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Sample records for consumption agrupamientos homogeneos

  1. Lean consumption.

    PubMed

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  2. Caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Barone, J J; Roberts, H R

    1996-01-01

    Scientific literature cites a wide range of values for caffeine content in food products. The authors suggest the following standard values for the United States: coffee (5 oz) 85 mg for ground roasted coffee, 60 mg for instant and 3 mg for decaffeinated; tea (5 oz): 30 mg for leaf/bag and 20 mg for instant; colas: 18 mg/6 oz serving; cocoa/hot chocolate: 4 mg/5 oz; chocolate milk: 4 mg/6 oz; chocolate candy: 1.5-6.0 mg/oz. Some products from the United Kingdom and Denmark have higher caffeine content. Caffeine consumption survey data are limited. Based on product usage and available consumption data, the authors suggest a mean daily caffeine intake for US consumers of 4 mg/kg. Among children younger than 18 years of age who are consumers of caffeine-containing foods, the mean daily caffeine intake is about 1 mg/kg. Both adults and children in Denmark and UK have higher levels of caffeine intake. PMID:8603790

  3. Optimal Consumption When Consumption Takes Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Norman C.

    2009-01-01

    A classic article by Gary Becker (1965) showed that when it takes time to consume, the first order conditions for optimal consumption require the marginal rate of substitution between any two goods to equal their relative full costs. These include the direct money price and the money value of the time needed to consume each good. This important…

  4. Bat consumption in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption. PMID:26806167

  5. Energy-consumption modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  6. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  7. Human Biomass Consumption

    NASA Video Gallery

    Humans are using an increasing amount of Earth’s annual production of plants. Research shows that, from 1995 to 2005, consumption rose from 20 to 25 percent of the planet's annual production. Wha...

  8. Rituals enhance consumption.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Wang, Yajin; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2013-09-01

    Four experiments tested the novel hypothesis that ritualistic behavior potentiates and enhances ensuing consumption--an effect found for chocolates, lemonade, and even carrots. Experiment 1 showed that participants who engaged in ritualized behavior, compared with those who did not, evaluated chocolate as more flavorful, valuable, and deserving of behavioral savoring. Experiment 2 demonstrated that random gestures do not boost consumption as much as ritualistic gestures do. It further showed that a delay between a ritual and the opportunity to consume heightens enjoyment, which attests to the idea that ritual behavior stimulates goal-directed action (to consume). Experiment 3 found that performing a ritual oneself enhances consumption more than watching someone else perform the same ritual, suggesting that personal involvement is crucial for the benefits of rituals to emerge. Finally, Experiment 4 provided direct evidence of the underlying process: Rituals enhance the enjoyment of consumption because of the greater involvement in the experience that they prompt.

  9. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  10. Raw Milk Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of “good” bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any “protective” effect. PMID:27340300

  11. Energy and resource consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  12. Intergenerational Linkages in Consumption Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldkirch, Andreas; Ng, Serena; Cox, Donald

    2004-01-01

    We investigate familial relationships in consumption patterns using a sample of parents and their children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We find a positive and statistically significant parent-specific effect on children's consumption even after controlling for the effect of parental income. This correlation is found in different…

  13. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  14. Soy consumption during menopause.

    PubMed

    Bolca, S; Bracke, M; Depypere, H

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, the life expectancy of women is currently extending more than 30 years beyond the age of menopause. The menopausal transition is often associated with complaints. The conflicting results on the effectivity of phytoestrogens to alleviate menopausal symptoms. This discrepancy in treatment effect may be due to the large interindividual variation in isoflavone bioavailability in general and equol production in particular. Equol, a microbial metabolite of daidzein, has been hypothesized as a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones, but only about 30-50% of the population harbor an intestinal microbial ecosystem supporting the conversion of daidzein into equol. There is much concern on breast cancer, since this incidence of this disease increases with age. There is indication that soy phytoestrogens may decrease this breast cancer incidence. In order to evaluate the estrogenic potential of these exposure levels, we studied the isoflavone-derived E2α- and E2β-equivalents (i.e. 17β-estradiol (E2)-equivalents towards ERα and ERβ, respectively) in human breast tissue. Total isoflavones showed a breast adipose/glandular tissue distribution of 40/60 and their derived E2β-equivalents exceeded on average 21 ± 4 and 40 ± 10 times the endogenous E2 concentrations in corresponding adipose and glandular biopsies, respectively, whereas the E2α/E2 ratios were 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.2 in adipose and glandular breast tissue, respectively. These calculations suggest that, at least in this case, soy consumption could elicit partial ERβ agonistic effects in human breast tissue. We are currently characterizing the differential activation of estrogen-responsive genes between dietary isoflavones, the chemopreventive selective ER modulators tamoxifen and raloxifene and exogenous estrogens in a controlled dietary intervention trial that integrates data on the exposure to estrogenically active compounds, expression of isoflavone

  15. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied.

  16. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied. PMID:16584970

  17. Influence of Educational Attainment on Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuemin; He, Youning

    2007-01-01

    In market economy, man is both the essential productive factor and the consuming subject. Education promotes the two aspects. As shown by investigations on the influence of educational attainment on consumption, education has great influences on people's consumption level, consumption structure, consumption modes and consumption concepts. The…

  18. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations. PMID:23429423

  19. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  20. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  1. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  2. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  3. EEG, ERPs and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L D; Polich, J

    1998-06-01

    Baseline electroencephalographic (EEG) and auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were assessed in subjects before and after consuming food and under eyes open and closed recording conditions in an attempt to replicate and extend previous food--ERP effects. Subjects were assessed the morning after fasting from the previous night, before and after eating a standard lunch. Delta- band EEG spectral power decreased and theta- and early alpha-band frequency increased after food consumption. However, in contrast to previous reports, P300 amplitude was unaffected by food consumption and peak latency increased. The strength of the correlational association between background EEG activity and P300 measures decreased for the delta- and theta- bands, but increased for the early and late alpha- bands. The findings suggest that food consumption affects general arousal, rather than specific cognitive EEG or ERP factors and are discussed with respect to previous EEG-ERP findings on food intake.

  4. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  5. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  6. Consumption: Challenge to sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.

    1997-04-04

    This editorial about sustainable development points to consumption as one of the four interlinked global problems including population, environment, and development, and the least tractable of the four. Consumption patterns and expectations are deeply entrenched in most cultures, and hard to change, though change will come whether by design or defaults. Among the topics commented on are artificially priced fossil fuels, toxic pollutants, use of nonrenewable resources, etc. Also discussed are policy options and the role of science. A response is included. 21 refs.

  7. Raw milk consumption and health.

    PubMed

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market.

  8. Food consumption trends and drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the ‘nutrition transition’ that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment. PMID:20713385

  9. Caffeine Consumption by College Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Wing Hong

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 542 undergraduates concerning their caffeine consumption. Found that subjects consumed less caffeine than average caffeine-drinking population. Coffee was main beverage used. Subjects reported drinking more caffeine when preparing for examinations. Suggests that caffeine may have some beneficial effects on learning. (Author/NB)

  10. Resource Consumption of the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKitric, Eloise J.

    This study examines the consumption of resources by retired persons by distinguishing between institutionally controlled resources (social security, medicare, prescription discounts, medicaid, heating subsidy, supplemental security income, veterans' benefits, disability income, and meals-on-wheels) and personally controlled resources (gardens,…

  11. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating. PMID:19519674

  12. Fuel consumption in optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Jim; Silverberg, Larry

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for comparing three optimal control strategies based on fuel consumption. A general cost function minimization procedure was developed by applying two theorems associated with convex sets. Three cost functions associated with control saturation, pseudofuel, and absolute fuel are introduced and minimized. The first two cost functions led to the bang-bang and continuous control strategies, and the minimization of absolute fuel led to an impulsive strategy. The three control strategies were implemented on two elementary systems and a comparison of fuel consumption was made. The impulse control strategy consumes significantly less fuel than the continuous and bang-bang control strategies. This comparison suggests a potential for fuel savings in higher-order systems using impulsive control strategies. However, since exact solutions to fuel-optimal control for large-order systems are difficult if not impossible to achieve, the alternative is to develop near-optimal control strategies.

  13. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  14. [Alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Adriano Antonio da Silva; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de

    2011-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widely encouraged by the mass media, despite the related health risks. Today's students in the health fields are the professionals of tomorrow who will be providing advice and serving as role models for patients. The aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption and related factors among these students. A total of 608 male and female university students from Maceió, the capital of Alagoas State, Brazil, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Poisson regression and multinomial logistic models. Prevalence of lifetime use of alcohol was 90.4%. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.3% in men and 6.1% in women. Heavier alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse were observed in males, older students, non-natives of Maceió, smokers, and those exposed to alcohol advertising. The results emphasized the vulnerability of these young people to risky health behaviors. Their future social role highlights distinct needs in their university education to enable them to act professionally in this area.

  15. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  16. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide and is only second to water drinking and is consumed by 83% of adults in the United States. The long-held controversy regarding the association of coffee consumption with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hypertension has been reversed by several recent prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses, which have demonstrated that coffee consumption is not associated with increased incidence of CVDs and hypertension and instead it could have a beneficial effect. To get a better understanding of the effects of coffee consumption on cardiovascular health, a Medline search of the English language literature was conducted from 2010 to early 2015 and 25 pertinent reports with information on the effects of coffee drinking, the incidence of CVDs, and hypertension and its mechanism of action were selected for inclusion in this commentary. These studies have shown either a neutral or beneficial effect of coffee on cardiovascular health. In conclusion, coffee is safe to drink by both normal subjects and by those with preexisting CVDs and hypertension.

  17. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  18. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  19. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  20. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  1. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. PMID:27389033

  2. Handrub Consumption Mirrors Hand Hygiene Compliance.

    PubMed

    Haubitz, Sebastian; Atkinson, Andrew; Kaspar, Tanja; Nydegger, Doris; Eichenberger, Anne; Sommerstein, Rami; Marschall, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    We assessed handrub consumption as a surrogate marker for hand hygiene compliance from 2007 to 2014. Handrub consumption varied substantially between departments but correlated in a mixed effects regression model with the number of patient-days and the observed hand hygiene compliance. Handrub consumption may supplement traditional hand hygiene observations. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:707-710.

  3. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  4. Giffen Behavior and Subsistence Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides the first real-world evidence of Giffen behavior, i.e., upward sloping demand. Subsidizing the prices of dietary staples for extremely poor households in two provinces of China, we find strong evidence of Giffen behavior for rice in Hunan, and weaker evidence for wheat in Gansu. The data provide new insight into the consumption behavior of the poor, who act as though maximizing utility subject to subsistence concerns. We find that their elasticity of demand depends significantly, and nonlinearly, on the severity of their poverty. Understanding this heterogeneity is important for the effective design of welfare programs for the poor. (JEL D12, O12) PMID:21031158

  5. Sociological Ambivalence and Funeral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on Hillcoat-Nallétamby and Phillips’ (2011) conceptualization of sociological ambivalence within the relational framework to examine a particular consumption practice, the funeral. We develop understanding of social, cultural and relational issues that arise from the experience associated with funeral-arranging. This is not a voluntary behaviour but one engaged with through force of circumstance and which involves commercial and relational decisions. Drawing on data from 10 interviews from a larger UK study, we focus on ambivalence surrounding choice and its impact on relations, showing how sentiments including love, obligation, regret and revenge evolve and transform past and future relationships. PMID:26236046

  6. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  7. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  8. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  9. The energetics of nut consumption.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Nuts are a nutrient-rich food group. Depending on the type, they may provide substantive concentrations of Vitamin E, magnesium, folate, essential fatty acids, fiber and protein to the diet. They also contain potentially important phytochemicals. By mechanisms yet to be identified, they are reported to improve postprandial lipid profiles and may hold other health benefits. However, they are also energy dense so a theoretical contributor to positive energy balance and weight gain. However, epidemiological studies have consistently revealed an inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and BMI. Further, intervention trials demonstrate less than predicted weight gain following inclusion of nuts in the diet. The mechanisms for these observations are currently under study. Candidates include strong satiety effects, promotion of energy expenditure and/or inefficient energy utilization. Recent trials have revealed support for each. Inclusion of nuts in the diet results in strong satiety effects as revealed by robust compensatory dietary responses that offset approximately 65-75% of the energy they provide. Several trials note increased energy expenditure that may account for an additional 10% of their energy yield. Limited bioaccessibility results in a loss of 5-15% of energy. Taken together, these findings largely account for the energy provided by nuts and explain the epidemiological and clinical observations. Thus, current knowledge suggests moderate nut consumption does not pose a threat for weight gain.

  10. [Salt consumption and cerebrovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Demarin, Vida; Morović, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and disability in Croatia. Risk factors for cerebrovascular disease can be divided into evidence-based risk factors and those with supposed relationship. Strong evidence suggests that current salt consumption is one of the most important factors influencing the increase in blood pressure, along with the risk of cerebrovascular disease. Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for stroke. Studies on salt have shown that a decrease in blood pressure is in correlation with lower salt intake. Over-consumption of salt carries a higher risk of cerebrovascular disease in overweight individuals. Conservative estimates suggest that salt intake reduction by 3 g/day could reduce the stroke rate by 13%; this percentage would be almost double if salt intake be reduced by 6 g/day and triple with a 9 g/day reduction. Salt intake reduction by 9 g/day could reduce the stroke rate by almost 30%. This corresponds to about 20,500 prevented strokes each year. There is evidence supporting a positive correlation of salt intake and stroke, independent of hypertension. The introduction of salt reduction proposal should be considered in future updates of recommendations for stroke prevention.

  11. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  12. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  13. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  14. Energy consumption in thermomechanical pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Marton, R.; Tsujimoto, N.; Eskelinen, E.

    1981-08-01

    Various components of refining energy were determined experimentally and compared with those calculated on the basis of the dimensions of morphological elements of wood. The experimentally determined fiberization energy of spruce was 6 to 60 times larger than the calculated value and that of birch 3 to 15 times larger. The energy consumed in reducing the Canadian standard freeness of isolated fibers from 500 to 150 ml was found to be approximately 1/3 of the total fiber development energy for both spruce and birch TMP. Chip size affected the refining energy consumption; the total energy dropped by approximately 30% when chip size was reduced from 16 mm to 3 mm in the case of spruce and approximately 40% for birch. 6 refs.

  15. Plants Consumption and Liver Health

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-Song; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a very important organ with a lot of functions for the host to survive. Dietary components are essential for and can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. Plants food is an essential part of the human diet and comprises various compounds which are closely related to liver health. Selected food plants can provide nutritional and medicinal support for liver disease. At the present, the knowledge of the effects of plants on the liver is still incomplete. The most urgent task at the present time is to find the best dietary and medicinal plants for liver health in an endless list of candidates. This review article updates the knowledge about the effects of plants consumption on the health of the liver, putting particular emphasis on the potential beneficial and harmful impact of dietary and medicinal plants on liver function. PMID:26221179

  16. Medium consumption in holographic memories.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Mark R; McLeod, Robert R

    2009-07-01

    The dynamic range of holographic storage media is traditionally characterized in terms of M/#. However, this is a system parameter that assumes simple, uniform plane-wave holograms. Realistic architectures violate this assumption so that M/# measured with plane waves cannot be used to predict system diffraction efficiency. Thus, there currently is no systematic method predicting signal strength and medium consumption for holographic storage architectures a priori. We define a new material parameter, the modulation integral, M(I), and show how this may be used for dynamic range budgeting and diffraction efficiency prediction in complex storage systems. The method is illustrated by applying it to two architectures, collinear and angle polytopic, in order to estimate the M/# required for achieving a target storage density in the presence of empirical optical scatter noise.

  17. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, A. J.; Lawton, R. J.; Pratchett, M. S.; Wilson, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between predators and prey organisms are of fundamental importance to ecological communities. While the ecological impact that grazing predators can have in terrestrial and temperate marine systems are well established, the importance of coral grazers on tropical reefs has rarely been considered. In this study, we estimate the biomass of coral tissue consumed by four prominent species of corallivorous butterflyfishes. Sub-adult butterflyfishes (60-70 mm, 6-11 g) remove between 0.6 and 0.9 g of live coral tissue per day, while larger adults (>110 mm, ~40-50 g) remove between 1.5 and 3 g of coral tissue each day. These individual consumption rates correspond to the population of coral-feeding butterflyfishes at three exposed reef crest habitats at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, consuming between 14.6 g (±2.0) and 19.6 g (±3.9) .200 m-2 day-1 of coral tissue. When standardised to the biomass of butterflyfishes present, a combined reefwide removal rate of 4.2 g (±1.2) of coral tissue is consumed per 200 m-2 kg-1 of coral-feeding butterflyfishes. The quantity of coral tissue removed by these predators is considerably larger than previously expected and indicates that coral grazers are likely to play an important role in the transfer of energy fixed by corals to higher consumers. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes is expected to exact a large energetic cost upon prey corals and contribute to an increased rate of coral loss on reefs already threatened by anthropogenic pressure and ongoing climate change.

  18. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  19. Mid-childhood fruit and vegetable consumption: The roles of early liking, early consumption, and maternal consumption.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kai Ling; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that early liking, early consumption, and maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) each predict children's F&V consumption, but no one has examined the independent contributions of these three correlated factors. We aim to examine the extent to which each of these 3 factors is associated with F&V consumption in mid-childhood after accounting for the other 2 in the analysis. We analyzed data from 901 mother-child dyads from Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study. Mothers reported their child's early liking and consumption of F&V at age 2 years and later consumption at mid-childhood (median age 7.7 years). They also reported their own consumption of F&V at 6 months postpartum. We used multivariable linear regression models to examine the independent associations of these 3 factors with mid-childhood consumption, adjusting for socio-demographic, pregnancy, and child confounders. At 2 years, 53% of the mothers strongly agreed that their child liked fruit and 25% strongly agreed that their child liked vegetables. F&V consumption was 2.5 (1.3) and 1.8 (1.1) times/d at age 2 y and 1.5 (1.1) and 1.3 (0.8) times/d in mid-childhood. Maternal F&V consumption was 1.4 (1.1) and 1.5 (1.0) times/d, respectively. Children's early consumption played the most predominant role. For every 1 time/d increment in children's early consumption of F&V, mid-childhood consumption was higher by 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19, 0.30) times/d for fruits and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.26) times/d for vegetables, adjusted for confounders plus the other 2 exposures. In conclusion, children's early F&V consumption has the most significant influence on children's later consumption.

  20. Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda N; Coolahan, Sonya E; Petros, Thomas V; Lindseth, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40-50 mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health.

  1. Low power consumption current transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A low power consumption current transducer utilizes a saturable core reactor which includes a pair of opposed gate windings and a control winding. The control winding of the saturable reactor is arranged to receive the current to be measured. A square wave generator is connected to the gate winding of the transformer connected across the square wave generator and the secondary connected in series with the gate windings of the reactor. A full wave rectifier is connected to the gate windings and a resistor is connected across the rectifier to provide a DC voltage to cross it representative of the current flow through the control winding. A DC power supply is provided to supply power to the square wave voltage source. A diode is connected between each end of the primary winding of the transformer and one polarity of the DC power supply to commutate the reactive current resulting from the counter emf generated in the reactor back to the DC supply to eliminate potentially damaging reactive voltage spikes which would otherwise appear at the output of the square wave generator and conserve energy.

  2. The Production and Consumption of Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussex, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Examines the current state of play in text production and consumption in the specific context of electronic text production and consumption. The article points out that the key to the modern textual revolution is the captured keystroke. It is concluded that text on paper, or some synthetic equivalent, will survive, although voice-driven text…

  3. Lost in Transition? Student Food Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Gram, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Findings from transition studies as well as studies of student food show that the transition from living at home to independent living influences student food consumption and that food consumption might be problematic during this period. Furthermore, both students' enactment of being in transition and the food habits and practices they bring with…

  4. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good. PMID:21339848

  5. Power Play: Calculating Home Electricity Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    With both energy usage and energy costs rising rapidly, people can benefit from paying closer attention to their consumption of energy. Students can gain greater awareness of their personal use of electricity and get some excellent experience with the practical application of mathematics by studying their families' consumption of electricity. A…

  6. Consumption, Adult Learning, and Adult Education: Envisioning a Pedagogy of Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article I call for adult educators to begin taking consumption seriously as a site of adult learning and education. I provide an overview of various sociological perspectives on consumption, and also discuss several areas where education, learning, and consumption intersect. In doing so, I seek to convince adult educators to more…

  7. Power consumption monitoring using additional monitoring device

    SciTech Connect

    Truşcă, M. R. C. Albert, Ş. Tudoran, C. Soran, M. L. Fărcaş, F.; Abrudean, M.

    2013-11-13

    Today, emphasis is placed on reducing power consumption. Computers are large consumers; therefore it is important to know the total consumption of computing systems. Since their optimal functioning requires quite strict environmental conditions, without much variation in temperature and humidity, reducing energy consumption cannot be made without monitoring environmental parameters. Thus, the present work uses a multifunctional electric meter UPT 210 for power consumption monitoring. Two applications were developed: software which carries meter readings provided by electronic and programming facilitates remote device and a device for temperature monitoring and control. Following temperature variations that occur both in the cooling system, as well as the ambient, can reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, some air conditioning units or some computers are stopped in different time slots. These intervals were set so that the economy is high, but the work's Datacenter is not disturbed.

  8. Firewood consumption in a Nepali village

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    1984-05-01

    People's dependence on firewood as a primary source of energy is causing serious deforestation problems in many developing countries. Reliable information on firewood consumption rates is needed to develop afforestation plans and to control deforestation. This study compares three methods used to determine firewood consumption in a Nepali village. Cultural and environmental factors that affect firewood consumption in the village are also examined. The weight survey proved to be the most accurate method used. The less precise daily recall and annual recall surveys overestimated actual firewood consumption by factors of 1.76 and 1.95, respectively. Overestimates are attributed to both physical and social factors. In view of the good agreement between daily and annual recall surveys, and the much greater ease of conducting the latter, annual recall surveys are recommended as the most practical method of monitoring firewood consumption rates. Validating the survey with occasional weighted measurements is suggested as a means of improving accuracy.

  9. Worldwide electricity consumption of communication networks.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sofie; Van Heddeghem, Ward; Vereecken, Willem; Lannoo, Bart; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario

    2012-12-10

    There is a growing research interest in improving the energy efficiency of communication networks. In order to assess the impact of introducing new energy efficient technologies, an up-to-date estimate for the global electricity consumption in communication networks is needed. In this paper we consider the use phase electricity consumption of telecom operator networks, office networks and customer premises equipment. Our results show that the network electricity consumption is growing fast, at a rate of 10 % per year, and its relative contribution to the total worldwide electricity consumption has increased from 1.3% in 2007 to 1.8% in 2012. We estimate the worldwide electricity consumption of communication networks will exceed 350 TWh in 2012.

  10. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Wanders, Niko; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2013-09-01

    Over the past 50 years, human water use has more than doubled and affected streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought (the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow). Here, we quantify over the period 1960-2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological drought worldwide. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow over Europe, North America and Asia, and subsequently intensified the magnitude of hydrological droughts by 10-500%, occurring during nation- and continent-wide drought events. Also, human water consumption alone increased global drought frequency by 27 (±6)%. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia (35 ± 7%), but also substantial over North America (25 ± 6%) and Europe (20 ± 5%). Importantly, the severe drought conditions are driven primarily by human water consumption over many parts of these regions. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over the western and central US, southern Europe and Asia, whereas the impact of industrial and households’ consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over the eastern US and western and central Europe. Our findings reveal that human water consumption is one of the more important mechanisms intensifying hydrological drought, and is likely to remain as a major factor affecting drought intensity and frequency in the coming decades.

  11. Nut consumption and risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Gelin; Wei, Yongyue; Zhu, Wusheng; Liu, Xinfeng

    2015-03-01

    Nut consumption has been inconsistently associated with risk of stroke. Our aim was to carry out a meta-analysis of prospective studies to assess the relation between nut consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Embase through June 2014 and by reviewing the references of retrieved articles. Prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between nut consumption and risk of stroke were included. Six articles including nine independent prospective cohorts with 476,181 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR of stroke was 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98) comparing the highest with the lowest nut consumption. Stratifying by gender, significant inverse association was observed for females (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78-0.98). Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with adjustment for common confounding factors showed similar results, strengthening the association between nut consumption and stroke risk. Moreover, we observed a trend toward an inverse association between higher nut consumption and stroke mortality (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.69-1.06), although it is not significant. Current evidence indicated that nut consumption is inversely associated with risk of stroke.

  12. Drinking water consumption patterns in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Westrell, Therese; Andersson, Yvonne; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2006-12-01

    Estimates on drinking water consumption are necessary in risk assessments on microbial hazards in drinking water. Large differences in consumption habits between countries have been reported. In order to establish estimates for the Swedish population, water consumption data from a waterborne outbreak investigation (157 people), a small water consumption study (75 people) and a large study on health and environmental factors (10,957 people) were analysed. A lognormal distribution for the daily direct/cold water intake in litres with mu = - 0.299 and sigma = 0.570 was fitted to the quantitative data, representing the general population. The average daily consumption of tap water as plain drinking water and as heated tap water, e.g. in coffee and tea, was 0.86 +/- 0.48 l and 0.94 +/- 0.69 l, respectively. Women consumed more cold tap water than did men, while men appeared to have a higher consumption of heated tap water. Cold tap water intake was highest in the oldest age group, (> or =70 years). The consumption of bottled water was very low (mean 0.06 l/d) when compared to other countries.

  13. State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  14. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  15. Reducing the consumption of microbead cracking catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Khadzhiev, S.N.; Rivkinzon, I.B.; Zyuba, B.I.

    1984-05-01

    This article attempts to determine the degree to which catalyst consumption depends on its physicochemical characteristics and on the efficiency of the dust collection systems. As a result of high dust content, catalyst circulation is hindered, uncontrolled chemical conversions in the stagnant zones of the vessels in the reactor section become more of a factor, the content of catalyst dust in the cracked products increases sharply, unfavorable conditions are created for operation of the main distillation tower, and it may be plugged with catalyst dust. The factors that influence the average catalyst consumption in the USSR petroleum refining industry are identified. It is concluded that reliable methods do exist for curtailing catalyst consumption.

  16. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  17. Addictive consumption of avatars in cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ook; Shin, Mincheol

    2004-08-01

    Avatars are a unique cyber product that hold much potential to be a market success because they provide consumers with various psychological benefits such as anonymous personalization and an artificial sense of well-being in cyberspace. However, due to the very nature of avatars, consumer psychology, and the way that they are marketed to teenage consumers, avatars may also pose considerable threat to unsuspecting teenagers through addictive consumption and associated negative social consequences causing harm to the teenagers and the general public. This study deals with Korean teenagers' addiction to avatar consumption. Korean teenagers can be very stressed due to the pressure to excel in school. Addictive avatar consumption is thought to be a behavior that might reduce stress. An empirical study was conducted to elucidate this claim. Self-control theory is suggested as an explanation for addictive consumption of avatars. PMID:15331028

  18. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  19. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope. This... consumption, but instead calculate the energy use rate (kWh/100 lbs Ice) by dividing the energy...

  20. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  1. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  2. Consumption patterns and why people fish.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2002-10-01

    Recreational and subsistence fishing play major roles in the lives of many people, although their importance in urban areas is often underestimated. There are fish and shellfish consumption advisories in the New York-New Jersey harbor estuary, particularly in the waters of the Newark Bay Complex. This paper examines fishing behavior, consumption patterns, and the reasons that people fish in the Newark Bay Complex. I test the null hypotheses that there are no differences among Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites in consumption patterns for fish and crabs and in the reasons that they fish or crab. Most people either fished or crabbed, but not both. People who fish and crab ate more grams of crab than fish in a given meal; people who crab only consumed more grams of crab at a meal than those who fish only consumed of fish. Although 30% or more of the people who fished and crabbed in the Newark Bay Complex did not eat their self-caught fish or crabs 8-25% of the people ate more than 1500 g/month. Some people angling in the Newark Bay Complex are eating crabs at a rate well over 1500 g/month, and about 70% are eating crabs even though there is a total ban on both harvest and consumption because of the health risks from dioxin. Consumption patterns were negatively correlated with mean income and positively correlated with mean age. Most people rated relaxation and being outdoors the highest reasons for angling, although on an open-ended question they usually listed recreation. There were no ethnic differences in reasons for angling, although other studies have shown ethnic differences in consumption. Obtaining fish or crabs to eat, give away, trade, or sell were rated low, suggesting that consumption advisories fail partly because people are not primarily fishing for food. PMID:12483803

  3. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, J; Asp, S; Olkinuora, M; Aärimaa, M; Strid, L; Kauttu, K

    1988-10-15

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  4. Fuelwood consumption: a cross-country comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Laarman, J.G.; Wohlgenant, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    This study specifies and estimates an economic model of fuelwood consumption at the international level, emphasizing fuelwood consumption in the developing countries. Demand shifters in the model are real income and an index of commercial energy prices. The supply shifter is forest area. Technological rigidities are assumed to constrain the fuelwood user's rate of adjustment to changes in these shifters. Regression estimation is based on pooled cross-section and time series annual data for 86 countries during the period 1963-76. Estimated coefficients indicate that fuelwood consumption adjusts very slowly, and by only small amounts, to changes in the shifters. Through 1976 the effect of the price of commercial energy on fuelwood consumption is almost imperceptible. Receding forest area has a larger braking effect on fuelwood consumption in the middle-income than in the low-income developing countries, but the income relationship is not significantly different from zero in the middle-income developing countries. However, these findings must be interpreted cautiously in light of deficiencies in the international data.

  5. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  6. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Brug, J; Lechner, L; De Vries, H

    1995-12-01

    Psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption were studied in an adult Dutch population (n = 367) based on the ASE model of attitudes, social influence and self-efficacy. Attitudes were a summation of beliefs about taste, different health consequences, and costs in time and money. Social influences were measured through the social stimulation respondents expected to get from important others to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables and by asking the subjects about the behaviour of important others. Self-efficacy reflected the respondents' ability to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables in various situations. Self-efficacy and attitudes were consistently and significantly associated with consumption of boiled or otherwise heated vegetables, of salads, and of fruit. Furthermore, respondents reporting low consumption of these food groups had lower self-efficacy expectations and less positive attitudes than subjects with relatively high consumption of fruit and vegetables. It is concluded that nutrition education aimed at stimulating fruit and vegetable consumption should focus especially on changing attitudes and self efficacy expectations.

  7. Demand analysis of tobacco consumption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Al-Sadat, Nabilla A M

    2007-11-01

    We estimated the price and income elasticity of cigarette demand and the impact of cigarette taxes on cigarette demand and cigarette tax revenue in Malaysia. The data on cigarette consumption, cigarette prices, and public policies between 1990 and 2004 were subjected to a time-series regression analysis applying the error-correction model. The preferred cigarette demand model specification resulted in long-run and short-run price elasticities estimates of -0.57 and -0.08, respectively. Income was positively related to cigarette consumption: A 1% increase in real income increased cigarette consumption by 1.46%. The model predicted that an increase in cigarette excise tax from Malaysian ringgit (RM) 1.60 to RM2.00 per pack would reduce cigarette consumption in Malaysia by 3.37%, or by 806,468,873 cigarettes. This reduction would translate to almost 165 fewer tobacco-related lung cancer deaths per year and a 20.8% increase in the government excise tax revenue. We conclude that taxation is an effective method of reducing cigarette consumption and tobacco-related deaths while increasing revenue for the government of Malaysia.

  8. Price and cigarette consumption in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, S; Schiaffino, A; Vecchia, C La; Townsend, J; Fernandez, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the variation in demand for tobacco according to price of cigarettes across the European region. Design Cross‐sectional study. Setting All the 52 countries of the European region. Participants For each European country, data were collected on annual per adult cigarette consumption (2000), smoking prevalence (most recent), retail price of a pack of local and foreign brand cigarettes (around 2000), the gross domestic product adjusted by purchasing power parities, and the adult population (2000). Main outcome measure Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes (that is, the change in cigarette consumption according to a change in tobacco price) across all the European countries, estimated by double‐log multiple linear regression. Results Controlling for male to female prevalence ratio, price elasticities for consumption were −0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.74 to −0.17) and −0.74 (95% CI −1.13 to −0.35) for local and foreign brand, respectively. The inverse relation between cigarette price and consumption was stronger in countries not in the European Union (price elasticity for foreign brand cigarettes of −0.8) as compared to European Union countries (price elasticity of −0.4). Conclusions The result that, on average, in Europe smoking consumption decreases 5–7% for a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes strongly supports an inverse association between price and cigarette smoking. PMID:16565459

  9. Oxygen consumption in weakly electric Neotropical fishes.

    PubMed

    Julian, David; Crampton, William G R; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Albert, James S

    2003-12-01

    Weakly electric gymnotiform fishes with wave-type electric organ discharge (EOD) are less hypoxia-tolerant and are less likely to be found in hypoxic habitats than weakly electric gymnotiforms with pulse-type EOD, suggesting that differences in metabolism resulting from EOD type affects habitat choice. Although gymnotiform fishes are common in most Neotropical freshwaters and represent the dominant vertebrates in some habitats, the metabolic rates of these unique fishes have never been determined. In this study, O(2) consumption rates during EOD generation are reported for 34 gymnotiforms representing 23 species, all five families and 17 (59%) of the 28 genera. Over the size range sampled (0.4 g to 125 g), O(2) consumption of gymnotiform fishes was dependent on body mass, as expected, fitting a power function with a scaling exponent of 0.74, but the O(2) consumption rate was generally about 50% of that expected by extrapolation of temperate teleost metabolic rates to a similar ambient temperature (26 degrees C). O(2) consumption rate was not dependent on EOD type, but maintenance of "scan swimming" (continuous forwards and backwards swimming), which is characteristic only of gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs, increased O(2) consumption 2.83+/-0.49-fold (mean+/-SD). This suggests that the increased metabolic cost of scan swimming could restrict gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs from hypoxic habitats.

  10. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills. PMID:20832437

  11. Consumption of Mass Communication--Construction of a Model on Information Consumption Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepstrup, Preben

    A general conceptual model on the consumption of information is introduced. Information as the output of the mass media is treated as a product, and a model on the consumption of this product is developed by merging elements from consumer behavior theory and mass communication theory. Chapter I gives basic assumptions about the individual and the…

  12. Predicting Consumption Poverty Using Non-Consumption Indicators: Experiments Using Indonesian Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumarto, Sudarno; Suryadarma, Daniel; Suryahadi, Asep

    2007-01-01

    Household consumption expenditure data is crucial for calculating important welfare measures such as poverty headcount rate. However, collecting such data is difficult and cumbersome. As an alternative, we experiment with three methods--consumption correlates model, poverty probability model, and wealth index principal components analysis…

  13. Energy Consumption Monitoring System for Large Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, André; Guerreiro, João; Pereira, Pedro; Martins, João; Gomes, Luís

    This paper describes the development of an open source system for monitoring and data acquisition of several energy analyzers. The developed system is based on a computer with Internet/Intranet connection by means of RS485 using Modbus RTU as communication protocol. The monitoring/metering system was developed for large building complexes and was validated in the Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia University campus. The system considers two distinct applications. The first one allows the user to verify, in real time, the energy consumption of any department in the complex, produce load diagrams, tables and print, email or save all available data. The second application keeps records of active/reactive energy consumption in order to verify the existence of some anomalous situation, and also monthly charge energy consumption to each corresponding department.

  14. Soy food consumption and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mourouti, Niki; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in female worldwide and occurs as an interaction of genes and diet. As regards diet numerous studies all over the world have associated the disease with many foods and nutrients including soy and its compounds. Soy food and soy products are rich in phytoestrogens, naturally occurring hormone-like compounds with weak estrogenic effects. Despite inconsistencies in the available data, an inverse association between soy food consumption and breast cancer is likely. However, it seems that this correlation is more obvious in Asian rather than Western populations, where the consumption of soy is already higher. Moreover, the vast majority of studies that demonstrate this inverse association are case-control studies, a fact that should be taken into account. In this review, the current scientific evidence relating breast cancer and soy consumption is reported through a systematic way.

  15. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    PubMed

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.

  16. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    PubMed

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ. PMID:25913683

  17. Understanding energy consumption: Beyond technology and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, H.; Shove, E.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes two years of efforts among a cross-disciplinary group of senior researchers to bring social and cultural perspectives to modeling of household energy consumption. The work has been organized by the Center for Energy Studies of the University of Geneva. The researchers represent both the physical and social sciences, several institutions and a number of countries. The initiative was based on an acknowledgement of the failure of technical and economic models to explain consumption or more importantly, how consumption patterns change. Technical and economic models most often either ignore social and cultural issues or reduce them to parameters of other variables. An important objective for the Geneva Group has been to engage modelers and social scientists in a dialogue which brings social and cultural context to the fore. The process reveals interesting insights into the frictions of cross-disciplinary interaction and the emergence of new perspectives. Various classical modeling approaches have been discussed and rejected. Gradually, a framework has emerged which says something about the appropriate institutions and actors which contribute to consumption patterns; about how they are related; and finally about how the interinstitutional relationships and the consumption patterns themselves change. A key point of convergence is that a complete understanding of energy end-use will not be possible from an analysis directed at the point of end use alone. The analysis must incorporate what happens inside institutions like manufacturers, retailers, and public policy organizations as well as how those organizations interact with consumers, including media and advertising. Progress towards a better understanding of energy consumption requires a greater engagement of social scientists with these heretofore little explored actors an relationships.

  18. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Office Buildings

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    Provides an in-depth look at this building type as reported in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings are the most common type of commercial building and they consumed more than 17% of all energy in the commercial buildings sector in 2003. This special report provides characteristics and energy consumption data by type of office building (e.g. administrative office, government office, medical office) and information on some of the types of equipment found in office buildings: heating and cooling equipment, computers, servers, printers, and photocopiers.

  19. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  1. The Valuation of Non-Monetary Consumption in Household Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Many social indicators are based on household consumption information. The valuation of non-monetary operations is crucial for the analysis of consumption surveys in developing countries because of the importance of own-consumption and transfers in kind. What are the price statistics used in the valuation of consumption indicators? How is the…

  2. Apparent Consumption vs. Total Consumption--A Lead-Acid Battery Case Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.; Buckingham, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report compares estimates of U.S. apparent consumption of lead with estimates of total U.S. consumption of this mineral commodity from a materials flow perspective. The difference, attributed to the amount of lead contained in imported and exported products, was found to be significant for this sector. The study also assesses the effects of including mineral commodities incorporated in manufactured products on the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Materials flow is a systems approach to understanding what happens to the materials we use from the time a material is extracted, through its processing and manufacturing, to its ultimate disposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides accurate and detailed mineral production and mineral commodity consumption statistics that are essential for government, nongovernment organizations, and the public to gain a better understanding of how and where materials are used and their effect on the environment and society. Published statistics on mineral apparent consumption are limited to estimates of consumption of raw material forms (ore, concentrate, and [or] refined metal). For this study, apparent consumption is defined as mine production + secondary refined production + imports (concentrates and refined metal) ? exports (concentrates and refined metal) + adjustments for government and industry stock changes. These estimates do not account for the amount of mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are imported to the United States, nor do they deduct the amount of these mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are exported from the United States. When imports or exports of manufactured products contribute significantly to the total use of a particular raw material, an estimate of consumption that does not consider the incorporated forms of these mineral commodities within imported or exported manufactured products can be either

  3. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.134 Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope....

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Health among Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; Fleming, Michael F.; French, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article estimates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-reported overall health status, injuries, heart problems, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among persons older than the age of 65. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a…

  5. Snack consumption among underprivileged adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, M; Thomas, S

    2010-10-01

    We conducted this school based cross-sectional study to assess the snack consumption pattern of 702 adolescent girls (11-14 years) in nine government schools selected from three districts of Delhi. The results indicated high preference for snacks. Parents and teachers were identified as the most influential factors determining their food choices. PMID:21048243

  6. No Logo? Children's Consumption of Fashion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilcher, Jane

    2011-01-01

    In this article data are presented on children's appraisal of clothing retailers and brands, and how this interacts with their identity and social contexts. In exploration of some of the meanings and processes surrounding children's consumption of branded or labelled clothing, two case studies of child consumers are profiled: one who actively…

  7. Computer Profile of School Facilities Energy Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Felix E.

    This document outlines a computerized management tool designed to enable building managers to identify energy consumption as related to types and uses of school facilities for the purpose of evaluating and managing the operation, maintenance, modification, and planning of new facilities. Specifically, it is expected that the statistics generated…

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  9. Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a modern education for their…

  10. [Consumption pattern and recommended intakes of sugar].

    PubMed

    Quiles i Izquierdo, Joan

    2013-07-01

    Sugars are sweet-flavored carbohydrates that provide energy to the body. The adult brain uses about 140 g of glucose per day, amount which can represent up to 50 of the total number of carbohydrates consumed. In our country the sugar in food consumption pattern remains constant, while the consumption of soft drinks has increased in the past four years. The national survey of dietary intake of Spain (ENIDE, 2010-11) estimated that 20% of calories intake comes from carbohydrates called sugars. Sugar consumption has been associated with various pathologies (diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, cardiovascular disease) but these relationships are not consistent enough. Food information through nutritional labeling, including sugars present in food, pretend to protect the consumer health and to guarantee their right to information so they can make their own decisions with criterion. In view of different appraisals and existing studies, and above all, in the absence of a solid scientific evidence that concrete data on which make recommendations, the best nutritional advice for the general population could be a diet varied and balanced with food and nutrients from different sources, combining such a diet with exercise and physical activity. More specifically in terms of moderate consumption of sugar in the previous context of varied and balanced diet is perfectly compatible.

  11. RISK COMMUNICATION TOOLS FOR FISH CONSUMPTION ADVISORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In EPA's Mercury Report to Congress an important finding ws that certain populations of subsistence fishermen are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their high consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PBT) such...

  12. Social Psychological Bases for College Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    College students (n=234) completed questionnaires on social and psychological predictors of alcohol consumption and satisfaction as step toward creating nonalcoholic social activities. Among multiple factors affecting drinking were wanting to release emotional tension, wanting to meet new people, belonging to a fraternity or sorority, low academic…

  13. Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion.

  14. Liquid Hydrogen Consumption During Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of liquid hydrogen consumption and the points of its loss in prior to the shuttle launch. It traces the movement of the fuel from the purchase to the on-board quantity and the loss that results in 54.6 of the purchased quantity being on board the Shuttle.

  15. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that <24 % of smokers actually reduced their cigarette consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  16. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  17. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Van Beek, L. P.; Wanders, N.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decades, human water consumption has more than doubled, and reduced streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological droughts, i.e. the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow. Here, we quantify over the period 1960-2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological droughts worldwide. We simulated streamflow by the global hydrological and water resources model PCR-GLOBWB at a 0.5 degree spatial resolution, and reduced the amount of streamflow with different levels of human water consumption over the period 1960-2010. We applied the commonly used variable threshold level method to identify below-normal water availability as the onset of hydrological droughts. We then standardized the deficit volume dividing relative to the threshold level to express the intensity of drought conditions to normal streamflow conditions. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow in many regions of the world. This subsequently intensified hydrological droughts regionally by 10-500%. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over western and central U.S., southern Europe, Asia, and southeastern Australia, whereas the impact of industrial and households' consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over eastern U.S., and western and central Europe. The results also show that drought frequency increased by more than 27% compared to pristine or natural condition as a result of human water consumption. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia, but also substantial over North America and Europe. Importantly, global population under severe hydrological droughts considerably increased from 0.7 billion in 1960 to 2.2 billion in 2010 due to rapid population growth. As a limited validation exercise, we compared simulated deficit

  18. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the effect of diet on laryngeal carcinogenesis. Our study population was made up of 140 participants-70 patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) and 70 controls with a non-neoplastic condition that was unrelated to diet, smoking, or alcohol. A food-frequency questionnaire determined the mean consumption of 113 different items during the 3 years prior to symptom onset. Total energy intake and cooking mode were also noted. The relative risk, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that the total energy intake was significantly higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and that the difference remained statistically significant after logistic regression analysis (p < 0.001; OR: 118.70). Notably, meat consumption was higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and the difference remained significant after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.029; OR: 1.16). LC patients also consumed significantly more fried food (p = 0.036); this difference also remained significant in the logistic regression model (p = 0.026; OR: 5.45). The LC group also consumed significantly more seafood (p = 0.012); the difference persisted after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.009; OR: 2.48), with the consumption of shrimp proving detrimental (p = 0.049; OR: 2.18). Finally, the intake of zinc was significantly higher in the LC group before and after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.034 and p = 0.011; OR: 30.15, respectively). Cereal consumption (including pastas) was also higher among the LC patients (p = 0.043), with logistic regression analysis showing that their negative effect was possibly associated with the sauces and dressings that traditionally accompany pasta dishes (p = 0.006; OR: 4.78). Conversely, a higher consumption of dairy products was found in controls (p < 0.05); logistic regression analysis showed that calcium appeared to be protective at the micronutrient level (p < 0

  19. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the effect of diet on laryngeal carcinogenesis. Our study population was made up of 140 participants-70 patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) and 70 controls with a non-neoplastic condition that was unrelated to diet, smoking, or alcohol. A food-frequency questionnaire determined the mean consumption of 113 different items during the 3 years prior to symptom onset. Total energy intake and cooking mode were also noted. The relative risk, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that the total energy intake was significantly higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and that the difference remained statistically significant after logistic regression analysis (p < 0.001; OR: 118.70). Notably, meat consumption was higher in the LC group (p < 0.001), and the difference remained significant after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.029; OR: 1.16). LC patients also consumed significantly more fried food (p = 0.036); this difference also remained significant in the logistic regression model (p = 0.026; OR: 5.45). The LC group also consumed significantly more seafood (p = 0.012); the difference persisted after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.009; OR: 2.48), with the consumption of shrimp proving detrimental (p = 0.049; OR: 2.18). Finally, the intake of zinc was significantly higher in the LC group before and after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.034 and p = 0.011; OR: 30.15, respectively). Cereal consumption (including pastas) was also higher among the LC patients (p = 0.043), with logistic regression analysis showing that their negative effect was possibly associated with the sauces and dressings that traditionally accompany pasta dishes (p = 0.006; OR: 4.78). Conversely, a higher consumption of dairy products was found in controls (p < 0.05); logistic regression analysis showed that calcium appeared to be protective at the micronutrient level (p < 0

  20. Pricing and the psychology of consumption.

    PubMed

    Gourville, John; Soman, Dilip

    2002-09-01

    Most executives know how pricing influences the demand for a product, but few of them realize how it affects the consumption of a product. In fact, most companies don't even believe they can have an effect on whether customers use products they have already paid for. In this article, the authors argue that the relationship between pricing and consumption lies at the core of customer strategy. The extent to which a customer uses a product during a certain time period often determines whether he or she will buy the product again. So pricing tactics that encourage people to use the products they've paid for help companies build long-term relationships with customers. The link between pricing and consumption is clear: People are more likely to consume a product when they are aware of its cost. But for many executives, the idea that they should draw consumers' attention to the price that was paid for a product or service is counterintuitive. Companies have long sought to mask the costs of their goods and services in order to boost sales. And rightly so--if a company fails to make the initial sale, it won't have to worry about consumption. So to promote sales, health club managers encourage members to get the payment out of the way early; HMOs encourage automatic payroll deductions; and cruise lines bundle small, specific costs into a single, all-inclusive fee. The problem is, by masking how much a buyer has spent on a given product, these pricing tactics decrease the likelihood that the buyer will actually use it. This article offers some new approaches to pricing--how and when to charge for goods and services--that may boost consumption.

  1. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  2. Pulse Consumption, Satiety, and Weight Management1

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Megan A.; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra E.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, making finding effective solutions to reduce obesity a public health priority. One part of the solution could be for individuals to increase consumption of nonoilseed pulses (dry beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils), because they have nutritional attributes thought to benefit weight control, including slowly digestible carbohydrates, high fiber and protein contents, and moderate energy density. Observational studies consistently show an inverse relationship between pulse consumption and BMI or risk for obesity, but many do not control for potentially confounding dietary and other lifestyle factors. Short-term (≤1 d) experimental studies using meals controlled for energy, but not those controlled for available carbohydrate, show that pulse consumption increases satiety over 2–4 h, suggesting that at least part of the effect of pulses on satiety is mediated by available carbohydrate amount or composition. Randomized controlled trials generally support a beneficial effect of pulses on weight loss when pulse consumption is coupled with energy restriction, but not without energy restriction. However, few randomized trials have been conducted and most were short term (3–8 wk for whole pulses and 4–12 wk for pulse extracts). Overall, there is some indication of a beneficial effect of pulses on short-term satiety and weight loss during intentional energy restriction, but more studies are needed in this area, particularly those that are longer term (≥1 y), investigate the optimal amount of pulses to consume for weight control, and include behavioral elements to help overcome barriers to pulse consumption. PMID:22043448

  3. Pricing and the psychology of consumption.

    PubMed

    Gourville, John; Soman, Dilip

    2002-09-01

    Most executives know how pricing influences the demand for a product, but few of them realize how it affects the consumption of a product. In fact, most companies don't even believe they can have an effect on whether customers use products they have already paid for. In this article, the authors argue that the relationship between pricing and consumption lies at the core of customer strategy. The extent to which a customer uses a product during a certain time period often determines whether he or she will buy the product again. So pricing tactics that encourage people to use the products they've paid for help companies build long-term relationships with customers. The link between pricing and consumption is clear: People are more likely to consume a product when they are aware of its cost. But for many executives, the idea that they should draw consumers' attention to the price that was paid for a product or service is counterintuitive. Companies have long sought to mask the costs of their goods and services in order to boost sales. And rightly so--if a company fails to make the initial sale, it won't have to worry about consumption. So to promote sales, health club managers encourage members to get the payment out of the way early; HMOs encourage automatic payroll deductions; and cruise lines bundle small, specific costs into a single, all-inclusive fee. The problem is, by masking how much a buyer has spent on a given product, these pricing tactics decrease the likelihood that the buyer will actually use it. This article offers some new approaches to pricing--how and when to charge for goods and services--that may boost consumption. PMID:12227149

  4. Consumption Patterns and Perception Analyses of Hangwa

    PubMed Central

    Kwock, Chang Geun; Lee, Min A; Park, So Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Hangwa is a traditional food, corresponding to the current consumption trend, in need of marketing strategies to extend its consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze consumers’ consumption patterns and perception of Hangwa to increase consumption in the market. A questionnaire was sent to 250 consumers by e-mail from Oct 8∼23, 2009 and the data from 231 persons were analyzed in this study. Statistical, descriptive, paired samples t-test, and importance-performance analyses were conducted using SPSS WIN 17.0. According to the results, Hangwa was purchased mainly ‘for present’ (39.8%) and the main reasons for buying it were ‘traditional image’ (33.3%) and ‘taste’ (22.5%). When importance and performance of attributes considered in purchasing Hangwa were evaluated, performance was assessed to be lower than importance for all attributes. The attributes in the first quadrant with a high importance and a high performance were ‘a sanitary process’, ‘a rigorous quality mark’ and ‘taste’, which were related with quality of the products. In addition, those with a high importance but a low performance were ‘popularization through advertisement’, ‘promotion through mass media’, ‘conversion of thought on traditional foods’, ‘a reasonable price’ and ‘a wide range of price’. In conclusion, Hangwa manufacturers need to diversify products and extend the expiration date based on technologies to promote its consumption. In terms of price, Hangwa should become more available by lowering the price barrier for consumers who are sensitive to price. PMID:24471065

  5. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments

  6. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.

  7. Understanding and Changing Food Consumption Behavior Among Children: The Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns Model.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Jayne K; Noar, Seth M; Thayer, Linden

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical models attempting to explain diet-related weight status among children center around three individual-level theories. Alone, these theories fail to explain why children are engaging or not engaging in health-promoting eating behaviors. Our Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model takes a comprehensive approach and was developed specifically to help explain child food consumption behavior and addresses many of the theoretical gaps found in previous models, including integration of the life course trajectory, key influencers, perceived behavioral control, and self-regulation. Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model highlights multiple levels of the socioecological model to explain child food consumption, illustrating how negative influence at multiple levels can lead to caloric imbalance and contribute to child overweight and obesity. Recognizing the necessity for multi-level and system-based interventions, this model serves as a template for holistic, integrated interventions to improve child eating behavior, ultimately impacting life course health development. PMID:26518599

  8. Reducing power consumption in zinc electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada T, F.; Asselin, E.

    2009-10-01

    Approximately 7 million tons per annum of zinc are produced globally by traditional electrowinning which is a power intensive process. Power consumption is directly proportional to cell voltage which is thermodynamically limited to the potential difference between the oxygen evolution and zinc reduction reactions. This article summarizes several novel approaches which are currently under investigation/or the reduction of power consumption in zinc electrowinning and which focus on alternative anode reactions. In particular, methanol, formic acid, ferrous to ferric and hydrogen oxidation as anodic reactions are examined. There remain several important materials, engineering, and process challenges associated with the new approaches which are reviewed in this article. However, given the current and anticipated future cost of energy, further research is warranted.

  9. Recommendations by health organizations for pulse consumption.

    PubMed

    Leterme, Pascal

    2002-12-01

    The present paper aims to study why and how health organizations recommend the consumption of pulses such as beans, chickpeas or lentils. Although it is recognized that frequent pulse consumption may reduce serum cholesterol levels and helps reduce risks of coronary heart disease and diabetes, these advantages are scarcely mentioned by health-promoting associations, i.e. vegetarians and organizations helping people to reduce the risks for chronic diseases. Pulses, especially common beans, are rather considered as whole grains that provide plenty of proteins, starch, dietary fibres, minerals and vitamins. Many organizations refer to the food guide pyramid to advise their members, and place beans either in the third part, together with meat, in the second one with fruits and vegetables, or in the bottom part with starchy foods. Whatever their place, they have acquired the status of staple food for anyone who wants to eat a healthy diet. PMID:12498622

  10. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  11. Estimation of 1945 to 1957 food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Bates, D.J.; Marsh, T.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report details the methods used and the results of the study on the estimated historic levels of food consumption by individuals in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) study area from 1945--1957. This period includes the time of highest releases from Hanford and is the period for which data are being collected in the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study. These estimates provide the food-consumption inputs for the HEDR database of individual diets. This database will be an input file in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Code (HEDRIC) computer model that will be used to calculate the radiation dose. The report focuses on fresh milk, eggs, lettuce, and spinach. These foods were chosen because they have been found to be significant contributors to radiation dose based on the Technical Steering Panel dose decision level.

  12. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  13. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  14. Water Consumption for Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingerman, K. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Water use may prove to be a central issue in the global and local development of the biofuel industry. While most literature on biofuel water use only considers the biorefinery phase, we studied water consumption for biofuel feedstock cultivation in major feedstock-producing regions of the United States. Using a spatially explicit Penman-Monteith model informed by field-level eddy covariance measurements, distributed climate data, and land use figures, we estimated water consumption and net water use for a number of scenarios of feedstock, location, and refining processes for biofuel development. We find that in California, for example, average water consumption for biofuels from different feedstocks ranges from about 900 to over 1500 gallons per gallon of fuel produced. Cellulosic feedstocks are found to be less water-intensive on average. Furthermore, we find feedstock cultivation to account for more than 99% of the life-cycle embedded water for fuels in California. In some regions and for some feedstock options, a shift to biofuel feedstock cultivation would reduce the strain on water resources, while in others we project it would greatly increase water demand. We are expanding this analysis to better capture both base-line ET from natural systems and ET of some of the less-studied cellulosic feedstocks, as well as to incorporate other regions in the U.S. and internationally. Thus far, we conclude that while water demand for processing is important for plant location and pollution, water consumption for feedstock growth may be (along with land resources) the limiting factor for bioenergy production in many regions.

  15. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  16. Freon consumption - Implications for atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wofsy, S. C.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Sze, N. D.

    1975-01-01

    Freons are a potential source of stratospheric chlorine and may indirectly cause serious reductions in the concentration of ozone. The reduction could be as large as 3 percent by 1980, or 16 percent by 2000, if Freon consumption were to grow at 10 percent per year. Even if Freon use were terminated as early as 1990, it could leave a significant effect which might endure for several hundred years.

  17. Consumption of atmospheric methane by tundra soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, S. C.; Reeburgh, W. S.

    1990-01-01

    The results of field and laboratory experiments on methane consumption by tundra soils are reported. For methane concentrations ranging from below to well above ambient, moist soils are found to consume methane rapidly; in nonwaterlogged soils, equilibration with atmospheric methane is fast relative to microbial oxidation. It is concluded that lowering of the water table in tundra as a resulting from a warmer, drier climate will decrease methane fluxes and could cause these areas to provide negative feedback for atmospheric methane.

  18. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    PubMed

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. PMID:26721719

  19. Machining strategies exploring reduction in energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al

    The main aim of this thesis is to explore machining strategies, analyzing energy consumption using Design of Experiments (DOE) at the material removal rate (MRR), compare to cutting geometrical trajectories according to CNC parameters such as spindle RPM, feed rate, depth of cut per pass and total depth of cut. Spindle RPM, depth of cut per pass, and feed rate are selected as the main three factors and each factor has two levels: low-level (-) and high-level (+). These experiments have been performed at an end-milling machine by using a concept of a constant volume of material removal processes in the circular and linear geometrical slots in pine wood blocks. Standard energy logger equipment has used to measure energy consumption during end-milling operation. Different statistical analysis, such as ANOVA, regression line, and cause & effect diagram have used to show different energy consumption results in the material removal process. At the end the of data analysis, it is found that a significant amount of electricity demand is associated with machining pre-cutting & post-cutting stage and this significant amount of electricity demand is defined as peripheral energy. This peripheral energy is not involved in the actual performance of material removal process in the end-milling process. In the [Figure 11] end-milling process has been involved with pine wood blocks at constant volume of material removal (2.8 cubic inch) process. Results can be varied using of hard material removal process, such as steel & aluminum metals.

  20. Rat splanchnic net oxygen consumption, energy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Casado, J; Fernández-López, J A; Esteve, M; Rafecas, I; Argilés, J M; Alemany, M

    1990-01-01

    1. The blood flow, PO2, pH and PCO2 have been estimated in portal and suprahepatic veins as well as in hepatic artery of fed and overnight starved rats given an oral glucose load. From these data the net intestinal, hepatic and splanchnic balances for oxygen and bicarbonate were calculated. The oxygen consumption of the intact animal has also been measured under comparable conditions. 2. The direct utilization of oxygen balances as energy equivalents when establishing the contribution of energy metabolism of liver and intestine to the overall energy expenses of the rat, has been found to be incorrect, since it incorporates the intrinsic error of interorgan proton transfer through bicarbonate. Liver and intestine produced high net bicarbonate balances in all situations tested, implying the elimination (by means of oxidative pathways, i.e. consuming additional oxygen) of high amounts of H+ generated with bicarbonate. The equivalence in energy output of the oxygen balances was then corrected for bicarbonate production to 11-54% lower values. 3. Intestine and liver consume a high proportion of available oxygen, about one-half in basal (fed or starved) conditions and about one-third after gavage, the intestine consumption being about 15% in all situations tested and the liver decreasing its oxygen consumption with gavage. PMID:2129230

  1. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  2. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  3. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  4. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    PubMed

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption.

  5. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  6. Can evaluative conditioning decrease soft drink consumption?

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jena A; Forman, Evan M; Espel, Hallie M; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D; Lowe, Michael R; Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of a picture-picture evaluative conditioning (EC) procedure on soft drink (soda) outcomes, including negative implicit attitudes, consumption during a taste test, and real-world consumption reported during the week after the intervention. In the EC condition (n = 43), soda images were paired with disgust images and water images were paired with pleasant images, whereas in the control condition (n = 41), the same images were viewed without pairing. The EC condition showed a larger reduction in real-world soda consumption across the week following the intervention. However, individuals in the EC condition did not consume less soda during a taste test immediately following the intervention. EC only significantly increased negative implicit attitudes towards soda among individuals who already had relatively higher baseline negative attitudes. These findings generally favored the potential for EC to impact soda drinking habits, but suggest that a brief EC intervention may not be strong enough to change attitudes towards a well-known brand unless negative attitudes are already present. PMID:27208596

  7. Great Lakes fish consumption and reproductive outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, E.

    1989-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation determined prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through contaminated fish consumption, and ascertained reproductive outcomes. Green Bay, Wisconsin was chosen as the study site because it was known for its environmental contamination of PCBs. These chemicals are environmentally stable and persistent, and tend to bioaccumulate up the food chain, with highest levels found in predatory sport fish from Lake Michigan. The Green Bay area provided a population with potential PCB exposure from sport fish consumption. Accidental poisoning incidents showed detrimental reproductive effects of high dose PCB exposures. A Michigan study found significant effects on birth weight and gestational age when mothers consumed two sport fish meals per month. This study population was drawn from women during their first prenatal visit at two Green Bay clinics during a one year period. 1,112 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained for selected PCB serum analyses. Reproductive outcome measures were abstracted from hospital labor reports. Study results indicated that maternal consumption was correlated to maternal PCB serum levels. Regression techniques estimated significant exposure coefficients for subsets of two birth size parameters. Birth length was positively associated with PCB exposure in shorter mothers. Significant associations of PCB exposure and birth weight percentiles were estimated for two income groups in the urban residence/weight gain less than 34 pounds subset.

  8. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    PubMed

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  9. Plant resistance reduces the strength of consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators on aphids.

    PubMed

    Kersch-Becker, Mônica F; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    1. The impact of predators on prey has traditionally been attributed to the act of consumption. Prey responses to the presence of the predator (non-consumptive effects), however, can be as important as predation itself. While plant defences are known to influence predator-prey interactions, their relative effects on consumptive vs. non-consumptive effects are not well understood. 2. We evaluated the consequences of plant resistance and predators (Hippodamia convergens) on the mass, number of nymphs, population growth, density and dispersal of aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). We tested for the effects of plant resistance on non-consumptive and consumptive effects of predators on aphid performance and dispersal using a combination of path analysis and experimental manipulation of predation risk. 3. We manipulated plant resistance using genetically modified lines of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) that vary incrementally in the expression of the jasmonate pathway, which mediates induced resistance to insects and manipulated aphid exposure to lethal and risk predators. Predation risk predators had mandibles impaired to prevent killing. 4. Plant resistance reduced predation rate (consumptive effect) on high resistance plants. As a consequence, predators had no impact on the number of nymphs, aphid density or population growth on high resistance plants, whereas on low resistance plants, predators reduced aphid density by 35% and population growth by 86%. Path analysis and direct manipulation of predation risk showed that predation risk rather than predation rate promoted aphid dispersal and varied with host plant resistance. Aphid dispersal in response to predation risk was greater on low compared to high resistance plants. The predation risk experiment also showed that the number of aphid nymphs increased in the presence of risk predators but did not translate into increased population growth. 5. In conclusion, the consumptive and non-consumptive components of predators

  10. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  11. Trends in U.S. Residential Natural Gas Consumption

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of residential natural gas consumption trends in the United States through 2009 and analyzes consumption trends for the United States as a whole (1990 through 2009) and for each Census division (1998 through 2009).

  12. Environmental Education and Sustainable Consumption: The Case of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales-Gaudiano, Edgar

    1999-01-01

    Argues that sustainability is a process that links social equity, economic growth, and environmental protection; therefore, sustainable consumption is a mode of consumption congruent with this meaning of sustainability. (Author/CCM)

  13. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990. Supplement, Regional

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-02

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990.

  14. Electric vehicle's electricity consumption on a road with different slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. C.; Li, M.; Lin, Y.; Tang, T. Q.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model and an electricity consumption model to study the effects of the road's slope on the electric vehicle's electricity consumption. The numerical results show that each electric vehicle's electricity consumption increases with the uphill's tilt angle and decreases with the downhill's tilt angle. In addition, each electric vehicle's electricity consumption increases with the uphill's (downhill's) length under a certain tilt angle.

  15. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  16. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  17. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  18. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  19. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  20. Consumption Risk and the Cross Section of Expected Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jonathan A.; Julliard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the central insight of the consumption capital asset pricing model that an asset's expected return is determined by its equilibrium risk to consumption. Rather than measure risk by the contemporaneous covariance of an asset's return and consumption growth, we measure risk by the covariance of an asset's return and consumption…

  1. 27 CFR 40.231 - Consumption by employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumption by employees... Products § 40.231 Consumption by employees. A manufacturer of tobacco products may gratuitously furnish tobacco products, without determination and payment of tax, for personal consumption by employees in...

  2. 27 CFR 40.231 - Consumption by employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumption by employees... Products § 40.231 Consumption by employees. A manufacturer of tobacco products may gratuitously furnish tobacco products, without determination and payment of tax, for personal consumption by employees in...

  3. 19 CFR 146.63 - Entry for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for consumption. 146.63 Section 146.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.63 Entry for consumption... status may be entered for consumption from a zone. (b) Zone-restricted merchandise. Merchandise in a...

  4. 19 CFR 146.63 - Entry for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry for consumption. 146.63 Section 146.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.63 Entry for consumption... status may be entered for consumption from a zone. (b) Zone-restricted merchandise. Merchandise in a...

  5. Reassessing the planetary boundary for freshwater consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerten, Dieter; Pastor, Amandine; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Hoff, Holger; Rockström, Johan; Kummu, Matti

    2014-05-01

    This presentation reviews the conceptual and quantitative foundation of the recently suggested 'planetary boundary' for freshwater (i.e. the volume of human 'blue' water consumption that is deemed to be tolerable; see Rockström et al. in Nature 2009). It also proposes ways forward to refine and reassess this planetary boundary. As a key element of such a revision we provide a bottom-up quantification of local water availabilities taking account of environmental flow requirement in a spatially explicit manner and using five different methods to estimate these flow requirements with a global dynamic hydrology and vegetation model (LPJmL). Our analysis suggests that the planetary boundary for freshwater consumption may adopt a value of about 2800 km3 yr-1 (which is the average of an uncertainty range of 1100-4500 km3 yr-1). This is notably lower than the original suggestion based on a simpler top-down analysis that relied on some global estimates of environmental flow requirements (4,000 km3 yr-1, the lower value of an uncertainty range of 4000-6000 km3 yr-1). Although assessed with spatial detail, this new estimate remains provisional, pending further refinement by analyses of local water accessibility and further constraints up-scaled to the global domain, including study of cascading impacts on Earth system properties. Nonetheless, with a current blue water consumption of >1,700 km3 yr-1, it appears that the freshwater boundary appears is being approached fast, and perhaps faster than suggested earlier. Thus, design opportunities to remain within this boundary are imperative - we argue that their comprehensive quantification requires analysis of tradeoffs with other planetary boundaries such as those for land use and climate change.

  6. Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret; Eliot, Katie; Heuertz, Rita M; Weiss, Edward

    2012-04-01

    Nitrate ingestion improves exercise performance; however, it has also been linked to adverse health effects, except when consumed in the form of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to determine, in a double-blind crossover study, whether whole beetroot consumption, as a means for increasing nitrate intake, improves endurance exercise performance. Eleven recreationally fit men and women were studied in a double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial performed in 2010. Participants underwent two 5-km treadmill time trials in random sequence, once 75 minutes after consuming baked beetroot (200 g with ≥500 mg nitrate) and once 75 minutes after consuming cranberry relish as a eucaloric placebo. Based on paired t tests, mean running velocity during the 5-km run tended to be faster after beetroot consumption (12.3±2.7 vs 11.9±2.6 km/hour; P=0.06). During the last 1.1 miles (1.8 km) of the 5-km run, running velocity was 5% faster (12.7±3.0 vs 12.1±2.8 km/hour; P=0.02) in the beetroot trial, with no differences in velocity (P≥0.25) in the earlier portions of the 5-km run. No differences in exercise heart rate were observed between trials; however, at 1.8 km into the 5-km run, rating of perceived exertion was lower with beetroot (13.0±2.1 vs 13.7±1.9; P=0.04). Consumption of nitrate-rich, whole beetroot improves running performance in healthy adults. Because whole vegetables have been shown to have health benefits, whereas nitrates from other sources may have detrimental health effects, it would be prudent for individuals seeking performance benefits to obtain nitrates from whole vegetables, such as beetroot.

  7. Assessing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abousaleh, Mustafa M.

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming essential in people's lives. The advancement in technology and mobility factor are allowing users to utilize mobile devices for communication, entertainment, financial planning, fitness tracking, etc. As a result, mobile applications are also becoming important factors contributing to user utility. However, battery capacity is the limiting factor impacting the quality of user experience. Hence, it is imperative to understand how much energy impact do mobile apps have on the system relative to other device activities. This thesis presents a systematic studying of the energy impact of mobile apps features. Time-series electrical current measurements are collected from 4 different modern smartphones. Statistical analysis methodologies are used to calculate the energy impact of each app feature by identifying and extracting mobile app-feature events from the overall current signal. In addition, the app overhead energy costs are also computed. Total energy consumption equations for each component is developed and an overall total energy consumption equation is presented. Minutes Lost (ML) of normal phone operations due to the energy consumption of the mobile app functionality is computed for cases where the mobile app is simulated to run on the various devices for 30 minutes. Tutela Technologies Inc. mobile app, NAT, is used for this study. NAT has two main features: QoS and Throughput. The impact of the QoS feature is indistinguishable, i.e. ML is zero, relative to other phone activities. The ML with only the TP feature enabled is on average 2.1 minutes. Enabling the GPS increases the ML on average to 11.5 minutes. Displaying the app GUI interface in addition to running the app features and enabling the GPS results in an average ML of 12.4 minutes. Amongst the various mobile app features and components studied, the GPS consumes the highest amount of energy. It is estimated that the GPS increases the ML by about 448%.

  8. Oxygen consumption by a coral reef sponge.

    PubMed

    Hadas, Eran; Ilan, Micha; Shpigel, Muki

    2008-07-01

    Oxygen consumption of the Red Sea coral reef sponge Negombata magnifica was measured using both incubation and steady-state methods. The latter method was found to be the more reliable because sponge activity remained stable over time. Oxygen consumption rate was measured during three levels of sponge activity: full activity, reduced activity and basal activity (starved). It was found that the active oxygen consumption rate of N. magnifica averaged 37.3+/-4.6 nmol O2 min(-1) g(-1) wet mass, which is within the upper range reported for other tropical marine sponges. Fully active N. magnifica individuals consumed an average of 41.8+/-3.2 nmol O2 min(-1) g(-1) wet mass. The mean basal respiration rate was 20.2+/-1.2 nmol O2 min(-1) g(-1) wet mass, which is 51.6+/-2.5% of the active respiration rate. Therefore, the oxygen used for water pumping was calculated to be at most 10.6+/-1.8 nmol O2 min(-1) g(-1) wet mass, which is 25.1+/-3.6% of the total respiration. Combined oxygen used for maintenance and water pumping activity was calculated to be 30.8 nmol O2 min(-1) g(-1) wet mass, which is approximately 74% of the sponge's total oxygen requirement. The remaining oxygen is directed to other physiological activities, mainly the energy requirement of growth. These findings suggest that only a relatively minor amount of energy is potentially available for growth, and thus might be a factor in controlling the growth rate of N. magnifica in oligotrophic coral reefs.

  9. Consumption of atmospheric methane by desert soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; McConnaughey, T.A.; Thorstenson, D.C.; Weeks, E.P.; Woodward, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC concentrations of methane, a greenhouse gas, are increasing at a rate of about 1% yr-1 (refs 1-4). Oxidation by methylotrophic bacteria in soil is the largest terrestrial sink for atmospheric CH4, and is estimated to consume about 30?? 1012 g CH4 yr-1 (refs 4-6). Spatial and temporal variability in the rate of soil CH4 consumption are incompletely understood6-19, as are the apparent inhibitory12,13,18 or enhancing20 effects of changes in land use. Dry deserts, which constitute 20% of total land surface, are not currently included in global soil uptake estimates. Here we describe measurements of the rate of uptake of atmospheric CH4 by undisturbed desert soils. We observed rates as great as 4.38 mg CH4 m-2 day-1; 50% of the measured rates were between 0.24 and 0.92 mg CH4 m2 d-1. Uptake of CH4 by desert soil is enhanced by rainfall after an initial soil-drainage period - opposite to the response of temperate forest soils12. Methane is consumed to a depth of about 2 m, allowing for deep removal of atmospheric CH4 if near-surface conditions are unfavourable for consumption. On the basis of an annual average CH4 consumption rate of 0.66 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, we estimate that the global CH4 sink term needs to be increased by about 7 ?? 1012 g yr-1 to account for the contribution of desert soils.

  10. Population, consumption and resources: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, P

    1998-01-01

    This article offers several models that test concepts of optimum population and consumption: classical or utilitarian models, contractual models, and generation-relative ethical models. This article is based on a lecture presented in August 1995, at a conference organized by the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences. It is posited that classical utilitarianism casts the optimum population and consumption problem as a Genesis Problem. The authors argue that the Genesis problem is the wrong problem to study because there are no actual people. The Genesis problem asks how many people there ought to be ideally at what living standards. The unborn are not a class of people, just as mud on a river bank is not a mud hut. Actual persons and potential persons are categorically different. Actual persons have a claim that potential persons do not have. An overall ethical ordering over alternatives can only be conceived for each generation of actual people. The ethical point of view inevitably changes over time. For example, a generation in the first period consumes what they are given to consume by the older generation. In the second period, the younger generation is now the older generation who decide how many children to have and how to share nonstorable, all purpose consumption goods among themselves and future generations. Procreation is a means of making one's values durable. Human development is unfair. Those who live later benefit from the labor of their predecessors without paying the same price. Procreation and ecological preservation are a matter of ethics.

  11. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  12. Water consumption cut and money saved.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Allan

    2012-05-01

    Allan Kelly, facilities director at Guelph General Hospital in Ontario, Canada, and chairman of the Ontario Chapter of the Canadian Healthcare Engineering Society (CHES), describes how an independent water conservation assessment undertaken at the healthcare facility, and the subsequent remedial measures taken, resulted in substantial savings - both in reduced water consumption, and lower costs. As he explains, in an article which first appeared in Canadian Healthcare Facilities magazine, many of the steps were both straightforward to implement, and had an extremely short payback period.

  13. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  14. Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087

  15. Benzodiazepines consumption: does dependence vary with age?

    PubMed

    Gérardin, Marie; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Guerlais, Marylène; Guillou-Landreat, Morgane; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Jolliet, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    We have compared two groups of chronic benzodiazepines (or zolpidem/zopiclone) users: "Seniors," aged 65 years or more, and "Adults," aged less than 65 years. The study took place in the Pays de Loire region. The questionnaire assesses dependence based on items from the DSM-IV. The analysis was based on 176 Senior questionnaires and 212 Adult questionnaires. Whereas Senior patients take benzodiazepines routinely with little negative consequences, Adults suffer from underlying psychological trouble, mention a higher consumption than planned, which causes negative consequences. 35.2% of Seniors are dependent on benzodiazepines versus 49.8% of Adults. PMID:24810390

  16. Global energy consumption and production in 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, E. L.; Davison, C.; Dougher, R.; Edmonds, J. A.; Reilly, J.

    1981-02-01

    This study anticipates that global energy demand will continue to expand through 2000, although at a slower pace than in 1965 to 1978. Growth of supply is expected to be largely in conventional, nonrenewable fuels - coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas. Energy growth is also expected to slow down in terms of energy consumption per unit of output as a consequence of continuing efficiency improvements, which, in turn, result from higher energy prices. Slower rates of economic growth are expected in all groups of countries, developed and underdeveloped.

  17. Benzodiazepines consumption: does dependence vary with age?

    PubMed

    Gérardin, Marie; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Guerlais, Marylène; Guillou-Landreat, Morgane; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Jolliet, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    We have compared two groups of chronic benzodiazepines (or zolpidem/zopiclone) users: "Seniors," aged 65 years or more, and "Adults," aged less than 65 years. The study took place in the Pays de Loire region. The questionnaire assesses dependence based on items from the DSM-IV. The analysis was based on 176 Senior questionnaires and 212 Adult questionnaires. Whereas Senior patients take benzodiazepines routinely with little negative consequences, Adults suffer from underlying psychological trouble, mention a higher consumption than planned, which causes negative consequences. 35.2% of Seniors are dependent on benzodiazepines versus 49.8% of Adults.

  18. Monitoring sweetener consumption in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Hinson, A L; Nicol, W M

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the consumption of intense sweeteners in Great Britain in 1988 quantified the levels of usage of different sweeteners and identified their distribution between food categories and population subgroups. Saccharin was found to be the most widely used intense sweetener. Beverages were the most common source of intense sweeteners. The quantities consumed of all sweeteners were found to be below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, the European Commission Scientific Committee for Food or the UK Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment.

  19. Pseudoporphyria associated with consumption of brewers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Lim, C K; Rideout, J M; Peters, T J

    1984-06-01

    A case of pseudoporphyria associated with excessive consumption of brewers ' yeast was studied. Detailed analysis of the yeast tablets by high performance liquid chromatography showed the presence of dicarboxylic deuteroporphyrin , mesoporphyrin, and protoporphyrin; coproporphyrin I and III isomers; and uroporphyrin I and III isomers. The faecal porphyrin concentration of the patient taking yeast tablets was significantly increased, resembling the excretion pattern in variegate porphyria. Any patient showing an unusual porphyrin excretion pattern on high performance liquid chromatography should be investigated for a possible dietary cause.

  20. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  1. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  2. Research note: adolescents' perception of psychosis risk following cannabis consumption.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andreea Mihaela; Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Chendran, Laura Alexandra

    2012-03-01

    Cannabis consumption during adolescence has been associated with the onset of psychosis. In 2010, we examined adolescents' perception of this association. Adolescents (N = 583) from four Romanian urban high schools filled in psychosis proneness scales according to the risk they assigned to hypothetical adolescents described in vignettes. Target adolescent's frequency and age of first consumption were manipulated. Analysis of variance indicated a main effect of target's consumption frequency, but no effect of age of first consumption on psychosis risk perception. Participants' own consumption status acted as moderator. Results highlight the discrepancy between clinical research results and adolescents' perception of psychosis risk. The study's limitations are noted.

  3. Systematic review of antibiotic consumption in acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bitterman, R; Hussein, K; Leibovici, L; Carmeli, Y; Paul, M

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic consumption is an easily quantifiable performance measure in hospitals and might be used for monitoring. We conducted a review of published studies and online surveillance reports reporting on antibiotic consumption in acute care hospitals between the years 1997 and 2013. A pooled estimate of antibiotic consumption was calculated using a random effects meta-analysis of rates with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was assessed through subgroup analysis and metaregression. Eighty studies, comprising data from 3130 hospitals, met the inclusion criteria. The pooled rate of hospital-wide consumption was 586 (95% confidence interval 540 to 632) defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 hospital days (HD) for all antibacterials. However, consumption rates were highly heterogeneous. Antibacterial consumption was highest in intensive care units, at 1563 DDD/1000 HD (95% confidence interval 1472 to 1653). Hospital-wide antibacterial consumption was higher in Western Europe and in medium-sized, private and university-affiliated hospitals. The methods of data collection were significantly associated with consumption rates, including data sources, dispensing vs. purchase vs. usage data, counting admission and discharge days and inclusion of low-consumption departments. Heterogeneity remained in all subgroup analyses. Major heterogeneity currently precludes defining acceptable antibiotic consumption ranges in acute care hospitals. Guidelines on antibiotic consumption reporting that will account for case mix and a minimal set of hospital characteristics recommending standardized methods for monitoring and reporting are needed. PMID:26899826

  4. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Ranum, Peter; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays), also called corn, is believed to have originated in central Mexico 7000 years ago from a wild grass, and Native Americans transformed maize into a better source of food. Maize contains approximately 72% starch, 10% protein, and 4% fat, supplying an energy density of 365 Kcal/100 g and is grown throughout the world, with the United States, China, and Brazil being the top three maize-producing countries in the world, producing approximately 563 of the 717 million metric tons/year. Maize can be processed into a variety of food and industrial products, including starch, sweeteners, oil, beverages, glue, industrial alcohol, and fuel ethanol. In the last 10 years, the use of maize for fuel production significantly increased, accounting for approximately 40% of the maize production in the United States. As the ethanol industry absorbs a larger share of the maize crop, higher prices for maize will intensify demand competition and could affect maize prices for animal and human consumption. Low production costs, along with the high consumption of maize flour and cornmeal, especially where micronutrient deficiencies are common public health problems, make this food staple an ideal food vehicle for fortification. PMID:24650320

  5. Ciguatera caused by consumption of humphead wrasse.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2013-12-15

    Humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. A food surveillance project using a validated mouse bioassay revealed the presence of ciguatoxins in significantly greater amounts in its flesh than in groupers and other coral reef fishes commonly available in Hong Kong wholesale market. Humphead wrasse has long been known to cause ciguatera, but there was a lack of clinical reports. A 45-year-old woman developed ciguatera after eating humphead wrasse. She required ICU care and infusions of intravenous fluids and dopamine for management of severe hypotension. All 5 published case series are also reviewed to characterise the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms after its consumption. In addition to the gastrointestinal, neurological and other features that were typical of ciguatera, some subjects developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, shock, neuropsychiatric features (e.g. mental exhaustion, depression, insomnia and memory loss), other central nervous system symptoms (e.g. coma, convulsions and ataxia) and myocardial ischaemia. Other subjects still experienced residual symptoms 6 months later; these were mainly neurological or neuropsychiatric complaints and skin pruritus. To prevent ciguatera, the public should avoid eating humphead wrasse and other large coral reef fishes. They should realise that consumption of the high-risk fish may result in more severe and chronic illness, including life-threatening complications and neuropsychiatric features.

  6. Tea and its consumption: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Khizar; Iqbal, Hira; Malik, Uzma; Bilal, Uzma; Mushtaq, Sobia

    2015-01-01

    The recent convention of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or combat diseases is a centuries' old tradition. Nutritional support is an emerging advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; tea and its constituents are one of the significant components of these strategies to maintain the health and reduce the risk of various malignancies. Tea is the most frequently consumed beverage worldwide, besides water. All the three most popular types of tea, green (unfermented), black (fully fermented), and oolong (semifermented), are manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Tea possesses significant antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, cholesterol-lowering, and thermogenic properties. Several research investigations, epidemiological studies, and meta-analyses suggest that tea and its bioactive polyphenolic constituents have numerous beneficial effects on health, including the prevention of many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, genital warts, and obesity. Controversies regarding beneficialts and risks of tea consumption still exist but the limitless health-promoting benefits of tea outclass its few reported toxic effects. However, with significant rise in the scientific investigation of role of tea in human life, this review is intended to highlight the beneficial effects and risks associated with tea consumption.

  7. Rainwater Harvesting and Consumption in urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar Abbasi, Ali; Tabatabaee, Javad; Ranaee, Ehsan

    2013-04-01

    The soaring rate of urban demand for soft water and the rising cost associated with construction and protection of centralized large-scale water treatment and distribution systems associated with expansion of cities and immigrations of rural population to cities have contributed to increase acceptance of water harvesting systems in urban areas at least. This issue requires special attention in Iran as a developing country in the Middle East semitropical area. In this context, a recent pilot project has been proposed to analyze the performance of rainwater harvesting systems as an answer to some parts of soft water demand in Iranian urban society. A system of rainwater draining and storage has been implemented in a two hectares urban area. Observations and analyses related to runoff quantity and quality have been performed between November 2007 and November 2009 at the basin outlet as well as inside a storage tank which has been set up in the area for water harvesting purposes. The potential of the harvested rainwater to be employed in different consumption contexts has been analyzed in light of national and international standards. Although most of the sampling results support the idea that the quality of harvested water is adequate for any field of consuption, including drinking use (especially during rainfall period of time), a comparison between biological quality evaluation plus turbidity and color of samples with the related standards has led to identify limitations of harvested water usage with particular reference to plant consumptions. Keywords- rainwater harvesting system, runoff, water quality standards

  8. Oxygen consumption in subseafloor basaltic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Wheat, C. G.; Hulme, S.; Edwards, K. J.; Bach, W.

    2012-12-01

    Oceanic crust is the largest potential habitat for life on Earth and may contain a significant fraction of Earth's total microbial biomass, yet little is known about the form and function of life in this vast subseafloor realm that covers nearly two-thirds of the Earth's surface. A deep biosphere hosted in subseafloor basalts has been suggested from several lines of evidence; yet, empirical analysis of metabolic reaction rates in basaltic crust is lacking. Here we report the first measure of oxygen consumption in young (~ 8 Ma) and cool (<25 degrees C) basaltic crust, calculated from modeling oxygen and strontium profiles in basal sediments collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 336 to 'North Pond', a sediment 'pond' on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), where vigorous fluid circulation within basaltic crust occurs. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased towards the sediment-basement interface, indicating an upward diffusional supply from oxic fluids circulating within the crust. A parametric reaction-transport model suggests oxygen consumption rates on the order of 0.5-500 nmol per cubic centimeter fluid per day in young and cool basaltic crust, providing sufficient energy to support a subsurface crustal biosphere.

  9. [Global trends in food consumption and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Holmboe-Ottesen, G

    2000-01-10

    Obesity and lifestyle diseases increase all over the world, especially in developing countries. One reason is the change in diet. This nutrition transition is characterised by improvement in dietary variation, but also by increase in the content of fat and sugar. The transition seems to start at a lower level of income, compared to what occurred in the Western countries after the Second World War. The reason is that many foods are relatively cheaper, especially fat and sugar. The world market is presently flooded with cheap vegetable fat. Urbanisation leads to over-consumption by increasing market access to fatty and sugary foods, including fast foods. Globalization increases the consumption of sweet soda pops, biscuits and snacks produced by multinational companies. Western supermarkets and fast food franchises also promote these dietary changes (McDonaldization). It has been proposed that the population in developing countries is more vulnerable towards these dietary changes in regard to obesity and chronic diseases, due to undernutrition in early life (the Barker hypothesis). We may therefore expect an unprecedented increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases, especially diabetes type 2 in the developing countries. One may question if this increase will be a transient phenomenon, or if we can expect the same pattern as we have seen in the West, namely that the poor become the fat-test segment of the population, with the highest prevalence of chronic diseases.

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Obesity: An Update.

    PubMed

    Traversy, Gregory; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Recreational alcohol intake is a widespread activity globally and alcohol energy (7 kcal/g) can be a contributing factor to weight gain if not compensated for. Given that both excessive alcohol intake and obesity are of public health interest, the present paper provides an update on the association between alcohol consumption and body weight. In general, recent prospective studies show that light-to-moderate alcohol intake is not associated with adiposity gain while heavy drinking is more consistently related to weight gain. Experimental evidence is also mixed and suggests that moderate intake of alcohol does not lead to weight gain over short follow-up periods. However, many factors can explain the conflicting findings and a better characterization of individuals more likely to gain weight as a result of alcohol consumption is needed. In particular, individuals who frequently drink moderate amounts of alcohol may enjoy a healthier lifestyle in general that may protect them from weight gain. In conclusion, despite the important limitations of current studies, it is reasonable to say that alcohol intake may be a risk factor for obesity in some individuals, likely based on a multitude of factors, some of which are discussed herein.

  11. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Ranum, Peter; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays), also called corn, is believed to have originated in central Mexico 7000 years ago from a wild grass, and Native Americans transformed maize into a better source of food. Maize contains approximately 72% starch, 10% protein, and 4% fat, supplying an energy density of 365 Kcal/100 g and is grown throughout the world, with the United States, China, and Brazil being the top three maize-producing countries in the world, producing approximately 563 of the 717 million metric tons/year. Maize can be processed into a variety of food and industrial products, including starch, sweeteners, oil, beverages, glue, industrial alcohol, and fuel ethanol. In the last 10 years, the use of maize for fuel production significantly increased, accounting for approximately 40% of the maize production in the United States. As the ethanol industry absorbs a larger share of the maize crop, higher prices for maize will intensify demand competition and could affect maize prices for animal and human consumption. Low production costs, along with the high consumption of maize flour and cornmeal, especially where micronutrient deficiencies are common public health problems, make this food staple an ideal food vehicle for fortification.

  12. Ciguatera caused by consumption of humphead wrasse.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2013-12-15

    Humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. A food surveillance project using a validated mouse bioassay revealed the presence of ciguatoxins in significantly greater amounts in its flesh than in groupers and other coral reef fishes commonly available in Hong Kong wholesale market. Humphead wrasse has long been known to cause ciguatera, but there was a lack of clinical reports. A 45-year-old woman developed ciguatera after eating humphead wrasse. She required ICU care and infusions of intravenous fluids and dopamine for management of severe hypotension. All 5 published case series are also reviewed to characterise the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms after its consumption. In addition to the gastrointestinal, neurological and other features that were typical of ciguatera, some subjects developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, shock, neuropsychiatric features (e.g. mental exhaustion, depression, insomnia and memory loss), other central nervous system symptoms (e.g. coma, convulsions and ataxia) and myocardial ischaemia. Other subjects still experienced residual symptoms 6 months later; these were mainly neurological or neuropsychiatric complaints and skin pruritus. To prevent ciguatera, the public should avoid eating humphead wrasse and other large coral reef fishes. They should realise that consumption of the high-risk fish may result in more severe and chronic illness, including life-threatening complications and neuropsychiatric features. PMID:24141055

  13. Gourmet coffee beverage consumption among college women.

    PubMed

    Shields, Deborah H; Corrales, Kattia M; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2004-04-01

    Gourmet coffee beverages (GCBs) are relatively new products in the foodservice industry that consist of high-energy coffee drinks. A descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of consumption of GCBs and their energy and fat contribution to overall dietary intake in college women using a beverage questionnaire and a 3-day food diary. A convenience sample of 165 undergraduate and graduate women attending Simmons College completed a beverage questionnaire, and a subsample of 41 women completed a 3-day food diary. Mean reported GCB consumption was 2.5 times/week for the entire sample and 7 times/week for the food diary subsample. A comparison of GCB consumers and nonconsumers indicated that GCB drinkers had a 206 kcal/day higher intake (P=.250) and a 32 g higher sugar intake than nonconsumers (P<.05). A significant percentage of college women consume GCBs, which contributes additional energy and fat to dietary intake. Over time, this could potentially affect weight status.

  14. Meat consumption: trends and quality matters.

    PubMed

    Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C; Troy, Declan

    2014-11-01

    This paper uses quality theory to identify opportunities for the meat sector that are consistent with trends in meat consumption. Meat consumption has increased and is likely to continue into the future. Growth is largely driven by white meats, with poultry in particular of increasing importance globally. The influence of factors such as income and price is likely decline over time so that other factors, such as quality, will become more important. Quality is complex and consumers' quality expectations may not align with experienced quality due to misconception of certain intrinsic cues. Establishing relevant and effective cues, based on extrinsic and credence attributes, could offer advantage on the marketplace. The use of extrinsic cues can help convey quality characteristics for eating quality, but also for more abstract attributes that reflect individual consumer concerns e.g. health/nutrition, and collective concerns, e.g. sustainability. However, attributes are not of equal value to all consumers. Thus consumer segmentation and production differentiation is needed.

  15. Exploring future patterns of meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Mathijs, Erik

    2015-11-01

    The nutrition transition encompasses a set of major shifts in human diet and nutritional status, throughout history and that is influenced by a wide range of factors such as income, technical change, urbanisation and culture. High-income societies are witnessing a shift towards diets with more fat, sugar, processed foods and less fibre, leading to a sharp increase in non-communicable diseases, such as obesity. This trend can also be observed among the middle classes of emerging countries. However, increasing evidence suggests that a final shift is occurring, following behavioural change towards consuming higher-quality fats, more whole grains, fruit and vegetables, and particularly less meat. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, an assessment is made of where different countries are located in the different phases of the nutrition transition. Second, a qualitative investigation is made into the factors enhancing and hindering the latest phase of the transition-particularly towards less meat consumption-taking into account cultural differences between consumer groups across countries. The analysis of both objectives generates insights into possible future scenarios of meat consumption.

  16. Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. PMID:21896294

  17. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks in the highest fish-consuming group ({approx}3 times

  18. Alcohol in Greenland 1951–2010: consumption, mortality, prices

    PubMed Central

    Aage, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in alcohol consumption in Greenland have been extreme since alcohol became available to the Greenland Inuit in the 1950s, increasing from low levels in the 1950s to very high levels in the 1980s – about twice as high as alcohol consumption in Denmark. Since then, consumption has declined, and current consumption is slightly below alcohol consumption in Denmark, while alcohol prices are far above Danish prices. Objective Description of historical trends and possible causal connections of alcohol prices, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Greenland 1951–2010 as a background for the evaluation of the impact of various types of policy. Design Time series for Greenland 1951–2010 for alcohol prices, consumption and mortality are compiled, and variation and correlations are discussed in relation to various policies aimed at limiting alcohol consumption. Corresponding time series for Denmark 1906–2010 are presented for comparison. Results The trends in alcohol prices and consumption followed each other rather closely until the 1990s in Greenland and the 1980s in Denmark. At this time, consumption stabilised while prices decreased further, but the effect of prices upon consumption is strong, also in recent years. A trend in Greenlandic mortality similar to consumption is discernible, but not significant. Among alcohol-related deaths cirrhosis of the liver is less prevalent whilst accidents are more prevalent than in Denmark. Conclusions The effect of alcohol excise taxes and rationing upon consumption is evident. The stabilisation and subsequent decline in consumption since the mid-1990s, while alcohol prices decreased persistently, does not preclude continued effects of prices. On the contrary, price effects have been neutralised by other stronger causes. Whether these are government anti-alcohol campaigns or a cultural change is not clear. PMID:23256091

  19. Optimal investment, consumption and retirement choice problem with disutility and subsistence consumption constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Byung Hwa; Shin, Yong Hyun; Choi, U. Jin

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we consider a general optimal consumption-portfolio selection problem of an infinitely-lived agent whose consumption rate process is subject to subsistence constraints before retirement. That is, her consumption rate should be greater than or equal to some positive constant before retirement. We integrate three optimal decisions which are the optimal consumption, the optimal investment choice and the optimal stopping problem in which the agent chooses her retirement time in one model. We obtain the explicit forms of optimal policies using a martingale method and a variational inequality arising from the dual function of the optimal stopping problem. We treat the optimal retirement time as the first hitting time when her wealth exceeds a certain wealth level which will be determined by a free boundary value problem and duality approaches. We also derive closed forms of the optimal wealth processes before and after retirement. Some numerical examples are presented for the case of constant relative risk aversion (CRRA) utility class.

  20. Portion size and intended consumption. Evidence for a pre-consumption portion size effect in males?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; te Raa, Wesselien; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Larger portions increase energy intake (the 'portion size effect'); however, the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. Although pre-meal intentions are thought to be an important determinant of energy intake, little research has examined how much of a meal individuals intend to eat when served standard versus larger portion sizes. Three studies examined the effect of manipulating portion size on intended food consumption. In Studies 1 (spaghetti bolognese) and 2 (curry and rice) male participants were shown an image of either a standard or a larger meal and indicated how much of the meal they intended to consume. In Study 3 male and female participants were served either a standard or a larger portion of ice cream for dessert, they indicated how much they intended to consume and then ate as much of the ice cream as they desired. Regardless of being shown standard or large portion sizes, in Studies 1 and 2 participants reported that they intended to eat the majority of the meal, equating to a large difference in intended energy consumption between portion size conditions (a 'pre-consumption portion size effect'). This finding was replicated in male participants in Study 3, although females intended to eat a smaller proportion of the larger portion of ice cream, compared to the standard portion. Both male and female participants tended to eat in accordance with their pre-meal intentions and a portion size effect on actual consumption was subsequently observed in males, but not in females. The portion size effect may be observed when measuring pre-meal intended consumption in males. PMID:25865660

  1. [Gradation in the level of vitamin consumption: possible risk of excessive consumption].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M

    2014-01-01

    The ratio between the levels of consumption of certain vitamins and minerals [recommended daily allowance for labelling purposes < maximum supplement levels < tolerable upper intake level (UL) < safe level (limit) of consumption < or = therapeutic dose has been characterized. Vitamin A and beta-carotene maximum supplement levels coincides with UL, and recommended daily allowance for these micronutrients coincides with the maximal level of consumption through dietary supplements and/or multivitamins. Except for vitamin A and beta-carotene recommended daily allowance for other vitamins adopted in Russia are considerably lower than the upper safe level of consumption. For vitamin A and beta-carotene there is a potential risk for excess consumption. According to the literature data (meta-analysis) prolonged intake of high doses of antioxidant vitamins (above the RDA) both alone and in combination with two other vitamins or vitamin C [> 800 microg (R.E.) of vitamin A, > 9.6 mg of beta-carotene, > 15 mg (T.E.) of vitamin E] do not possess preventive effects and may be harmful with unwanted consequences to health, especially in well-nourished populations, persons having risk of lung cancer (smokers, workers exposed to asbestos), in certain conditions (in the atmosphere with high oxygen content, hyperoxia, oxygen therapy). Proposed mechanisms of such action may be due to the manifestation of prooxidant action when taken in high doses, shifting balance with other important natural antioxidants, their displacement (substitution), interference with the natural defense mechanisms. Athletes are the population group that requires attention as used antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, both individually and in combination in extremely high doses. In summary, it should be noted that intake of physiological doses which are equivalent to the needs of the human organism, as well as diet inclusion of fortified foods not only pose no threat to health, but will bring undoubted benefits, filling

  2. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  3. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  4. Effects of opium consumption on cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Masoudkabir, Farzad; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-12-01

    Opium is the second-most-commonly abused substance (after tobacco) in developing countries of the Middle East region, and in many Asian nations. One of the reasons for the high prevalence of opium abuse in these countries is a traditional belief among Eastern people, even including some medical staff, that opium might have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and in the control of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. In this Perspectives article, we summarize the current understanding of the pharmacotoxicology of opium and its specific effects on glycaemic control, blood pressure, lipid profile, and atherosclerosis. On the basis of the available evidence, we believe not only that opium has no ameliorating effect on cardiovascular diseases, but also that the use of this drug might have adverse effects on these conditions. Therefore, people should be educated about the hazardous effects of opium consumption on cardiometabolic diseases.

  5. Reduced truck fuel consumption through aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L. L.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    Full-scale fuel consumption and drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor-trailer combination and a version of the same vehicle with significant forebody modifications. The modified configuration had greatly increased radii on all front corners and edges of the tractor and a smooth fairing of the modified tractor top and sides extending to the trailer. Concurrent highway testing of the two configurations showed that the modified design used 20% to 24% less fuel than the baseline configuration at 88.5 km/hr (55 mph) with near-calm wind conditions. Coastdown test results showed that the modified configuration reduced the drag coefficient by 0.43 from the baseline value of 1.17 at 88.5 km/hr (55 mph) in calm wind conditions.

  6. Fuel consumption improvement in current transport engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, R. W.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A review is conducted of improvements which can be made with respect to the fuel consumption of current engines and new production versions of current engines. A description is presented of an engine diagnostics program which has the objective to identify and quantify the causes and sources of performance deterioration in the JT9D turbofan engine and to develop basic data which will be applied to minimize performance degradation of current and future engines. General areas where performance losses occur are examined, taking into account seals, blades and vanes, and cases. Potential performance improvement concepts are related to improved component aerodynamics, improved flowpath sealing, blade tip clearance control, improved turbine cooling effectiveness, improved turbine materials and coatings, duct and nozzle aerodynamic refinements, nacelle aerodynamic refinements, forced exhaust mixers, advanced nacelle materials, and advanced fuel control.

  7. Characterizing scientific production and consumption in Physics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Perra, Nicola; Gonçalves, Bruno; Ciulla, Fabio; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the entire publication database of the American Physical Society generating longitudinal (50 years) citation networks geolocalized at the level of single urban areas. We define the knowledge diffusion proxy, and scientific production ranking algorithms to capture the spatio-temporal dynamics of Physics knowledge worldwide. By using the knowledge diffusion proxy we identify the key cities in the production and consumption of knowledge in Physics as a function of time. The results from the scientific production ranking algorithm allow us to characterize the top cities for scholarly research in Physics. Although we focus on a single dataset concerning a specific field, the methodology presented here opens the path to comparative studies of the dynamics of knowledge across disciplines and research areas. PMID:23571320

  8. Storage format for personalized broadcasting content consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Jang, Jea-Seok; Min, Hyun-Seok; Ro, Yong Man; Kim, Hui Yong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a storage format which binds digital broadcasts with related data such as TV-Anytime metadata, additional multimedia resources, and personal viewing history. The goal of the proposed format is to make it possible to offer personalized content consumption after recording broadcasting contents to storage devices, e.g., HD-DVD and Blu-ray Disc. To achieve that, we adopt MPEG-4 file format as a container and apply a binary format for scenes (BIFS) for representing and rendering personal viewing history. In addition, TV-Anytime metadata is used to describe broadcasts and to refer to the additional multimedia resources, e.g, images, audio clips, and short video clips. To demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed format, we introduce an application scenario and test it on that scenario.

  9. Healthy fish consumption and reduced mercury exposure

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Vanderlinden, Loren D.; Scott, Fran; Archbold, Josephine A.; Brown, Tara L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with a practical, evidence-based approach to counseling women about healthy fish eating. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched for articles published between 1999 and 2008. Most studies described in this article provide level II or III evidence. Main message Fish is an important component of a healthy diet for women in their reproductive years owing to the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the neurologic development of the fetus. However, some fish species contain considerable methylmercury, which crosses the placenta and has harmful effects on neurobehavioural development. As many jurisdictions have issued fish consumption advisories, which can be confusing, women would benefit from individualized assistance from a trusted source, their family physicians, to clarify the risks and benefits of eating fish. Conclusion We recommend that family physicians counsel women in their reproductive years about healthy choices regarding fish in their diet, and provide appropriate resources. PMID:21322285

  10. Using LEDs to reduce energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eweni, Chukwuebuka E.

    The most popularly used light bulb in homes is the incandescent. It is also the least energy efficient. The filament in the bulb is so thin that it causes resistance in the electricity, which in turn causes the electricity's energy to form heat. This causes the incandescent to waste a lot of energy forming heat rather than forming the light. It uses 15 lumens per watt of input power. A recorded MATLAB demonstration showcased LED versatility and how it can be used by an Arduino UNO board. The objective of this thesis is to showcase how LEDs can reduce energy consumption through the use of an Arduino UNO board and MATLAB and to discuss the applications of LED. LED will be the future of lighting homes and will eventually completely incandescent bulbs when companies begin to make the necessary improvements to the LED.

  11. Seafood Consumption and Components for Health

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, in developed countries and around the world, lifestyle-related diseases have become a serious problem. Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that diet is one of the major factors that influence susceptibility to lifestyle-related diseases, especially the middle-senile state. Studies examining dietary habits have revealed the health benefits of seafood consumption. Seafood contains functional components that are not present in terrestrial organisms. These components include n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexsaenoic acid, which aid in the prevention of arteriosclerotic and thrombotic disease. In addition, seafood is a superior source of various nutrients, such as protein, amino acids, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. This review focuses on the components derived from seafood and examines the significant role they play in the maintenance and promotion of health. PMID:22980234

  12. Freshwater snail consumption and angiostrongyliasis in Malaya.

    PubMed

    Liat, L B; Fong, Y L; Krishnansamy, M; Ramachandran, P; Mansor, S

    1978-06-01

    A survey of the freshwater snails, Pila scutata and Bellamyia ingallsiana, as food consumed by the local population was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia. Of these two species the first is preferred; the sizes favoured are between 25--40 mm. Pila snails were found to be consumed by the three communities, viz. Malay, Chinese and Indian, in different ways. The various methods of preparing the snails for consumption are described. P. scutata is an intermediate host of the rat-lung worm, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. As this worm presumably is the causative agent of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, the eating habits of the three races in consuming the snail in relation to the epidemiology of the disease was also discussed. PMID:726037

  13. Low energy consumption spintronics using multiferroic heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Trassin, Morgan

    2016-01-27

    We review the recent progress in the field of multiferroic magnetoelectric heterostructures. The lack of single phase multiferroic candidates exhibiting simultaneously strong and coupled magnetic and ferroelectric orders led to an increased effort into the development of artificial multiferroic heterostructures in which these orders are combined by assembling different materials. The magnetoelectric coupling emerging from the created interface between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic layers can result in electrically tunable magnetic transition temperature, magnetic anisotropy or magnetization reversal. The full potential of low energy consumption magnetic based devices for spintronics lies in our understanding of the magnetoelectric coupling at the scale of the ferroic domains. Although the thin film synthesis progresses resulted into the complete control of ferroic domain ordering using epitaxial strain, the local observation of magnetoelectric coupling remains challenging. The ability to imprint ferroelectric domains into ferromagnets and to manipulate those solely using electric fields suggests new technological advances for spintronics such as magnetoelectric memories or memristors.

  14. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia

    PubMed Central

    Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States. PMID:22869743

  15. Human mitochondrial variants influence on oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Marcuello, Ana; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Dahmani, Yahya; Casajús, José A; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Montoya, Julio; López-Pérez, Manuel J; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen

    2009-02-01

    This work investigates if human mitochondrial variants influence on maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)). With this purpose we recruited, as a uniform population in term of nutritional habits and life style, 114 healthy male Spanish subjects that practiced fitness exercises 3-4 times a week. Once mtDNA haplogroups were determined, we found that J presents with lower VO(2max) (P=0.02) than nonJ variants. J has been related with a lower efficiency of electron transport chain (ETC), diminished ATP and ROS production. Thus, the difficult to compensate the mitochondrial energetic deficiency could explain the accumulation of J haplogroup in LHON and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the lower ROS production associated to J could also account for the accrual of this variant in elderly people consequent to a decreased oxidative damage.

  16. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia.

    PubMed

    Crown, Patricia L; Emerson, Thomas E; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R; Ward, Timothy

    2012-08-28

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States.

  17. Predicting ship fuel consumption: Update. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schrady, D.A.; Smyth, G.K.; Vassian, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    This report is concerned with the prediction of ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of predicted and actual fuel use data, the standard error of the estimate, and plots of actual and fitted data are given for 22 classes of Navy ships.

  18. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  19. Revising China's energy consumption and carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    China is the world's largest carbon emitter and takes the lion's share of new increased emission since 2000, China's carbon emissions and mitigation efforts have received global attentions (Liu et al., Nature 500, 143-145)1. Yet China's emission estimates have been approved to be greatly uncertain (Guan et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 672-675)2. Accurate estimation becomes even crucial as China has recently pledged to reach a carbon emission peak by 2030, but no quantitative target has been given, nor is it even possible to assess without a reasonable baseline. Here we produced new estimates of Chinese carbon emissions for 1950-2012 based on a new investigation in energy consumption activities and emission factors using extensively surveyed and experimental data from 4243 mines and 602 coal samples. We reported that the total energy consumption is 10% higher than the nationally published value. The investigated emission factors used in China are significantly (40%) different from the IPCC default values which were used in drawing up several previous emission inventories. The final calculated total carbon emissions from China are 10% different than the amount reported by international data sets. The new estimate provides a revision of 4% of global emissions, which could have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing of climate change mitigation. 1 Liu, Z. et al. A low-carbon road map for China. Nature 500, 143-145 (2013). 2 Guan, D., Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. & Hubacek, K. The gigatonne gap in China's carbon dioxide inventories. Nature Climate Change, 672-675 (2012).

  20. Global energy consumption for direct water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Miralles, D. G.; Teuling, R.; He, Y.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite significant efforts to quantify the mutual inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global energy for water (EFW) remains poorly understood, resulting in biases in energy accounting that directly affect water and energy management and policy. We firstly evaluate the global energy consumption for direct water use from 1973 to 2012 with sectoral, regional and process-level details. Over the 40-year period, we detected multiple shifts in EFW by county and region. For example, we find that India, the Middle East and China have surpassed the United States as the three largest consumers of EFW since 2003, mostly because of rapid growth in groundwater-based irrigation, desalination, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. Globally, EFW accounts for 1-3% of total primary energy consumption in 2010, of which 52% is surface water, 36% is groundwater, and 12% is non-fresh water. The sectoral allocation of EFW includes municipal (45%), industrial (29%), and agricultural use (26%), and process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (41%), water purification (19%), water distribution (13%) and wastewater treatment (22%). Our evaluation suggests that the EFW may increase in importance in the future due to growth in population and income, and depletion of surface and shallow aquifer water resources in water-scarce regions. We are incorporating this element into an integrated assessment model (IAM) and linking it back to energy balance within that IAM. By doing this, we will then explore the impacts of EFW on the global energy market (e.g., changes in the share of groundwater use and desalination), and the uncertainty of future EFW under different shared social pathway (SSP) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, and consequences on the emission of greenhouse gases as well. We expect these EFW induced impacts will be considerable, and will then have significant implications for adaptive management and policy making.

  1. Spatial Variations in Vitreous Oxygen Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Karthik; Kang, Dongyang; Nazari, Hossein; Scianmarello, Nicholas; Cadenas, Enrique; Tai, Yu-Chong; Kashani, Amir; Humayun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of vitreous oxygen consumption in enucleated porcine eyes. A custom made oxygen source was fabricated that could be localized to either the mid or posterior vitreous cavity and steady state vitreous oxygen tension was measured as a function of distance from the source using a commercially available probe. The reaction rate constant of ascorbate oxidation was estimated ex vivo by measuring the change in oxygen tension over time using vitreous harvested from porcine eyes. Vitreous ascorbate from mid and posterior vitreous was measured spectrophotometrically. When the oxygen source was placed in either the mid-vitreous (N = 6) or the posterior vitreous (N = 6), we measured a statistically significant decrease in vitreous oxygen tension as a function of distance from the oxygen source when compared to control experiments without an oxygen source; (p<0.005 for mid-vitreous and p<0.018 for posterior vitreous at all distances). The mid-vitreous oxygen tension change was significantly different from the posterior vitreous oxygen tension change at 2 and 3mm distances from the respective oxygen source (p<0.001). We also found a statistically significant lower concentration of ascorbate in the mid-vitreous as compared to posterior vitreous (p = 0.02). We determined the reaction rate constant, k = 1.61 M-1s-1 ± 0.708 M-1s-1 (SE), of the oxidation of ascorbate which was modeled following a second order rate equation. Our data demonstrates that vitreous oxygen consumption is higher in the posterior vitreous compared to the mid-vitreous. We also show spatial variations in vitreous ascorbate concentration. PMID:26930281

  2. Spatial Variations in Vitreous Oxygen Consumption.

    PubMed

    Murali, Karthik; Kang, Dongyang; Nazari, Hossein; Scianmarello, Nicholas; Cadenas, Enrique; Tai, Yu-Chong; Kashani, Amir; Humayun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of vitreous oxygen consumption in enucleated porcine eyes. A custom made oxygen source was fabricated that could be localized to either the mid or posterior vitreous cavity and steady state vitreous oxygen tension was measured as a function of distance from the source using a commercially available probe. The reaction rate constant of ascorbate oxidation was estimated ex vivo by measuring the change in oxygen tension over time using vitreous harvested from porcine eyes. Vitreous ascorbate from mid and posterior vitreous was measured spectrophotometrically. When the oxygen source was placed in either the mid-vitreous (N = 6) or the posterior vitreous (N = 6), we measured a statistically significant decrease in vitreous oxygen tension as a function of distance from the oxygen source when compared to control experiments without an oxygen source; (p<0.005 for mid-vitreous and p<0.018 for posterior vitreous at all distances). The mid-vitreous oxygen tension change was significantly different from the posterior vitreous oxygen tension change at 2 and 3mm distances from the respective oxygen source (p<0.001). We also found a statistically significant lower concentration of ascorbate in the mid-vitreous as compared to posterior vitreous (p = 0.02). We determined the reaction rate constant, k = 1.61 M(-1) s(-1) ± 0.708 M(-1) s(-1) (SE), of the oxidation of ascorbate which was modeled following a second order rate equation. Our data demonstrates that vitreous oxygen consumption is higher in the posterior vitreous compared to the mid-vitreous. We also show spatial variations in vitreous ascorbate concentration.

  3. Consumptive Water Use in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    Great Lakes state agencies and organizations view understanding consumptive water use as a critical component in water-resource management. To assist them in developing a better understanding of the factors involved in consumptive use, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an inventory of consumptive-use coefficients for the Great Lakes Basin. This fact sheet highlights findings and data from a comprehensive report resulting from that inventory. This fact sheet includes information on water-use categories used to compile and organize consumptive-use coefficients, summary statistics for consumptive-use coefficients by category, and estimated water withdrawals and consumptive-use amounts for the Great Lakes States for 2000.

  4. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses. PMID:23390804

  5. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  6. Respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Makarov, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the physiological indices of respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption in spacecrews under weightlessness conditions manifest themselves in increased metabolic rates, higher pulmonary ventilation volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination, energy consumption levels in proportion to reduction in neuroemotional and psychic stress, adaptation to weightlessness and work-rest cycles, and finally in a relative stabilization of metabolic processes due to hemodynamic shifts.

  7. Global Biodiversity Loss by Freshwater Consumption and Eutrophication from Swiss Food Consumption.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    We investigated water-related resource use, emissions and ecosystem impacts of food consumed in Switzerland. To do so, we coupled LCA methodologies on freshwater consumption, freshwater eutrophication and the consequent local and global biodiversity impacts with Swiss customs data and multiregional input-output analysis. Most of the resource use, emissions and impacts occur outside the national boundaries which illustrates the extent of environmental outsourcing facilitated by international trade. Countries that are severely affected by Swiss food consumption include Spain, the United States and Ecuador. Cocoa, coffee, and almonds stood out as products with high impacts. By identifying spatial hotspots and impactful products, awareness of policy-makers as well as individual consumers can be raised and efforts of detailed assessments can be streamlined. However, political and economic constraints and the resistance by individual consumers limit the high potential of changes in diets and trade relations to decrease the environmental impacts of food. PMID:27253510

  8. Global Biodiversity Loss by Freshwater Consumption and Eutrophication from Swiss Food Consumption.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    We investigated water-related resource use, emissions and ecosystem impacts of food consumed in Switzerland. To do so, we coupled LCA methodologies on freshwater consumption, freshwater eutrophication and the consequent local and global biodiversity impacts with Swiss customs data and multiregional input-output analysis. Most of the resource use, emissions and impacts occur outside the national boundaries which illustrates the extent of environmental outsourcing facilitated by international trade. Countries that are severely affected by Swiss food consumption include Spain, the United States and Ecuador. Cocoa, coffee, and almonds stood out as products with high impacts. By identifying spatial hotspots and impactful products, awareness of policy-makers as well as individual consumers can be raised and efforts of detailed assessments can be streamlined. However, political and economic constraints and the resistance by individual consumers limit the high potential of changes in diets and trade relations to decrease the environmental impacts of food.

  9. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey. PMID:24810139

  10. [Beliefs about chili pepper consumption and health in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    López-Carrillo, L; Fernández-Ortega M, C; Costa-Dias, R; Franco-Marina, J; Alejandre-Badillo, T

    1995-01-01

    Eating chili peppers is a cultural tradition in Mexico. Controversial characteristics have been empirically associated to chili pepper consumption and human health. In this paper, the beliefs about the health impacts of chili pepper consumption in two independent groups of Mexico City residents are described. The results confirm, on the one hand, that there is a wide variety of health benefits and damages associated with chili pepper consumption, but on the other hand, that the levels of chili pepper consumption are not related to beliefs about its human health impact.

  11. Oxygen consumption of animals under conditions of hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loginova, Y. N.; Volozhin, A. I.; Krasnyku, I. G.; Stroganova, Y. A.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of hypokinesia on the oxygen consumption of rats, dog, and squirrels was investigated. Three periods of gaseous exchange were revealed in rats under conditions of a limited motor activity. During the first 10-15 days O2 consumption displayed a sharp elevation; on the 20th-30th day, it became stabilized at a higher level (in comparison with control) and it sharply rose again on the 40th-100th day. In dogs, hypokinesia produced a reduction of O2 consumption and then a tendency to its elevation was seen. A short period of physical exercises in squirrels after hypokinesia led to increased oxygen consumption at rest.

  12. An electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we apply the relationships between the macro and micro variables of traffic flow to develop an electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow. We use the proposed model to study the quantitative relationships between the electricity consumption/total power and speed/density under uniform flow, and the electricity consumptions during the evolution processes of shock, rarefaction wave and small perturbation. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can perfectly describe the electricity consumption for electric vehicular flow, which shows that the proposed model is reasonable.

  13. Trends in the consumption of low-calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Rother, Kristina I

    2016-10-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) offer a palatable alternative to caloric sugars such as sucrose (table sugar) and high fructose corn syrup and are commonly found in soft drinks, sweetener packets, grains, snack foods, dairy products, hygiene products, and medications. Consumption of LCS has increased significantly in recent years and while this trend is expected to continue, controversy exists surrounding their use. The purpose of this article is to review trends in the consumption of LCS, to summarize differences in LCS consumption across socio-demographic subgroups and subtypes of LCS-containing products, and to highlight important challenges in the accurate assessment of LCS consumption. PMID:27039282

  14. Trends in the consumption of low-calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Rother, Kristina I

    2016-10-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) offer a palatable alternative to caloric sugars such as sucrose (table sugar) and high fructose corn syrup and are commonly found in soft drinks, sweetener packets, grains, snack foods, dairy products, hygiene products, and medications. Consumption of LCS has increased significantly in recent years and while this trend is expected to continue, controversy exists surrounding their use. The purpose of this article is to review trends in the consumption of LCS, to summarize differences in LCS consumption across socio-demographic subgroups and subtypes of LCS-containing products, and to highlight important challenges in the accurate assessment of LCS consumption.

  15. Alcohol consumption and rates of personal violence (suicide and homicide).

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1989-12-01

    The present study examined the association between alcohol consumption and rates of personal violence (suicide and homicide) over regions within a nation. Although suicide rates were higher in regions with a higher per capital consumption of alcohol, other social variables were also found to be associated with both alcohol consumption and suicide rates, such as divorce rates and inter-region migration. Thus, it appears that alcohol consumption may be but one index of a broader sociocultural dimension that is associated with regional rates of suicidal behavior.

  16. [Caffeine in nutrition. Article 1. Consumption with food and regulation].

    PubMed

    Bessonov, V V; Khanferyan, R A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a review of the literature data on the effect of caffeine contained in a variety of foods on the functions of human, it presents the modern international legal regulatory rules in the consumption of caffeine, and caffeine consumption rules corresponding to the technical regulations of the Customs Union (Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Belaruss). It describes the sources of caffeine in the traditional diet and its consumption, safety evaluation in connection with the acute and chronic caffeine consumption and the value of caffeine as an ingredient in soft drinks tonic. PMID:26852540

  17. Some implications of changing patterns of mineral consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Steblez, Walter G.

    2003-01-01

    DeYoung and Menzie (1999) examined the relations among population, Gross Domestic Product, and mineral consumption (aluminum, cement, copper, and salt) for Japan, Korea, and the United States between 1965 and 1995. They noted the extremely rapid growth of consumption in Korea between 1975 and 1995. Concomitantly, Korea's population growth rate declined. This paper extends that earlier work by examining patterns of consumption of these same commodities in the twenty most populous countries for the period 1970 through 1995. Developed countries, such as France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, show patterns of consumption that are stable (cement, copper, and salt) or grow slowly (aluminum). Some developing countries, including China, Thailand, and Turkey, show more rapid growth of consumption, especially of cement, copper, and aluminum. These changing patterns of mineral consumption in developing countries have important implications -- if they continue, there could be major increases in world mineral consumption and major increases in environmental residuals from mineral production and use. If China reaches the level of consumption of copper of developed countries, world consumption could reach levels more than twice that of 1995 (10.5 million tons).

  18. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  19. Consumption in relation to population, environment and development.

    PubMed

    Myers, N

    1997-01-01

    Consumption is defined as the total spending on goods, investments, and services that changes materials and energy and reduces availability of natural resources for the future. The rich consume on a grand scale, but marginal consumption by large numbers of poor people can also deplete nonrenewable resources. This article discusses the complex relationships between consumption and population and between these two factors and environment and development. Consumption of natural resources since the mid-1900s has surpassed consumption prior to that time. The richest 20% of the global population have doubled their per capita consumption of energy, meat, timber, steel, and copper and have quadrupled the number of cars owned since 1950. The poorest 20% barely increased their per capita consumption. 40% of the total world population accounts for 6.5% of the world's income. The US, with under 5% of world population, consumes about 30% of the resources. The US standard of consumption is the desired ideal in many countries, but this standard is not justified. A low projected global population of 6 billion population would increase consumption by 8.4 times. Food and energy examples are used to illustrate the resource impact. Policy must move toward sustainable consumption and meet needs differently, develop environmentally friendly goods and services, and change the nature and extent of consumption. Policy must internalize externalities, eliminate perverse subsidies, calculate the ecological impact, promote efficiency and sufficiency, mobilize the media, and set "best practices" examples. Science also has responsibilities. The future rests with decisions about how to design a better system or a default option until failures in ecological and social systems appear. Life styles should emphasize nonmaterial satisfactions. The ratio of poor to rich is 60:1, which is unacceptable. Rich citizens will eventually need to pay the price of a change in their philosophies. PMID:12321341

  20. Natural gas production and consumption 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Total marketed production of natural gas in the United States during 1979 was 20,471 billion cubic feet, an increase of approximately 497 billion cubic feet, or 2.5 percent over 1978. Texas and Louisiana, the two leading producing states, accounted for 70.5 percent of total 1979 marketed production. In 1979, deliveries of natural gas to residential, commercial, industrial, electric utilities, and other consumers totaled 18,141 billion cubic feet. Total consumption, which includes lease, plant, and pipeline fuel in addition to deliveries to consumers, was 20,241 billion cubic feet in 1979 compared to 19,627 billion cubic feet in 1978, an increase of 3.1 percent. Movements of natural gas into and out of each state are presented. Louisiana accounted for the largest quantity of net deliveries, 5,107 billion cubic feet, followed by Texas and Oklahoma with net deliveries of 2,772 billion cubic feet and 914 billion cubic feet, respectively. Imports of natural gas by pipeline from Canada and as liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Algeria totaled 1,253 billion cubic feet in 1979. Total imports increased 288 billion cubic feet, or 29.8 percent, from 1978 levels. Exports of LNG to Japan and pipeline shipments to Canada and Mexico increased 6.0 percent from 52.5 billion cubic feet in 1978 to 55.7 billion cubic feet in 1979. LNG shipments to Japan accounted for 92.1 percent of total exports in 1979.

  1. Caribou consumption in northern Canadian communities.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Angie; Goddard, Ellen; Parlee, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) found in both farmed and wild deer, elk, and moose in the United States and Canada. Surveillance efforts in North America identified the geographical distribution of the disease and mechanisms underlying distribution, although the possibility of transmission to other cervids, including caribou, and noncervids, including humans, is not well understood. Because of the documented importance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) to human populations in the northern regions of Canada, a risk-management strategy for CWD requires an understanding of the extent of potential dietary exposure to CWD. Secondary 24-h dietary recalls conducted among Inuvialuit and Inuit in 4 communities in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut were employed in this study. Econometric demand systems were estimated to model the impacts of individual- and community-level socioeconomic characteristics on expenditures on caribou and other foods, in order to examine the households' ability to consume other foods in response to changing levels of caribou consumption. Thirty-five percent of respondents reported consuming caribou in the survey period, and caribou comprised, on average, 26% of daily dietary intake by weight, or approximately 65 g/d, across individuals in the 4 communities. Consuming caribou was also shown to exert positive impacts on dietary quality, as measured by calorie intake and dietary diversity. Communities with less access to employment, income and food stores are predicted to be constrained in their ability to obtain an adequate diet in the event of scarcity of caribou meat. PMID:27556568

  2. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis. PMID:25145278

  3. Arsenic Consumption in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Exposure limits for arsenic in drinking water and minimal risk levels (MRLs) for total dietary exposure to arsenic have long been established in the U.S. Multiple studies conducted over the last five years have detected arsenic in foods and beverages including juice, rice, milk, broth (beef and chicken), and others. Understanding whether or not each of these foods or drinks is a concern to certain groups of individuals requires examining which types of and how much arsenic is ingested. In this article, recent studies are reviewed and placed in the context of consumption patterns. When single sources of food or drink are considered in isolation, heavy rice eaters can be exposed to the most arsenic among adults while infants consuming formula containing contaminated organic brown rice syrup are the most exposed group among children. Most food and drink do not contain sufficient arsenic to exceed MRLs. For individuals consuming more than one source of contaminated water or food, however, adverse health effects are more likely. In total, recent studies on arsenic contamination in food and beverages emphasize the need for individual consumers to understand and manage their total dietary exposure to arsenic. PMID:26591332

  4. Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Stef P J; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N=643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style, fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours. PMID:12880620

  5. [Information on health: production, consumption and biopower].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cléber Domingos Cunha

    2013-10-01

    This article seeks to elicit misgivings regarding the value attributed to medical truth found in the biomedical literature. The issue of the protection of sexual practices was taken by way of example and the works of thinkers like Nietzsche, Baudrillard, Bourdieu, and especially Michel Foucault, were consulted. This was done in order to consider that the elaboration and use of health information can be interpreted as a practice constituting a policy that dynamically inspires both experts and non-experts on medical truth, constituting a morality that is based on the production and consumption of this truth. It is a policy that Foucault called biopolitics, able to establish ways of living where the exercise of thought does not seem to be so "rewarding," where practices of command and obedience are mediated by health information. In this perspective, physicians and non-physicians have been seduced by the desire to attain the truth, such that the commitment of everyone is seen to concentrate on the production and use of statements that they believe can prolong life and save from getting sick. These are discourses cultivated in the market of a media-dominated society in which individuals controlled by information produce subjectivities that are anchored in the medical-capital truth binomial. PMID:24061035

  6. Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Janssen, Colin R

    2014-10-01

    Microplastics are present throughout the marine environment and ingestion of these plastic particles (<1 mm) has been demonstrated in a laboratory setting for a wide array of marine organisms. Here, we investigate the presence of microplastics in two species of commercially grown bivalves: Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Microplastics were recovered from the soft tissues of both species. At time of human consumption, M. edulis contains on average 0.36 ± 0.07 particles g(-1) (wet weight), while a plastic load of 0.47 ± 0.16 particles g(-1) ww was detected in C. gigas. As a result, the annual dietary exposure for European shellfish consumers can amount to 11,000 microplastics per year. The presence of marine microplastics in seafood could pose a threat to food safety, however, due to the complexity of estimating microplastic toxicity, estimations of the potential risks for human health posed by microplastics in food stuffs is not (yet) possible.

  7. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    A field study directly measured the electric demand of 189 personal computer workstations for 1-week intervals, and a survey recorded the connected equipment at 1,846 workstations in six buildings. Each separate workstation component (e.g., computer, monitor, printer, modem, and other peripheral) was individually monitored to obtain detailed electric demand profiles. Other analyses included comparison of nameplate power rating with measured power consumption and the energy savings potential and cost-effectiveness of a controller that automatically turns off computer workstation equipment during inactivity. An important outcome of the work is the development of a standard workstation demand profile and a technique for estimating a whole-building demand profile. Together, these provide a method for transferring this information to utility energy analysts, design engineers, building energy modelers, and others. A life-cycle cost analysis was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of three energy conservation measures: (1) energy awareness education, (2) retrofit power controller installation, and (3) purchase of energy-efficient PCs.

  8. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The explosive growth of the information age has had a profound effect on the appearance of today`s office. Although the telephone still remains an important part of the information exchange and processing system within an office, other electronic devices are now considered required equipment within this environment. This office automation equipment includes facsimile machines, photocopiers, personal computers, printers, modems, and other peripherals. A recent estimate of the installed base indicated that 42 million personal computers and 7.3 million printers are in place, consuming 18.2 billion kWh/yr-and this installed base is growing (Luhn 1992). From a productivity standpoint, it can be argued that this equipment greatly improves the efficiency of those working in the office. But of primary concern to energy system designers, building managers, and electric utilities is the fact that this equipment requires electric energy. Although the impact of each incremental piece of equipment is small, installation of thousands of devices per building has resulted in office automation equipment becoming the major contributor to electric consumption and demand growth in commercial buildings. Personal computers and associated equipment are the dominant part of office automation equipment. In some cases, this electric demand growth has caused office buildings electric and cooling systems to overload.

  9. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine׳s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  10. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-03-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. /sup 59/Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO/sub 4/ or CaCO/sub 3/) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO/sub 3/, CaHPO/sub 4/, hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation.

  11. Psychophysiological effects of habitual caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    James, J E

    1994-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed pharmacologically active substance in the world, and a key issue concerning its possible implications for human health is whether it has persistent (i.e., chronic) physiological effects on habitual consumers. This study examined blood pressure, heart rate (HR), electromyogram (EMG), and skin conductance level (SCL) in 36 healthy men and women exposed to a pattern of moderate intake. A double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design with counterbalancing was used in which all subjects participated in four experimental conditions involving the ingestion of placebo or caffeine three times daily for 6 days followed by a seventh ("challenge") day of placebo or caffeine ingestion. Results confirmed that caffeine has significant pressor effects, and these were found to he additive to the pressor action of a laboratory stressor. Following habitual consumption of the drug. pressor effects were diminished (indicative of tolerance) but not eliminated. Effects of caffeine on other parameters were either modest (HR and EMG) or negligible (SCL). Considering (he near-universal use of caffeine. the persistent pressor effects observed in this study have important implications for clinical practice and public health. PMID:16250800

  12. Fluid consumption, exercise, and cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, K

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory evidence supports the notion that dehydration degrades exercise performance and impairs certain cognitive processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a voluntary versus a dictated drinking condition on exercise and cognitive performance. The study used a double-blind and paired design. Twenty male and female college students (10 women, 10 men) participated in an exercise protocol consisting of 1 hr of treadmill running followed by a high intensity portion continuing until voluntary exhaustion. The dictated drinking condition consisted of 900 ml of water equally distributed in 4 pre-prepared opaque bottles. At 15 min intervals the subject was instructed to drink the entire contents until the end of the 1 hr treadmill protocol. The voluntary drinking condition consisted of 225 ml of water within arm's reach of the subjects while on the treadmill. Exercise performance was significantly better (longer duration and faster speed) in the voluntary condition compared with the dictated condition. Cognitive test outcomes were not significantly different between drinking conditions. A difference in fluid absorption is a potential source of exercise impairment seen in the dictated fluid condition. The higher fluid consumption rate presumably would cause greater gastric and esophageal distention resulting in the diversion of blood flow from working muscles to the gastrointestinal system. In situations where dehydration is likely, drinking to recommended guidelines may protect individuals from dehydration and its negative effects. However, when dehydration is not likely, allowing an individual to follow voluntary drinking behavior is preferable for exercise performance. PMID:27601785

  13. Fluid consumption, exercise, and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Backes, T P; Fitzgerald, K

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory evidence supports the notion that dehydration degrades exercise performance and impairs certain cognitive processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a voluntary versus a dictated drinking condition on exercise and cognitive performance. The study used a double-blind and paired design. Twenty male and female college students (10 women, 10 men) participated in an exercise protocol consisting of 1 hr of treadmill running followed by a high intensity portion continuing until voluntary exhaustion. The dictated drinking condition consisted of 900 ml of water equally distributed in 4 pre-prepared opaque bottles. At 15 min intervals the subject was instructed to drink the entire contents until the end of the 1 hr treadmill protocol. The voluntary drinking condition consisted of 225 ml of water within arm's reach of the subjects while on the treadmill. Exercise performance was significantly better (longer duration and faster speed) in the voluntary condition compared with the dictated condition. Cognitive test outcomes were not significantly different between drinking conditions. A difference in fluid absorption is a potential source of exercise impairment seen in the dictated fluid condition. The higher fluid consumption rate presumably would cause greater gastric and esophageal distention resulting in the diversion of blood flow from working muscles to the gastrointestinal system. In situations where dehydration is likely, drinking to recommended guidelines may protect individuals from dehydration and its negative effects. However, when dehydration is not likely, allowing an individual to follow voluntary drinking behavior is preferable for exercise performance. PMID:27601785

  14. Fluid consumption, exercise, and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Backes, T P; Fitzgerald, K

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory evidence supports the notion that dehydration degrades exercise performance and impairs certain cognitive processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a voluntary versus a dictated drinking condition on exercise and cognitive performance. The study used a double-blind and paired design. Twenty male and female college students (10 women, 10 men) participated in an exercise protocol consisting of 1 hr of treadmill running followed by a high intensity portion continuing until voluntary exhaustion. The dictated drinking condition consisted of 900 ml of water equally distributed in 4 pre-prepared opaque bottles. At 15 min intervals the subject was instructed to drink the entire contents until the end of the 1 hr treadmill protocol. The voluntary drinking condition consisted of 225 ml of water within arm's reach of the subjects while on the treadmill. Exercise performance was significantly better (longer duration and faster speed) in the voluntary condition compared with the dictated condition. Cognitive test outcomes were not significantly different between drinking conditions. A difference in fluid absorption is a potential source of exercise impairment seen in the dictated fluid condition. The higher fluid consumption rate presumably would cause greater gastric and esophageal distention resulting in the diversion of blood flow from working muscles to the gastrointestinal system. In situations where dehydration is likely, drinking to recommended guidelines may protect individuals from dehydration and its negative effects. However, when dehydration is not likely, allowing an individual to follow voluntary drinking behavior is preferable for exercise performance.

  15. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis.

  16. Fluid consumption, exercise, and cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, K

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory evidence supports the notion that dehydration degrades exercise performance and impairs certain cognitive processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a voluntary versus a dictated drinking condition on exercise and cognitive performance. The study used a double-blind and paired design. Twenty male and female college students (10 women, 10 men) participated in an exercise protocol consisting of 1 hr of treadmill running followed by a high intensity portion continuing until voluntary exhaustion. The dictated drinking condition consisted of 900 ml of water equally distributed in 4 pre-prepared opaque bottles. At 15 min intervals the subject was instructed to drink the entire contents until the end of the 1 hr treadmill protocol. The voluntary drinking condition consisted of 225 ml of water within arm's reach of the subjects while on the treadmill. Exercise performance was significantly better (longer duration and faster speed) in the voluntary condition compared with the dictated condition. Cognitive test outcomes were not significantly different between drinking conditions. A difference in fluid absorption is a potential source of exercise impairment seen in the dictated fluid condition. The higher fluid consumption rate presumably would cause greater gastric and esophageal distention resulting in the diversion of blood flow from working muscles to the gastrointestinal system. In situations where dehydration is likely, drinking to recommended guidelines may protect individuals from dehydration and its negative effects. However, when dehydration is not likely, allowing an individual to follow voluntary drinking behavior is preferable for exercise performance.

  17. Caribou consumption in northern Canadian communities.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Angie; Goddard, Ellen; Parlee, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) found in both farmed and wild deer, elk, and moose in the United States and Canada. Surveillance efforts in North America identified the geographical distribution of the disease and mechanisms underlying distribution, although the possibility of transmission to other cervids, including caribou, and noncervids, including humans, is not well understood. Because of the documented importance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) to human populations in the northern regions of Canada, a risk-management strategy for CWD requires an understanding of the extent of potential dietary exposure to CWD. Secondary 24-h dietary recalls conducted among Inuvialuit and Inuit in 4 communities in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut were employed in this study. Econometric demand systems were estimated to model the impacts of individual- and community-level socioeconomic characteristics on expenditures on caribou and other foods, in order to examine the households' ability to consume other foods in response to changing levels of caribou consumption. Thirty-five percent of respondents reported consuming caribou in the survey period, and caribou comprised, on average, 26% of daily dietary intake by weight, or approximately 65 g/d, across individuals in the 4 communities. Consuming caribou was also shown to exert positive impacts on dietary quality, as measured by calorie intake and dietary diversity. Communities with less access to employment, income and food stores are predicted to be constrained in their ability to obtain an adequate diet in the event of scarcity of caribou meat.

  18. Characterizing production and consumption in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Ciulla, Fabio; Goncalves, Bruno; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the entire database of publications in the American Physical Society and generate longitudinal (50 years) citation networks at two different geographical levels. We define the knowledge diffusion proxy and Scientific Production Ranking algorithms to capture the complex nature of citation networks, and to provide a global view of spatial distributions of production and consumption of knowledge in Physics as well as its temporal evolution. Using the knowledge diffusion proxy we identify the key actors in producing and consuming knowledge in Physics as a function of time. The ranking results from the Scientific Production Ranking algorithm allow us to characterize the top countries/cities in the world for Physical sciences. Among all the results, we find that in 50 years major states and cities in US stably rank on the top and have been main knowledge producers, whereas the major European countries, Japan and Russia have greatly improved their their ranking since 1990. Interestingly, we notice that China and Spain as well as major cities in those countries have gradually become major knowledge consumers in the last two decades.

  19. [Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Attema-de Jonge, M E; Portier, C B; Franssen, E J F

    2007-12-29

    Two young men, 25 and 32 years old, presented with severe automutilation by knife wounds after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms. The first patient had also used cocaine, cannabis and alcohol, while the second patient had only used the hallucinogenic mushrooms. Both patients were treated symptomatically and survived despite their severe stab wounds. Psilocybin-containing mushrooms are used as mind-altering drugs. These drugs may sometimes induce 'bad trips', a psychotic reaction accompanied by fear, panic, and dangerous behaviour, especially when used in combination with other drugs and alcohol or by psychiatrically unstable patients. During a bad trip, patients may hurt themselves. Because the duration of the psychotic and sympathicomimetic effects of psilocybin after ingestion of mushrooms is short (up to 6 h), and since psilocin itself causes no permanent organ toxicity, the treatment of psilocybin intoxication is only symptomatic. The diagnosis ofpsilocybin intoxication is hampered by the lack of routinely available, rapid and sensitive, analytical methods for the quantification ofpsilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin.

  20. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    PubMed

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers. PMID:20875475

  1. Public perceptions of energy consumption and savings

    PubMed Central

    Attari, Shahzeen Z.; DeKay, Michael L.; Davidson, Cliff I.; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2010-01-01

    In a national online survey, 505 participants reported their perceptions of energy consumption and savings for a variety of household, transportation, and recycling activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve energy, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., turning off lights, driving less) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., installing more efficient light bulbs and appliances), in contrast to experts’ recommendations. For a sample of 15 activities, participants underestimated energy use and savings by a factor of 2.8 on average, with small overestimates for low-energy activities and large underestimates for high-energy activities. Additional estimation and ranking tasks also yielded relatively flat functions for perceived energy use and savings. Across several tasks, participants with higher numeracy scores and stronger proenvironmental attitudes had more accurate perceptions. The serious deficiencies highlighted by these results suggest that well-designed efforts to improve the public's understanding of energy use and savings could pay large dividends. PMID:20713724

  2. [Information on health: production, consumption and biopower].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cléber Domingos Cunha

    2013-10-01

    This article seeks to elicit misgivings regarding the value attributed to medical truth found in the biomedical literature. The issue of the protection of sexual practices was taken by way of example and the works of thinkers like Nietzsche, Baudrillard, Bourdieu, and especially Michel Foucault, were consulted. This was done in order to consider that the elaboration and use of health information can be interpreted as a practice constituting a policy that dynamically inspires both experts and non-experts on medical truth, constituting a morality that is based on the production and consumption of this truth. It is a policy that Foucault called biopolitics, able to establish ways of living where the exercise of thought does not seem to be so "rewarding," where practices of command and obedience are mediated by health information. In this perspective, physicians and non-physicians have been seduced by the desire to attain the truth, such that the commitment of everyone is seen to concentrate on the production and use of statements that they believe can prolong life and save from getting sick. These are discourses cultivated in the market of a media-dominated society in which individuals controlled by information produce subjectivities that are anchored in the medical-capital truth binomial.

  3. Size dependent differences in litter consumption of isopods: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Szekeres, Sándor; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A series of experiments were applied to test how leaf orientation within microcosms affect consumption rates (Experiment 1), and to discover intra-specific differences in leaf litter consumption (Experiment 2) of the common isopod species Porcellio scaber and Porcellionides pruinosus. A standardised microcosm setup was developed for feeding experiments to maintain standard conditions. A constant amount of freshly fallen black poplar litter was provided to three distinct size class (small, medium, large) of woodlice. We measured litter consumption after a fortnight. We maintained appr. constant isopod biomass for all treatments, and equal densities within each size class. We hypothesized that different size classes differ in their litter consumption, therefore such differences should occur even within populations of the species. We also hypothesized a marked difference in consumption rates for different leaf orientation within microcosms. Our results showed size-specific consumption patterns for Porcellio scaber: small adults showed the highest consumption rates (i.e. litter mass loss / isopod biomass) in high density microcosms, while medium-sized adults of lower densities ate the most litter in containers. Leaf orientation posed no significant effect on litter consumption. PMID:22536112

  4. College Student Perceptions on Campus Alcohol Policies and Consumption Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…

  5. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  6. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  7. 77 FR 55893 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... INFORMATION: This notice lists the projects, described below, being rescinded for the consumptive use of...

  8. 77 FR 59239 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  9. 76 FR 42159 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  10. 77 FR 16317 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  11. 78 FR 17281 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  12. 76 FR 66117 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's...

  13. 77 FR 66909 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  14. 78 FR 11947 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  15. 76 FR 53526 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  16. 77 FR 21143 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  17. 77 FR 59240 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... INFORMATION: This notice lists the projects, described below, being rescinded for the consumptive use of...

  18. 78 FR 2315 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  19. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  20. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  1. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  2. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  3. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  4. Contextual Control of Fluid Consumption: The Effects of Context Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, M.; Skinner, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Rats were trained on a conditional discrimination task in which saccharin was paired with LiCl in one context but paired with saline in another context. Rats drank less saccharin in the danger context than in the safe context, and consumption in the home cage was intermediate to consumption in the two training contexts. Rats also avoided the…

  5. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  6. High Potency and Other Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobli, Edessa C.; Dore, Heather S.; Werch, Chudley E.; Moore, Michele J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high potency (liquor, malt liquor, fortified wine) and other alcoholic beverage consumption (beer, wine/wine coolers) among adolescents, the impact of gender and ethnicity, and the risk and protective factors that predicted consumption. A confidential survey revealed that, among eighth grade students,…

  7. Fish gall bladder consumption presenting as acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Karnik, N D; Gupta, V A; Hase, N K

    2015-01-01

    A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure.

  8. Caffeine Consumption Patterns and Beliefs of College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvain, Gary E.; Noland, Melody P.; Bickel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Caffeine consumption by young people has increased dramatically over the last decade through increased coffee consumption and "energy drinks." In higher amounts, caffeine causes many adverse effects that are cause for concern. Purpose: Purposes of this study were to determine: (1) the amount of caffeine consumed by a sample of college…

  9. Changes in cotton gin energy consumption apportioned by ten functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The public is concerned about air quality and sustainability. Cotton producers, gin owners and plant managers are concerned about rising energy prices. Both have an interest in cotton gin energy consumption trends. Changes in cotton gins’ energy consumption over the past fifty years, a period of ...

  10. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  11. Tobacco Consumption and Motives for Use in Mexican University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen-Cruz, Bettylu; Hidalgo-San Martin, Alfredo; Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha Lidia; Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Increased tobacco consumption, specially among adolescents and females, has been observed recently in Mexico. The goal of this study is to describe tobacco consumption and motives for use among university students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using data provided by 282 students aged 15-24 studying at the University of…

  12. Fish gall bladder consumption presenting as acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Karnik, N D; Gupta, V A; Hase, N K

    2015-01-01

    A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure. PMID:26440398

  13. Ecological Citizenship and Sustainable Consumption: Examining Local Organic Food Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfang, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is gaining in currency as a new environmental policy objective. This paper presents new research findings from a mixed-method empirical study of a local organic food network to interrogate the theories of both sustainable consumption and ecological citizenship. It describes a mainstream policy model of sustainable…

  14. Size dependent differences in litter consumption of isopods: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Szekeres, Sándor; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments were applied to test how leaf orientation within microcosms affect consumption rates (Experiment 1), and to discover intra-specific differences in leaf litter consumption (Experiment 2) of the common isopod species Porcellio scaber and Porcellionides pruinosus. A standardised microcosm setup was developed for feeding experiments to maintain standard conditions. A constant amount of freshly fallen black poplar litter was provided to three distinct size class (small, medium, large) of woodlice. We measured litter consumption after a fortnight. We maintained appr. constant isopod biomass for all treatments, and equal densities within each size class. We hypothesized that different size classes differ in their litter consumption, therefore such differences should occur even within populations of the species. We also hypothesized a marked difference in consumption rates for different leaf orientation within microcosms. Our results showed size-specific consumption patterns for Porcellio scaber: small adults showed the highest consumption rates (i.e. litter mass loss / isopod biomass) in high density microcosms, while medium-sized adults of lower densities ate the most litter in containers. Leaf orientation posed no significant effect on litter consumption.

  15. Methodology for reconstruction of historical food consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.

    1992-05-01

    This report was written to provide the food consumption methodology to be used in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HDER) Project beyond Phase I (which ended in July 1990). In Phase I (Callaway 1992), baseline food consumption estimates (grams per day) for 10 primary food types in the original 10-county study region were derived from the 1977--1978 National Food Consumption Survey (USDA 1983). The baseline estimates were multiplied by the 1945:1977 ratios to produce consumption estimates for 1945. This ratio backcasting method used in Phase I to project consumption estimates from 1977 back to 1945 will be refined using additional USDA data to improve and document the acceptability of the ratios for deriving backcast consumption estimates. The number of food types and population groups will be expanded to provide more disaggregated estimates of food consumption. Food consumption estimates will be developed for 1945, 1951, and 1957. A database of individual diets will be created from which daily diets will be randomly selected for use in the dose model to calculate doses for reference individuals.

  16. "Risky Business": The College Transition, Loneliness, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth M.; Fife, Eric M.; Nelson, C. Leigh

    2008-01-01

    A total of 296 students at a large southeastern university completed a series of measures designed to assess the connection between loneliness and alcohol use in the first college year. Results showed a somewhat surprising negative relationship between loneliness and alcohol consumption: As loneliness decreased, consumption increased. The…

  17. Range Cattle Winter Water Consumption in Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water consumption and DMI may interact to alter range cow productivity. Furthermore, environmental conditions and water temperature may influence water consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine influences of water and air temperature on quantity and pattern of water intake...

  18. A Tentative Discussion on Education Investment and Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieming, Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of the "education investment and consumption" concept is an inevitable product of the development of China's socialist market economy. In this article, the author discusses the reasons for the emergence of the education investment and consumption concept: (1) a growing focus on the individual in the national income distribution; (2)…

  19. Association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American school-aged children. Cross-sectional study using the baseline data from a cohort study. Mothers and children answered questions about the frequency and quantity of the child's consumption of soda, diet soda, other...

  20. The Consumption and Investment Behavior of Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frank G.

    The black community is considered as an economy where the consumption and investment behavior of black families have no significant impact on the growth rate of family income. This is seen to be a problem. The thrust of the argument that follows is that in the absence of a closer relationship between aggregate black family consumption spending,…

  1. Narratives of Menstrual Product Consumption: Convenience, Culture, or Commoditization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The environmental and social costs of consumer societies have increasingly been recognized. Achieving sustainable household consumption requires an understanding of the underlying roots of current consumption levels. Using the case study of menstrual care practices, different theoretical frameworks--or narratives--for understanding household…

  2. The Time Has Come for a Consumption Tax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Fletcher L.

    1984-01-01

    The present tax system impedes investment and is unfairly distributed. A consumption tax is the best way to reduce future deficits without curbing growth. Describes the various forms that a consumption tax could take. Such a tax can be as progressive or regressive as policymakers want it to be. (Author/CS)

  3. Lifestyle, dietary habits and consumption pattern of male university students according to the frequency of commercial beverage consumptions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyemin; Han, Sung Nim; Song, Kyunghee

    2011-01-01

    Because excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may reduce the quality of nutritional intake, this study examined the consumption patterns of commercial beverages, lifestyle, dietary habits, and perception of sweet taste. Participants were 407 male university students in Kyeonggido, Korea, and information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Among them, 58 nonsmokers volunteered to participate in the taste test. Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of commercial beverage consumptions: 120 rare (< 1 serving/week), 227 moderate (1-3 servings/week) and 133 frequent (> 3 servings/week) consumption groups. More subjects from the rare consumption group chose water, tea, and soy milk, and more from the frequent consumption group chose carbonated soft drinks and coffee (P = 0.031) as their favorite drinks. Frequent consumption group consumed fruit juice, coffee, and sports and carbonated soft drinks significantly more often (P = 0.002, P = 0.000, P = 0.000, respectively), but not milk and tea. Frequent consumption group consumed beverages casually without a specific occasion (P = 0.000) than rare consumption group. Frequent drinking of commercial beverages was associated with frequent snacking (P = 0.002), meal skipping (P = 0.006), eating out (P = 0.003), eating delivered foods (P = 0.000), processed foods (P = 0.001), and sweets (P = 0.002), and drinking alcoholic beverages (P = 0.029). Frequent consumption group tended to have a higher threshold of sweet taste without reaching statistical significance. The results provide information for developing strategies for evidence-based nutrition education program focusing on reducing consumption of unnecessary sugar-sweetened commercial beverages. PMID:21556226

  4. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink. PMID:25953597

  5. 2-Furoylglycine as a Candidate Biomarker of Coffee Consumption.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Silke S; Holmes, Elaine; Kochhar, Sunil; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-09-30

    Specific and sensitive food biomarkers are necessary to support dietary intake assessment and link nutritional habits to potential impact on human health. A multistep nutritional intervention study was conducted to suggest novel biomarkers for coffee consumption. (1)H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis resolved 2-furoylglycine (2-FG) as a novel putative biomarker for coffee consumption. We relatively quantified 2-FG in the urine of coffee drinkers and investigated its origin, metabolism, and excretion kinetics. When searching for its potential precursors, we found different furan derivatives in coffee products, which are known to get metabolized to 2-FG. Maximal urinary excretion of 2-FG occurred 2 h after consumption (p = 0.0002) and returned to baseline after 24 h (p = 0.74). The biomarker was not excreted after consumption of coffee substitutes such as tea and chicory coffee and might therefore be a promising acute biomarker for the detection of coffee consumption in human urine.

  6. Social Organization and the Transition from Direct to Indirect Consumption*

    PubMed Central

    Axinn, William G.; Barber, Jennifer S.; Biddlecom, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new theoretical framework for the study of environmental consumption at the micro-level by building on concepts from classical sociological theory and recent macro-level studies of the environment. The framework emphasizes the local community context as an important determinant of environmental consumption. We test this framework with unique micro-level data on consumption, household size, household affluence, and community context from Nepal, a setting in the midst of dramatic change in community organization, population size, and consumption behavior. The results of these tests are consistent with the hypothesis that local nonfamily organizations shift the consumption of environmental resources from direct to more indirect. We argue that the framework presented here is a useful early step toward more comprehensive micro-level models of environmental quality. PMID:20514347

  7. Consumption of Pornography, Perceived Peer Norms, and Condomless Sex.

    PubMed

    Wright, Paul J; Tokunaga, Robert S; Kraus, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    Sexual scripts in pornography rarely include condoms. Many U.S. college students consume pornography and have unprotected sex. Yet no study appears to have investigated whether pornography consumption is correlated with having unprotected sex among U.S. college students. This article reports results from two studies of pornography consumption and condomless sex among U.S. college students. Pornography consumption was directly associated with a higher likelihood of condomless sex in study 1. This finding was replicated in study 2. Study 2 also explored whether perceptions of peers' use of condoms partially mediates the association between pornography consumption and condomless sex. Pornography consumption was associated with lower estimations of peers' condom use, and lower estimations of peers' condom use were associated with personally engaging in condomless sex. PMID:26752322

  8. 2-Furoylglycine as a Candidate Biomarker of Coffee Consumption.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Silke S; Holmes, Elaine; Kochhar, Sunil; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-09-30

    Specific and sensitive food biomarkers are necessary to support dietary intake assessment and link nutritional habits to potential impact on human health. A multistep nutritional intervention study was conducted to suggest novel biomarkers for coffee consumption. (1)H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis resolved 2-furoylglycine (2-FG) as a novel putative biomarker for coffee consumption. We relatively quantified 2-FG in the urine of coffee drinkers and investigated its origin, metabolism, and excretion kinetics. When searching for its potential precursors, we found different furan derivatives in coffee products, which are known to get metabolized to 2-FG. Maximal urinary excretion of 2-FG occurred 2 h after consumption (p = 0.0002) and returned to baseline after 24 h (p = 0.74). The biomarker was not excreted after consumption of coffee substitutes such as tea and chicory coffee and might therefore be a promising acute biomarker for the detection of coffee consumption in human urine. PMID:26357997

  9. Fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lifang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Yu, Jianshe; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-12-01

    How energy is consumed in gene expression is largely unknown mainly due to complexity of non-equilibrium mechanisms affecting expression levels. Here, by analyzing a representative gene model that considers complexity of gene expression, we show that negative feedback increases energy consumption but positive feedback has an opposite effect; promoter leakage always reduces energy consumption; generating more bursts needs to consume more energy; and the speed of promoter switching is at the cost of energy consumption. We also find that the relationship between energy consumption and expression noise is multi-mode, depending on both the type of feedback and the speed of promoter switching. Altogether, these results constitute fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression, which lay a foundation for designing biologically reasonable gene modules. In addition, we discuss possible biological implications of these principles by combining experimental facts.

  10. Consumption of Pornography, Perceived Peer Norms, and Condomless Sex.

    PubMed

    Wright, Paul J; Tokunaga, Robert S; Kraus, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    Sexual scripts in pornography rarely include condoms. Many U.S. college students consume pornography and have unprotected sex. Yet no study appears to have investigated whether pornography consumption is correlated with having unprotected sex among U.S. college students. This article reports results from two studies of pornography consumption and condomless sex among U.S. college students. Pornography consumption was directly associated with a higher likelihood of condomless sex in study 1. This finding was replicated in study 2. Study 2 also explored whether perceptions of peers' use of condoms partially mediates the association between pornography consumption and condomless sex. Pornography consumption was associated with lower estimations of peers' condom use, and lower estimations of peers' condom use were associated with personally engaging in condomless sex.

  11. Analysis of Final Energy Consumption Patterns in 10 Arab Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an analysis of the energy consumption patterns in 10 Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria. Commonalities and variations between these countries are discussed and explained through key economic and energy indicators, and the relationship between the overall final energy consumption per capita and the GDP per capita is examined. The distribution of the final energy consumption across different sectors is also analysed, and the patterns of consumption in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors are discussed with focus on the types of energy consumed, and the main drivers of this consumption. The findings and the conclusions of this study are believed to be beneficial to the national energy policy planners in identifying possible strengths, weaknesses, and areas of emphasis and improvement in their strategic energy plans.

  12. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  13. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    electricity consumption, but did cause a substantial intra-day shift in demand consistent with activity patterns that are tied to the clock rather than sunrise and sunset.

  14. The health consequences of early soy consumption.

    PubMed

    Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Hakkak, Reza; Rowlands, J Craig; Korourian, Soheila

    2002-03-01

    Infants fed soy formula are the segment of the U. S. population that consumes the most soy. Before birth and after weaning, most Americans are not exposed to appreciable levels of soyfoods other than foods that have small amounts of processed soy components. The opposite scenario occurs in Asia, because Asians are more likely to consume relatively high levels of soyfoods throughout life, except between birth and weaning, when breastfeeding or milk-based formula are common. Soy formula is made with soy protein isolate containing isoflavones (SPI+) and supports normal growth and development in term infants. Recent data suggest that there are no long-term adverse effects of early exposure to soy formula through young adulthood. It is as yet unknown whether soy formula consumption by infants will result in health problems or benefits upon aging, but multigenerational animal studies with diets made with SPI+ have not revealed any problems. Soy isoflavones can function as estrogen agonists, antagonists or selective estrogen receptor modulators, depending on the conditions, and much research has focused on health effects of purified isoflavones. Results from several studies suggest that the effects of diets made with SPI+ differ significantly from those of diets to which purified soy isoflavones are added. Furthermore, it seems that soy protein processed to contain lower levels of isoflavones also provides significant health benefits. Further research is needed to confirm the results of the few studies that have been conducted and new studies are needed to investigate the more subtle effects that could occur during development or that could surface later in life.

  15. Food Consumption: Households in the Northeast, Spring 1977. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Report No. H-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report presents data for spring 1977 from the household portion of the Nationwide Food Consumption survey in the Northeast conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture during April 1977 through March 1978. Statistics are presented on food consumption by consumers with incomes ranging from under $5,000 through $20,000 and over. Information…

  16. Simple indicator to identify the environmental soundness of growth of consumption and technology: "eco-velocity of consumption".

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Inaba, Rokuta; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2007-02-15

    Today's material welfare has been achieved at the expense of consumption of finite resources and generation of environmental burdens. Over the past few decades the volume of global consumption has grown dramatically, while at the same time technological advances have enabled products with greater efficiencies. These two directions of change, consumption growth and technological advance, are the foci of the present paper. Using quantitative measures for these two factors, we define a new indicator, "eco-velocity of consumption", analogous to velocity in physics. The indicator not only identifies the environmental soundness of consumption growth and technological advance but also indicates whether and to what extent our society is shifting toward sustainable consumption. This study demonstrates the practicability of the indicator through a case study in which we calculate the eco-velocities of Japanese household consumption in 2 years: 1995 and 2000. The rate of technological advance during the periods concerned is quantified in terms of the embodied carbon dioxide emission per yen of product. The results show that the current growth rate of Japanese household consumption is greater than the rate of technological advance to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. The eco-velocities at the level of individual commodity groups are also examined, and the sources of changes in eco-velocity for each commodity are identified using structural decomposition analysis.

  17. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers...

  18. Simple indicator to identify the environmental soundness of growth of consumption and technology: "eco-velocity of consumption".

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Inaba, Rokuta; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2007-02-15

    Today's material welfare has been achieved at the expense of consumption of finite resources and generation of environmental burdens. Over the past few decades the volume of global consumption has grown dramatically, while at the same time technological advances have enabled products with greater efficiencies. These two directions of change, consumption growth and technological advance, are the foci of the present paper. Using quantitative measures for these two factors, we define a new indicator, "eco-velocity of consumption", analogous to velocity in physics. The indicator not only identifies the environmental soundness of consumption growth and technological advance but also indicates whether and to what extent our society is shifting toward sustainable consumption. This study demonstrates the practicability of the indicator through a case study in which we calculate the eco-velocities of Japanese household consumption in 2 years: 1995 and 2000. The rate of technological advance during the periods concerned is quantified in terms of the embodied carbon dioxide emission per yen of product. The results show that the current growth rate of Japanese household consumption is greater than the rate of technological advance to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. The eco-velocities at the level of individual commodity groups are also examined, and the sources of changes in eco-velocity for each commodity are identified using structural decomposition analysis. PMID:17593758

  19. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water.

  20. Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry.

    PubMed

    Graham, H N

    1992-05-01

    Tea is grown in about 30 countries but is consumed worldwide, although at greatly varying levels. It is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water with a per capita worldwide consumption of approximately 0.12 liter per year. Tea is manufactured in three basic forms. Green tea is prepared in such a way as to preclude the oxidation of green leaf polyphenols. During black tea production oxidation is promoted so that most of these substances are oxidized. Oolong tea is a partially oxidized product. Of the approximately 2.5 million metric tons of dried tea manufactured, only 20% is green tea and less than 2% is oolong tea. Green tea is consumed primarily in China, Japan, and a few countries in North Africa and the Middle East. Fresh tea leaf is unusually rich in the flavanol group of polyphenols known as catechins which may constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. Other polyphenols include flavanols and their glycosides, and depsides such as chlorogenic acid, coumarylquinic acid, and one unique to tea, theogallin (3-galloylquinic acid). Caffeine is present at an average level of 3% along with very small amounts of the other common methylxanthines, theobromine and theophylline. The amino acid theanine (5-N-ethylglutamine) is also unique to tea. Tea accumulates aluminum and manganese. In addition to the normal complement of plant cell enzymes, tea leaf contains an active polyphenol oxidase which catalyzes the aerobic oxidation of the catechins when the leaf cell structure is disrupted during black tea manufacture. The various quinones produced by the enzymatic oxidations undergo condensation reactions which result in a series of compounds, including bisflavanols, theaflavins, epitheaflavic acids, and thearubigens, which impart the characteristic taste and color properties of black tea. Most of these compounds readily form complexes with caffeine. There is no tannic acid in tea. Thearubigens constitute the largest mass of the extractable matter in black tea but

  1. THE GAS CONSUMPTION HISTORY TO REDSHIFT 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bauermeister, Amber; Blitz, Leo; Ma, Chung-Pei E-mail: blitz@berkeley.ed

    2010-07-01

    Using the observations of the star formation rate (SFR) and H I densities to z {approx} 4, with measurements of the molecular gas depletion rate (MGDR) and local density of H{sub 2} at z = 0, we derive the history of the gas consumption by star formation to z {approx} 4. We find that closed-box models in which H{sub 2} is not replenished by H I require improbably large increases in {rho}(H{sub 2}) and a decrease in the MGDR with lookback time that is inconsistent with observations. Allowing the H{sub 2} used in star formation to be replenished by H I does not alleviate the problem because observations show that there is very little evolution of {rho}{sub H{sub I}}(z) from z = 0 to z = 4. We show that to be consistent with observational constraints, star formation on cosmic timescales must be fueled by intergalactic ionized gas, which may come from either accretion of gas through cold (but ionized) flows, or from ionized gas associated with accretion of dark matter halos. We constrain the rate at which the extragalactic ionized gas must be converted into H I and ultimately into H{sub 2}. The ionized gas inflow rate roughly traces the SFR density: about 1-2 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} Gyr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} from z {approx_equal} 1-4, decreasing by about an order of magnitude from z = 1 to z = 0 with details depending largely on MGDR(t). All models considered require the volume-averaged density of {rho}{sub H{sub 2}} to increase by a factor of 1.5-10 to z {approx} 1.5 over the currently measured value. Because the molecular gas must reside in galaxies, it implies that galaxies at high-z must, on average, be more molecule rich than they are at the present epoch, which is consistent with observations. These quantitative results, derived solely from observations, agree well with cosmological simulations.

  2. Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent. PMID:24955410

  3. Is caffeine consumption a risk factor for osteoporosis?

    PubMed

    Cooper, C; Atkinson, E J; Wahner, H W; O'Fallon, W M; Riggs, B L; Judd, H L; Melton, L J

    1992-04-01

    High caffeine consumption has been proposed as a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture, but the evidence associating high caffeine intake with low bone density is inconsistent. We therefore examined the influence of caffeine consumption on bone mineral at six skeletal sites in an age-stratified random sample of white women residing in Rochester, Minnesota. After age adjustment, there was no association between overall caffeine consumption and bone mineral at five of the six sites. In the femoral shaft, however, there was a statistically significant interaction between age and caffeine consumption so that high caffeine intake was associated with slight reductions in bone mineral among elderly subjects but with modestly increased bone mineral at younger ages. When caffeine intake was categorized by source, no consistent influence of coffee, tea, or other caffeinated beverage consumption could be detected on bone mineral. Caffeine intake was, however, positively associated with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. After adjusting for age, caffeine consumption was not correlated with biochemical indices of bone turnover, circulating concentrations of estradiol and estrone, or other dietary and musculoskeletal variables. These data suggest that caffeine intake in the range consumed by a representative sample of white women is not an important risk factor for osteoporosis. Among elderly women, however, in whom calcium balance performance is impaired, high caffeine intake may predispose to cortical bone loss from the proximal femur.

  4. Assessing summertime urban air conditioning consumption in a semiarid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanca, F.; Georgescu, M.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.; Wang, M.; Svoma, B. M.

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation of built environment energy demand is necessary in light of global projections of urban expansion. Of particular concern are rapidly expanding urban areas in environments where consumption requirements for cooling are excessive. Here, we simulate urban air conditioning (AC) electric consumption for several extreme heat events during summertime over a semiarid metropolitan area with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to a multilayer building energy scheme. Observed total load values obtained from an electric utility company were split into two parts, one linked to meteorology (i.e., AC consumption) which was compared to WRF simulations, and another to human behavior. WRF-simulated non-dimensional AC consumption profiles compared favorably to diurnal observations in terms of both amplitude and timing. The hourly ratio of AC to total electricity consumption accounted for ˜53% of diurnally averaged total electric demand, ranging from ˜35% during early morning to ˜65% during evening hours. Our work highlights the importance of modeling AC electricity consumption and its role for the sustainable planning of future urban energy needs. Finally, the methodology presented in this article establishes a new energy consumption-modeling framework that can be applied to any urban environment where the use of AC systems is prevalent.

  5. The Burden of Cancer Attributable to Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    TESTINO, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between alcohol intake and the occurrence of cancer in humans. All types of alcoholic beverages are associated with an increased risk which suggests that ethanol itself is the crucial compound which causes that effect. The International Agency for Research for Cancer classified alcohol consumption and acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption as carcinogenic for humans (group 1): oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectal, liver and female breast. The mechanisms by which alcohol consumption exerts its carcinogenic effect have not been defined fully, although plausible events include: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde; increased estrogen concentration, which is important for breast carcinogenesis; a role as solvent of tobacco carcinogens; production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species; and change in folate metabolism. Most alcohol-induced diseases increases in a linear fashion as intake increases: oral, esophagus and colon cancer fall into this pattern: very little is known about safe margins of alcohol consumption. Given the linear dose-response relation between alcohol intake and risk of cancer, control of heavy drinking remains the main target for cancer control. In healthy subjects, European Code Against Cancer recommends keeping daily consumption within two drinks for man and one drink for women. In our opinion, there are not enough data to support the actually safe intake of alcohol. Any level of alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing an alcohol related cancer. The level of risk increases in line with the level consumption. PMID:22879847

  6. Breakfast consumption and cognitive function in adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast consumption on cognitive function, mood and blood glucose concentration in adolescent schoolchildren. With the institution's ethical advisory committee approval, 96 adolescents (12 to 15 years old) completed two randomly assigned trials (one following breakfast consumption and one following breakfast omission), scheduled 7 days apart. Cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm), a mood questionnaire and a finger prick blood sample (in a subgroup of 60 participants) were completed immediately following breakfast and 120 min after the baseline measures. Following breakfast consumption, accuracy on the more complex level of the visual search test was higher than following breakfast omission (p=0.021). Similarly, accuracy on the Stroop test was better maintained across the morning following breakfast consumption when compared to breakfast omission (p=0.022). Furthermore, responses on the Sternberg paradigm were quicker later in the morning following breakfast consumption, particularly on the more complex levels (p=0.012). Breakfast consumption also produced higher self-report energy and fullness, lower self-report tiredness and hunger and higher blood glucose concentrations (all p<0.0005). Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that breakfast consumption enhances cognitive function in an adolescent population when compared to breakfast omission. PMID:21439306

  7. [Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Rong-Bo; Sun, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition.

  8. Optimal energy consumption analysis of natural gas pipeline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent.

  9. [Trends in alcohol consumption in Switzerland from 1975-1992].

    PubMed

    Schmid, H; Gmel, G

    1996-06-22

    Based on four representative surveys independently conducted at 6-year intervals, the study presented here delineates the development of alcohol consumption in the general population of Switzerland between 1975 and 1992. A description of changes in the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption by sex is presented, as well as specific changes by beverage type. Even though Switzerland remains one of the high consumption countries, a marked decline can be observed. Compared to 1975 when 28% of respondents reported daily alcohol consumption, this figure dropped to 20% in 1992. Although 10% consumed more than 60 grams of pure alcohol in the 1975 sample, this proportion fell to only 3% in 1992. This downward trend, which is also reflected in secondary statistics such as sales and mortality figures, can be mainly attributed to male consumers. In contrast to international trends, which in general demonstrate converging drinking patterns, reduced consumption in Switzerland, a wine-producing country, is mainly due to a decline in beer consumption and not in wine consumption.

  10. Fish consumption and early atherosclerosis in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Ueno, Yoshiki; Tamaki, Shinji; Kadowaki, Takashi; Okamura, Tomonori; Kita, Yoshikuni; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Sekikawa, Akira; Takamiya, Tomoko; El-Saed, Aiman; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the association between fish consumption and early atherosclerosis, we analyzed the relationship between fish consumption and average intima-media thickness (AveIMT) by carotid ultrasound in middle-aged Japanese men. Participants were 250 randomly selected, community-based Japanese men aged 40 to 49 years without a prior history of cardiovascular disease. AveIMT was calculated from the mean of 1-cm lengths of both the right and the left carotid arteries at 8 locations. A lifestyle survey was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire including the frequency of fish intake. There were 147 men in the fewer than 4 times per week fish consumption group and 103 men in the 4 or more times per week group. The mean AveIMT was significantly higher in the low fish consumption group than in the high fish consumption group (0.623+/-0.068 vs 0.605+/-0.065 mm, P=.03). After adjustment for age, waist circumference, pack-years of smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, and lipid-lowering medications, the significant difference in the AveIMT between the 2 groups remained. However, after further adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein in the model, the significant difference disappeared. Fish consumption may be protective against early atherosclerosis in middle-aged men, probably through its beneficial effects on inflammation.

  11. Introduced northern pike consumption of salmonids in Southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Dupuis, Aaron W; Shields, Patrick A; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced northern pike (Esox lucius) on salmonid populations have attracted much attention because salmonids are popular subsistence, sport and commercial fish. Concern over the predatory effects of introduced pike on salmonids is especially high in Southcentral Alaska, where pike were illegally introduced to the Susitna River basin in the 1950s. We used pike abundance, growth, and diet estimates and bioenergetics models to characterise the realised and potential consumptive impacts that introduced pike (age 2 and older) have on salmonids in Alexander Creek, a tributary to the Susitna River. We found that juvenile salmonids were the dominant prey item in pike diets and that pike could consume up to 1.10 metric tons (realised consumption) and 1.66 metric tons (potential consumption) of juvenile salmonids in a summer. Age 3–4 pike had the highest per capita consumption of juvenile salmonids, and age 2 and age 3–4 pike had the highest overall consumption of juvenile salmonid biomass. Using historical data on Chinook salmon and pike potential consumption of juvenile salmonids, we found that pike consumption of juvenile salmonids may lead to collapsed salmon stocks in Alexander Creek. Taken together, our results indicate that pike consume a substantial biomass of juvenile salmonids in Alexander Creek and that coexistence of pike and salmon is unlikely without management actions to reduce or eliminate introduced pike.

  12. Specific energy consumption of membrane bioreactor (MBR) for sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzeminski, Pawel; van der Graaf, Jaap H J M; van Lier, Jules B

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current electric energy consumption of full-scale municipal MBR installations based on literature review and case studies. Energy requirements of several MBRs were linked to operational parameters and reactor performance. Total and specific energy consumption data were analysed on a long-term basis with special attention given to treated flow, design capacity, membrane area and effluent quality. The specific energy consumption of an MBR system is dependent on many factors, such as system design and layout, volume of treated flow, membrane utilization and operational strategy. Operation at optimal flow conditions results in a low specific energy consumption and energy efficient process. Energy consumption of membrane related modules was in the range of 0.5-0.7 kWh/m(3) and specific energy consumption for membrane aeration in flat sheet (FS) was 33-37% higher than in a hollow fibre (HF) system. Aeration is a major energy consumer, often exceeding 50% share of total energy consumption. In consequence, coarse bubble aeration applied for continuous membrane cleaning remains the main target for energy saving actions. Also, a certain potential for energy optimization without immediate danger of affecting the quality of the produced effluent was observed.

  13. Life cycle approaches to sustainable consumption: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2005-07-01

    The 2002 World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg called for a comprehensive set of programs focusing on sustainable consumption and production. According to world leaders, these programs should rely on life cycle assessment (LCA) to promote sustainable patterns of production and consumption. Cleaner production is a well-established activity, and it uses LCA. UNEP, the European Union, and a number of national organizations have now begun to work on sustainable consumption. In developing sustainable consumption policies and activities, the use of LCA presents interesting opportunities that are not yet well understood by policy makers. This paper reviews how life cycle approaches, primarily based on input-output analysis, have been used in the area of sustainable consumption: to inform policy making, select areas of action, identify which lifestyles are more sustainable, advise consumers, and evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable consumption measures. Information on consumption patterns usually comes from consumer expenditure surveys. Different study designs and a better integration with consumer research can provide further interesting insights. Life-cycle approaches still need to be developed and tested. Current research is mostly descriptive; policy makers, however, require more strategic analysis addressing their decision options, including scenario analysis and backcasting.

  14. Risks and Benefits of Consumption of Great Lakes Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P.; Bowerman, William; Boysen, Eric; Clark, Milton; Diamond, Miriam; Mergler, Donna; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Schantz, Susan; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk–benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. Objectives: The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. Methods: We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Data synthesis: Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants—many of which have documented adverse health effects —that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Conclusions: Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk–benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed. PMID

  15. [Influence of the reimbursement scheme on the consumption of drugs].

    PubMed

    Madsen, Ulla Kirkegaard

    2009-03-01

    Several factors have the potential to influence the consumption of medicine, including the reimbursement status. Examples of consumption patterns are compared to reimbursement status over time. In some situations the reimbursement status and changes herein may be a contributing factor for the consumption pattern, e.g. in the case of the selective COX-2 inhibitors. In other situations, the opposite is the case, e.g. medicinal products used for the treatment of hypertension, where there is under-treatment despite the fact that general reimbursement has existed for a number of years. General conclusions are therefore not possible.

  16. Intelligent Cooperative MAC Protocol for Balancing Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Liu, K.; Huang, B.; Liu, F.

    To extend the lifetime of wireless sensor networks, we proposed an intelligent balanced energy consumption cooperative MAC protocol (IBEC-CMAC) based on the multi-node cooperative transmission model. The protocol has priority to access high-quality channels for reducing energy consumption of each transmission. It can also balance the energy consumption among cooperative nodes by using high residual energy nodes instead of excessively consuming some node's energy. Simulation results show that IBEC-CMAC can obtain longer network lifetime and higher energy utilization than direct transmission.

  17. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  18. Violent media consumption and the recognition of dynamic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Kirsh, Steven J; Mounts, Jeffrey R W; Olczak, Paul V

    2006-05-01

    This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph. Results indicated that, independent of trait aggressiveness, participants high in violent media consumption responded slower to depictions of happiness and faster to depictions of anger than participants low in violent media consumption. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to current models of aggressive behavior.

  19. A Glance at China’s Household Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin

    2009-10-01

    Known for its scale, China is the most populous country with the world’s third largest economy. In the context of rising living standards, a relatively lower share of household consumption in its GDP, a strong domestic market and globalization, China is witnessing an unavoidable increase in household consumption, related energy consumption and carbon emissions. Chinese policy decision makers and researchers are well aware of these challenges and keen to promote green lifestyles. China has developed a series of energy policies and programs, and launched a wide-range social marketing activities to promote energy conservation.

  20. Alcohol consumption in relation to food intake and smoking habits in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, J; Schenkel, J A; van Erp-Baart, A M; Brants, H A; Hulshof, K F; Kistemaker, C; Schaafsma, G; Ockhuizen, T

    1993-07-01

    The interrelationships between alcohol consumption, energy and food intake and smoking habits were studied in 1145 men and 1171 women, aged 22-49 years, in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, in which a 48-h dietary record method was used. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on dietary habits and smoking. A strong relationship between alcohol consumption and energy intake was found. The energy derived from alcohol was not compensated for by lower intake of other nutrients. There was no increase in Quetelet's index with increasing alcohol consumption, except for non-smoking men who were heavy drinking on midweek days. Possible explanations for this apparent lack of an overall effect of alcohol calories are discussed. Alcohol consumption was much higher on weekend days than on midweek days. No differences in nutrient intake were found between non-drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers on midweek days. On weekend days, however, there was a slightly higher total fat and saturated fat intake in moderately drinking men. For women cholesterol intake was found to be higher in moderate and heavy drinkers. Finally, a strong positive relationship between alcohol consumption and smoking was observed. It is concluded that the observations with respect to energy and nutrient intake and smoking habits are not indicative of a healthier lifestyle in moderate alcohol users between 22 and 49 years of age. Consequently, the more favourable prognosis of moderate drinkers cannot be ascribed to a more healthy lifestyle.

  1. FTFc52 - freight train fuel consumption computer program. Software

    SciTech Connect

    Koper, J.; Muhlenberg, J.D.

    1980-09-01

    This tape contains a copy of a computer program for the prediction of fuel consumption of a freight train operated over track with known characteristics. The program is written in FORTRAN for the IBM VM/370 computer.

  2. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced.

  3. [Fructose Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome: Association or Causality?].

    PubMed

    Gerber, Philipp A

    2016-06-22

    Fructose consumption has increased significantly during the past decades – in particular by using added sugar in food and beverages, either sugars containing free fructose, but also sugars containing fructose in bound form (e. g. sucrose). The metabolism of fructose exhibits distinct differences compared to the metabolism of glucose. Association studies performed in the past years suggest an association of fructose consumption and adverse effects on metabolism. Intervention studies, conducted in part with healthy individuals, could prove such effects and deliver explanations of the mechanisms leading to these adverse effects. A reduction of consumption of added fructose should be recommended, but there is no evidence to support a restriction of fruit consumption (as a natural source of fructose).

  4. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced. PMID:23567705

  5. [Fructose Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome: Association or Causality?].

    PubMed

    Gerber, Philipp A

    2016-06-22

    Fructose consumption has increased significantly during the past decades – in particular by using added sugar in food and beverages, either sugars containing free fructose, but also sugars containing fructose in bound form (e. g. sucrose). The metabolism of fructose exhibits distinct differences compared to the metabolism of glucose. Association studies performed in the past years suggest an association of fructose consumption and adverse effects on metabolism. Intervention studies, conducted in part with healthy individuals, could prove such effects and deliver explanations of the mechanisms leading to these adverse effects. A reduction of consumption of added fructose should be recommended, but there is no evidence to support a restriction of fruit consumption (as a natural source of fructose). PMID:27329707

  6. Classification of excessive domestic water consumption using Fuzzy Clustering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zairi Zaidi, A.; Rasmani, Khairul A.

    2016-08-01

    Demand for clean and treated water is increasing all over the world. Therefore it is crucial to conserve water for better use and to avoid unnecessary, excessive consumption or wastage of this natural resource. Classification of excessive domestic water consumption is a difficult task due to the complexity in determining the amount of water usage per activity, especially as the data is known to vary between individuals. In this study, classification of excessive domestic water consumption is carried out using a well-known Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Consumer data containing information on daily, weekly and monthly domestic water usage was employed for the purpose of classification. Using the same dataset, the result produced by the FCM clustering algorithm is compared with the result obtained from a statistical control chart. The finding of this study demonstrates the potential use of the FCM clustering algorithm for the classification of domestic consumer water consumption data.

  7. Estimates of U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption 1992

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass derived primary energy used by the U.S. economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption.

  8. QUINAULT INDIAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quinault Indian Nation needed to determine appropriate seafood consumption rates for development of their water quality standards. EPA Region 10 and EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory had been collaborating on computer assisted personal inter...

  9. Simulation of energy consumption for quadruped walking vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jingtao; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan

    2006-11-01

    Simulation of energy consumption for walking vehicle is one of the basic way to preliminarily estimate the energy that will be consumed before constructing the real vehicle, providing basis for the design of vehicle to minish energy consumption. One of the most influential factors of the accuracy dynamic simulation is the appropriate contact model between leg and ground. In this paper, we adopt virtual prototyping technique to develop the dynamic modeling of a quadruped walking vehicle considering contact force between legs and ground during walking, finish simulation of dynamics and obtain dynamics characteristics, investigate the effects of different contact condition and the energy consumption. The purpose is to analyze the relationship between energy consumption and relevant influence factors, and the energy efficiency during walking is discussed with different walking velocity, strokes, duty factors and different contact material. Moreover contact force is obtained from simulations. Commercial ADAMS package is used.

  10. 77 FR 4859 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ...: Gamble Pad A, ABR- 201110013, Gamble Township, Lycoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of up to 4.000 mgd...: November 30, 2011. 71. Inflection Energy, LLC, Pad ID: Stunner 1V, ABR- 201111037, Gamble and...

  11. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Canadian Energy Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector is one of the main end-use sectors in Canada accounting for 16.7% of total end-use site energy consumption in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012. pp, 4-5). In this year, the residential sector accounted for 54.5% of buildings total site energy consumption. Between 1990 and 2009, Canadian household energy consumption grew by less than 11%. Nonetheless, households contributed to 14.6% of total energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012). This is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s second study to help provide a better understanding of the factors impacting residential energy consumption and intensity in North America (mainly the United States and Canada) by using similar methodology for analyses in both countries.

  12. Production and Consumption of Reactive Oxygen Species by Fullerenes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the most important intermediates in chemical, photochemical, and biological processes. To understand the environmental exposure and toxicity of fullerenes better, the production and consumption of ROS (singlet oxygen, superoxide, hydrogen ...

  13. Chronic ethanol consumption in mice alters hepatocyte lipid droplet properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Hepatosteatosis is a common pathological feature of impaired hepatic metabolism following chronic alcohol consumption. Although often benign and reversible, it is widely believed that steatosis is a risk factor for development of advanced liver pathologies, including steatohepatitis and ...

  14. Investigating energy consumption of coastal vacation rental homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Sam

    In 2007, vacation rental properties in the United States accounted for more than 22% of the domestic lodging market. These properties are a unique segment of the lodging industry due to their residential design and commercial use. Coastal vacation rental properties represent the largest supply, demand and value of the nation's vacation rental supply. In the case of North Carolina's Outer Banks, tourism is the area's largest source of income, with vacation real estate agencies being the largest accommodation provider. This study uses a multiple regression analysis to investigate the energy consumption of 30 vacation rental homes on Hatteras Island. Hatteras Island's abundant supply of vacation rental homes provided a diverse sample to study energy consumption with a wide range of houses regarding size, age, and location. Since very little research has been conducted on the energy consumption of vacation rental homes, this study aims to contribute detailed information regarding the energy consumption of unique accommodation sector.

  15. Sources of information on food consumption in Spain and Europe.

    PubMed

    del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Ruiz Moreno, Emma; Valero Gaspar, Teresa; Rodríguez Alonso, Paula; Ávila Torres, José Manuel

    2015-02-26

    Estimation of food consumption and nutrient intake is a topic of growing interest. Currently, both in Europe and in Spain, there are numerous sources of information on food consumption, that we provide information on different levels: national, household and individual, all of them are useful, but including some limitations, mainly arising from the lack of accurate data on food purchased but not consumed. The data obtained allow, among other things, meet dietary habits, explore the food quality, study the energy and nutrient intake and / or assessing exposure to food risks. Among the existing sources in Spain can highlight two surveys especially useful: the Household Budget Survey of the National Statistics Institute (INE) and Food Consumption Panel Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA). Both provide for many years food consumption but, lately, only in households. Both European and Spanish would be necessary to improve the usefulness of the data, standardize the type of survey used and could be comparable between them.

  16. Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 through 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    This Circular updates and supersedes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 03–083, "Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 to 2000," with the addition of supply and consumption estimates and analysis from 2001 through 2003 and revisions to the consumption estimates for 1998 through 2000. The text from Open-File Report 03–083 also has been updated in this Circular to include revisions to and expansion of the time-series coverage. The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States produced about 3.29 million metric tons (Mt) of asbestos and used approximately 31.5 Mt between 1900 and 2003. About half of this amount was used after 1960. In 2002, the last asbestos mine in the United States closed, marking the end of more than 110 years of U.S. asbestos production. Cumulative world production from 1900 through 2003 was about 181 Mt. If one assumes that unusually large stocks were not maintained and that world consumption roughly equaled production, then about half of the world production and consumption occurred between the end of 1976 and the end of 2003. The United States and Western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of Kazakhstan and Russia by the 1970s. After the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the decline in world production and consumption began to be evident in the late 1970s and

  17. Energy consumption analysis for the Mars deep space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results for the energy consumption analysis at the Mars deep space station are presented. It is shown that the major energy consumers are the 64-Meter antenna building and the operations support building. Verification of the antenna's energy consumption is highly dependent on an accurate knowlege of the tracking operations. The importance of a regular maintenance schedule for the watt hour meters installed at the station is indicated.

  18. Comparison of Predictive Control Methods for High Consumption Industrial Furnace

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn. PMID:24319354

  19. Comparison of predictive control methods for high consumption industrial furnace.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Goran; Stankovski, Mile

    2013-01-01

    We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn.

  20. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that become dysregulated with age. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study used data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2012 to 2013, to assess curry consumption frequency as well as blood glucose and blood lipid levels. The levels of blood glucose and lipids were subdivided by age, sex, and body mass index, and compared according to the curry consumption level. The estimates in each subgroup were further adjusted for potential confounding factors, including the diagnosis of diseases, physical activity, and smoking. RESULTS After adjusting for the above confounding factors, the blood glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the moderate curry consumption group compared to the low curry consumption group, both in older (> 45) male and younger (30 to 44) female overweight individuals who have high blood glucose and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that curcumin consumption, in an ordinary diet, can have health-beneficial effects, including being helpful in maintaining blood glucose and triglyceride levels that become dysregulated with age. The results should be further confirmed in future studies. PMID:27087906

  1. [Personality factors as predictors of alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Natividade, Jean Carlos; Aguirre, Alba Recalde; Bizarro, Lisiane; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to verify differences in personality factors between abstainers and drinkers and between individuals with higher versus lower levels of alcohol consumption in the previous three months, and to test the predictive power of factors for any lifetime alcohol consumption and for at least monthly alcohol consumption. A total of 169 university students participated, of whom 66.7% were women, with a mean age of 21.2 years. Lifetime alcohol consumption was 90.1%; 42.3% had consumed at least twice in the previous three months; and 57.7% consumed alcohol at least monthly. Participants with less frequent consumption in the previous three months showed higher mean scores for personality factors involving socialization and achievement, while those that consumed more frequently scored higher on extroversion. A predictive model showed that increments in extroversion contributed to increased odds of drinking alcohol, while increments in achievement decreased the odds of drinking. Personality characteristics were able to distinguish between different groups of drinkers and predict the frequency of alcohol consumption. PMID:22666813

  2. Social ideological influences on reported food consumption and BMI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei C; Worsley, Anthony; Cunningham, Everarda G

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between ideological beliefs, perceptions of the importance of health behaviours, health attitudes, food consumption, and Body Mass Index (BMI). A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Methods A survey was conducted among shoppers aged between 40 and 70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested with this empirical data (n = 410) for younger (n = 151) and older (n = 259) age groups using structural equation modelling. Results The findings generally support the study hypotheses. For both groups, egalitarianism had a direct and positive influence on perceptions of the importance of health behaviours. Materialism and masculinity impacted negatively on health attitudes, which positively influenced importance of health behaviours. Perceptions of importance of health behaviours impacted positively on the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits, but negatively on consumption of unhealthy foods including sweets and fats. However, BMI was significantly influenced by the consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., sugar and fats) only for the younger age group. Hence, the associations between beliefs, attitudes, consumption behaviours, and BMI outcomes differed between younger and older age populations. Conclusion Social ideological beliefs appear to influence health attitudes and thereafter, the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods and BMI via different pathways. PMID:18412977

  3. Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women.

    PubMed

    Trondsen, Torbjørn; Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Eggen, Anne E

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize constraints on consumption of fish perceived by consumers in Norway. A random sample of Norwegian women aged 45-69 years answered a self-administered mail questionnaire in 1996 about eating habits, perceived barriers to fish consumption, socioeconomic status, and questions related to health. Altogether, 9407 women answered the questionnaire (response rate: 52.5%). Data were analyzed by means of logistic regression. Limited supply of fish products that satisfy children's wishes reduce at-home fish consumption. People with health problems and those who wish to lose weight are dissatisfied with the range of products offered in the marketplace. Satisfaction with quality and availability of wild lean codfish, especially in inland regions, is lower than for aqua-cultured fat salmon. Neither income nor education or health factors were significantly associated with consumption levels among those who would like to eat more fish. Higher education and income were associated with increased dissatisfaction about fish consumption, but also with reduced perception of most barriers. It is concluded that improvements in the supply of high-quality fresh and processed fish products that satisfy (a) children's wishes, (b) health-oriented family members, and (c) convenience-oriented consumers, will significantly increase at-home consumption of fish.

  4. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations: An Epidemiologic Overview.

    PubMed

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18-25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  5. [Biochemical markers for acute and chronic alcohol consumption].

    PubMed

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Zaba, Czesław

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the fact, that ethyl alcohol is a legal and socially accepted recreational drug its abuse may cause numerous problems for the individual and society. Casualties of car accidents caused by drunk drivers, aggressive behavior, family problems and effective less work are the main problems connected with alcohol abuse. The easiest and most effective way of proving recent alcohol consumption is confirming its presence in biological samples taken from the individual. However, the main disadvantage of this method is a short window detection for ethanol, because of its high speed of elimination process. Nowadays, in order to prevent and have a better control of alcohol abuse, markers that could provide a better view of short and long term ethanol consumption are in frequent use. Ethyl alcohol present in the body cause many qualitative and quantitative disturbances in biochemical metabolites that could be used as markers of its consumption. In practice markers of ethanol consumption are usually divided into acute (tests confirm single alcohol intake) and chronic (confirm long term alcohol consumption or lack of teetotalism). Markers of ethanol consumption are valuable alternative and complementation to customary examinations performed in medical practice and forensic medicine.

  6. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = -0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  7. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.

  8. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Emily J.; Coates, Alison M.; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = −0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  9. [Junk food consumption and child nutrition. Nutritional anthropological analysis].

    PubMed

    Jackson, Portia; Romo, Marcela M; Castillo, Marcela A; Castillo-Durán, Carlos

    2004-10-01

    The increasing consumption of junk food and snacks in Chile in recent years and its association with marketing strategies and prevalent diseases, is reviewed. In the context of world economy, junk food is a global phenomenon. The availability of junk food and snacks at low prices and marketing has triggered an evolution of consumption of foods that require neither the structure nor the preparation of a formal meal. Many studies have suggested that the increase in snack consumption is associated with an increase in obesity, tooth decay and other chronic diseases among children and adolescents. The hypothesis suggests a link between the pattern of snack consumption and an increase increase in the energy density of food consumed, a decrease in satiety, passive over consumption, and an increase in obesity. Between 1977 and 1996, the contribution: of snacks to daily energy intake among children between 2 and 5 years increased by 30% in the United States. In each age group in Chile the frequency of non-transmissible chronic diseases is increasing due primarily to a westernized diet that is high in fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar and a sedentary lifestyle. Education about junk food consumption and healthy eating habits in the family, starling since childbirth and public policies about healthy lifestyles should be strengthened.

  10. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-08-04

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = -0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality.

  11. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet. PMID:19778754

  12. Smart Meter Driven Segmentation: What Your Consumption Says About You

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, A; Rajagopal, R

    2013-11-01

    With the rollout of smart metering infrastructure at scale, demand-response (DR) programs may now be tailored based on users' consumption patterns as mined from sensed data. For issuing DR events it is key to understand the inter-temporal consumption dynamics as to appropriately segment the user population. We propose to infer occupancy states from consumption time series data using a hidden Markov model framework. Occupancy is characterized in this model by 1) magnitude, 2) duration, and 3) variability. We show that users may be grouped according to their consumption patterns into groups that exhibit qualitatively different dynamics that may be exploited for program enrollment purposes. We investigate empirically the information that residential energy consumers' temporal energy demand patterns characterized by these three dimensions may convey about their demographic, household, and appliance stock characteristics. Our analysis shows that temporal patterns in the user's consumption data can predict with good accuracy certain user characteristics. We use this framework to argue that there is a large degree of individual predictability in user consumption at a population level.

  13. Study of Cisatracurium and Sufentanil Consumption Using a Closed Loop Computer Control Infusion System

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-06

    The Intraoperative Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Cisatracurium Infusion Consumption and Its Recovery Index.; Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Sufentanil Consumption.; Quantitative Analysis of Cisatracurium Infusion Requirements, Sufentanil Consumption and Recovery Index in Different Age Groups.

  14. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exported; (viii) A copy of the bill of lading and the invoice indicating the net quantity (in kilograms) of... quantity of unexpended consumption rights; (F) The control period(s) to which the trade applies; and...

  15. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  16. Associations between the consumption of carbonated beverages and periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Consumption of carbonated beverages was reported to be associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This study was performed to assess the relationship between the consumption of carbonated beverages and periodontal disease using nationally representative data. The data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2010 were used; the analysis in this study was confined to a total of 5517 respondents >19 years old who had no missing values for the consumption of carbonated beverages or outcome variables. The community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was defined as periodontal disease. The odds ratios of the percentage of individuals with periodontal treatment needs tended to increase with the consumption of carbonated beverages. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for various factors including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, dental checkup within a year, consumption of coffee of the individuals with the consumption of carbonated beverages once or less per month, once or less per week and twice or more per week were 1.109(0.804,1.528), 1.404(1.035,1.906), and 1.466(1.059,2.029), respectively. A subgroup analysis revealed that in individuals with body mass index < 25 or waist circumference < 90 cm for males or < 80 cm for females, the prevalence of periodontal disease increased with higher consumption of carbonated beverages (P for trend < 0.05). Consumption of carbonated beverages was positively associated with the risk of periodontal disease in Korean adults. In a subgroup analysis, the individuals consuming carbonated beverages with body mass index < 25 or waist circumference < 90 cm for males or < 80 cm for females were more likely to have periodontal disease. Consumption of carbonated beverages may be considered to be

  17. Energy drinks consumption in male construction workers, Chonburi province.

    PubMed

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Khobjit, Pattama; Veerachai, Viroj; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2004-12-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to determine the relationship among caffeine drinks consumption known as "energy drinks consumption", drug dependence and related factors in male construction workers in Chonburi Province. It was conducted during December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. The logistic regression was used to control possible confounding factors. The subjects consisted of 186 cases who had consumed energy drinks for more than 3 months and 186 controls who had given up for more than 3 months. They were frequency/group matched by age group. There was statistically significant association among energy drinks consumption and overtime work, motivation from advertisements, positive attitude of energy drinks consumption, alcohol drinks, smoking and ex-taking Kratom behavior. Multivariate analyses revealed that only 5 factors were related to energy drinks consumption: marital status (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.14, 3.11), overtime work (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.73, 4.64), motivation from advertisements (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.67, 4.42), positive attitude of energy drinks consumption (OR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.65, 10.01) and ex-taking Kratom behavior (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.19, 6.44). As a result, construction workers should be provided with the knowledge of energy drinks consumption, the effect of drug dependence behavior, and the advantages of safe and healthy food that is cheap, readily available, and rich in nutrients. PMID:15822540

  18. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Immediately After Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; van der Bom, Johanna G.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Maclure, Malcolm; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Muller, James E.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Habitual moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) whereas heavy (binge) drinking is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. However, less is known about the immediate effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of acute MI and whether any association differs by beverage type or usual drinking patterns. Methods We conducted a case-crossover analysis of 3,869 participants from the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study who were interviewed during hospitalization for acute MI in one of 64 medical centers across the United States in 1989–1996. We compared the observed number of times that each participant consumed wine, beer or liquor in the hour preceding MI symptom onset with the expected frequency based on each participant’s control information, defined as the number of times the participant consumed alcohol in the past year. Results Among 3869 participants, 2119 (55%) reported alcohol consumption in the past year, including 76 within 1 hour before acute MI onset. The incidence rate of acute MI onset was elevated 1.72-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.37–2.16) within 1 hour after alcohol consumption. The association was stronger for liquor than for beer or wine. The higher rate was not apparent for daily drinkers. For the 24 hours after consumption, there was a 14% lower rate (relative risk=0.86 [95% CI=0.79–0.95]) of MI compared with periods with no alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol consumption is associated with an acutely higher risk of MI in the subsequent hour among people who do not typically drink alcohol daily. PMID:25563434

  19. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension.

  20. Patterns of food consumption among vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Orlich, Michael J; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil N; Fraser, Gary E

    2014-11-28

    Vegetarian dietary patterns have been reported to be associated with a number of favourable health outcomes in epidemiological studies, including the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Such dietary patterns may vary and need further characterisation regarding foods consumed. The aims of the present study were to characterise and compare the food consumption patterns of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ among more than 89 000 members of the AHS-2 cohort. Vegetarian dietary patterns were defined a priori, based on the absence of certain animal foods in the diet. Foods were categorised into fifty-eight minor food groups comprising seventeen major food groups. The adjusted mean consumption of each food group for the vegetarian dietary patterns was compared with that for the non-vegetarian dietary pattern. Mean consumption was found to differ significantly across the dietary patterns for all food groups. Increased consumption of many plant foods including fruits, vegetables, avocados, non-fried potatoes, whole grains, legumes, soya foods, nuts and seeds was observed among vegetarians. Conversely, reduced consumption of meats, dairy products, eggs, refined grains, added fats, sweets, snack foods and non-water beverages was observed among vegetarians. Thus, although vegetarian dietary patterns in the AHS-2 have been defined based on the absence of animal foods in the diet, they differ greatly with respect to the consumption of many other food groups. These differences in food consumption patterns may be important in helping to explain the association of vegetarian diets with several important health outcomes.

  1. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person’s perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence—Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—within that person’s neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant’s neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely

  2. Increased caffeine consumption is associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Apurva A; Feld, Jordan J; Park, Yoon; Kleiner, David E; Everhart, James E.; Liang, T. Jake; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although coffee consumption has been associated with reduced frequency of liver disease, it is unclear whether the effect is from coffee or caffeine and whether there is an effect on hepatic fibrosis specifically. Aim To use a food-frequency instrument for dietary caffeine consumption to evaluate the relationship between caffeine intake and liver fibrosis. Methods Patients undergoing liver biopsy completed a detailed caffeine questionnaire on 3 occasions over a 6-month period. Caffeine intake was compared between patients with mild and advanced liver fibrosis (bridging fibrosis/cirrhosis). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between caffeine consumption and hepatic fibrosis. Results 177 patients (99 male, 104 Caucasian, 121 with chronic hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection) undergoing liver biopsy completed the caffeine questionnaire on up to three occasions. Results from repeated questionnaires were consistent. Daily caffeine consumption above the 75th percentile for the cohort (308 mg ~2.25 cups of coffee equivalents) was associated with reduced liver fibrosis (OR 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80, p=0.015) and the protective association persisted after controlling for age, sex, race, liver disease, body mass index and alcohol intake in all patients (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.09-0.67, p=0.006), as well as the subset with HCV infection (OR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.66, p=0.009). Despite a modest trend, consumption of caffeine from sources other than coffee or of decaffeinated coffee was not associated with reduced liver fibrosis. Conclusion A reliable tool for measurement of caffeine consumption demonstrated that caffeine consumption, particularly from regular coffee, above a threshold of approximately 2 coffee-cup equivalents per day, was associated with less severe hepatic fibrosis. PMID:20034049

  3. Pattern and predictors of dairy consumption during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Louie, Jimmy Cy; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to prospectively assess dairy intake among adolescents, and determine the predictors of adequate dairy consumption during adolescence. 634 Sydney schoolchildren (351 girls and 283 boys) who had dietary data at both age 12 and 17 were included for analyses. Dairy consumption was assessed from validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. At age 12, mean total dairy intake was 1.62 serves/day which decreased to 1.40 by age 17 (p<0.0001). Mean serves/day of milk decreased from 1.11 to 0.92 during adolescence. Moreover, 90% of the decrease in serves/day of total dairy was due to reduced milk consumption. At age 12, 8.5% of children consumed >=3.5 serves/day of total dairy and this decreased to 6.2%, 5 years later at age 17 (p=0.001). A lower proportion of girls compared with boys consumed >=3 serves/day of total dairy at both ages 12 (p=0.005) and 17 (p=0.01). Participants with tertiary qualified parents at baseline were 85% more likely to have intakes of the dairy food group above the median during the 5 years, OR 1.85 (95% CI 1.18-2.91). Frequent flavored milk consumption (>=2 serves/week) at baseline was associated with ~5-fold greater likelihood of maintaining intakes of dairy foods above the median during adolescence. Dairy food consumption decreased significantly during adolescence, driven primarily by a decrease in milk consumption. Most adolescents did not meet national recommended guidelines for the dairy food group intake. These findings highlight the need for further research into intervention strategies aimed at sustaining dairy consumption.

  4. Consumption of fungal sporocarps by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Podruzny, Shannon; Haroldson, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    Sign of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) consuming fungal sporocarps (mushrooms and truffles) was observed on 68 occasions during a study of radiomarked bears in the Yellowstone region, 1977–96. Sporocarps also were detected in 96 grizzly bear feces. Most fungi consumedby Yellowstone's grizzlybearsweremembersofthe Boletaceae(Suillus spp.), Russulaceae (Russula spp. and Lactarius sp.), Morchellaceae (Morchella elata), and Rhizopogonaceae. Consumption of false truffles (Rhizopogon spp.) was indicated by excavations that were deeper, on average (1.1 dm), than excavations for mushrooms (0.6 dm). Consumption of sporocarps was most frequent during September (7% of all activity), although median numbers of sporocarps excavated at feeding sites peaked during both August and September (22–23 excavations/site). Almost all consumption (75%) occurred on edaphically harsh sites typically dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). At broad scales, consumption of sporocarps was most likely where these types of lodgepole pine-dominated sites were extensive or where high-elevation sites supporting mature whitebarkpine (P albicaulis) were rare. The number of sporocarps excavated atafeeding site was greatest when conecrops of whitebarkpine were smallandinstands with abundantlodgepolepine. At finescales, consumption of fungi was positively associated with lodgepolepine basalarea and negatively associated with total ground vegetation cover. Because of the strong association of sporocarp consumption with lodgepole pine and its disassociation at broad scales with availability of whitebark pineseeds, consumption of mushrooms and truffles by grizzly bears will likely increase in the Yellowstone ecosystem with global warming. Lodgepole pine is predicted to increase and whitebark pine to decline with global warming.

  5. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective.

  6. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenmark, M.; Lannerstad, M.

    2004-11-01

    Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling). After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies 1) changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2) consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water). The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  7. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenmark, M.; Lannerstad, M.

    2005-06-01

    Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling). After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1) changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2) consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water). The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  8. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Saba, Laura; Printz, Morton; Flodman, Pam; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Koob, George; Richardson, Heather N; Kechris, Katerina; Bell, Richard L; Hübner, Norbert; Heinig, Matthias; Pravenec, Michal; Mangion, Jonathan; Legault, Lucie; Dongier, Maurice; Conigrave, Katherine M; Whitfield, John B; Saunders, John; Grant, Bridget; Hoffman, Paula L

    2009-01-01

    Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume alcohol by rats and humans

  9. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective. PMID

  10. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Gruber, Joann F; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Gandolfi, A Jay; Baker, Emily R; Jackson, Brian P; Folt, Carol L; Karagas, Margaret R

    2011-12-20

    Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested women's home tap water for arsenic, which we combined with tap water consumption to estimate arsenic exposure through water. Women who reported rice intake (n = 73) consumed a median of 28.3 g/d, which is ∼0.5 cup of cooked rice each day. In general linear models adjusted for age and urinary dilution, both rice consumption (g, dry mass/d) and arsenic exposure through water (μg/d) were significantly associated with natural log-transformed total urinary arsenic (βrice = 0.009, βwater = 0.028, both P < 0.0001), as well as inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid (each P < 0.005). Based on total arsenic, consumption of 0.56 cup/d of cooked rice was comparable to drinking 1 L/d of 10 μg As/L water, the current US maximum contaminant limit. US rice consumption varies, averaging ∼0.5 cup/d, with Asian Americans consuming an average of >2 cups/d. Rice arsenic content and speciation also vary, with some strains predominated by dimethylarsinic acid, particularly those grown in the United States. Our findings along with others indicate that rice consumption should be considered when designing arsenic reduction strategies in the United States. PMID:22143778

  11. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension. PMID:26449129

  12. Fruit juice consumption by infants and children: a review.

    PubMed

    Dennison, B A

    1996-10-01

    The pattern of fruit juice consumption has changed over time. Fifty years ago, orange juice was the major juice produced and it was consumed primarily to prevent scurvy. Now, apple juice is the juice of choice for the under 5 age group. While fruit juice is a healthy, low-fat, nutritious beverage, there have been some health concerns regarding juice consumption. Nursing bottle caries have long been recognized as a consequence of feeding juice in bottles, using the bottle as a pacifier, and prolonged bottle feeding. Non-specific chronic diarrhea or "toddler's" diarrhea has been associated with juice consumption, especially juices high in sorbitol and those with a high fructose to glucose ratio. This relates to carbohydrate malabsorption, which varies by the type, concentration, and mixture of sugars present in different fruit juices. Fruit juice consumption by preschoolers has recently increased from 3.2 to about 5.5 fl oz/day. Consumption of fruit juice helps fulfill the recommendation to eat more fruits and vegetables, with fruit juice accounting for 50% of all fruit servings consumed by children, aged 2 through 18 years, and 1/3 of all fruits and vegetables consumed by preschoolers. Concomitant with the increase in fruit juice consumption has been a decline in milk intake. This is concerning as milk is the major source of calcium in the diet, and at present, only 50% of children, aged 1 through 5 years, meet the RDA for calcium. Studies of newborn infants and preschool-aged children have demonstrated a preference for sweet-tasting foods and beverages. Thus, it is not surprising that some children, if given the opportunity, might consume more fruit juice than is considered optimal. Eleven percent of healthy preschoolers consumed > or = 12 fl oz/day of fruit juice, which is considered excessive. Excess fruit juice consumption has been reported as a contributing factor in some children with nonorganic failure to thrive and in some children with decreased stature. In

  13. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and subjective health in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Guallar-Castillon, P; Rodriguez-Artalej..., F; Ganan, L; Banegas, J; Urdinguio, P; Cabrera, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the relation between alcohol and main alcoholic beverage consumption and subjective health in Spain.
DESIGN—Logistic regression analysis using a cross sectional survey based on self reported data on alcohol and alcoholic beverage consumption, subjective health and the principal confounding factors (age, sex, civil status, educational level, job status, social support, region of residence, size of town or city, tobacco consumption, physical activity during leisure time and work hours, and chronic disease).
SETTING—The 1993 Spanish National Health Survey.
PARTICIPANTS—A 19 573 person sample, representative of the non-institutionalised Spanish population aged 16 years and over.
MAIN RESULTS—Among Spaniards, 31.4% reported their health as suboptimal (fair, poor or very poor) and 56.9% consumed alcohol regularly, with the majority having a preference for wine. Light (1-2 drinks per day) or moderate consumption (3-4 drinks per day) was the most frequent pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, a negative dose-response relation was observed between consumption of total alcohol, wine and beer, and prevalence of suboptimal health (linear trend: p<0.001 for total alcohol, p=0.023 for wine, and p=0.030 for beer). In contrast, for consumption of spirits the prevalence of ill health in moderate drinkers was lower than in non-drinkers, with no clear relation at higher consumption. While persons reporting a preference for wine had a lower frequency of suboptimal health than did abstainers, they showed no difference in frequency of subjective ill health with respect to persons with preference for other types of drink or no preference whatsoever.
CONCLUSIONS—The higher the consumption of total alcohol, wine and beer, the lower the prevalence of suboptimal health. These results differ from those obtained in several Nordic countries, where a "J shaped" relation has been observed for total alcohol and wine, and suggest that

  14. Effects of the great recession on drugs consumption in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martin Bassols, Nicolau; Vall Castelló, Judit

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents evidence on how the consumption of legal and illegal drugs has changed in response to the Great Recession in Spain. We use a large scale survey from 2005 to 2011 to analyze the association between changes in local economic conditions and drug consumption among individuals aged 15-64. Although Spain was one of the countries hardest hit by the economic downturn, the crisis was unevenly felt across the country. Therefore, we exploit this difference in unemployment rates across provinces to identify the effects of business cycle variations on the consumption of legal and illegal drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to find a relation between the deterioration of local economic conditions and a strong increase in the consumption of marihuana and cocaine. We also report a decrease in alcohol consumption but a significant escalation in abusive smoking behavior (smoking every day). We believe that these findings are important not only for the potential negative implications at the individual level but also for the costs to society as a whole.

  15. Effect of cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J; Liao, D; Ye, C; Liao, W

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the effect of a 5 New Taiwan Dollar (NT$5) Health and Welfare Tax increase on the consumption of domestic and imported cigarettes and cigars. Methods: Using statistics published annually from 1971 through 2000, we set up a model based on the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) demand model to estimate price and expenditure elasticity coefficients of cigarettes and cigars. Results: Our results showed that the price elasticity coefficients for domestic and imported cigarettes were –0.644 and –0.822. The consumption of imported cigarettes was reduced by 7.51 packs per capita, and the consumption of domestic cigarettes was reduced by 15.21 packs per capita. Total per capita consumption of cigarettes was reduced by 22.72 packs (18%). Conclusions: From the public health and financial perspectives, the increase in this excise tax on tobacco to the Taiwan government will have significant effect in reducing cigarette consumption; it will also generate additional tax revenues. PMID:15923453

  16. Associations between eating occasions and places of consumption among adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jodi L.; Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether places of consumption are associated with types of eating occasions. Data on dietary behaviors of 226 adults in five U.S. cities were collected in food diaries for one week. Types of eating occasions and places of consumption were recorded. Eating occasions were defined as occurrences of meal, snack, beverage, and non-fruit dessert consumption. Nearly one-third of eating occasions occurred at non-designated eating places. Repeated measure generalized linear models were used to assess the associations between types of eating occasions and places where food was consumed. Snacking on low-nutrient foods were more likely to occur in non-designated eating places. Snacking was more likely at work than at home, and sugar sweetened beverage consumption was more likely at food service outlets than at home. The finding that places of consumption were associated with different types of eating occasions suggests that contextual characteristics of a place are important in individual eating behaviors. Policies and programs aiming to promote healthy eating should leverage contextual characteristics of eating environments. PMID:25558025

  17. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Aim Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Methods Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies providing data on the impact of exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and outcomes relating to alcohol consumption. Results Seven studies met inclusion criteria, presenting data on 12,760 participants from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Poland. All studies report positive associations between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and self-reported alcohol consumption, but the statistical significance of results varies. Two studies found indirect exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship was associated with increased levels of drinking amongst schoolchildren, and five studies found a positive association between direct alcohol sports sponsorship and hazardous drinking amongst adult sportspeople. Conclusion These findings corroborate the results of previous systematic reviews that reported a positive association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol sports sponsorship and increased drinking amongst schoolchildren will concern policymakers. Further research into the effectiveness of restrictions on alcohol sports sponsorship in reducing harmful drinking is required. PMID:26911984

  18. Trends in meat consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Carrie R.; Cross, Amanda J.; Koebnick, Corinna; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the trends, distribution, potential determinants, and public health implications of meat consumption within the United States. DESIGN We examined temporal trends in meat consumption using food availability data from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA); and further evaluated meat intake by type (red, white, processed) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to the MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED). RESULTS Overall meat consumption has continued to rise in the U.S., European Union, and developed world. Despite a shift toward higher poultry consumption, red meat still represents the largest proportion of meat consumed in the U.S (58%). Twenty-two percent of the meat consumed in the U.S. is processed. According to NHANES 2003–2004, total meat intake averaged 128 g/day. The type and quantities of meat reported varied by education, race, age, and gender. CONCLUSIONS Given the plausible epidemiologic evidence for red and processed meat intake in cancer and chronic disease risk, understanding the trends and determinants of meat consumption in the U.S., where meat is consumed at more than three times the global average, should be particularly pertinent to researchers and other public health professionals aiming to reduce the global burden of chronic disease. PMID:21070685

  19. Wireless network interface energy consumption implications of popular streaming formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar

    2001-12-01

    With the proliferation of mobile streaming multimedia, available battery capacity constrains the end-user experience. Since streaming applications tend to be long running, wireless network interface card's (WNIC) energy consumption is particularly an acute problem. In this work, we explore the WNIC energy consumption implications of popular multimedia streaming formats from Microsoft (Windows media), Real (Real media) and Apple (Quick Time). We investigate the energy consumption under varying stream bandwidth and network loss rates. We also explore history-based client-side strategies to reduce the energy consumed by transitioning the WNICs to a lower power consuming sleep state. We show that Microsoft media tends to transmit packets at regular intervals; streams optimized for 28.8 Kbps can save over 80% in energy consumption with 2% data loss. A high bandwidth stream (768 Kbps) can still save 57% in energy consumption with less than 0.3% data loss. For high bandwidth streams, Microsoft media exploits network-level packet fragmentation, which can lead to excessive packet loss (and wasted energy) in a lossy network. Real stream packets tend to be sent closer to each other, especially at higher bandwidths. Quicktime packets sometimes arrive in quick succession; most likely an application level fragmentation mechanism. Such packets are harder to predict at the network level without understanding the packet semantics.

  20. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-15

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.

  1. Effect of alcohol consumption selenium bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on selenium bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/Kg or at 0.085 mg Se/Kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at three levels: 0%, 10% and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, liver Se concentration, and total liver Se content. Alcohol consumption significantly increased liver Se concentrations and total liver Se in rats fed the adequate Se diet. In rates fed the low Se diet, this pattern was not shown. There was a significant interaction between alcohol and Se level in terms of liver Se concentration and total liver Se. In the first week of Se repletion, fecal Se. Se absorption and Se balance were significantly higher in the 10% alcohol group fed the low Se repletion diet compared to rats given 0% and 20% alcohol in the same Se group. In the final week Se repletion the parameters of Se balance were not affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption did not influence whole blood Se and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity; however alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  2. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study's scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  3. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study`s scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  4. Effects of the great recession on drugs consumption in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martin Bassols, Nicolau; Vall Castelló, Judit

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents evidence on how the consumption of legal and illegal drugs has changed in response to the Great Recession in Spain. We use a large scale survey from 2005 to 2011 to analyze the association between changes in local economic conditions and drug consumption among individuals aged 15-64. Although Spain was one of the countries hardest hit by the economic downturn, the crisis was unevenly felt across the country. Therefore, we exploit this difference in unemployment rates across provinces to identify the effects of business cycle variations on the consumption of legal and illegal drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to find a relation between the deterioration of local economic conditions and a strong increase in the consumption of marihuana and cocaine. We also report a decrease in alcohol consumption but a significant escalation in abusive smoking behavior (smoking every day). We believe that these findings are important not only for the potential negative implications at the individual level but also for the costs to society as a whole. PMID:27039369

  5. Consumption of watercress fails to alter coumarin metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S E; Johnson, L M; Losey, L M; Carmella, S G; Hecht, S S

    2001-06-01

    Watercress is an excellent source of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), an effective inhibitor of nitrosamine carcinogenesis in rodents. The mechanism of inhibition is believed to be due in part to inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. P450 2A6 is a catalyst for the metabolic activation of several nitrosamines. In this study, we investigated the effect of watercress consumption on coumarin 7-hydroxylation, a P450 2A6-specific reaction, in a group of 15 nonsmoking, healthy volunteers. The urinary excretion of 7-hydroxycoumarin (7OHC) was determined. For 6 of the 15 subjects, watercress consumption decreased the amount of 7OHC excreted in the first 2 h following coumarin administration. However, the mean 0- to 2-h excretion of 7OHC for all 15 subjects was not significantly lowered by the consumption of watercress, 2.8 +/- 0.78 versus 3.1 +/- 0.53 mg (+/-S.D.). The mean 7OHC excreted from 2 to 4 h (1.1 +/- 0.50 mg) was significantly higher (P = 0.027) during watercress consumption than before (0.77 +/- 0.22 mg), suggesting a delay in coumarin metabolism. Total excretion of 7OHC was unaffected by watercress consumption. Therefore, under the conditions of our study, PEITC and other constituents of watercress had at most a marginal inhibitory effect on P450 2A6-catalyzed coumarin 7-hydroxylation.

  6. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency. PMID:26437317

  7. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Trepanowski, John F.; Farney, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods: We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Results: Values for TAG and MDA (P < 0.001), as well as for H2O2 (P < 0.001), increased significantly following milk shake consumption, with values higher at 4 hours compared with 2 hours post consumption for TAG and H2O2 (P < 0.05). TEAC was unaffected by the milk shake consumption. Coffee had no impact on TAG, MDA, H2O2, or TEAC, with no condition or interaction effects noted for any variable (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress. PMID:23935371

  8. Alcohol Consumption in Russia and Some Aspects of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer. PMID:27162763

  9. Control theoretic model of automobile demand and gasoline consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Panerali, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the controllability of gasoline consumption and automobile demand using gasoline price as a policy instrument. The author examines the problem of replacing the standby motor-fuel rationing plan with use of the federal excise tax on gasoline. It is demonstrated that the standby targets are attainable with the tax. The problem of multiple control of automobile demand and gasoline consumption is also addressed. When the federal gasoline excise tax is used to control gasoline consumption, the policy maker can also use the tax to direct automobile demand. There exists a trade-off between various automobile demand targets and the target implied for gasoline consumption. We seek to measure this trade-off and use the results for planning. This research employs a time series of cross section data base with a disaggregated model of automobile demand, and an aggregate model of gasoline consumption. Automobile demand is divided into five mutually exclusive classes of cars. Gasoline demand is model as the sum of regular, premium, and unleaded gasoline. The pooled data base is comprised of a quarterly time series running from 1963 quarter one through 1979 quarter four, for each of the 48 continuous states. The demand equations are modelled using dynamic theories of demand. Estimates of the respective equations are made with error components and covariance techniques. Optimal control is applied to examine the gasoline-control problem.

  10. The consuming instinct. What Darwinian consumption reveals about human nature.

    PubMed

    Saad, Gad

    2013-01-01

    Editor's note: In this engaging talk given last February on a particularly cold and blustery day at Texas Tech University, Professor Gad Saad of Concordia University discusses his work in the area of evolutionary consumption. In making the case for understanding consumerism from a Darwinian perspective, Saad addresses several key tenets from his books The Consuming Instinct (1) and The Evolutionary Bases of Consumption. (2) In particular, Saad argues that: (1) many consumption acts can be mapped onto four key Darwinian modules (survival, mating, kin selection, and reciprocal altruism); and, (2) cultural products such as song lyrics and movie plotlines are fossils of the human mind that highlight a shared, biologically based human nature. In this wide-ranging inquiry, Saad summarizes several of his other empirical works, including the effects of conspicuous consumption on men's testosterone levels (3) and how the ovulatory cycle in the human female influences consumption. (4) Overall, Professor Saad contends that an infusion of evolutionary and biologically based perspectives into the discipline of consumer behavior and related government regulatory policies yields myriad benefits, notably greater consilience, more effective practices, an ethos of interdisciplinarity, and methodological pluralism. PMID:24047091

  11. Social separation increases alcohol consumption in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, G W; McKinney, W T

    1985-01-01

    This study used 16 socially reared juvenile rhesus monkeys as subjects to test the hypothesis that social separation promotes alcohol consumption in this species. In the first part of the study, 12 monkeys were intermittently separated from their social groups, while 4 were separated before the beginning of the study and remained continuously separated. Refrigerated water or aspartame-sweetened water (vehicle) containing 6% alcohol (w/v) were presented after 4.5 h of fluid deprivation. Intermittently separated monkeys drank more alcohol during separation than when they were socially housed, and more than the continuously separated monkeys. Stable individual differences in consumption rate developed over repeated separations. These differences were not correlated with consumption of refrigerated water or vehicle, or with differential behavioral (locomotor) responses to social separation. This suggested that some monkeys were predisposed to drink more alcohol than others. The second part of the study determined whether established alcohol/vehicle consumption rates for all 16 monkeys were altered when the monkeys were not water deprived, and then when water and the vehicle were available at the same time as alcohol/vehicle. Among monkeys that drank the most (mean of 2.4 g/kg/h) and the least (mean of 0.8 g/kg/h), alcohol consumption was not affected. These results, combined with previous reports, suggest a neurobiological linkage between genetically based social attachment mechanisms, social stressors, and vulnerability to alcohol abuse and addiction in primates.

  12. Optimum alcohol taxation: balancing consumption and external costs.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Crowley, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers alternative approaches to the evaluation of the total cost of alcohol consumption in Australia. It calculates the impact of alternative tax rates on beer, wine and spirits separately and the 'consumption cost' of these taxes in terms of the distortion caused to consumption patterns. Two separate analyses are carried out. First optimal taxation is calculated which minimises the total loss from the 'consumption cost' of taxation plus the external cost of alcohol consumption. Secondly, the benefits of life are separated from other benefits and the impact of tax expressed in terms of the cost per life year gained. Conceptualised in this way, the results of this 'tax' program may be expressed in the same way as other health programs, namely as a net cost per life year gained. Alcohol taxation may then be compared with other life saving interventions. The chief conclusion reached is that in Australia there is a very compelling case for a new tax base and for a very significant increase in the rate of alcohol taxation. PMID:8044214

  13. Why has alcohol consumption declined in countries of southern Europe?

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Colom, J

    1997-03-01

    Alcohol consumption seems to be decreasing in the traditional wine countries of southern Europe. This paper describes the evolution of alcohol consumption over the last 30 years in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain. For this purpose, data on alcohol production and per capita alcohol consumption in southern Europe are examined, and their reliability discussed. To analyse alcohol-related mortality, liver cirrhosis death rates are also reviewed. Since 1980 overall alcohol production has increased by 10%, while wine production has decreased by 13%. The consumption of pure alcohol equivalent per capita has continually decreased, from a peak of 14 litres per year in 1974 to 10.4 litres in 1992. The reduction is dramatic for wine (42.3%) and slight for spirits (4.7%), while beer consumption has grown by 36.6%. These data seem to confirm a European trend towards the homogenization of drinking patterns. Marketing factors, public health policies, the evolution of prices and taxation, European Union agricultural policies, a growing awareness of public opinion about the toxicity of alcohol and competition from non-alcoholic drinks are all factors that may partially explain these observed changes. PMID:9167284

  14. Seasonal variation in survey and sales estimates of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, P H; Knibbe, R A

    1993-03-01

    Time variation of drinking is substantial and has an effect on aggregate estimates of consumption. In this article it is shown that because of a considerable seasonal variation in consumption (+/- 20%) a serious bias in annual consumption estimates can be expected in surveys with a limited time frame. The present study analyzes drinking data collected in the general population of the Netherlands from March 1985 through December 1985 (including Christmas and New Year's Eve). Since it was expected that sensitivity to temporal fluctuations might not be equal for different methods of measurement, several indices of consumption were compared. Although the assessed seasonal effect varies indeed across types of measurement, across male and female subsample and across types of alcoholic beverage, the general tendency is for consumption to be highest in the spring season and lowest in the autumn. Sales figures fluctuate accordingly. It is evident that the risk of biased estimates is larger the shorter the time frame of the survey. Seasonal variation was highest in the frequency domain. Furthermore, exclusion from the time frame of collective holidays, during which people drink more often and more per occasion (viz., Christmas), increases the risk of biased estimates. Even estimates of abstention, but also regular heavy drinking among women, appear to vary considerably over the three seasons in this study. The main conclusion is that results of comparisons of survey data on drinking, particularly those over time, are more or less invalid if the respective time frames of the surveys do not correspond.

  15. Alcohol consumption in Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; Yeo, P P; Lun, K C; Thai, A C; Wang, K W; Cheah, J S

    1990-05-01

    A population based survey has measured alcohol consumption by questionnaire in persons aged 18 to 69 years in Singapore. The majority were "occasional/none" drinkers, being males (Chinese 87%, Malays 99% and Indians 80%) and females (Chinese 98%, Malays 100% and Indians 100%). "Heavy" consumption was uncommon in males (Chinese 0.6%, Malays 0% and Indians 1.3%) and absent in females, while "heavy/moderate" drinking was males (Chinese 5.7%, Malays 0.5% and Indians 3.8%) and females (Chinese 0.3%, Malays 0% and Indians 0%). For males, "light" drinking was highest in Indians (15.9%), then Chinese (7.8%) and then Malays (0.5%). This survey indicates that alcohol consumption is not yet a major public health problem in Singapore.

  16. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation.

  17. [Wine consumption and prevention of coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Flesch, M; Morbach, S; Erdmann, E; Bulut, D

    2016-09-01

    There is a J-shaped correlation between the amount of alcohol consumed per day and overall mortality risk and an inverse correlation between the amount of alcohol consumed per day and cardiovascular mortality. The evidence is stronger for men than for women. The correlations are independent of the type of alcoholic beverage predominantly consumed. Possible mechanisms explaining the cardioprotective, antiatherosclerotic effects of moderate alcohol consumption are inhibition of platelet aggregation, increase in serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and prevention of diabetes mellitus. The two latter mechanisms can also explain a delayed progression of atherosclerosis due to alcohol consumption. The beneficial effects are counteracted by detrimental effects of alcohol on the incidence of cancer diseases, liver cirrhosis, violence and accidents; therefore, alcohol consumption in general cannot be recommended for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27541820

  18. Study of Turbofan Engines Designed for Low Enery Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, R. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Johnston, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    Subsonic transport turbofan engine design and technology features which have promise of improving aircraft energy consumption are described. Task I addressed the selection and evaluation of features for the CF6 family of engines in current aircraft, and growth models of these aircraft. Task II involved cycle studies and the evaluation of technology features for advanced technology turbofans, consistent with initial service in 1985. Task III pursued the refined analysis of a specific design of an advanced technology turbofan engine selected as the result of Task II studies. In all of the above, the impact upon aircraft economics, as well as energy consumption, was evaluated. Task IV summarized recommendations for technology developments which would be necessary to achieve the improvements in energy consumption identified.

  19. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs.

  20. Energy Consumption Information Services for Smart Home Inhabitants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanzer, Michael; Fensel, Anna

    We investigate services giving users an adequate insight on his or her energy consumption habits in order to optimize it in the long run. The explored energy awareness services are addressed to inhabitants of smart homes, equipped with smart meters, advanced communication facilities, sensors and actuators. To analyze the potential of such services, a game at a social network Facebook has been designed and implemented, and the information about players' responses and interactions within the game environment has been collected and analyzed. The players have had their virtual home energy usage visualized in different ways, and had to optimize the energy consumption basing on their own perceptions of the consumption information. Evaluations reveal, in particular, that users are specifically responsive to information shown as a real-time graph and as costs in Euro, and are able to produce and share with each other policies for managing their smart home environments.

  1. Soda taxes, soft drink consumption, and children's body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Roland; Powell, Lisa M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2010-05-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed to combat obesity. Using data on state sales taxes for soda and individual-level data on children, we examine whether small taxes are likely to change consumption and weight gain or whether larger tax increases would be needed. We find that existing taxes on soda, which are typically not much higher than 4 percent in grocery stores, do not substantially affect overall levels of soda consumption or obesity rates. We do find, however, that subgroups of at-risk children--children who are already overweight, come from low-income families, or are African American--may be more sensitive than others to soda taxes, especially when soda is available at school. A greater impact of these small taxes could come from the dedication of the revenues they generate to other obesity prevention efforts rather than through their direct effect on consumption.

  2. Curry consumption and cognitive function in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tze-Pin; Chiam, Peak-Chiang; Lee, Theresa; Chua, Hong-Choon; Lim, Leslie; Kua, Ee-Heok

    2006-11-01

    Curcumin, from the curry spice turmeric, has been shown to possess potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties and to reduce beta-amyloid and plaque burden in experimental studies, but epidemiologic evidence is lacking. The authors investigated the association between usual curry consumption level and cognitive function in elderly Asians. In a population-based cohort (n = 1,010) of nondemented elderly Asian subjects aged 60-93 years in 2003, the authors compared Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores for three categories of regular curry consumption, taking into account known sociodemographic, health, and behavioral correlates of MMSE performance. Those who consumed curry "occasionally" and "often or very often" had significantly better MMSE scores than did subjects who "never or rarely" consumed curry. The authors reported tentative evidence of better cognitive performance from curry consumption in nondemented elderly Asians, which should be confirmed in future studies.

  3. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation. PMID:24888560

  4. Estimating vehicle fuel consumption in urban areas. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, L.J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Traffic flow simulation and assignment techniques were used to model area-wide effects of traffic management measures. Relationships between fuel consumption under urban driving conditions and the inverse of average travel speed were inferred from experimental tests. From the results a relationship which gave urban fuel consumption as a function of journey distance, total delayed time, and number of stops, was suggested for the 'average urban passenger car' in the UK. A review of reported potential fuel savings from traffic management measures was also undertaken. The effects on fuel consumption of changing the common cycle time for a co-ordinated system of signalised intersections were evaluated using the SATURN traffic simulation/assignment model.

  5. Estimation of food consumption. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  6. Anode consumption on a subsea X-mas tree

    SciTech Connect

    Lye, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    Anode consumption and coating breakdown on a X-mas tree installed at the Troll Field in the Norwegian North Sea was investigated after 5 years. A comparison with a spare tree and one tree being exposed for only 3--4 months was done. The epoxy coating has several blisters, in particular on stainless steel surfaces. Water inside the blisters has a pH of 13-14 indicating that the cathodic reaction occurs inside them. The anode dimensions indicate an overall anode consumption of approximately 20%, while the design allows 27% after 5 years. This indicates that the original design is quite conservative. If the design had been done according to present day design rules, the conservatism would be reduced; an overall anode consumption of 23% is then likely (still less than allowed 27%).

  7. Obesity, public health, and the consumption of animal products.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Partly in response to rising rates of obesity, many governments have published healthy eating advice. Focusing on health advice related to the consumption of animal products (APs), I argue that the individualistic paradigm that prevails must be replaced by a radically new approach that emphasizes the duty of all human beings to restrict their negative "Global Health Impacts" (GHIs). If they take human rights seriously, many governments from nations with relatively large negative GHIs-including the Australian example provided here-must develop strategies to reduce their citizens' negative GHIs. As the negative GHIs associated with the consumption of many APs are excessive, it is my view that many governments ought to adopt a qualified ban on the consumption of APs. PMID:23288438

  8. [Vitamin and mineral supplements: regulation, consumption, and health implications].

    PubMed

    Abe-Matsumoto, Lucile Tiemi; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Bastos, Deborah H M

    2015-07-01

    Micronutrient supplementation to reduce nutritional deficiencies has grown in recent years due to changes in the population's dietary patterns. Widespread preoccupation with health, ease in marketing vitamin and mineral supplements, and strong advertising appeal have encouraged increasing consumption of these products, thereby posing health risks. The current study addresses legislation, consumption, and health risks related to vitamin and mineral supplements in Brazil. The Brazilian legislation on dietary supplements is complex. Studies on their consumption by the Brazilian population are limited, and inappropriate use due to gaps in knowledge poses a potential health risk to the population. The study concludes that public policies are needed to raise awareness on this topic among the general public, health professionals, and sales personnel.

  9. [Vitamin and mineral supplements: regulation, consumption, and health implications].

    PubMed

    Abe-Matsumoto, Lucile Tiemi; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Bastos, Deborah H M

    2015-07-01

    Micronutrient supplementation to reduce nutritional deficiencies has grown in recent years due to changes in the population's dietary patterns. Widespread preoccupation with health, ease in marketing vitamin and mineral supplements, and strong advertising appeal have encouraged increasing consumption of these products, thereby posing health risks. The current study addresses legislation, consumption, and health risks related to vitamin and mineral supplements in Brazil. The Brazilian legislation on dietary supplements is complex. Studies on their consumption by the Brazilian population are limited, and inappropriate use due to gaps in knowledge poses a potential health risk to the population. The study concludes that public policies are needed to raise awareness on this topic among the general public, health professionals, and sales personnel. PMID:26248093

  10. Infecundity and consumption of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated fish.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, B M; Buck, G M; Mendola, P; Sever, L E; Vena, J E

    2001-01-01

    Biologic capacity for reproduction, or fecundity, may be threatened by environmental contaminants, especially compounds capable of disrupting endocrine pathways. Telephone interviews that focused on reproductive events were conducted with female members of the New York State Angler Cohort Study who became pregnant between 1991 and 1993 and who reported known time to pregnancy (N = 895; 73%). Consumption of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Lake Ontario sportfish and other factors were ascertained in 1991. The authors classified the women as follows: (a) fecund (time to pregnancy < or =12 cycles; n = 723); (b) having resolved infecundity (time to pregnancy > 12 cycles; n = 81); or (c) having unresolved infecundity (time to pregnancy > 12 cycles without pregnancy; n = 94). Adjusted odds ratios for duration of fish consumption for both resolved and unresolved infecundity were elevated (1.46 and 1.19, respectively), although confidence intervals included unity. Frequency of recent fish consumption was associated with an increased risk for select categories, although confidence intervals included one.

  11. Regular Soda Policies, School Availability, and High School Student Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Beginning in the 2014–2015 school year, all U.S. schools participating in federally reimbursable meal programs are required to implement new nutrition standards for items sold in competitive venues. Multilevel mediation modeling examining direct, mediated, and indirect pathways between policy, availability, and student consumption might provide insight into possible outcomes of implementing aspects of the new standards. Purpose To employ multilevel mediation modeling using state- and school district–level policies mandating school soda bans, school soda availability, and student soda consumption. Methods The 2010–2012 Monitoring the Future surveys obtained nationally representative data on high school student soda consumption; school administrators provided school soda availability data. State laws and district policies were compiled and coded. Analyses conducted in 2014 controlled for state-, school-, and student-level characteristics. Results State–district–school models found that state bans were associated with significantly lower school soda availability (c, p<0.05) but district bans showed no significant associations. No significant direct, mediated, or indirect associations between state policy and student consumption were observed for the overall sample. Among African American high school students, state policy was associated directly with significantly lower school soda availability (a, p<0.01), and—indirectly through lower school availability—with significantly lower soda consumption (a*b, p<0.05). Conclusions These analyses indicate state policy focused on regular soda strongly affected school soda availability, and worked through changes in school availability to decrease soda consumption among African American students, but not the overall population. PMID:25576493

  12. Natural cocoa consumption: Potential to reduce atherogenic factors?

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Prado, Eric A; Best Sampson, Jill N; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2015-06-01

    Short-term consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been demonstrated to improve various facets of vascular health. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption on selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers in young (19-35 years) women of differing body mass indices (BMI; normal, overweight or obese). Subjects (n = 24) consumed a natural cocoa-containing product (12.7 g natural cocoa, 148 kcal/serving) or an isocaloric cocoa-free placebo daily for 4 weeks in a random, double-blind manner with a 2-week washout period between treatment arms. Fasted (>8-h) blood samples were collected before and after each 4-week period. Serum was analyzed to determine lipid profile (chemistry analyzer) and CVD biomarkers (26 biomarkers). EDTA-treated blood was used to assess monocytes (CD14, CD16, v11b and CD62L), while citrate-treated blood was used to measure changes in endothelial microparticles (EMPs; CD42a-/45-/144+) by flow cytometry. Natural cocoa consumption resulted in a significant decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034), EMP concentration (P = .017) and monocyte CD62L (P = .047) in obese compared to overweight and normal-weight subjects. Natural cocoa consumption regardless of BMI group was associated with an 18% increase in high-density lipoprotein (P = .020) and a 60% decrease in EMPs (P = .047). Also, obese subjects experienced a 21% decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034) and a 24% decrease in monocyte CD62L expression in (P = .047) following 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption. Collectively, these findings indicate that acute natural cocoa consumption was associated with decreased obesity-related disease risk. More research is needed to assess the stability of the observed short-term changes. PMID:25769436

  13. Microbial Consumption of Atmospheric Isoprene in a Temperate Forest Soil

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, C. C.; Yavitt, J. B.

    1998-01-01

    Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3 butadiene) is a low-molecular-weight hydrocarbon emitted in large quantities to the atmosphere by vegetation and plays a large role in regulating atmospheric chemistry. Until now, the atmosphere has been considered the only significant sink for isoprene. However, in this study we performed both in situ and in vitro experiments with soil from a temperate forest near Ithaca, N.Y., that indicate that the soil provides a sink for atmospheric isoprene and that the consumption of isoprene is carried out by microorganisms. Consumption occurred rapidly in field chambers (672.60 ± 30.12 to 2,718.36 ± 86.40 pmol gdw−1 day−1) (gdw is grams [dry weight] of soil; values are means ± standard deviations). Subsequent laboratory experiments confirmed that isoprene loss was due to biological processes: consumption was stopped by autoclaving the soil; consumption rates increased with repeated exposure to isoprene; and consumption showed a temperature response consistent with biological activity (with an optimum temperature of 30°C). Isoprene consumption was diminished under low oxygen conditions (120 ± 7.44 versus 528.36 ± 7.68 pmol gdw−1 day−1 under ambient O2 concentrations) and showed a strong relationship with soil moisture. Isoprene-degrading microorganisms were isolated from the site, and abundance was calculated as 5.8 × 105 ± 3.2 × 105 cells gdw−1. Our results indicate that soil may provide a significant biological sink for atmospheric isoprene. PMID:16349477

  14. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption.

  15. Determinants of specific food consumption in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Núñez-González, Eduardo; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Fika-Hernándo, Mariluz; Fernández-Vallhonrat, Blanca; Bravo-Martínez, José; Martín-Ferrer, Juan M; Chas-Barbeito, Cristina; Bautista-Castaño, Inmmaculada

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of specific functional foods (FF) and some determinants of FF item selection were assessed using a questionnaire administered to 1112 individuals in the Canary Islands (Spain). Food items considered were Milk products: easily digestible milk (or milk low in lactose), milk enriched with vitamins and/or minerals, skimmed milk with soluble fiber, milk with royal jelly, milk with modified fatty acids (omega 3), milk products low in fat, pro-biotic foods (yoghurt and fermented milk) and yoghurt with phytosterols; Cereals: fortified breakfast cereals, wholemeal cereals and energy bars; Drinks: juices and enriched drinks, stimulating drinks and isotonic drinks; DHA-enriched, low cholesterol eggs; Meat products: low salt sausages and cooked low fat ham; Fats: enriched margarine, margarine rich in phytosterols and sunflower oil rich in oleic acid; Condiments: iodated salt. These food items were organized into 7 FF groups (milk products, cereals, fortified drinks, DHA eggs, meat product, fats, condiments). The results indicated that the highest prevalence was fortified drinks (63.6%; 95% CI: 60.7-66.5). Overall FF consumption prevalence was 80.1% (95% CI: 77-83): single FF item consumption being rare. There were significant inter-group relationships, and some group intakes (milk products, cereals and drinks) were related to age but with no overall relationship between consumption and age. The education level was significantly related to the consumption of cereals, drinks, meat products and condiments (χ2 test p = 0.04). Some specific FF item consumption segregated with environment (rural or urban) but with no overall significant relationship between the FF group and environment or gender.

  16. Natural cocoa consumption: Potential to reduce atherogenic factors?

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Prado, Eric A; Best Sampson, Jill N; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2015-06-01

    Short-term consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been demonstrated to improve various facets of vascular health. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption on selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers in young (19-35 years) women of differing body mass indices (BMI; normal, overweight or obese). Subjects (n = 24) consumed a natural cocoa-containing product (12.7 g natural cocoa, 148 kcal/serving) or an isocaloric cocoa-free placebo daily for 4 weeks in a random, double-blind manner with a 2-week washout period between treatment arms. Fasted (>8-h) blood samples were collected before and after each 4-week period. Serum was analyzed to determine lipid profile (chemistry analyzer) and CVD biomarkers (26 biomarkers). EDTA-treated blood was used to assess monocytes (CD14, CD16, v11b and CD62L), while citrate-treated blood was used to measure changes in endothelial microparticles (EMPs; CD42a-/45-/144+) by flow cytometry. Natural cocoa consumption resulted in a significant decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034), EMP concentration (P = .017) and monocyte CD62L (P = .047) in obese compared to overweight and normal-weight subjects. Natural cocoa consumption regardless of BMI group was associated with an 18% increase in high-density lipoprotein (P = .020) and a 60% decrease in EMPs (P = .047). Also, obese subjects experienced a 21% decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034) and a 24% decrease in monocyte CD62L expression in (P = .047) following 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption. Collectively, these findings indicate that acute natural cocoa consumption was associated with decreased obesity-related disease risk. More research is needed to assess the stability of the observed short-term changes.

  17. Worldwide asbestos supply and consumption trends from 1900 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States has produced about 3.28 million metric tons of asbestos fiber and used approximately 31.5 million tons between 1900 and 2000. About half of this amount was used since 1960. Cumulative world production during that same time period was about 173 million tons. Assuming that unusually large stocks are not maintained and that world consumption roughly equals production, about half of the world production and consumption occurred since 1976. The United States and western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of States within the former Soviet Union by the 1970s. With the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, world production and consumption began to decline during the 1980s. In 2000, world consumption, estimated to be 1.48 million tons, was only 31% that of 1980. Countries in Asia, South America, and the former Soviet Union remain the largest users of asbestos. More specifically, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Russia, and Thailand are the only countries that consumed more than 60,000 tons of asbestos in 2000. These six countries accounted for more than 80% of world?s apparent consumption in 2000.

  18. Increased vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescent maternal separated mice.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, María S; Navarrete, Francisco; Aracil, Auxiliadora; Bartoll, Adrián; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Lanciego, José L; Rubio, Gabriel; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early life stress on the vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescence. To this aim, mice were separated from their mothers for 12 hours/day on postnatal days 8 and 12. Emotional behavior (light-dark box, elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests) and pre-attentional deficit (pre-pulse inhibition) were evaluated in adolescent maternal separated (MS) mice. Alterations of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), mu-opioid receptor (MOr), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy (NF200)-immunoreactive fibers were studied in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) or hippocampus (HIP). The effects of maternal separation (alone or in combination with additional stressful stimuli) on ethanol consumption during adolescence were evaluated using the oral ethanol self-administration paradigm. MS mice presented mood-related alterations and pre-attentional deficit. Increased CRF, MOr and TH, and reduced BDNF, NR3C1, NeuN, MAP2 and NF200-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the PVN, NAc and HIP of adolescent MS mice. In the oral ethanol self-administration test, adolescent MS mice presented higher ethanol consumption and motivation. Exposure to additional new stressful stimuli during adolescence significantly increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption induced by maternal separation. These results clearly demonstrated that exposure to early life stress increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption, potentiated the effects of stressful stimuli exposure during adolescence on ethanol consumption and modified the expression of key targets involved in the response to stress, ethanol reinforcing properties and cognitive processes. PMID:25988842

  19. Determinants of specific food consumption in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Núñez-González, Eduardo; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Fika-Hernándo, Mariluz; Fernández-Vallhonrat, Blanca; Bravo-Martínez, José; Martín-Ferrer, Juan M; Chas-Barbeito, Cristina; Bautista-Castaño, Inmmaculada

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of specific functional foods (FF) and some determinants of FF item selection were assessed using a questionnaire administered to 1112 individuals in the Canary Islands (Spain). Food items considered were Milk products: easily digestible milk (or milk low in lactose), milk enriched with vitamins and/or minerals, skimmed milk with soluble fiber, milk with royal jelly, milk with modified fatty acids (omega 3), milk products low in fat, pro-biotic foods (yoghurt and fermented milk) and yoghurt with phytosterols; Cereals: fortified breakfast cereals, wholemeal cereals and energy bars; Drinks: juices and enriched drinks, stimulating drinks and isotonic drinks; DHA-enriched, low cholesterol eggs; Meat products: low salt sausages and cooked low fat ham; Fats: enriched margarine, margarine rich in phytosterols and sunflower oil rich in oleic acid; Condiments: iodated salt. These food items were organized into 7 FF groups (milk products, cereals, fortified drinks, DHA eggs, meat product, fats, condiments). The results indicated that the highest prevalence was fortified drinks (63.6%; 95% CI: 60.7-66.5). Overall FF consumption prevalence was 80.1% (95% CI: 77-83): single FF item consumption being rare. There were significant inter-group relationships, and some group intakes (milk products, cereals and drinks) were related to age but with no overall relationship between consumption and age. The education level was significantly related to the consumption of cereals, drinks, meat products and condiments (χ2 test p = 0.04). Some specific FF item consumption segregated with environment (rural or urban) but with no overall significant relationship between the FF group and environment or gender. PMID:21959777

  20. Air transportation energy consumption - Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy consumption by aviation is reviewed and projections of its growth are discussed. Forecasts of domestic passenger demand are presented, and the effect of restricted fuel supply and increased fuel prices is considered. The most promising sources for aircraft fuels, their availability and cost, and possible alternative fuels are reviewed. The energy consumption by various air and surface transportation modes is identified and compared on typical portal-to-portal trips. A measure of the indirect energy consumed by ground and air modes is defined. Historical trends in aircraft energy intensities are presented and the potential fuel savings with new technologies are discussed.

  1. Long-Term Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shao-Bo; Weng, Hong; Zhou, Meng; Duan, Xiao-Li; Shen, Xian-Feng; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer risk remains controversial. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate and quantify the potential dose–response association between long-term coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase from January 1996 through February 10, 2015 and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved publications. Prospective cohort studies in which authors reported effect sizes and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of gastric cancer for 3 or more categories of coffee consumption were eligible. Results from eligible studies were aggregated using a random effect model. All analyses were carried out using the STATA 12.0 software. Nine studies involving 15 independent prospective cohorts were finally included. A total of 2019 incident cases of gastric cancer were ascertained among 1,289,314 participants with mean follow-up periods ranging from 8 to 18 years. No nonlinear relationship of coffee consumption with gastric cancer risk was indentified (P for nonlinearity = 0.53; P for heterogeneity = 0.004). The linear regression model showed that the combined relative risk (RR) of every 3 cups/day increment of total coffee consumption was 1.07 (95% CI = 0.95–1.21). Compared with the lowest category of coffee consumption, the RR of gastric cancer was 1.18 (95% CI = 0.90–1.55) for the highest (median 6.5 cups/day) category, 1.06 (95% CI = 0.85–1.32) for the second highest category (median 3.5 cups/day), and 0.97 (95% CI = 0.79–1.20) for the third highest category (median 1.5 cups/day). Subgroup analysis showed an elevated risk in the US population (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.75) and no adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.08–2.59) for 6.5 cups/day. Current evidence indicated there was no nonlinear association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer risk. However, high

  2. Impact of electric cars on U.S. petroleum consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. M.; Carriere, W. M.

    1980-02-01

    A computer model that forecasts electricity demand and capacity on an hourly basis for each major electric power company in the United States is used to analyze the potential impact of electric cars on national petroleum consumption in 1980, 1990, and 2000. The analysis, based on 1978 and 1979 growth projections by the industry, shows that if all cars were electrified in the year 2000, autombile petroleum use would be cut by 75 percent, saving 2.5 million barrels of crude oil a day, or 14 percent of future national petroleum consumption. Most cars could be charged overnight from otherwise idle coal and nuclear power plants.

  3. On the dynamics of the age structure, dependency, and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effects of population aging due to declining fertility and rising elderly life expectancy on consumption possibilities in the presence of intergenerational transfers. Our analysis is based on a highly tractable continuous-time overlapping generations model in which the population is divided into three groups (youth dependents, workers, and elderly dependents) and lifecourse transitions take place in a probabilistic fashion. We show that the consumption-maximizing response to greater longevity in highly developed countries is an increase in fertility. However, with larger transfer payments, the actual fertility response will likely be the opposite, leading to further population aging. PMID:24353374

  4. Short-term water consumption dynamics in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; ElíAs, Arturo

    2004-08-01

    Time series analysis of water consumption patterns has been the subject of increasing attention in recent years. For many municipalities such efforts offer a means for developing potentially useful planning tools. Because data requirements are not extensive, model development is feasible for markets where information is limited. The work at hand examines the applicability of such a tool in El Paso, Texas, a growing metropolitan economy located in a semiarid region. Sample data are from January 1994 through December 2002. In addition to estimating a linear transfer function equation of water consumption in this city the model is subjected to a series of simulation benchmark tests.

  5. [Moderate wine consumption and prevention of coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Worm, N; Belz, G G; Stein-Hammer, C

    2013-12-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption and in particular wine consumption, is associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in epidemiological studies. Although no randomized placebo-controlled studies with wine intervention exist - and will probably never exist - the observed association can be interpreted as causal due to the existing high biological plausibility. There is more and more evidence that ethanol per se contributes to the most relevant preventive effects. When consumed in moderation the health benefits outweigh the health risks. Whether and to what extend the numerous plant compounds of wine (polyphenolic substances) can provide additional health benefits is still under investigation.

  6. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School.

    PubMed

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find that the fraction of students eating a full serving of whole fruit increased from 4.3% to 45.1%. As such, school districts should consider offering fruit smoothies as part of a set of interventions designed to increase fruit consumption at school.

  7. Tackling the Knowledge: Action Gap in Sustainable Consumption--Insights from a Participatory School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Matthias; Fischer, Daniel; Michelsen, Gerd; Nemnich, Claudia; Rode, Horst

    2012-01-01

    In the international policy discourse on sustainable consumption and production, education is acknowledged to be a powerful tool in changing unsustainable patterns of consumption. Current educational policies and programmes have responded to the consumption challenge mainly by including and addressing consumption issues in formal tuition in…

  8. 40 CFR 82.6 - Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class I controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apportionment of baseline consumption... Consumption Controls § 82.6 Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class I controlled substances... 1986 are apportioned chemical-specific baseline consumption allowances as set forth in paragraphs...

  9. 40 CFR 82.6 - Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class I controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apportionment of baseline consumption... Consumption Controls § 82.6 Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class I controlled substances... 1986 are apportioned chemical-specific baseline consumption allowances as set forth in paragraphs...

  10. 40 CFR 82.19 - Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apportionment of baseline consumption... Consumption Controls § 82.19 Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances. Effective January 1, 2010, the following persons are apportioned baseline consumption...

  11. 40 CFR 82.19 - Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apportionment of baseline consumption... Consumption Controls § 82.19 Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances. Effective January 1, 2010, the following persons are apportioned baseline consumption...

  12. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  13. Effects of consumption of caloric vs noncaloric sweet drinks on indices of hunger and food consumption in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Canty, D J; Chan, M M

    1991-05-01

    This study examined the effects of aspartame, saccharin, and sucrose on hunger and food intake. Twenty normal adults consumed a standard breakfast followed 3 h later by 200 mL of either water or a sweetened drink. One hour later, subjects' ad libitum consumption of a standardized lunch was measured. Subjects recorded self-assessments of hunger-related indices every half hour on visual analogue scales (VAS). ANOVA with repeated measures showed a significant effect of drink type on VAS scores 15 and 45 min after drinks were consumed but not for other times or for lunch consumption. Hunger-related ratings after drink consumption were generally highest for water, lower for noncaloric sweeteners (NCSs), and lowest for sugar. Pairwise comparisons of means showed that only the ratings for sugar and water were significantly different. The results show that, under the conditions of this study, NCSs do not increase hunger or food intake.

  14. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-09-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  15. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-08-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  16. 21 CFR 864.7720 - Prothrombin consumption test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prothrombin consumption test. 864.7720 Section 864.7720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7720...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7720 - Prothrombin consumption test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prothrombin consumption test. 864.7720 Section 864.7720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7720...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7720 - Prothrombin consumption test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prothrombin consumption test. 864.7720 Section 864.7720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7720...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7720 - Prothrombin consumption test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prothrombin consumption test. 864.7720 Section 864.7720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7720...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7720 - Prothrombin consumption test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prothrombin consumption test. 864.7720 Section 864.7720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7720...

  1. Sociodemographic Correlates of Tobacco Consumption in Rural Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Kahar, Payal; Misra, Ranjita; Patel, Thakor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine occupation-, education-, and gender-specific patterns of tobacco use and knowledge of its health effects among 23,953 rural Asian Indians ≥18 years in Gujarat. Methodology. A statewide, community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 26 districts of Gujarat (December 2010–May 2015), using face-to-face interviews by trained community health workers called SEVAKS. Results. Mean age was 39.8 ± 15.2 years. Eighteen percent of respondents used tobacco in various forms. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher among males (32%), 18–34 years' age group (35%), those who were self-employed (72%), and those with elementary education (40%). The prevalence was 11 times higher among males than females (95% CI = 9.78, 13.13). Adjusted ORs for tobacco use showed strong gradient by age and educational level; consumption was lower among the illiterates and higher for older participants (≥55 years). Tobacco consumption also varied by occupation; that is, those who were self-employed and employed for wages were more likely to use tobacco than those who were unemployed. Knowledge of health effects of tobacco lowered the odds of consumption by 30–40%. Conclusions. Effective educational programs should be tailored by gender, to improve knowledge of health risks and dispel myths on perceived benefits of tobacco. PMID:27127788

  2. The Effects of Learned Helplessness on Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Nora E.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    Widely held cultural beliefs assert that alcohol can offer both an ameliorative and preventive solution to the problem of depression. This study attempted to assess the effects of learned helplessness--a possible laboratory analog to reactive depression--on alcohol consumption. Thirty-eight female undergraduates were randomly assigned (within…

  3. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  4. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    DOE PAGES

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially neededmore » immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.« less

  5. Cardiovascular complications from consumption of high energy drinks: recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, S G; Chrysant, G S

    2015-02-01

    The energy drinks (ED) are caffeinated beverages that are popular among teenagers and young adults. They are aggressively marketed as providing alertness, energy and sex prowess. The EDs in addition to caffeine contain several plant stimulants and simple sugars, which increase their caloric content. The caffeine concentration in these drinks is high and their overconsumption could lead to insomnia, agitation, tremors and cardiovascular complications including sudden death. Alcohol is often mixed with EDs (AMEDs) in the wrong perception that the caffeine in the EDs will prevent the drowsiness and sleepiness from alcohol and allow the person to consume more alcohol. This false perception, could lead to alcohol intoxication and the taking of risky decisions, like driving under the influence of alcohol and the risk of serious physical harm to themselves and others. To prevent the problem of consumption of EDs and AMEDs, the caring physician could help by advising the parents and his young patients about the serious health risks from the consumption of these drinks. In order to grasp the extend of the problem of ED and AMED consumption, we did a Medline search of the English language literature from January 2010 to December 2013, using the terms EDs and alcohol-mixed EDs. All the findings from the recent studies regarding the cardiovascular complications from the consumption of EDs and AMEDs together with collateral literature will be discussed in this review.

  6. Modeling Tribal Exposures to PCBs from Fish Consumption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that U.S. population continues to be exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), despite the ban ~40 years ago. Fish intake is a major pathway, especially, for high fish-consumption groups. Exposure assessment and risk management considerations for tribal fish...

  7. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  8. Cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Praud, Delphine; Rota, Matteo; Rehm, Jürgen; Shield, Kevin; Zatoński, Witold; Hashibe, Mia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-03-15

    Alcohol consumption is a major cause of disease and death. In a previous study, we reported that in 2002, 3.6% of all cases of cancer and a similar proportion of cancer deaths were attributable to the consumption of alcohol. We aimed to update these figures to 2012 using global estimates of cancer cases and cancer deaths, data on the prevalence of drinkers from the World Health Organization (WHO) global survey on alcohol and health, and relative risks for alcohol-related neoplasms from a recent meta-analysis. Over the 10-year period considered, the total number of alcohol-attributable cancer cases increased to approximately 770,000 worldwide (5.5% of the total number of cancer cases)-540,000 men (7.2%) and 230,000 women (3.5%). Corresponding figures for cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption increased to approximately 480,000 (5.8% of the total number of cancer deaths) in both sexes combined-360,000 (7.8%) men and 120,000 (3.3%) women. These proportions were particularly high in the WHO Western Pacific region, the WHO European region and the WHO South-East Asia region. A high burden of cancer mortality and morbidity is attributable to alcohol, and public health measures should be adopted in order to limit excessive alcohol consumption.

  9. Content Consumption and Hierarchical Structures of Web-Supported Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkovitz, Arnon; Hardof-Jaffe, Sharon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an empirical investigation of the relationship between the hierarchical structure of content delivered to students within a Learning Management System (LMS) and its actual consumption. To this end, campus-wide data relating to 1,203 courses were collected from the LMS' servers and were subsequently analyzed using data…

  10. Peanut consumption's association to child weight and nutrition status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of nuts has been associated with lower coronary artery disease in adults. Nuts have also been shown to have a lipid lowering effect, and despite their fat content, people who eat nuts do not show a propensity for overweight. Peanut eaters have been identified as having improved diet qual...

  11. Oxygen consumption by mitochondria from an endotherm and an ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Berner, N J

    1999-09-01

    Comparisons of metabolic properties of mitochondria from an endothermic and an ectothermic vertebrate were performed. Oxygen (O2) consumption rates of liver mitochondria from laboratory mice and western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) were determined over a range of temperatures (10, 20, 30 and 37 degrees C) and in the presence of a variety of substrates. At 37 degrees C the O2 consumption rate of mouse mitochondria was 4-11 times higher than lizard mitochondria in the presence of five of eight substrates. This range of differences is similar to differences reported for O2 consumption of endothermic animals, tissues and cells over those of ectotherms. Thermal sensitivity of mitochondria was measured by calculation of Q10s for O2 consumption. Q10s were highest for mouse mitochondria overall. The range that showed the highest Q10s for the mouse mitochondria was 30-20 degrees C, whereas for the lizard mitochondria it was 20-10 degrees C. Thus, mitochondria from the ectotherm showed a lower degree of temperature sensitivity than did mitochondria from the endotherm. The preferred substrate for all mitochondria at all temperatures was succinate, but mouse mitochondria then showed some preference for alpha-ketoglutarate and citrate, whereas lizard mitochondria showed a preference for pyruvate and malate + pyruvate.

  12. Associations of tea and coffee consumption with prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Tea and coffee contain bioactive compounds and both beverages have recently been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: We studied associations of tea and coffee consumption with PCa risk in a population-based case-control study from King County, Washington, US. Prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in 2002-2005 and matched to controls by five-year age groups. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Among controls, 19% and 58% consumed at least one cup per day of tea and coffee, respectively. The analysis of tea included 892 cases and 863 controls and tea consumption was associated with a reduced overall PCa risk with an adjusted OR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90; P for trend = 0.02) for men in the highest compared to lowest category of tea intake (≥2 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week). Risk estimates did not vary substantially by Gleason grade or disease stage. Coffee consumption was not associated with risk of overall PCa or PCa in subgroups defined by tumor grade or stage. Conclusions: Our results contribute further evidence that tea consumption may be a modifiable exposure that reduces PCa risk. PMID:23412806

  13. Legitimacy of concerns about caffeine and energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Wesensten, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    Whether caffeine and energy drink consumption presents a critical emerging health problem is not currently known. Available evidence suggests that energy drink consumption represents a change in the ways in which individuals in the United States consume caffeine but that the amount of caffeine consumed daily has not appreciably increased. In the present review, the question of whether Americans are sleep deprived (a potential reason for using caffeine) is briefly explored. Reported rates of daily caffeine consumption (based on beverage formulation) and data obtained from both civilian and military populations in the United States are examined, the efficacy of ingredients other than caffeine in energy drinks is discussed, and the safety and side effects of caffeine are addressed, including whether evidence supports the contention that excessive caffeine/energy drink consumption induces risky behavior. The available evidence suggests that the main legitimate concern regarding caffeine and energy drink use is the potential negative impact on sleep but that, otherwise, there is no cause for concern regarding caffeine use in the general population.

  14. 77 FR 55892 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  15. 78 FR 27471 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(e)...

  16. 77 FR 25010 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  17. 78 FR 15402 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR Sec. 806.22(e) and...

  18. 77 FR 55891 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  19. 78 FR 27470 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  20. 77 FR 34455 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  1. Chronic Ethanol Consumption Inhibits Postlactational Anabolic Rebuilding in Female Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite significant loss of bone during lactation, bone mineral density (BMD) is restored by a powerful anabolic rebuilding process following weaning. A significant number of women resume alcohol consumption after weaning their offspring from breast feeding. The objectives of the present study were ...

  2. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  3. Lupine consumption by cattle in the scablands of Eastern Washington.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Scabland region of eastern Washington is dominated by annual grasses and in some areas by Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine). The purpose of these trials was to document the consumption of velvet lupine and relate the amount of lupine eaten by pregnant cows with the incidence of crooked calv...

  4. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  5. Local Collective Identity Enculturation with a Global Media Consumption Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Chul-Byung

    2002-01-01

    Argues that shift from modern nation-state collective identity to postmodern globally constructed collective identify is influenced by a global electronic media and television consumption culture. Illustrates shift on three levels: socioeconomic, socialization, and the production of symbolic goods. (Contains 76 references.) (PKP)

  6. Engine component improvement program: Performance improvement. [fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel consumption of commercial aircraft is considered. Fuel saving and retention components for new production and retrofit of JT9D, JT8D, and CF6 engines are reviewed. The manner in which the performance improvement concepts were selected for development and a summary of the current status of each of the 16 selected concepts are discussed.

  7. Consumption Economy. Grade Ten. Resource Unit VI. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    The tenth grade unit, developed by the University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies, is the sixth and last unit on continuity and change in American civilization. The development of the consumption economy and its social implications are studied. Major attention is given to the depression of the 1930's and to an analytical study of the causes…

  8. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  9. Consumption Taxes and Economic Efficiency with Idiosyncratic Wage Shocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Shinichi; Smetters, Kent

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental tax reform is examined in an overlapping-generations model in which heterogeneous agents face idiosyncratic wage shocks and longevity uncertainty. A progressive income tax is replaced with a flat consumption tax. If idiosyncratic wage shocks are insurable (i.e., no risk), this reform improves (interim) efficiency, a result consistent…

  10. Research on the optimal energy consumption of oil pipeline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Liuting; Liu, Song; Wu, Mingchang; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Chinese crude oil is easy to curdle and has high viscosity, so heating transportation is usually selected. Energy consumption by this method mainly comes from furnaces and pumps. Currently, operating parameters of these pipelines were determined according to experience of dispatch. It cause high energy consumption and high cost of pipeline running, so it could not adapt to energy conservation policy. The present study focused on consuming lowest energy to operate oil transportation line. To begin with, several optimization variables were set which included pump combinations, suction pressure, discharge pressure, and station temperature. Then constraint conditions were set to establish an optimal mathematical model of running transportation line. Furthermore, genetic algorithm was used to solve the model, in meantime, selection operation, cross operation and mutation operation in the genetic algorithm were improved. Finally, a crude oil pipeline running optimization software was developed. Through optimal analyzing, S-L transportation line and contrasting with the actual working conditions, it was found that optimal operation scheme could reduce energy consumption by 5% - 9%. In addition, optimal operation scheme also considered the effect of seasons and flow on energy consumption of S-L transportation line.

  11. Multi-asset investment-consumption model with transaction costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Nie, Zan-Kan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the multi-asset optimal investment-consumption model: a riskless asset and d risky assets. when the initial time is t[greater-or-equal, slanted]0, for a proportional transaction costs and discount factors, we proof that the value function of the model is a unique viscosity solution of a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations.

  12. Alpha test of a videogame to increase children's vegetable consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a report of an alpha test with a computer of one episode of a casual videogame smartphone application, called Kiddio Food Fight (Archimage Inc., Houston, TX), targeted at training parents to increase their 3– to 5-year-old child's vegetable consumption. This was a qualitative study using sem...

  13. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  14. Alcohol Consumption and Prehypertension: An Investigation of University Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Randall S.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prehypertension and heavy alcohol consumption increase the risk for primary hypertension (PH), a major predictor of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Although undergraduate college students have exhibited prehypertensive blood pressure (BP) levels and more than 40% of undergraduates drink heavily, few researchers have examined both…

  15. Peanut consumption in adolescents is associated with improved weight status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have shown an association between nut consumption and health benefits in adults, such as lower lipid levels, lower body mass indices, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Few studies have demonstrated these health benefits in children. To determine the association between peanut cons...

  16. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Undergraduates: The Impact of Family Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Catherine M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of a study concerning college student characteristics and alcohol consumption. In general, family income was positively associated with likelihood of drinking. In the lowest income category, men were more likely to drink than women; in the highest income category, women were more likely to drink than men. (LKS)

  17. Oxygen consumption by mitochondria from an endotherm and an ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Berner, N J

    1999-09-01

    Comparisons of metabolic properties of mitochondria from an endothermic and an ectothermic vertebrate were performed. Oxygen (O2) consumption rates of liver mitochondria from laboratory mice and western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) were determined over a range of temperatures (10, 20, 30 and 37 degrees C) and in the presence of a variety of substrates. At 37 degrees C the O2 consumption rate of mouse mitochondria was 4-11 times higher than lizard mitochondria in the presence of five of eight substrates. This range of differences is similar to differences reported for O2 consumption of endothermic animals, tissues and cells over those of ectotherms. Thermal sensitivity of mitochondria was measured by calculation of Q10s for O2 consumption. Q10s were highest for mouse mitochondria overall. The range that showed the highest Q10s for the mouse mitochondria was 30-20 degrees C, whereas for the lizard mitochondria it was 20-10 degrees C. Thus, mitochondria from the ectotherm showed a lower degree of temperature sensitivity than did mitochondria from the endotherm. The preferred substrate for all mitochondria at all temperatures was succinate, but mouse mitochondria then showed some preference for alpha-ketoglutarate and citrate, whereas lizard mitochondria showed a preference for pyruvate and malate + pyruvate. PMID:10582317

  18. Effects of Prolonged Consumption of Pornography on Family Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1988-01-01

    Exposed college students and nonstudents to videotapes of nonviolent pornography or innocuous material. Found consistent impact of pornography consumption on measures examining attitudes toward marriage, cohabitation, and other related issues. Exposure prompted greater acceptance of pre- and extra-marital sex and agreement with the belief that…

  19. Data-driven forecasting algorithms for building energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hae Young; Rajagopal, Ram

    2013-04-01

    This paper introduces two forecasting methods for building energy consumption data that are recorded from smart meters in high resolution. For utility companies, it is important to reliably forecast the aggregate consumption profile to determine energy supply for the next day and prevent any crisis. The proposed methods involve forecasting individual load on the basis of their measurement history and weather data without using complicated models of building system. The first method is most efficient for a very short-term prediction, such as the prediction period of one hour, and uses a simple adaptive time-series model. For a longer-term prediction, a nonparametric Gaussian process has been applied to forecast the load profiles and their uncertainty bounds to predict a day-ahead. These methods are computationally simple and adaptive and thus suitable for analyzing a large set of data whose pattern changes over the time. These forecasting methods are applied to several sets of building energy consumption data for lighting and heating-ventilation-air-conditioning (HVAC) systems collected from a campus building at Stanford University. The measurements are collected every minute, and corresponding weather data are provided hourly. The results show that the proposed algorithms can predict those energy consumption data with high accuracy.

  20. Blueberry consumption inhibits gastrointestinal tumorigenesis in AOM-treated rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological studies show inverse or no association of fruit consumption with relative risk for colorectal cancers. Such studies did not examine specific fruits and in particular, those enriched in polyphenols with high antioxidant capacities. We examined blueberry (BB), a fruit rich in anthocy...