, and in some cases cause death, can arise on occasions. Additionally, many cannulae are inserted unnecessarily. This article seeks to review this area and to outline good medical practice. PMID:14760169

  5. Multimodal Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Arnold A.

    The multimodal therapy (MMT) approach provides a framework that facilitates systematic treatment selection in a broad-based, comprehensive and yet highly focused manner. It respects science, and data driven findings, and endeavors to use empirically supported methods when possible. Nevertheless, it recognizes that many issues still fall into the…

  6. Pet Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This resource guide presents information on a variety of ways that animals can be used as a therapeutic modality with people having disabilities. Aspects addressed include: pet ownership and selection criteria; dogs (including service dogs, hearing/signal dogs, seeing leader dogs, and social/specialty dogs); horseriding for both therapy and fun;…

  7. Constant Therapy.

    PubMed

    2016-09-28

    Designed by scientists at Boston University, this speech therapy app aims to improve everyday skills, such as speech, memory and focus, for patients recovering from a traumatic brain injury or who have aphasia, dementia or a speech-language disorder. PMID:27682560

  8. Deciding about hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

  9. [Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Huguet, F; Mornex, F; Orthuon, A

    2016-09-01

    Currently, the use of radiation therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer is subject to discussion. In adjuvant setting, the standard treatment is 6 months of chemotherapy with gemcitabine and capecitabine. Chemoradiation (CRT) may improve the survival of patients with incompletely resected tumors (R1). This should be confirmed by a prospective trial. Neoadjuvant CRT is a promising treatment especially for patients with borderline resectable tumors. For patients with locally advanced tumors, there is no a standard. An induction chemotherapy followed by CRT for non-progressive patients reduces the rate of local relapse. Whereas in the first trials of CRT large fields were used, the treated volumes have been reduced to improve tolerance. Tumor movements induced by breathing should be taken in account. Intensity modulated radiation therapy allows a reduction of doses to the organs at risk. Whereas widely used, this technique is not recommended. PMID:27523418

  10. [Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Huguet, F; Mornex, F; Orthuon, A

    2016-09-01

    Currently, the use of radiation therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer is subject to discussion. In adjuvant setting, the standard treatment is 6 months of chemotherapy with gemcitabine and capecitabine. Chemoradiation (CRT) may improve the survival of patients with incompletely resected tumors (R1). This should be confirmed by a prospective trial. Neoadjuvant CRT is a promising treatment especially for patients with borderline resectable tumors. For patients with locally advanced tumors, there is no a standard. An induction chemotherapy followed by CRT for non-progressive patients reduces the rate of local relapse. Whereas in the first trials of CRT large fields were used, the treated volumes have been reduced to improve tolerance. Tumor movements induced by breathing should be taken in account. Intensity modulated radiation therapy allows a reduction of doses to the organs at risk. Whereas widely used, this technique is not recommended.

  11. Eye movements predict recollective experience.

    PubMed

    Sharot, Tali; Davidson, Matthew L; Carson, Meredith M; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2008-08-06

    Previously encountered stimuli can bring to mind a vivid memory of the episodic context in which the stimulus was first experienced ("remembered" stimuli), or can simply seem familiar ("known" stimuli). Past studies suggest that more attentional resources are required to encode stimuli that are subsequently remembered than known. However, it is unclear if the attentional resources are distributed differently during encoding and recognition of remembered and known stimuli. Here, we record eye movements while participants encode photos, and later while indicating whether the photos are remembered, known or new. Eye fixations were more clustered during both encoding and recognition of remembered photos relative to known photos. Thus, recognition of photos that bring to mind a vivid memory for the episodic context in which they were experienced is associated with less distributed overt attention during encoding and recognition. The results suggest that remembering is related to encoding of a few distinct details of a photo rather than the photo as a whole. In turn, during recognition remembering may be trigged by enhanced memory for the salient details of the photos.

  12. Eye Movements During Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Falck-Ytter, Terje

    2015-01-01

    An important element in social interactions is predicting the goals of others, including the goals of others’ manual actions. Over a decade ago, Flanagan and Johansson demonstrated that, when observing other people reaching for objects, the observer’s gaze arrives at the goal before the action is completed. Moreover, those authors proposed that this behavior was mediated by an embodied process, which takes advantage of the observer’s motor knowledge. Here, we scrutinize work that has followed that seminal article. We include studies on adults that have used combined eye tracking and transcranial magnetic stimulation technologies to test causal hypotheses about underlying brain circuits. We also include developmental studies on human infants. We conclude that, although several aspects of the embodied process of predictive eye movements remain to be clarified, current evidence strongly suggests that the motor system plays a causal role in guiding predictive gaze shifts that focus on another person’s future goal. The early emergence of the predictive gaze in infant development underlines its importance for social cognition and interaction. PMID:26385998

  13. Eye Movements in Strategic Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Noguchi, Takao; Mullett, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In risky and other multiattribute choices, the process of choosing is well described by random walk or drift diffusion models in which evidence is accumulated over time to threshold. In strategic choices, level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models have been offered as accounts of the choice process, in which people simulate the choice processes of their opponents or partners. We recorded the eye movements in 2 × 2 symmetric games including dominance‐solvable games like prisoner's dilemma and asymmetric coordination games like stag hunt and hawk–dove. The evidence was most consistent with the accumulation of payoff differences over time: we found longer duration choices with more fixations when payoffs differences were more finely balanced, an emerging bias to gaze more at the payoffs for the action ultimately chosen, and that a simple count of transitions between payoffs—whether or not the comparison is strategically informative—was strongly associated with the final choice. The accumulator models do account for these strategic choice process measures, but the level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models do not. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27513881

  14. Reverse engineering the euglenoid movement

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Marino; Heltai, Luca; Millán, Daniel; DeSimone, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Euglenids exhibit an unconventional motility strategy amongst unicellular eukaryotes, consisting of large-amplitude highly concerted deformations of the entire body (euglenoid movement or metaboly). A plastic cell envelope called pellicle mediates these deformations. Unlike ciliary or flagellar motility, the biophysics of this mode is not well understood, including its efficiency and molecular machinery. We quantitatively examine video recordings of four euglenids executing such motions with statistical learning methods. This analysis reveals strokes of high uniformity in shape and pace. We then interpret the observations in the light of a theory for the pellicle kinematics, providing a precise understanding of the link between local actuation by pellicle shear and shape control. We systematically understand common observations, such as the helical conformations of the pellicle, and identify previously unnoticed features of metaboly. While two of our euglenids execute their stroke at constant body volume, the other two exhibit deviations of about 20% from their average volume, challenging current models of low Reynolds number locomotion. We find that the active pellicle shear deformations causing shape changes can reach 340%, and estimate the velocity of the molecular motors. Moreover, we find that metaboly accomplishes locomotion at hydrodynamic efficiencies comparable to those of ciliates and flagellates. Our results suggest new quantitative experiments, provide insight into the evolutionary history of euglenids, and suggest that the pellicle may serve as a model for engineered active surfaces with applications in microfluidics. PMID:23047705

  15. Competition between movement plans increases motor variability: evidence of a shared resource for movement planning.

    PubMed

    Oostwoud Wijdenes, Leonie; Ivry, Richard B; Bays, Paul M

    2016-09-01

    Do movement plans, like representations in working memory, share a limited pool of resources? If so, the precision with which each individual movement plan is specified should decrease as the total number of movement plans increases. To explore this, human participants made speeded reaching movements toward visual targets. We examined if preparing one movement resulted in less variability than preparing two movements. The number of planned movements was manipulated in a delayed response cueing procedure that limited planning to a single target (experiment 1) or hand (experiment 2) or required planning of movements toward two targets (or with two hands). For both experiments, initial movement direction variability was higher in the two-plan condition than in the one-plan condition, demonstrating a cost associated with planning multiple movements, consistent with the limited resource hypothesis. In experiment 3, we showed that the advantage in initial variability of preparing a single movement was present only when the trajectory could be fully specified. This indicates that the difference in variability between one and two plans reflects the specification of full motor plans, not a general preparedness to move. The precision cost related to concurrent plans represents a novel constraint on motor preparation, indicating that multiple movements cannot be planned independently, even if they involve different limbs. PMID:27358315

  16. The Human Potential Movement: Body/Nonverbal/Movement Approaches to Human Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Stratton F.

    This report briefly describes the recent search for personal and interpersonal growth which has been termed the "Human Potential Movement," and the institutions or "growth centers" which have evolved as a result of this movement. It presents a list of body, nonverbal, and movement experiences derived from descriptive literature of the growth…

  17. Competition between movement plans increases motor variability: evidence of a shared resource for movement planning

    PubMed Central

    Ivry, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Do movement plans, like representations in working memory, share a limited pool of resources? If so, the precision with which each individual movement plan is specified should decrease as the total number of movement plans increases. To explore this, human participants made speeded reaching movements toward visual targets. We examined if preparing one movement resulted in less variability than preparing two movements. The number of planned movements was manipulated in a delayed response cueing procedure that limited planning to a single target (experiment 1) or hand (experiment 2) or required planning of movements toward two targets (or with two hands). For both experiments, initial movement direction variability was higher in the two-plan condition than in the one-plan condition, demonstrating a cost associated with planning multiple movements, consistent with the limited resource hypothesis. In experiment 3, we showed that the advantage in initial variability of preparing a single movement was present only when the trajectory could be fully specified. This indicates that the difference in variability between one and two plans reflects the specification of full motor plans, not a general preparedness to move. The precision cost related to concurrent plans represents a novel constraint on motor preparation, indicating that multiple movements cannot be planned independently, even if they involve different limbs. PMID:27358315

  18. Movement Precision and Amplitude as Separate Factors in the Control of Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Robert

    The purpose of this study was to assess Welford's dual controlling factor interpretation of Fitts' Law--describing movement time as being a linear function of movement distance (or amplitude) and the required precision of the movement (or target width). Welford's amplification of the theory postulates that two separate processes ought to be…

  19. Observation of limb movements reduces phantom limb pain in bilateral amputees

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Monica L; Murphy, Ian C; Griffin, Sarah C; Alphonso, Aimee L; Hussey-Anderson, Lindsey; Hughes, Katie E; Weeks, Sharon R; Merritt, Victoria; Yetto, Joseph M; Pasquina, Paul F; Tsao, Jack W

    2014-01-01

    Background Mirror therapy has been demonstrated to reduce phantom limb pain (PLP) experienced by unilateral limb amputees. Research suggests that the visual feedback of observing a limb moving in the mirror is critical for therapeutic efficacy. Objective Since mirror therapy is not an option for bilateral lower limb amputees, the purpose of this study was to determine if direct observation of another person’s limbs could be used to relieve PLP. Methods We randomly assigned 20 bilateral lower limb amputees with PLP to visual observation (n = 11) or mental visualization (n = 9) treatment. Treatment consisted of seven discrete movements which were mimicked by the amputee’s phantom limbs moving while visually observing the experimenter’s limbs moving, or closing the eyes while visualizing and attempting the movements with their phantom limbs, respectively. Participants performed movements for 20 min daily for 1 month. Response to therapy was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) and the McGill Short-Form Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Results Direct visual observation significantly reduced PLP in both legs (P < 0.05). Amputees assigned to the mental visualization condition did not show a significant reduction in PLP. Interpretation Direct visual observation therapy is an inexpensive and effective treatment for PLP that is accessible to bilateral lower limb amputees. PMID:25493277

  20. Whatever Happened to the Free School Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Looks at the free school movement within and outside the realm of public education. Presents an historical perspective on the radical private free school movement evidence suggesting that the development of educational options within the public school system has come from within the system. (DN)

  1. The Chicano Movement: Paths to Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2011-01-01

    This article is a quick overview of the Chicano Movement (CM) with specific analyses of the five major strategies employed by its adherents to effect social change. The CM was a social movement that occurred in the United States with increased activity in the southwest and midwest during a time frame: 1950s to 1980s. Persons of Mexican ancestry…

  2. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five trends that…

  3. 9 CFR 78.34 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.34 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon... spread of brucellosis. The Administrator shall promptly notify the State animal health officials of...

  4. Eye Movement Analysis of Second Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankins, Huana; Thompson, Richard A.

    An investigation was undertaken to measure objectively children's eye movements to determine whether the effect of fatigue of the average school day decreases eye movement efficiency, suggesting that children might benefit more from reading instruction in the morning than in the afternoon. Using a photoelectric instrument designed to graph eye…

  5. Eye Movement Patterns of Captioned Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensema, Carl J.; Sharkawy, Sameh El; Danturthi, Ramalinga Sarma; Burch, Robert; Hsu, David

    2000-01-01

    Eye movement of six subjects (three with deafness) was recorded as they watched video segments with and without captions. The addition of captions to a video resulted in major changes in eye movement patterns, with the viewing process becoming primarily a reading process. (Contains six references.) (Author/CR)

  6. Movement and Music Education: An Historian's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Believes that Emile Jaques-Dalcroze is not the only person who has affected movement-based instruction. Highlights the history of movement-based instruction in elementary music education by addressing the influence of Isadora Duncan and modern dance, the efforts of Francois Delsarte and Rudolph von Laban, and the role of remedial perceptual-motor…

  7. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this journal's Fall 2009 issue, the Forum section included an article by Gordon Selman and Mark Selman arguing that although Canadian adult education had existed as a social movement in the middle part of the 20th century, it is no longer a social movement. They also speculated about the causes of this change. In the Spring 2011 issue, Tom…

  8. Progressive Social Movements and Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article places policy development in the context of progressive social movements. It describes how social movements develop, and delineates some of the accomplishments of such contestation in U.S. history as well as in changes of education policy. The article closes by considering the possibilities and challenges of current social movement…

  9. Malcolm X: Another Side of the Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Mark

    This biography for younger readers describes the life of Malcolm X, the African American religious and political leader who was prominent in a movement to unite black people throughout the world. The book presents an overview of the civil rights movement and documents Malcolm's role as an advocate for black separatism, black nationalism, and the…

  10. Digital Movement Analysis in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets offer applications (apps) that make digital movement analysis simple and efficient in physical education. Highly sophisticated movement analysis software has been available for many years but has mainly appealed to coaches of elite athletes and biomechanists. Apps on mobile devices are less expensive…

  11. 9 CFR 78.34 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.34 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon... spread of brucellosis. The Administrator shall promptly notify the State animal health officials of...

  12. 9 CFR 78.13 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.13 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon... brucellosis. The Administrator shall promptly notify the State animal health officials of the States...

  13. BREATHING PATTERN DISORDERS AND FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Dr. Esformes, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Experimental design Background: Normal breathing mechanics play a key role in posture and spinal stabilization. Breathing Pattern Disorders (BPD) have been shown to contribute to pain and motor control deficits, which can result in dysfunctional movement patterns. The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) has been shown to accurately predict injury in individuals who demonstrate poor movement patterns. The role BPD play on functional movement is not well established. Furthermore, there is currently no single test to clinically diagnose BPD. A variety of methods are used, but correlations between them are poor. Purpose: To examine the relationship between BPD and functional movement and identify correlations between different measures of BPD. Methods: Breathing was assessed in 34 healthy individuals using a multi‐dimensional approach that included biomechanical, biochemical, breathing related symptoms, and breathing functionality measures. Movement was assessed using the FMS™. Analysis, involving independent t‐tests and Pearson correlation were performed to identify associations between measures. Results: Individuals who exhibited biochemical and biomechanical signs of BPD were significantly more likely to score poorly on the FMS™. These studied measures of BPD correlated highly with each other. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the importance of diaphragmatic breathing on functional movement. Inefficient breathing could result in muscular imbalance, motor control alterations, and physiological adaptations that are capable of modifying movement. These findings provide evidence for improved breathing evaluations by clinicians. Level of Evidence: 2B PMID:24567853

  14. The Primacy of Movement in Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrill, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The author is naturally a kinesthetic learner. As a child she was steeped in the wilds of seashore, fields, and woods in which she was free to roam, explore, and imagine in a deeply sensual, movement-oriented world. Because of these first experiences of freedom of movement and spontaneity in the highly intense natural world, she found the…

  15. The Movement of Composition: Dance and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This piece, created at the Digital Media and Composition Institute in June 2012, is a multimodal attempt to capture and compare both the physical and conceptual movement involved in dance and writing. The project is my first step towards exploring the non-linear nature of composition as expressed in the movement of the body and of the mind.

  16. Composition Teachers and the Labor Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, William A.

    Composition teachers should combine self-identification and direct political action by belonging to the labor movement and working collectively toward expanding its range and power and consequently their own. Previously, members of the composition faculty have been involved in the labor movement, but several obstacles may interfere with deeper…

  17. Barton Warren Stone: An American Religious Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Evan

    This biographical sketch of Barton Warren Stone, an early American advocate of the Restoration Movement, describes and interprets some of the innate and environmental factors that must have been to a large measure responsible for his leadership of what has been called the largest indigenous American religious movement. It details some of the…

  18. Sensory and intrinsic coordination of movement.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D N; Craig, C M; Grealy, M A

    1999-01-01

    A recently generalized theory of perceptual guidance (general tau theory) was used to analyse coordination in skilled movement. The theory posits that (i) guiding movement entails controlling closure of spatial and/or force gaps between effectors and goals, by sensing and regulating the tau s of the gaps (the time-to-closure at current closure rate), (ii) a principal way of coordinating movements is keeping the tau s of different gaps in constant ratio (known as tau-coupling), and (iii) intrinsically paced movements are guided and coordinated by tau-coupling onto a tau-guide, tau g, generated in the nervous system and described by the equation tau g = 0.5 (t-T 2/t) where T is the duration of the body movement and t is the time from the start of the movement. Kinematic analysis of hand to mouth movements by human adults, with eyes open or closed, indicated that hand guidance was achieved by maintaining, during 80 85% of the movement, the tau-couplings tau alpha-tau r and tau r-tau g, where tau r is tau of the hand-mouth gap, tau alpha is tau of the angular gap to be closed by steering the hand and tau g is an intrinsic tau-guide. PMID:10584340

  19. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  20. 49 CFR 195.424 - Pipe movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe movement. 195.424 Section 195.424 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.424 Pipe movement. (a) No operator may move any line pipe,...

  1. Model of Emotional Expressions in Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozaliev, Vladimir L.; Orlova, Yulia A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to automated identification of human emotions based on analysis of body movements, a recognition of gestures and poses. Methodology, models and automated system for emotion identification are considered. To characterize the person emotions in the model, body movements are described with linguistic variables and a…

  2. Task Effects on Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Hyona, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how proofreading and reading-for-comprehension instructions influence eye movements during reading. Thirty-seven participants silently read sentences containing compound words as target words while their eye movements were being recorded. We manipulated word length and frequency to examine how task instructions influence…

  3. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  4. Anecdotal therapies.

    PubMed

    Millikan, L E

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, many advances in medicine have been serendipitous. Are serendipitous and anecdotal synonymous? Many of our materia medica today relate to initial probes and anecdotal reports that matured to full investigation and therapeutic indications. The recent situation regarding Skin Cap is one that highlights the downside of this scenario. Several drugs in the US continue usage largely related to anecdotal indications, and anecdotal extension of legend indications is a standard for American Dermatology. The situation with systemic drugs, such as Trental, zinc preparations, imidazoles for extended indications, lysine and melatonin, all will be discussed. Topical preparations such as skin cap, cantharone, Vioform, all also are included in this category. It is important to place this topic in perspective in regards to geographic variation and therapeutic need. Many diseases lacking specific therapy are important targets for anecdotal therapy, and this will foster continued approaches in this area. The growing standardization of medicine and pharmaceutical regulation, threatens the anecdotal approach, but it provides still an important link to the future for some forms of therapy in diseases that are difficult to treat. Traditionally, the anecdote has been the first step in the therapeutic chain. Withering discovery of the benefits of the common fox glove in dropsy, was followed by many other anecdotes arriving via folk-medicine in the New World. This approach of utilizing folk medicine has now reached new heights, with very active searches by major pharmaceutical companies throughout the third world for remedies that may have potential. Couched with this is the history of anecdotal "snake-oil" remedies, that clearly had no benefit to anyone except the huckster marketing same. The excesses in this area of unproven and false therapies, led to the gradual organization of therapeutic trials and the Food and Drug Administration in the US as we know it today. The

  5. Effect of Canister Movement on Water Turbidity

    SciTech Connect

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    2000-08-24

    Requirements for evaluating the adherence characteristics of sludge on the fuel stored in the K East Basin and the effect of canister movement on basin water turbidity are documented in Briggs (1996). The results of the sludge adherence testing have been documented (Bergmann 1996). This report documents the results of the canister movement tests. The purpose of the canister movement tests was to characterize water turbidity under controlled canister movements (Briggs 1996). The tests were designed to evaluate methods for minimizing the plumes and controlling water turbidity during fuel movements leading to multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading. It was expected that the test data would provide qualitative visual information for use in the design of the fuel retrieval and water treatment systems. Video recordings of the tests were to be the only information collected.

  6. The antiabortion movement and Baby Jane Doe.

    PubMed

    Paige, C; Karnofsky, E B

    1986-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the leadership of the antiabortion movement became involved in a campaign to establish legal rights to extraordinary medical care for seriously handicapped newborns. Armed with political contacts in the Reagan administration and Congress, and allied with advocates for the disabled, the antiabortion movement searched for a test case to guide through the courts. Antiabortion advocate Lawrence Washburn found such a case in Baby Jane Doe, who was being treated at Stony Brook Medical Center. The movement went on to amend the Child Abuse Act to include protections for handicapped newborns. Activists in the movement chose the issue of Baby Jane Doe because they believed it would attract welcome publicity, give them the appearance of supporting civil rights, and enhance their argument as to the legal rights of the fetus and thus strengthen the case against abortion. The movement was partially successful in obtaining its goals.

  7. Modeling interdependent animal movement in continuous time.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mu; Blackwell, Paul G; Skarin, Anna

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a new approach to modeling group animal movement in continuous time. The movement of a group of animals is modeled as a multivariate Ornstein Uhlenbeck diffusion process in a high-dimensional space. Each individual of the group is attracted to a leading point which is generally unobserved, and the movement of the leading point is also an Ornstein Uhlenbeck process attracted to an unknown attractor. The Ornstein Uhlenbeck bridge is applied to reconstruct the location of the leading point. All movement parameters are estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling, specifically a Metropolis Hastings algorithm. We apply the method to a small group of simultaneously tracked reindeer, Rangifer tarandus tarandus, showing that the method detects dependency in movement between individuals. PMID:26812666

  8. The antiabortion movement and Baby Jane Doe.

    PubMed

    Paige, C; Karnofsky, E B

    1986-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the leadership of the antiabortion movement became involved in a campaign to establish legal rights to extraordinary medical care for seriously handicapped newborns. Armed with political contacts in the Reagan administration and Congress, and allied with advocates for the disabled, the antiabortion movement searched for a test case to guide through the courts. Antiabortion advocate Lawrence Washburn found such a case in Baby Jane Doe, who was being treated at Stony Brook Medical Center. The movement went on to amend the Child Abuse Act to include protections for handicapped newborns. Activists in the movement chose the issue of Baby Jane Doe because they believed it would attract welcome publicity, give them the appearance of supporting civil rights, and enhance their argument as to the legal rights of the fetus and thus strengthen the case against abortion. The movement was partially successful in obtaining its goals. PMID:3745839

  9. Slow Movements of Bio-Inspired Limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babikian, Sarine; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Kanso, Eva

    2016-10-01

    Slow and accurate finger and limb movements are essential to daily activities, but the underlying mechanics is relatively unexplored. Here, we develop a mathematical framework to examine slow movements of tendon-driven limbs that are produced by modulating the tendons' stiffness parameters. Slow limb movements are driftless in the sense that movement stops when actuations stop. We demonstrate, in the context of a planar tendon-driven system representing a finger, that the control of stiffness suffices to produce stable and accurate limb postures and quasi-static (slow) transitions among them. We prove, however, that stable postures are achievable only when tendons are pretensioned, i.e., they cannot become slack. Our results further indicate that a non-smoothness in slow movements arises because the precision with which individual stiffnesses need to be altered changes substantially throughout the limb's motion.

  10. What Clients of Couple Therapy Model Developers and Their Former Students Say about Change, Part II: Model-Independent Common Factors and an Integrative Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sean D.; Piercy, Fred P.

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of the common factors movement in marriage and family therapy (MFT) suggest that, rather than specific models of therapy, elements common across models of therapy and common to the process of therapy itself are responsible for therapeutic change. This article--the second of two companion articles--reports on a study designed to further…

  11. An optimization principle for determining movement duration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Krakauer, John W; Qian, Ning

    2006-06-01

    Movement duration is an integral component of motor control, but nearly all extant optimization models of motor planning prefix duration instead of explaining it. Here we propose a new optimization principle that predicts movement duration. The model assumes that the brain attempts to minimize movement duration under the constraint of meeting an accuracy criterion. The criterion is task and context dependent but is fixed for a given task and context. The model determines a unique duration as a trade-off between speed (time optimality) and accuracy (acceptable endpoint scatter). We analyzed the model for a linear motor plant, and obtained a closed-form equation for determining movement duration. By solving the equation numerically with specific plant parameters for the eye and arm, we found that the model can reproduce saccade duration as a function of amplitude (the main sequence), and arm-movement duration as a function of the ratio of target distance to size (Fitts's law). In addition, it explains the dependency of peak saccadic speed on amplitude and the dependency of saccadic duration on initial eye position. Furthermore, for arm movements, the model predicts a scaling relationship between peak velocity and distance and a reduction in movement duration with a moderate increase in viscosity. Finally, for a linear plant, our model predicts a neural control signal identical to that of the minimum-variance model set to the same movement duration. This control signal is a smooth function of time (except at the endpoint), in contrast to the discontinuous bang-bang control found in the time-optimal control literature. We suggest that one aspect of movement planning, as revealed by movement duration, may be to assign an endpoint accuracy criterion for a given task and context. PMID:16571740

  12. Learning optimal eye movements to unusual faces

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew F.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2014-01-01

    Eye movements, which guide the fovea’s high resolution and computational power to relevant areas of the visual scene, are integral to efficient, successful completion of many visual tasks. How humans modify their eye movements through experience with their perceptual environments, and its functional role in learning new tasks, has not been fully investigated. Here, we used a face identification task where only the mouth discriminated exemplars to assess if, how, and when eye movement modulation may mediate learning. By interleaving trials of unconstrained eye movements with trials of forced fixation, we attempted to separate the contributions of eye movements and covert mechanisms to performance improvements. Without instruction, a majority of observers substantially increased accuracy and learned to direct their initial eye movements towards the optimal fixation point. The proximity of an observer’s default face identification eye movement behavior to the new optimal fixation point and the observer’s peripheral processing ability were predictive of performance gains and eye movement learning. After practice in a subsequent condition in which observers were directed to fixate different locations along the face, including the relevant mouth region, all observers learned to make eye movements to the optimal fixation point. In this fully learned state, augmented fixation strategy accounted for 43% of total efficiency improvements while covert mechanisms accounted for the remaining 57%. The findings suggest a critical role for eye movement planning to perceptual learning, and elucidate factors that can predict when and how well an observer can learn a new task with unusual exemplars. PMID:24291712

  13. Analysis of reaching movements of upper arm in robot assisted exercises. Kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching single-joint movements.

    PubMed

    Iuppariello, Luigi; D'Addio, Giovanni; Romano, Maria; Bifulco, Paolo; Lanzillo, Bernardo; Pappone, Nicola; Cesarelli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Robot-mediated therapy (RMT) has been a very dynamic area of research in recent years. Robotics devices are in fact capable to quantify the performances of a rehabilitation task in treatments of several disorders of the arm and the shoulder of various central and peripheral etiology. Different systems for robot-aided neuro-rehabilitation are available for upper limb rehabilitation but the biomechanical parameters proposed until today, to evaluate the quality of the movement, are related to the specific robot used and to the type of exercise performed. Besides, none study indicated a standardized quantitative evaluation of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, so the RMT is still far to be considered a standardised tool. In this paper a quantitative kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, considering also the effect of gravity on the quality of the movements, is proposed. We studied a group of 10 healthy subjects and results indicate that our advised protocol can be useful for characterising normal pattern in reaching movements.

  14. Analysis of reaching movements of upper arm in robot assisted exercises. Kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching single-joint movements.

    PubMed

    Iuppariello, Luigi; D'Addio, Giovanni; Romano, Maria; Bifulco, Paolo; Lanzillo, Bernardo; Pappone, Nicola; Cesarelli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Robot-mediated therapy (RMT) has been a very dynamic area of research in recent years. Robotics devices are in fact capable to quantify the performances of a rehabilitation task in treatments of several disorders of the arm and the shoulder of various central and peripheral etiology. Different systems for robot-aided neuro-rehabilitation are available for upper limb rehabilitation but the biomechanical parameters proposed until today, to evaluate the quality of the movement, are related to the specific robot used and to the type of exercise performed. Besides, none study indicated a standardized quantitative evaluation of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, so the RMT is still far to be considered a standardised tool. In this paper a quantitative kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, considering also the effect of gravity on the quality of the movements, is proposed. We studied a group of 10 healthy subjects and results indicate that our advised protocol can be useful for characterising normal pattern in reaching movements. PMID:27459844

  15. Particle therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  16. Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelfke, Uwe

    Proton therapy is one of the most rapidly developing new treatment technologies in radiation oncology. This treatment approach has — after roughly 40 years of technical developments — reached a mature state that allows a widespread clinical application. We therefore review the basic physical and radio-biological properties of proton beams. The main physical aspect is the elemental dose distribution arising from an infinitely narrow proton pencil beam. This includes the physics of proton stopping powers and the concept of CSDA range. Furthermore, the process of multiple Coulomb scattering is discussed for the lateral dose distribution. Next, the basic terms for the description of radio-biological properties of proton beams like LET and RBE are briefly introduced. Finally, the main concepts of modern proton dose delivery concepts are introduced before the standard method of inverse treatment planning for hadron therapy is presented.

  17. Pavlov and the foundation of behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Plaud, Joseph J

    2003-11-01

    The foundation, achievements, and proliferation of behavior therapy have largely been fueled by the movement's foundation in behavioral principles and theories. Although behavioral accounts of the genesis and treatment of psychopathology differ in the extent to which they emphasize classical or operant conditioning, the mediation of cognitive factors, and the role of biological variables, Pavlov's discovery of conditioning principles was essential to the founding of behavior therapy in the 1950s, and continues to be central to modern behavior therapy. Pavlov's reliance on a physiological model of the nervous system, sensible in the context of an early science of neurology, has had an implication for behavior therapists interested in the study of personality types. However, Pavlov's major legacy to behavior therapy was his discovery of "experimental neuroses," shown by his students Eroféeva and Shenger-Krestovnikova, to be produced and eliminated through the principles of conditioning and counter-conditioning. This discovery laid the foundation for the first empirically-validated behavior therapy procedure, systematic desensitization, pioneered by Wolpe. The Pavlovian origins of behavior therapy are analyzed in this paper, and the relevance of conditioning principles to modern behavior therapy is demonstrated. It is shown that Pavlovian conditioning represents far more than a systematic basic learning paradigm. It is also an essential theoretical foundation for the theory and practice of behavior therapy. PMID:14628701

  18. Therapy of the osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Machon, Vladimir; Hirjak, Dusan; Lukas, Jindrich

    2011-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common condition of the mandible. The treatment of osteoarthritis primarily consists of rest therapy (restricting jaw movements), the use of pharmaceuticals (analgesics, antiinflammatories), splint therapy, thermotherapy or mini-invasive therapy. Our study investigated the effectiveness of the various therapeutic options in the treatment of osteoarthritis. We compared the effectiveness of rest therapy (restricting mouth opening, analgesic therapy), splints, arthrocentesis of the upper joint space, and arthrocentesis in combination with splint therapy. We looked at 80 patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint. We only included patients with symptoms in one temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This 3 months long-term study shows that arthrocentesis combined with the use of a splint is an effective first-stage treatment method for patients with osteoarthritis of the TMJ (80% patients with good outcome 3 months after commencement of therapy).

  19. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Radiation Therapy Print A A ... many questions and concerns about it. About Radiation Therapy In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation from X- ...

  20. Esophagus Cancer: Palliative Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor about cancer of the esophagus? Palliative therapy for cancer of the esophagus Palliative therapy is ... therapy Electrocoagulation Laser ablation Argon plasma coagulation Radiation therapy External-beam radiation can often help relieve some ...

  1. [Physical therapy for parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Hubert, M

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex neurologic and progressive incapacitating disease. Parkinson's disease severely threatens the quality of live and the number of patients worldwide is expected to rise considerably in the coming decade due to aging of the population. Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients are faced with progressively increasing impairments (e.g. in speech, mental and movement related functions), and restrictions in participation (e.g. domestic life and social activities). Physical therapy is often prescribed next to medical treatment but there is a lack of uniform treatment. A systematic literature search for guidelines, systematic reviews, trials, and expert opinions lead to a better understanding. The key question: Is physiotherapy able to optimally treat the Parkinson's disease symptoms? In which way, how and on which scientific bases can the physiotherapist participate to improve autonomy and to help them living independently and avoid, as long as possible, institutionalization? This article has integrated clinical research findings to provide clinicians with an overview to physical therapist management of disorders in people with Parkinson's disease. An Evidence-Based Physical Therapy Guideline providing practice recommendations was developed by the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF). Evidence from research was supplemented with clinical expertise and patients values. Randomized clinical trials reflect specific core areas of physical therapy, that is, transfer, posture, balance, reaching and grasping, gait and physical condition. Another aspect is that of educating patients (as well as their partners and family) about the disease process and the benefits of exercise therapy. Alternative therapies can be helpful like Tai Chi, virtual games, dancing, yoga, ball games for example. PMID:22034770

  2. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

  3. Human movement is both diffusive and directed.

    PubMed

    Padgham, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the influence of the built environment on human movement requires quantifying spatial structure in a general sense. Because of the difficulty of this task, studies of movement dynamics often ignore spatial heterogeneity and treat movement through journey lengths or distances alone. This study analyses public bicycle data from central London to reveal that, although journey distances, directions, and frequencies of occurrence are spatially variable, their relative spatial patterns remain largely constant, suggesting the influence of a fixed spatial template. A method is presented to describe this underlying space in terms of the relative orientation of movements toward, away from, and around locations of geographical or cultural significance. This produces two fields: one of convergence and one of divergence, which are able to accurately reconstruct the observed spatial variations in movement. These two fields also reveal categorical distinctions between shorter journeys merely serving diffusion away from significant locations, and longer journeys intentionally serving transport between spatially distinct centres of collective importance. Collective patterns of human movement are thus revealed to arise from a combination of both diffusive and directed movement, with aggregate statistics such as mean travel distances primarily determined by relative numbers of these two kinds of journeys.

  4. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often.

  5. Does movement proficiency impact on exergaming performance?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jess E; Thornton, Ashleigh L; Lay, Brendan S; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-04-01

    There is growing interest in the use of consumer level exergames in movement skill acquisition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between movement proficiency and performance in virtual exergaming. Twenty seven children, aged 10-15years participated in an experiment completing the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (MABC-2) and a series of XBOX360 Kinect Sports exergaming tasks. Significant correlations were observed between MABC-2 aiming and catching percentile and exergame javelin and target kick, where the more proficient movers tended to perform better in the exergame. Statistically significant correlations were observed between MABC-2 balance percentile and exergaming sprint and target kick performance. In this study children who scored better in real life gross motor movement tasks performed better in most related exergaming activities. This suggests current exergaming technology has advanced to a point where body movement unencumbered by a physical or remote game device tether can extract movements resembling real life tasks, translate them into game play and reward proficient movers with higher in-game performance. It is possible that benefit gained in an exergaming environment by more proficient movers was a result of either their more proficient movement, or a greater ability to adapt to the exergame. PMID:24667304

  6. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... remote control movements. All remote control movements are considered shoving or pushing movements, except when the remote control operator controlling the movement is riding the leading end of the leading... other requirements of this section, (1) When initiating a remote control shoving or pushing movement:...

  7. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... remote control movements. All remote control movements are considered shoving or pushing movements, except when the remote control operator controlling the movement is riding the leading end of the leading... other requirements of this section, (1) When initiating a remote control shoving or pushing movement:...

  8. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... remote control movements. All remote control movements are considered shoving or pushing movements, except when the remote control operator controlling the movement is riding the leading end of the leading... other requirements of this section, (1) When initiating a remote control shoving or pushing movement:...

  9. Effect of Rocking Movements on Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Omlin, Ximena; Crivelli, Francesco; Heinicke, Lorenz; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Achermann, Peter; Riener, Robert

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, rocking has been used to promote sleep in babies or toddlers. Recent research suggested that relaxation could play a role in facilitating the transition from waking to sleep during rocking. Breathing techniques are often used to promote relaxation. However, studies investigating head motions and body rotations showed that vestibular stimulation might elicit a vestibulo-respiratory response, leading to an increase in respiration frequency. An increase in respiration frequency would not be considered to promote relaxation in the first place. On the other hand, a coordination of respiration to rhythmic vestibular stimulation has been observed. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of different movement frequencies and amplitudes on respiration frequency. Furthermore, we tested whether subjects adapt their respiration to movement frequencies below their spontaneous respiration frequency at rest, which could be beneficial for relaxation. Twenty-one healthy subjects (24–42 years, 12 males) were investigated using an actuated bed, moving along a lateral translation. Following movement frequencies were applied: +30%, +15%, -15%, and -30% of subjects’ rest respiration frequency during baseline (no movement). Furthermore, two different movement amplitudes were tested (Amplitudes: 15 cm, 7.5 cm; movement frequency: 0.3 Hz). In addition, five subjects (25–28 years, 2 males) were stimulated with their individual rest respiration frequency. Rocking movements along a lateral translation caused a vestibulo-respiratory adaptation leading to an increase in respiration frequency. The increase was independent of the applied movement frequencies or amplitudes but did not occur when stimulating with subjects’ rest respiration frequency. Furthermore, no synchronization of the respiration frequency to the movement frequency was observed. In particular, subjects did not lower their respiration frequency below their resting frequency. Hence, it was not

  10. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements. PMID:17557425

  11. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  12. Analysis of cattle movements in Argentina, 2005.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A

    2011-02-01

    We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931

  13. Video recording in movement disorders: practical issues.

    PubMed

    Duker, Andrew P

    2013-10-01

    Video recording can provide a valuable and unique record of the physical examinations of patients with a movement disorder, capturing nuances of movement and supplementing the written medical record. In addition, video is an indispensable tool for education and research in movement disorders. Digital file recording and storage has largely replaced analog tape recording, increasing the ease of editing and storing video records. Practical issues to consider include hardware and software configurations, video format, the security and longevity of file storage, patient consent, and video protocols. PMID:24092296

  14. An unusual case of rhythmic movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, R; Furuta, H; Kazuto, K; Arayama, K; Sano, J; Koshino, Y

    2000-06-01

    Rhythmic movement disorder is one of the sleep-wake transition disorders listed in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. According to this classification, the condition commonly occurs in infants and toddlers, and persistence beyond 4 years of age is unusual. Recently, we encountered a case in which rhythmic movement disorder persisted up until the age of 12 years with spikes registering on the sleep electroencephalogram. Epileptic seizure was ruled out because of the characteristic rolling movement, absence of any other epileptic symptoms (e.g. vocalization and tonic-clonic seizure) and cessation as a result of removal of the blanket.

  15. Developmental and benign movement disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cecilia; Roubertie, Agathe; Doummar, Diane; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Cochen de Cock, Valérie; Roze, Emmanuel

    2010-07-30

    Developmental and benign movement disorders are a group of movement disorders with onset in the neonatal period, infancy, or childhood. They are characterized by the absence of associated neurological manifestations and by their favorable outcome, although developmental abnormalities can be occasionally observed. Knowledge of the clinical, neurophysiological, and pathogenetic aspects of these disorders is poor. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and our practical experience, this article summarizes current knowledge in this area. We pay special attention to the recognition and management of these movement disorders in children.

  16. Time optimal movement of cooperating robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. M.; Bobrow, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    The maximization of the speed of movement along a prescribed path, of the system formed by a set of robot arms and the object they hold is examined. The actuator torques that maximize the acceleration of the system are shown to be determined by the solution to a standard linear programming problem. The combination of this result with the known control strategy for time optimal movement of a single robot arm yields an algorithm for time optimal movement of multiple robot arms holding the same workpiece.

  17. Surgery insight: Deep brain stimulation for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William S; Lenz, Frederick A

    2006-06-01

    Over the past two decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has supplanted lesioning techniques for the treatment of movement disorders, and has been shown to be safe and efficacious. The primary therapeutic indications for DBS are essential tremor, dystonia and Parkinson's disease. In the case of Parkinson's disease, DBS is effective for treating the primary symptoms--tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity--as well as the motor complications of drug treatment. Progress has been made in understanding the effects of stimulation at the neuronal level, and this knowledge should eventually improve the effectiveness of this therapy. Preliminary studies also indicate that DBS might be used to treat Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression and epilepsy. As we will discuss in this review, the success of DBS depends on an appropriate rationale for the procedure, and on collaborations between neurologists and neurosurgeons in defining outcomes.

  18. [Parkinson Disease With Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by lack of muscle atonia during REM sleep and enactment of dream content. RBD is associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and has high incidence in PD patients. PD patient with RBD mainly presents rigid type, has longer disease duration, more severe motor and non-motor symptoms and poorer activity of daily living and life quality. The pathophysiological mechanisms of RBD may be related to dysfunctions of pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus/sub-locus coeruleus complex and related projections. The diagnosis of RBD depends on clinical histories and video-polysomnography (v-PSG). Besides treatment for PD, protective measures have to be taken for patients and their sleep partners. If abnormal behaviors during sleep cause distress and danger,patients should be given drug therapy. PMID:26521483

  19. Movement analysis of upper limb during resistance training using general purpose robot arm "PA10"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hirose, Akinori; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we perform movement analysis of an upper limb during resistance training. We selected sanding training, which is one type of resistance training for upper limbs widely performed in occupational therapy. Our final aims in the future are to quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effect of upper limb motor function during training and to develop a new rehabilitation training support system. For these purposes, first of all we perform movement analysis using a conventional training tool. By measuring upper limb motion during the sanding training we perform feature abstraction. Next we perform movement analysis using the simulated sanding training system. This system is constructed using the general purpose robot arm "PA10". This system enables us to measure the force/torque exerted by subjects and to easily change the load of resistance. The control algorithm is based on impedance control. We found these features of the upper limb motion during the sanding training.

  20. Effectiveness of an Inpatient Movement Disorders Program for Patients with Atypical Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Hohler, Anna D.; Tsao, Jyeming M.; Katz, Douglas I.; DiPiero, T. Joy; Hehl, Christina L.; Leonard, Alissa; Allen, Valerie; Gardner, Maura; Phenix, Heidi; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the effectiveness of an inpatient movement disorders program for patients with atypical parkinsonism, who typically respond poorly to pharmacologic intervention and are challenging to rehabilitate as outpatients. Ninety-one patients with atypical parkinsonism participated in an inpatient movement disorders program. Patients received physical, occupational, and speech therapy for 3 hours/day, 5 to 7 days/week, and pharmacologic adjustments based on daily observation and data. Differences between admission and discharge scores were analyzed for the functional independence measure (FIM), timed up and go test (TUG), two-minute walk test (TMW), Berg balance scale (BBS) and finger tapping test (FT), and all showed significant improvement on discharge (P > .001). Clinically significant improvements in total FIM score were evident in 74% of the patients. Results were similar for ten patients whose medications were not adjusted. Patients with atypical parkinsonism benefit from an inpatient interdisciplinary movement disorders program to improve functional status. PMID:22135763