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Sample records for construction site storm

  1. Construction Site Storm Water Sampling California's New Construction Sampling and Analysis Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, C.L.; Mathews, S.

    2002-04-02

    The California State Water Resources Control Board (State Board) originally issued a National Pollutant Discharge System (NPDES) permit for storm water discharges associated with construction activities in 1992. This NPDES permit was issued as a general permit, applicable throughout the state (with certain exceptions). The general construction permit was made site-specific by a discharger-developed Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). As with most NPDES construction storm water permits, monitoring requirements were limited to inspections. Sampling and analysis of discharges was not specifically required, but a Regional Water Quality Control Board (Regional Board) could require additional monitoring. In 1999, the State -Board revised and reissued its construction general permit. While the 1999 permit significantly enhanced the erosion and sediment control descriptions and requirements, and expanded the inspection program, sampling and analysis was still not required. Environmental advocacy groups took exception to the absence of sampling requirements and sought relief in court to add sampling and analysis. In 2001, the State Board in response to the court order adopted a resolution requiring sampling and analysis of construction site runoff under two conditions. Turbidity and/or sediment sampling is required when construction site runoff enters water bodies determined to impaired for sediment or turbidity. Sampling for non-visible pollutants is required when construction operations expose materials to storm water. Sampling construction site runoff is relatively new concept for NPDES permits. Only a few permits throughout the country require sampling and analysis for sediment-related pollutants, and California is one of the only permitting entities to require sampling for non-visible pollutants in construction site runoff. The added complexity of sampling runoff requires construction operators and erosion and sediment control professionals to expand their

  2. Treatment performance of a constructed wetland during storm and non-storm events in Korea.

    PubMed

    Maniquiz, M C; Lee, S Y; Choi, J Y; Jeong, S M; Kim, L H

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of a free water surface flow constructed wetland (CW) in treating agricultural discharges from stream was investigated during storm and non-storm events between April and December, 2009. Physico-chemical and water quality constituents were monitored at five sampling locations along the flow path of the CW. The greatest reduction in pollutant concentration was observed after passing the sedimentation zone at approximately 4% fractional distance from the inflow. The inflow hydraulic loading, flow rates and pollutant concentrations were significantly higher and variable during storm events than non-storm (baseflow) condition (p <0.001) that resulted to an increase in the average pollutant removal efficiencies by 10 to 35%. The highest removal percentages were attained for phosphate (51 ± 22%), ammonium (44 ± 21%) and phosphorus (38 ± 19%) while nitrate was least effectively retained by the system with only 25 ± 17% removal during non-storm events. The efficiency of the system was most favorable when the temperature was above 15 °C (i.e., almost year-round except the winter months) and during storm events. Overall, the outflow water quality was better than the inflow water quality signifying the potential of the constructed wetland as a treatment system and capability of improving the stream water quality.

  3. Environmental Assessment for Construction of Storm Water Detection System at Storm Water Outfall #3, Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    23 SWMM 24 SWMP 25 SWMU 26 SWPPP 27 TMDL 28 TPH 29 TSP 30 ^g/g 31 ug/m3 32 U.S. 33 USACE EA for Construction ozone ozone depleting... SWMM ) was used to route the design storm 19 through the storm drain system, proposed retention pond, and outlet structure to estimate runoff 20... SWMM model. 24 Outfall Modifications 25 Outfall #3 would be modified as shown in Figure 6 with an orifice plate to regulate the outlet 26 flow rate

  4. Hanford Site storm water comprehensive site compliance evaluation report for the reporting period July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C.J.

    1997-09-18

    On September 9, 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF, Authorization to Discharge Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). RL submitted a Notice of Intent to comply with this permit to EPA in conformance with the General Permit requirements on October 1, 1992. On February 14, 1994, EPA issued a Storm Water General Permit Coverage Notice and assigned WA-R-00-Al7F as the Hanford Site`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water permit number. The Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1996a) was certified by J. E Rasmussen, Director Environmental Assurance, RL, on September 24, 1996, in compliance with Part IV.B(i) of the General Permit. As required by General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF (WA-R-00-Al7F), Section IV, Part D, Section 4.c, an annual report must be developed by RL and retained on site to verify that the requirements listed in the General Permit are being implemented. The previous Hanford Site Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation Report (WHC 1996b) addressed the period from July 1995 through June 1996. This document fulfills the requirement to prepare an annual report and contains the results of inspections of the storm water outfalls listed in the SWPPP (WHC 1996a). This report also describes the methods used to conduct the 1100 Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation (SWCSCE) as required in Part IV, Section D.4.c in the General Permit; summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation; and documents significant leaks and spills. The reporting year for this SWCSCE report is July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997.

  5. Prospective safety performance evaluation on construction sites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianguo; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Limao; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J; Wang, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based approach for Prospective Safety Performance Evaluation (PSPE) on construction sites, with causal relationships and interactions between enablers and the goals of PSPE taken into account. According to a sample of 450 valid questionnaire surveys from 30 Chinese construction enterprises, a SEM model with 26 items included for PSPE in the context of Chinese construction industry is established and then verified through the goodness-of-fit test. Three typical types of construction enterprises, namely the state-owned enterprise, private enterprise and Sino-foreign joint venture, are selected as samples to measure the level of safety performance given the enterprise scale, ownership and business strategy are different. Results provide a full understanding of safety performance practice in the construction industry, and indicate that the level of overall safety performance situation on working sites is rated at least a level of III (Fair) or above. This phenomenon can be explained that the construction industry has gradually matured with the norms, and construction enterprises should improve the level of safety performance as not to be eliminated from the government-led construction industry. The differences existing in the safety performance practice regarding different construction enterprise categories are compared and analyzed according to evaluation results. This research provides insights into cause-effect relationships among safety performance factors and goals, which, in turn, can facilitate the improvement of high safety performance in the construction industry.

  6. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kanchana, S.; Sivaprakash, P.; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  7. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, S; Sivaprakash, P; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites.

  8. Hydrologic data for urban storm runoff from nine sites in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Johnnie W.

    1981-01-01

    Urban storm-runoff data were collected April through September 1980, from nine urbanrunoff sites in the Denver metropolitan area, and are presented in this report. The sites consist of two single-family residential areas, two multi-family residential areas, one commercial area (shopping center), one mixed commercial and multi-family residential area, one native area (open space), and two detention ponds. Precipitation, rainfall-runoff, water-quality (common constituents, nutrients, coliform bacteria, solids, and trace elements) and basin-area data are necessary to use the U.S. Geological Survey 's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model, Version II. The urban storm-runoff data may be used to characterize runoff pollution loading for various land-use types in Denver and other semi-arid regions. (USGS)

  9. Effects of Storms on Coastal Vulnerability Through Revisiting Sites Impacted by Super Storm Sandy Offshore Long Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, P.; McHugh, C.; Christensen, B. A.; Yong, W. Y.; Delligatti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent models indicate that due to climate change storm activity can intensify. Sea level rise as a result of climate change can lead to storm flooding and coastal damage in low-lying populated areas such as NE, USA. The New York metropolitan area experienced one of the highest storm surges in its history during Hurricane Sandy. The peak storm-tide elevation measured by USGS in Jamaica Bay was about 3.5 m, 1.4 m higher than historical measurements in the same area. As part of a National Science Foundation Rapid Response we surveyed from the R/V Pritchard and sampled the bays and inlets along the southern shore of Long Island after Super Storm Sandy in January 2013 and during June 2014 for assessing the impact of the storm. Short-lived radioisotopes, heavy metals and grain size variability were used to track the path of the storm. In 2013 high concentrations of metals (Pb 184 ppm) were deposited on the landward side of barrier islands and were tracked offshore for10 km. In 2014, we revisited the 2013 locations. The offshore, metal enriched mud layer was seen as small inclusions in sand and not present at the surface suggestive that natural processes are cleansing the sea-floor. Inland the cores showed three facies. From the base upwards: 1) coarse sand with low Pb 99 ppm. Interpreted as either sand transported landwards by the storm or in situ; 2) fine-grained, organic rich sediment with the high Pb 443 ppm and interpreted as seaward transport by the storm; 3) organic rich mud with lower Pb 200 ppm was found in the core tops. Most importantly the sea-floor was colonized by tubeworms suggestive that the environment is returning to normal conditions. These results coupled to other regional studies indicate that the storm was catastrophic and resulted in significant sediment transport. The surge brought sand inland modifying channel and inlet depths but most damaging was the seaward surge that brought contaminants offshore. It appears that the bays and inlets are

  10. Construction of Social Reality during Early Adolescence: Can Expecting Storm and Stress Increase Real or Perceived Storm and Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Christy M.; Hughes, Johna L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether mothers' or adolescents' expectations concerning "storm and stress" behaviors at adolescence predict subsequent real or perceived adolescent behavior and attributes during the early years of adolescence. The study used a short-term longitudinal design. Participants were 6th- and 7th-grade adolescents and their mothers…

  11. Sedimentation basin performance at highway construction sites.

    PubMed

    Kalainesan, Sujaya; Neufeld, Ronald D; Quimpo, Rafael; Yodnane, Precha

    2009-02-01

    Sedimentation basins (SBs) are commonly used during highway construction for erosion and sedimentation pollution control as well as for attenuation of overland storm waters. In order to evaluate the sediment removal capacity of these SBs, four basins were selected for monitoring from a new highway construction that extends I-99 to I-80, in Pennsylvania. Between September 2004 and August 2005, ten sampling trips were conducted during which basin inlet and outlet water samples were obtained. The SB samples were analyzed for pH, color, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total and dissolved iron, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, calcium, sulfate and phosphate. The data showed peaks in concentrations of TSS, total aluminum, total manganese, total iron and total phosphate that closely correlated to localized rainfall peaks. For certain samples, the concentration of TSS in the outlet was higher than the TSS concentration at the basin inlet, suggesting sediment re-suspension. In general SBs managed high flows during wet weather events, but were not effective in capturing particulates. This paper discusses the need for Best Management Practices (BMPs) for the design of SBs that reflect contemporary concerns for management of particle removal and to control the release of particulate-bound metals. This paper also evaluates the water quality impacts of naturally occurring acidic drainages into SBs, as several acidic seeps with pH in the range of 5-6 and having high dissolved concentrations of metals (Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca), sulfate and phosphate were observed draining into the SBs.

  12. A green roof experimental site in the Mediterranean climate: the storm water quality issue.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Ilaria; Palla, Anna; Lanza, Luca G; La Barbera, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, the University of Genoa has been carrying out a monitoring programme to investigate the hydrologic response of green roofs in the Mediterranean climate by installing a green roof experimental site. In order to assess the influence of green roofs on the storm water runoff quality, water chemistry data have been included in the monitoring programme since 2010, providing rainfall and outflow data. For atmospheric source, the bulk deposition is collected to evaluate the role of the overall atmospheric deposition in storm water runoff quality. For subsurface outflow, a maximum of 24 composite samples are taken on an event basis, thus aiming at a full characterization of the outflow hydrograph. Water chemistry data reveal that the pollutant loads associated with green roof outflow is low; in particular, solids and metal concentrations are lower than values generally observed in storm water runoff from traditional rooftops. The concentration values of chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, Fe, Ca and K measured in the subsurface outflow are significantly higher than those observed in the bulk deposition (p < 0.05). With respect to the atmospheric deposition, the green roof behaviour as a sink/source of pollutants is investigated based on both concentration and mass.

  13. Near-coastal water quality at reference sites following storm events.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Kenneth; Brown, Jeff; Trump, Steen; Hardin, Dane

    2016-02-15

    Stormwater is a challenging source of coastal pollution to abate because stormwater also involves complex natural processes, and differentiating these processes from anthropogenic excesses is difficult. The goal of this study was to identify the natural concentrations of stormwater constituents along the 1377 km coastline of California, USA. Twenty-eight ocean reference sites, a priori defined by lack of human disturbance in its adjacent watershed, were collected following 78 site-events and measured for 57 constituents and toxicity. Results indicated a complete lack of toxicity and undetectable levels of anthropogenic constituents (i.e., pesticides). The range of concentrations in ocean receiving waters for naturally-occurring constituents (i.e., total suspended solids, nutrients, trace metals) typically ranged three orders of magnitude. Regional differences and storm characteristics did not explain much of the variations in concentration. The reference site information is now being used to establish targets for marine protected areas subject to runoff from developed watersheds.

  14. Adjustment of regional regression equations for urban storm-runoff quality using at-site data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barks, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Regional regression equations have been developed to estimate urban storm-runoff loads and mean concentrations using a national data base. Four statistical methods using at-site data to adjust the regional equation predictions were developed to provide better local estimates. The four adjustment procedures are a single-factor adjustment, a regression of the observed data against the predicted values, a regression of the observed values against the predicted values and additional local independent variables, and a weighted combination of a local regression with the regional prediction. Data collected at five representative storm-runoff sites during 22 storms in Little Rock, Arkansas, were used to verify, and, when appropriate, adjust the regional regression equation predictions. Comparison of observed values of stormrunoff loads and mean concentrations to the predicted values from the regional regression equations for nine constituents (chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total nitrogen as N, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as N, total phosphorus as P, dissolved phosphorus as P, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, and total recoverable zinc) showed large prediction errors ranging from 63 percent to more than several thousand percent. Prediction errors for 6 of the 18 regional regression equations were less than 100 percent and could be considered reasonable for water-quality prediction equations. The regression adjustment procedure was used to adjust five of the regional equation predictions to improve the predictive accuracy. For seven of the regional equations the observed and the predicted values are not significantly correlated. Thus neither the unadjusted regional equations nor any of the adjustments were appropriate. The mean of the observed values was used as a simple estimator when the regional equation predictions and adjusted predictions were not appropriate.

  15. Storm Flow and Sediment Losses From Site-Prepared Forestland in East Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, W. H.; Wood, J. C.; Dehaven, M. G.

    1986-05-01

    Nine small (2.57 to 2.79 ha) forested watersheds in East Texas were instrumented in December 1979 to determine the effect of harvesting and site preparation on storm flow and sediment loss. Three replications of three treatments were used: (1) clearcutting, followed by shearing, windrowing, and burning, (2) clearcutting, followed by roller chopping and burning, and (3) undisturbed control. Prior to treatment, mineral soil was exposed on 3% of the watersheds. Following treatment in June 1981, 57% of the mineral soil was exposed on the sheared and windrowed watersheds compared to 16% on the chopped watersheds. At the end of the second, third, and fourth years' growing season, mineral soil was exposed on 20, 9, and 10% of the sheared and 4, 4, and 3% of the chopped watersheds, respectively. The first year following treatment, mean storm flow was greater from the sheared watersheds (14.6 cm) than from the chopped (8.3 cm) watersheds, with the storm flow from the latter greater than from the undisturbed (2.6 cm) watersheds. Mean storm flow was less from all watersheds the second year after treatment; however, storm flow from the sheared watersheds (5.0 cm) was similar to that from the chopped (3.6 cm) water-sheds, and both were greater than that from the undisturbed (1.2 cm) watersheds. During the third posttreatment year there was no significant difference in mean storm flow from the sheared and chopped watersheds or from chopped and undisturbed watersheds. Storm flow during the fourth posttreatment year was greater from the sheared watersheds (6.1 cm) than from the chopped (3.5 cm) watersheds, which had greater stormflow than the undisturbed (1.4 cm) watersheds. First-year sediment losses were greater from the sheared (2937 kg/ha) than from the chopped (25 kg/ha) or undisturbed (33 kg/ha) watersheds. Although second-year sediment losses were greatly reduced from the sheared watersheds (79.9 kg/ha), they remained greater than losses from chopped (5.5 kg/ha) or

  16. Hydrodynamic modelling of free water-surface constructed storm water wetlands using a finite volume technique.

    PubMed

    Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad; Scholz, Miklas; Tondar, Mohammad-Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    One of the key factors in designing free water-surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) is the hydraulic efficiency (λ), which depends primarily on the retention time of the polluted storm water. Increasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at various flow levels will increase λ of the overall constructed wetland (CW). The effects of characteristic geometric features that increase HRT were explored through the use of a two-dimensional depth-average hydrodynamic model. This numerical model was developed to solve the equations of continuity and motions on an unstructured triangular mesh using the Galerkin finite volume formulation and equations of the k-ε turbulence model. Eighty-nine diverse forms of artificial FWS CW with 11 different aspect ratios were numerically simulated and subsequently analysed for four scenarios: rectangular CW, modified rectangular CW with rounded edges, different inlet/outlet configurations of CW, and surface and submerged obstructions in front of the inlet part of the CW. Results from the simulations showed that increasing the aspect ratio has a direct influence on the enhancement of λ in all cases. However, the aspect ratio should be at least 9 in order to achieve an appropriate rate for λ in rectangular CW. Modified rounded rectangular CW improved λ by up to 23%, which allowed for the selection of a reduced aspect ratio. Simulation results showed that CW with low aspect ratios benefited from obstructions and optimized inlet/outlet configurations in terms of improved HRT.

  17. 48 CFR 52.236-27 - Site Visit (Construction).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Site Visit (Construction....236-27 Site Visit (Construction). As prescribed in 36.523, insert a provision substantially the same as the following: Site Visit (Construction) (FEB 1995) (a) The clauses at 52.236-2, Differing...

  18. 48 CFR 52.236-27 - Site Visit (Construction).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Site Visit (Construction....236-27 Site Visit (Construction). As prescribed in 36.523, insert a provision substantially the same as the following: Site Visit (Construction) (FEB 1995) (a) The clauses at 52.236-2, Differing...

  19. 48 CFR 52.236-27 - Site Visit (Construction).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Site Visit (Construction....236-27 Site Visit (Construction). As prescribed in 36.523, insert a provision substantially the same as the following: Site Visit (Construction) (FEB 1995) (a) The clauses at 52.236-2, Differing...

  20. 48 CFR 52.236-27 - Site Visit (Construction).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Site Visit (Construction....236-27 Site Visit (Construction). As prescribed in 36.523, insert a provision substantially the same as the following: Site Visit (Construction) (FEB 1995) (a) The clauses at 52.236-2, Differing...

  1. Event-based design tool for construction site erosion and sediment controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides additional discussion surrounding the novel event-based soil loss models developed by Trenouth and Gharabaghi (2015) for the design of erosion and sediment controls (ESCs) for various phases of construction - from pre-development to post-development conditions. The datasets for the study were obtained from three Ontario sites - Greensborough, Cookstown, and Alcona - in addition to datasets mined from the literature for three additional sites - Treynor, Iowa, Coshocton, Ohio and Cordoba, Spain. Model performances were evaluated for each of the study sites, and quantified using commonly-reported statistics. This work is nested within a broader conceptual framework, which includes the estimation of ambient receiving water quality, the prediction of event mean runoff quality for a given design storm, and the calculation of the required level of protection using adequate ESCs to meet receiving water quality guidelines. These models allow design engineers and regulatory agencies to assess the potential risk of ecological damage to receiving waters due to inadequate soil erosion and sediment control practices using dynamic scenario forecasting when considering rapidly changing land use conditions during various phases of construction, typically for a 2- or 5-year design storm return period.

  2. 29 CFR 1926.752 - Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction... Steel Erection § 1926.752 Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence. (a... intended minimum compressive design strength or sufficient strength to support the loads imposed...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.752 - Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction... Steel Erection § 1926.752 Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence. (a... intended minimum compressive design strength or sufficient strength to support the loads imposed...

  4. 48 CFR 49.105-4 - Cleanup of construction site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleanup of construction site. 49.105-4 Section 49.105-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.105-4 Cleanup of construction site....

  5. Quantifying Construction Site Sediment Discharge Risk and Treatment Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, L.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Dealing with soil erosion and sediment transport can be a significant challenge during the construction process due to the potentially large spatial and temporal extent and conditions of bare soils. Best Management Practices (BMP) are commonly used to eliminate or reduce offsite discharge of sediment. However, few efforts have investigated the time varying risk of sediment discharge from construction sites, which often have dynamic soil conditions and the potential for less than optimal BMP installations. The goal of this research is to improve the design, implementation and effectiveness of sediment and erosion control at construction sites using site specific, temporal distributions of sediment discharge risk. Sediment risk is determined from individual factors leading to sediment expert, such as rainfall frequency, the adequacy of BMP installations, and the extent and duration of bare soil conditions. This research specifically focuses on quantifying: (a) the effectiveness of temporary sediment and control erosion control BMPs in preventing, containing, and/or treating construction site sediment discharge at varying levels of "proper" installation, and (b) sediment discharge potential from construction sites during different phases of construction, (ex., disturbed earth operations). BMPs are evaluated at selected construction sites in southern California and at the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL) in the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University. SERL experiments are performed on a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 meter, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). BMP performance is assessed based on experiments where BMPs are installed per manufacture specifications, potential less than optimal installations, and no treatment conditions. Soil conditions are also varied to represent site conditions during different phases of construction (i.e., loose lifts

  6. A Storm-by-Storm Analysis of Alpine and Regional Precipitation Dynamics at the Mount Hunter Ice Core Site, Denali National Park, Central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, P. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Winski, D.

    2014-12-01

    In May-June 2013, an NSF-funded team from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire collected two 1000-year ice cores to bedrock from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska (62.940291, -151.087616, 3912 m). The snow accumulation record from these ice cores will provide key insight into late Holocene precipitation variability in central Alaska, and compliment existing precipitation paleorecords from the Mt. Logan and Eclipse ice cores in coastal SE Alaska. However, correct interpretation of the Mt. Hunter accumulation record requires an understanding of the relationships between regional meteorological events and micrometeorological conditions at the Mt. Hunter ice core collection site. Here we analyze a three-month window of snow accumulation and meteorological conditions recorded by an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) at the Mt. Hunter site during the summer of 2013. Snow accumulation events are identified in the Mt. Hunter AWS dataset, and compared on a storm-by-storm basis to AWS data collected from the adjacent Kahiltna glacier 2000 m lower in elevation, and to regional National Weather Service (NWS) station data. We also evaluate the synoptic conditions associated with each Mt. Hunter accumulation event using NWS surface maps, NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis data, and the NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectory model. We categorize each Mt. Hunter accumulation event as pure snow accumulation, drifting, or blowing snow events based on snow accumulation, wind speed and temperature data using the method of Knuth et al (2009). We analyze the frequency and duration of events within each accumulation regime, in addition to the overall contribution of each event to the snowpack. Preliminary findings indicate that a majority of Mt. Hunter accumulation events are of pure accumulation nature (55.5%) whereas drifting (28.6%) and blowing (15.4%) snow events play a secondary role. Our results will characterize the local accumulation dynamics on

  7. 16. CLOSE UP VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. CLOSE UP VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE, SHOWING A GANTRY CRANE AND COFFER DAM. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  8. Soil erosion from two small construction sites, Dane County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owens, David W.; Jopke, Peter; Hall, David W.; Balousek, Jeremy; Roa, Aicardo

    2000-01-01

    Soil erosion from construction sites has long been identified as a significant source of sediment and other suspended solids in runoff in many parts of the United States (Hagman and others, 1980; Yorke and Herb, 1976: Becker and others, 1974). In some states, such as Wisconsin, sediment has been identified as the number one pollutant (by volume) of surface waters (Wisconsin Depart- ment of Natural Resources, 1994). Because numerous water-quality problems in streams are associated with excessive sedimentation, Federal and state regulations requiring erosion-control measures at construction sites larger than 5 acres have been developed and implemented from the 1970's to the present. During the 1990's, excessive erosion and sediment production associated with small residential and commercial sites of less than 5 acres has been increasingly recognized for its effects on streams not only erosion from individual sites but also erosion from discontinuous groups of sites within a stream basin.

  9. PM10 Concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: The impact of urban sources and dust storms

    PubMed Central

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S.; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993 through December 11, 2008, and Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999 through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 μg/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 μg/m3 every year. A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000–2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) μg/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 μg/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 μg/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 μg/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 μg/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact of dust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. PMID:25562931

  10. The potential use of storm water and effluent from a constructed wetland for re-vegetating a degraded pyrite trail in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaliya, R.; Kansiime, F.; Oryem-Origa, H.; Kateyo, E.

    During the operation of the Kilembe Mines (copper mining) a cobaltiferous stockpile was constructed, which began to erode after the closure of the mines in the early 1970s. The erosion of the pyrite stockpile resulted in a large acid trail all the way to Lake George (a Ramsar site). The acid trail contaminated a large area of Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) resulting in the death of most of the shallow-rooted vegetation. Processes and conditions created by storm water and effluent from a constructed wetland were assessed for vegetation regeneration in the degraded QENP pyrite trail. Cynodon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Hyparrhenia filipendula dominated the regeneration zone (RZ) where storm water and effluent from a constructed wetland was flowing; and the adjacent unpolluted area (UP) with importance value indices of 186.4 and 83.3 respectively. Typha latifolia and C. dactylon formed two distinct vegetation sub-zones within the RZ with the former inhabiting areas with a higher water table. Soil pH was significantly higher in the RZ, followed by UP and bare pyrite trail (BPT) at both 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm depths. Soil electrical conductivity was not significantly different in the RZ and BPT but significantly higher than that in UP for both depths. For 0-15 cm depth, RZ had significantly higher concentrations of copper than BPT and UP which had similar concentrations. Still at this depth (0-15 cm), the unpolluted area had significantly higher concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen than the regeneration zone and the bare pyrite trail which had similar concentrations. The RZ dominated by Typha had significantly higher concentrations of TP and TN compared to the RZ dominated by Cynodon. The concentrations of NH 4-N were significantly lower in Typha regeneration zone than in CRZ at 0-15 cm depth but similar at 16-30 cm depth. At 16-30 cm depth, concentrations of copper were significantly higher in the regeneration zone followed by the bare pyrite

  11. Assessing inundation hazards to nuclear powerplant sites using geologically extended histories of riverine floods, tsunamis, and storm surges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, Jim; Atwater, Brian F.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Smith, Christopher G.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    A screening of the 104 nuclear powerplants in the United States licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (at 64 sites) indicates several sites for which paleoflood studies likely would provide additional flood-frequency information. Two sites—Duane Arnold, Iowa, on the Cedar River; and David-Besse, Ohio, on the Toussaint River—have geologic conditions suitable for creating and preserving stratigraphic records of flooding and few upstream dams that may complicate flood-frequency analysis. One site—Crystal River, Florida1, on the Withlacoochee River and only 4 kilometers from the coast—has high potential as a candidate for assessing riverine and marine inundation hazards. Several sites on the Mississippi River have high geologic potential, but upstream dams almost certainly now regulate peak flows. Nevertheless, studies on the Mississippi River to evaluate long-term flood frequency may provide results applicable to a wide spectrum of regional hazard issues. Several sites in the southeastern United States have high geologic potential, and studies at these sites also may be helpful in evaluating hazards from outburst floods from landslide dams (river blockages formed by mass movements), which may be a regional hazard. For all these sites, closer investigation and field reconnaissance would be needed to confirm suitable deposits and settings for a complete paleoflood analysis. Similar screenings may help identify high-potential sites for geologic investigations of tsunami and storm-surge hazards.

  12. Real-time imaging for construction site metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Debbie J.; Kearney, Frank W.; Ginsberg, Mark; Masters, Larry

    1988-08-01

    Military construction, like private industry, needs improved methods by which: (1) quality can be assured throughout the construction process, (2) the degree of construction progress can be assessed and documented, and (3) the performance of systems and materials can be assessed over time to aid in maintenance decision-making. Although these aspects of construction processes have traditionally been addressed through an empirical approach, recent advances in computer technology have provided new opportunities for improving upon the traditional methods. The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USA-CERL) is exploring the use of a sequential construction analyzer (SCA) to improve quality assurance, allow for more effective tracking of construction progress, and provide data for making decisions about maintenance. The SCA is a computer-based system that uses images obtained via various types of cameras to enhance the image data into useful information. This study was conducted to identify potential applications of the SCA in three areas of construction: buildings, construction sites, and paving. Many possibilities exist for applying this technology to the construction industry. The SCA concept is being optimized at USA-CERL, and a prototype is under development. When the prototype has been field-tested successfully, it will be used to develop specific applications for the Army and private industry.

  13. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  14. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  15. Another First at NSLS-II Construction Site

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-21

    Workers at the NSLS-II ring building construction site recently completed the first complicated concrete pour for the approximately 19-ft.-tall walls of the Utility Tunnel. The continuous pour was the first of its kind, as previous pours have been for foo

  16. Another First at NSLS-II Construction Site

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Workers at the NSLS-II ring building construction site recently completed the first complicated concrete pour for the approximately 19-ft.-tall walls of the Utility Tunnel. The continuous pour was the first of its kind, as previous pours have been for foo

  17. A novel methodology to estimate the evolution of construction waste in construction sites.

    PubMed

    Katz, Amnon; Baum, Hadassa

    2011-02-01

    This paper focuses on the accumulation of construction waste generated throughout the erection of new residential buildings. A special methodology was developed in order to provide a model that will predict the flow of construction waste. The amount of waste and its constituents, produced on 10 relatively large construction sites (7000-32,000 m(2) of built area) was monitored periodically for a limited time. A model that predicts the accumulation of construction waste was developed based on these field observations. According to the model, waste accumulates in an exponential manner, i.e. smaller amounts are generated during the early stages of construction and increasing amounts are generated towards the end of the project. The total amount of waste from these sites was estimated at 0.2m(3) per 1m(2) floor area. A good correlation was found between the model predictions and actual data from the field survey.

  18. The role of dust storms in total atmospheric particle concentrations at two sites in the western U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, Jason C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Munson, Seth M.; Fernandez, Daniel; Belnap, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Mineral aerosols are produced during the erosion of soils by wind and are a common source of particles (dust) in arid and semiarid regions. The size of these particles varies widely from less than 2 µm to larger particles that can exceed 50 µm in diameter. In this study, we present two continuous records of total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations at sites in Mesa Verde and Canyonlands National Parks in Colorado and Utah, USA, respectively, and compare those values to measurements of fine and coarse particle concentrations made from nearby samplers. Average annual concentrations of TSP at Mesa Verde were 90 µg m−3 in 2011 and at Canyonlands were 171 µg m−3 in 2009, 113 µg m−3 in 2010, and 134 µg m−3 in 2011. In comparison, annual concentrations of fine (diameter of 2.5 µm and below) and coarse (2.5–10 µm diameter) particles at these sites were below 10 µg m−3 in all years. The high concentrations of TSP appear to be the result of regional dust storms with elevated concentrations of particles greater than 10 µm in diameter. These conditions regularly occur from spring through fall with 2 week mean TSP periodically in excess of 200 µg m−3. Measurement of particles on filters indicates that the median particle size varies between approximately 10 µm in winter and 40 µm during the spring. These persistently elevated concentrations of large particles indicate that regional dust emission as dust storms and events are important determinants of air quality in this region.

  19. The impact of storm events on a riverbed system and its hydraulic conductivity at a site of induced infiltration.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan; Birck, Matthew D; Mutiti, Samuel; Kilroy, Kathryn C; Windeler, Britton; Idris, Ominigho; Allen, Lauren N

    2011-08-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of riverbed vertical hydraulic conductivity (K(v)) was investigated at a site of induced infiltration, associated with a municipal well field, to assess the impact of high-stage events on scour and subsequently the riverbed K(v). Such impacts are important when considering the potential loss of riverbank filtration capacity due to storm events. The study site, in and along the Great Miami River in southwest Ohio, overlaid a highly productive glacial-outwash aquifer. A three-layer model for this system was conceptualized: a top layer of transient sediment, a second layer comprising large sediment resistant to scour, but clogged with finer sediment (the armor/colmation layer), and a third layer that was transitional to the underlying higher-K(v) aquifer. One location was studied in detail to confirm and quantify the conceptual model. Methods included seepage meters, heat-flow modeling, grain-size analyses, laboratory permeameter tests, slug tests and the use of scour chains and pressure-load cells to directly measure the amount of sediment scour and re-deposition. Seepage meter measured riverbed K(v) ranged from 0.017 to 1.7 m/d with a geometric mean of 0.19 m/d. Heat-transport model-calibrated estimates were even lower, ranging from 0.0061 to 0.046 m/d with a mean of 0.017 m/d. The relatively low K(v) was indicative of the clogged armor layer. In contrast, slug tests in the underlying riverbed sediment yielded K(v) values an order of magnitude greater. There was a linear relationship between scour chain measured scour and event intensity with a maximum scour of only 0.098 m. Load-cell pressure sensor data over a 7-month period indicated a total sediment-height fluctuation of 0.42 m and a maximum storm-event scour of 0.28 m. Scour data indicated that the assumed armor/colmation layer almost always remained intact. Based on measured layer conductivities and thicknesses, the overall K(v) of this conceptualized system was 1.6 m

  20. The Cultural Construction of Mental Illness in Prison: A Perfect Storm of Pathology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals in U.S. prisons meet DSM criteria for severe psychiatric disorder. These individuals also have co-occurring personality and substance abuse disorders, medical conditions, and histories of exposure to social pathologies. Based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. prison, focusing on staff narratives, I utilize interpretivist and constructivist perspectives to analyze how mental health clinicians construct psychiatric disorder among inmates. Discrete categorization of disorders may be confounded by the clinical co-morbidities of inmates and the prison context. Incarcerated individuals’ responses to the institutional context substantially inform mental health staffs’ illness construction and the prison itself is identified as an etiological agent for disordered behaviors. In addition, diagnostic processes are found to be indeterminate, contested, and shaped by interactions with staff. Analysis of illness construction reveals that what is at stake for clinicians is not only provision of appropriate treatment, but also mandates for the safety and security of the institution. Enmeshed in these mandates, prison mental health becomes a particular local form of psychiatric knowledge. This paper contributes to anthropological approaches to mental disorder by demonstrating how local contexts mediate psychiatric knowledge and contribute to the limited ethnographic record of prisons. PMID:23212545

  1. Siting, Constructing, and Maintaining a Deep Underground Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Robert R.

    1983-03-01

    Experience from a recent site selection study has shown that the important considerations in siting a deep underground science facility are numerous, complicated, and most often based in economics. Even so, there are natural constraints on the maximum depth, size of openings, and construction techniques that can be attained or utilized at any particular site. In general, these are set by the local geothermal gradient, hydrologic regime, and properties of the rock mass or substance that are pertinent to geological, mining, and drilling engineering. At the same time, economics control the type of access, means of dewatering, and methods of sustaining the openings that are most feasible. If major faults can be avoided, sites offering acceptable temperature, a low water table, no outstanding aquifers or badly broken ground above the main openings, and strong, massive, largely impermeable rocks surrounding them at depth are best. Upon completion of a facility, the investment and safety of the occupants demand it rigorous maintenance.

  2. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study Naval Construction Battalion Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    revrs if necU~ary and identify by block muenbers IELD GROUP sue, GR. Herbicide Orange) -2,4-D’ Analytical Methods) 1 ,ni IDioxin Soil Samli~ 3*3TRACT...THIS PAGE Cont-mination levels ranged between rordetectable and approximately 200 ppb. Average values were below 10 ppt in surface soils and...analysis of a soil sampling program performed at the former Herbicide Orange storage site on the Naval Construction Battalion Center. Over 1700 soil

  3. Lessons Learned for Construction and Waste Water Management at Radioactive Waste Closure Site

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.D.

    2008-07-01

    Environmental remediation of three different radioactive waste closure sites each required exhaustive characterization and evaluation of sampling and analytical information in resolving regulatory and technical issues that impact cleanup activities. One of the many regulatory and technical issues shared by all three and impacting the cleanup activities is the compliant management and discharge of waste waters generated and resulting from the remediation activities. Multiple options were available for each closure site in resolving waste water management challenges depending upon the base regulatory framework defined for the cleanup or closure of the site. These options are typically regulated by the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), with exemptions available under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) or Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between regulatory agencies. In general, all parties must demonstrate equivalent compliance when concerns related to the protection of the general public and the environment. As such, all options for management of waste water resulting from closure activities must demonstrate compliance to or equivalent actions under the CWA. The CWA provides for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) that is typically maintained by individual states through permitting process to generators, public utilities, and more recently, construction sites. Of the three sites, different compliance strategies were employed for each. The approach for the Columbus Closure Project (CCP) was to initiate full scale compliance to the Ohio EPA General Construction Permit No. OHC000002. The CCP provided Notice of Intent (NOI) to the Ohio EPA to discharge under the general permit according to the regulator approved Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan. For the second site, the Li Tungsten Superfund Site in Glen Cove, New York, the option

  4. Priority and construction sites of water storage in a watershed in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Lin, Chao-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan is located at the Eastern Asia Monsoon climate zone. Typhoons and/or convectional rains occur frequently and result in high intensity storms in the summer season. Once the detention facilities are shortage or soil infiltration rate become worse in a watershed due to land use, surface runoff is easily to concentrate and threaten the protected areas. Therefore, it is very important to examine the functionality of water storage for a watershed. The purpose of this study is to solve the issue of flooding in the Puzi Creek. A case study of Yizen Bridge Watershed, in which the SCS curve number was used as an index to extract the spatial distribution of the strength of water storage, and the value of watershed mean CN along the main channel was calculated using area-weighting method. Therefore, the hotspot management sites were then derived and the priority method was applied to screen the depression sites for the reference of management authorities in detention ponds placement. The results show that the areas of subzone A with the characteristics of bad condition in topography and soil, which results in poor infiltration. However, the areas are mostly covered with forest and are difficult to create the artificial water storage facilities. Detention dams are strongly recommended at the site of depression in the river channel to decrease discharge velocity and reduce impact from flood disaster. The areas of subzone B are mainly located at the agriculture slope land. The topographic depressions in the farmland are the suitable places to construct the farm ponds for the use of flood detention and sediment deposition in the rainy seasons and irrigation in the dry seasons. Areas of subzone C are mainly occupied the gentle slope land with a better ability in water storage due to low CN value. Farm ponds constructed in the riparian to bypass the nearby river channel can create multifunctional wetland to effectively decrease the peak discharge in the downstream during

  5. Safety inspections in construction sites: A systems thinking perspective.

    PubMed

    Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2016-08-01

    Although safety inspections carried out by government officers are important for the prevention of accidents, there is little in-depth knowledge on their outcomes and processes leading to these. This research deals with this gap by using systems thinking (ST) as a lens for obtaining insights into safety inspections in construction sites. Thirteen case studies of sites with prohibited works were carried out, discussing how four attributes of ST were used in the inspections. The studies were undertaken over 6 years, and sources of evidence involved participant observation, direct observations, analysis of documents and interviews. Two complementary ways for obtaining insights into inspections, based on ST, were identified: (i) the design of the study itself needs to be in line with ST; and (ii) data collection and analysis should focus on the agents involved in the inspections, the interactions between agents, the constraints and opportunities faced by agents, the outcomes of interactions, and the recommendations for influencing interactions.

  6. Asian dust storm observed at a rural mountain site in southern China: chemical evolution and heterogeneous photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, W.; Wang, T.; Xue, L. K.; Ding, A. J.; Wang, X. F.; Gao, X. M.; Xu, Z.; Yu, Y. C.; Yuan, C.; Zhou, Z. S.; Gao, R.; Liu, X. H.; Wang, Y.; Fan, S. J.; Poon, S.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2012-12-01

    Heterogeneous processes on dust particles are important for understanding the chemistry and radiative balance of the atmosphere. This paper investigates an intense Asian dust storm episode observed at Mount Heng (1269 m a.s.l.) in southern China on 24-26 April 2009. A set of aerosol and trace gas data collected during the study was analyzed to investigate their chemical evolution and heterogeneous photochemistry as the dust traveled to southern China. Results show that the mineral dust arriving at Mt. Heng experienced significant modifications during transport, with large enrichments in secondary species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) compared with the dust composition collected at an upwind mountain top site (Mount Hua). A photochemical age "clock" (-Log10(NOx/NOy)) was employed to quantify the atmospheric processing time. The result indicates an obvious increase in the abundance of secondary water-soluble ions in dust particles with the air mass atmospheric processing time. Based on the observations, a 4-stage evolution process is proposed for carbonate-containing Asian dust, starting from fresh dust to particles coated with hydrophilic and acidic materials. Daytime-enhanced nitrite formation on the dust particles was also observed, which indicates the recent laboratory result of the TiO2 photocatalysis of NO2 as a potential source of nitrite and nitrous acid.

  7. Asian dust storm observed at a rural mountain site in Southern China: chemical evolution and heterogeneous photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, W.; Wang, T.; Xue, L. K.; Ding, A. J.; Wang, X. F.; Gao, X. M.; Xu, Z.; Yu, Y. C.; Yuan, C.; Zhou, Z. S.; Gao, R.; Liu, X. H.; Wang, Y.; Fan, S. J.; Poon, C. N.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2012-08-01

    Heterogeneous processes on dust particles are important for understanding the chemistry and radiative balance of the atmosphere. This paper investigates an intense Asian dust storm episode observed at Mount Heng (1250 m a.s.l.) in Southern China on 24-26 April 2009. A set of aerosol and trace gas data collected during the study was analyzed to investigate their chemical evolution and heterogeneous photochemistry as the dust traveled to Southern China. Results show that the mineral dust arriving at Mt. Heng experienced significant modifications during transport, with large enrichments in secondary species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) compared with the dust composition collected at an upwind mountain top site (Mount Hua). A photochemical age "clock" (-log10(NOx/NOy)) was employed to quantify the atmospheric processing time. The result indicates an obvious increase in the abundance of secondary water-soluble ions in dust particles with the air mass' photochemical age. Based on the observations, a 4-stage evolution process is proposed for carbonate-rich Asian dust, starting from fresh dust to particles coated with hydrophilic and acidic materials. Daytime-enhanced nitrite formation on the dust particles was also observed, which indicates the recent laboratory result of the TiO2 photocatalysis of NO2 as a potential source of nitrite and nitrous acid.

  8. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  9. Pyramiding tumuli waste disposal site and method of construction thereof

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.

    1989-01-01

    An improved waste disposal site for the above-ground disposal of low-level nuclear waste as disclosed herein. The disposal site is formed from at least three individual waste-containing tumuli, wherein each tumuli includes a central raised portion bordered by a sloping side portion. Two of the tumuli are constructed at ground level with adjoining side portions, and a third above-ground tumulus is constructed over the mutually adjoining side portions of the ground-level tumuli. Both the floor and the roof of each tumulus includes a layer of water-shedding material such as compacted clay, and the clay layer in the roofs of the two ground-level tumuli form the compacted clay layer of the floor of the third above-ground tumulus. Each tumulus further includes a shield wall, preferably formed from a solid array of low-level handleable nuclear wate packages. The provision of such a shield wall protects workers from potentially harmful radiation when higher-level, non-handleable packages of nuclear waste are stacked in the center of the tumulus.

  10. Size and elemental composition of dry-deposited particles during a severe dust storm at a coastal site of Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongya; Zhang, Daizhou; Hu, Wei; Shi, Jinhui; Li, Ruipeng; Gao, Huiwang; Pian, Wei; Hu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Dry-deposited particles were collected during the passage of an extremely strong dust storm in March, 2010 at a coastal site in Qingdao (36.15 °N, 120.49 °E), a city located in Eastern China. The size, morphology, and elemental composition of the particles were quantified with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray instrument (SEM-EDX). The particles appeared in various shapes, and their size mainly varied from 0.4 to 10 μm, with the mean diameters of 0.5, 1.5, and 1.0 μm before, during, and after the dust storm, respectively. The critical size of the mineral particles settling on the surface in the current case was about 0.3-0.4 μm before the dust storm and about 0.5-0.7 μm during the dust storm. Particles that appeared in high concentration but were smaller than the critical size deposited onto the surface at a small number flux. The elements Al, Si and Mg were frequently detected in all samples, indicating the dominance of mineral particles. The frequency of Al in particles collected before the dust storm was significantly lower than for those collected during and after the dust storm. The frequencies of Cl and Fe did not show obvious changes, while those of S, K and Ca decreased after the dust arrival. These results indicate that the dust particles deposited onto the surface were less influenced by anthropogenic pollutants in terms of particle number.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 392: Spill Sites and Construction Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. Jackson

    2002-02-01

    This Closure Report documents the closure activities that were conducted to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 392--Spill Sites and Construction Materials located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). CAU 392 is listed on in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 5 and 6 of the NTS: CAS 05-17-02 Construction Materials/Lead Bricks; CAS 06-17-03 Cement Mud Pit; CAS 06-1 9-01 Cable Pile; Powder Piles (3); CAS 06-44-02 Paint Spill; CAS 06-44-03 Plaster Spill; CAS 06-44-04 Cutting Fluid Discharge Ditch. Closure activities were performed in two phases. Phase 1 activities consisted of collecting waste characterization samples of soil and material present on-site, and where appropriate, performing radiological screening of debris at the six CASs. Results were used to determine how waste generated during closure activities would be handled and disposed of, i.e., as nonhazardous sanitary or hazardous waste, etc. Phase 2 activities consisted of closing each CAS by removing debris and/or soil, disposing of the generated waste, and verifying that each CAS was clean closed by visual inspection and/or by the collecting soil verification samples for laboratory analysis. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix A. Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure Verification Form for each of the six CASs are included in Appendix 8. Appendix C contains a copy of the Bechtel Nevada (BN) On-site Waste Transport Manifest for the hazardous waste generated during closure of CAS 06-44-02.

  12. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ann T.W.; Poon, C.S.; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years of CWDCS implementation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However, the reduction cannot be sustained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of the CWDCS has generated positive effects in waste reduction by all main trades. - Abstract: Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C and D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C and D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C and D waste.

  13. Erosion control at construction sites on red clay soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemly, A. Dennis

    1982-07-01

    Five single-treatment methods used to stabilize seeded areas at urban and highway construction sites (asphalt-tacked straw, jute netting, mulch blanket, wood chips, excelsior blanket) were tested for their ability to control erosion of red clay soils by comparisons with exposed sites and multiple treatments. Sediment in runoff from experimental plots was characterized during low and high intensity precipitation from natural rainfall episodes during April, May, and June. Reductions in the total sediment concentration of runoff ranged from 28 percent (asphalt-tacked straw, 50 percent slope) to 90 percent (multiple treatments, 40 percent slope), with ≥85 percent of the eroded material composed of particles <0.04 mm in diameter. Larger size fractions were effectively reduced by all treatments tested regardless of slope (≥70 percent decrease). Established grass cover exceeded 90 percent on all plots after 60 days, but sediment release remained similar, attributable to high intensity rainfall, poor establishment of root systems, and piping on plots treated with tacked straw or jute netting. Results indicate that current stabilization methods shift sediment compostion toward a smaller particle size, causing single treatments to be minimally effective for controlling erosion of the major component of red clay soils. Because small particles have the greatest direct effect on aquatic biota, certain impacts of sedimentation may not be measurably lessened by single treatments in regions where red clays predominate even though the total sediment load is reduced by as much as 75 percent. Clearly, a multiple-treatment approach offers significantly greater control of erosion on red clay soils, however, current economic and construction policy represents a substantial deterrent to implementation.

  14. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ann T W; Poon, C S; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C&D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C&D waste.

  15. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2000-12-11

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  16. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Liikala, Terry L; Strenge, Dennis L; Taira, Randal Y

    2001-01-10

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for ''No Further Action'' by previous investigators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  17. Library construction and evaluation for site saturation mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Bradford; Walton, Adam Z; Stewart, Jon D

    2013-06-10

    We developed a method for creating and evaluating site-saturation libraries that consistently yields an average of 27.4±3.0 codons of the 32 possible within a pool of 95 transformants. This was verified by sequencing 95 members from 11 independent libraries within the gene encoding alkene reductase OYE 2.6 from Pichia stipitis. Correct PCR primer design as well as a variety of factors that increase transformation efficiency were critical contributors to the method's overall success. We also developed a quantitative analysis of library quality (Q-values) that defines library degeneracy. Q-values can be calculated from standard fluorescence sequencing data (capillary electropherograms) and the degeneracy predicted from an early stage of library construction (pooled plasmids from the initial transformation) closely matched that observed after ca. 1000 library members were sequenced. Based on this experience, we suggest that this analysis can be a useful guide when applying our optimized protocol to new systems, allowing one to focus only on good-quality libraries and reject substandard libraries at an early stage. This advantage is particularly important when lower-throughput screening techniques such as chiral-phase GC must be employed to identify protein variants with desirable properties, e.g., altered stereoselectivities or when multiple codons are targeted for simultaneous randomization.

  18. Calculating sediment discharge from a highway construction site in central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, L.A.; Ward, J.R.; Wetzel, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, the Federal Highway Administration, and the U.S. Geological Survey have cooperated in a study to evaluate two methods of predicting sediment yields during highway construction. Sediment yields were calculated using the Universal Soil Loss and the Younkin Sediment Prediction Equations. Results were compared to the actual measured values, and standard errors and coefficients of correlation were calculated. Sediment discharge from the construction area was determined for storms that occurred during construction of Interstate 81 in a 0.38-square mile basin near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Precipitation data tabulated included total rainfall, maximum 30-minute rainfall, kinetic energy, and the erosive index of the precipitation. Highway construction data tabulated included the area disturbed by clearing and grubbing, the area in cuts and fills, the average depths of cuts and fills, the area seeded and mulched, and the area paved. Using the Universal Soil Loss Equation, sediment discharge from the construction area was calculated for storms. The standard error of estimate was 0.40 (about 105 percent), and the coefficient of correlation was 0.79. Sediment discharge from the construction area was also calculated using the Younkin Equation. The standard error of estimate of 0.42 (about 110 percent), and the coefficient of correlation of 0.77 are comparable to those from the Universal Soil Loss Equation.

  19. Storm Water Pollution Removal Performance of Compost Filter Socks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, the US Environmental Protection Agency National Menu of Best Management Practices (BMPs) listed compost filter socks as an approved BMP for controlling sediment in storm runoff on construction sites. Filtrexx International manufactures and distributes Filter Soxx (FS). Literature suggests...

  20. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  1. A Principal's Guide to On-Site School Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, William A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses construction that takes place in or near the school building while school is in session--the most difficult kind of construction to manage. Success largely depends upon the preparation, competence, and goodwill of the school district's facility staff, the project architect/engineer, the contractor, and local school…

  2. Determination of isocyanate biomarkers in construction site workers.

    PubMed

    Sabbioni, Gabriele; Wesp, Hansjörg; Lewalter, Jürgen; Rumler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important isocyanate in the manufacture of polyurethanes, dyes, pigments and adhesives. High concentrations of isocyanates are a potent respiratory irritant. Therefore, it is important to develop methods to monitor exposure to such compounds. We monitored biological samples from 40 non-exposed and 45 exposed construction site workers. 4,4'-Methylenedianiline (MDA) and N-acetyl-4,4'-MDA (AcMDA) were determined from untreated urine (U-MDA, U-AcMDA) and MDA was analysed from acid-treated urine (U-MDA-tot). Haemoglobin (Hb) adducts of MDA (Hb-MDA) were determined in all workers. The levels of biomarkers decreased in the following order: U-MDA-tot>U-AcMDA>U-MDA>Hb-MDA. The same order was found for the percentage of samples, which were found positive in exposed workers: 100%, 91%, 91%, 27%. The urine levels U-MDA-tot correlate with U-MDA, U-AcMDA and Hb-MDA with r=0.79, 0.86 and 0.39, respectively (Spearman rank order, p<0.01). U-AcMDA correlates with U-MDA and Hb-MDA with r=0.77 and 0.47, respectively (p<0.01). U-MDA correlates with Hb-MDA (r=0.38, p<0.05). The levels in the controls were significantly lower than in the exposed workers for all compounds (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.01). The median isocyanate-specific IgE-level was higher in the exposed workers, but the difference was statistically not significant. The change of the biomarker levels was compared in a group of workers (n=20), which were analysed prior to isocyanate exposure and after the exposure for approximately 4-7 months. All urine MDA metabolites and the Hb-adduct levels increased significantly (Wilcoxon sign test, p<0.01). Total IgE increased significantly after the exposure with isocyanate activity (p<0.01). With the present work it could be shown that outdoor workers are exposed to a similar extent as workers from a MDI factory.

  3. Intercomparison between Individual Particles Scavenged as CCN and Those Collected at Ground-based Site on West Coast of Japan During Asian Dust Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C. J.; Tohno, S.; Kasahara, M.; Hayakawa, S.

    2002-12-01

    Asian dust storm particles can affect precipitation composition because they are either incorporated into cloud via condensation of water vapour (nucleation) or due to the uptake of particles by existing droplets. And subsequently they affect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In order to study the intercorrelation between the chemical natures of both the particles collected at ground-based site and those scavenged as CCN, the intensive field measurement was carried out on west coast of Japan (Yasaka, Tango Peninsula, 35.62°N; 135.07°E) during dense Asian dust storm event on March 22, 2002. Due to the size dependence of the chemical composition of aerosol particle, size-segregated aerosol particles were collect using Low pressure Andersen impactor sampler. Also, to collect cloud droplets individually, a particular method for the cloud droplet replication was newly applied using collodion (nitrocellulose) film. Sampling of cloud droplets was performed at summit of a mountain (680 m) in Yasaka. To analyze the ambient individual aerosol particles and individual retained particles in cloud droplet, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analytical method set at SPring-8 on BL39XU was applied. Analytical result enables us not only to compare the characteristics of individual particles scavenged as CCN and those collected at ground-based site, but also to estimate the influence of long-range transport.

  4. Construction Completed at JEB Little Creek Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (May 14, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced today that the U.S. Navy has completed Superfund cleanup construction at the Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek in Virginia Beach, Va. The completion culminates 31 y

  5. Making the Most of Your School Site. School Buildings Planning, Design, and Construction Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, John H.

    A school construction guide offers key personnel in school development projects information on the complex task of master planning and construction of schools in Australia. This chapter of the guide provides advice on site selection covering selection criteria; traffic issues; and site services, such as water, power, and sewer. Additionally…

  6. Construction management at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, G.P.; Wilson, L.R.

    1990-05-01

    The SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site is planned for construction at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington. This project provides the Hanford Site contractors with a unique opportunity to showcase a number of design and construction innovations that significantly lower the design and construction costs while providing a facility that will effectively meet all of its design objectives. This paper will explain the organization and management of the SP-100 project, specifically those activities relating to facility design modification and construction management, as performed through the joint efforts of Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Kaiser Engineers Hanford (KEH).

  7. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  8. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  9. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  10. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  11. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  12. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  13. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  14. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  15. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  16. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  17. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  18. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  19. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  20. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  1. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and...

  2. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  3. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  4. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  5. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the...

  6. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  7. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K.

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  8. Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.

    1998-01-01

    One of the oldest mysteries in geomagnetism is the linkage between solar and geomagnetic activity. The 11-year cycles of both the numbers of sunspots and Earth geomagnetic storms were first noted by Sabine. A few years later, speculation on a causal relationship between flares and storms arose when Carrington reported that a large magnetic storm followed the great September 1859 solar flare. However, it was not until this century that a well-accepted statistical survey on large solar flares and geomagnetic storms was performed, and a significant correlation between flares and geomagnetic storms was noted. Although the two phenomena, one on the Sun and the other on the Earth, were statistically correlated, the exact physical linkage was still an unknown at this time. Various hypotheses were proposed, but it was not until interplanetary spacecraft measurements were available that a high-speed plasma stream rich in helium was associated with an intense solar flare. The velocity of the solar wind increased just prior to and during the helium passage, identifying the solar ejecta for the first time. Space plasma measurements and Skylab's coronagraph images of coronal mass elections (CMES) from the Sun firmly established the plasma link between the Sun and the Earth. One phenomenon associated with magnetic storms is brilliant "blood" red auroras, as shown.

  9. Chandra Provides New View of Biggest Construction Sites in Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Images made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have revealed two distant cosmic construction sites buzzing with activity. This discovery shows how super massive black holes control the growth of massive galaxies in the distant universe. X-rays were detected from vast clouds of high-energy particles around the galaxies 3C294 and 4C41.17, which are 10 and 12 billion light years from Earth, respectively. The energetic particles were left over from past explosive events that can be traced through the X-ray and radio jets back to the super massive black holes located in the centers of the galaxies. "These galaxies are revealing an energetic phase in which a super massive black hole transfers considerable energy into the gas surrounding the galaxies," said Andrew Fabian of England's Cambridge University, lead author of a paper on 3C294 to appear in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "This appears to be crucial in explaining the puzzling properties of present-day galaxies, especially those that group together in large clusters," he said. The picture that is emerging is of a grand cosmic cycle. A dense region of intergalactic gas cools to form several smaller galaxies, which merge to form a larger galaxy with a super massive black hole. The galaxy and its central black hole continue to grow until the energy generated by jets from the vicinity of the voracious black hole stops the fall of matter into the black hole. Millions of years after the jet activity subsides, matter will resume falling into the black hole and the cycle begins anew. 4C41.17 and 3C294 4C41.17 Both 3C294 and 4C41.17 reside in regions of space containing unusually high numbers of galaxies. The gas and galaxies surrounding these galaxies will eventually collapse to form galaxy clusters, some of the most massive objects in the universe. Although 3C294 and 4C41.17 will grow to gargantuan sizes, through the accumulation of surrounding matter that forms hundreds of

  10. 10 CFR 2.606 - Partial decision on site suitability issues in construction permit proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... partial decision on one or more site suitability issues pursuant to the applicable provisions of part 50...) Clearly identify the site to which the partial decision applies; and (ii) Indicate to what extent... this chapter whether a construction permit for a facility to be located on the site identified in...

  11. Web site construction for information and treatment on liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Roussakis, Sotiris; Ponirou, Paraskevi; Bizopoulou, Zoi; Diomidous, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer requires a considerable attention of health care scientists worldwide. A holistic treatment includes patient information about risk factors, education on pragmatic evaluation of the symptoms, as well as presentation of best and individualized treatment methods. In this direction, Internet seems to be a powerful tool that has an essential role. The aim of this study is the development of a web site in order to inform and present treatment options on liver cancer, it consists of four parts. In the first part, the presentation of the disease's knowledge base is attempted, whereas in the second part this knowledge base is organized in two conceptual entities: (a) information and (b) treatment. In the third part the importance of internet in the health care sector is highlighted. In the fourth and last part the web site is presented and a brief illustration of several relevant theories and specific implementation tools. The critical success factor of the implementation phase is considered to be the selection of the appropriate methods and development tools. Finally, the constant need for ongoing site maintenance is discussed and thus, is proposed to formulate one of the main aspects for further research, along with several issues concerning site usability.

  12. Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of the Health Physics Site Support Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    DOE has prepared an environmental assessment for the proposed construction and operation of the Health Physics Site Support Facility on the Savannah River Site. This (new) facility would meet requirements of the site radiological protection program and would ensure site compliance with regulations. It was determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and no environmental impact statement is needed.

  13. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  14. Dissolved pesticide concentrations detected in storm-water runoff at selected sites in the San Joaquin River basin, California, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Whitehead, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    As part of a collaborative study involving the United States Geological Survey Toxics Substances Hydrology Project (Toxics Project) and the University of California, Davis, Bodega Marine Laboratory (BML), water samples were collected at three sites within the San Joaquin River Basin of California and analyzed for dissolved pesticides. Samples were collected during, and immediately after, the first significant rainfall (greater than 0.5 inch per day) following the local application of dormant spray, organophosphate insecticides during the winters of 2000 and 2001. All samples were collected in conjunction with fish-caging experiments conducted by BML researchers. Sites included two locations potentially affected by runoff of agricultural chemicals (San Joaquin River near Vernalis, California, and Orestimba Creek at River Road near Crows Landing, California, and one control site located upstream of pesticide input (Orestimba Creek at Orestimba Creek Road near Newman, California). During these experiments, fish were placed in cages and exposed to storm runoff for up to ten days. Following exposure, the fish were examined for acetylcholinesterase concentrations and overall genetic damage. Water samples were collected throughout the rising limb of the stream hydrograph at each site for later pesticide analysis. Concentrations of selected pesticides were measured in filtered water samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) at the U.S. Geological Survey organic chemistry laboratory in Sacramento, California. Results of these analyses are presented.

  15. Critical management practices influencing on-site waste minimization in construction projects.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Saheed O; Oyedele, Lukumon O; Bilal, Muhammad; Akinade, Olugbenga O; Alaka, Hafiz A; Owolabi, Hakeem A

    2017-01-01

    As a result of increasing recognition of effective site management as the strategic approach for achieving the required performance in construction projects, this study seeks to identify the key site management practices that are requisite for construction waste minimization. A mixed methods approach, involving field study and survey research were used as means of data collection. After confirmation of construct validity and reliability of scale, data analysis was carried out through a combination of Kruskal-Wallis test, descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. The study suggests that site management functions could significantly reduce waste generation through strict adherence to project drawings, and by ensuring fewer or no design changes during construction process. Provision of waste skips for specific materials and maximisation of on-site reuse of materials are also found to be among the key factors for engendering waste minimization. The result of factor analysis suggests four factors underlying on-site waste management practices with 96.093% of total variance. These measures include contractual provisions for waste minimization, waste segregation, maximisation of materials reuse and effective logistic management. Strategies through which each of the underlying measures could be achieved are further discussed in the paper. Findings of this study would assist construction site managers and other site operatives in reducing waste generated by construction activities.

  16. Projecting labor demand and worker immigration at nuclear power plant construction sites: an evaluation of methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, H.W. Jr; Schlottmann, A.M.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-12-01

    The study evaluates methodology employed for the projection of labor demand at, and worker migration to, nuclear power plant construction sites. In addition, suggestions are offered as to how this projection methodology might be improved. The study focuses on projection methodologies which forecast either construction worker migration or labor requirements of alternative types of construction activity. Suggested methodological improvements relate both to institutional factors within the nuclear power plant construction industry, and to a better use of craft-specific data on construction worker demand/supply. In addition, the timeliness and availability of the regional occupational data required to support, or implement these suggestions are examined.

  17. 10 CFR 433.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. 433.6 Section 433.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL...

  18. 10 CFR 433.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. 433.6 Section 433.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL...

  19. Design and construction of a storm window with increased thermal efficiency which opens to allow ventilation as needed. Final technical report, proposal number F375

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The project as originally conceived and funded envisioned a conventional full - window - length storm sash mounted in the cement block window opening. Appropriate linkage would open the storm sash. This design proved to be a safety hazard and physically undesirable. The design of the storm window sash was revised. Individual storm frames were to be mounted on each awning sash. Mechanical interferences with the storm sash occurred when a two inch air space was used. This was solved by reducing the air space to the optimum dimension of 3/4 inches. The sizes and configuration of the awning type windows were studied to aid in cost effective and efficient design of the storm frame. It was discovered that in all but the later (aluminum conserving) models, the window pane was recessed 3/4 inches. This serendipidous fact resulted in the design of a triple glazed window utilizing only one storm sash glazed on both sides. The resultant combination window and storm sash is estimated to give approximately R 3.9 to R 5.2 insulation value.

  20. Water-Quality Characteristics of Urban Storm Runoff at Selected Sites in East Baton Rouge Parish, Lousiana, Frebruary 1998 Through April 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, C. Paul

    2003-01-01

    Water was sampled at four watersheds for continued evaluation of urban storm runoff in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, during February 1998 through April 2002. Eighteen samples were collected from four watersheds representing land uses characterized predominantly as established commercial, industrial, new commercial, and residential. Results of water-quality analyses enabled calculation of event-mean concentrations and estimated annual contaminant loads and yields of storm runoff from nonpoint sources for 12 water-quality properties and constituents. The following water-quality data are reported: physical and chemical-related properties, fecal coliform and enterococci bacteria, major inorganic ions, nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds. The residential land-use is the largest of the watersheds (550 acres), which resulted in high estimated annual contaminant loads compared to other watersheds for 8 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents. This may indicate that the size of the watershed and runoff from residences with their associated contaminants had substantial effects on annual loads within this land use. The industrial land-use area had the highest estimated annual contaminant loads for metals, followed by the residential landuse area. However, when comparing yields among the watersheds, the industrial watershed had the highest yield for 9 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents, whereas the residential watershed had the lowest yield for 7 of the 12. The industrial watershed yielded more metals per acre per year than any other watershed. Zinc yields were 2.71 pounds per acre per year from the industrial watershed, compared to 0.35 pounds per acre per year from the residential watershed, which was the lowest of all the watersheds. Lead concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 15 micrograms per liter for drinking water standards in 10 of 18 samples. Low

  1. Mapping Hurricane Inland-Storm Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; East, J. W.; Dorsey, M. E.; McGee, B. D.; McCallum, B. E.; Pearman, J. L.; Sallenger, A. H.; Holmes, R. R.; Berembrock, C. E.; Turnipseed, D. P.; Mason, R. R.

    2008-12-01

    Historically, hurricane-induced storm-tides were documented through analysis of structural or vegetative damage and high-water marks. However, these sources rarely provided quantitative information about the timing of the flooding, the sequencing of multiple paths by which the storm-surge waters arrived, or the magnitude of waves and wave run-up comprising floodwaters. In response to these deficiencies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed and deployed an experimental mobile storm-surge network to provide detailed time-series data for selected hurricane landfalls. The USGS first deployed the network in September 2005 as Hurricane Rita approached the Texas and Louisiana coasts. The network for Rita consisted of 32 water-level and 14 barometric-pressure monitoring sites. Sensors were located at distances ranging from a few hundred feet to approximately 30 miles inland and sampled 4,000 square miles. Deployments have also occurred for Hurricanes Wilma, Gustav, and Ike. For Hurricane Gustav, more than 100 water level sensors were deployed. Analysis of the water-level data enable construction of maps depicting surge topography through time and space, essentially rendering elements of a 3-dimensional view of the storm-surge dome as it moves on- shore, as well as a map of maximum water-level elevations. The USGS also acquired LIDAR topographic data from coasts impacted by hurricanes. These data reveal extreme changes to the beaches and barrier islands that arise from hurricane storm surge and waves. By better understanding where extreme changes occur along our coasts, we will be able to position coastal structures away from hazards.

  2. Technical Site Information: Planning group of the Directorate and Conventional Construction Division

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    This document presents the technical site information for the Superconducting Super Collider project. The Ellis County, Texas site was selected by the Department of Energy in 1989. After assembling the initial staff at temporary facilities in Dallas, the SSC Laboratory began site-specific design work. The resulting design for the SSC accelerators, experimental areas, and laboratory facilities were described in the Site-Specific Conceptual Design Report of July 1990. Since then, design specifications for the technical components and conventional facilities have been formulated. In fact, a very significant amount of surface and underground construction has been initiated and many buildings have been completed. Testing of prototypes for most technical components is advanced. The construction phase of the SSC project is approximately 20% complete. At this time, it is appropriate to capture the conventional design work which has taken place since 1990. This documents records regional and physical information used in site studies, summarizes the site studies for conventional facilities, and presents site layouts for buildings and utilities as they would have been at the end of the construction project. As such, this documents summarizes and complements the work of many groups in the SSC laboratory, the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC), and several subcontractors to the SSC project. The document contains extensive references to their work contained in other drafts and final reports. In particular, it borrows heavily from the Site Development Plan (released in draft form in January, 1992) which has, to date, guided aspects of site development.

  3. Analysis of Material Handling Safety in Construction Sites and Countermeasures for Effective Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C N Anil; Sakthivel, M; Elangovan, R K; Arularasu, M

    2015-01-01

    One of many hazardous workplaces includes the construction sites as they involve several dangerous tasks. Many studies have revealed that material handling equipment is a major cause of accidents at these sites. Though safety measures are being followed and monitored continuously, accident rates are still high as either workers are unaware of hazards or the safety regulations are not being strictly followed. This paper analyses the safety management systems at construction sites through means of questionnaire surveys with employees, specifically referring to safety of material handling equipment. Based on results of the questionnaire surveys, two construction sites were selected for a safety education program targeting worker safety related to material handling equipment. Knowledge levels of the workers were gathered before and after the program and results obtained were subjected to a t-test analysis to mark significance level of the conducted safety education program.

  4. Analysis of Material Handling Safety in Construction Sites and Countermeasures for Effective Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, C. N.; Sakthivel, M.; Elangovan, R. K.; Arularasu, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of many hazardous workplaces includes the construction sites as they involve several dangerous tasks. Many studies have revealed that material handling equipment is a major cause of accidents at these sites. Though safety measures are being followed and monitored continuously, accident rates are still high as either workers are unaware of hazards or the safety regulations are not being strictly followed. This paper analyses the safety management systems at construction sites through means of questionnaire surveys with employees, specifically referring to safety of material handling equipment. Based on results of the questionnaire surveys, two construction sites were selected for a safety education program targeting worker safety related to material handling equipment. Knowledge levels of the workers were gathered before and after the program and results obtained were subjected to a t-test analysis to mark significance level of the conducted safety education program. PMID:26446572

  5. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  6. Analysis of working postures at a construction site using the OWAS method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien; Han, Chia-Shan

    2013-01-01

    This study used OWAS to analyze the working postures of construction workers on building the foundations of a log cabin. Three construction workers, with an average work experience of 40 years, participated in this study. Eight elementary jobs of building the foundations of a log cabin were videotaped at a construction site and analyzed later in the laboratory. For an overall distribution of trunk postures, OWAS identified that a bent and twisted trunk posture (34%), which fell into action category 3, was the major poor posture for construction workers. This study also identified that tying beams with steel bars, assembling column templates, and cement grouting of the ground were the 3 principal jobs in which workers building the foundations exhibited poor working posture. This article suggests ways to reduce and evaluate poor posture in a dynamic construction site.

  7. 33 CFR 148.415 - When conducting site evaluation and pre-construction testing, what must be reported?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Within 120 days after the site evaluation or pre-construction testing, a final written report must be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When conducting site evaluation... Site Evaluation and Pre-Construction Testing § 148.415 When conducting site evaluation and...

  8. The Methodology of Interactive Parametric Modelling of Construction Site Facilities in BIM Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovská, Mária; Čabala, Jozef; Struková, Zuzana

    2014-11-01

    Information technology is becoming a strong tool in different industries, including construction. The recent trend of buildings designing is leading up to creation of the most comprehensive virtual building model (Building Information Model) in order to solve all the problems relating to the project as early as in the designing phase. Building information modelling is a new way of approaching to the design of building projects documentation. Currently, the building site layout as a part of the building design documents has a very little support in the BIM environment. Recently, the research of designing the construction process conditions has centred on improvement of general practice in planning and on new approaches to construction site layout planning. The state of art in field of designing the construction process conditions indicated an unexplored problem related to connection of knowledge system with construction site facilities (CSF) layout through interactive modelling. The goal of the paper is to present the methodology for execution of 3D construction site facility allocation model (3D CSF-IAM), based on principles of parametric and interactive modelling.

  9. Development of the St. Louis audit of fall risks at residential construction sites.

    PubMed

    Kaskutas, Vicki K; Dale, Ann M; Lipscomb, Hester J; Evanoff, Bradley A

    2008-01-01

    We describe the development and pilot testing of the St. Louis Assessment of Fall Risks, a worksite audit to assess fall prevention safety practices on residential construction sites. Surveillance data and feedback from carpenters and safety instructors regarding work tasks associated with falls from heights were used to develop the audit instrument. The audit focuses on the framing process, including general safety climate/housekeeping, floor joist/sub-floor installation, walking surfaces/edges, wall openings, truss setting, roof sheathing, ladders, scaffolds, and personal fall arrest equipment. The audit was tested at sixteen residential construction sites, documenting excellent inter-rater reliability (kappa = 0.93). Results suggest that the audit has good face and content validity and is a reliable instrument for measuring fall safety risks at residential construction sites. It is practical, easy, and safe to administer, making it a potentially useful instrument for field research as well as regular safety monitoring by foremen and crew.

  10. Modeling injury rates as a function of industrialized versus on-site construction techniques.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Romero, J C; Suárez-Cebador, M; Abad, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    It is often predicted that the industrialization of building activities will lead to a reduction of accident rates in the construction sector, particularly as a result of switching activities from building sites to factories. However, to date no scientific research has provided objective quantitative results to back up this claim. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how industrialization affects the accident rate in different industrialized building systems in Spain. Our results revealed that the industrialized steel modular system presents the lowest accident rate, while the highest accident rate was recorded in the construction method with cast-in-place concrete. The lightweight construction system also presents a high accident rate. Accordingly, industrialized building systems cannot claim to be safer than traditional ones. The different types of "on-site work" seem to be the main variable which would explain the accident rates recorded in industrialized construction systems.

  11. Site-specific methylated reporter constructs for functional analysis of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiguo; Shi, Miao; Spivack, Simon D

    2013-11-01

    Methods to experimentally alter and functionally evaluate cytosine methylation in a site-specific manner have proven elusive. We describe a site-specific DNA methylation method, using synthetically methylated primers and high fidelity PCR coupled with ligation of reporter constructs. We applied this method to introduce methylated cytosines into fragments of the respective DAPK and RASSF1A promoters that had been cloned into luciferase reporters. We found that methylation of 3-7 residue CpG clusters that were 5' adjacent to the transcription start site (TSS) of the DAPK gene produced up to a 54% decrease in promoter activity (p<0.01). Similarly, for RASSF1A promoter reporter constructs, the methylation of either of two clusters of four CpGs each, but not an intervening cluster, produced a 63% decrease in promoter activity (p<0.01), suggesting that precise mCpG position is crucial, and factors other than simple proximity to the TSS are at play. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of these reporter constructs demonstrated that transcription factor Oct-1 and Sp1 preferentially bound the unmethylated vs. methylated DAPK or RASSF1A promoter reporter constructs at the functional CpG sites. Histone H1, hnRNP1, and MeCP2 showed preferential binding to methylated sequence at functional sites in these reporter constructs, as well as highly preferential (> 8-80-fold) binding to native methylated vs. unmethylated chromatin. These results suggest that: (1) site-specific, precision DNA methylation of a reporter construct can be used for functional analysis of commonly observed gene promoter methylation patterns; (2) the reporter system contains key elements of the endogenous chromatin machinery.

  12. Chemical characteristics of PM2.5-0.3 and PM0.3 and consequence of a dust storm episode at an urban site in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgie, Mireille; Ledoux, Frédéric; Dagher, Zeina; Verdin, Anthony; Cazier, Fabrice; Courcot, Lucie; Shirali, Pirouz; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Courcot, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    Located on the eastern side of the Mediterranean Basin at the intersection of air masses circulating between three continents, the agglomeration of Beirut, capital of Lebanon is an important investigating area for air pollution and more studies are needed to elucidate the composition of the smallest particles classified as carcinogenic to humans. PM2.5-0.3 and PM0.3 samples were collected during the spring-summer period in an urban background site of Beirut, after a dust storm episode occurred, and their chemical composition was determined. Our findings showed that components formed by gas to particle conversion (SO42 - and NH4+) and related to combustion processes are mainly found in the PM0.3 fraction. Typical crustal (Ca2+, Fe, Ti, Mg2+), sea-salt (Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, Sr) species, and NO3- are mainly associated with the PM2.5-0.3 fraction. We have also evidenced that the dust episode which occurred in Lebanon in May 2011 originated from the Iraqian and Syrian deserts, which are the least studied, and had a direct influence on the composition of PM2.5-0.3 during the beginning of the first sampling period, and then an indirect and persistent influence by the re-suspension of deposited dust particles. Moreover, PAHs concentrations were much higher in PM0.3 than in PM2.5-0.3 and their composition appeared influenced by diesel (buses, trucks and generator sets) and gasoline (private cars) emissions.

  13. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  14. Selection of nest-site habitat by interior least terns in relation to sandbar construction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum) nest on bare or sparsely vegetated sandbars on midcontinent river systems. Loss of nesting habitat has been implicated as a cause of population declines, and managing these habitats is a major initiative in population recovery. One such initiative involves construction of mid-channel sandbars on the Missouri River, where natural sandbar habitat has declined in quantity and quality since the late 1990s. We evaluated nest-site habitat selection by least terns on constructed and natural sandbars by comparing vegetation, substrate, and debris variables at nest sites (n = 798) and random points (n = 1,113) in bare or sparsely vegetated habitats. Our logistic regression models revealed that a broader suite of habitat features was important in nest-site selection on constructed than on natural sandbars. Odds ratios for habitat variables indicated that avoidance of habitat features was the dominant nest-site selection process on both sandbar types, with nesting terns being attracted to nest-site habitat features (gravel and debris) and avoiding vegetation only on constructed sandbars, and avoiding silt and leaf litter on both sandbar types. Despite the seemingly uniform nature of these habitats, our results suggest that a complex suite of habitat features influences nest-site choice by least terns. However, nest-site selection in this social, colonially nesting species may be influenced by other factors, including spatial arrangement of bare sand habitat, proximity to other least terns, and prior habitat occupancy by piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). We found that nest-site selection was sensitive to subtle variation in habitat features, suggesting that rigor in maintaining habitat condition will be necessary in managing sandbars for the benefit of least terns. Further, management strategies that reduce habitat features that are avoided by least terns may be the most beneficial to nesting least terns.

  15. Selection of nest-site habitat by interior least terns in relation to sandbar construction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Stucker, J.H.; Buhl, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum) nest on bare or sparsely vegetated sandbars on midcontinent river systems. Loss of nesting habitat has been implicated as a cause of population declines, and managing these habitats is a major initiative in population recovery. One such initiative involves construction of mid-channel sandbars on the Missouri River, where natural sandbar habitat has declined in quantity and quality since the late 1990s. We evaluated nest-site habitat selection by least terns on constructed and natural sandbars by comparing vegetation, substrate, and debris variables at nest sites (na =a 798) and random points (na =a 1,113) in bare or sparsely vegetated habitats. Our logistic regression models revealed that a broader suite of habitat features was important in nest-site selection on constructed than on natural sandbars. Odds ratios for habitat variables indicated that avoidance of habitat features was the dominant nest-site selection process on both sandbar types, with nesting terns being attracted to nest-site habitat features (gravel and debris) and avoiding vegetation only on constructed sandbars, and avoiding silt and leaf litter on both sandbar types. Despite the seemingly uniform nature of these habitats, our results suggest that a complex suite of habitat features influences nest-site choice by least terns. However, nest-site selection in this social, colonially nesting species may be influenced by other factors, including spatial arrangement of bare sand habitat, proximity to other least terns, and prior habitat occupancy by piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). We found that nest-site selection was sensitive to subtle variation in habitat features, suggesting that rigor in maintaining habitat condition will be necessary in managing sandbars for the benefit of least terns. Further, management strategies that reduce habitat features that are avoided by least terns may be the most beneficial to nesting least terns

  16. The relationship of storm severity to directionally resolved radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to provide continuous observation of atmospheric electrical activity occurring in association with tropical storms in the Gulf of Mexico. The observations were to include the location of all detected intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning activity occurring in the storm. To provide synoptic scale coverage, a phase linear interferometer high frequency direction finder (HFDF) system was constructed and developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This was used in concert with the existing HFDF interferometer at the southwest research institute to provide lightning location data through triangulation. Atmospheric electrical events were synchronized through the use of satellite receivers at each site. The intent of the data analysis was to correlate the location of electrical centers of activity with radar and satellite imagry to identify areas of intense convection within the tropical storm system. Analysis of the hurricane Alicia data indicate a center of atmospheric electrical activity associated with the vortex of the storm. The center appears to rotate from the Northern side of the vortex to the Southern side during the period of observation. An analysis of the atmospheric electrical burst rates associated with hurrican Alicia indicates that the electrical activity appears to maximize at the time of greatest storm intensity, i.e., maximum winds and lowest central pressure.

  17. Bioswales reduce contaminants associated with toxicity in urban storm water.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Siegler, Katie; Tjeerdema, Ronald

    2016-12-01

    Contamination and toxicity associated with urban storm water runoff are a growing concern because of the potential impacts on receiving systems. California water regulators are mandating implementation of green infrastructure as part of new urban development projects to treat storm water and increase infiltration. Parking lot bioswales are low impact development practices that promote filtering of runoff through plants and soil. Studies have demonstrated that bioswales reduce concentrations of suspended sediments, metals, and hydrocarbons. There have been no published studies evaluating how well these structures treat current-use pesticides, and studies have largely ignored whether bioswales reduce toxicity in surface water. Three storms were monitored at 3 commercial and residential sites, and reductions of contaminants and associated toxicity were quantified. Toxicity testing showed that the majority of untreated storm water samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and midges (Chironomus dilutus), and toxicity was reduced by the bioswales. No samples were toxic to daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia) or fish (Pimephales promelas). Contaminants were significantly reduced by the bioswales, including suspended solids (81% reduction), metals (81% reduction), hydrocarbons (82% reduction), and pyrethroid pesticides (74% reduction). The single exception was the phenypyrazole pesticide fipronil, which showed inconsistent treatment. The results demonstrate these systems effectively treat contaminated storm water associated with surface water toxicity but suggest that modifications of their construction may be required to treat some contaminant classes. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:3124-3134. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Climatic and psychosocial risks of heat illness incidents on construction site.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yunyan Andrea; Rowlinson, Steve; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The study presented in this paper aims to identify prominent risks leading to heat illness in summer among construction workers that can be prioritised for developing effective interventions. Samples are 216 construction workers' cases at the individual level and 26 construction projects cases at the organisation level. A grounded theory is generated to define the climatic heat and psychosocial risks and the relationships between risks, timing and effectiveness of interventions. The theoretical framework is then used to guide content analysis of 36 individual onsite heat illness cases to identify prominent risks. The results suggest that heat stress risks on construction site are socially constructed and can be effectively managed through elimination at supply chain level, effective engineering control, proactive control of the risks through individual interventions and reactive control through mindful recognition and response to early symptoms. The role of management infrastructure as a base for effective interventions is discussed.

  19. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added.

  20. Evaluation of Acquisition Strategies for Image-Based Construction Site Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Construction site monitoring is an essential task for keeping track of the ongoing construction work and providing up-to-date information for a Building Information Model (BIM). The BIM contains the as-planned states (geometry, schedule, costs, ...) of a construction project. For updating, the as-built state has to be acquired repeatedly and compared to the as-planned state. In the approach presented here, a 3D representation of the as-built state is calculated from photogrammetric images using multi-view stereo reconstruction. On construction sites one has to cope with several difficulties like security aspects, limited accessibility, occlusions or construction activity. Different acquisition strategies and techniques, namely (i) terrestrial acquisition with a hand-held camera, (ii) aerial acquisition using a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and (iii) acquisition using a fixed stereo camera pair at the boom of the crane, are tested on three test sites. They are assessed considering the special needs for the monitoring tasks and limitations on construction sites. The three scenarios are evaluated based on the ability of automation, the required effort for acquisition, the necessary equipment and its maintaining, disturbance of the construction works, and on the accuracy and completeness of the resulting point clouds. Based on the experiences during the test cases the following conclusions can be drawn: Terrestrial acquisition has the lowest requirements on the device setup but lacks on automation and coverage. The crane camera shows the lowest flexibility but the highest grade of automation. The UAV approach can provide the best coverage by combining nadir and oblique views, but can be limited by obstacles and security aspects. The accuracy of the point clouds is evaluated based on plane fitting of selected building parts. The RMS errors of the fitted parts range from 1 to a few cm for the UAV and the hand-held scenario. First results show that the crane camera

  1. Siting and constructing very deep monitoring wells on the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, J J; Jacobson, R L; Russell, C E

    1991-12-31

    Many aspects of the Nevada Test Site`s (NTS) hydrogeologic setting restrict the use of traditional methods for the siting and construction of ground-water characterization and monitoring wells. The size of the NTS precludes establishing high-density networks of characterization wells, as are typically used at smaller sites. The geologic complexity and variability of the NTS requires that the wells be criticality situated. The hydrogeologic complexity requires that each well provide access to many aquifers. Depths to ground water on the NTS require the construction of wells averaging approximately 1000 meters in depth. Wells meeting these criteria are uncommon in the ground-water industry, therefore techniques used by petroleum engineers are being employed to solve certain siting-, design- and installation-related problems. To date, one focus has been on developing completion strings that facilitate routine and efficient ground-water sampling from multiple intervals in a single well. The method currently advocated employs a new design of sliding side door sleeve that is actuated by an electrically operated hydraulic shifting tool. Stemming of the wells is being accomplished with standard materials (cement based grouts and sands); however, new stemming methods are being developed, to accommodate the greater depths, to minimize pH-related problems caused by the use of cements, to enhance the integrity of the inter-zone seals, and to improve the representativeness of radionuclide analyses performed on ground-water samples. Bench-scale experiments have been used to investigate the properties of more than a dozen epoxy-aggregate grout mixtures -- materials that are commonly used in underwater sealing applications.

  2. 10 CFR 435.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 435.6 Section 435.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction....

  3. 10 CFR 435.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 435.6 Section 435.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction....

  4. 10 CFR 433.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. 433.6 Section 433.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.6 Sustainable...

  5. 10 CFR 435.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 435.6 Section 435.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction....

  6. 10 CFR 435.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 435.6 Section 435.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction....

  7. 10 CFR 435.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 435.6 Section 435.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction....

  8. 10 CFR 433.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. 433.6 Section 433.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.6 Sustainable...

  9. 10 CFR 433.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. 433.6 Section 433.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.6 Sustainable...

  10. 38 CFR 39.19 - General requirements for site selection and construction of veterans' cemeteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for site selection and construction of veterans' cemeteries. 39.19 Section 39.19 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION,...

  11. Constructing a Multicultural National Identity: South African Classrooms as Sites of Struggle between Competing Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, J. Keith

    2002-01-01

    Reports on aspects of an ethnographic study carried out in six newly integrated schools in post-aparthied South Africa. Presents evidence that these schools are sites of struggle between competing discourses that construct, maintain, and change social identities in these communities and the wider society. (Author/VWL)

  12. The Tyranny of Scarcity: Learning and Economy at the Construction Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the interplay between learning and economy in the cooperation between participants from different professions on a construction site. From a situated perspective it is claimed that learning and economy are linked in two different ways: Firstly, it is argued that the participants have differing economic interests, which…

  13. Annual Storm Water Report for the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Clean Water Compliance Section of the Environment Compliance Department

    2012-01-01

    The storm water pollution prevention program at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) intends to protect the quality of storm water runoff through: (1) reducing the exposure of metal accumulation areas to precipitation, (2) implementation of Best Management Practices, (3) sampling during rain events and subsequent analysis, and (4) routine surveillances. When prescribed, the analytical data is compared to a set of cut-off concentration values to determine how the Y-12 Complex relates to other metal fabrication industries in the state of Tennessee. The quality of the storm water exiting the Y-12 Complex via East Fork Poplar Creek indicated some improvement in 2011. This improvement is attributable to the completion of several construction, demolition and remediation projects which occurred in 2010 and 2011. Emphasis will continue to be placed on site inspections and the timely implementation of improved storm water control measures as deemed necessary.

  14. Annual Storm Water Report for the Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Environment Compliance Department

    2012-01-01

    The storm water pollution prevention program at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) intends to protect the quality of storm water runoff through: (1) reducing the exposure of metal accumulation areas to precipitation, (2) implementation of Best Management Practices, (3) sampling during rain events and subsequent analysis, and (4) routine surveillances. When prescribed, the analytical data is compared to a set of cut-off concentration values to determine how the Y-12 Complex relates to other metal fabrication industries in the state of Tennessee. The quality of the storm water exiting the Y-12 Complex via East Fork Poplar Creek indicated some improvement in 2011. This improvement is attributable to the completion of several construction, demolition and remediation projects which occurred in 2010 and 2011. Emphasis will continue to be placed on site inspections and the timely implementation of improved storm water control measures as deemed necessary.

  15. Construction of hexahedral elements mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw SPR site

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Roberts, Barry L.

    2015-09-01

    The three-dimensional finite element mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw site has been constructed using the sonar and seismic survey data obtained from the field. The mesh is consisting of hexahedral elements because the salt constitutive model is coded using hexahedral elements. Various ideas and techniques to construct finite element mesh capturing artificially and naturally formed geometries are provided. The techniques to reduce the number of elements as much as possible to save on computer run time with maintaining the computational accuracy is also introduced. The steps and methodologies could be applied to construct the meshes of Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry strategic petroleum reserve sites. The methodology could be applied to the complicated shape masses for not only various civil and geological structures but also biological applications such as artificial limbs.

  16. Precision Construction of 2D Heteropore Covalent Organic Frameworks by a Multiple-Linking-Site Strategy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cheng; Xu, Shun-Qi; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Zhan, Tian-Guang; Zhao, Xin

    2016-12-05

    Integrating different kinds of pores into one covalent organic framework (COF) endows it with hierarchical porosity and thus generates a member of a new class of COFs, namely, heteropore COFs. Whereas the construction of COFs with homoporosity has already been well developed, the fabrication of heteropore COFs still faces great challenges. Although two strategies have recently been developed to successfully construct heteropore COFs from noncyclic building blocks, they suffer from the generation of COF isomers, which decreases the predictability and controllability of construction of this type of reticular materials. In this work, this drawback was overcome by a multiple-linking-site strategy that offers precision construction of heteropore COFs containing two kinds of hexagonal pores with different shapes and sizes. This strategy was developed by designing a building block in which double linking sites are introduced at each branch of a C3 -symmetric skeleton, the most widely used scaffold to construct COFs with homogeneous porosity. This design provides a general way to precisely construct heteropore COFs without formation of isomers. Furthermore, the as-prepared heteropore COFs have hollow-spherical morphology, which has rarely been observed for COFs, and an uncommon staggered AB stacking was observed for the layers of the 2D heteropore COFs.

  17. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project Falls City, Texas, site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This final audit report for the Falls City, Texas, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site summarizes the radiological audits and the quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, audits, and final close-out inspection performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). It also summarizes U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) surveillances. One radiological audit and three radiological surveillances were performed at the Falls City site. These surveillances and audit, which resulted in 31 observations, focused primarily on processing site activities and were performed on the following dates: 3-6 August 1992, 29-30 October 1992, 22-26 March 1993, and 1-3 November 1993. All outstanding radiological issues were closed out at the completion of the construction activities. Six QA in-process surveillances, which resulted in 71 observations, were performed at the Falls City site on the following dates: 22-24 July 1992, 23-25 November 1992, 17-19 May 1993, 16-18 August 1993, 13-15 October 1993, and 2-4 February 1994. All outstanding issues were closed out with the February surveillance on 3 March 1994. The DOE/TAC remedial action close-out inspections of the Falls City site, which resulted in 56 observations, were conducted 9-10 June 1994 and 26 July 1994. The inspections were closed out on 26 January 1995. The NRC performed three on-site construction reviews (OSCR), resulting in seven observations of remedial action construction activities that occurred during site visits. The OSCRs were performed 9 December 1992, 12 May 1993, and 25 October 1993. Since all audit and surveillance observations and recommendations have been closed out, this final audit report segment of the site certification process is complete.

  18. A new algorithm for construction of coarse-grained sites of large biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, John Z H; Xia, Fei

    2016-04-05

    The development of coarse-grained (CG) models for large biomolecules remains a challenge in multiscale simulations, including a rigorous definition of CG representations for them. In this work, we proposed a new stepwise optimization imposed with the boundary-constraint (SOBC) algorithm to construct the CG sites of large biomolecules, based on the s cheme of essential dynamics CG. By means of SOBC, we can rigorously derive the CG representations of biomolecules with less computational cost. The SOBC is particularly efficient for the CG definition of large systems with thousands of residues. The resulted CG sites can be parameterized as a CG model using the normal mode analysis based fluctuation matching method. Through normal mode analysis, the obtained modes of CG model can accurately reflect the functionally related slow motions of biomolecules. The SOBC algorithm can be used for the construction of CG sites of large biomolecules such as F-actin and for the study of mechanical properties of biomaterials.

  19. Engineering geomorphology at the cutting edge of land disturbance: erosion and sediment control on construction sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbor, Jon

    1999-12-01

    Construction site management, traditionally dominated by professional engineers, provides an important opportunity for engineers and geomorphologists to work together in minimizing the environmental impacts of land disturbance. Areas disturbed for construction activity have soil erosion rates from 2 to 40,000 times greater than pre-construction conditions, and are important components of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution that degrades surface water quality. Despite significant local-to-watershed-scale environmental and economic impacts, the lack of an individual economic incentive for land developers to control erosion has limited voluntary adoption of erosion and sediment control measures. However, increased regulatory requirements, combined with efforts to identify and publicize the benefits of erosion control, are increasing the number of construction sites on which erosion control efforts are being implemented. Geomorphologists have the opportunity to play an active role in erosion and sediment control by implementing knowledge of erosion and sedimentation processes and of the variables that effect these processes. Pre-project geomorphological site assessments allow project designers to work around areas with high erosion potential, and to stage and schedule land disturbing activities to minimize erosion potential. Combined engineering and geomorphological analyses can increase the likelihood that streams and drainage channels are stable under altered hydrologic conditions, both during and after land use change, and can be used to design a drainage plan that minimizes surface water flow through disturbed areas. A variety of temporary measures to reduce erosion and to trap sediment on site can be designed and implemented, such as temporary surface covers, silt fence, and sedimentation basins. However, design and implementation of these measures require an understanding of erosion and sedimentation processes, and in many cases incorrect installation and maintenance

  20. Quantifying and modeling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernet, A. K.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion is a power process that continuously alters the Earth's landscape. Human activities, such as construction and agricultural practices, and natural events, such as forest fires and landslides, disturb the landscape and intensify erosion processes leading to sudden increases in runoff sediment concentrations and degraded stream water quality. Understanding soil erosion and sediment transport processes is of great importance to researchers and practicing engineers, who routinely use models to predict soil erosion and sediment movement for varied land use and climate change scenarios. However, existing erosion models are limited in their applicability to constructions sites which have highly variable soil conditions (density, moisture, surface roughness, and best management practices) that change often in both space and time. The goal of this research is to improve the understanding, predictive capabilities and integration of treatment methodologies for controlling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites. This research combines modeling with field monitoring and laboratory experiments to quantify: (a) spatial and temporal distribution of soil conditions on construction sites, (b) soil erosion due to event rainfall, and (c) potential offsite discharge of sediment with and without treatment practices. Field sites in southern California were selected to monitor the effects of common construction activities (ex., cut/fill, grading, foundations, roads) on soil conditions and sediment discharge. Laboratory experiments were performed in the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL), part of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University, to quantify the impact of individual factors leading to sediment export. SERL experiments utilize a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 m, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). Preliminary modeling, field and laboratory

  1. Response of the Midlatitude F2 Layer to Some Strong Geomagnetic Storms during Solar Minimum as Observed at Four Sites of the Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Vitaly P.; Hegai, Valery V.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we documented the midlatitude F2-layer response to five strong geomagnetic storms with minimum Dst < -150 nT that occurred in solar minimum years using hourly values of the F2-layer critical frequency (foF2) from four ionosondes located in different hemispheres. The results were very limited, but they illustrated some peculiarities in the behavior of the F2-layer storm. During equinox, the characteristic ionospheric disturbance patterns over the Japanese station Wakkanai in the Northern Hemisphere and the Australian station Mundaring in the Southern Hemisphere were consistent with the well-known scenario by Prölss (1993); however, during a December solstice magnetic storm, both stations did not observe any noticeable positive ionospheric disturbances. Over the "near-pole" European ionosonde, clear positive ionospheric storms were not observed during the events, but the "far-from-pole" Southern Hemisphere station Port Stanley showed prominent enhancements in F2-layer peak electron density in all magnetic storms except one. No event produced noticeable nighttime enhancements in foF2 over all four ionosondes.

  2. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in §...

  3. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in §...

  4. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in §...

  5. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in §...

  6. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in §...

  7. Parasitic infection and socio-demographic characteristics of urban construction site workers.

    PubMed

    Pongpaew, P; Tungtrongchitr, R; Radomyos, P; Vudhivai, N; Phonrat, B; Himman-ngan, T; Supawan, V; Tawprasert, S; Migasena, P; Schelp, F P

    1993-09-01

    The socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of parasitic infection of 117 (96 males and 21 females) construction site workers were investigated by means of questionnaires and stool examinations. The age characteristics of the individuals investigated varied widely from 15-60 years with a high percentage in the 21-30 years age range, no sex differences were discovered. Most of the workers received primary education even though some of them did not complete it. The percentage of illiteracy in females was quite high (9.5%) compared with males (2.1%). About 60% and 20% of these construction site workers migrated from the northeastern and northern regions of Thailand, respectively. 79.3% of male and 94.7% of female workers were found to be infected with parasites. Hookworm and Opisthorchis were predominant parasites.

  8. Flocculated sediments can reduce the size of sediment basin at construction sites.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; King, Scott E; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-01-15

    Due to stringent water quality regulations on stormwater discharges, there is increasing interest in chemically-assisted settling of suspended sediments at construction sites. This study investigated settling characteristics of flocculated sediment by polyacrylamide (PAM) in a top-loading settling tube. Studied sediment materials were obtained from construction sites in North Carolina, USA: Coastal Plain loamy sand (CPLS), Piedmont sandy clay loam (PSCL), Piedmont silt loam (PSL), and Mountain clay loam (MCL). The four different sediment suspensions mixed with and without dissolved PAM were introduced to the top of the column individually. During a 1-h settling period, samples were taken at 1-m depth from surface at various times and analyzed for total suspended solids (TSS). Flocculated sediment by PAM greatly increased its settled TSS fraction up to 95-97% only in 1-min settling period compared to those of unflocculated sediment (16-72%). The settling improvement by PAM was profound in the finer-textured soils (PSL and MCL) by increasing their median particle settling velocity (>2 cm s(-1)) compared to unflocculated counterparts (<1.1 cm s(-1)). Estimated surface area requirement of sediment basin suggested that the basins receiving flocculated sediment could be reduced in size (surface area) by 2- to 4-times compared to those receiving unflocculated sediment. Our results suggests that current sediment basin design could be modified when chemically-assisted settling is implemented, taking up less space and cost in construction sites.

  9. Storm water modeling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Veis, Christopher

    1996-05-01

    Storm water modeling is important to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for compliance with regulations that govern water discharge at large industrial facilities. Modeling is also done to study trend in contaminants and storm sewer infrastructure. The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used to simulate rainfall events at LLNL. SWMM is a comprehensive computer model for simulation of urban runoff quantity and quality in storm and combined sewer systems. Due to time constraints and ongoing research, no modeling was completed at LLNL. With proper information about the storm sewers, a SWMM simulation of a rainfall event on site would be beneficial to storm sewer analyst.

  10. Migration and Residential Location of Workers at Nuclear Power Plant Construction Sites Forecasting Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, S.; Manninen, D.

    1981-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of socioeconomic impact assessments by providing an improved methodology for predicting the number of inmigrating workers and their residential location patterns at future nuclear power plant construction projects. Procedures for estimating several other variables which have important implications with respect to socioeconomic impact assessment (i.e., relocation of dependents, intention to remain in the area, type of housing selected, marital status, and average family size) were also developed. The analysis was based on worker survey data from 28 surveys which were conducted at 13 nuclear power plant construction sites. These survey data were examined to identify patterns of variation in variables of interest across sites as well as across various worker groups. In addition, considerable secondary data reflecting various regional and project characteristics were gathered for each site. These data were used to estimate the effects of factors underlying the observed variation in craft-specific migrant proportions and the residential location patterns of inmigrating workers across sites and surveys. The results of these analyses were then used as a basis for the specification of the forecasting procedures.

  11. Session: Development and application of guidelines for siting, constructing, operating and monitoring wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Manville, Albert; Hueckel, Greg

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The two papers were: 'Development and Application of USFWS Guidance for Site Evaluation, Siting, Construction, Operation and Monitoring of Wind Turbines' by Albert Manville and 'Wind Power in Washington State' by Greg Hueckel. The session provided a comparison of wind project guidelines developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in May 2003 and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife in August 2003. Questions addressed included: is there a need or desire for uniform national or state criteria; can other states learn from Washington State's example, or from the USFWS voluntary guidelines; should there be uniform requirements/guidelines/check-lists for the siting, operation, monitoring, and mitigation to prevent or minimize avian, bat, and other wildlife impacts.

  12. Analysis of working postures in hammering tasks on building construction sites using the computerized OWAS method.

    PubMed

    Mattila, M; Karwowski, W; Vilkki, M

    1993-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to identify the most problematic postures in hammering tasks performed at building construction sites through application of the computerized OWAS method, and to develop recommendations for improvement of working method and workplaces. Eighteen construction workers, with mean age of 41.6, from three construction companies participated in the field study. The hammering tasks observed during the two-month period included roof boarding, concrete form preparation, clamping support braces, assembling roof frames, roof joisting, shelter form preparation, and fixing fork clamps. Three different types of hammer, including a small Fiskar's hammer, a Fiskar's construction hammer, and a Rocket hammer, were used by the workers. Of all the observations, poor working postures were observed most frequently in roof joisting (12.4% of all observations within the task), followed by concrete form preparation (8.6%), and construction of frames for the roof (7.5%). Overall, out of 593 different postures analysed, a total of 7.8% of postures adopted by the workers during various hammering tasks were classified into OWAS categories III or IV, indicating that these postures should be corrected either soon or immediately. The computerized OWAS method for postural data analysis proved to be a very useful way to reduce postural load of dynamic hammering tasks, and allowed for efficient application of the original OWAS method.

  13. Repeated mapping of reefs constructed by Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart 1849 at an offshore wind farm site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Bryony; Fariñas-Franco, Jose M.; Wilson, Christian; Pitts, Jack; deBurgh, Angela; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2014-07-01

    Sabellaria spinulosa reefs are considered to be sensitive and of high conservation status. This article evaluates the feasibility of using remote sensing technology to delineate S. spinulosa reefs. S. spinulosa reef habitats associated with the Thanet Offshore Windfarm site were mapped using high resolution sidescan sonar (410 kHz) and multibeam echo sounder (<1 m2) data in 2005 (baseline), 2007 (pre-construction baseline) and 2012 (post-construction). The S. spinulosa reefs were identified in the acoustic data as areas of distinct irregular texturing. Maps created using acoustic data were validated using quantitative measures of reef quality, namely tube density (as a proxy for the density of live S. spinulosa), percentage cover of S. spinulosa structures (both living and dead) and associated macrofauna derived from seabed images taken across the development site. Statistically significant differences were observed in all physical measures of S. spinulosa as well the number (S) and diversity (H') of associated species, derived from seabed images classified according to the presence or absence of reef, validating the use of high resolution sidescan sonar to map these important biogenic habitats. High precision mapping in the early stages allowed for the micro-siting of wind turbines in a way that caused minimal damage to S. spinulosa reefs during construction. These habitats have since recovered and expanded in extent. The surveys undertaken at the Thanet Offshore Windfarm site demonstrate the importance of repeat mapping for this emerging industry, allowing habitat enhancement to be attributed to the development whilst preventing background habitat degradation from being wrongly attributed to the development.

  14. Constructing Optimal Coarse-Grained Sites of Huge Biomolecules by Fluctuation Maximization.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, John Zenghui; Xia, Fei

    2016-04-12

    Coarse-grained (CG) models are valuable tools for the study of functions of large biomolecules on large length and time scales. The definition of CG representations for huge biomolecules is always a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new method called fluctuation maximization coarse-graining (FM-CG) to construct the CG sites of biomolecules. The defined residual in FM-CG converges to a maximal value as the number of CG sites increases, allowing an optimal CG model to be rigorously defined on the basis of the maximum. More importantly, we developed a robust algorithm called stepwise local iterative optimization (SLIO) to accelerate the process of coarse-graining large biomolecules. By means of the efficient SLIO algorithm, the computational cost of coarse-graining large biomolecules is reduced to within the time scale of seconds, which is far lower than that of conventional simulated annealing. The coarse-graining of two huge systems, chaperonin GroEL and lengsin, indicates that our new methods can coarse-grain huge biomolecular systems with up to 10,000 residues within the time scale of minutes. The further parametrization of CG sites derived from FM-CG allows us to construct the corresponding CG models for studies of the functions of huge biomolecular systems.

  15. Tropical Storm Erin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Location: The Atlantic Ocean 210 miles south of Galveston, Texas Categorization: Tropical Storm Sustained Winds: 40 mph (60 km/hr)

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared ImageMicrowave Image

    Infrared Images Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red).

    Microwave Images In the AIRS microwave imagery, deep blue areas in storms show where the most precipitation occurs, or where ice crystals are present in the convective cloud tops. Outside of these storm regions, deep blue areas may also occur over the sea surface due to its low radiation emissivity. On the other hand, land appears much warmer due to its high radiation emissivity.

    Microwave radiation from Earth's surface and lower atmosphere penetrates most clouds to a greater or lesser extent depending upon their water vapor, liquid water and ice content. Precipitation, and ice crystals found at the cloud tops where strong convection is taking place, act as barriers to microwave radiation. Because of this barrier effect, the AIRS microwave sensor detects only the radiation arising at or above their location in the atmospheric column. Where these barriers are not present, the microwave sensor detects radiation arising throughout the air column and down to the surface. Liquid surfaces (oceans, lakes and rivers) have 'low emissivity' (the signal isn't as strong) and their radiation brightness temperature is therefore low. Thus the ocean also appears 'low temperature' in the AIRS microwave images and is assigned the color blue

  16. Analysis of noise on construction sites of high-rise buildings.

    PubMed

    Barkokébas, Béda; Vasconcelos, Bianca M; Lago, Eliane Maria G; Alcoforador, Aline Fabiana P

    2012-01-01

    In the civil construction industry sector, it has been observed that the increasing use of machines has made tasks noisier and consequently caused hearing loss and had other adverse effects on workers. The objective of this study was to identify and assess the physical risks of noise present in activities undertaken in a construction company in order to propose control measures which will contribute to the management of health and safety within the company's organization. The methodology applied was based on verifying the characteristics of exposure to noise on construction sites, from an observation of sources which generated noise and making measurements of sound pressure levels emitted by these sources. The data was then analyzed and compared with the recommended performance levels established in control measures. As a result, it was found that some machines and equipment used in civil construction often generate noise above the acceptable levels and as such, in these cases, various control measures have been proposed. It is believed that the use of management techniques is the most effective way to assess risk and to implement the preventive and corrective actions proposed, and allows for the analysis of sound pressure levels on an ongoing basis.

  17. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021).

  18. Soil slip/debris flow localized by site attributes and wind-driven rain in the San Francisco Bay region storm of January 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, R.J.; Sobieszczyk, S.

    2008-01-01

    GIS analysis at 30-m resolution reveals that effectiveness of slope-destabilizing processes in the San Francisco Bay area varies with compass direction. Nearly half the soil slip/debris flows mapped after the catastrophic rainstorm of 3-5 January 1982 occurred on slopes that face S to WSW, whereas fewer than one-quarter have a northerly aspect. Azimuthal analysis of hillside properties for susceptible terrain near the city of Oakland suggests that the skewed aspect of these landslides primarily reflects vegetation type, ridge and valley alignment, and storm-wind direction. Bedrock geology, soil expansivity, and terrain height and gradient also were influential but less so; the role of surface curvature is not wholly resolved. Normalising soil-slip aspect by that of the region's NNW-striking topography shifts the modal azimuth of soil-slip aspect from SW to SE, the direction of origin of winds during the 1982 storm-but opposite that of the prevailing WNW winds. Wind from a constant direction increases rainfall on windward slopes while diminishing it on leeward slopes, generating a modelled difference in hydrologically effective rainfall of up to 2:1 on steep hillsides in the Oakland area. This contrast is consistent with numerical simulations of wind-driven rain and with rainfall thresholds for debris-flow activity. We conclude that storm winds from the SE in January 1982 raised the vulnerability of the Bay region's many S-facing hillsides, most of which are covered in shallow-rooted shrub and grass that offer minimal resistance to soil slip. Wind-driven rainfall also appears to have controlled debris-flow location in a major 1998 storm and probably others. Incorporating this overlooked influence into GIS models of debris-flow likelihood would improve predictions of the hazard in central California and elsewhere.

  19. Biogeochemical Processes Related to Metal Removal and Toxicity Reduction in the H-02 Constructed Wetland, Savannah River Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, E. A.; Mills, G. L.; Harmon, M.; Samarkin, V.

    2011-12-01

    The H-02 wetland system was designed to treat building process water and storm water runoff from multiple sources associated with the Tritium Facility at the DOE-Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. The wetland construction included the addition of gypsum (calcium sulfate) to foster a sulfate-reducing bacterial population. Conceptually, the wetland functions as follows: ? Cu and Zn initially bind to both dissolved and particulate organic detritus within the wetland. ? A portion of this organic matter is subsequently deposited into the surface sediments within the wetland. ? The fraction of Cu and Zn that is discharged in the wetland effluent is organically complexed, less bioavailable, and consequently, less toxic. ? The Cu and Zn deposited in the surface sediments are eventually sequestered into insoluble sulfide minerals in the wetland. Development of the H-02 system has been closely monitored; sampling began in August 2007, shortly after its construction. This monitoring has included the measurement of water quality parameters, Cu and Zn concentrations in surface water and sediments, as well as, characterization of the prokaryotic (e.g., bacterial) component of wetland biogeochemical processes. Since the beginning of the study, the mean influent Cu concentration was 31.5±12.1 ppb and the mean effluent concentration was 11.9±7.3 ppb, corresponding to an average Cu removal of 64%. Zn concentrations were more variable, averaging 39.2±13.8 ppb in the influent and 25.7±21.3 ppb in the effluent. Average Zn removal was 52%. The wetland also ameliorated high pH values associated with influent water to values similar to those measured at reference sites. Seasonal variations in DOC concentration corresponded to seasonal variations in Cu and Zn removal efficiency. The concentration of Cu and Zn in the surface layer of the sediments has increased over the lifetime of the wetland and, like removal efficiency, demonstrated seasonal variation. Within its first year, the H-02

  20. Hot environment and health problems of outdoor workers at a construction site.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Ikuharu; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this research was to understand hot working environment at a construction site in summer and its effects on health of workers. In the subjective construction site, some measures, such as taking a break during work, setting tents and electric fans, and drinking cool water, had already been taken to reduce heat stress. Twelve male workers were examined. The WBGT outdoors during work varied from 23 to 34 degrees C. The time-motion study revealed that one subject worked exceeding 7 hours, and that the other one had little rest time and drank little water during work. Few items of subjective symptoms increased after work compared with before work. In blood chemical data, electrolytes and blood urea nitrogen did not change. Blood sugar before work was significantly higher than before lunch and after work. Two subjects showed serum osmotic pressures increased after work. Two had the tendency to increase the blood pressure during work. The measures seemed effective, because the effects of work were not remarkable in general. However, some problems were still pointed out. Thus, stricter work control and health care for workers are necessary, such as controlling working hours strictly and monitoring the water intake during work.

  1. Respirable crystalline silica exposures during asphalt pavement milling at eleven highway construction sites.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Duane R; Shulman, Stanley A; Echt, Alan S

    2016-07-01

    Asphalt pavement milling machines use a rotating cutter drum to remove the deteriorated road surface for recycling. The removal of the road surface has the potential to release respirable crystalline silica, to which workers can be exposed. This article describes an evaluation of respirable crystalline silica exposures to the operator and ground worker from two different half-lane and larger asphalt pavement milling machines that had ventilation dust controls and water-sprays designed and installed by the manufacturers. Manufacturer A completed milling for 11 days at 4 highway construction sites in Wisconsin, and Manufacturer B completed milling for 10 days at 7 highway construction sites in Indiana. To evaluate the dust controls, full-shift personal breathing zone air samples were collected from an operator and ground worker during the course of normal employee work activities of asphalt pavement milling at 11 different sites. Forty-two personal breathing zone air samples were collected over 21 days (sampling on an operator and ground worker each day). All samples were below 50 µg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 6.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 6.1 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer A milling machine. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 4.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 9.0 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer B milling machine. In addition, upper 95% confidence limits for the mean exposure for each occupation were well below 50 µg/m(3) for both studies. The silica content in the bulk asphalt material being milled ranged from 7-23% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer A and from 5-12% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer B. The results indicate that engineering controls consisting of ventilation controls in combination with water-sprays are

  2. 10 CFR 51.75 - Draft environmental impact statement-construction permit, early site permit, or combined licesne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... evaluation of alternative energy sources, unless these matters are addressed in the early site permit... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-construction permit, early site permit, or combined licesne. 51.75 Section 51.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  3. 10 CFR 51.75 - Draft environmental impact statement-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... evaluation of alternative energy sources, unless these matters are addressed in the early site permit... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license. 51.75 Section 51.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  4. 33 CFR 148.420 - When may the Commandant (CG-5) suspend or prohibit site evaluation or pre-construction testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) suspend or prohibit site evaluation or pre-construction testing? 148.420 Section 148.420 Navigation and...: GENERAL Site Evaluation and Pre-Construction Testing § 148.420 When may the Commandant (CG-5) suspend or prohibit site evaluation or pre-construction testing? (a) The Commandant (CG-5) may order, either...

  5. PCR-based strategy for construction of multi-site-saturation mutagenic expression library.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinxia; Zhang, Sufang; Tan, Haidong; Zhao, Zongbao Kent

    2007-12-01

    There is an increasing demand for efficient and effective methods to engineer protein variants for industrial applications, structural biology and drug development. We describe a PCR-based strategy that produces multi-site-saturation mutagenic expression library using a circular plasmid carrying the wild-type gene. This restriction digestion- and ligation-independent method involves three steps: 1) synthesis of the degenerate oligonucleotide primers, 2) incorporation of the mutations through PCR, 3) transformation into the expression host. Our strategy is demonstrated through successful construction of an E. coli K12 malic enzyme expression library that contains members with simultaneous mutations on amino acid residues G311, D345 and G397. This method is in principle compatible with any circular vector that can be propagated with a dam(+)E. coli host to generate protein variant library with multiple changes, including mutation, short sequence deletion and insertion, or any mix of them.

  6. Classification of Photogrammetric Point Clouds of Scaffolds for Construction Site Monitoring Using Subspace Clustering and PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Tuttas, S.; Heogner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an approach for the classification of photogrammetric point clouds of scaffolding components in a construction site, aiming at making a preparation for the automatic monitoring of construction site by reconstructing an as-built Building Information Model (as-built BIM). The points belonging to tubes and toeboards of scaffolds will be distinguished via subspace clustering process and principal components analysis (PCA) algorithm. The overall workflow includes four essential processing steps. Initially, the spherical support region of each point is selected. In the second step, the normalized cut algorithm based on spectral clustering theory is introduced for the subspace clustering, so as to select suitable subspace clusters of points and avoid outliers. Then, in the third step, the feature of each point is calculated by measuring distances between points and the plane of local reference frame defined by PCA in cluster. Finally, the types of points are distinguished and labelled through a supervised classification method, with random forest algorithm used. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed steps are investigated in both simulated test data and real scenario. The results obtained by the two experiments reveal that the proposed approaches are qualified to the classification of points belonging to linear shape objects having different shapes of sections. For the tests using synthetic point cloud, the classification accuracy can reach 80%, with the condition contaminated by noise and outliers. For the application in real scenario, our method can also achieve a classification accuracy of better than 63%, without using any information about the normal vector of local surface.

  7. Geomagnetic storms, super-storms, and their impacts on GPS-based navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, E.; Yasyukevich, Yu.; Maksikov, A.; Zhivetiev, I.

    2014-07-01

    Using data of GPS receivers located worldwide, we analyze the quality of GPS performance during four geomagnetic storms of different intensity: two super-storms and two intense storms. We show that during super-storms the density of GPS Losses-of-Lock (LoL) increases up to 0.25% at L1 frequency and up to 3% at L2 frequency, and up to 0.15% (at L1) and 1% (at L2) during less intense storms. Also, depending on the intensity of the storm time ionospheric disturbances, the total number of total electron content (TEC) slips can exceed from 4 to 40 times the quiet time level. Both GPS LoL and TEC slips occur during abrupt changes of SYM-H index of geomagnetic activity, i.e., during the main phase of geomagnetic storms and during development of ionospheric storms. The main contribution in the total number of GPS LoL was found to be done by GPS sites located at low and high latitudes, whereas the area of numerous TEC slips seemed to mostly correspond to the boundary of the auroral oval, i.e., region with intensive ionospheric irregularities. Our global maps of TEC slips show where the regions with intense irregularities of electron density occur during geomagnetic storms and will let us in future predict appearance of GPS errors for geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

  8. Evaluation of evapotranspiration in small on-site HSF constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Papaevangelou, Vassiliki A; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results on evapotranspiration (ET), relevant to small on-site facilities are presented, derived from one-year controlled experiments in five pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) constructed wetlands (CW) used as lysimeters. The CW units operated in Northern Greece. They were rectangular tanks made of steel, with dimensions 3m long, 0.75m wide and 1m deep. Three different porous media were used, i.e., medium gravel, fine gravel and cobbles. Two plants were used, namely common reed (R, Phragmites australis) and cattails (C, Typha latifolia). One unit was unplanted. ET was estimated based on the water budget method. Conclusions were drawn on its relation to season and vegetation density. Furthermore, Pearson correlation coefficient analysis identified the main factors affecting wetland plant ET. Seven well-known ET empirical methods were applied to estimate ET using the measured meteorological and wetland data. ET estimated by the empirical methods were multiplied with appropriate correction coefficients to match measured ET, providing this way appropriate plant coefficient (K(c)) values, and equations for predicting HSF CW evapotranspiration. The suitability of these methods for the particular constructed wetland type is discussed through comparison with the measured data. The Blaney-Criddle method was found as best. Furthermore, stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used with the measured ET and meteorological data to produce simple empirical equations to predict ET rates according to meteorological factors, plant and substrate material.

  9. A comprehensive software suite for protein family construction and functional site prediction

    PubMed Central

    Haft, David Renfrew; Haft, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    In functionally diverse protein families, conservation in short signature regions may outperform full-length sequence comparisons for identifying proteins that belong to a subgroup within which one specific aspect of their function is conserved. The SIMBAL workflow (Sites Inferred by Metabolic Background Assertion Labeling) is a data-mining procedure for finding such signature regions. It begins by using clues from genomic context, such as co-occurrence or conserved gene neighborhoods, to build a useful training set from a large number of uncharacterized but mutually homologous proteins. When training set construction is successful, the YES partition is enriched in proteins that share function with the user’s query sequence, while the NO partition is depleted. A selected query sequence is then mined for short signature regions whose closest matches overwhelmingly favor proteins from the YES partition. High-scoring signature regions typically contain key residues critical to functional specificity, so proteins with the highest sequence similarity across these regions tend to share the same function. The SIMBAL algorithm was described previously, but significant manual effort, expertise, and a supporting software infrastructure were required to prepare the requisite training sets. Here, we describe a new, distributable software suite that speeds up and simplifies the process for using SIMBAL, most notably by providing tools that automate training set construction. These tools have broad utility for comparative genomics, allowing for flexible collection of proteins or protein domains based on genomic context as well as homology, a capability that can greatly assist in protein family construction. Armed with this new software suite, SIMBAL can serve as a fast and powerful in silico alternative to direct experimentation for characterizing proteins and their functional interactions. PMID:28182651

  10. Clouds and Dust Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 2 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 180 East (180 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with

  11. Characterizing Extreme Ionospheric Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric storms consist of disturbances of the upper atmosphere that generate regions of enhanced electron density typically lasting several hours. Depending upon the storm magnitude, gradients in electron density can sometimes become large and highly localized. The existence of such localized, dense irregularities is a major source of positioning error for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Consequently, satellite-based augmentation systems have been implemented to improve the accuracy and to ensure the integrity of user position estimates derived from GPS measurements. Large-scale irregularities generally do not pose a serious threat to estimate integrity as they can be readily detected by such systems. Of greater concern, however, are highly localized irregularities that interfere with the propagation of a signal detected by a user measurement but are poorly sampled by the receivers in the system network. The most challenging conditions have been found to arise following disturbances of large magnitude that occur only rarely over the course of a solar cycle. These extremely disturbed conditions exhibit behavior distinct from moderately disturbed conditions and, hence, have been designated "extreme storms". In this paper we examine and compare the behavior of the extreme ionospheric storms of solar cycle 23 (or, more precisely, extreme storms occurring between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008), as represented in maps of vertical total electron content. To identify these storms, we present a robust means of quantifying the regional magnitude of an ionospheric storm. Ionospheric storms are observed frequently to occur in conjunction with magnetic storms, i.e., periods of geophysical activity as measured by magnetometers. While various geomagnetic indices, such as the disturbance storm time (Dst) and the planetary Kp index, have long been used to rank the magnitudes of distinct magnetic storms, no comparable, generally recognized index exists for

  12. Coastal Storm Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-30

    MILL IBARS I ~ 1022.8. 0 SEA I LND 0’ 100 A-STORM TRACK 200 :km. NORTH; B-STORM TRACK 0_____. T% WO - X00 SHORE SITEI C-STORM TRACK 300 SOU 00 .) -400 0...SCOTIA CANADA PRUF. C. . A. M._KING D PARTMENT IF GFOGRAPHY JR. H. J. SCHOEMAKER _1,NIVELSITY UF NOTT INGHAM . ... W ATFRLOUPKUNDIG LARIORATORIUM TE

  13. An assessment of potential hydrologic and ecologic impacts of constructing mitigation wetlands, Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA project sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This-assessment examines the consequences and risks that could result from the proposed construction of mitigation wetlands at the New and Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites near Rifle, Colorado. Remediation of surface contamination at those sites is now under way. Preexisting wetlands at or near the Old and New Rifle sites have been cleaned up, resulting in the loss of 0.7 and 10.5 wetland acres (ac) (0.28 and 4.2 hectares [ha]) respectively. Another 9.9 ac (4.0 ha) of wetlands are in the area of windblown contamination west of the New Rifle site. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has jurisdiction over the remediated wetlands. Before remedial action began, and before any wetlands were eliminated, the USACE issued a Section 404 Permit that included a mitigation plan for the wetlands to be lost. The mitigation plan calls for 34.2 ac (1 3.8 ha) of wetlands to be constructed at the south end and to the west of the New Rifle site. The mitigation wetlands would be constructed over and in the contaminated alluvial aquifer at the New Rifle site. As a result of the hydrologic characteristics of this aquifer, contaminated ground water would be expected to enter the environment through the proposed wetlands. A preliminary assessment was therefore required to assess any potential ecological risks associated with constructing the mitigation wetlands at the proposed location.

  14. Flux estimation of fugitive particulate matter emissions from loose Calcisols at construction sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Hala A.; Kumar, Prashant; Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.

    2016-09-01

    A major source of airborne pollution in arid and semi-arid environments (i.e. North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, and Australia) is the fugitive particulate matter (fPM), which is a frequent product of wind erosion. However, accurate determination of fPM is an ongoing scientific challenge. The objective of this study is to examine fPM emissions from the loose Calcisols (i.e. soils with a substantial accumulation of secondary carbonates), owing to construction activities that can be frequently seen nowadays in arid urbanizing regions such as the Middle East. A two months field campaign was conducted at a construction site, at rest, within the city of Doha (Qatar) to measure number concentrations of PM over a size range of 0.25-32 μm using light scattering based monitoring stations. The fPM emission fluxes were calculated using the Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) in an iterative manner and were fitted to a power function, which expresses the wind velocity dependence. The power factors were estimated as 1.87, 1.65, 2.70 and 2.06 for the four different size classes of particles ≤2.5, 2.5-6, 6-10 and ≤10 μm, respectively. Fitted power function was considered acceptable given that adjusted R2 values varied from 0.13 for the smaller particles and up to 0.69 for the larger ones. These power factors are in the same range of those reported in the literature for similar sources. The outcome of this study is expected to contribute to the improvement of PM emission inventories by focusing on an overlooked but significant pollution source, especially in dry and arid regions, and often located very close to residential areas and sensitive population groups. Further campaigns are recommended to reduce the uncertainty and include more fPM sources (e.g. earthworks) and other types of soil.

  15. Water-quality characteristics of urban storm runoff at selected sites in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, February 2006 through November 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, C. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Water samples were collected at three watersheds in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, during February 2006 through November 2009 for continued evaluation of urban storm runoff. The watersheds represented land uses characterized predominantly as established commercial, industrial, and residential. The following water-quality data are reported: physical and chemical-related properties, fecal coliform, nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds. Results of water-quality analyses enabled calculation of event-mean concentrations and estimated annual contaminant loads and yields of storm runoff from nonpoint sources for 12 water-quality properties and constituents. Lead met or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 15 micrograms per liter for drinking water standards in 4 of 14 samples. Low level concentrations of mercury were detected in all 14 samples, and half were two to four times above the reporting limit of 0.02 micrograms per liter. The average dissolved phosphorus concentrations from each land use were two to four times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.05 milligrams per liter. Diazinon was detected in one sample at a concentration of 0.2 micrograms per liter. In the residential watershed, the largest at 216 acres, contaminant loads for 5 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents were highest, with 4 of these being nutrients. The industrial watershed, 97 acres, had the highest contaminant loads for 6 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents with 3 of these being metals, which is indicative of the type of land use. Zinc had the highest metal load (155 pounds per year) in the industrial watershed, compared to 36 pounds per year in the residential watershed, and 32 pounds per year in the established commercial watershed. The industrial watershed had the highest yields for 8 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents, whereas the established commercial watershed had

  16. Robust Classification and Segmentation of Planar and Linear Features for Construction Site Progress Monitoring and Structural Dimension Compliance Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalek, R.; Lichti, D. D.; Ruwanpura, J.

    2015-08-01

    The application of terrestrial laser scanners (TLSs) on construction sites for automating construction progress monitoring and controlling structural dimension compliance is growing markedly. However, current research in construction management relies on the planned building information model (BIM) to assign the accumulated point clouds to their corresponding structural elements, which may not be reliable in cases where the dimensions of the as-built structure differ from those of the planned model and/or the planned model is not available with sufficient detail. In addition outliers exist in construction site datasets due to data artefacts caused by moving objects, occlusions and dust. In order to overcome the aforementioned limitations, a novel method for robust classification and segmentation of planar and linear features is proposed to reduce the effects of outliers present in the LiDAR data collected from construction sites. First, coplanar and collinear points are classified through a robust principal components analysis procedure. The classified points are then grouped using a robust clustering method. A method is also proposed to robustly extract the points belonging to the flat-slab floors and/or ceilings without performing the aforementioned stages in order to preserve computational efficiency. The applicability of the proposed method is investigated in two scenarios, namely, a laboratory with 30 million points and an actual construction site with over 150 million points. The results obtained by the two experiments validate the suitability of the proposed method for robust segmentation of planar and linear features in contaminated datasets, such as those collected from construction sites.

  17. Construction and characterization of an azurin analog for the purple copper site in cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hay, M; Richards, J H; Lu, Y

    1996-01-09

    A protein analog of a purple copper center has been constructed from a recombinant blue copper protein (Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin) by replacing the loop containing the three ligands to the blue copper center with the corresponding loop of the CuA center in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from Paracoccus denitrificans. The electronic absorption in the UV and visible region (UV-vis) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of this analog are remarkably similar to those of the native CuA center in COX from Paracoccus denitrificans. The above spectra can be obtained upon addition of a mixture of Cu2+ and Cu+. Addition of Cu2+ only results in a UV-vis spectrum consisting of absorptions from both a purple copper center and a blue copper center. This spectrum can be converted to the spectrum of a pure purple copper by a prolonged incubation in the air, or by addition of excess ascorbate. The azurin mutant reported here is an example of an engineered purple copper center with the A480/A530 ratio greater than 1 and with no detectable hyperfines, similar to those of the CuA sites in COX of bovine heart and of Paracoccus denitrificans.

  18. Movement of shaft and drift construction water in Yucca Mountain, Nevada: An extended study; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolik, S.R.; Fewell, M.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1991-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to design site characterization activities with minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. One activity of site characterization is the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, for which many design options are being considered, including shafts, drifts, and ramps. The information in this report pertains to: (1) engineering calculations of the potential distribution of residual water from constructing the shafts and drifts; (2) numerical calculations predicting the movement of residual construction water from the shaft and drift walls into the rock; and (3) numerical calculations of the movement of residual water and how the movement is affected by ventilation. This document contains information that has been used in preparing Appendix 1 of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document for the Yucca Mountain Project.

  19. Subway construction activity influence on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fine particles: Comparison with a background mountainous site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Li, Xuxu; Li, Qi; Yin, Yan; Li, Li; Chen, Kui; Liu, Dantong; Yuan, Liang; Pang, Xiaobing

    2015-07-01

    Intensive construction activities worsened the surrounding atmospheric environment in China. Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine particles (PM2.5) were collected at a subway construction site (SC) of Nanjing and compared with a regional background mountainous site (BM) to examine the influence of anthropogenic activities on concentrations, sources and health risks of PAHs. Average PAH concentrations at SC were higher than BM at a factor of about 5.9. All PAH species at SC were higher than BM, with the SC/BM ratios ranging from 1.3 (NaP) to 10.3 (BaP). PAH profiles differed for the two sites. The SC site had higher mass fractions of PAHs from coal combustion and vehicle emission, while the BM site held higher mass percentages of PAHs from long-range transported wood combustion and industrial activities. Lower temperature at BM may lead to the higher mass percentages of low ring PAHs. Coal combustion, traffic emissions and biomass burning were the common sources for PAHs at both SC and BM. Construction workers were exposed to higher BaPeq concentrations, nearly ten times of the background site and their lifetime cancer risk reached to 0.6 per 1,000,000 exposed worker, owing to the influence of coal combustion, vehicle emission and industrial activities at the surroundings of SC.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among construction site workers: A cross-sectional study in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Mamta; Agarwalla, Rashmi; Mallik, Praveen; Dwivedi, Shridhar; Patvagekar, Bilkish; Pathak, Rambha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Workers represent half the world's population and are major contributors to economic and social development. Tobacco consumption in construction site workers has been considered a big challenge. Objectives: (1) To assess the prevalence of nicotine dependence among tobacco users. (2) To study the correlates of nicotine dependence among the construction site workers. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using a predesigned and pretested structured proforma. The study was conducted among all construction site workers aged 18yrs and above in campus of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi. Karl Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire was used to assess dependence on nicotine. Results: The mean age of construction site workers was 32.04±11.6 years. Among the workers, majority (91%) were tobacco user. Among the users, 60% found it difficult to refrain from smoking/chewing in places where use of tobacco is not allowed (e.g. hospitals, government offices, cinemas, Libraries etc). 55% of the users smoked or chewed tobacco during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day. On multivariate analysis, the factors which were found to be significantly associated with nicotine dependence were lower income group (OR 2.57, CI:1.66-3.99), smokeless tobacco use (OR 2.36, CI:1.30-4.27) and lower education (OR = 2.86 (95% CI 1.97-4.16) for illiterate). Discussion: The prevalence of tobacco use (91%) among construction workers is very high compared to that in the general population. Recognition of construction sites as work places and proper implementation of law is needed. PMID:27625442

  1. The threshold between storm overwash and inundation and the implication to paleo-storm records and climate signatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. G.; Long, J.; Osterman, L. E.; Plant, N. G.; Marot, M. E.; Bernier, J.; Flocks, J. G.; Adams, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    In modern coastal systems, the sensitivity of a coastal site to erosion or deposition during storm conditions depends largely on the geomorphic configuration (e.g. dune or beach height and width) and the storm-induced oceanographic processes (surge and waves). Depending on the magnitude of these variables, coastal systems may be eroded, overwashed, breached, and/or inundated during the storm. To date, there has been no attempt to evaluate how these observable modern differences in storm-impact regimes might be utilized to interpret paleo-storm intensities and frequencies. Time-series of sediment texture, radioisotopic, and foraminiferal data from back-barrier environments along the Chandeleur Islands (Louisiana, USA) document the emplacement of a storm event deposit from Hurricane Isaac and we use this event to test paleo-storm intensity reconstruction methods. Water level reconstructed for the event layer using an advection (grain-size) settling model are 2 - 3 times greater than measured during the storm. The over-estimation is linked to the reconstruction model's assumptions concerning sediment transport during storms (i.e., overwash only), while actual processes included inundation as well. These contrasts may result in misidentification (i.e., presence/absence) and/or misclassification (i.e., intensity) of storms in the geologic record (e.g., low geomorphic conditions and high water levels) that would in turn affect the ability to link storm frequency or intensity to climatic drivers.

  2. A GIS analysis of suitability for construction aggregate recycling sites using regional transportation network and population density features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Kapo, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Aggregate is used in road and building construction to provide bulk, strength, support, and wear resistance. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed Portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available sources of recycled aggregate. In this paper, current aggregate production operations in Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are used to develop spatial association models for the recycled aggregate industry with regional transportation network and population density features. The cost of construction aggregate to the end user is strongly influenced by the cost of transporting processed aggregate from the production site to the construction site. More than 60% of operations recycling aggregate in the mid-Atlantic study area are located within 4.8 km (3 miles) of an interstate highway. Transportation corridors provide both sites of likely road construction where aggregate is used and an efficient means to move both materials and on-site processing equipment back and forth from various work sites to the recycling operations. Urban and developing areas provide a high market demand for aggregate and a ready source of construction debris that may be processed into recycled aggregate. Most aggregate recycling operators in the study area are sited in counties with population densities exceeding 77 people/km2 (200 people/mile 2). No aggregate recycling operations are sited in counties with less than 19 people/km2 (50 people/mile2), reflecting the lack of sufficient long-term sources of construction debris to be used as an aggregate source, as well as the lack of a sufficient market demand for aggregate in most rural areas to locate a recycling operation there or justify the required investment in the equipment to process and produce recycled aggregate. Weights of evidence analyses (WofE), measuring correlation on an area-normalized basis, and weighted logistic regression (WLR), are used to model the distribution of RAP and RPCC operations relative

  3. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project Mexican Hat, Utah -- Monument Valley, Arizona, sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The final audit report for remedial action at the Mexican Hat, Utah, Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/audits, quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and QA remedial action close-out inspections performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC); on-site construction reviews (OSCR) performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and a surveillance performed by the Navajo Nation. This report refers to remedial action activities performed at the Mexican Hat, Utah--Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites.

  4. Where Do the Sand-Dust Storms Come From?: Conversations with Specialists from the Exploring Sand-Dust Storms Scientific Expedition Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shixin, Liu

    2004-01-01

    This article relates the different views from specialists of the scientific expedition team for the exploration of the origin of sand-dust storms. They observed and examined on-site the ecological environment of places of origin for sand-dust storms, and tried to find out causes of sand-dust storm and what harm it can cause in the hope of…

  5. Storm and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Yesterday's storm front was moving westward, today's moves eastward. Note the thick cloud cover and beautifully delineated cloud tops.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 72.1, Longitude 308.3 East (51.7 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  7. The Construction And Instrumentation Of A Pilot Treatment System At The Standard Mine Superfund Site, Crested Butte, CO

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot biochemical reactor (BCR) was designed and constructed to treat mine-influenced water emanating from an adit at a remote site in southern Colorado which receives an average of 400 inches (10.2 meters) of snowfall each season. The objective of the study is to operate and ...

  8. The Construction And Instrumentation Of A Pilot Treatment System At The Standard Mine Superfund Site, Crested Butte, CO - (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot biochemical reactor (BCR) was designed and constructed to treat mine-influenced water emanating from an adit at a remote site in southern Colorado which receives an average of 400 inches (10.2 meters) of snowfall each season. The objective of the study is to operate and ...

  9. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  10. 10 CFR 51.50 - Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... costs of the proposed action or an evaluation of alternative energy sources. (3) For other than light... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage. 51.50 Section 51.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  11. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  12. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  13. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  14. 10 CFR 51.50 - Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... costs of the proposed action or an evaluation of alternative energy sources. (3) For other than light... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage. 51.50 Section 51.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  15. 10 CFR 51.50 - Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... costs of the proposed action or an evaluation of alternative energy sources. (3) For other than light... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage. 51.50 Section 51.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  16. 10 CFR 51.105 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning the benefits assessment (e.g., need for power) or alternative energy sources if those issues were... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of construction permits or early site permits; limited work authorizations. 51.105 Section 51.105 Energy...

  17. 10 CFR 51.50 - Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... costs of the proposed action or an evaluation of alternative energy sources. (3) For other than light... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage. 51.50 Section 51.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  18. 10 CFR 51.50 - Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... costs of the proposed action or an evaluation of alternative energy sources. (3) For other than light... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage. 51.50 Section 51.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  19. Dust storms: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Dust storms have a number of impacts upon the environment including radiative forcing, and biogeochemical cycling. They transport material over many thousands of kilometres. They also have a range of impacts on humans, not least on human health. In recent years the identification of source areas for dust storms has been an important area or research, with the Sahara (especially Bodélé) and western China being recognised as the strongest sources globally. Another major development has been the recognition of the degree to which dust storm activity has varied at a range of time scales, millennial, century, decadal, annual and seasonal.

  20. Hazards of geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. 

  1. Mass movement and storms in the drainage basin of Redwood Creek, Humboldt County, California: a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Janda, Richard J.; Nolan, K. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Numerous active landslides are clearly significant contributors to high sediment loads in the Redwood Creek basin. Field and aerial-photograph inspections indicate that large mass-movement features, such as earthflows and massive streamside debris slides, occur primarily in terrain underlain by unmetamorphosed or slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These features cannot account for stream sediment derived from schist. Observed lithologic heterogeneity of stream sediment therefore suggests that large-scale mass movement is only one part of a complex suite of processes supplying sediment to streams in this basin. Other significant sediment contributors include various forms of fluvial erosion and small-scale discrete mass failures, particularly on oversteepened hillslopes adjacent to perennial streams. Photo-interpretive studies of landslide and timber-harvest history adjacent to Redwood Creek, together with analysis of regional precipitation and runoff records for six flood-producing storms between 1953 and 1975, indicate that loci and times of significant streamside landsliding are influenced by both local storm intensity and streamside logging. Analysis of rainfall records and historic accounts indicates that the individual storms comprising a late-19th-century series of storms in northwestern California were similar in magnitude and spacing to those of the past 25 years. The recent storms apparently initiated more streamside landslides than comparable earlier storms, which occurred prior to extensive road construction and timber harvest. Field observations and repeated surveys of stake arrays at 10 sites in the basin indicate that earthflows are especially active during prolonged periods of moderate rainfall; but that during brief intense storms, fluvial processes are the dominant erosion mechanism. Stake movement occurs mostly during wet winter months. Spring and summer movement was detected at some moist streamside sites. Surveys of stake arrays in two

  2. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona: Phase 2, Construction, Subcontract documents: Appendix E, final report. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This appendix discusses Phase II construction and subcontract documents uranium mill site near Tuba City, Arizona. It contains the bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings.

  3. Tropical Storm Alberto, Seen Through New 'Eyes'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    NASA's new CloudSat satellite captured its first tropical storm, Alberto, as it spun over the Gulf of Mexico the morning of June 12, 2006. This image comparison shows how CloudSat 'sees' such storms differently than conventional weather satellites. The CloudSat image (top of this page and bottom of figure 1) is compared with images obtained at nearly the same time from two National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service tools that are mainstays for monitoring the development and movement of tropical cyclones: the NEXRAD storm detection radar, which maps out precipitation patterns for that portion of the storm that comes into its range, and the GOES-12 (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) infrared imager, which is presented here to indicate the scale of the storm and the location where CloudSat overflies it. CloudSat sees the storm outside the range of NEXRAD and provides significantly greater vertical detail compared to the GOES satellite. NEXRAD, for example, can only see out to about 402 kilometers (250 nautical miles), and so could not see the portion of the storm that CloudSat was flying over at the time. GOES-12 only sees the very top of the clouds, and cannot provide any detail about what is being seen beneath the cloud tops.

    The CloudSat data show a storm that reaches about 16 kilometers (10 miles) in height and extends perhaps 1,000 kilometers (621 miles) in scale. The green line at the bottom of the CloudSat image is the radar echo of the Earth's surface. Where this line starts to disappear (change color) under the storm is where the rainfall is heaviest. Very heavy rainfall can be seen over about 400 kilometers (249 miles) of the satellite track. Cirrus clouds can also been seen out ahead of the storm (near letter A) -- this is also evident in the GOES-12 image. A smaller thunderstorm is visible in the CloudSat image under that cirrus cloud

  4. Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  5. Real-Time Safety Risk Assessment Based on a Real-Time Location System for Hydropower Construction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns. PMID:25114958

  6. 2001 Leonid Meteoroid Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and discuss their possible consequences and mitigation strategies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Meteors , Leonids, Meteoroids, Spacecraft, Meteor showers , Impact...release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We present the latest predictions about the November 2001 Leonid Meteor storms

  7. Powerful Midwest Storm System

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of imagery from NOAA’s GOES-13 satellite shows themovement of storm systems in the south central United States on May 20,2013. Warm, moist gulf air flowing across Texas, Oklahoma...

  8. Tropical Storm Faxai

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA/JAXA's TRMM Satellite provided data of developing Tropical Storm Faxai to make this 3-D image that showed some towering thunderstorms in the area were reaching altitudes of up to 15.5km/~9.6 m...

  9. Tropical Storm Don

    NASA Video Gallery

    GOES-13 data was compiled into an animation by the NASA GOES Project at NASA Goddard that shows the development of Tropical Storm Don in the southern Gulf of Mexico, west of Cuba. The animation run...

  10. Tropical Storm Dolly Develops

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation from NOAA's GOES-East satellite from Aug. 31-Sept. 2 shows the movement of a low pressure area from the western Caribbean Sea over the Yucatan Peninsula as it becomes Tropical Storm ...

  11. Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  12. Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Army South, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard Housing Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard...construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts . Cheltenham, England: 2001, p.5. 56 Concrete Proposals, Economist, July 24

  13. 75 FR 35901 - On-Site Completion of Construction of Manufactured Homes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... roofs that are not penetrated would generally be governed by state or Federal installation standards... construction and safety standards when finished; and (e) Certain types of hinged roof and eave construction that are not exempted as installation by Sec. 3285.801(f). This exemption would include certain...

  14. A retrospective tiered environmental assessment of the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility, West Virginia,USA

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Day, Robin; Strickland, M. Dale

    2012-11-01

    Bird and bat fatalities from wind energy projects are an environmental and public concern, with post-construction fatalities sometimes differing from predictions. Siting facilities in this context can be a challenge. In March 2012 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released Land-based Wind Energy Guidelines to assess collision fatalities and other potential impacts to species of concern and their habitats to aid in siting and management. The Guidelines recommend a tiered approach for assessing risk to wildlife, including a preliminary site evaluation that may evaluate alternative sites, a site characterization, field studies to document wildlife and habitat and to predict project impacts, post construction studies to estimate impacts, and other post construction studies. We applied the tiered assessment framework to a case study site, the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility in Grant County, West Virginia, USA, to demonstrate the use of the USFWS assessment approach, to indicate how the use of a tiered assessment framework might have altered outputs of wildlife assessments previously undertaken for the case study site, and to assess benefits of a tiered ecological assessment framework for siting wind energy facilities. The conclusions of this tiered assessment for birds are similar to those of previous environmental assessments for Mount Storm. This assessment found risk to individual migratory tree-roosting bats that was not emphasized in previous preconstruction assessments. Differences compared to previous environmental assessments are more related to knowledge accrued in the past 10 years rather than to the tiered structure of the Guidelines. Benefits of the tiered assessment framework include good communication among stakeholders, clear decision points, a standard assessment trajectory, narrowing the list of species of concern, improving study protocols, promoting consideration of population-level effects, promoting adaptive management through post-construction

  15. Assessment, approval, design and construction of a facility on a Superfund site in 36 months

    SciTech Connect

    Drag, D.J.; Webb, C.K.; Luenenborg, G.W.

    1996-11-01

    The Union Pacific Resources Corporation (UPRC) owned and operated a 600-acre crude oil production field in Wilmington, California. UPRC granted a lease to the TCL Corporation in 1951 for the disposal of oil and gas drilling field wastes. In the 1950s and 1960s, waste materials consisting of oil-free rotary mud, as well as rotary mud containing oil and crude oil tank bottoms were accepted at the site. Site testing and record investigations have shown that some other wastes, inconsistent with those permitted by the agreement between UPRC and TCL, were also disposed of at the site. Soil samples collected from the site in 1981 showed moderately high levels of metals in the soils at the site. In 1983, the site was included on the California State Superfund list of hazardous waste contaminated sites. In 1988, UPRC signed a Consent order Agreement with the Department of Toxic Substance Control (DTSC) whereby UPRC agreed to investigate a 31-acre area of the Study Area and develop a Remedial Action Plan (RAP) with DTSC oversight. The Port of Long Beach (POLB) is assuming the responsibility for implementing subsequent investigative and remedial activities at the portions of the site which they have since purchased from UPRC. The overall project objective was to investigate a 31-acre parcel within the Study Area (TCL site), develop a RAP, remediate the oil sump soils, and develop the parcel as an automobile distribution facility to be used by Toyota Motor Sales (TMS).

  16. 38 CFR 39.60 - General requirements for site selection and construction of veterans cemeteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement... design and construction criteria and shall apply to all Establishment, Expansion, and...

  17. 38 CFR 39.60 - General requirements for site selection and construction of veterans cemeteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement... design and construction criteria and shall apply to all Establishment, Expansion, and...

  18. 38 CFR 39.60 - General requirements for site selection and construction of veterans cemeteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement... design and construction criteria and shall apply to all Establishment, Expansion, and...

  19. The mouse cornea as a transplantation site for live imaging of engineered tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Poché, Ross A; Saik, Jennifer E; West, Jennifer L; Dickinson, Mary E

    2010-04-01

    The field of tissue engineering aims to recapitulate healthy human organs and 3-D tissue structures in vitro and then transplant these constructs in vivo where they can be effectively integrated within the recipient patient and become perfused by the host circulation. To improve the design of materials for artificial tissue scaffolds, it would be ideal to have a high-throughput imaging system that allows one to directly monitor transplanted tissue constructs in live animals over an extended period of time. By combining such an assay with transgenic, cell-specific fluorescent reporters, one could monitor such parameters as tissue construct perfusion, donor cell survival, and donor-host cell interaction/integration. Here, we describe a protocol for a modified version of the classical corneal micropocket angiogenesis assay, employing it as a live imaging "window" to monitor angiogenic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel tissue constructs.

  20. Ionospheric data assimilation and forecasting during storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, Alex T.; Matsuo, Tomoko; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Collins, Nancy; Hoar, Timothy J.; Lu, Gang; Mitchell, Cathryn N.; Coster, Anthea J.; Paxton, Larry J.; Bust, Gary S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionospheric storms can have important effects on radio communications and navigation systems. Storm time ionospheric predictions have the potential to form part of effective mitigation strategies to these problems. Ionospheric storms are caused by strong forcing from the solar wind. Electron density enhancements are driven by penetration electric fields, as well as by thermosphere-ionosphere behavior including Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances and Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and changes to the neutral composition. This study assesses the effect on 1 h predictions of specifying initial ionospheric and thermospheric conditions using total electron content (TEC) observations under a fixed set of solar and high-latitude drivers. Prediction performance is assessed against TEC observations, incoherent scatter radar, and in situ electron density observations. Corotated TEC data provide a benchmark of forecast accuracy. The primary case study is the storm of 10 September 2005, while the anomalous storm of 21 January 2005 provides a secondary comparison. The study uses an ensemble Kalman filter constructed with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. Maps of preprocessed, verticalized GPS TEC are assimilated, while high-latitude specifications from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics and solar flux observations from the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Experiment are used to drive the model. The filter adjusts ionospheric and thermospheric parameters, making use of time-evolving covariance estimates. The approach is effective in correcting model biases but does not capture all the behavior of the storms. In particular, a ridge-like enhancement over the continental USA is not predicted, indicating the importance of predicting storm time electric field behavior to the problem of ionospheric forecasting.

  1. 33 CFR 148.420 - When may the Commandant (CG-5) suspend or prohibit site evaluation or pre-construction testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When may the Commandant (CG-5...: GENERAL Site Evaluation and Pre-Construction Testing § 148.420 When may the Commandant (CG-5) suspend or prohibit site evaluation or pre-construction testing? (a) The Commandant (CG-5) may order, either...

  2. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Data-Treatment Chemicals, Construction Materials, Transportation, On-site Equipment, and Other Processes for Use in Spreadsheets for Environmental Footprint Analysis (SEFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report estimates environmental emission factors (EmF) for key chemicals, construction and treatment materials, transportation/on-site equipment, and other processes used at remediation sites. The basis for chemical, construction, and treatment material EmFs is life cycle inv...

  3. On extreme geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Extreme geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. Geomagnetic field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the geomagnetic disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of extreme storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to extreme storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.

  4. Construction of a directed hammerhead ribozyme library: towards the identification of optimal target sites for antisense-mediated gene inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, M L; Ruffner, D E

    1998-01-01

    Antisense-mediated gene inhibition uses short complementary DNA or RNA oligonucleotides to block expression of any mRNA of interest. A key parameter in the success or failure of an antisense therapy is the identification of a suitable target site on the chosen mRNA. Ultimately, the accessibility of the target to the antisense agent determines target suitability. Since accessibility is a function of many complex factors, it is currently beyond our ability to predict. Consequently, identification of the most effective target(s) requires examination of every site. Towards this goal, we describe a method to construct directed ribozyme libraries against any chosen mRNA. The library contains nearly equal amounts of ribozymes targeting every site on the chosen transcript and the library only contains ribozymes capable of binding to that transcript. Expression of the ribozyme library in cultured cells should allow identification of optimal target sites under natural conditions, subject to the complexities of a fully functional cell. Optimal target sites identified in this manner should be the most effective sites for therapeutic intervention. PMID:9801305

  5. 76 FR 38360 - Workshop-Monitoring Changes in Extreme Storm Statistics: State of Knowledge; Notice of Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Workshop--Monitoring Changes in Extreme Storm Statistics... website at https://sites.google.com/a/noaa.gov/severe-storms-workshop/ . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... available, they may be found at https://sites.google.com/a/noaa.gov/severe-storms-workshop/ . Topics To...

  6. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-11-28

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth site in Ohio (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF{sub 6} stored at Portsmouth to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. The facility would also convert the DUF{sub 6} from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) site near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2001 (Federal Register, Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (United States Code, Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a Federal Register Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; from the transportation of all ETTP cylinders (DUF{sub 6}, low-enriched UF6

  7. Great magnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Lee, Yen T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Tang, Frances

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 to 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that: (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective.

  8. Storms and Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) took this 2-millisecond exposure of Jupiter at 04:41:04 UTC on January 24, 2007. The spacecraft was 57 million kilometers (35.3 million miles) from Jupiter, closing in on the giant planet at 41,500 miles (66,790 kilometers) per hour. At right are the moons Io (bottom) and Ganymede; Ganymede's shadow creeps toward the top of Jupiter's northern hemisphere.

    Two of Jupiter's largest storms are visible; the Great Red Spot on the western (left) limb of the planet, trailing the Little Red Spot on the eastern limb, at slightly lower latitude. The Great Red Spot is a 300-year old storm more than twice the size of Earth. The Little Red Spot, which formed over the past decade from the merging of three smaller storms, is about half the size of its older and 'greater' counterpart.

  9. An Investigation of the Legal Criteria Governing Differing Site Conditions Disputes on Construction Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    tunnels were to be built, varied from 3,000 to 12,000 psi. McHugh relied on this infcLmation in sizing a tunnel boring machine and estimated that the... boring machine could achieve a productivity rate of five feet per hour. During construction, McHugh achieved a significantly lower rate of production

  10. Literacies through Media: Identity and Discourse in the Process of Constructing a Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del-Castillo, Hector; Garcia-Varela, Ana Belen; Lacasa, Pilar

    2003-01-01

    In this research note we explore how children construct their identity in the context of a literacy practice: developing written and audio-visual texts in small-group situation to be published on the Internet. Through their dialogue, a shared identity is growing on the context, and every children create an identity as member of a community in…

  11. Space Transportation System Western Launch Site Construction Management Information System - A Case Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    The Corps of Engineers Management Information System (COEMIS) is used by the Corps of Engineers in their role as Construction Agents on Air Force...California. The research concluded that the Corps of Engineers Management Information System can be an effective, efficient management tool which has the

  12. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Safety Climate and Individual Safety Behavior on Construction Sites.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuzhong; Ju, Chuanjing; Koh, Tas Yong; Rowlinson, Steve; Bridge, Adrian J

    2017-01-05

    Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation) and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate). However, relatively little empirical research has examined this conceptualization in the construction sector. Given the cultural background of the sample, this study makes a slight modification to the conceptualization and views transformational leadership as an antecedent of safety climate. Accordingly, this study establishes a multiple mediator model showing the mechanisms through which transformational leadership translates into safety behavior. The multiple mediator model is estimated by the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, using individual questionnaire responses from a random sample of construction personnel based in Hong Kong. As hypothesized, transformational leadership has a significant impact on safety climate which is mediated by safety-specific leader-member exchange (LMX), and safety climate in turn impacts safety behavior through safety knowledge. The results suggest that future safety climate interventions should be more effective if supervisors exhibit transformational leadership, encourage construction personnel to voice safety concerns without fear of retaliation, and repeatedly remind them about safety on the job.

  13. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Safety Climate and Individual Safety Behavior on Construction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuzhong; Ju, Chuanjing; Koh, Tas Yong; Rowlinson, Steve; Bridge, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation) and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate). However, relatively little empirical research has examined this conceptualization in the construction sector. Given the cultural background of the sample, this study makes a slight modification to the conceptualization and views transformational leadership as an antecedent of safety climate. Accordingly, this study establishes a multiple mediator model showing the mechanisms through which transformational leadership translates into safety behavior. The multiple mediator model is estimated by the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, using individual questionnaire responses from a random sample of construction personnel based in Hong Kong. As hypothesized, transformational leadership has a significant impact on safety climate which is mediated by safety-specific leader–member exchange (LMX), and safety climate in turn impacts safety behavior through safety knowledge. The results suggest that future safety climate interventions should be more effective if supervisors exhibit transformational leadership, encourage construction personnel to voice safety concerns without fear of retaliation, and repeatedly remind them about safety on the job. PMID:28067775

  14. 10 CFR 50.55 - Conditions of construction permits, early site permits, combined licenses, and manufacturing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... experimental nature of the facility or fire, flood, explosion, strike, sabotage, domestic violence, enemy... construction permits issued before October 29, 1991, evaluation, reporting and recordkeeping requirements of... permit holder described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section shall, by June 10, 1983, submit to...

  15. 10 CFR 50.55 - Conditions of construction permits, early site permits, combined licenses, and manufacturing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... experimental nature of the facility or fire, flood, explosion, strike, sabotage, domestic violence, enemy... construction permits issued before October 29, 1991, evaluation, reporting and recordkeeping requirements of... permit holder described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section shall, by June 10, 1983, submit to...

  16. 10 CFR 50.55 - Conditions of construction permits, early site permits, combined licenses, and manufacturing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... experimental nature of the facility or fire, flood, explosion, strike, sabotage, domestic violence, enemy... construction permits issued before October 29, 1991, evaluation, reporting and recordkeeping requirements of... permit holder described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section shall, by June 10, 1983, submit to...

  17. 10 CFR 50.55 - Conditions of construction permits, early site permits, combined licenses, and manufacturing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... experimental nature of the facility or fire, flood, explosion, strike, sabotage, domestic violence, enemy... construction permits issued before October 29, 1991, evaluation, reporting and recordkeeping requirements of... permit holder described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section shall, by June 10, 1983, submit to...

  18. 10 CFR 50.55 - Conditions of construction permits, early site permits, combined licenses, and manufacturing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... experimental nature of the facility or fire, flood, explosion, strike, sabotage, domestic violence, enemy... construction permits issued before October 29, 1991, evaluation, reporting and recordkeeping requirements of... permit holder described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section shall, by June 10, 1983, submit to...

  19. Storm Warning Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A Huntsville meteorologist of Baron Services, Inc. has formed a commercial weather advisory service. Weather information is based on data from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) collected from antennas in Alabama and Tennessee. Bob Baron refines and enhances MSFC's real time display software. Computer data is changed to audio data for radio transmission, received by clients through an antenna and decoded by computer for display. Using his service, clients can monitor the approach of significant storms and schedule operations accordingly. Utilities and emergency management officials are able to plot a storm's path. A recent agreement with two other companies will promote continued development and marketing.

  20. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-11-28

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah site in northwestern Kentucky (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF{sub 6} stored at Paducah to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the ''Federal Register'' (FR) on September 18, 2001 (''Federal Register'', Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (''United States Code'', Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (''Code of Federal Regulations'', Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a ''Federal Register'' Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Paducah site; from the transportation of depleted uranium conversion products to a disposal facility; and from the transportation, sale, use, or disposal of the fluoride

  1. Characterization and remediation of soil prior to construction of an on-site disposal facility at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Jones, G.; Janke, R.; Nelson, K.

    1998-03-01

    During the production years at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), the soil of the site and the surrounding areas was surficially impacted by airborne contamination. The volume of impacted soil is estimated at 2.2 million cubic yards. During site remediation, this contamination will be excavated, characterized, and disposed of. In 1986 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) covering environmental impacts associated with the FMPC. A site wide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was initiated pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA). The DOE has completed the RI/FS process and has received approval of the final Records of Decision. The name of the facility was changed to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to emphasize the change in mission to environmental restoration. Remedial actions which address similar scopes of work or types of contaminated media have been grouped into remedial projects for the purpose of managing the remediation of the FEMP. The Soil Characterization and Excavation Project (SCEP) will address the remediation of FEMP soils, certain waste units, at- and below-grade material, and will certify attainment of the final remedial limits (FRLs) for the FEMP. The FEMP will be using an on-site facility for low level radioactive waste disposal. The facility will be an above-ground engineered structure constructed of geological material. The area designated for construction of the base of the on-site disposal facility (OSDF) is referred to as the footprint. Contaminated soil within the footprint must be identified and remediated. Excavation of Phase 1, the first of seven remediation areas, is complete.

  2. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project, Grand Junction, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This final audit report (FAR) for remedial action at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project processing site consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/ audits, the quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and the QA final close-out inspection performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). The FAR also summarizes other surveillances performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). To summarize, a total of one finding and 127 observations were noted during DOE/TAC audit and surveillance activities. The NRC noted general site-related observations during the OSCRs. Follow-up to responses required from MK-Ferguson for the DOE/TAC finding and observations indicated that all issues related to the Grand Junction processing site were resolved and closed out to the DOE`s satisfaction. The NRC OSCRs resulted in no issues related to the Grand Junction processing site requiring a response from MK-Ferguson.

  3. Basic coaxial mass driver construction and testing. [for eventual moon-space manufacturing site magnetic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fine, K.

    1977-01-01

    A basic coaxial mass driver has been constructed by a group of students to verify performance predictions in the acceleration range envisaged for the first lunar device. The bucket is guided by four copper tubes which also supply direct current excitation for its single aluminum coil, and is accelerated by twenty coaxial coils along a 2 m track, followed by a deceleration section. The coils are individually energized by electrolytic photoflash capacitors triggered by solid state switches on the basis of bucket position.

  4. Manhattan Project buildings and facilities at the Hanford Site: A construction history

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-09-01

    This document thoroughly examines the role that the Hanford Engineer Works played in the Manhattan project. The historical aspects of the buildings and facilities are characterized. An in depth look at the facilities, including their functions, methods of fabrication and appearance is given for the 100 AREAS, 200 AREAS, 300 AREAS, 500, 800 and 900 AREAS, 600 AREA, 700 AREA, 1100 AREA and temporary construction structures.

  5. Tropical Storm Lee to Newfoundland

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows Tropical Storm Lee as it made landfall in Louisiana and Mississippi on September 4, 2011. This storm produced flooding and tornadoes to the southern states all the way to flooding ...

  6. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The final audit report for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/audits, quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and a QA final closeout inspection performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). One radiological surveillance and three radiological audits were performed at the Ambrosia Lake site. The surveillance was performed on 12--16 April 1993 (DOE, 1993d). The audits were performed on 26--29 July 1993 (DOE, 1993b); 21--23 March 1994 (DOE, 1994d); and 1--2 August 1994 (DOE, 1994d). The surveillance and audits resulted in 47 observations. Twelve of the observations raised DOE concerns that were resolved on site or through subsequent corrective action. All outstanding issues were satisfactorily closed out on 28 December 1994. The radiological surveillance and audits are discussed in this report. A total of seven QA in-process surveillances were performed at the Ambrosia Lake UMTRA site are discussed. The DOE/TAC Ambrosia Lake final remedial action close-out inspection was conducted on 26 July 1995 (DOE, 1995a). To summarize, a total of 155 observations were noted during DOE/TAC audit and surveillance activities. Follow-up to responses required from the RAC for the DOE/TAC surveillance and audit observations indicated that all issues related to the Ambrosia Lake site were resolved and closed to the satisfaction of the DOE.

  7. Coastal storm monitoring in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Coastal communities in Virginia are prone to flooding, particularly during hurricanes, nor’easters, and other coastal low-pressure systems. These weather systems affect public safety, personal and public property, and valuable infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sewer, and electric-supply networks. Local emergency managers, utility operators, and the public are tasked with making difficult decisions regarding evacuations, road closures, and post-storm recovery efforts as a result of coastal flooding. In coastal Virginia these decisions often are made on the basis of anecdotal knowledge from past events or predictions based on data from monitoring sites located far away from the affected area that may not reflect local conditions. Preventing flood hazards, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, from becoming human disasters requires an understanding of the relative risks that flooding poses to specific communities. The risk to life and property can be very high if decisions about evacuations and road closures are made too late or not at all.

  8. Modeling of storm runoff and pollutant wash off processes during storm event in rapidly urbanizing catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. P.; Yu, X. Y.; Khu, S. T.

    2009-04-01

    Many urban catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast economic growth, population expansion and land use/cover change. Due to the mixture of agricultural/industrial/residential land use or different urbanization level as well as lack of historical monitoring data in the developing area, storm-water runoff pollution modeling is faced with challenges of considerable spatial variations and data insufficiency. Shiyan Reservoir catchment is located in the rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China. It has six sub-catchments with largely different land use patterns and urbanization levels. A simple semi-distributed model was used to simulate the storm-water runoff pollution process during storm event in the catchment. The model adopted modified IHACRES model and exponential wash-off functions to describe storm-runoff and pollutant wash-off processes, respectively, in each of six sub-catchments. Temporary hydrological and water quality monitoring sites were set at the downstream section of each sub-catchment in Feb-May 2007, spanning non-rain and rain seasons. And the model was calibrated for storm-runoff and water quality data during two typical storm events with rainfall amount of 10mm/4hr and 73mm/5hr, respectively. The results indicated that the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficients are greater than 0.65 and 0.55 respectively for storm-runoff model calibration and validation. However although NS coefficients can reach 0.7~0.9 for pollutant wash-off model calibration based on measured data in each storm event, the simulation data can not fit well with the measured data in model validation. According to field survey observation, many litters and residuals were found to distribute in disorder in some sub-catchments or their drainage systems and to instantaneously wash off into the surface water when the rainfall amount and intensity are large enough. In order to improve storm-water runoff pollution simulation in the catchment, the variations of pollutant

  9. California's Perfect Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  10. Tropical Storm Katrina

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Because air currents are influenced by the Coriolis force (caused by the rotation of the Earth), Northern Hemisphere hurricanes are ... nadir (vertical-viewing) camera. Both the counter-clockwise motion for the lower-level storm clouds and the clockwise motion for the upper ...

  11. STORM INLET FILTRATION DEVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five field tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Storm and Groundwater Enhancement Systems (SAGES) device for removing contaminants from stormwater. The SAGES device is a three-stage filtering system that could be used as a best management practices (BMP) retr...

  12. Recovery from major storms

    SciTech Connect

    Holeman, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Public Service Company of Oklahoma's transmission and distribution system is in tornado alley, and it seems the number of tornados hitting some part of the system is increasing each year. In the past 30 years, Tulsa his been hit 7 times, and experienced 3 very wide and destructive tornado storm systems between 1971 and 1975.

  13. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Waste Segregation Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Waste Segregation Facility (WSF) for the sorting, shredding, and compaction of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The LLW to be processed consists of two waste streams: legacy waste which is currently stored in E-Area Vaults of SRS and new waste generated from continuing operations. The proposed action is to construct, operate, and D&D a facility to process low-activity job-control and equipment waste for volume reduction. The LLW would be processed to make more efficient use of low-level waste disposal capacity (E-Area Vaults) or to meet the waste acceptance criteria for treatment at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at SRS.

  14. Effect of season and synoptic storm type on precipitation chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Topol, L.E.; Vijayakumar, R.; McKinley, C.M.; Waldron, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    For a two-year period, the chemistry of daily precipitation samples for a site in southern Indiana was analyzed for effect of seasons and synoptic storm types. The storms were classified as frontal, cyclonic, convective and other. Statistically significant (5 percent level) higher concentrations of sulfate, ammonium and hydrogen ion and lower sodium occurred in the warm seasons (April-September) than in the cold (October-March); nitrate, chloride and calcium concentrations were similar in both seasons. In general, convective and frontal storms contained the highest concentrations of ions, and cyclonic and other the lowest. Frontal storms showed significant higher sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and hydrogen ion and lower sodium in warm seasons than in cold, while cyclonic storms yielded significant (1 percent level) higher nitrate in the cold seasons. These results are generally consistent with the well-known behavior of the meteorological weather system categories.

  15. FREE-WATER DEPTH AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marsh plants in constructed wetlands have shown the capacity to remove unwanted pollutants from storm water runoff. The plants can be established at the site from bare roots. However, plant growth from bare roots can be restricted by the elevated water depths. Using several wa...

  16. Scenarios constructed for basaltic igneous activity at Yucca Mountain and vicinity; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, G.E.; Dunn, E.; Dockery, H.; Barnard, R.; Valentine, G.; Crowe, B.

    1993-08-01

    Basaltic volcanism has been identified as a possible future event initiating a release of radionuclides from a potential repository at the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository site. The performance assessment method set forth in the Site Characterization Plan (DOE, 1988) requires that a set of scenarios encompassing all significant radionuclide release paths to the accessible environment be described. This report attempts to catalogue the details of the interactions between the features and processes produced by basaltic volcanism in the presence of the presumed groundwater flow system and a repository structure, the engineered barrier system (EBS), and waste. This catalogue is developed in the form of scenarios. We define a scenario as a well-posed problem, starting from an initiating event or process and proceeding through a logically connected and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes (FEPs) to the release of contaminants.

  17. Constructing query-driven dynamic machine learning model with application to protein-ligand binding sites prediction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dong-Jun; Hu, Jun; Li, Qian-Mu; Tang, Zhen-Min; Yang, Jing-Yu; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We are facing an era with annotated biological data rapidly and continuously generated. How to effectively incorporate new annotated data into the learning step is crucial for enhancing the performance of a bioinformatics prediction model. Although machine-learning-based methods have been extensively used for dealing with various biological problems, existing approaches usually train static prediction models based on fixed training datasets. The static approaches are found having several disadvantages such as low scalability and impractical when training dataset is huge. In view of this, we propose a dynamic learning framework for constructing query-driven prediction models. The key difference between the proposed framework and the existing approaches is that the training set for the machine learning algorithm of the proposed framework is dynamically generated according to the query input, as opposed to training a general model regardless of queries in traditional static methods. Accordingly, a query-driven predictor based on the smaller set of data specifically selected from the entire annotated base dataset will be applied on the query. The new way for constructing the dynamic model enables us capable of updating the annotated base dataset flexibly and using the most relevant core subset as the training set makes the constructed model having better generalization ability on the query, showing "part could be better than all" phenomenon. According to the new framework, we have implemented a dynamic protein-ligand binding sites predictor called OSML (On-site model for ligand binding sites prediction). Computer experiments on 10 different ligand types of three hierarchically organized levels show that OSML outperforms most existing predictors. The results indicate that the current dynamic framework is a promising future direction for bridging the gap between the rapidly accumulated annotated biological data and the effective machine-learning-based predictors. OSML

  18. A Guide to Soil Reports and Differing Site Conditions for Construction Professionals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Foundation Engineering Handbook, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, NY., Page 3. 87 Ibid., Pages 4 /5. 88 Ibid., Page 6. 89 C.R.I. Clayton, N.E...ASCE, 110( 4 ). Dowding, C.H., 1978, Site Characterization & Exploration, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY. Gaskins, "Changed Conditions...listed and discussed_. gommon problems in soil reports which have led to court cases.are also discussed. , 4 n aj iii TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF

  19. Proposed Construction of Boulder Seismic Station Monitoring Sites, Boulder, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    global network of nuclear monitoring technology. To reach this goal, AFT AC must test and evaluate newly developed equipment based on seismo...monitoring uses a combination of seismological data and acoustic readings to better identify differences between nuclear and non-nuclear explosions...monitoring sites to test and evaluate seismo-acoustic methods. Seismo-acoustic monitoring, or a combination of seismological data and acoustic readings, has

  20. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1991 and FY-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E.; Chazel, A.C.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Estes, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980`s. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 14 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ``refuge ponds`` as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  1. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. FY 1989--1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980`s. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ``refuge ponds`` as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  2. Assessment of Storm Surge Forecasting Methods Used During Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    On 8 November 2013, Super Typhoon Haiyan made landfall in the central part of the Philippines. Considered one of the most powerful typhoons ever to make landfall in recorded history with 315 kph one-minute maximum sustained winds according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Haiyan brought widespread devastation in its path. Strong winds, heavy rainfall, and storm surges caused massive loss of lives and extensive damage to property. Storm surges were primarily responsible for the 6,201 dead, 1,785 missing and 28,626 injured in Haiyan's aftermath. This study documents the Haiyan storm surge simulations which were used as basis for the warnings provided to the public. The storm tide -- storm surge added to astronomical tide levels -- forecasts were made using the Japan Meteorological Agency's (JMA) Storm Surge Model and WXTide software. Storm surge maps for the entire Philippines and time series plots for observation points in areas along the path of the typhoon were produced. Storm tide heights between one and five meters were also predicted for 68 coastal areas two days prior to Haiyan's landfall. A storm surge inundation map showing the extent of coastal flooding for Tacloban City, Leyte, one of the most severely affected areas by the typhoon, was generated using FLO-2D software. This was validated using field data such as high water marks, eyewitness accounts from locals, and information from media coverage. This map can be used as reference to determine danger zones and safe evacuation sites during similar events. Typhoon Haiyan generated one of the biggest and most devastating storm surge events in several decades, exacting a high death toll despite its early prediction. Lessons learned from this calamity and information contained in this work may serve as useful reference to mitigate the heavy impact of future storm surge events in the Philippines and elsewhere.

  3. Can an early-warning system help minimize the impacts of coastal storms? A case study of the 2012 Halloween storm, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, M. D.; Valentini, A.; Armaroli, C.; Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Ciavola, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Emilia-Romagna early-warning system (ER-EWS) is a state-of-the-art coastal forecasting system that comprises a series of numerical models (COSMO, ROMS, SWAN and XBeach) to obtain a daily 3-day forecast of coastal storm hazard at eight key sites along the Emilia-Romagna coastline (northern Italy). On the night of 31 October 2012, a major storm event occurred that resulted in elevated water levels (equivalent to a 1-in-20- to 1-in-50-year event) and widespread erosion and flooding. Since this storm happened just 1 month prior to the roll-out of the ER-EWS, the forecast performance related to this event is unknown. The aim of this study was to therefore reanalyse the ER-EWS as if it had been operating a day before the event and determine to what extent the forecasts may have helped reduce storm impacts. Three different reanalysis modes were undertaken: (1) a default forecast (DF) mode based on 3-day wave and water-level forecasts and default XBeach parameters; (2) a measured offshore (MO) forecast mode using wave and water-level measurements and default XBeach parameters; and (3) a calibrated XBeach (CX) mode using measured boundary conditions and an optimized parameter set obtained through an extensive calibration process. The results indicate that, while a "code-red" alert would have been issued for the DF mode, an underprediction of the extreme water levels of this event limited high-hazard forecasts to only two of the eight ER-EWS sites. Forecasts based on measured offshore conditions (the MO mode) more-accurately indicate high-hazard conditions for all eight sites. Further considerable improvements are observed using an optimized XBeach parameter set (the CX mode) compared to default parameters. A series of what-if scenarios at one of the sites show that artificial dunes, which are a common management strategy along this coastline, could have hypothetically been constructed as an emergency procedure to potentially reduce storm impacts.

  4. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public.

  5. Draft environmental impact statement siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 4, Appendices D-R

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains 15 appendices.

  6. Wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleteduranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, site.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11990 (''Protection of Wetlands'') and DOE regulations for implementing this Executive Order as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements]), to evaluate potential impacts to wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. Approximately 0.02 acre (0.009 ha) of a 0.08-acre (0.03-ha) palustrine emergent wetland would likely be eliminated by direct placement of fill material during facility construction at Location A. Portions of this wetland that are not filled may be indirectly affected by an altered

  7. The Hydrology and Chemistry of Bioretention During Storm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, R. C.; Davis, A. P.

    2005-05-01

    Bioretention is a key technology in the Low Impact Development (LID) approach to stormwater management. The LID principal is to capture and treat stormwater runoff as close to its source as possible and to restore watershed functions at the most localized level. Small bioretention units dispersed throughout an LID site are defined as infiltration/filtration systems composed of plants, engineered soils, mulch and (typically) an under drain system with contributing drainage areas of less than five acres. The goal is to avert the general degradation of physical characteristics, and periodic flushes of increased pollutant concentrations, by steering clear of a single collection point for stormwater runoff from larger expanses of developed land. Additionally, large sacrifices of land, difficult and costly maintenance issues, as well as the introduction of safety hazards and the general decline in overall aesthetics are avoided. Existing performance data on bioretention from simulated storm events in the field and laboratory models support the use of bioretention for peak flow and volume attenuation, as well as a suite of pollutant removals, including total suspended solids, lead, copper, zinc, phosphorus and nitrogen. The University of Maryland, in cooperation with the Prince George's County Government, has constructed a research and education bioretention site on the UMD campus. Automated sampling devices at the site have collected inflow and outflow hydrographs as well as water quality samples over the course of several storm events over eighteen months. Clear evidence of peak flow reduction and timing delays has evolved. Pollutant removals rates are consistent with simulation and laboratory experiments.

  8. Design and Construction of Deinococcus Radiodurans for Biodegradation of Organic Toxins at Radioactive DOE Waste Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Daly; Lawrence P. Wackett; James K. Fredrickson

    2001-04-22

    Seventy million cubic meters of ground and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans that is being engineered to express bioremediating functions. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for organic toxin degradation in highly radioactive waste sites containing radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organic compounds was started by this group.Work funded by the existing grant has already contributed to eleven papers on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of highly radioactive waste environments

  9. Geophysical Survey of Proposed Construction Site with Possible Faulting, East San Francisco Bay Hills, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, J. L.; Deqiang, C.; Abimbola, A.; Shuler, S.; Hayashi, K.; Fox, J.; Craig, M. S.; Strayer, L. M.; Drumm, P.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a geophysical study at a site proposed for a new dorm building prior to trenching planned as part of a separate fault investigation study. The study area was located on the south side of the CSU East Bay campus, roughly 100 - 300 m SSE of the current dorm complex. In addition to its proximity to the Hayward Fault, several smaller faults have been previously mapped within the proposed location, including the East and West Dibblee Faults. These faults are thought to represent contacts between the Leona Rhyolite and the Knoxville Formation. Data acquisition included seismic, resistivity, and GPS data collected in an effort to develop a better understanding of the geological and structural profile of this area, including the location of lithologic contacts, faults, and the thickness of soil and fill. Geophysical profiles were collected over the locations of future trenches. The survey included geophysical lines that were located coincident with two planned trenching sites, which were chosen to intersect mapped faults. Survey positions were recorded using differential GPS. Seismic refraction and MASW (multichannel analysis of surface waves) surveys were performed over two of the planned trench sites using a 48-channel seismographic system with 4.5 Hz geophones and a 10-lb sledgehammer. For one of the lines, geophones were spaced every 3 m with a total spread length of 141 m and a shot spacing of 9 m. For the second line, geophones were spaced every 4 m with a total spread length of 188 m. Shots were taken every 12 m. Resistivity surveys were also performed along one of the line locations using both a capacitively-coupled dipole (CCD) system and 48-electrode system. Geospatial data for the survey area were compiled, including 0.3 m color orthoimagery and vector line files for geologic unit boundaries and presumed fault locations. The products of this study will include the geophysical response of geologic formations, location of unit contacts and faults

  10. Construction of High-Density Linkage Maps of Populus deltoides × P. simonii Using Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Chunfa; Li, Huogen; Wang, Ying; Li, Xuran; Ou, Jiajia; Wang, Deyuan; Xu, Houxi; Ma, Chao; Lang, Xianye; Liu, Guangxin; Zhang, Bo; Shi, Jisen

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous linkage maps have been constructed in the genus Populus, they are typically sparse and thus have limited applications due to low throughput of traditional molecular markers. Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq) technology allows us to identify a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across genomes of many individuals in a fast and cost-effective way, and makes it possible to construct high-density genetic linkage maps. We performed RADSeq for 299 progeny and their two parents in an F1 hybrid population generated by crossing the female Populus deltoides ‘I-69’ and male Populus simonii ‘L3’. A total of 2,545 high quality SNP markers were obtained and two parent-specific linkage maps were constructed. The female genetic map contained 1601 SNPs and 20 linkage groups, spanning 4,249.12 cM of the genome with an average distance of 2.69 cM between adjacent markers, while the male map consisted of 940 SNPs and also 20 linkage groups with a total length of 3,816.24 cM and an average marker interval distance of 4.15 cM. Finally, our analysis revealed that synteny and collinearity are highly conserved between the parental linkage maps and the reference genome of P. trichocarpa. We demonstrated that RAD sequencing is a powerful technique capable of rapidly generating a large number of SNPs for constructing genetic maps in outbred forest trees. The high-quality linkage maps constructed here provided reliable genetic resources to facilitate locating quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control growth and wood quality traits in the hybrid population. PMID:26964097

  11. Construction of High-Density Linkage Maps of Populus deltoides × P. simonii Using Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chunfa; Li, Huogen; Wang, Ying; Li, Xuran; Ou, Jiajia; Wang, Deyuan; Xu, Houxi; Ma, Chao; Lang, Xianye; Liu, Guangxin; Zhang, Bo; Shi, Jisen

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous linkage maps have been constructed in the genus Populus, they are typically sparse and thus have limited applications due to low throughput of traditional molecular markers. Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq) technology allows us to identify a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across genomes of many individuals in a fast and cost-effective way, and makes it possible to construct high-density genetic linkage maps. We performed RADSeq for 299 progeny and their two parents in an F1 hybrid population generated by crossing the female Populus deltoides 'I-69' and male Populus simonii 'L3'. A total of 2,545 high quality SNP markers were obtained and two parent-specific linkage maps were constructed. The female genetic map contained 1601 SNPs and 20 linkage groups, spanning 4,249.12 cM of the genome with an average distance of 2.69 cM between adjacent markers, while the male map consisted of 940 SNPs and also 20 linkage groups with a total length of 3,816.24 cM and an average marker interval distance of 4.15 cM. Finally, our analysis revealed that synteny and collinearity are highly conserved between the parental linkage maps and the reference genome of P. trichocarpa. We demonstrated that RAD sequencing is a powerful technique capable of rapidly generating a large number of SNPs for constructing genetic maps in outbred forest trees. The high-quality linkage maps constructed here provided reliable genetic resources to facilitate locating quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control growth and wood quality traits in the hybrid population.

  12. Improving Water Quality in Construction Site Runoff: Optimal Mixing Time and Dose for Flocculating Suspended Sediment with Polyacrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment, a major water pollutant, can harm ecosystems and water resources. Sediment in construction site runoff can be controlled through flocculation using anionic, linear polyacrylamide (PAM), but there is little information on optimizing these applications. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the optimal mixing times for varying concentrations of two types of polyacrylamide, APS 705 and FA 920, which are blends of polymers with a range of molecular weights that are anionic and neutral, respectively. These were selected from a variety of PAMs previously screened for flocculation potential. Soil from three active construction sites in the Piedmont region of North Carolina were used in the testing. A mixing speed of 300 revolutions per minute (RPM), the maximum available for the paddle mixer we used, was the most effective at reducing turbidity with PAM. Turbidity was reduced with increased mixing times up to a point, after which little additional benefit was evident. For all three soils tested, turbidity decreased as mixing time reached 1-2 minutes at polymer doses of 1, 5 and 10 mg L-1, with no substantial reduction with further mixing. At a polymer dose of 0.5 mg L-1, however, turbidity tended to increase beyond 5 minutes of mixing time, possibly because excessive shear forces destroyed sparsely linked floc. For both PAMs, 1 mg L-1 and a mixing time of 2-3 min appeared to be sufficient to achieve the most effective turbidity reduction.

  13. Case histories of electrical resistivity and controlled-source magnetotelluric surveys for the site investigation of tunnel construction

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, H.S.; Song, Y.; Yi, M.J.; Chung, H.J.; Kim, K.S.

    2006-12-15

    In tunnel construction, the information regarding rock mass quality and the distribution of weak zones is crucial for economical tunnel design and to ensure safety. Usually, the rock mass grade is estimated by observing recovered cores obtained by drilling or by physical parameters calculated in a laboratory using core samples. However, the high drilling cost limits the number of boreholes; furthermore, rough terrains can reduce the access of drilling machines to the survey sites. In such situations, surface geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity or controlled-source magnetotelluric (CSMT) can provide a rough estimate of the rock mass condition over the planned tunnel route. These methods can also map weak zones (faults, fractures, coal bearing zones, and cavities), which are characterized by a lower resistivity than the surrounding fresh rock mass. We present two successful applications of the electrical resistivity and CSMT methods to the site investigation of tunnel construction over a rough terrain. The first example demonstrates that the boundary of the bedrock and weak zones related to the distribution of coaly shale and coal seams were estimated to extend beyond a few hundred meters below the rough surface. The second example shows that the developing direction and depth of cavities, which are mainly related to the weak zones in limestone, were successfully interpreted by a three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity survey with the aid of borehole test results.

  14. Historic and Future Ice Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Morgan, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Ice storm losses from business interruption as well as transportation and health damages can range into billions of dollars. For instance, the December 2008 New England and Upstate New York ice storm caused four deaths and monetary damages between 2.5 and 3.7 billion, and the 2008 Chinese winter storms resulted in over 130 deaths and over 20 billion in damages. Informal discussions with ice storm experts indicate that due to competing temperature and precipitation effects as well as local topographic effects, it is unclear how exactly climate change will affect ice storms. Here we ask how incident frequencies might change in a future climate at four weather stations prone to ice storms. Using historical atmospheric soundings, we conduct a thought experiment where we perturb the temperatures as might be expected in a future climate. We then discuss changes in monthly frequency of ice storms.

  15. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first large statistical study of extreme geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the extreme storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the extreme storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence

  16. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  17. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, R. T.; Rust, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Successful ground truth support of U-2 overflights was been accomplished. Data have been reduced for 4 June 1984 and some of the results have been integrated into some of MSFC's efforts. Staccato lightning (multiply branched, single stroke flash with no continuing current) is prevalent within the rainfree region around the main storm updraft and this is believed to be important, i.e., staccato flashes might be an important indicator of severe storm electrification. Results from data analysis from two stations appear to indicate that charge center heights can be estimated from a combination of intercept data with data from the fixed laboratory at NSSL. An excellent data base has been provided for determining the sight errors and efficiency of NSSL's LLP system. Cloud structures, observable in a low radar reflectivity region and on a scale smaller than is currently resolved by radar, which appear to be related to electrical activity are studied.

  18. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    During FY-85, Researchers conducted a field program and analyzed data. The field program incorporated coordinated measurements made with a NASA U2. Results include the following: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2; (2) analysis of dual-Doppler radar and dual-VHF lightning mapping data from a supercell storm; (3) analysis of synoptic conditions during three simultaneous storm systems on 13 May 1983 when unusually large numbers of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) flashes occurred; (4) analysis of extremely low frequency (ELF) wave forms; and (5) an assessment of a cloud -ground strike location system using a combination of mobile laboratory and fixed-base TV video data.

  19. Ice Storm Supercomputer

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    "A new Idaho National Laboratory supercomputer is helping scientists create more realistic simulations of nuclear fuel. Dubbed 'Ice Storm,' this 2048-processor machine allows researchers to model and predict the complex physics behind nuclear reactor behavior. And with a new visualization lab, the team can see the results of its simulations on the big screen." For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. Ice Storm Supercomputer

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    "A new Idaho National Laboratory supercomputer is helping scientists create more realistic simulations of nuclear fuel. Dubbed 'Ice Storm,' this 2048-processor machine allows researchers to model and predict the complex physics behind nuclear reactor behavior. And with a new visualization lab, the team can see the results of its simulations on the big screen." For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Tropical Storm Ernesto over Cuba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Microwave Image

    These infrared, microwave, and visible images were created with data retrieved by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite.

    Infrared Image Because infrared radiation does not penetrate through clouds, AIRS infrared images show either the temperature of the cloud tops or the surface of the Earth in cloud-free regions. The lowest temperatures (in purple) are associated with high, cold cloud tops that make up the top of the storm. In cloud-free areas the AIRS instrument will receive the infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth, resulting in the warmest temperatures (orange/red).

    Microwave Image In the AIRS microwave imagery, deep blue areas in storms show where the most precipitation occurs, or where ice crystals are present in the convective cloud tops. Outside of these storm regions, deep blue areas may also occur over the sea surface due to its low radiation emissivity. On the other hand, land appears much warmer due to its high radiation emissivity.

    Microwave radiation from Earth's surface and lower atmosphere penetrates most clouds to a greater or lesser extent depending upon their water vapor, liquid water and ice content. Precipitation, and ice crystals found at the cloud tops where strong convection is taking place, act as barriers to microwave radiation. Because of this barrier effect, the AIRS microwave sensor detects only the radiation arising at or above their location in the atmospheric column. Where these barriers are not present, the microwave sensor detects radiation arising throughout the air column and down to the surface. Liquid surfaces (oceans, lakes and rivers) have 'low emissivity' (the signal isn't as strong) and their radiation brightness temperature is therefore low. Thus the ocean also appears 'low temperature' in the AIRS microwave images and is assigned the color blue. Therefore deep blue areas in storms show where the most

  2. Defining Coastal Storm and Quantifying Storms Applying Coastal Storm Impulse Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudpour, Nader

    2014-05-01

    What defines a storm condition and what would initiate a "storm" has not been uniquely defined among scientists and engineers. Parameters that have been used to define a storm condition can be mentioned as wind speed, beach erosion and storm hydrodynamics parameters such as wave height and water levels. Some of the parameters are storm consequential such as beach erosion and some are not directly related to the storm hydrodynamics such as wind speed. For the purpose of the presentation, the different storm conditions based on wave height, water levels, wind speed and beach erosion will be discussed and assessed. However, it sounds more scientifically to have the storm definition based on the hydrodynamic parameters such as wave height, water level and storm duration. Once the storm condition is defined and storm has initiated, the severity of the storm would be a question to forecast and evaluate the hazard and analyze the risk in order to determine the appropriate responses. The correlation of storm damages to the meteorological and hydrodynamics parameters can be defined as a storm scale, storm index or storm parameter and it is needed to simplify the complexity of variation involved developing the scale for risk analysis and response management. A newly introduced Coastal Storm Impulse (COSI) parameter quantifies storms into one number for a specific location and storm event. The COSI parameter is based on the conservation of linear, horizontal momentum to combine storm surge, wave dynamics, and currents over the storm duration. The COSI parameter applies the principle of conservation of momentum to physically combine the hydrodynamic variables per unit width of shoreline. This total momentum is then integrated over the duration of the storm to determine the storm's impulse to the coast. The COSI parameter employs the mean, time-averaged nonlinear (Fourier) wave momentum flux, over the wave period added to the horizontal storm surge momentum above the Mean High

  3. Construction of a photocatalytic de-polluting field site in the Leopold II tunnel in Brussels.

    PubMed

    Boonen, E; Akylas, V; Barmpas, F; Boréave, A; Bottalico, L; Cazaunau, M; Chen, H; Daële, V; De Marco, T; Doussin, J F; Gaimoz, C; Gallus, M; George, C; Grand, N; Grosselin, B; Guerrini, G L; Herrmann, H; Ifang, S; Kleffmann, J; Kurtenbach, R; Maille, M; Manganelli, G; Mellouki, A; Miet, K; Mothes, F; Moussiopoulos, N; Poulain, L; Rabe, R; Zapf, P; Beeldens, A

    2015-05-15

    Within the framework of the European Life+-funded project PhotoPAQ (Demonstration of Photocatalytic remediation Processes on Air Quality), which was aimed at demonstrating the effectiveness of photocatalytic coating materials on a realistic scale, a photocatalytic de-polluting field site was set up in the Leopold II tunnel in Brussels, Belgium. For that purpose, photocatalytic cementitious materials were applied on the side walls and ceiling of selected test sections inside a one-way tunnel tube. This article presents the configuration of the test sections used and the preparation and implementation of the measuring campaigns inside the Leopold II tunnel. While emphasizing on how to implement measuring campaigns under such conditions, difficulties encountered during these extensive field campaigns are presented and discussed. This included the severe de-activation observed for the investigated material under the polluted tunnel conditions, which was revealed by additional laboratory experiments on photocatalytic samples that were exposed to tunnel air. Finally, recommendations for future applications of photocatalytic building materials inside tunnels are given.

  4. Validation of Bim Components by Photogrammetric Point Clouds for Construction Site Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2015-03-01

    Construction progress monitoring is a primarily manual and time consuming process which is usually based on 2D plans and therefore has a need for an increased automation. In this paper an approach is introduced for comparing a planned state of a building (as-planned) derived from a Building Information Model (BIM) to a photogrammetric point cloud (as-built). In order to accomplish the comparison a triangle-based representation of the building model is used. The approach has two main processing steps. First, visibility checks are performed to determine whether or not elements of the building are potentially built. The remaining parts can be either categorized as free areas, which are definitely not built, or as unknown areas, which are not visible. In the second step it is determined if the potentially built parts can be confirmed by the surrounding points. This process begins by splitting each triangle into small raster cells. For each raster cell a measure is calculated using three criteria: the mean distance of the points, their standard deviation and the deviation from a local plane fit. A triangle is confirmed if a sufficient number of raster cells yield a high rating by the measure. The approach is tested based on a real case inner city scenario. Only triangles showing unambiguous results are labeled with their statuses, because it is intended to use these results to infer additional statements based on dependencies modeled in the BIM. It is shown that the label built is reliable and can be used for further analysis. As a drawback this comes with a high percentage of ambiguously classified elements, for which the acquired data is not sufficient (in terms of coverage and/or accuracy) for validation.

  5. Impacts on Coralligenous Outcrop Biodiversity of a Dramatic Coastal Storm

    PubMed Central

    Teixidó, Núria; Casas, Edgar; Cebrián, Emma; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006–2008) and after the impact (2009–2010) at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates) was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change. PMID:23326496

  6. Impacts on coralligenous outcrop biodiversity of a dramatic coastal storm.

    PubMed

    Teixidó, Núria; Casas, Edgar; Cebrián, Emma; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006-2008) and after the impact (2009-2010) at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates) was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change.

  7. A MultiSite Gateway Toolkit for Rapid Cloning of Vertebrate Expression Constructs with Diverse Research Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Daniel K.; Stewart, Scott; Seredick, Steve; Eisen, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Recombination-based cloning is a quick and efficient way to generate expression vectors. Recent advancements have provided powerful recombinant DNA methods for molecular manipulations. Here, we describe a novel collection of three-fragment MultiSite Gateway cloning system-compatible vectors providing expanded molecular tools for vertebrate research. The components of this toolkit encompass a broad range of uses such as fluorescent imaging, dual gene expression, RNA interference, tandem affinity purification, chemically-inducible dimerization and lentiviral production. We demonstrate examples highlighting the utility of this toolkit for producing multi-component vertebrate expression vectors with diverse primary research applications. The vectors presented here are compatible with other Gateway toolkits and collections, facilitating the rapid generation of a broad range of innovative DNA constructs for biological research. PMID:27500400

  8. Vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and haematological variables among Thai construction site workers in urban Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Tungtrongchitr, R; Pongpaew, P; Phonrat, B; Chanjanakitskul, S; Paksanont, S; Migasena, P; Schelp, F P

    1995-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and haematological variables were investigated in eighty-seven male and nineteen female construction site workers in Bangkok. Haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and MCHC were found to be higher in male than in female workers. Serum ferritin was slightly higher in males than in females. Serum B12 was found to be higher in male than in female workers and serum folic acid level were significantly higher in female than in male workers. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 2.3 per cent and folic acid deficiency in 6.9 per cent of the male workers. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were normal for female workers. The adequate serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid might be the result of the habit of the workers to consume tonic drinks which contain glucose, caffeine, and vitamins especially vitamins B6, and B12.

  9. Storm-Substorm Relations Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Joe

    2006-06-01

    Magnetic storms in the magnetosphere can cause damage to communication satellites and large-scale power outages. The concept that a magnetic storm is a compilation of a series of substorms was proposed by Akasofu [1968]. However, Kamide [1992] showed that substorms are not a necessary condition for the occurrence of a magnetic storm. This controversy initiated a new era of research on the storm-substorm relation, which was the subject of a recent workshop in Banff, Alberta, Canada. The main topics discussed during the meeting included a brief overview of what a substorm is, how quasiperiodic substorm events and steady magnetospheric convection (SMC) events without substorms contribute to storms, and how plasma flows enhanced by magnetic reconnection in the plasma sheet contribute to substorms and storms.

  10. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Construction and Lease of New Facilities for the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Secure Transportation (Albuquerque Transportation and Technology Center), Albuquerque, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    other operational functions (i.e., FAF WC). • NNSA, NA-15, Kirtland Operations (KO) - Provides engineering and design for modifications of...collection would be via sheet drainage to engineered storm drains. 2.3.3 Alternative 3- Construct and Lease New Facilities at the Mesa Del Sol East Site...collection in the area is generally via sheet drainage. With planned development of the area, sheet drainage will give way to engineered storm drains where

  11. Construction of a high-density genetic map for grape using next generation restriction-site associated DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic mapping and QTL detection are powerful methodologies in plant improvement and breeding. Construction of a high-density and high-quality genetic map would be of great benefit in the production of superior grapes to meet human demand. High throughput and low cost of the recently developed next generation sequencing (NGS) technology have resulted in its wide application in genome research. Sequencing restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) might be an efficient strategy to simplify genotyping. Combining NGS with RAD has proven to be powerful for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker development. Results An F1 population of 100 individual plants was developed. In-silico digestion-site prediction was used to select an appropriate restriction enzyme for construction of a RAD sequencing library. Next generation RAD sequencing was applied to genotype the F1 population and its parents. Applying a cluster strategy for SNP modulation, a total of 1,814 high-quality SNP markers were developed: 1,121 of these were mapped to the female genetic map, 759 to the male map, and 1,646 to the integrated map. A comparison of the genetic maps to the published Vitis vinifera genome revealed both conservation and variations. Conclusions The applicability of next generation RAD sequencing for genotyping a grape F1 population was demonstrated, leading to the successful development of a genetic map with high density and quality using our designed SNP markers. Detailed analysis revealed that this newly developed genetic map can be used for a variety of genome investigations, such as QTL detection, sequence assembly and genome comparison. PMID:22908993

  12. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1994 and FY-1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory initiated ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF on the SRS in FY-1979. Two areas have been used for biological surveys and long-term monitoring: the DWPF construction site (S-Area and Z-Area), and two control sites (Rainbow Bay and Tinker Creek). The Rainbow Bay study area and S-Area are located within 5 km of each other on the SRS, and both once contained Carolina bays which were very similar ecologically. One goal of the SREL`s faunal studies is to compare the natural variation in amphibian populations at the Rainbow Bay control site to the variation observed at the human-altered site (Sun Bay, formerly on the DWPF construction site). Pre-construction biological surveys included data on vegetation, birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish and several invertebrate groups. No species on the Federal Endangered or Threatened lists were found on either site, but several plants and animals of threatened or special-concern status in South Carolina were present and the gopher frog (Rana areolata) currently is being considered for federal listing. Continuing studies are directed towards assessing construction impacts on the biota and towares modeling the effects of alteration of wetland hydroperiod on the biota. Primary emphasis is being paced on evaluation the effectiveness of mitigation measures undertaken by DOE.

  13. Desert Shield/Storm Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    Wc This document may not be retee for open publiarion until it has bm deaed by the Vproprnite military service or gmeanen agency. DESERT SHIELD /STORM...capture what had occurred during Operations DESERT SHIELD and STORM, the commanders of the Division Support Command of the 24th Infantry Division...Mechanized) held a ful. day of discussion centering on what occurted during Operation DESERT STORM and its preceding operation, DESERT SHIELD . The entire

  14. The Cause of Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsuma, T.

    2001-12-01

    Although the cause of magnetic storms is important issue, the exact mechanism of the storm development is still controversial. Two mechanisms of storm development are considered. One is that the frequent substorm activity injects high-energy particles to the inner magnetosphere; the other is that the enhanced convection plays a role. Further, Iyermori and Rao [1996] shows that the substorm reduces the development of storms. On the contrary, magnetospheric convections and magnetic storms correspond different solar wind parameter. It is well known that the variations of the magnetospheric convection correspond to merging electric field (Em) by Kan and Lee [1979]. However, the variations of the magenetic storm correspond Ey [e.g. Burton et al., 1975]. This suggests that magnetospheric convection and magnetic storm are independent phenomena. However, we cannot discuss the independency of two phenomena since the difference between Em and Ey is small, under usual solar wind condition. We have analyzed Nov. 8, 1998 storm event, since the big difference between Em and Ey exists during 6 hours. The enhancement of Ey terminates first, and Em continues to enhance more than 6 hours after that. Although the variation of the storm estimated from SYM-H(Dst) index corresponds to Ey, that of the magnetospheric convection estimated from PC index corresponds to Em. This shows that the development of the storm terminate although the magnetospheric convection still enhances. This result suggests that the development of magnetic storms is independent from enhanced convection and the magnetic storm is directly caused by the enhancement of Ey in the solar wind.

  15. Construction of the Largest Radionuclide Commingled Plume Groundwater Treatment Facility for the Department of Energy at the Hanford Site - 12411

    SciTech Connect

    Pargmann, Delise

    2012-07-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has constructed the largest groundwater treatment systems of its kind throughout the DOE Complex at the Hanford Site in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. This complex, one of a kind groundwater treatment facility in Washington State has also attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification. The original concept for the 200 West Area groundwater treatment facility was a 6100 liter per minute (1,600 gallon per minute) facility. With additional ARRA funding, the plant design was improved to construct a 9500 liter per minute (2,500 gallon per minute) facility with expansion areas up to 14,000 liter per minute (3,750 gallon per minute). The current design will remove 53 percent more mass per year for faster clean-up. It is also expected to treat extracted groundwater to 25 percent or less than the Record of Decision-specified limit which improves Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) effectiveness. (author)

  16. Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-yoon; Browne, Michael C; Rael, Carlos D; Carroll, Colin J; Sunshine, Alexander; Novikov, Alexander; Lebedev, Evgeny

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

  17. Empirical STORM-E Model. [I. Theoretical and Observational Basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Xu, Xiaojing; Bilitza, Dieter; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2013-01-01

    Auroral nighttime infrared emission observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite is used to develop an empirical model of geomagnetic storm enhancements to E-region peak electron densities. The empirical model is called STORM-E and will be incorporated into the 2012 release of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The proxy for characterizing the E-region response to geomagnetic forcing is NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) derived from the TIMED/SABER 4.3 lm channel limb radiance measurements. The storm-time response of the NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER is sensitive to auroral particle precipitation. A statistical database of storm-time to climatological quiet-time ratios of SABER-observed NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER are fit to widely available geomagnetic indices using the theoretical framework of linear impulse-response theory. The STORM-E model provides a dynamic storm-time correction factor to adjust a known quiescent E-region electron density peak concentration for geomagnetic enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation. Part II of this series describes the explicit development of the empirical storm-time correction factor for E-region peak electron densities, and shows comparisons of E-region electron densities between STORM-E predictions and incoherent scatter radar measurements. In this paper, Part I of the series, the efficacy of using SABER-derived NO+(v) VER as a proxy for the E-region response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances is presented. Furthermore, a detailed description of the algorithms and methodologies used to derive NO+(v) VER from SABER 4.3 lm limb emission measurements is given. Finally, an assessment of key uncertainties in retrieving NO+(v) VER is presented

  18. Communicating Storm Surge Forecast Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troutman, J. A.; Rhome, J.

    2015-12-01

    When it comes to tropical cyclones, storm surge is often the greatest threat to life and property along the coastal United States. The coastal population density has dramatically increased over the past 20 years, putting more people at risk. Informing emergency managers, decision-makers and the public about the potential for wind driven storm surge, however, has been extremely difficult. Recently, the Storm Surge Unit at the National Hurricane Center in Miami, Florida has developed a prototype experimental storm surge watch/warning graphic to help communicate this threat more effectively by identifying areas most at risk for life-threatening storm surge. This prototype is the initial step in the transition toward a NWS storm surge watch/warning system and highlights the inundation levels that have a 10% chance of being exceeded. The guidance for this product is the Probabilistic Hurricane Storm Surge (P-Surge) model, which predicts the probability of various storm surge heights by statistically evaluating numerous SLOSH model simulations. Questions remain, however, if exceedance values in addition to the 10% may be of equal importance to forecasters. P-Surge data from 2014 Hurricane Arthur is used to ascertain the practicality of incorporating other exceedance data into storm surge forecasts. Extracting forecast uncertainty information through analyzing P-surge exceedances overlaid with track and wind intensity forecasts proves to be beneficial for forecasters and decision support.

  19. Morphological impacts of extreme storms on sandy beaches and barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Historical extreme storms that struck the Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coast regions of the United States caused several different styles of morphological response and resulted in a wide range of washover penetration distances. The post- storm erosional responses included dune scarps, channel incisions, and washouts, whereas depositional responses included perched fans, washover terraces, and sheetwash lineations. Maximum inland extent of washover penetration ranged from approximately 100 to 1000 m and estimated sediment volumes associated with these deposits ranged from about 10 to 225 m 3/m of beach. Unusual styles of morphological response (sheetwash lineations and incised channels) and maximum washover penetration distances are closely correlated, and they also correspond to storm intensity as denned by the Saffir-Simpson wind-speed scale. The regional morphological responses and washover penetration distances are controlled primarily by the interactions among heights and durations of storm surge relative to adjacent land elevations, differences in water levels between the ocean and adjacent lagoon, constructive and destructive interference of storm waves, and alongshore variations in nearshore bathymetry. For barrier segments that are entirely submerged during the storm, impacts can be enhanced by the combined influences of shallow water depths and organized flow within the wind field. The greatest washover penetrations and sediment accumulations are products of shallow water, confined flow, and high wind stress. Transport and deposition of washover sediments across barrier islands and into the adjacent lagoon are common processes along the Gulf of Mexico but not along the western Atlantic Ocean. This fundamental difference in storm impact underscores how microtidal and mesotidal barriers respond respectively to extreme storms, and provides insight into how different types of barrier islands will likely respond to future extreme storms and to a relative rise in sea

  20. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.; Taylor, W.; Arnold, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Severe storms and lightning were measured with a NASA U2 and ground based facilities, both fixed base and mobile. Aspects of this program are reported. The following results are presented: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2. These measurements include flash type identification, electric field changes, optical waveforms, and ground strike location; (2) simultaneous extremely low frequency (ELF) waveforms for cloud to ground (CG) flashes; (3) the CG strike location system (LLP) using a combination of mobile laboratory and television video data are assessed; (4) continued development of analog-to-digital conversion techniques for processing lightning data from the U2, mobile laboratory, and NSSL sensors; (5) completion of an all azimuth TV system for CG ground truth; (6) a preliminary analysis of both IC and CG lightning in a mesocyclone; and (7) the finding of a bimodal peak in altitude lightning activity in some storms in the Great Plains and on the east coast. In the forms on the Great Plains, there was a distinct class of flash what forms the upper mode of the distribution. These flashes are smaller horizontal extent, but occur more frequently than flashes in the lower mode of the distribution.

  1. Dispersion of radioactive pollutant in a tornadic storm

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model is used to calculate ground-level air concentration and deposition (due to precipitation scavenging) after a hypothetical tornado strike at a plutonium fabrication facility in Pennsylvania. Plutonium particles less than 10 ..mu..m in diameter are assumed to be lifted into the tornadic storm cell by the vortex. The rotational characteristics of the tornadic storm are embedded within the larger mesoscale flow of the storm system. The design-basis translational wind values are based on probabilities associated with existing records of tornado strikes in the vicinity of the plant site. Turbulence exchange coefficients are based on empirical values deduced from experimental data in severe storms and from theoretical assumptions obtained from the literature. The quasi-Lagrangian method of moments is used to model the transport of concentration within a grid cell volume. In all case studies, the effects of updrafts and downdrafts, coupled with scavenging of the particulates by precipitation, account for most of the material being deposited within 20 to 45 km downwind of the plant site. Ground-level isopleths in the x-y plane show that most of the material is deposited behind and slightly to the left of the centerline trajectory of the storm. Approximately 5% of the material is dispersed into the stratosphere and anvil section of the storm.

  2. A study of severe storm electricity via storm intercept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Roy T.; Horsburgh, Steven D.; Rust, W. David; Burgess, Don

    1985-01-01

    Storm electricity data, radar data, and visual observations were used both to present a case study for a supercell thunderstorm that occurred in the Texas Panhandle on 19 June 1980 and to search for insight into how lightning to ground might be related to storm dynamics in the updraft/downdraft couplet in supercell storms. It was observed that two-thirds of the lightning ground-strike points in the developing and maturing stages of a supercell thunderstorm occurred within the region surrounding the wall cloud (a cloud feature often characteristic of a supercell updraft) and on the southern flank of the precipitation. Electrical activity in the 19 June 1980 storm was atypical in that it was a right-mover. Lightning to ground reached a peak rate of 18/min and intracloud flashes were as frequent as 176/min in the final stages of the storm's life.

  3. Participatory Training to Improve Safety and Health in Small Construction Sites in Some Countries in Asia: Development and Application of the WISCON Training Program.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2016-08-01

    A participatory training program, Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites, was developed to provide practical support measures to the small construction sector. Managers and workers from selected small sites were interviewed about their occupational safety and health risks. The Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites training program comprised a 45-item action checklist, photos, and illustrations showing local examples and group work methods. Pilot training workshops were carried out with workers and employers in Cambodia, Laos, Mongolia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Participants subsequently planned, and using locally available low-cost materials, implemented their own improvements such as hand-made hand trucks to carry heavy materials, removal of projecting nails from timber materials, and fences to protect roof workers from falling. Local Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites trainers consisting of government officials, workers, employers, and nongovernment organization representatives were then trained to implement the Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites training widely. Keys to success were easy-to-apply training tools aiming at immediate, low-cost improvements, and collaboration with various local people's networks.

  4. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms.

    PubMed

    Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J

    2013-12-01

    [1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<-100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3-6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow.

  5. Thyroid storm: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Chiha, Maguy; Samarasinghe, Shanika; Kabaker, Adam S

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid storm, an endocrine emergency first described in 1926, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. No laboratory abnormalities are specific to thyroid storm, and the available scoring system is based on the clinical criteria. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of thyroid storm from uncomplicated hyperthyroidism are not well understood. A heightened response to thyroid hormone is often incriminated along with increased or abrupt availability of free hormones. Patients exhibit exaggerated signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and varying degrees of organ decompensation. Treatment should be initiated promptly targeting all steps of thyroid hormone formation, release, and action. Patients who fail medical therapy should be treated with therapeutic plasma exchange or thyroidectomy. The mortality of thyroid storm is currently reported at 10%. Patients who have survived thyroid storm should receive definite therapy for their underlying hyperthyroidism to avoid any recurrence of this potentially fatal condition.

  6. Dust storm in Chad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Chad (lower left) and the surrounding wetlands are under increasing pressure from desertification. The encroachment of the Sahara occurs with creeping sand dunes and major dust storms, such as the one pictured in this MODIS image from October 28, 2001. The amount of open water (lighter green patch within the darker one) has declined markedly over the last decades and the invasion of dunes is creating a rippled effect through the wetlands that is all too clear in the high-resolution images. Growing population and increasing demands on the lake give it an uncertain future. The loss of such an important natural resource will have profound effects on the people who depend on the rapidly diminishing source of fresh water. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Thermal calculations for the design, construction, operation, and evaluation of the Spent Fuel Test - Climax, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Montan, D.N.; Patrick, W.C.

    1981-09-30

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of retrievable deep geologic storage of commercially generated spent nuclear reactor fuel in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with six electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978 LLNL secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. This report documents a series of thermal calculations that were performed in support of the SFT-C. Early calculations employed analytical solutions to address such design and construction issues as drift layout and emplacement hole spacings. Operational aspects of the test required more detailed numerical solutions dealing with ventilation and guard-heater power levels. The final set of calculations presented here provides temperature histories throughout the test facility for evaluation of the response of the SFT-C and for comparison of calculations with acquired data. This final set of calculations employs the as-built test geometry and best-available material properties.

  8. Promoting contraceptive use more effectively among unmarried male migrants in construction sites in China: a pilot intervention trial.

    PubMed

    He, Dian; Cheng, Yi-Min; Wu, Shi-Zhong; Decat, Peter; Wang, Zhi-Jin; Minkauskiene, Meile; Moyer, Eileen

    2012-09-01

    Poor sexual and reproductive health status has been reported among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Therefore, some effective and feasible interventions are urgently needed. The authors developed a workplace-based intervention to compare 2 young labor migrant service packages (A and B) on the knowledge, attitude related to contraception, and contraceptive use among unmarried male migrants in Chengdu. Fourteen construction sites were randomly assigned to either of the 2 intervention packages. Interventions were completed in 3 months, and data were collected in 2 rounds independently (before and after interventions). After the intervention, the median scores for knowledge and attitude in migrants in package B were significantly higher than in migrants in package A. Although migrants in both packages increased use of condom, the increase was pronounced in migrants in package B, with odds ratio (OR) = 9.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-66.28). The rate of unwanted pregnancies was reduced more significantly in migrants in package B than in migrants in package A (OR = 0.16; 95%CI = 0.03-0.45). Unmarried male migrants who received the comprehensive intervention (package B) were more willing to use condoms and avoid unwanted pregnancies effectively.

  9. Construction, characterization, and selected site-specific mutagenesis of an anti-single-stranded DNA single-chain autoantibody.

    PubMed

    Rumbley, C A; Denzin, L K; Yantz, L; Tetin, S Y; Voss, E W

    1993-06-25

    Single-chain antibodies are comprised of immunoglobulin light and heavy chain variable domains joined through a polypeptide linker. A single-chain autoantibody, containing the 14-amino acid 212-polypeptide linker (GSTSGSGKSSEGKG), was constructed based on the light and heavy chain variable region gene sequences of anti-single-stranded DNA autoantibody BV04-01 (IgG2b, kappa). Following protein expression in Escherichia coli, denaturation, refolding, and affinity purification, single-chain autoantibody 04-01 binding with single-stranded DNA and poly(dT) was characterized in solid-phase and solution-phase assays. Homopolymer ligand binding results demonstrated that single-chain autoantibody 04-01 possessed anti-DNA binding properties similar to BV04-01 IgG and Fab fragments. Based on x-ray crystallographic analyses of BV04-01, site-specific mutagenesis studies were conducted on 2 residues (L32Tyr and H100aTrp) involved in aromatic stacking interactions with the middle thymidine of a (dT)3 ligand.

  10. Does Disposing of Construction and Demolition Debris in Unlined Landfills Impact Groundwater Quality? Evidence from 91 Landfill Sites in Florida.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jon T; Jain, Pradeep; Smith, Justin; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2015-08-04

    More than 1,500 construction and demolition debris (CDD) landfills operate in the United States (U.S.), and U.S. federal regulations do not require containment features such as low-permeability liners and leachate collection systems for these facilities. Here we evaluate groundwater quality from samples collected in groundwater monitoring networks at 91 unlined, permitted CDD landfills in Florida, U.S. A total of 460,504 groundwater sample results were analyzed, with a median of 10 years of quarterly or semiannual monitoring data per site including more than 400 different chemical constituents. Downgradient concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, iron, ammonia-nitrogen, and aluminum were greater than upgradient concentrations (p < 0.05). At downgradient wells where sulfate concentrations were greater than 150 mg/L (approximately 10% of the maximum dissolved sulfate concentration in water, which suggests the presence of leachate from the landfill), iron and arsenic were detected in 91% and 43% of samples, with median concentrations of 1,900 μg/L and 11 μg/L, respectively. These results show that although health-based standards can be exceeded at unlined CDD landfills, the magnitude of detected chemical concentrations is generally small and reflective of leached minerals from components (wood, concrete, and gypsum drywall) that comprise the bulk of discarded CDD by mass.

  11. Flood Losses Associated with Winter Storms in the U.S. Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, M.; Shimkus, C.

    2015-12-01

    Winter storms pose a number of hazards to coastal communities in the U.S. Northeast including heavy rain, snow, strong wind, cold temperatures, and flooding. These hazards can cause millions in property damages from one storm alone. This study addresses the impacts of winter storms from 2001 - 2012 on coastal counties in the U.S. Northeast and underscores the significant economic consequences extreme winter storms have on property. The analysis on the types of hazards (floods, strong wind, snow, etc.) and associated damage from the National Climatic Data Center Storm Events Database indicates that floods were responsible for the highest damages. This finding suggests that winter storm vulnerability could grow in the future as precipitation intensity increases and sea level rise exacerbate flood losses. Flood loss maps are constructed based on damage amount, which can be compared to the flood exposure maps constructed by the NOAA Office of Coastal Management. Interesting agreements and discrepancies exist between the two methods, which warrant further examination. Furthermore, flood losses often came from storms characterized as heavy precipitation storms and strong surge storms, and sometimes both, illustrating the compounding effect of flood risks in the region. While New Jersey counties experienced the most damage per unit area, there is no discernable connection between population density and damage amount, which suggests that societal impacts may rely less on population characteristics and more on infrastructure types and property values, which vary throughout the region.

  12. Vulnerability assessment of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Li, G. S.

    2011-07-01

    Being bordered by the South China Sea and with long coastline, the coastal zone of Guangdong Province is often under severe risk of storm surges, as one of a few regions in China which is seriously threatened by storm surges. This article systematically analyzes the vulnerability factors of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong (from Yangjing to Shanwei). Five vulnerability assessment indicators of hazard-bearing bodies are proposed, which are social economic index, land use index, eco-environmental index, coastal construction index, and disaster-bearing capability index. Then storm surge vulnerability assessment index system in the coastal area of Guangdong is established. Additionally, the international general mode about coastal vulnerability assessment is improved, and the vulnerability evolution model of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong is constructed. Using ArcGIS, the vulnerability zoning map of storm surges in the study region is drawn. Results show that there is the highest degree of storm surge vulnerability in Zhuhai, Panyu, and Taishan; second in Zhongshan, Dongguan, Huiyang, and Haifeng; third in Jiangmen, Shanwei, Yangjiang, and Yangdong; fourth in Baoan, Kaiping, and Enping; and lowest in Guangzhou, Shunde, Shenzhen, and Longgang. This study on the risk of storm surges in these coastal cities can guide the land use of coastal cities in the future, and provide scientific advice for the government to prevent and mitigate the storm surge disasters. It has important theoretical and practical significance.

  13. Water quality of storm runoff and comparison of procedures for estimating storm-runoff loads, volume, event-mean concentrations, and the mean load for a storm for selected properties and constituents for Colorado Springs, southeastern Colorado, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Guerard, Paul; Weiss, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that municipalities that have a population of 100,000 or greater obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits to characterize the quality of their storm runoff. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Springs City Engineering Division, began a study to characterize the water quality of storm runoff and to evaluate procedures for the estimation of storm-runoff loads, volume and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents. Precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data were collected during 1992 at five sites in Colorado Springs. Thirty-five samples were collected, seven at each of the five sites. At each site, three samples were collected for permitting purposes; two of the samples were collected during rainfall runoff, and one sample was collected during snowmelt runoff. Four additional samples were collected at each site to obtain a large enough sample size to estimate storm-runoff loads, volume, and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents using linear-regression procedures developed using data from the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP). Storm-water samples were analyzed for as many as 186 properties and constituents. The constituents measured include total-recoverable metals, vola-tile-organic compounds, acid-base/neutral organic compounds, and pesticides. Storm runoff sampled had large concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand ranged from 100 to 830 milligrams per liter, and 5.-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 14 to 260 milligrams per liter. Total-organic carbon concentrations ranged from 18 to 240 milligrams per liter. The total-recoverable metals lead and zinc had the largest concentrations of the total-recoverable metals analyzed. Concentrations of lead ranged from 23 to 350 micrograms per liter, and concentrations of zinc ranged from 110

  14. Reproducing Electric Field Observations during Magnetic Storms by means of Rigorous 3-D Modelling and Distortion Matrix Co-estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Electric fields induced in the conducting Earth during magnetic storms drive currents in power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines. These geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) can cause severe service disruptions. The prediction of GIC is thus of great importance for public and industry. A key step in the prediction of the hazard to technological systems during magnetic storms is the calculation of the geoelectric field. To address this issue for mid-latitude regions, we developed a method that involves 3-D modelling of induction processes in a heterogeneous Earth and the construction of a model of the magnetospheric source. The latter is described by low-degree spherical harmonics; its temporal evolution is derived from observatory magnetic data. Time series of the electric field can be computed for every location on Earth's surface. The actual electric field however is known to be perturbed by galvanic effects, arising from very local near-surface heterogeneities or topography, which cannot be included in the conductivity model. Galvanic effects are commonly accounted for with a real-valued time-independent distortion matrix, which linearly relates measured and computed electric fields. Using data of various magnetic storms that occurred between 2000 and 2003, we estimated distortion matrices for observatory sites onshore and on the ocean bottom. Strong correlations between modellings and measurements validate our method. The distortion matrix estimates prove to be reliable, as they are accurately reproduced for different magnetic storms. We further show that 3-D modelling is crucial for a correct separation of galvanic and inductive effects and a precise prediction of electric field time series during magnetic storms. Since the required computational resources are negligible, our approach is suitable for a real-time prediction of GIC. For this purpose, a reliable forecast of the source field, e.g. based on data from satellites

  15. Flood Frequency Analyses Using a Modified Stochastic Storm Transposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, N. Z.; Kiani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Research shows that areas with similar topography and climatic environment have comparable precipitation occurrences. Reproduction and realization of historical rainfall events provide foundations for frequency analysis and the advancement of meteorological studies. Stochastic Storm Transposition (SST) is a method for such a purpose and enables us to perform hydrologic frequency analyses by transposing observed historical storm events to the sites of interest. However, many previous studies in SST reveal drawbacks from simplified Probability Density Functions (PDFs) without considering restrictions for transposing rainfalls. The goal of this study is to stochastically examine the impacts of extreme events on all locations in a homogeneity zone. Since storms with the same probability of occurrence on homogenous areas do not have the identical hydrologic impacts, the authors utilize detailed precipitation parameters including the probability of occurrence of certain depth and the number of occurrence of extreme events, which are both incorporated into a joint probability function. The new approach can reduce the bias from uniformly transposing storms which erroneously increases the probability of occurrence of storms in areas with higher rainfall depths. This procedure is iterated to simulate storm events for one thousand years as the basis for updating frequency analysis curves such as IDF and FFA. The study area is the Upper Trinity River watershed including the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex with a total area of 6,500 mi2. It is the first time that SST method is examined in such a wide scale with 20 years of radar rainfall data.

  16. Moments of catchment storm area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.; Wang, Q.

    1985-01-01

    The portion of a catchment covered by a stationary rainstorm is modeled by the common area of two overlapping circles. Given that rain occurs within the catchment and conditioned by fixed storm and catchment sizes, the first two moments of the distribution of the common area are derived from purely geometrical considerations. The variance of the wetted fraction is shown to peak when the catchment size is equal to the size of the predominant storm. The conditioning on storm size is removed by assuming a probability distribution based upon the observed fractal behavior of cloud and rainstorm areas.

  17. Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A final progress report is presented on the Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS). The primary purpose of the CSIS is to demonstrate and evaluate real time interactive computerized data collection, interpretation and display techniques as applied to severe weather forecasting. CSIS objectives pertaining to improved severe storm forecasting and warning systems are outlined. The positive impact that CSIS has had on the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) is discussed. The benefits of interactive processing systems on the forecasting ability of the NSSFC are described.

  18. Storm surges formation in the White and Barents Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobrolyubov, Sergey; Korablina, Anastasia; Myslenkov, Stanislav

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of storm surges in the Arctic seas are of high priority in Russia due to the active development of offshore oil and gas, construction of facilities in the coastal zone, as well as for the safety of navigation. It is important to study the variability of surges, to predict this phenomena and subsequent economic losses, thus including such information into the Russian Arctic Development Program 2020. Surges in the White and Barents Seas are caused mainly by deep cyclones of two types: "diving" from the north (88% of all cyclones) and western. The average height of the storm surges in the White Sea is 0.6-0.9 m. An average duration of storm surges is about 80 hours. Mathematical modeling is used to analyze the characteristics of storm surges formation in the Dvina Bay of the White Sea, and in the Varandey village on the Barents Sea coast. Calculating storm surge heights in the White and Barents seas is performed using the ADCIRC model on an unstructured grid with a step from 20 km in the Barents Sea to 100 m in the White Sea. Unstructured grids allowed keeping small features of the coastline of the White and Barents seas, small islands and shallow banks, and assessing their impact on the development and transformation of wind-generated waves. The ADCIRC model used data of wind field reanalysis CFSv2. The storm surges were simulated for the time period from 1979 to 2010 and included scenarios with / without direct atmospheric pressure forcing, waves and tides. Numerical experiments have revealed distribution of storm surges in channels of the Northern Dvina River delta. The storm surges spreads in the model from the north-north-west of the Dvina Bay. As storm surge moves from the wellhead to the seaside estuary of the Northern Dvina (district Solombala), its height increases from 0.5 to 2 m. We also found a non-linear interaction of the surge and tide during the phase of surge destruction. This phenomenon is the highest in the period of low water, and the

  19. Polarization Lidar Liquid Cloud Detection Algorithm for Winter Mountain Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie

    1992-01-01

    We have collected an extensive polarization lidar dataset from elevated sites in the Tushar Mountains of Utah in support of winter storm cloud seeding research and experiments. Our truck-mounted ruby lidar collected zenith, dual-polarization lidar data through a roof window equipped with a wiper system to prevent snowfall accumulation. Lidar returns were collected at a rate of one shot every 1 to 5 min during declared storm periods over the 1985 and 1987 mid-Jan. to mid-Mar. Field seasons. The mid-barrier remote sensor field site was located at 2.57 km MSL. Of chief interest to weather modification efforts are the heights of supercooled liquid water (SLW) clouds, which must be known to assess their 'seedability' (i.e., temperature and height suitability for artificially increasing snowfall). We are currently re-examining out entire dataset to determine the climatological properties of SLW clouds in winter storms using an autonomous computer algorithm.

  20. Environmental Assessment for Leasing Land for the Siting, Construction and Operation of a Commercial AM Radio Antenna at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-02-16

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to lease approximately 3 acres of land at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the southeast tip of Technical Area (TA) 54 for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been developed in order to assess the environmental effects of the Proposed Action and No Action alternative. The Proposed Action includes the lease of land for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna in TA-54, just north of Pajarito Road and State Highway 4. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under the No Action Alternative, DOE would not lease land on LANL property for the siting and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna; the DOE would not have a local station for emergency response use; and the land would continue to be covered in native vegetation and serve as a health and safety buffer zone for TA-54 waste management activities. Other potential sites on LANL property were evaluated but dismissed for reasons such as interference with sensitive laboratory experiments. Potential visual, health, and environmental effects are anticipated to be minimal for the Proposed Action. The radio broadcasting antenna would be visible against the skyline from some public areas, but would be consistent with other man-made objects in the vicinity that partially obstruct viewsheds (e.g. meteorological tower, power lines). Therefore, the net result would be a modest change of the existing view. Electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions from the antenna would be orders or magnitude less than permissible limits. The proposed antenna construction would not affect known cultural sites, but is located in close proximity to two archaeological sites. Construction would be monitored to ensure that the associated road and utility corridor would avoid cultural sites.

  1. Lexicogrammar in the International Construction Industry: A Corpus-Based Case Study of Japanese-Hong-Kongese On-Site Interactions in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Michael; Matous, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and interpret statistically significant lexicogrammatical items that are used in on-site spoken communication in the international construction industry, initially through comparisons with reference corpora of everyday spoken and business language. Several data sources, including audio and video…

  2. A strategy toward constructing a bifunctionalized MOF catalyst: post-synthetic modification of MOFs on organic ligands and coordinatively unsaturated metal sites.

    PubMed

    Li, Baiyan; Zhang, Yiming; Ma, Dingxuan; Li, Lu; Li, Guanghua; Li, Guodong; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua

    2012-06-21

    A new strategy toward constructing bifunctionalized MOFs has been developed based on post-synthetic modification of MOFs on organic ligands and coordinatively unsaturated metal sites, respectively. Based on this strategy, an organo-bifunctionalized MOF catalyst has been synthesized for the first time and successfully applied in one-pot tandem reaction.

  3. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  4. Neonatal thyroid storm accompanied with severe anaemia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lu-Ying; Wei, Hong; Wang, Zheng-Li

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal thyroid storm is rare; the diagnostic criteria and management of neonatal thyroid storm have not been well established. In this paper, we report a preterm infant diagnosed with neonatal hyperthyroidism secondary to maternal Graves' disease who was discharged after therapy. Unfortunately, he was rehospitalised for neonatal thyroid storm. We will discuss the diagnosis and general therapy of neonatal thyroid storm.

  5. Factors controlling storm impacts on coastal barriers and beaches - A preliminary basis for near real-time forecasting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of ground conditions and meteorological and oceanographic parameters for some of the most severe Atlantic and Gulf Coast storms in the U.S. reveals the primary factors affecting morphological storm responses of beaches and barrier islands. The principal controlling factors are storm characteristics, geographic position relative to storm path, timing of storm events, duration of wave exposure, wind stress, degree of flow confinement, antecedent topography and geologic framework, sediment textures, vegetative cover, and type and density of coastal development. A classification of commonly observed storm responses demonstrates the sequential interrelations among (1) land elevations, (2) water elevations in the ocean and adjacent lagoon (if present), and (3) stages of rising water during the storm. The predictable coastal responses, in relative order from high frequency beach erosion to low frequency barrier inundation, include: beach erosion, berm migration, dune erosion, washover terrace construction, perched fan deposition, sheetwash, washover channel incision, washout formation, and forced and unforced ebb flow. Near real-time forecasting of expected storm impacts is possible if the following information is available for the coast: a detailed morphological and topographic characterization, accurate storm-surge and wave-runup models, the real-time reporting of storm parameters, accurate forecasts of the storm position relative to a particular coastal segment, and a conceptual model of geological processes that encompasses observed morphological changes caused by extreme storms.

  6. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  7. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used throughout the world for planning, analysis and design related to stormwater runoff, combined and sanitary sewers, and other drainage systems in urban areas.

  8. Cloudsat Dissects Tropical Storm Ileana

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's CloudSat satellite's Cloud Profiling Radar captured a sideways look across Tropical Storm Ileana on Aug. 27 at 20:40 UTC. The colors indicate intensity of reflected radar energy. The blue ar...

  9. Satellite Animation Shows California Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows a series of moisture-laden storms affecting California from Jan. 6 through Jan. 9, 2017. TRT: 00:36 Credit: NASA...

  10. Tropical Storm Faxai's Rainfall Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows Tropical Storm Faxai's rainfall rates on March 2 from a TRMM TMI/PR rainfall analysis being faded in over infrared cloud data from the TRMM VIRS instrument. Credit: SSAI/NASA, ...

  11. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Social Media Contact Us FAQS Publications Emergency Alerts Home Search × Close Search Enter Search Term(s): Languages × ... take when you receive a winter weather storm alert from the National Weather Service for your local ...

  12. Riding the storm out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurman, Josh

    2009-04-01

    I am standing on a bridge near the North Carolina coast. There is a light breeze, and I am enjoying some hazy sunshine. But this calm is an illusion: in a few minutes winds of up to 45ms-1 (100 mph) will sweep in again. The approaches to my section of the bridge are already drowned under 2.5 m of water, and my companions on this island are an eclectic mix of traumatized animals, including snakes, rats, wounded pelicans and frogs. Earlier, one of the snakes flew through the air past my truck. The animals and I have been drawn to this bridge by Hurricane Isabel, which has just slammed into the coastal islands of North Carolina, and at the moment we are in the calm, sunny eye of the storm. The animals are just trying to survive on the area's only dry ground. But I have come to the bridge with a radar system on a truck and have spent a night and a day on it because I want to know what is happening inside this hurricane.

  13. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms

    PubMed Central

    Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J

    2013-01-01

    [1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<−100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3–6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow. PMID:26167429

  14. Magnetic storms and induction hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  15. Levee Scour Protection for Storm Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E.; Sustainable; Resiliency in Levee Scour Protection

    2011-12-01

    Earnest Johnson, Firat Y. Testik *, Nadarajah Ravichandran Civil Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA * Contact author ftestik@clemson.edu Levee failure due to scouring has been a prominent occurrence among intense storm surges and waves, giving rise to the implementation of various scour protection measures over the years. This study is to investigate the levee scour and to compare different scour protection measures on a model-levee system in a laboratory wave tank. The protection measures that are tested and compared for their effectiveness in this study include turf reinforcement mats, woven geotextiles, and core-locs. This is an ongoing research effort and experiments are currently being conducted with model levees constructed based upon the United States Army Corps of Engineers' levee design and construction guidelines under various simulated storm conditions. Parameters such as wave elevations, deformation time history of the floodwall, and the scour depth are measured in each test. The finding of this research will be translated to provide effective scour protection measures for robust levee designs.

  16. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Venteris, Erik R; McBride, Robert C; Coleman, Andre M; Skaggs, Richard L; Wigmosta, Mark S

    2014-03-18

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources, as well as transportation and utility infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and strains of the order Sphaeropleales. A total of 64,000 sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively applied screening criteria and tracked their impact on the number of potential sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrated maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Sphaeropleales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Results were driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low-salinity freshwater (<400 mg L(-1)) constrained Sphaeropleales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species like Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  17. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Applicable to Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability Issues in Connection With an Application for a... early partial decision on issues of site suitability pursuant to § 2.101(a-1), the provisions in the..., shall be modified so as to relate only to the site suitability issue or issues under review. (b)...

  18. Distinguishing Features of Atmospheric River Storms Linked to Debris Flow Initiation on Mt. Hood, Oregon and Mt. Rainier, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrochers, J.; Nolin, A. W.

    2011-12-01

    Strong eastern Pacific storms characterized by tropical-sourced moisture and heat are often referred to as Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) and are associated with the triggering of debris flows in the Cascade Mountain Range, USA primarily in the fall season. These storms typically feature freezing levels above 3000 m and heavy precipitation that can saturate slopes and rapidly melt shallow early season snowpack. In a study of periglacial debris flows on Mt. Hood, Oregon and Mt. Rainier, Washington, this combination of factors is proposed to initiate slope failure and subsequent debris flows. However, not all ARs trigger debris flows and other storms not associated with ARs may also lead to debris flows. The presence of these non-triggering storms has led to the question: what features distinguish the storms that trigger debris flows, and do these conditions differ between ARs and other storms? ACARS soundings are used to develop temporally detailed information about freezing levels and storm structure. Supplemental data from the SNOTEL network and NWS WSR-88D radar sites allow for better delineation of storm features and their impact on the ground. Antecedent snowpack, atmospheric temperature profiles, precipitation, and oragraphic enhancement are examined for storms associated with debris flows and those that failed to trigger events to determine what characteristics best differentiate the storms from one another. Specific features within the triggering storms, such as the presence of temperature inversions, are also examined for links to the elevation and geomorphic character of these periglacial debris flow initiation sites.

  19. Current understanding of magnetic storms: Storm-substorm relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Kamide, Y.; Gonzalez, W.D.; Baumjohann, W.; Daglis, I.A.; Grande, M.; Joselyn, J.A.; Singer, H.J.; McPherron, R.L.; Phillips, J.L.; Reeves, E.G.; Rostoker, G.; Sharma, A.S.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1998-08-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the current understanding of the storm/substorm relationship by clearing up a considerable amount of controversy and by addressing the question of how solar wind energy is deposited into and is dissipated in the constituent elements that are critical to magnetospheric and ionospheric processes during magnetic storms. (1) Four mechanisms are identified and discussed as the primary causes of enhanced electric fields in the interplanetary medium responsible for geomagnetic storms. It is pointed out that in reality, these four mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, but interdependent, interact differently from event to event. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are found to be the primary phenomena responsible for the main phase of geomagnetic storms. The other two mechanisms, i.e., HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet activity) and the so-called Russell-McPherron effect, work to make the ICME and CIR phenomena more geoeffective. The solar cycle dependence of the various sources in creating magnetic storms has yet to be quantitatively understood. (2) A serious controversy exists as to whether the successive occurrence of intense substorms plays a direct role in the energization of ring current particles or whether the enhanced electric field associated with southward IMF enhances the effect of substorm expansions. While most of the {ital Dst} variance during magnetic storms can be solely reproduced by changes in the large-scale electric field in the solar wind and the residuals are uncorrelated with substorms, recent satellite observations of the ring current constituents during the main phase of magnetic storms show the importance of ionospheric ions. This implies that ionospheric ions, which are associated with the frequent occurrence of intense substorms, are accelerated upward along magnetic field lines, contributing to the energy density of

  20. Modeling and simulation of storm surge on Staten Island to understand inundation mitigation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kress, Michael E.; Benimoff, Alan I.; Fritz, William J.; Thatcher, Cindy; Blanton, Brian O.; Dzedzits, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012, near Brigantine, New Jersey, and had a transformative impact on Staten Island and the New York Metropolitan area. Of the 43 New York City fatalities, 23 occurred on Staten Island. The borough, with a population of approximately 500,000, experienced some of the most devastating impacts of the storm. Since Hurricane Sandy, protective dunes have been constructed on the southeast shore of Staten Island. ADCIRC+SWAN model simulations run on The City University of New York's Cray XE6M, housed at the College of Staten Island, using updated topographic data show that the coast of Staten Island is still susceptible to tidal surge similar to those generated by Hurricane Sandy. Sandy hindcast simulations of storm surges focusing on Staten Island are in good agreement with observed storm tide measurements. Model results calculated from fine-scaled and coarse-scaled computational grids demonstrate that finer grids better resolve small differences in the topography of critical hydraulic control structures, which affect storm surge inundation levels. The storm surge simulations, based on post-storm topography obtained from high-resolution lidar, provide much-needed information to understand Staten Island's changing vulnerability to storm surge inundation. The results of fine-scale storm surge simulations can be used to inform efforts to improve resiliency to future storms. For example, protective barriers contain planned gaps in the dunes to provide for beach access that may inadvertently increase the vulnerability of the area.

  1. Cloning of insertion site flanking sequence and construction of transfer DNA insert mutant library in Stylosanthes colletotrichum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Helong; Hu, Caiping; Yi, Kexian; Huang, Guixiu; Gao, Jianming; Zhang, Shiqing; Zheng, Jinlong; Liu, Qiaolian; Xi, Jingen

    2014-01-01

    Stylosanthes sp. is the most important forage legume in tropical areas worldwide. Stylosanthes anthracnose, which is mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a globally severe disease in stylo production. Little progress has been made in anthracnose molecular pathogenesis research. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to transform Stylosanthes colletotrichum strain CH008. The major factors of the genetic transformation system of S. colletotrichum were optimized as follows: A. tumefaciens' AGL-1 concentration (OD(600)), 0.8; concentration of Colletotrichum conidium, 1 × 10(6) conidia/mL; acetosyringone concentration, 100 mmol/L; induction time, 6 h; co-culture temperature, 25 °C; and co-culture time, 3 d. Thus, the transformation efficiency was increased to 300-400 transformants per 106 conidia. Based on the optimized system, a mutant library containing 4616 mutants was constructed, from which some mutants were randomly selected for analysis. Results show that the mutants were single copies that could be stably inherited. The growth rate, spore amount, spore germination rate, and appressorium formation rate in some mutants were significantly different from those in the wild-type strain. We then selected the most appropriate method for the preliminary screening and re-screening of each mutant's pathogenic defects. We selected 1230 transformants, and obtained 23 strains with pathogenic defects, namely, 18 strains with reduced pathogenicity and five strains with lost pathogenicity. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to identify the transfer DNA (T-DNA) integration site in the mutant that was coded 2430, and a sequence of 476 bp was obtained. The flanking sequence of T-DNA was compared with the Colletotrichum genome by BLAST, and a sequence of 401 bp was found in Contig464 of the Colletotrichum genome. By predicting the function of the flanking sequence, we discovered that T-DNA insertion in the promoter region

  2. Cloning of Insertion Site Flanking Sequence and Construction of Transfer DNA Insert Mutant Library in Stylosanthes Colletotrichum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guixiu; Gao, Jianming; Zhang, Shiqing; Zheng, Jinlong; Liu, Qiaolian; Xi, Jingen

    2014-01-01

    Stylosanthes sp. is the most important forage legume in tropical areas worldwide. Stylosanthes anthracnose, which is mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a globally severe disease in stylo production. Little progress has been made in anthracnose molecular pathogenesis research. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to transform Stylosanthes colletotrichum strain CH008. The major factors of the genetic transformation system of S. colletotrichum were optimized as follows: A. tumefaciens’ AGL-1 concentration (OD600), 0.8; concentration of Colletotrichum conidium, 1×106 conidia/mL; acetosyringone concentration, 100 mmol/L; induction time, 6 h; co-culture temperature, 25°C; and co-culture time, 3 d. Thus, the transformation efficiency was increased to 300–400 transformants per 106 conidia. Based on the optimized system, a mutant library containing 4616 mutants was constructed, from which some mutants were randomly selected for analysis. Results show that the mutants were single copies that could be stably inherited. The growth rate, spore amount, spore germination rate, and appressorium formation rate in some mutants were significantly different from those in the wild-type strain. We then selected the most appropriate method for the preliminary screening and re-screening of each mutant’s pathogenic defects. We selected 1230 transformants, and obtained 23 strains with pathogenic defects, namely, 18 strains with reduced pathogenicity and five strains with lost pathogenicity. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to identify the transfer DNA (T-DNA) integration site in the mutant that was coded 2430, and a sequence of 476 bp was obtained. The flanking sequence of T-DNA was compared with the Colletotrichum genome by BLAST, and a sequence of 401 bp was found in Contig464 of the Colletotrichum genome. By predicting the function of the flanking sequence, we discovered that T-DNA insertion in the promoter region of

  3. Consequences of least tern (Sternula antillarum) microhabitat nest-site selection on natural and mechanically constructed sandbars in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stucker, Jennifer H.; Buhl, Deborah A.; Sherfy, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Nest-habitat selection in colonial species has rarely been assessed at multiple spatial scales to evaluate its fitness consequences. Management for the federally endangered U.S. Interior population of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) has focused on maintenance of breeding habitats, including mechanical construction of sandbars from dredged material. Least Terns are attracted to large areas of unvegetated substrate, yet small-scale habitat features are thought to trigger selection for nesting. We evaluated nest-scale habitat selection to determine (1) whether selection differs between constructed and natural sandbars and (2) the subsequent consequences of habitat selection on nest success. During 2006–2008, we examined 869 Least Tern nest sites on constructed and natural sandbars in the Missouri River for evidence of microhabitat selection at the nest in relation to habitat within the surrounding 3-m area. Least Tern nest sites had coarser and larger substrate materials at the nest, more debris, and less vegetation than the surrounding area. Nests in constructed habitats had a greater percentage of coarse substrates and less vegetation or debris than nests in naturally created habitats. Apparent nest success was 1.8× greater on constructed than on natural sandbars. Nest success was best predicted by models with two spatial scales of predictors, including substrates (nest) and vegetation and debris (nest or surrounding area). Our results indicate that Least Terns select nest microhabitat characteristics that are associated with wind- and water-scoured habitats, and that nest success increases when these habitats are selected.

  4. Decision making in flood risk based storm sewer network design.

    PubMed

    Sun, S A; Djordjević, S; Khu, S T

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognised that flood risk needs to be taken into account when designing a storm sewer network. Flood risk is generally a combination of flood consequences and flood probabilities. This paper aims to explore the decision making in flood risk based storm sewer network design. A multiobjective optimization is proposed to find the Pareto front of optimal designs in terms of low construction cost and low flood risk. The decision making process then follows this multi-objective optimization to select a best design from the Pareto front. The traditional way of designing a storm sewer system based on a predefined design storm is used as one of the decision making criteria. Additionally, three commonly used risk based criteria, i.e., the expected flood risk based criterion, the Hurwicz criterion and the stochastic dominance based criterion, are investigated and applied in this paper. Different decisions are made according to different criteria as a result of different concerns represented by the criteria. The proposed procedure is applied to a simple storm sewer network design to demonstrate its effectiveness and the different criteria are compared.

  5. Green Residential Demolitions: Case Study of Vacant Land Reuse in Storm Water Management in Cleveland

    EPA Science Inventory

    The demolition process impacts how vacant land might be reused for storm water management. For five residential demolition sites (Cleveland, Ohio), an enhanced green demolition process was observed in 2012, and soil physical and hydrologic characteristics were measured predemolit...

  6. No Two Ionospheric Storms Are the Same ..... Nonsense!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, M.

    2008-12-01

    The study of ionospheric disturbances was initiated in the paper "Note on Kennelly-Heaviside Layer Observations During a Magnetic Storm" by Hafstad and Tuve in 1929. A remarkable degree of progress followed, first from the discovery of morphologies during individual case studies, and then from the statistical treatment of large numbers of ionospheric storms at many sites. By the end of 1950s (as the first space probes were being launched), the pioneers of aeronomy (e.g., Martyn, Sato, Matsushita) had analyzed many hundreds of ionospheric storms, reported on their effects, and offered theoretical explanations for the patterns observed. Data from satellites dominated the field during the 1960s to 1980s, producing a coherent picture of morphologies, physical mechanisms and models at most latitudes. With the advent of Space Weather in the 1990s, the field reverted to case study methods only, and new diagnostics (e.g., GPS and IMAGE) gave the impression that new patterns were being discovered and that new ideas were needed to explain them. Indeed, new names (for individual storm events, storm patterns and causative processes) now dominate the field. In many ways, this is a giant step backwards in that the potential for applications to technological systems is offered as sufficient reason to re-cast knowledge gained via the traditional methods of science. A self-perpetuating series of case studies now propels solar- terrestrial-physics via the theme that only one storm at a time can be understood. In this paper, evidence is offered to show that 80 years of study of ionospheric storms has been productive, and that the onset of a new solar cycle in 2009 should not be sufficient to warrant yet another period of re-discovery of solar- terrestrial physics. Rather, new diagnostics from the ground, and crucially needed satellite observations within the ionosphere-thermosphere system, can add to our knowledge if efforts are made to build upon past results, not just re

  7. Storm tracks near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Novak, Lenka

    2015-04-01

    The variance of atmospheric storm tracks is characterised by intermittent bursts of activity interspersed with relatively quiescent periods. Most of the poleward heat transport by storm tracks is due to a limited number of strong heat flux events, which occur in a quasi-periodic fashion. This behaviour is in contradiction with the usual conceptual model of the storm tracks, which relies on high growth rate background flows which then spawn weather systems that grow in an exponential or non-normal fashion. Here we present a different conceptual model of the atmospheric storm tracks which is built on the observation that, when including diabatic and other dissipative effects, the storm track region is in fact most of the time marginally stable. The ensuing model is a nonlinear oscillator, very similar to Volterra-Lotka predator-prey models. We demonstrate the extensions of this model to a stochastically driven nonlinear oscillator. The model produces quasi-periodic behaviour dominated by intermittent heat flux events. Perhaps most surprisingly, we will show strong evidence from re-analysis data for our conceptual model: the re-analysis data produces a phase-space plot that is very similar indeed to the phase-space plot for our nonlinear oscillator model.

  8. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of MISR nadir-camera images.

    The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image.

    The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 6552). Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image.

    Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation.

    Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images. The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image. The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001. Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image. Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation. Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide. Image courtesy NASA/JPL/GSFC/LaRC, MISR Team

  10. Mars atmospheric phenomena during major dust storms, as measured at surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. A.; Henry, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Meteorological instrumentation aboard the Viking Mars Landers measures wind, temperature, and pressure. Two global dust storms occurred during northern autumn and winter, observed both by the orbiters and by the landers. The meteorological data from the landers has been analyzed for the period just before first storm arrival to just after second storm arrival, with the objectives of defining the meteorological phenomena during the storm period, determining those associated with storm and dust arrival, and evaluating the effects on synoptic conditions and the general circulation. Times of dust arrival over the sites could be defined fairly closely from optical and pressure (solar tide) data, and dust arrival was also accompanied by changes in diurnal temperature range, temperature maxima, and temperature minima. The arrivals of the storms at Viking Lander 1 were accompanied by significant increases in wind speed and pressure. No such changes were observed at Viking Lander 2. It is possible that surface material could have been raised locally at Viking Lander 1. Throughout the period except for the time following the second dust storm the synoptic picture at Viking Lander 2 was one of eastward moving cyclonic and anticyclonic systems. These disappeared following the second storm, a phenomenon which may be related to the storm.

  11. [Geochemical characteristics and sources of atmospheric particulates in Shanghai during dust storm event].

    PubMed

    Qian, Peng; Zheng, Xiang-min; Zhou, Li-min

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric particulates were sampled from three sampling sites of Putuo, Minhang and Qingpu Districts in Shanghai between Oct. , 2009 and Oct. , 2010. In addition, particulate samples were also collected from Nantong, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, and Beijing city where dust storm dust transported along during spring. Element compositions of atmospheric particulates were determined by XRF and ICP-MS. The concentrations of major and trace elements in atmospheric particulates from Putuo, Minhang and Qingpu Districts were similar, indicating their common source. The UCC standardization distribution map showed that the major element composition of dust storm samples was similar to that of loess in northwestern China, indicating that the dust storm dust was mainly derived from Western desert and partly from local area. The REE partition patterns of dust storm dusts among different cities along dust transport route were similar to each other, as well as to those of northern loess, which indicates that the dust storm samples may have the same material source as loess, which mainly comes from crust material. However, the REE partition patterns of non-dust storm particulates were different among the studied cities, and different from those of loess, which suggests that the non-dust storm samples may be mixed with non-crust source material, which is different from dust storm dust and loess. The major element composition and REE partition pattern are effective indicators for source tracing of dust storm dust.

  12. Role of wetlands in attenuation of storm surges using coastal circulation model (ADCIRC), Chesapeake Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Mithun; Ferreira, Celso; Lawler, Seth

    2014-05-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, Virginia is subject to storm surge from extreme weather events nearly year-round; from tropical storms and hurricanes during the summer and fall, (e.g., hurricanes Isabel [2003] and Sandy [2012]), and from nor'easters during the winter (e.g., winter storms Nemo and Saturn [2013]). Coastal wetlands can deliver acute fortification against incoming hurricane storm surges. Coastal wetlands and vegetation shape the hydrodynamics of storm surge events by retaining water and slowing the propagation of storm surge, acting as a natural barrier to flooding. Consequently, a precise scheme to quantify the effect of wetlands on coastal surge levels was also prerequisite. Two wetland sites were chosen in the Chesapeake Bay region for detailed cataloging of vegetation characteristics, including: height, stem diameter, and density. A framework was developed combining these wetlands characterizations with numerical simulations. Storms surges were calculated using Coastal circulation model (ADCIRC) coupled to a wave model (SWAN) forced by an asymmetric hurricane vortex model using an unstructured mesh (comprised of 1.8 million nodes) under a High Performance Computing environment. The Hurricane Boundary Layer (HBL) model was used to compute wind and pressure fields for historical tropical storms and for all of the synthetic storms. Wetlands were characterized in the coupled numerical models by bathymetric and frictional resistance. Multiple model simulations were performed using historical hurricane data and hypothetical storms to compare the predicted storm surge inundation resulting from various levels of wetlands expansion or reduction. The results of these simulations demonstrate the efficacy of wetlands in storm surge attenuation and also the outcome will scientifically support planning of wetlands restoration projects with multi-objective benefits for society.

  13. Critical storm thresholds for morphological changes in the western Black Sea coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, Ekaterina V.; Valchev, Nikolay N.; Andreeva, Nataliya K.; Eftimova, Petya T.

    2012-03-01

    Storms are one of the phenomena determining the short-term evolution of coasts by influencing the erosion and accretion patterns of the beaches. Some severe storms could cause loss of beach sediments, partial or complete destruction of coastal structures and even threaten human life and occupation. Bearing this in mind, it is essential to comprehend, which storms could evoke transient, although in some instances, significant morphological changes, and which could be considered as hazardous and result in catastrophic damage. This issue implies establishment of a set of critical thresholds for storm impact on coastal morphology. The paper presents a regional scale analysis of the near-shore morphological response of five beaches to storms of varying intensity. The analysis is accomplished by coupling of offshore wave and cross-shore profile data obtained for the Bulgarian Black sea coast. The historical storm pattern is reconstructed through hindcast using a coupled wave model system, while resulting morphological changes, such as shoreline alteration and cross-shore profile evolution, are estimated by analysis of long-term series of coastal measurements performed in 1970-1977 and 2008-2010. The storm impact thresholds are set in terms of integral wave energy taking into account both storm pattern and duration. It was found that the morphological response to storm impact is site specific and single-value thresholds are difficult to be established even at regional scale. Nevertheless, a range of critical storm thresholds is proposed. Thus, storms with integral wave energy varying within threshold values 0.4-0.7 × 106 J m-2 are regarded as capable of significant morphological changes, while less energetic events are supposed to influence predominately the seasonal beach dynamics. Furthermore, storms with integral wave energy higher than 0.7 × 106 J m-2 represent potentially destructive events that can change irreversibly the beach pattern or damage impact.

  14. Structure and evolution of flash flood producing storms in a small urban watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Long; Smith, James; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Smith, Brianne; Tian, Fuqiang; Niyogi, Dev

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the structure and evolution of storms that produce flash floods in "small" urban watersheds. The study site is Harry's Brook, a 1.1 km2 urban watershed in Princeton, New Jersey. A catalog of 15 storms is developed for Harry's Brook based on paired observations of streamflow and rainfall. Lagrangian analyses of storm properties are based on storm tracking procedures utilizing 3-D radar reflectivity observations from the KDIX (Fort Dix, New Jersey) Weather Surveillance Radar, 1988 Doppler. Analyses focus on the storm elements that were responsible for the peak rainfall rates over the watershed. The 22 July 2006 storm, which produced the record flood peak in the catalog (a unit discharge of 26.8 m3 s-1 km-2) was characterized by thunderstorm cells that produced more than 50 cloud-to-ground lightning strikes and "collapsed" over Harry's Brook. The 3 June 2006 storm, which produced the third largest flood peak (a unit discharge of 11.1 m3 s-1 km-2), was a "low-echo centroid" storm with no lightning. We use cloud-to-ground flash rate, echo top height, maximum reflectivity, and height of maximum reflectivity as key variables for characterizing convective intensity. Storm motion is examined through a time series of storm speed and direction. The 22 July 2006 and 3 June 2006 storms provide end-members of storm properties, centering on "convective intensity," which are associated with flash flooding in small urban watersheds. Extreme 1-15 min rainfall rates are produced by warm season convective systems at both ends of the convective intensity spectrum.

  15. Storms drive altitudinal migration in a tropical bird.

    PubMed

    Boyle, W Alice; Norris, D Ryan; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2010-08-22

    Although migration is a widespread and taxonomically diverse behaviour, the ecological factors shaping migratory behaviour are poorly understood. Like other montane taxa, many birds migrate along elevational gradients in the tropics. Forty years ago, Alexander Skutch postulated that severe storms could drive birds to migrate downhill. Here, we articulate a novel mechanism that could link storms to mortality risks via reductions in foraging time and provide, to our knowledge, the first tests of this hypothesis in the White-ruffed Manakin (Corapipo altera), a small partially migratory frugivore breeding on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica. As predicted, variation in rainfall was associated with plasma corticosterone levels, fat stores, plasma metabolites and haematocrit. By collecting data at high and low elevation sites simultaneously, we also found that high-elevation residents were more adversely affected by storms than low elevation migrants. These results, together with striking temporal capture patterns of altitudinal migrants relative to storms, provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that weather-related risks incurred by species requiring high food intake rates can explain altitudinal migrations of tropical animals. These findings resolve conflicting evidence for and against food limitation being important in the evolution of this behaviour, and highlight how endogenous and exogenous processes influence life-history trade-offs made by individuals in the wild. Because seasonal storms are a defining characteristic of most tropical ecosystems and rainfall patterns will probably change in ensuing decades, these results have important implications for understanding the ecology, evolution and conservation of tropical animals.

  16. Architectural requirements for the Red Storm computing system.

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, William J.; Tomkins, James Lee

    2003-10-01

    This report is based on the Statement of Work (SOW) describing the various requirements for delivering 3 new supercomputer system to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program. This system is named Red Storm and will be a distributed memory, massively parallel processor (MPP) machine built primarily out of commodity parts. The requirements presented here distill extensive architectural and design experience accumulated over a decade and a half of research, development and production operation of similar machines at Sandia. Red Storm will have an unusually high bandwidth, low latency interconnect, specially designed hardware and software reliability features, a light weight kernel compute node operating system and the ability to rapidly switch major sections of the machine between classified and unclassified computing environments. Particular attention has been paid to architectural balance in the design of Red Storm, and it is therefore expected to achieve an atypically high fraction of its peak speed of 41 TeraOPS on real scientific computing applications. In addition, Red Storm is designed to be upgradeable to many times this initial peak capability while still retaining appropriate balance in key design dimensions. Installation of the Red Storm computer system at Sandia's New Mexico site is planned for 2004, and it is expected that the system will be operated for a minimum of five years following installation.

  17. Springtime North Polar Dust Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-321, 12 December 2002

    As on the Earth, many severe storms brew in the martian polar regions. Here, temperature contrasts between the cold carbon dioxide ('dry ice') seasonal frost cap and the warm ground adjacent to it--combined with a flow of cool polar air evaporating off the cap--sweeps up dust and funnels it into swirling dust storms along the cap edge. The dust storms shown here were observed during the recent northern spring by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) in May 2002. The picture is a mosaic of daily global images from the MOC wide angle cameras. The north polar cap is the bright, frosty surface at the top.

  18. Agents to reduce cytokine storm.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    The increasing insight into pathomechanisms of dysregulated host response in several inflammatory diseases led to the implementation of the term "cytokine storm" in the literature more than 20 years ago. Direct toxic effects as well as indirect immunomodulatory mechanisms during cytokine storm have been described and were the basis for the rationale to use several substances and devices in life-threatening infections and hyperinflammatory states. Clinical trials have been performed, most of them in the form of minor, investigator-initiated protocols; major clinical trials focused mostly on sepsis and septic shock. The following review tries to summarize the background, pathophysiology, and results of clinical investigations that had implications for the development of therapeutic strategies and international guidelines for the management of hyperinflammation during syndromes of cytokine storm in adult patients, predominantly in septic shock.

  19. Probabilistic Storm Surge Hazard Assessment in Martinique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krien, Yann; Dudon, Bernard; Sansorgne, Eliot; Roger, Jean; Zahibo, Narcisse; Roquelaure, Stevie

    2013-04-01

    Located at the center of the Lesser Antilles, Martinique is under the threat of hurricanes formed over the warm tropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. These events can be extremely costly in terms of human, property, and economic losses. Storm surge hazard studies are hence required to provide guidance to emergency managers and decision-makers. A few studies have been conducted so far in the French Lesser Antilles, but they mainly rely on scarce historical data of extreme sea levels or numerical models with coarse resolutions. Recent progress in statistical techniques for generating large number of synthetic hurricanes as well as availability of high-resolution topographic and bathymetric data (LIDAR) and improved numerical models enables us today to conduct storm surge hazard assessment studies with much more accuracy. Here we present a methodology to assess cyclonic surge hazard in Martinique both at regional and local scales. We first simulate the storm surges that would be induced by a large set of potential events generated by the statistical/deterministic models of Emanuel et al. [2006]. We use the ADCIRC-SWAN coupled models (Dietrich et al 2012) to simulate inundation inland with grid resolutions of up to 50-100m in the coastal area for the whole island.These models are validated against observations during past events such as hurricane Dean in 2007. The outputs can then be used in some specific sites to force higher resolution models for crisis management and local risk assessment studies. This work is supported by the INTERREG IV « Caribbean » program TSUNAHOULE.

  20. Environmental assessment for the resiting, construction, and operation of the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) presents estimated environmental impacts from the resiting, construction, and operation of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), which is proposed to be constructed and operated on land near the south boundary of the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The EMSL, if constructed, would be a modern research facility in which experimental, theoretical, and computational techniques can be focused on environmental restoration problems, such as the chemical and transport behavior of complex mixtures of contaminants in the environment. The EMSL design includes approximately 18,500 square meters (200,000 square feet) of floor space on a 12-hectare (30-acre) site. The proposed new site is located within the city limits of Richland in north Richland, at the south end of DOE`s 300 Area, on land to be deeded to the US by the Battelle Memorial Institute. Approximately 200 persons are expected to be employed in the EMSL and approximately 60 visiting scientists may be working in the EMSL at any given time. State-of-the-art equipment is expected to be installed and used in the EMSL. Small amounts of hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) are expected to be used in experimental work in the EMSL.

  1. Mesoscale aspects of convective storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The structure, evolution and mechanisms of mesoscale convective disturbances are reviewed and observation techniques for "nowcasting" their nature are discussed. A generalized mesometeorological scale is given, classifying both low and high pressure systems. Mesoscale storms are shown often to induce strong winds, but their wind speeds are significantly less than those accompanied by submesoscale disturbances, such as tornadoes, downbursts, and microbursts. Mesoscale convective complexes, severe storm wakes, and flash floods are considered. The understanding of the evolution of supercells is essential for improving nowcasting capabilities and a very accurate combination of radar and satellite measurements is required.

  2. National Severe Storms Forecast Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The principal mission of the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) is to maintain a continuous watch of weather developments that are capable of producing severe local storms, including tornadoes, and to prepare and issue messages designated as either Weather Outlooks or Tornado or Severe Thunderstorm Watches for dissemination to the public and aviation services. In addition to its assigned responsibility at the national level, the NSSFC is involved in a number of programs at the regional and local levels. Subsequent subsections and paragraphs describe the NSSFC, its users, inputs, outputs, interfaces, capabilities, workload, problem areas, and future plans in more detail.

  3. Storm Surge Flood Hazards of Hurricane Katrina 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Daneshvaran, S.; Jakubowski, S.

    2008-05-01

    . Flooding due to hurricane storm surge is one of the most damaging natural disasters in tropical and sub-tropical coastal regions. Storm surge peril can cause catastrophic loss to coastal properties and loss of life. Estimated hurricane flood risk is often statistically-based and relies on historical data. It provides catastrophic loss and risk information for the event as a whole, but lacks geographical detail. The purpose of this study is to analyze hurricane-induced storm surge flood damage using a grid-based numerical model. Storm surge flood damage due to Hurricane Katrina 2005 is presented as a case study. In order to analyze the resulting hazard from Hurricane Katrina, the United States National Weather Service's operational storm surge model, SLOSH (Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes) was used to predict the maximum storm surge surface using track data from meteorological observations. Local inundation is computed using the flood water depth with the ground elevation above the mean sea level. Residential exposure is estimated using total number of housing units damaged by flood water in each US census block in a grid of 0.01 by 0.01 degrees for hurricane Katrina in 2005. The modeled results for the storm surge inundation and the estimated number of housing units damaged by hurricane Katrina are compared with the extensive field observations by US Geological Survey and FEMA in the counties along the Gulf Coast in the three impacted states of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The modeled surge results are compared and contrasted with high water mark observations, where available. Storm surge losses in residential construction are highly sensitive to location and are best evaluated at a fine spatial resolution. This paper presents the analysis of the catastrophic flood risk based on the magnitude of hurricane storm surge flood depth on a local scale of US census blocks. The framework presented here is analytically-derived and can be used to

  4. Research on Historical Records of Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhina, G. S.; Alex, S.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    In recent times, there has been keen interest in understanding Sun-Earth connection events, such as solar flares, CMEs and concomitant magnetic storms. Magnetic storms are the most dramatic and perhaps important component of space weather effects on Earth. Super-intense magnetic storms (defined here as those with Dst < -500 nT, where Dst stands for the disturbance storm time index that measures the strength of the magnetic storm) although relatively rare, have the largest societal and technological relevance. Such storms can cause life-threatening power outages, satellite damage, communication failures and navigational problems. However, the data for such magnetic storms is rather scarce. For example, only one super-intense magnetic storm has been recorded (Dst=-640 nT, March 13, 1989) during the space-age (since 1958), although such storms may have occurred many times in the last 160 years or so when the regular observatory network came into existence. Thus, research on historical geomagnetic storms can help to create a good data base for intense and super-intense magnetic storms. From the application of knowledge of interplanetary and solar causes of storms gained from the spaceage observations applied to the super-intense storm of September 1-2, 1859, it has been possible to deduce that an exceptionally fast (and intense) magnetic cloud was the interplanetary cause of this geomagnetic storm with a Dst -1760 nT, nearly 3 times as large as that of March 13, 1989 super-intense storm. The talk will focus on super-intense storms of September 1-2, 1859, and also discuss the results in the context of some recent intense storms.

  5. Sustainable Storm Water Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    and gutter, culverts, pipes, canals , and ditches – Detention ponds to reduce peak flows 3 Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Sludge off-site...Environment, Energy and Sustainability Symposium & Exhibition Denver , CO Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for...Symposium & Exhibition held 14-17 June 2010 in Denver , CO. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  6. GPM Sees Powerful Storms in Tropical Storm Hermine

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a 3-D animated flyby of Tropical Storm Hermine created using radar data from the GPM core satellite. On Aug. 31 at 4 p.m. EDT GPM found rainfall occurring at a rate of over 9.9 inches (251 ...

  7. Storm severity detection (RF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Goodman, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric electrical emissions occurring in association with Hurricane Alicia were observed by two crossed baseline phase linear interferometers. The sensors were located in San Antonio, Texas, and at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, Alabama. An analysis of the data has indicated that the direction finding (DF) performance of the San Antonio site was extremely good while the DF performance at the MSFC site evidenced erratic behavior. A check of the data acquisition hardware revealed an intermitted problem in one of the radio receiver channels. Since the system has experienced several lightning strikes during the early spring of 1984, it was necessary to ship the entire rack of equipment back to SwRI for refurbishment. Analysis of the DF data from the interferometer site at San Antonio is being done. A limited subset of the MSFC data acquired during Hurricane Alicia has been found to be valid. These were data which satisfied the phase linearity criteria. Approximately 2,000 location estimates have been produced on the valid data. The results of the DF analysis and the location data are being correlated with the McIDAS data base at Marshall Space Flight Center, and with the radar summary data provided by the Hurricane Research Division using the National weather Service radar Facility at Galveston, Texas.

  8. Environmental Assessment for Tower Construction at the Brandywine Communication Receiver Site, Prince George’s County, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Clasping-leaved St . John’s- wort (Hypericum gymnanthum) known to occur on the proposed tower site, and may be directly impacted by this proposal. For the...National Register of Historic Places and all Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties (MIHP) location s in the APE. "" Evaluate rhe effect of the...Communication Receiver Site, Prince George’s County, Maryland 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d

  9. Herbicide Orange Site Treatment and Environmental Monitoring: Summary Report and Recommendations for Naval Construction Battalion Center, Gulfport, Mississippi.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    as far as 85 yards west (downwind) of the d drum storage site. I TABLE 1. Identification Data on Herbicide Orange Stocks Stored at the Naval...was fenced and isolated from public traffic. The NCBC provided surveillance personnel as well as a controlled access. It was planned and set up for...highly herbicide- contaminated sites (January 1978). Of the several bacterial genera isolated and identified, Psuedomonas spp. predominated in samples

  10. Templates of Change: Storms and Shoreline Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Robert; Hayden, Bruce

    1980-01-01

    Presents results of research designed to assess and predict the storm-related hazards of living on the coast. Findings suggest that certain sections of coastline are more vulnerable than others to storm damage. (WB)

  11. Tropical Storm Debby Moves into Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Debby from June 25-27, 2012. The animation shows that Tropical Storm Debby's center move from the northeastern Gulf of...

  12. Satellite View of 2 Trop. Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    System 98L exploded into Tropical Storm Irene on Saturday, August 20. This GOES-13 Video shows Tropical Storm Harvey making landfall in Belize (just beneath the Yucatan Peninsula) and moving into t...

  13. Conceptual design report for site drainage control

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    The Mound Plant (Mound), located in Miamisburg, Ohio, is a Department of Energy (DOE) development and production facility performing support work for DOE`s weapons and energy-related programs. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies, Inc. (EG&G) is the Operating Contractor (OC) for this Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facility. The work performed at Mound emphasizes nuclear energy and explosives technology. Mound is currently implementing an Environmental, Safety & Health (ES&H) Upgrades Program designed to protect its employees, the public, and the environment from adverse effects caused by facility activities. The first project of this multiphase program is now in the final stages of construction, and the second project is currently under design. Four additional projects, one of which is presented in this report, are in the conceptual design stage. At Mound, 22 soil zones have become contaminated with radioactive material. These zones cover approximately 20 percent of the total area of developed property at the site. During a storm event, the rainwater washes contaminated soil from these zones into the storm sewer system. These radioactive contaminants may then be discharged along with the stormwater into the Great Miami River via the Miami Erie Canal. This conceptual design report (CDR), Site Drainage Control, the fourth project in the ES&H program, describes a project that will provide improvements and much needed repairs to inadequate and deteriorating portions of the storm drainage system on the developed property. The project also will provide a stormwater retention facility capable of storing the stormwater runoff, from the developed property, resulting from a 100-year storm event. These improvements will permit the effective control and monitoring of stormwater to prevent the spread of radioactive contaminants from contaminated soil zones and will provide a means to collect and contain accidental spills of hazardous substances.

  14. Seismological Evidence for Increasing Oceanic Storm Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Aster, R.; Bromirski, P.; Hutt, C.; Gee, L.

    2007-12-01

    Several major tropical cylones during the 2007 hurricane season have generated wave-induced seismic signals detectable by seismic instrumentation in the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) and Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) (ex. Flossy, Dean, Felix, Henrietta). From these storms, seismic background energy "noise" between 6 and 25 s period is dominated by a persistent "microseism" arising from energy transferred from ocean gravity waves to elastic Rayleigh waves. Microseism power spectral density (PSD) is dominated by a primary peak (10-20s) that is generated by waves breaking on coastlines and by a (much stronger) secondary peak centered near (5-10s) that is generated by the half-period periodic variation of sea bottom pressure due to standing wave components generated from wave-wave interaction of the ocean gravity wave field. The microseism peaks can vary in amplitude by several orders of magnitude due to station proximity to coastlines and wave amplitudes, which have a strong seasonal dependence. Such observations demonstrate the utility of microseisms as an integrative proxy for assessing long-term and regional scale sea swell changes induced by changes in global storm activity. We examine changes in the microseism amplitude and use it as a proxy for decadal-scale changes in storm-wave amplitude, a topic of considerable interest in the debate about the impact of global climate change on oceanic storm frequency and intensity. High-quality continuous digital records from the GSN and its precursor networks now extend back over 30 years at the longest-operational sites. In this abstract, we demonstrate the development of an oceanic storm trigger algorithm by observing the current storm season using data from the ANSS and GSN and then apply the resulting methods to an investigation of oceanic wave climate changes over three decades. Limited spatial distribution and length of long-term seismic observational records causes some ambiguity for climate change

  15. ENSO and winter storms in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Bromirski, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of North Pacific winter storms that penetrate the California coast drives the winds, sea level, precipitation and streamflow that are crucial influences on coastal processes. There is considerable variability of these storm characteristics, in large part owing to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO} phenomenon. There is a great contrast of the storm characteristics during the El Nino phase vs. the La Nina phase, with the largest scale, southerly extensive winter storms generated during El Nino.

  16. Rain from Tropical Storm Noel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Though not the most powerful storm of the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane season, Tropical Storm Noel was among the most deadly. Only Category 5 Hurricane Felix and its associated flooding had a higher toll. The slow-moving Tropical Storm Noel inundated the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas with heavy rain between October 28 and November 1, 2007. The resulting floods and mudslides left at least 115 dead and thousands homeless throughout the Caribbean, reported the Associated Press on November 2, 2007. This image shows the distribution of the rainfall that made Noel a deadly storm. The image shows rainfall totals as measured by the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from October 26 through November 1, 2007. The analysis is based on measurements taken by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The heaviest rainfall fell in the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas, northeast of Noel's center. Areas of dark red show that rainfall totals over the south-central Dominican Republic and parts of the Bahamas were over 551 millimeters (21 inches). Much of eastern Hispaniola, including both the Dominican Republic and Haiti received at least 200 mm (about 8 inches) of rain, shown in yellow. Rainfall totals over Haiti and Cuba were less, with a range of at least 50 mm (2 inches) to over 200 mm (8 inches).

  17. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Regulations that require the retention and/or treatment of frequent, small storms that dominate runoff volumes and pollutant loads are becoming more common. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (E...

  18. Reproducing electric field observations during magnetic storms by means of rigorous 3-D modelling and distortion matrix co-estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2014-12-01

    Electric fields induced in the conducting Earth by geomagnetic disturbances drive currents in power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines, which can cause service disruptions. A key step in the prediction of the hazard to technological systems during magnetic storms is the calculation of the geoelectric field. To address this issue for mid-latitude regions, we revisit a method that involves 3-D modelling of induction processes in a heterogeneous Earth and the construction of a magnetospheric source model described by low-degree spherical harmonics from observatory magnetic data. The actual electric field, however, is known to be perturbed by galvanic effects, arising from very local near-surface heterogeneities or topography, which cannot be included in the model. Galvanic effects are commonly accounted for with a real-valued time-independent distortion matrix, which linearly relates measured and modelled electric fields. Using data of six magnetic storms that occurred between 2000 and 2003, we estimate distortion matrices for observatory sites onshore and on the ocean bottom. Reliable estimates are obtained, and the modellings are found to explain up to 90% of the measurements. We further find that 3-D modelling is crucial for a correct separation of galvanic and inductive effects and a precise prediction of the shape of electric field time series during magnetic storms. Since the method relies on precomputed responses of a 3-D Earth to geomagnetic disturbances, which can be recycled for each storm, the required computational resources are negligible. Our approach is thus suitable for real-time prediction of geomagnetically induced currents by combining it with reliable forecasts of the source field.

  19. Storm Water Retention on Three Green Roofs with Distinct Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breach, P. A.; Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.; Powers, B. S. C.

    2014-12-01

    As urbanization continues to increase the impact of cities on their surrounding environments, the feasibility of implementing low-impact development such as green roofs is of increasing interest. Green roofs retain and attenuate storm water thereby reducing the load on urban sewer systems. In addition, green roofs can provide insulation and lower roof surface temperature leading to a decrease in building energy load. Green roof technology in North American urban environments remains underused, in part due to a lack of climate appropriate green roof design guidelines. The capacity of a green roof to moderate runoff depends on the storage capacity of the growing medium at the start of a rainfall event. Storage capacity is finite, which makes rapid drainage and evapotranspiration loss critical for maximizing storage capacity between subsequent storms. Here the retention and attenuation of storm events are quantified for experimental green roof sites located in three representative Canadian climates corresponding to; semiarid conditions in Calgary, Alberta, moderate conditions in London, Ontario, and cool and humid conditions in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The storage recovery and storm water retention at each site is modelled using a modified water balance approach. Components of the water balance including evapotranspiration are predicted using climate data collected from 2012 to 2014 at each of the experimental sites. During the measurement period there were over 300 precipitation events ranging from small, frequent events (< 2 mm) to a storm with a 250 year return period. The modeling approach adopted provides a tool for planners to assess the feasibility of implementing green roofs in their respective climates.

  20. Identification of Storm Surge Vulnerable Areas in the Philippines Through Simulations of Typhoon Haiyan-Induced Storm Surge Using Tracks of Historical Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapidez, John Phillip; Suarez, John Kenneth; Tablazon, Judd; Dasallas, Lea; Gonzalo, Lia Anne; Santiago, Joy; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Ramos, Michael Marie Angelo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) 07 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the typhoon's storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 meters were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards, the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of the Philippines, to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948-2013. DOST-Project NOAH used the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Storm Surge Model, a numerical code that simulates and predicts storm surges spawned by tropical cyclones. Input parameters for the storm surge model include bathymetric data, storm track, central atmospheric pressure, and maximum wind speed. The simulations were made using Haiyan's pressure and wind speed as the forcing parameters. The simulated storm surge height values were added to the maximum tide level obtained from WXTide, software that contains a catalogue of worldwide astronomical tides, to come up with storm tide levels. The resulting water level was used as input to FLO-2D to generate the storm tide inundation maps. One product of this study is a list of the most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings

  1. Constructing Narrative Ecologies as a Site for Teachers' Professional Learning with New Technologies and Media in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turvey, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that to understand how new technologies and media can become co-agents in the process of pedagogical change, we first need to understand teachers' complex relationship with new technologies and media in both their personal and their professional lives. A conceptual framework is delineated for constructing a complex narrative…

  2. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  3. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  4. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  5. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  6. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  7. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where...

  8. Geomagnetic storms: historical perspective to modern view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2016-12-01

    The history of geomagnetism is more than 400 years old. Geomagnetic storms as we know them were discovered about 210 years ago. There has been keen interest in understanding Sun-Earth connection events, such as solar flares, CMEs, and concomitant magnetic storms in recent times. Magnetic storms are the most important component of space weather effects on Earth. We give an overview of the historical aspects of geomagnetic storms and the progress made during the past two centuries. Super magnetic storms can cause life-threatening power outages and satellite damage, communication failures and navigational problems. The data for such super magnetic storms that occurred in the last 50 years during the space era is sparce. Research on historical geomagnetic storms can help to create a database for intense and super magnetic storms. New knowledge of interplanetary and solar causes of magnetic storms gained from spaceage observations will be used to review the super magnetic storm of September 1-2, 1859. We discuss the occurrence probability of such super magnetic storms, and the maximum possible intensity for the effects of a perfect ICME: extreme super magnetic storm, extreme magnetospheric compression, and extreme magnetospheric electric fields.

  9. A High Density Storm Surge Monitoring Network: Evaluating the Ability of Wetland Vegetation to Reduce Storm Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, S.; Denton, M.; Ferreira, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent tropical storm activity in the Chesapeake Bay and a potential increase in the predicted frequency and magnitude of weather systems have drawn increased attention to the need for improved tools for monitoring, modeling and predicting the magnitude of storm surge, coastal flooding and the respective damage to infrastructure and wetland ecosystems. Among other forms of flood protection, it is believed that coastal wetlands and vegetation can act as a natural barrier that slows hurricane flooding, helping to reduce the impact of storm surge. However, quantifying the relationship between the physical process of storm surge and its attenuation by wetland vegetation is an active area of research and the deployment of in-situ measuring devices is crucial to data collection efforts in this field. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) mobile storm-surge network has already successfully provided a framework for evaluating hurricane induced storm surge water levels on a regional scale through the use of in-situ devices installed in areas affected by storm surge during extreme events. Based on the success of the USGS efforts, in this study we adapted the monitoring network to cover relatively small areas of wetlands and coastal vegetation with an increased density of sensors. Groups of 6 to 10 water level sensors were installed in sites strategically selected in three locations on the Virginia coast of the lower Chesapeake Bay area to monitor different types of vegetation and the resulting hydrodynamic patterns (open coast and inland waters). Each group of sensors recorded time series data of water levels for both astronomical tide circulation and meteorological induced surge. Field campaigns were carried out to survey characteristics of vegetation contributing to flow resistance (i.e. height, diameter and stem density) and mapped using high precision GPS. A geodatabase containing data from field campaigns will support the development and calibration of

  10. Interactive modeling of storm impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooijen, A.; Baart, F.; Roelvink, J. A.; Donchyts, G.; Scheel, F.; de Boer, W.

    2014-12-01

    In the past decades the impact of storms on the coastal zone has increasingly drawn the attention of policy makers and coastal planners, engineers and researchers. The mean reason for this interest is the high density of the world's population living near the ocean, in combination with climate change. Due to sea level rise and extremer weather conditions, many of the world's coastlines are becoming more vulnerable to the potential of flooding. Currently it is common practice to predict storm impact using physics-based numerical models. The numerical model utilizes several inputs (e.g. bathymetry, waves, surge) to calculate the impact on the coastline. Traditionally, the numerical modeller takes the following three steps: schematization/model setup, running and post-processing. This process generally has a total feedback time in the order of hours to days, and is suitable for so-called confirmatory modelling.However, often models are applied as an exploratory tool, in which the effect of e.g. different hydraulic conditions, or measures is investigated. The above described traditional work flow is not the most efficient method for exploratory modelling. Interactive modelling lets users adjust a simulation while running. For models typically used for storm impact studies (e.g. XBeach, Delft3D, D-Flow FM), the user can for instance change the storm surge level, wave conditions, or add a measure such as a nourishment or a seawall. The model will take the adjustments into account immediately, and will directly compute the effect. Using this method, tools can be developed in which stakeholders (e.g. coastal planners, policy makers) are in control and together evaluate ideas by interacting with the model. Here we will show initial results for interactive modelling with a storm impact model.

  11. IMPACT OF STORM-WATER OUTFALLS ON SEDIMENT QUALITY IN CORPUS CHRISTI BAY, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industr...

  12. Transportation infrastructure upgrades in the South: A compilation of state plans for construction near nuclear reactor sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    There are currently 27 nuclear reactor sites located in the southern region. In many instances, the most practicable modes of transportation of spent nuclear fuel from these sites we through the use of highway and rail systems. These two transportation modes have important differences that affect their applicability; chief among these, perhaps, is the fact that while highway systems are publicly owned and maintained rail lines are owned by private entities. For this reason, track condition and maintenance, usage rates and other aspects of rail transport can vary widely. This report reviews southern state, department plans for infrastructure upgrades in the vicinity of nuclear reactor sites. This report includes a summary of planned modifications to bridges, access highways, and rail spurs (where applicable) over the next five years. The information contained herein was gathered from interviews with officials within state departments of transportation. With few exceptions, the contact person was an official within the departmental planning division.

  13. Biological assessment of the effects of construction and operation of adepleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio,site.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This biological assessment (BA) has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Endangered Species Act of 1974, to evaluate potential impacts to federally listed species from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. The Indiana bat is known to occur in the area of the Portsmouth site and may potentially occur on the site during spring or summer. Evaluations of the Portsmouth site indicated that most of the site was found to have poor summer habitat for the Indiana bat because of the small size, isolation, and insufficient maturity of the few woodlands on the site. Potential summer habitat for the Indiana bat was identified outside the developed area bounded by

  14. Storms as agents of wetland elevation change: their impact on surface and subsurface sediment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Direct measures of the impact of major storms on wetland sediment elevation are rare. Recently developed techniques have enabled simultaneous, quantitative observations of surface and subsurface processes affecting sediment elevation. An analysis of ten wetland sites revealed the following patterns of sediment elevation change after storm passage: (1) elevation change equivalent to sediment accretion or erosion, (2) elevation loss in spite of sediment deposition, or in excess of erosion, and (3) elevation gain greater than the amount of sediment accretion. These observations suggest that storms influence sediment elevation not only by sediment deposition and erosion but also through subsurface processes of sediment compaction, root growth and decomposition, and water flux. Wetlands receiving a substantial deposit of sediment did not always realize an equivalent elevation gain. Some realized a net loss in elevation as a result of sediment compaction apparently caused by the weight of the sediment deposit or the tidal surge waters, or both. Sediment elevation collapsed in two mangrove forests with highly organic substrate when the storm killed the forest. In two marshes, elevation gain exceeded deposition apparently through increased sediment water storage or plant root growth via nutrient enrichment from storm sediment deposits. The elevation responses were either temporary or permanent on an ecological time scale (> 8 years). In one organic marsh substrate, compaction was followed by expansion, only to be compacted again by another storm. Thus the elevation response of coastal wetlands to major storms varied depending on local substrate conditions and degree of storm impact.

  15. Magnesium, Iron and Aluminum in LLNL Air Particulate and Rain Samples with Reference to Magnesium in Industrial Storm Water

    SciTech Connect

    Esser, Bradley K.; Bibby, Richard K.; Fish, Craig

    2016-08-25

    Storm water runoff from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) main site and Site 300 periodically exceeds the Discharge Permit Numeric Action Level (NAL) for Magnesium (Mg) under the Industrial General Permit (IGP) Order No. 2014-0057-DWQ. Of particular interest is the source of magnesium in storm water runoff from the site. This special study compares new metals data from air particulate and precipitation samples from the LLNL main site and Site 300 to previous metals data for storm water from the main site and Site 300 and alluvial sediment from the main site to investigate the potential source of elevated Mg in storm water runoff. Data for three metals (Mg, Iron {Fe}, and Aluminum {Al}) were available from all media; data for additional metals, such as Europium (Eu), were available from rain, air particulates, and alluvial sediment. To attribute source, this study compared metals concentration data (for Mg, Al, and Fe) in storm water and rain; metal-metal correlations (Mg with Fe, Mg with Al, Al with Fe, Mg with Eu, Eu with Fe, and Eu with Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates, and sediments; and metal-metal ratios ((Mg/Fe, Mg/Al, Al/Fe, Mg/Eu, Eu/Fe, and Eu/Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates and sediments. The results presented in this study are consistent with a simple conceptual model where the source of Mg in storm water runoff is air particulate matter that has dry-deposited on impervious surfaces and subsequently entrained in runoff during precipitation events. Such a conceptual model is consistent with 1) higher concentrations of metals in storm water runoff than in precipitation, 2) the strong correlation of Mg with Aluminum (Al) and Iron (Fe) in both storm water and air particulates, and 3) the similarity in metal mass ratios between storm water and air particulates in contrast to the dissimilarity of metal mass ratios between storm water and precipitation or alluvial sediment. The strong correlation of Mg with Fe and Al

  16. Large Geomagnetic Storms: Introduction to Special Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2010-01-01

    Solar cycle 23 witnessed the accumulation of rich data sets that reveal various aspects of geomagnetic storms in unprecedented detail both at the Sun where the storm causing disturbances originate and in geospace where the effects of the storms are directly felt. During two recent coordinated data analysis workshops (CDAWs) the large geomagnetic storms (Dst < or = -100 nT) of solar cycle 23 were studied in order to understand their solar, interplanetary, and geospace connections. This special section grew out of these CDAWs with additional contributions relevant to these storms. Here I provide a brief summary of the results presented in the special section.

  17. Dust storms - Great Plains, Africa, and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woiceshyn, P. M.; Krauss, R.; Minzner, R.; Shenk, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dust storms in the Great Plains of North America and in the Sahara Desert are analyzed on the basis of imagery from the geostationary Synchronous Meteorological Satellite. The onset time, location and areal extent of the dust storms are studied. Over land surfaces, contrast enhancement techniques are needed to obtain an adequate picture of dust storm development. In addition, infrared imagery may provide a means of monitoring the strong horizontal temperature gradients characteristic of dust cloud boundaries. Analogies between terrestrial dust storms and the airborne rivers of dust created by major Martian dust storms are also drawn.

  18. Storm Impacts on Potential Pathogens in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, J. Stephen; Noble, Rachel T.; Kelly, Ginger M.; Hsieh, Jennifer L.

    2007-02-01

    Estuarine and coastal environments are susceptible to a variety of changes driven by tropical storms and hurricanes. The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season impressed upon the public the devastating impacts of storms on coastal populations and the possible social and public health costs. Storm surges and subsequent flooding have the potential to redistribute water and associated contaminants, including a wide range of chemicals and microorganisms. While this impact is difficult to observe through monitoring during larger storms, smaller storms provide opportunities to observe the mechanisms responsible for contaminant and microbial transport.

  19. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 2, Sections 1-6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains the analysis of programmatic alternatives, project alternatives, affected environment of alternative sites, environmental consequences, and environmental regulations and permit requirements.

  20. Jupiter's Spot Seen Glowing - Scientists Get First Look at Weather Inside the Solar System's Biggest Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-03-01

    Structure and Composition of Jupiter's Great Red Spot from High-Resolution Thermal Imaging", by L. Fletcher et al.). The team is composed of Leigh N. Fletcher and P. G. J. Irwin (University of Oxford, UK), G. S. Orton, P. Yanamandra-Fisher, and B. M. Fisher (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, USA), O. Mousis (Observatoire de Besançon, France, and University of Arizona, Tucson, USA), P. D. Parrish (University of Edinburgh, UK), L. Vanzi (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile), T. Fujiyoshi and T. Fuse (Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hawaii, USA), A.A. Simon-Miller (NASA/Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA), E. Edkins (University of California, Santa Barbara, USA), T.L. Hayward (Gemini Observatory, La Serena, Chile), and J. De Buizer (SOFIA - USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA 94035, USA). Leigh Fletcher was working at JPL during the study. ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is

  1. ARkStorm@Tahoe: Science as a foundation for discussing, recognizing and mitigating storm-disaster vulnerabilities in mountain and downstream communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M.; Dettinger, M. D.; Kauneckis, D. L.; Cox, D. A.; Albano, C.; Welborn, T.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have historically caused ~80% of the most extreme winter storms and largest floods in California and parts of northwestern Nevada. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey developed the ARkStorm extreme-storm scenario to quantify risks from extreme winter storms and to allow stakeholders to explore and mitigate potential impacts. The scenario was constructed by concatenating two historical AR sequences and quantified by simulating them using a regional-weather model nested within global weather fields, resulting in a climatologically plausible 23-day storm sequence. The ARkStorm@Tahoe scenario was presented at six meetings with over 300 participants from local agencies, first-responders and local communities, each meeting having a different geographic or sectoral focus. These stakeholder meetings and an 18-question survey identified a wide range of social and ecological vulnerabilities to extreme winter storms, science and information needs to prepare and mitigate consequenses, and proactive measures to minimize impacts. Interruption of transportation, communications, and lack of power and backup fuel supplies were identified as the most likely and primary points of failure across multiple sectors and geographies, as these interruptions have cascading effects on natural and human environments by impeding emergency response efforts. Natural resource impacts of greatest concern include flooding, impacts to water quality, spread and establishment of invasive species, and interactions with other disturbance types (e.g., fire, landslides). Science needs include improved monitoring and models to facilitate better prediction and response, real-time and forecast inundation mapping to understand flood risks, and vulnerability assessments related to geomorphic hazards and water quality impacts. Results from this effort highlight several opportunities for increasing the resilience of communities and the environment to extreme storm events. Information

  2. Thyroid storm precipitated by duodenal ulcer perforation.

    PubMed

    Natsuda, Shoko; Nakashima, Yomi; Horie, Ichiro; Ando, Takao; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male) complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome.

  3. [Diagnosis and treatment of thyroid storm].

    PubMed

    Akamizu, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Thyrotoxic storm is a life-threatening condition requiring emergency treatment. Neither its epidemiological data nor diagnostic criteria have been fully established. We clarified the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of thyroid storm using nationwide surveys and then formulate diagnostic criteria for thyroid storm. To perform the nationwide survey on thyroid storm, we first developed tentative diagnostic criteria for thyroid storm, mainly based upon the literature (the first edition). We analyzed the relationship of the major features of thyroid storm to mortality and to certain other features. Finally, based upon the findings of these surveys, we revised the diagnostic criteria. Thyrotoxic storm is still a life-threatening disorder with over 10% mortality in Japan.

  4. Thermospheric storms and related ionospheric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Spencer, N. W.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study of thermospheric storms for equinox and winter conditions is presented based on neutral-composition measurements from the Aeros-A neutral-atmosphere temperature experiment. The main features of the two storms as inferred from changes in N2, Ar, He, and O are described, and their implications for current theories of thermospheric storms are discussed. On the basis of the study of the F-region critical frequency measured from a chain of ground-based ionospheric stations during the two storm periods, the general characteristics of the ionospheric storms and the traveling ionospheric disturbances are described. It is suggested that the positive and negative phases of ionospheric storms are different manifestations of thermospheric storms.

  5. Construction of a guide-RNA for site-directed RNA mutagenesis utilising intracellular A-to-I RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Masatora; Umeno, Hiromitsu; Nose, Kanako; Nishitarumizu, Azusa; Noguchi, Ryoma; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-02

    As an alternative to DNA mutagenesis, RNA mutagenesis can potentially become a powerful gene-regulation method for fundamental research and applied life sciences. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing alters genetic information at the transcript level and is an important biological process that is commonly conserved in metazoans. Therefore, a versatile RNA-mutagenesis method can be achieved by utilising the intracellular RNA-editing mechanism. Here, we report novel guide RNAs capable of inducing A-to-I mutations by guiding the editing enzyme, human adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR). These guide RNAs successfully introduced A-to-I mutations into the target-site, which was determined by the reprogrammable antisense region. In ADAR2-over expressing cells, site-directed RNA editing could also be performed by simply introducing the guide RNA. Our guide RNA framework provides basic insights into establishing a generally applicable RNA-mutagenesis method.

  6. Construction of a guide-RNA for site-directed RNA mutagenesis utilising intracellular A-to-I RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Masatora; Umeno, Hiromitsu; Nose, Kanako; Nishitarumizu, Azusa; Noguchi, Ryoma; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    As an alternative to DNA mutagenesis, RNA mutagenesis can potentially become a powerful gene-regulation method for fundamental research and applied life sciences. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing alters genetic information at the transcript level and is an important biological process that is commonly conserved in metazoans. Therefore, a versatile RNA-mutagenesis method can be achieved by utilising the intracellular RNA-editing mechanism. Here, we report novel guide RNAs capable of inducing A-to-I mutations by guiding the editing enzyme, human adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR). These guide RNAs successfully introduced A-to-I mutations into the target-site, which was determined by the reprogrammable antisense region. In ADAR2-over expressing cells, site-directed RNA editing could also be performed by simply introducing the guide RNA. Our guide RNA framework provides basic insights into establishing a generally applicable RNA-mutagenesis method. PMID:28148949

  7. A Cultural Resources Intensive Survey of the Ensley Berm Construction Site, Shelby County, Tennessee. A Negative Finding Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-16

    gathering bands are postulated. Early Paleo-Indian sites, identified by fluted Clovis projectile points, are rare in the Mississippi drainage of west...Russel, C. Vance Haynes, Donald Johnson and Marven Kay I 1981 Kimmswick: A Clovis -Mastodon Association in Eastern Missouri. Science 213:1115-1117. U...on-the-ground survey of an area, of sufficient intensity to determine the number, types, extent and distribution of cultura ] rescurces ;resent and

  8. Pre-Construction Biogeochemical Analysis of Mercury in Wetlands Bordering the Hamilton Army Airfield Wetlands Restoration Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    the reference site China Camp State Park (R44) cores. A similar pattern of THg temporal bioaccumulation and similar final THg body burden at...upland and wetland ecosystems in Ontario, Canada, the flux of THg and MeHg with litterfall was found to be substantial compared to throughfall and...direct wet deposition, and it was suggested that the Hg in litterfall was derived from uptake from soil or directly by foliage (St. Louis et al. 2001

  9. Pre-Construction Biogeochemical Analysis of Mercury in Wetlands Bordering the Hamilton Army Airfield (HAAF) Wetlands Restoration Site. Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    recovery of PCB-contaminated surface sediments at the Sangamo-Weston Twelvemile Creek/ Lake Hartwell Superfund Site. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15:2328-2337...subsidence such that current soil elevations are often meters below the mean tide level. Simply breaching the dikes would result in lakes , not wetlands...certain natural wetlands have been identified as contributors of MeHg to down- stream lakes and streams (St. Louis et al. 1994; St. Louis et al. 1996

  10. Dust Storm Time Lapse Shows Opportunity's Skies Darken

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Storm Time Lapse Shows Opportunity's Skies Darken

    NASA's Opportunity rover is literally seeing some of its darkest days. Both Mars Exploration Rovers have been riding out a regional dust storm for several weeks. Conditions became particularly dreary in the Meridiani Planum region where Opportunity sits, perched on the edge of 'Victoria Crater.'

    This image is a time-lapse composite where each horizon-survey image has been compressed horizontally (but not vertically) to emphasize the sky. The relative brightness and darkness of the sky from sol to sol (over a 30-sol period beginning June 14, 2007) is depicted accurately in these images, which view roughly the same part of the plains southwest of the rover. The images are approximately true color composites, generated from calibrated radiance data files using the panoramic camera's 601-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 482-nanometer filters.

    The rovers' atmospheric science team is concerned that smaller, regional dust storms could expand into a larger, globe-encircling storm. That could extend the time the sun stays obscured, challenging the capability of Opportunity's solar panels to produce enough electricity for the rover to function.

    Fortunately, as of July 19, 2007, the Opportunity site is clearing slightly. When the storm ends, atmospheric scientists hope to review data from the rovers that will help them determine what sort of dust was being lifted and distributed.

    The numbers across the top of the image report a measurement of atmospheric opacity, called by the Greek letter tau. The lower the number, the clearer the sky. Both Opportunity and Spirit have been recording higher tau measurements in July 2007 than they had seen any time previously in their three and a half years on Mars. The five sol numbers across the bottom correspond (left to right) to June 14, June 30, July 5, July 13 and July 15, 2007.

  11. AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH FOR CONSTRUCTING AN IN-SITU BARRIER FOR STRONTIUM-90 AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    FABRE RJ

    2008-12-08

    Efforts to reduce the flux of Sr-90 to the Columbia River from Hanford Site 100-N Area past-practice liquid waste disposal sites have been underway since the early 1990s. Termination of all liquid discharges to the ground in 1993 was a major step toward meeting this goal. However, Sr-90 adsorbed on aquifer solids beneath liquid waste disposal sites and extending beneath the near-shore riverbed remains a continuing contaminant source to groundwater and the Columbia River. The initial pump-and-treat system proved to be ineffective as a long-term solution because of the geochemical characteristics of Sr-90. Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 Operable Unit hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed to evaluate apatite sequestration as the primary remedial technology, combined with a secondary polishing step utilizing phytoextraction if necessary. Aqueous injection was initiated in July 2005 to assess the efficacy of in-situ apatite along the 100 m of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. The remedial technology is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company is implementing this technology in the field with support from PNNL.

  12. An Innovative Approach for Constructing an In-Situ Barrier for Strontium-90 at the Hanford Site, Washington - 9325

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K. M.; Fabre, Russel J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.; Fellows, Robert J.; Williams, Mark D.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-12-10

    Efforts to reduce the flux of Sr-90 to the Columbia River from Hanford Site 100-N Area past-practice liquid waste disposal sites have been underway since the early 1990s. Termination of all liquid discharges to the ground in 1993 was a major step toward meeting this goal. However, Sr 90 adsorbed on aquifer solids beneath liquid waste disposal sites and extending beneath the near-shore riverbed remains a continuing contaminant source to groundwater and the Columbia River. The initial pump-and treat system proved to be ineffective as a long-term solution because of the geochemical characteristics of Sr-90. Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100 NR-2 Operable Unit hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed to evaluate apatite sequestration as the primary remedial technology, combined with a secondary polishing step utilizing phytoextraction if necessary. Aqueous injection was initiated in July 2005 to assess the efficacy of in-situ apatite along the 100 m of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. The remedial technology is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company is implementing this technology in the field with support from PNNL.

  13. Regional characteristics of dust storms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Weihong; Tang, Xu; Quan, Linsheng

    2004-09-01

    Regional characteristics of dust storms in northern China are analyzed using a rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF), based on the annual days of dust storms from 1954 to 1998. The relationships between regional dust storms corresponding to other factors such as precipitation and temperature are explored. The results show that five leading modes of dust storms exist in the following areas: the Taklamakan Desert (Tarim Basin) over the Xinjiang region (far northwestern China), the eastern part of Inner Mongolia (North China), the Tsaidam Basin, the Tibetan Plateau, and the upper reaches of the Yellow River (Gobi Desert). These areas are associated with an arid climate and frequent winds. For the first mode in the Tarim Basin, most dust storms appear in the 1980s, while dust storms become less frequent in the 1990s. The second mode (North China) shows the highest frequency of dust storms in the mid-1960s but the frequency decreases afterward. The third mode indicates a decreasing trend of annual dust storms after the mid-1960s but with a high interannual variability. The fourth mode also shows a decreasing trend but with a low interannual variability. The fifth mode displays a high frequency of dust storms in the 1970s followed by a decreasing trend. For the five modes of dust storm distribution, four of the centers are located in desert regions. The annual dust storms of a selected station in each mode region are shown to compare the coefficient time series of these modes. The negative correlation between the prior winter temperature and dust storm frequency is identified for most stations. There is no consistency in the correlation between the dust storm frequency and the annual rainfall as well as the prior winter rainfall at these stations. The activity of dust storms in northern China are directly linked to the cyclone activity, especially for the interdecadal variability.

  14. Evaluation of alternative methods of supplemental recharge by storm-water basins on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aronson, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Many of the more than 2,200 storm-water basins on Long Island, N.Y., having runoff and infiltration characteristics similar to those of a basin studied in North Massapequa are potential sites for returning large volumes of reclaimed water (highly treated waste water) to the ground-water reservoir. By use of a finite-difference method of calculation, formulas were devised to calculate changes in basin storage at various time intervals from the start of storm inflow, with and without addition of reclaimed water. The North Massapequa storm-water basin was the prototype design used to test several methods of water application. Calculations using various infiltration rates, storm durations, and storm-return periods indicate that several methods of applying reclaimed water to storm-water basins on Long Island would be feasible. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Agents to reduce cytokine storm

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    The increasing insight into pathomechanisms of dysregulated host response in several inflammatory diseases led to the implementation of the term “cytokine storm” in the literature more than 20 years ago. Direct toxic effects as well as indirect immunomodulatory mechanisms during cytokine storm have been described and were the basis for the rationale to use several substances and devices in life-threatening infections and hyperinflammatory states. Clinical trials have been performed, most of them in the form of minor, investigator-initiated protocols; major clinical trials focused mostly on sepsis and septic shock. The following review tries to summarize the background, pathophysiology, and results of clinical investigations that had implications for the development of therapeutic strategies and international guidelines for the management of hyperinflammation during syndromes of cytokine storm in adult patients, predominantly in septic shock. PMID:28105327

  16. Storm Warnings on Lake Balaton,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-06

    Vorhergesagt1 _ ___ !, ( SSZ . LI). (331, K _. )___ : 2 !daenkmmuflg 3 ja 4__ ’%ein %ZtLron S-0 6 j. a 3 10 24 126 B 88% A N in 4 13 173 186 B, 60% SZu...15 24 15 14 13 14 13 12 16 7 7 4 5 5 % 12 12 7 It 7 7 S 7 6 6 7 3 3 2 2 2 Key: 1-duration 2-number of storms 3-hours and one-third of storms last only...16-18 August 1959 and on 11- 13 June 1958, with a duration of 49.9 hours. Table 4 provides information about the frequency distribution of the maximum

  17. Dust storm off Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of Saharan dust storms reach far beyond Africa. Wind-swept deserts spill airborne dust particles out over the Atlantic Ocean where they can enter trade winds bound for Central and North America and the Caribbean. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows a dust storm casting an opaque cloud of cloud across the Canary Islands and the Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on June 30, 2002. In general it takes between 5 and 7 days for such an event to cross the Atlantic. The dust has been shown to introduce foreign bacteria and fungi that have damaged reef ecosystems and have even been hypothesized as a cause of increasing occurrences of respiratory complaints in places like Florida, where the amount of Saharan dust reaching the state has been increasing over the past 25 years.

  18. The Effect of Coastal Development on Storm Surge Flooding in Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Liu, H.; Li, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Barrier islands and associated bays along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts are a favorite place for both living and visiting. Many of them are vulnerable to storm surge flooding because of low elevations and constantly being subjected to the impacts of storms. The population increase and urban development along the barrier coast have altered the shoreline configuration, resulting in a dramatic change in the coastal flooding pattern in some areas. Here we present such a case based on numerical simulations of storm surge flooding caused by the1926 hurricane in the densely populated area surrounding Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida. The construction of harbor and navigation channels, and the development of real estate and the roads connecting islands along Biscayne Bay have changed the geometry of Biscayne Bay since 1910s. Storm surge simulations show that the Port of Miami and Dodge Island constructed by human after 1950 play an important role in changing storm surge inundation pattern along Biscayne Bay. Dodge Island enhances storm surge and increases inundation in the area south of the island, especially at the mouth of Miami River (Downtown of Miami), and reduces storm surge flooding in the area north of the island, especially in Miami Beach. If the Hurricane Miami of 1926 happened today, the flooding area would be reduced by 55% and 20% in the Miami Beach and North Miami areas, respectively. Consequently, it would prevent 400 million of property and 10 thousand people from surge flooding according to 2010 U.S census and 2007 property tax data. Meanwhile, storm water would penetrate further inland south of Dodge Island and increase the flooding area by 25% in the Miami River and Downtown Miami areas. As a result, 200 million of property and five thousand people would be impacted by storm surge.

  19. Severe storms observing satellite study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwens, R. P.; Stern, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Payload distribution and the attitude control system for the multi-mission modular spacecraft/StormSat configuration are discussed. The design of the advanced atmospheric sounder and imaging radiometer (AASIR) gimbal drive and its servomechanism is described. Onboard data handling, data downlink communications, and ground data handling systems are developed. Additional topics covered include: magnetic unloading at synchronous altitude, north-south stationkeeping, and the feasibility and impact of flying the microwave atmospheric sounding radiometer (MASR) as an additional payload.

  20. Biological assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, site.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF6 inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This biological assessment (BA) has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Endangered Species Act of 1974, to evaluate potential impacts to federally listed species from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site.

  1. [System construction of early warning for ecological security at cultural and natural heritage mixed sites and its application: a case study of Wuyishan Scenery District].

    PubMed

    You, Wei-Bin; He, Dong-Jin; Qin, De-Hua; Ji, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Li-Yun; Yu, Jian-An; Chen, Bing-Rong; Tan, Yong

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposed a new concept of ecological security for protection by a comprehensive analysis of the contents and standards of world heritage sites. A frame concept model named "Pressure-State-Control" for early warning of ecological security at world heritage mixed sites was constructed and evaluation indicators of this frame were also selected. Wuyishan Scenery District was chosen for a case study, which has been severely disturbed by natural and artificial factors. Based on the frame model of "Pressure-State-Control" and by employing extension analysis, the matter-element model was established to assess the ecological security status of this cultural and natural world heritage mixed site. The results showed that the accuracy of ecological security early warning reached 84%. Early warning rank was I level (no alert status) in 1997 and 2009, but that in 2009 had a higher possibility to convert into II level. Likewise, the early-warning indices of sensitive ranks were different between 1997 and 2009. Population density, population growth rate, area index for tea garden, cultivated land owned per capita, level of drought, and investment for ecological and environmental construction were the main limiting factors to hinder the development of ecological security from 2009 to future. In general, the status of Wuyishan Scenery District ecological security was relatively good and considered as no alert level, while risk conditions also existed in terms of a few early-warning indicators. We still need to pay more attention to serious alert indicators and adopt effective prevention and control measures to maintain a good ecological security status of this heritage site.

  2. Magnetosphere-associated storms and the autonomous storms in the ionosphere-plasmasphere environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Stanislawska, I.

    2010-01-01

    Global GPS-derived ionosphere maps (GIM) of total electron content (TEC) were transformed into magnetic latitude (MLAT) versus magnetic local time (MLT) frame. TEC enhancement or depletion marked by W index show dominant electron content depressions and the ionosphere-plasmasphere storms increasing by nighttime, at high magnetic latitudes and over the crests of equatorial anomaly. Based on W maps, the planetary Wp index was produced and used for derivation of a catalogue of more than 140 TEC storms during 1999-2009. In total 33 space weather intense storms and 35 moderate storms are revealed with four series of indices (AE, Ap, Dst and Wp) but more than half Wp storms were either partially overlapping in time with magnetic storm or observed autonomously under non-storm magnetosphere conditions. Relation between an annual number of intense Dst storms and Wp storms has been used for their prediction towards the peak of the forthcoming 24th solar cycle.

  3. Dust Storm in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Along historic Route 66, just southeast of the little town of Amboy, California, lies a dried-up lake. Dry lakebeds are good sources of two things: salt and dust. In this image, the now-parched Bristol Lake offers up both. On April 12, 2007, dust storms menaced the area around Amboy. To the northwest, near Newberry Springs, California, dust hampered visibility and led to a multi-car collision on Interstate 40, killing two people and injuring several others. The same day, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of a dust storm in the dry remains of Bristol Lake. Many small dust clouds boil up from the ground surface, casting their shadows to the northwest. A bright white cloud floating over the dust also throws its shadow onto the ground below. East of the dust storm are salt works that stand out from the surrounding landscape thanks to their straight lines and sharp angles. Dark ground surfaces alternate with mined white salt in a network of stripes. When lakes evaporate, chemicals that had been dissolved in the water stay behind, making dry lake beds an ideal place to find heavy concentrations of minerals, including salt. Besides the salt works, something else appears in stark contrast to this arid place. Lush green fields of irrigated crops appear in the east. Besides their color, their orderly arrangement reveals their human-made origin.

  4. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 3, Sections 7-12, Appendices A-C

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains references; a list of preparers and recipients; acronyms, abbreviations, and units of measure; a glossary; an index and three appendices.

  5. Floodplain/wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation ofa depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky,site.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This floodplain/wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11988 (''Floodplain Management''), Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and DOE regulations for implementing these Executive Orders as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [''Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements'']), to evaluate potential impacts to floodplains and wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site. Reconstruction of the bridge crossing Bayou Creek would occur within the Bayou Creek 100-year floodplain. Replacement of bridge components, including the bridge supports, however, would not be expected to

  6. Monitoring Inland Storm Surge and Flooding from Hurricane Rita

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, Benton D.; Tollett, Roland W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Pressure transducers (sensors) and high-water marks were used to document the inland water levels related to storm surge generated by Hurricane Rita in southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas. On September 22-23, 2005, an experimental monitoring network of sensors was deployed at 33 sites over an area of about 4,000 square miles to record the timing, extent, and magnitude of inland hurricane storm surge and coastal flooding. Sensors were programmed to record date and time, temperature, and barometric or water pressure. Water pressure was corrected for changes in barometric pressure and salinity. Elevation surveys using global-positioning systems and differential levels were used to relate all storm-surge water-level data, reference marks, benchmarks, sensor measuring points, and high-water marks to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The resulting data indicated that storm-surge water levels over 14 feet above NAVD 88 occurred at three locations, and rates of water-level rise greater than 5 feet per hour occurred at three locations near the Louisiana coast.

  7. Estimation of Observatory Geoelectric Fields Induced during Great Magnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.; Swidinsky, A.

    2014-12-01

    In support of a project for monitoring hazards for electric power grids, we present a new method for estimating electric fields that are induced in the Earth's interior at a particular site during magnetic storms. For this, we adopt a model of the electrical conductivity of the lithosphere that is simple but sufficient to model most variation in the induced geoelectric field: two horizontal layers, each with uniform electrical conductivity properties that can be parameterized by a galvanic distortion tensor. After Laplace transformation of the induction equations into the complex frequency domain, we obtain an electromagnetic impedance function. Upon inverse transformation back to the time domain, convolution of the impedance tensor with a geomagnetic time series yields an estimated geoelectric time series. We optimize the model conductivity parameters using 1-sec resolution magnetic and electric field data collected at the Kakioka magnetic observatory during the October 2003 Halloween storm. We validate the algorithm against Kakioka magnetic and electric field data for the July 2000 Bastille-Day storm. Finally, we infer 1-sec geoelectric fields that were realized (but not directly measured) in Japan during the 1989 Quebec storm. Results highlight the need for improved ground-level monitoring of geomagnetic and geoelectric fields. They also reveal the need for accommodating the galvanic distortion of three-dimensional conductivity when predicting geoelectric fields in the lithosphere and geomagnetically induced currents in electric power grids.

  8. Design and construction of deinococcus radiodurans for biodegradation of organic toxins at radioactive DOE waste sites. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, M.J.; Wackett, L.P.; Minton, K.W.

    1998-06-01

    'A 1992 survey of DOE waste sites indicates that about 32% of soils and 45% of groundwaters at these sites contain radionuclides and metals plus an organic toxin class. The most commonly reported combinations of these hazardous compounds being radionuclides and metals (e.g., U, Pu, Cs, Pb, Cr, As) plus chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene), fuel hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene), or polychlorinated biphenyls (e.g., Arochlor 1248). These wastes are some of the most hazardous pollutants and pose an increasing risk to human health as they leach into the environment. The objective of this research is to develop novel organisms, that are highly resistant to radiation and the toxic effects of metals and radionuclides, for in-situ bioremediation of organic toxins. Few organisms exist that are able to remediate such environmental organic pollutants, and among those that can, the bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas are the most characterized. Unfortunately, these bacteria are very radiation sensitive. For example, Pseudomonas spp. is even more sensitive than Escherichia coli and, thus, is not suitable as a bioremediation host in environments subjected to radiation. By contrast, D. radiodurans, a natural soil bacterium, is the most radiation resistant organism yet discovered; it is several thousand times more resistant to ionizing radiation than Pseudomonas. The sophisticated gene transfer and expression systems the authors have developed for D. radiodurans over the last eight years make this organism an ideal candidate for high-level expression of genes that degrade organic toxins, in radioactive environments. The authors ultimate aim is to develop organisms and approaches that will be useful for remediating the large variety of toxic organic compounds found in DOE waste sites that are too radioactive to support other bioremediation organisms. This report summarizes work after the first 6 months of a 3-year project.'

  9. Construction of a yeast artificial chromosome contig spanning the pseudoautosomal region and isolation of 25 new sequence-tagged sites

    SciTech Connect

    Slim, R. Laboratoire de Cytogenetique et Genetique Oncologiques, Villejuif ); Le Paslier, D.; Ougen, P.; Billault, A.; Cohen, D. ); Compain, S.; Levilliers, J.; Mintz, L.; Weissenbach, J.; Petit, C. )

    1993-06-01

    Thirty-one yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) from the human pseudoautosomal region were identified by a combination of sequence-tagged site (STS) screenings and colony hybridizations, using a subtelomeric interspersed repetitive element mapping predominantly to the pseudoautosomal region. Twenty-five new pseudoautosomal STSs were generated, of which 4 detected restriction fragment length polymorphisms. A total of 33 STSs were used to assemble the 31 YACs into a single contiguous set of overlapping DNA fragments spanning at least 2.3 megabases of the pseudoautosomal region. In addition, four pseudoautosomal genes including hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase have been positioned on this set of fragments. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. 43. Top photo: SAR2, RESULTS OF STORM OF JANUARY, 1916; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Top photo: SAR-2, RESULTS OF STORM OF JANUARY, 1916; VIEW TO SOUTH FROM NEAR SOUTH END OF PLANT. NOTE SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL PORTAL. SCE negative no. 3505, January 28, 1916. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. Lower photo: SAR-2, RESULTS OF STORM OF JANUARY, 1916; VIEW OF PLANT SITE FROM THE HIGH ON CANYON WALL. SCE negative no. 3506, January 28, 1916. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban

  12. Storm-surge flooding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terenzi, John; Ely, Craig R.; Jorgenson, M. Torre

    2014-01-01

    Coastal regions of Alaska are regularly affected by intense storms of ocean origin, the frequency and intensity of which are expected to increase as a result of global climate change. The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), situated in western Alaska on the eastern edge of the Bering Sea, is one of the largest deltaic systems in North America. Its low relief makes it especially susceptible to storm-driven flood tides and increases in sea level. Little information exists on the extent of flooding caused by storm surges in western Alaska and its effects on salinization, shoreline erosion, permafrost thaw, vegetation, wildlife, and the subsistence-based economy. In this paper, we summarize storm flooding events in the Bering Sea region of western Alaska during 1913 – 2011 and map both the extent of inland flooding caused by autumn storms on the central YKD, using Radarsat-1 and MODIS satellite imagery, and the drift lines, using high-resolution IKONOS satellite imagery and field surveys. The largest storm surges occurred in autumn and were associated with high tides and strong (> 65 km hr-1) southwest winds. Maximum inland extent of flooding from storm surges was 30.3 km in 2005, 27.4 km in 2006, and 32.3 km in 2011, with total flood area covering 47.1%, 32.5%, and 39.4% of the 6730 km2 study area, respectively. Peak stages for the 2005 and 2011 storms were 3.1 m and 3.3 m above mean sea level, respectively—almost as high as the 3.5 m amsl elevation estimated for the largest storm observed (in November 1974). Several historically abandoned village sites lie within the area of inundation of the largest flood events. With projected sea level rise, large storms are expected to become more frequent and cover larger areas, with deleterious effects on freshwater ponds, non-saline habitats, permafrost, and landscapes used by nesting birds and local people.

  13. The fusion site of envelope fragments from each serotype of Dengue virus in the P64k protein, influence some parameters of the resulting chimeric constructs.

    PubMed

    Zulueta, Aída; Hermida, Lisset; Lazo, Laura; Valdés, Iris; Rodríguez, Rayner; López, Carlos; Silva, Ricardo; Rosario, Delfina; Martín, Jorge; Guzmán, María G; Guillén, Gerardo

    2003-08-29

    To characterize the effect of the envelope fragment fusion site in the P64k protein from Neisseria meningitidis several chimeric constructs were obtained. One variant consisted in the insertion of the E fragment from each Dengue serotype within the lipoil binding domain of the P64k, whereas the other was based on the fusion of the envelope fragment at the C-terminus of the same meningoccocal protein. The results of the expression study revealed the majoritary levels with the C-terminus fusion variants of each serotype. In contrast, the highest proportion of soluble protein was reached with the insertion variants independently of the viral serotype. On the other hand, a significant level of degradation was detected for the semipurified forms of the insertion variants being remarkable in the Dengue 2 construct. Finally, the recognition by Dengue murine antibodies was similar independently of the fusion site. Regarding these results, we can affirm the suitability of the C-terminus fusion variants for further vaccine development as well as for a diagnostic system.

  14. AIRS Storm Front Approaching California (animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the AIRS Storm Front Approaching California Animation

    NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument is able to peel back cloud cover to reveal 3-D structure of a storm's water vapor content, information that can be used to improve weather forecast models.

    In this animation the initial visible cloud image series shows a front moving toward the West Coast of the United States as a low pressure area moves into the Pacific Northwest. The 'Pineapple Express,' a stream of moisture that originates in the tropics South of Hawaii and usually crosses Mexico to enter New Mexico and Texas, has shifted Westward and is also visible moving into Baja California. The area preceding the front appears to be relatively clear in the visible images.

    As the view shifts from the visible to the infrared wavelengths which highlight water vapor, we see both cloud areas contain heavy burdens of moisture. The area which appears clear in the visible images is seen to contain water vapor near the coastline as well. The viewpoint then rotates so that we can see the vertical cross section of the fronts. The variability of the vertical extent of water vapor and the amount is now clearly visible. The storm moving in from the Gulf of Alaska is more heavily laden with water vapor than that moving in from the Southwest. The moisture is concentrated in the lower atmosphere. The colors indicate the amount of water vapor present. Blue areas denote low water vapor content; green areas are medium water vapor content; red areas signify high water vapor content. The vertical grid for the final frame ranges from 250 millibar pressure at the top to 1000 millibar pressure at the bottom. The top is about 10 km (6.2 miles) above the surface of the Earth.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in

  15. On two site-specific nitrite-sensing nanocomposites having a core-shell structure: Construction, characterization and sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadeerhazi, Muhetaer; Ali, Azam; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din

    2017-01-01

    This paper reported two site-specific nitrite-sensing nanocomposite samples having a core-shell structure, where Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used as core, two rhodamine derivatives served as chemosensor and MCM-41 was applied as supporting host, respectively. These composite samples and their structure were analyzed and confirmed SEM/TEM, XRD, N2 adsorption/desorption, magnetic feature, IR and thermogravimetric analysis. Their nitrite sensing performance was discussed based on emission quenching, with limit of detection as low as 1.2 μM. Detailed analysis suggested that these composite samples followed a static sensing mechanism based on an additive reaction between NO+ and chemosensors. After being quenched by nitrite, these samples could be recovered by sulphamic acid.

  16. Climatology of the 500-hPa mediterranean storms associated with Saudi Arabia wet season precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Kamil, S.; Ammar, K.; Keay, Kevin; Alamoudi, A. O.

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between the Mediterranean 500-hPa storm tracks and wet season (November-April) rainfall over Saudi Arabia is investigated. The analysis is based on the application of an objective tracking scheme to the 6-hourly 500-hPa geopotential height ERA-Interim dataset (0.75° × 0.75°) for the period 1979-2012. The resulting tracks are then associated with the ERA-Interim rainfall events over Saudi Arabia. The association procedure showed that 34 % of the tracks are related to about 70 % of the rainfall. These associated tracks are used to construct climatology. A climatology of these storm tracks revealed that the eastern Mediterranean region is the preferred location for cyclogenesis with a maximum in the southwest parts of the Black Sea. The study also examined the mean radius, average intensity and average depth of the storms. The number of tracks in winter (December-February) is about 60 % of the total number which confirms the major contribution of the Mediterranean storms to rainfall over Saudi Arabia. A significant negative trend was found for storm cyclogenesis over the central Mediterranean, and the Black sea. A significant trend decrease in track density is observed over most of the northern parts of Saudi Arabia. The peaks of storm activities are observed in December and January in 1996, 1997 and 2009. Storm activity generally declines after 2000, especially in the second half of the wet season months (February-April).

  17. Biomonitoring study of a constructed wetland site treating acid mine drainage. Research report, July 1990-June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, B.A.; Halverson, H.G.; Taylor, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from an underground coal mine in the Jones Branch watershed in McCreary County, KY, substantially reduced water quality in Jones Branch. Downstream from the mine seeps, the pH was routinely below 4.5 and concentrations of most heavy metals, especially iron, were elevated. A cattail wetland (1,022 m2) was constructed on Jones Branch in 1989 to obviate the effects of the AMD. Monthly chemical monitoring was performed on the water from above, from below, and from the 26 cells within the wetland. Based on chemical monitoring, the wetland initially improved water quality, increasing the pH and removing substantial amounts of heavy metals. Beginning in the spring of 1991, water quality at the wetland outfall began to decline, and has not improved to date. To augment the chemical monitoring, a biomonitoring study was initiated in the spring of 1990. Acute 48-hr. static tests were conducted with newly hatched fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Median lethal concentration (LC50) values determined monthly reflects the decline in water quality at the outfall over time.

  18. Effects of magnetic fields produced by simulated and real geomagnetic storms on rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Bretón, J. L.; Mendoza, B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we report experiments of arterial pressure (AP) measurements of ten Wistar rats subjected to geomagnetic field changes and to artificially stimulated magnetic field variations. Environmental electromagnetic effects were screened using a semianechoic chamber, which allowed us to discern the effects associated with geomagnetic storms. We stimulated the subjects with a linear magnetic profile constructed from the average changes of sudden storm commencement (SSC) and principal phases of geomagnetic storms measured between 1996 and 2008 with Dst ⩽ -100 nT. Although we found no statistically significant AP variations, statistically significant AP changes were found when a geomagnetic storm occurred during the experimental period. Using the observed geomagnetic storm variations to construct a geomagnetic profile to stimulate the rats, we found that the geomagnetic field variations associated to the SSC day were capable of increasing the subjects AP between 7% and 9% from the reference value. Under this magnetic variation, the subjects presented a notably restless behavior not seen under other conditions. We conclude that even very small changes in the geomagnetic field associated with a geomagnetic storm can produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response.

  19. The danger to satellites from meteor storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, M.; Brown, P.; Jones, J.; Webster, A. R.

    During past meteor storms impact probabilities of between 1 and 0.01 percent have be realized per 50m^2 of exposed surface area at altitudes corresponding to both GEO and LEO. The most likely meteoroid stream to yield a storm in the near future is that of the Leonids. Numerical simulations of the orbital evolution of hypothetical Leonid stream meteoroids suggest that storms may occur in the years 1999 and 2000.

  20. 76 FR 74776 - Forum-Trends in Extreme Winds, Waves, and Extratropical Storms Along the Coasts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Forum--Trends in Extreme Winds, Waves, and Extratropical... the forum Web site at https://sites.google.com/a/noaa.gov/extreme-winds-waves-extratropical-storms... this forum become available, they may be found at...

  1. On the watch for geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Arthur W.; Brown, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms, induced by solar activity, pose significant hazards to satellites, electrical power distribution systems, radio communications, navigation, and geophysical surveys. Strong storms can expose astronauts and crews of high-flying aircraft to dangerous levels of radiation. Economic losses from recent geomagnetic storms have run into hundreds of millions of dollars. With the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the lead agency, an international network of geomagnetic observatories monitors the onset of solar-induced storms and gives warnings that help diminish losses to military and commercial operations and facilities.

  2. Numerical Simulations of 1990 Saturn's Giant Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Melendo, E.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present here a study of the Saturn's 1990 equatorial major storm based on numerical simulations. Six planetary scale storms, nicknamed as Great White Spots (GWS) have been observed since the nineteenth century, three of them at the equatorial region in 1876 (~ +8º), 1933 (~ +2º), and 1990 (+12º), on the broad prograde equatorial jet where equatorial dynamics dominated producing a storm nucleus, with rapid expansion to the east and west to become a planetary-scale disturbance (Sánchez-Lavega, CHAOS 4, 341-353, 1994). We have detailed information, ground-based CCD imaging and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data, for the 1990 event. Numerical experiments on the 1990 storm indicate that the onset of the storm can only be reproduced if the Voyager era background zonal flow is used, which suggests that it dominated the circulation dynamics at the storm's outbreak region at that time. We review the possible impact of the 1990 storm on the equatorial jet, storm dynamics, and how it relates to the observed storm morphology and zonal wind measurements derived from HST observations (Barnet et al., Icarus 100, 499-511, 1992). Observations also describe the formation of equatorial planetary waves and instabilities during the disturbance. We discuss the impact of major energy and mass injection by a planetary-scale convective event on the equatorial dynamics following our simulation results.

  3. Observing storm surges from satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guoqi

    2016-07-01

    Storm surges can cause catastrophic damage to properties and loss of life in coastal communities. Thus it is important to enhance our capabilities of observing and forecasting storm surges for mitigating damage and loss. In this presentation we show examples of observing storm surges around the world using nadir satellite altimetry, during Hurricane Sandy, Igor, and Isaac, as well as other cyclone events. The satellite observations are evaluated against tide-gauge observations and discussed for dynamic mechanisms. We also show the potential of a new wide-swath altimetry mission, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), for observing storm surges.

  4. A Personal Storm Warning Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Although lightning detection systems operated by government agencies, utilities and other businesses provide storm warnings, this information often does not reach the public until some time after the observations have been made. A low-cost personal lightning detector offers a significant safety advantage to private flyers, boaters, golfers and others. Developed by Airborne Research Associates, the detectors originated in Space Shuttle tests of an optical lightning detection technique. The commercial device is pointed toward a cloud to detect invisible intracloud lightning by sensing subtle changes in light presence. The majority of the sales have been to golf courses. Additional products and more advanced applications are in progress.

  5. An assessment of site suitability for marina construction in Istanbul, Turkey, using GIS and AHP multicriteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Gumusay, Mustafa Umit; Koseoglu, Gokalp; Bakirman, Tolga

    2016-12-01

    Marinas play a key role in sea transportation and tourism. The problem of an insufficient marina capacity has revealed in terms of sea traffic due to the demographic structure and increasing tourism potential of Istanbul which is the biggest metropolitan city of Turkey and has around 600-km-long coastline. Therefore, the study area is mainly focused on the Marmara Sea shoreline of Istanbul. Rather than traditional methods, a rapid and cost-effective solution which considers natural and urban environment conditions is essential to satisfy the need for a marina site selection. Thanks to the latest improvements in geographic information systems, it is convenient to perform location selection analysis of marinas taking advantages of geology, land use, demography and accessibility data sets. The goal of this study is to define the areas that are appropriate for building marinas, with the use of topographic and demographic data in a present shoreline applying analytical hierarchy process multicriteria decision-making method. In this study, erosion, landslide, tsunami, land use, geologically hazardous areas, transfer lines, sea traffic data, neighbourhood scale population, age patterns and house income data have been used. Analytical hierarchy process method is used to give a weight to each data set, and a grading system has been developed for the area selection of marinas. The result maps of the analysis that show study area as classified into four categories from good to not suitable are presented. It is possible to create a decision support system for upper scale plans that enable authorities to perform analysis accurately, cost and time effectively using the proposed methodology that integrates multiple data sets with different scales and types.

  6. Dst of the Carrington storm of 1859

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siscoe, G.; Crooker, N. U.; Clauer, C. R.

    2006-01-01

    The super-storm of 1859 gives an opportunity to apply models to predict Dst that have been exercised mostly on non-extreme cases. The exercise gains significance through a Bombay magnetogram that Tsurutani et al. (2003) recently published showing a negative H excursion of ˜1600 nT, which is unprecedented for the latitude of the station, and which presents difficulties of interpretation if the negative excursion is taken to be equivalent to Dst. Following a suggestion by Li et al. (2006), we have replaced the original Bombay magnetogram, which has many points per hour during the interesting phase of the storm, by hourly averages, thereby constructing a time profile that is closer to a Dst profile as it is usually calculated. Then, the maximum H-depression is ˜-850 nT, which lies not so astonishingly outside the officially observed range. The Bombay magnetogram exhibits two major H-depressions, which we interpret to mean that the event was caused by a geoeffective ICME-sheath followed by a magnetic cloud across which the magnetic field rotated from north to south. On this interpretation, the ICME-sheath caused the extraordinary -1600 nT excursion in H. Then, the issue is whether this large excursion was produced by ionospheric currents (in which case it is not so exceptional) or by magnetospheric currents (in which case it is unprecedented)? To explore the second possibility, we use empirical models that relate the measured shock transit time to the ICME speed and peak magnetic field strength at 1 AU together with average pre-shock interplanetary conditions to construct geoeffective parameters throughout the ICME-sheath. We use the Burton et al. equation as modified by O'Brien and McPherron to calculate Dst. The resulting Dst profile lies reasonably close to hourly averaged Bombay magnetogram, especially if one uses the upper limit allowed for field strength in the ICME-sheath or if one discards the most extreme outlier of the Bombay measurements. We conclude that

  7. In the Eye of the Storm: A Participatory Course on Coastal Storms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Storm disasters are amplified in the coastal environment due to population pressures and the power of the sea. The upper-division/graduate university course "Coastal Storms" was designed to equip future practitioners with the skills necessary to understand, respond to, and mitigate for these natural disasters. To accomplish this, "Coastal Storms"…

  8. Techniques for estimation of storm-runoff loads, volumes, and selected constituent concentrations in urban watersheds in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, Nancy E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Urban planners and managers need information on the quantity of precipitation and the quality and quantity of run off in their cities and towns if they are to adequately plan for the effects of storm runoff from urban areas. As a result of this need, four sets of linear regression models were developed for estimating storm-runoff constituent loads, storm-runoff volumes, storm-runoff mean concentrations of constituents, and mean seasonal or mean annual constituent loads from physical, land-use, and climatic characteristics of urban watersheds in the United States. Thirty-four regression models of storm-runoff constituent loads and storm-runoff volumes were developed, and 31 models of storm-runoff mean concentrations were developed . Ten models of mean seasonal or mean annual constituent loads were developed by analyzing long-term storm-rainfall records using at-site linear regression models. Three statistically different regions, delineated on the basis of mean annual rainfall, were used to improve linear regression models where adequate data were available . Multiple regression analyses, including ordinary least squares and generalized least squares, were used to determine the optimum linear regression models . These models can be used to estimate storm-runoff constituent loads, storm-runoff volumes, storm-runoff mean concentrations of constituents, and mean seasonal or mean annual constituent loads at gaged and ungaged urban watersheds. The most significant explanatory variables in all linear regression models were total storm rainfall and total contributing drainage area. Impervious area, land-use, and mean annual climatic characteristics also were significant in some models. Models for estimating loads of dissolved solids, total nitrogen, and total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen generally were the most accurate, whereas models for suspended solids were the least accurate. The most accurate models were those for application in the more arid Western

  9. The relationship of storm severity to directionally resolved radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. O.; Bushman, M. L.; Sherrill, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Directionally resolved atmospheric radio frequency emission data were acquired from thunderstorms occurring in the central and southwestern United States. In addition, RF sferic tracking data were obtained from hurricanes and tropical depressions occurring in the Gulf of Mexico. The data were acquired using a crossed baseline phase interferometer operating at a frequency of 2.001 MHz. The received atmospherics were tested for phase linearity across the array, and azimuth/elevation angles of arrival were computed in real time. A histogram analysis of sferic burst count versus azimuth provided lines of bearing to centers of intense electrical activity. Analysis indicates a consistent capability of the phase linear direction finder to detect severe meteorological activity to distances of 2000 km from the receiving site. The technique evidences the ability to discriminate severe storms from nonsevere storms coexistent in large regional scale thunderstorm activity.

  10. Severe Local Storms Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Morgan, G. M.; Stel, F.

    2009-09-01

    Local storms always had a deep impact on people communities, mainly because of the severe damage caused, because of their unpredictability and, up to a few years ago, even because of the lack of knowledge and awareness on their physical origin. Because of this large impact on real life and on imagination, people needed and wanted to describe and report the occurrence of these events, giving them suited names. Often, these nouns are related to the myth developed to explain the cause of the events. In this work, a short presentation and description of the popular nouns used to describe severe local storm events in different areas of the World is given. Countries taken into account span from Italy, moving toward Africa and reaching a few communities of Native Americans. The etymology of the names gives interesting information, useful even under the anthropological point of view, on the Culture and Believes of the peoples who adopted them. This research work is the result of an underground activity carried out in the last ten years by the authors, during their contacts with students and researchers coming from different Countries and mainly met at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste.

  11. High-efficient photo-electron transport channel in SiC constructed by depositing cocatalysts selectively on specific surface sites for visible-light H2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Da; Peng, Yuan; Wang, Qi; Pan, Nanyan; Guo, Zhongnan; Yuan, Wenxia

    2016-04-01

    Control cocatalyst location on a metal-free semiconductor to promote surface charge transfer for decreasing the electron-hole recombination is crucial for enhancing solar energy conversion. Based on the findings that some metals have an affinity for bonding with the specific atoms of polar semiconductors at a heterostructure interface, we herein control Pt deposition selectively on the Si sites of a micro-SiC photocatalyst surface via in-situ photo-depositing. The Pt-Si bond forming on the interface constructs an excellent channel, which is responsible for accelerating photo-electron transfer from SiC to Pt and then reducing water under visible-light. The hydrogen production is enhanced by two orders of magnitude higher than that of bare SiC, and 2.5 times higher than that of random-depositing nano-Pt with the same loading amount.

  12. Tempered Stable Density Embedded in Precipitation Storm Properties from Climate Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, P.

    2015-12-01

    We decomposed precipitation time series at four sites in southwestern United States as sequences of average storm intensity, storm duration and inter-storm period. The analysis identified the tempered stable density embedded in the station precipitation record. However, whether this density is preserved in the projected precipitation and whether the stable index varies due to future climate change remain obscure. To address these questions, this study will evaluate the precipitation outputs from the selected Regional Climate Models in North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) and examine the ability of the precipitation projections to preserve the detected tempered stable density. This study will also investigate how the characteristics of the stable density will change in the future by comparing the parameters determined from NARCCAP historical runs and future runs. The final goal is to build a three-state continuous time random walk model to quantify extreme storm events that are critical to many hydrological and environmental issues.

  13. Mid-latitude storm track variability and its influence on atmospheric composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowland, K. E.; Doherty, R. M.; Hodges, K.

    2013-12-01

    Using the storm tracking algorithm, TRACK (Hodges, 1994, 1995, 1999), we have studied the behaviour of storm tracks in the North Atlantic basin, using 850-hPa relative vorticity from the ERA-Interim Re-analysis (Dee et al., 2011). We have correlated surface ozone measurements at rural coastal sites in Europe to the storm track data to explore the role mid-latitude cyclones and their transport of pollutants play in determining surface air quality in Western Europe. To further investigate this relationship, we have used the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition Climate (MACC) Re-analysis dataset (Inness et al., 2013) in TRACK. The MACC Re-analysis is a 10-year dataset which couples a chemistry transport model (Mozart-3; Stein 2009, 2012) to an extended version of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS). Storm tracks in the MACC Re-analysis compare well to the storm tracks using the ERA-Interim Re-analysis for the same 10-year period, as both are based on ECMWF IFSs. We also compare surface ozone values from MACC to surface ozone measurements previously studied. Using TRACK, we follow ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) through the life cycle of storms from North America to Western Europe. Along the storm tracks, we examine the distribution of CO and O3 within 6 degrees of the center of each storm and vertically at different pressure levels in the troposphere. We hope to better understand the mechanisms with which pollution is vented from the boundary layer to the free troposphere, as well as transport of pollutants to rural areas. Our hope is to give policy makers more detailed information on how climate variability associated with storm tracks between 1979-2013 may affect air quality in Northeast USA and Western Europe.

  14. NASA's 3-D Animation of Tropical Storm Ulika from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animated 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ulika using GPM's Radar data showed some strong convective storms inside the tropical storm were dropping precipitation at a rate of over 187 mm (7.4 inches)...

  15. Severe storms and local weather research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in the use of space related techniques to understand storms and local weather are summarized. The observation of lightning, storm development, cloud development, mesoscale phenomena, and ageostrophic circulation are discussed. Data acquisition, analysis, and the development of improved sensor and computer systems capability are described. Signal processing and analysis and application of Doppler lidar data are discussed. Progress in numerous experiments is summarized.

  16. The evaluation and management of electrical storm.

    PubMed

    Eifling, Michael; Razavi, Mehdi; Massumi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Electrical storm is an increasingly common and life-threatening syndrome that is defined by 3 or more sustained episodes of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or appropriate shocks from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator within 24 hours. The clinical presentation can be dramatic. Electrical storm can manifest itself during acute myocardial infarction and in patients who have structural heart disease, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or an inherited arrhythmic syndrome. The presence or absence of structural heart disease and the electrocardiographic morphology of the presenting arrhythmia can provide important diagnostic clues into the mechanism of electrical storm. Electrical storm typically has a poor outcome.The effective management of electrical storm requires an understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms, therapeutic options, device programming, and indications for radiofrequency catheter ablation. Initial management involves determining and correcting the underlying ischemia, electrolyte imbalances, or other causative factors. Amiodarone and β-blockers, especially propranolol, effectively resolve arrhythmias in most patients. Nonpharmacologic treatment, including radiofrequency ablation, can control electrical storm in drug-refractory patients. Patients who have implantable cardioverter-defibrillators can present with multiple shocks and may require drug therapy and device reprogramming. After the acute phase of electrical storm, the treatment focus should shift toward maximizing heart-failure therapy, performing revascularization, and preventing subsequent ventricular arrhythmias. Herein, we present an organized approach for effectively evaluating and managing electrical storm.

  17. Interactions Between Convective Storms and Their Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, R. A.; Hoxit, L. R.; Chappell, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    The ways in which intense convective storms interact with their environment are considered for a number of specific severe storm situations. A physical model of subcloud wind fields and vertical wind profiles was developed to explain the often observed intensification of convective storms that move along or across thermal boundaries. A number of special, unusually dense, data sets were used to substantiate features of the model. GOES imagery was used in conjunction with objectively analyzed surface wind data to develop a nowcast technique that might be used to identify specific storm cells likely to become tornadic. It was shown that circulations associated with organized meso-alpha and meso-beta scale storm complexes may, on occasion, strongly modify tropospheric thermodynamic patterns and flow fields.

  18. A rare case of thyroid storm.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Brock; Dhillon, Manvinder Shelley; Yong-Yow, Sabrina

    2016-04-18

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening state of thyroid hormone excess. Rapid recognition of thyroid storm is key to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of this condition. Clinical manifestations of thyroid storm include unexplained weight loss, hyperactivity and irritability. The most common causes of thyrotoxicosis are Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goitre and toxic adenoma. We present a rare case of thyroid storm induced by dual nivolumab and ipilimumab immunotherapy in a patient receiving treatment for advanced melanoma. In this case, our patient was admitted for thyroid storm 1 month after initiating treatment with nivolumab and ipilimumab immunotherapy. The patient was treated with β-blockers, antithyroid medications and systemic steroids resulting in an improvement in thyroid function testing and symptoms.

  19. Polarimetric radar characteristics of storms with and without lightning activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattos, Enrique V.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Williams, Earle R.; Albrecht, Rachel I.

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes the cloud microphysics in different layers of storms as a function of three-dimensional total lightning density. A mobile X-band polarimetric radar and very high frequency (VHF) sources from Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) observations during the 2011/2012 Brazil spring-summer were used to determine the microphysical signatures of radar vertical profiles and lightning density. This study quantified the behavior of 5.3 million vertical profiles of the horizontal reflectivity (ZH), differential reflectivity (ZDR), specific differential phase (KDP), and correlation coefficient (ρHV). The principal changes in the polarimetric variables occurred only for VHF source rate density greater than 14 VHF sources per km2 in 4 min. These storms showed an enhanced positive KDP in the mixed 1 layer (from 0 to -15°C) probably associated with supercooled liquid water signatures, whereas regions with negative ZDR and KDP and moderate ZH in the mixed 2 layer (from -15 to -40°C) were possibly associated with the presence of conical graupel. The glaciated (above -40°C) and upper part of the mixed 2 layers showed a significant trend to negative KDP with an increase in lightning density, in agreement with vertical alignment of ice particle by the cloud electric field. A conceptual model that presents the microphysical signatures in storms with and without lightning activity was constructed. The observations documented in this study provide an understanding of how the combinations of polarimetric variables could help to identify storms with different lightning density and vice versa.

  20. Water quality data for precipitation and storm runoff in Pennypack Creek Basin, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speight, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data on the chemistry of precipitation and storm runoff that were collected during 29 storms from July 1979 through November 1980, in an urban environment in the Pennypack Creek basin, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Daily mean and instantaneous stream discharge data were collected at two U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations. Water-quality data collected from these sites and from one storm-sewer sampling site included nutrients, chemical and biochemical oxygen demands, solids, metals, major anions, other constituents, and pH. Instantaneous loads of selected constituents were computed. Chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, sulfate, alkalinity, chloride, and dissolved solids generally were low in precipitation and runoff. During the November 5, 1980 storm at Pine Road, dissolved nitrate concentrations equaled or exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in 17 percent of the samples analyzed and dissolved ammonia nitrogen concentrations exceeded 2.5 milligrams per liter. Generally, a comparison of median concentration of copper, lead, or zinc in precipitation and runoff at the Tustin Street storm-sewer site showed that median concentrations in precipitation were greater than those in runoff.

  1. Probability of occurrence of planetary ionosphere storms associated with the magnetosphere disturbance storm time events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Arikan, F.; Stanislawska, I.

    2014-11-01

    The ionospheric W index allows to distinguish state of the ionosphere and plasmasphere from quiet conditions (W = 0 or ±1) to intense storm (W = ±4) ranging the plasma density enhancements (positive phase) or plasma density depletions (negative phase) regarding the quiet ionosphere. The global W index maps are produced for a period 1999-2014 from Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content, GIM-TEC, designed by Jet Propulson Laboratory, converted from geographic frame (-87.5:2.5:87.5° in latitude, -180:5:180° in longitude) to geomagnetic frame (-85:5:85° in magnetic latitude, -180:5:180° in magnetic longitude). The probability of occurrence of planetary ionosphere storm during the magnetic disturbance storm time, Dst, event is evaluated with the superposed epoch analysis for 77 intense storms (Dst ≤ -100 nT) and 230 moderate storms (-100 < Dst ≤ -50 nT) with start time, t0, defined at Dst storm main phase onset. It is found that the intensity of negative storm, iW-, exceeds the intensity of positive storm, iW+, by 1.5-2 times. An empirical formula of iW+ and iW- in terms of peak Dst is deduced exhibiting an opposite trends of relation of intensity of ionosphere-plasmasphere storm with regard to intensity of Dst storm.

  2. Storm Sudden Commencements Without Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Wooyeon; Lee, Jeongwoo; Yi, Yu; Ssessanga, Nicholas; Oh, Suyeon

    2015-09-01

    Storm sudden commencements (SSCs) occur due to a rapid compression of the Earth's magnetic field. This is generally believed to be caused by interplanetary (IP) shocks, but with exceptions. In this paper we explore possible causes of SSCs other than IP shocks through a statistical study of geomagnetic storms using SYM-H data provided by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism ? Kyoto and by applying a superposed epoch analysis to simultaneous solar wind parameters obtained with the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite. We select a total of 274 geomagnetic storms with minimum SYM-H of less than ?30nT during 1998-2008 and regard them as SSCs if SYM-H increases by more than 10 nT over 10 minutes. Under this criterion, we found 103 geomagnetic storms with both SSC and IP shocks and 28 storms with SSC not associated with IP shocks. Storms in the former group share the property that the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), proton density and proton velocity increase together with SYM-H, implying the action of IP shocks. During the storms in the latter group, only the proton density rises with SYM-H. We find that the density increase is associated with either high speed streams (HSSs) or interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), and suggest that HSSs and ICMEs may be alternative contributors to SSCs.

  3. long duration dust storm sequences on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera (MOC) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) Mars daily global maps have revealed new characteristics for long duration dust storm sequences. These dust storm sequences have long histories of more than a week, travel long distances out of their origination region, and influence large areas in different regions of the planet. During the Ls = 180 - 360 season, except for global dust storms which involve multiple remote dust lifting centers and generally expand explosively from the southern hemisphere northward, other long-lived dust storm sequences usually travel southward through the Acidalia-Chryse, Utopia-Isidis or Arcadia-Amazonis channels with subsequent dust lifting along the way. Sometimes, they penetrate remarkably deep to the southern high latitudes, producing fantastic display of dust band. During the rest of the year, long duration dust storm sequences usually originate from the Argyre/Solis, Hellas/Noachis, or Cimmeria/Sirenum area and travel northward toward the southern low latitudes. Each route exhibits its own peculiar characteristics. We will present our results about these long duration dust storm sequences summarized from the complete archive of MGS MOC daily global maps and two years of MRO MARCI daily global maps. The systematic daily nearly global coverage of these maps makes it feasible to reconstruct the history of long duration dust storm sequences with detail.

  4. In Brief: Cassini images Saturn storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-11-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has spotted an 8000-kilometer-wide, hurricane-like storm around Saturn's South Pole, NASA announced on 9 November. The storm has a dark `eye' at the South Pole along with eye-wall clouds and spiral arms, but it is not known if moist convection-the driver of hurricanes on Earth-drives the Saturn storm. A movie taken by Cassini's camera indicates that the winds are blowing clockwise at about 560 kilometers per hour. Although large storms have been observed on other planets in the past-most notably, Jupiter's Great Red Spot-this is the first storm found to have eye-wall clouds and a relatively calm center. Andrew Ingersoll, a member of Cassini's imaging team at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, said the storm looks like a hurricane but is not behaving like one. ``Whatever it is, we are going to focus on the eye of this storm and find out why it is there.''

  5. Stability of subsea pipelines during large storms

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Scott; An, Hongwei; Cheng, Liang; White, David J.; Griffiths, Terry

    2015-01-01

    On-bottom stability design of subsea pipelines transporting hydrocarbons is important to ensure safety and reliability but is challenging to achieve in the onerous metocean (meteorological and oceanographic) conditions typical of large storms (such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons). This challenge is increased by the fact that industry design guidelines presently give no guidance on how to incorporate the potential benefits of seabed mobility, which can lead to lowering and self-burial of the pipeline on a sandy seabed. In this paper, we demonstrate recent advances in experimental modelling of pipeline scour and present results investigating how pipeline stability can change in a large storm. An emphasis is placed on the initial development of the storm, where scour is inevitable on an erodible bed as the storm velocities build up to peak conditions. During this initial development, we compare the rate at which peak near-bed velocities increase in a large storm (typically less than 10−3 m s−2) to the rate at which a pipeline scours and subsequently lowers (which is dependent not only on the storm velocities, but also on the mechanism of lowering and the pipeline properties). We show that the relative magnitude of these rates influences pipeline embedment during a storm and the stability of the pipeline. PMID:25512592

  6. Storm surges and climate change implications for tidal marshes: Insight from the San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Swanson, Kathleen; Takekawa, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal marshes are dynamic ecosystems, which are influenced by oceanic and freshwater processes and daily changes in sea level. Projected sea-level rise and changes in storm frequency and intensity will affect tidal marshes by altering suspended sediment supply, plant communities, and the inundation duration and depth of the marsh platform. The objective of this research was to evaluate if regional weather conditions resulting in low-pressure storms changed tidal conditions locally within three tidal marshes. We hypothesized that regional storms will increase sea level heights locally, resulting in increased inundation of the tidal marsh platform and plant communities. Using site-level measurements of elevation, plant communities, and water levels, we present results from two storm events in 2010 and 2011 from the San Francisco Bay Estuary (SFBE), California, USA. The January 2010 storm had the lowest recorded sea level pressure in the last 30 years for this region. During the storm episodes, the duration of tidal marsh inundation was 1.8 and 3.1 times greater than average for that time of year, respectively. At peak storm surges, over 65% in 2010 and 93% in 2011 of the plant community was under water. We also discuss the implications of these types of storms and projected sea-level rise on the structure and function of the tidal marshes and how that will impact the hydro-geomorphic processes and marsh biotic communities.

  7. Performance of a pilot demonstration-scale hybrid constructed wetland system for on-site treatment of polluted urban river water in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yucong; Wang, Xiaochang C; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Ge, Yuan; Zhao, Yaqian; Xiong, Jiaqing

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid constructed wetland (HCW) systems have been used to treat various wastewaters across the world. However, large-scale applications of HCWs are scarce, particularly for on-site improvement of the water quality of highly polluted urban rivers in semi-arid regions. In this study, a large pilot-scale HCW system was constructed to improve the water quality of the Zaohe River in Xi'an, China. With a total area of about 8000 m(2), the pilot HCW system, composed of different configurations of surface and subsurface flow wetlands, was operated for 2 years at an average inflow volume rate of 362 m(3)/day. Local Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis from the riverbank were planted in the HCW system. Findings indicate a higher treatment efficiency for organics and suspended solids than nutrients. The inflow concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN), NH3-N, and total phosphorus (TP) were 125.6, 350.9, 334.2, 38.5, 27.2, and 3.9 mg/L, respectively. Average removal efficiencies of 94.4, 74.5, 92.0, 56.3, 57.5, and 69.2%, respectively, were recorded. However, the pollutant removal rates were highly seasonal especially for nitrogen. Higher removals were recorded for all pollutants in the autumn while significantly lower removals were recorded in the winter. Plant uptake and assimilation accounted for circa 19-29 and 16-23% of the TN and TP removal, respectively. Moreover, P. australis demonstrated a higher nutrient uptake ability and competitive potential. Overall, the high efficiency of the pilot HCW for improving the water quality of such a highly polluted urban river provided practical evidence of the applicability of the HCW technology for protecting urban water environments.

  8. Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority regional waste management center at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a landfill and technology center for regionally-generated municipal solid waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The facility would serve the municipal solid waste disposal needs for SRS and at least nine of the surrounding counties who currently comprise the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority (TRSWA). Additional counties could become included in the proposed action at some future date. Current Federal and state requirements do not afford individual counties and municipalities within the region encompassing SRS the ability to efficiently or economically operate modern waste management facilities. In addition, consolidation of regional municipal solid waste at one location would have the benefit of reducing the duplicity of environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of county-level facilities. The option to seek a combined disposal and technology development facility based on a regionally-cooperative effort was selected as a viable alternative to the existing individual SRS or county disposal activities. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Part 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS).

  9. Storm water management: Potential for lower cost & more benefits if farmers & municipalities cooperate on tile drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common approach to protect communities from the ravages of stream flooding is to construct storm water retention basins upstream from the property to be protected. Retention basins are an expensive solution and often take valuable agricultural land out of production. Improved drainage of agricultu...

  10. Characteristics of the overflow pollution of storm drains with inappropriate sewage entry.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hailong; Lu, Yi; Xu, Zuxin; Li, Huaizheng; Schwegler, Benedict R

    2017-02-01

    To probe the overflow pollution of separate storm drains with inappropriate sewage entries, in terms of the relationship between sewage entries and the corresponding dry-weather and wet-weather overflow, the monitoring activities were conducted in a storm drainage system in the Shanghai downtown area (374 ha). In this study site, samples from inappropriately entered dry-weather sewage and the overflow due to storm pumps operation on dry-weather and wet-weather days were collected and then monitored for six water quality constituents. It was found that overflow concentrations of dry-weather period could be higher than those of wet-weather period; under wet-weather period, the overflow concentrations of storm drains were close to or even higher than that of combined sewers. Relatively strong first flush mostly occurred under heavy rain that satisfied critical rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity, and maximum pumping discharge, while almost no first flush effect or only weak first flush effect was found for the other rainfall events. Such phenomenon was attributed to lower in-line pipe storage as compared to that of the combined sewers, and serious sediment accumulation within the storm pipes due to sewage entry. For this kind of system, treating a continuous overflow rate is a better strategy than treating the maximum amount of early part of the overflow. Correcting the key inappropriate sewage entries into storm drains should also be focused.

  11. Dust Storms: Why Are Dust Storms a Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Silo Beach Brownfield Cesspool Chemical Storage Tank Climate Change Coal-Fired Power Plants Coastal Brownfield Construction Crop ... to months. Drier conditions projected to result from climate change in the Southwest will likely lead to increased ...

  12. Reduced Baroclinicity During Martian Global Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battalio, Joseph; Szunyogh, Istvan; Lemmon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The eddy kinetic energy equation is applied to the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) dataset during the pre-winter solstice period for the northern hemisphere of Mars. Traveling waves are triggered by geopotential flux convergence, grow baroclinically, and decay barotropically. Higher optical depth increases the static stability, which reduces vertical and meridional heat fluxes. Traveling waves during a global dust storm year develop a mixed baroclinic/barotropic growth phase before decaying barotropically. Baroclinic energy conversion is reduced during the global dust storm, but eddy intensity is undiminished. Instead, the frequency of storms is reduced due to a stabilized vertical profile.

  13. Desert Shield and Desert Storm Emerging Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-07

    becomes much more apparent over relatively flat terrain. d. Recommended or Ongoing Action. The M577 CPV is scheduled to yo through a system conversion to...STORM Vehicle exchange policy at maintenanfce points. 9? 40115 4f996 (0017?) DESERT STORM Fretracide, peor ommunication. poor flank ceerdihutien. 24...02413 fll% yo (00M) DEIil SIONM Distribut ion of Wcom arM Iaf amon units 4??44 INAI8 (002 n) TILSll STORM Pro-combat trainfig V4 14145 U’,411 (00276

  14. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2002-08-23

    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  15. Relation of precipitation quality to storm type, and deposition of dissolved chemical constituents from precipitation in Massachusetts, 1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, F.B.; Melching, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Precipitation samples were collected for 83 storms at a rural inland site in Princeton, Mass., and 73 storms at a rural coastal site in Truro, Mass., to examine the quality of precipitation from storms and relate quality to three storm types (oceanic cyclone, continental cyclone, and cold front). At the inland site, Princeton, ranked-means of precipitation depth, storm duration, specific conductance, and concentrations and loads of hydrogen, sulfate, aluminum, bromide, and copper ions were affected by storm type. At the coastal site, Truro, ranked means of precipitation depth, storm duration, and concentrations and loads of calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, and sodium ions were affected by storm type. Precipitation chemistry at the coastal site was 85 percent oceanic in orgin, whereas precipitation 72 kilometers inland was 60 percent hydrogen, nitrate, and sulfate ions, reflecting fossil-fuel combustion. Concentrations and loads for specific conductance and 9 chemical constituents on an annual and seasonal basis were determined from National Atmospheric Deposition Program data for spring 1983 through winter 1985 at Quabbin (rural, inland), Waltham (suburban, inland) and Truro (rural, coastal), Massachusetts. Concentrations of magnesium, potassium, sodium, and chloride concentrations were highest at the coast and much lower inland, with very little difference between Waltham and Quabbin. Loads of ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen are highest at Quabbin and are about equal at Waltham and Truro. About twice as much nitrate and hydrogen and about 35 percent more sulfate is deposited at Quabbin than at Waltham or Truro; this pattern indicates that the interior of Massachusetts receives more acidic precipitation than do the eastern or the coastal areas of Massachusetts.

  16. Synoptic and Mesoscale Aspects of Ice Storms in the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, C.; Bosart, L. F.; Keyser, D.; Quinlan, J.; Lipton, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ice storms are among the most hazardous, disruptive, and costly meteorological phenomena in the United States. The accretion of freezing rain during ice storms endangers human lives, undermines public infrastructure, and adversely impacts local and regional economies. Previous studies have demonstrated that the northeastern U.S. is especially susceptible to damaging ice storms. Furthermore, ice storms present a major operational forecast challenge due to the combined influence of synoptic, mesoscale, and microphysical processes on precipitation type. In consideration of these societal impacts and forecast issues, we have constructed a 17-cool-season climatology (Oct 1993-April 2010) of ice storms in the northeastern U.S., and performed composite and case study analyses to: 1) determine antecedent environments conducive to ice storms, and 2) identify dynamical mechanisms responsible for freezing rain. Using the National Climatic Data Center's Storm Events Database, we established a history of ice storms affecting 14 National Weather Service (NWS) county warning areas (CWAs) within the domain of the Northeast Regional Climate Center. First, we evaluated the temporal and spatial variability of ice storms during the 1993-2010 period. Next, we generated synoptic composites from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and examined how large-scale circulation patterns and associated quasi-geostrophic (QG) forcing, thermal boundaries, and moisture transport establish environments favorable for freezing rain in each NWS CWA. For the purpose of this presentation, we have only included the composite analysis of events impacting the Albany, NY, CWA. Although freezing rain typically occurs under preferred synoptic conditions, mesoscale processes determine the persistence of freezing rain events by modifying synoptic-scale circulations and associated QG forcing on regional and local scales. Therefore, a multiscale analysis is necessary to diagnose important synoptic-mesoscale circulation

  17. Wind tunnel tests of biodegradable fugitive dust suppressants being considered to reduce soil erosion by wind at radioactive waste construction sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Dennis, G.W.; Bushaw, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed of three fugitive dust control agents derived from potato and sugar beet products. These materials are being considered for use as dust suppressants to reduce the potential for transport of radioactive materials by wind from radioactive waste construction and remediation sites. Soil and dust control agent type, solution concentrations, application quantities, aging (or drying) conditions, surface disturbance, and wind and saltating sand eolian erosive stresses were selected and controlled to simulate application and exposure of excavated soil surfaces in the field. A description of the tests, results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this report. The results of this study indicate that all three dust control agents can protect exposed soil surfaces from extreme eolian stresses. It is also clear that the interaction and performance of each agent with various soil types may differ dramatically. Thus, soils similar to that received from ML should be best protected by high concentration ({approximately}2.5%) solutions of potato starch at low water application levels ({approximately}1 to 2 L/m{sup 2}). Because the effectiveness of PS on this soil type is degraded after a moderate amount of simulated rainfall, other options or additives should be considered if surfaces are to be protected for long intervals or during periods of intermittent rainfall and hot, windy conditions. On the other hand, XDCA should be considered when excavating sandy soils. It should be noted, however, that because the Hanford soil test results are based on a small number of tests, it would be prudent to perform additional tests prior to selecting a fugitive dust control agent for use at the Hanford Site. While fermented potato waste was not the best fixative used on either soil, it did perform reasonably well on both soil types (better than XDCA on Idaho soil and better than PS on Hanford soil).

  18. Impact of operational maintenance on the asset life of storm reed beds.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, D P L; Horton, D; Griffin, P; Vanrolleghem, P A; De Pauw, N

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the operation of storm reed beds to determine whether the current system of operational maintenance is contributing to premature process failures and if not, to identify other factors of importance. Twelve storm reed beds of the horizontal subsurface flow type, at seven locations in the South Warwickshire area of the United Kingdom, were surveyed. Each survey consisted of a site visit, an interview with the operators in charge and an assessment of the treatment performance based on routine monitoring data. Although some sites suffered from varying degrees of sludge accumulation, surface blinding and/or weed growth, all effluent concentrations remained far below the consent levels. Thorough operational maintenance on a reed bed is proven to be important for the asset life. However, there are other factors or features of a reed bed that play a more pivotal role in premature process failure such as the lack of pretreatment and a premature operation of the storm overflow.

  19. Identification of Critical Vulnerable Areas During a Typhoon Haiyan Event in the Metro Manila Area Using Storm Surge Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briones, J. B. L. T.; Puno, J. V.; Lapidez, J. P. B.; Muldong, T. M. M.; Ramos, M. M.; Caro, C. V.; Ladiero, C.; Bahala, M. A.; Suarez, J. K. B.; Santiago, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Sudden rises in sea water over and above astronomical tides due to an approaching storm are known as storm surges. The development of an early warning system for storm surges is imperative, due to the high threat level of these events; Typhoon Haiyan in 08 November 2013 generated storm surges that caused casualties of over 6,000. Under the Department of Science and Technology, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (DOST - Project NOAH) was tasked to generate storm surge hazard maps for all the coastal areas in the Philippines. The objective of this paper is to create guidelines on how to utilize the storm surge hazard map as a tool for planning and disaster mitigation. This study uses the case of the hypothetical situation in which a tropical storm with an intensity similar to Typhoon Haiyan hits Metro Manila. This site was chosen for various reasons, among them the economic, political, and cultural importance of Metro Manila as the location of the capital of the Philippines and the coastal bay length of the area. The concentration of residential areas and other establishments were also taken into account. Using the Japan Meteorology Association (JMA) Storm Surge Model, FLO-2D flood modelling software and the application of other GIS technology, the impact of Haiyan-strength typhoon passing through Manila was analysed. We were able to identify the population affected, number of affected critical facilities under each storm surge hazard level, and possible evacuation sites. The results of the study can be used as the basis of policies involving disaster response and mitigation by city authorities. The methods used by the study can be used as a replicable framework for the analysis of other sites in the Philippines.

  20. 78 FR 5715 - Construction and Maintenance-Culvert Pipe Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... autonomy to determine culvert and storm sewer material types to be included in the construction of a... 1525 of MAP-21, ``State Autonomy for Culvert Pipe Selection,'' requires the Secretary of Transportation... 23 CFR, to ensure that States shall have the autonomy to determine culvert and storm sewer...

  1. Stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands, and other best management practices as potential breeding sites for West Nile virus vectors in Delaware during 2004.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Jack B; Anderson, Robert D; Williams, Gregory M; O'Connor, Linda; Harkins, Kevin

    2006-06-01

    We performed longitudinal surveys of mosquito larval abundance (mean mosquito larvae per dip) in 87 stormwater ponds and constructed wetland in Delaware from June to September 2004. We analyzed selected water quality factors, water depth, types of vegetation, degree of shade, and level of insect predation in relation to mosquito abundance. The 2004 season was atypical, with most ponds remaining wet for the entire summer. In terms of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors, wetlands predominantly produce Aedes vexans, culex pipiens pipiens, and Culex restuans. Retention ponds generally produced the same species as wetlands, except that Cx. p. pipiens was more abundant than Cx. restuans in retention ponds. Aedes vexans and Culex salinarius were the most abundant species to Conservation Restoration Enhancement Program ponds. Sand filters uniquely produced high numbers of Cx. restuans, Cx. p. pipiens, and Aedes japonicus japonicus, a newly invasive vector species. Site that alternately dried and flooded, mostly detention ponds, forebays of retention ponds, and some wetlands often produced Ae. vexans, an occasional WNV bridge vector species. Overall, seasonal distribution of vectors was bimodal, with peaks occurring during early and late summer. Ponds with shallow sides and heavy shade generally produced an abundance of mosquitoes, unless insect predators were abundant. Bright, sunny ponds with steep sides and little vegetation generally produced the fewest mosquitoes. The associations among mosquito species and selected vegetation types are discussed.

  2. The Mediterranean Benthic Herbivores Show Diverse Responses to Extreme Storm Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Pagès, Jordi F.; Gera, Alessandro; Romero, Javier; Farina, Simone; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni; Hereu, Bernat; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic storms have been observed to be one of the major elements in shaping the standing structure of marine benthic ecosystems. Yet, little is known about the effect of catastrophic storms on ecosystem processes. Specifically, herbivory is the main control mechanism of macrophyte communities in the Mediterranean, with two main key herbivores: the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the fish Sarpa salpa. Consequently, the effects of extreme storm events on these two herbivores (at the population level and on their behaviour) may be critical for the functioning of the ecosystem. With the aim of filling this gap, we took advantage of two parallel studies that were conducted before, during and after an unexpected catastrophic storm event. Specifically, fish and sea urchin abundance were assessed before and after the storm in monitored fixed areas (one site for sea urchin assessment and 3 sites for fish visual transects). Additionally, we investigated the behavioural response to the disturbance of S. salpa fishes that had been tagged with acoustic transmitters. Given their low mobility, sea urchins were severely affected by the storm (ca. 50% losses) with higher losses in those patches with a higher density of sea urchins. This may be due to a limited availability of refuges within each patch. In contrast, fish abundance was not affected, as fish were able to move to protected areas (i.e. deeper) as a result of the high mobility of this species. Our results highlight that catastrophic storms differentially affect the two dominant macroherbivores of rocky macroalgal and seagrass systems due to differences in mobility and escaping strategies. This study emphasises that under catastrophic disturbances, the presence of different responses among the key herbivores of the system may be critical for the maintenance of the herbivory function. PMID:23667512

  3. The Mediterranean benthic herbivores show diverse responses to extreme storm disturbances.

    PubMed

    Pagès, Jordi F; Gera, Alessandro; Romero, Javier; Farina, Simone; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni; Hereu, Bernat; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic storms have been observed to be one of the major elements in shaping the standing structure of marine benthic ecosystems. Yet, little is known about the effect of catastrophic storms on ecosystem processes. Specifically, herbivory is the main control mechanism of macrophyte communities in the Mediterranean, with two main key herbivores: the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the fish Sarpa salpa. Consequently, the effects of extreme storm events on these two herbivores (at the population level and on their behaviour) may be critical for the functioning of the ecosystem. With the aim of filling this gap, we took advantage of two parallel studies that were conducted before, during and after an unexpected catastrophic storm event. Specifically, fish and sea urchin abundance were assessed before and after the storm in monitored fixed areas (one site for sea urchin assessment and 3 sites for fish visual transects). Additionally, we investigated the behavioural response to the disturbance of S. salpa fishes that had been tagged with acoustic transmitters. Given their low mobility, sea urchins were severely affected by the storm (ca. 50% losses) with higher losses in those patches with a higher density of sea urchins. This may be due to a limited availability of refuges within each patch. In contrast, fish abundance was not affected, as fish were able to move to protected areas (i.e. deeper) as a result of the high mobility of this species. Our results highlight that catastrophic storms differentially affect the two dominant macroherbivores of rocky macroalgal and seagrass systems due to differences in mobility and escaping strategies. This study emphasises that under catastrophic disturbances, the presence of different responses among the key herbivores of the system may be critical for the maintenance of the herbivory function.

  4. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall...

  5. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall...

  6. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall...

  7. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall...

  8. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall...

  9. The 1973 dust storm on Mars: Maps from hourly photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hourly progress of the 1973 major Martian storm was mapped using photographic images from the International Planetary Patrol. Two series of 20 daily maps show the semi-hourly positions of the storm brightenings in red light and blue light. The maps indicate that the 1973 storm had many similarities to the 1971 storm.

  10. Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission Trailer

    NASA Video Gallery

    With launch scheduled for 2012, the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) are two identical spacecraft that will investigate the doughnut shaped Van Allen radiation belts, the first discovery of the sp...

  11. Rainfall Totals Over Storm Life of Matthew

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the amount of rainfall dropped by Hurricane Matthew over the life and track of the storm/ IMERG real time data covering the period from Sept. 28 through Oct. 10, 2016 show rain...

  12. Satellite Movie Sees Southern California Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation NOAA's GOES-West satellite imagery from Jan. 5 through Jan 7 shows the progression of storm systems in the Eastern Pacific Ocean that hit southern California and generated flooding a...

  13. Satellite Sees Birth of Tropical Storm Gordon

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations from August 13-16, 2012, shows the birth of the Atlantic Ocean hurricane season's eighth tropical depression that strengthens into Tropical Storm Gordon. This...

  14. GMI Rainfall Data on Tropical Storm Adjali

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows GMI rainfall data on Tropical Storm Adjali on Nov. 19, 2014 combined with cloud data from the METEOSAT-7 satellite. Rainfall was found to be falling at a rate of over 69 mm/hr ...

  15. Quantifying Power Grid Risk from Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homeier, N.; Wei, L. H.; Gannon, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    We are creating a statistical model of the geophysical environment that can be used to quantify the geomagnetic storm hazard to power grid infrastructure. Our model is developed using a database of surface electric fields for the continental United States during a set of historical geomagnetic storms. These electric fields are derived from the SUPERMAG compilation of worldwide magnetometer data and surface impedances from the United States Geological Survey. This electric field data can be combined with a power grid model to determine GICs per node and reactive MVARs at each minute during a storm. Using publicly available substation locations, we derive relative risk maps by location by combining magnetic latitude and ground conductivity. We also estimate the surface electric fields during the August 1972 geomagnetic storm that caused a telephone cable outage across the middle of the United States. This event produced the largest surface electric fields in the continental U.S. in at least the past 40 years.

  16. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  17. GPM Flyby of Tropical Storm Dineo

    NASA Video Gallery

    This flyby animation of rainfall data within Tropical Cyclone Dineo was taken from NASA/JAXA's GPM satellite on Feb.16. Storms over Swaziland were dropping precipitation at a rate of over 86 mm (3....

  18. Tropical Storm Wali Seen by GOESWest

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of infrared and visible imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from July 15 to 18 shows the birth of Tropical Storm Wali southeast of the Big Island of Hawaii on July 17. Credit: NA...

  19. Tropical Storm Gil - July 31, 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite traveled above intensifying Tropical Storm Gil on July 31 at 12:55 a.m. EDT. The TRMM satellite pass showed that Gil was already very well organized with intense bands of rain...

  20. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...