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Sample records for consumption rates

  1. Measuring Oxygen Consumption Rate in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Palikaras, Konstantinos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2017-01-01

    The rate of oxygen consumption is a vital marker indicating cellular function during lifetime under normal or metabolically challenged conditions. It is used broadly to study mitochondrial function (Artal-Sanz and Tavernarakis, 2009; Palikaras et al., 2015; Ryu et al., 2016) or investigate factors mediating the switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis (Chen et al., 2015; Vander Heiden et al., 2009). In this protocol, we describe a method for the determination of oxygen consumption rates in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:28239622

  2. Alcohol consumption and divorce rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Caces, M F; Harford, T C; Williams, G D; Hanna, E Z

    1999-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze time series data on alcohol consumption and divorce rates and assess the directionality of this relationship using alternative aggregate measures of alcohol consumption rates. Granger's causality test and Box-Jenkins time series analysis are used to examine aggregate data on divorce rates and two indicators of alcohol consumption: a per capita consumption measure based on sales and shipments, and an expenditure-based measure for U.S. data from 1934 to 1987. A consumption increase of 1 liter of alcohol per capita brings about an increase in the divorce rate of about 20%. This finding contrasts with results, using expenditures as the aggregate alcohol measure, that show that an increase of 1/1,000 in the divorce rate leads to a 10% increase in alcohol expenditures. (These latter findings confirm earlier published results.) The results from the present study provide support both for the effects of heavy drinking on divorce rates and the effects of divorce rates on expenditures for alcoholic beverages. While both aggregate measures of alcohol consumption are highly correlated, they may tap different aspects of consumption. The relationship between marital instability and alcohol consumption is far from a simple one, and more complete conceptual models need to be developed. Aggregate-level findings indicate that it is reasonable to assume that a bidirectional influence exists between divorce rates and alcohol consumption.

  3. Vodka and Violence: Alcohol Consumption and Homicide Rates in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2002-01-01

    In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia’s 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine the regional covariation of drinking and lethal violence. Log-log models were employed to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on regional homicide rates, controlling for structural factors thought to influence the spatial distribution of homicide rates. Results revealed a positive and significant relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide, with a 1% increase in regional consumption of alcohol associated with an approximately 0.25% increase in homicide rates. In Russia, higher regional rates of alcohol consumption are associated with higher rates of homicide. PMID:12453810

  4. Vodka and violence: alcohol consumption and homicide rates in Russia.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2002-12-01

    In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia's 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine the regional covariation of drinking and lethal violence. Log-log models were employed to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on regional homicide rates, controlling for structural factors thought to influence the spatial distribution of homicide rates. Results revealed a positive and significant relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide, with a 1% increase in regional consumption of alcohol associated with an approximately 0.25% increase in homicide rates. In Russia, higher regional rates of alcohol consumption are associated with higher rates of homicide.

  5. Fish oil reduces heart rate and oxygen consumption during exercise.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Gregory E; McLennan, Peter L; Howe, Peter R C; Groeller, Herbert

    2008-12-01

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are readily incorporated into heart and skeletal muscle membranes where, in the heart, animal studies show they reduce O2 consumption. To test the hypothesis that omega-3 PUFAs alter O2 efficiency in humans, the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on O2 consumption during exercise were evaluated. Sixteen well-trained men (cyclists), randomly assigned to receive 8 x 1 g capsules per day of olive oil (control) or FO for 8 weeks in a double-blind, parallel design, completed the study (control: n = 7, age 27.1 +/- 2.7 years; FO: n = 9, age 23.2 +/- 1.2 years). Subjects used an electronically braked cycle ergometer to complete peak O2 consumption tests (VO 2peak) and sustained submaximal exercise tests at 55% of peak workload (from the VO 2peak test) before and after supplementation. Whole-body O2 consumption and indirect measurements of myocardial O2 consumption [heart rate and rate pressure product (RPP)] were assessed. FO supplementation increased omega-3 PUFA content of erythrocyte cell membranes. There were no differences in VO 2peak (mL kg(-1) min(-1)) (control: pre 66.8 +/- 2.4, post 67.2 +/- 2.3; FO: pre 68.3 +/- 1.4, post 67.2 +/- 1.2) or peak workload after supplementation. The FO supplementation lowered heart rate (including peak heart rate) during incremental workloads to exhaustion (P < 0.05). In addition, the FO supplementation lowered steady-state submaximal exercise heart rate, whole-body O2 consumption, and RPP (P < 0.01). Time to voluntary fatigue was not altered by FO supplementation. This study indicates that FOs may act within the healthy heart and skeletal muscle to reduce both whole-body and myocardial O2 demand during exercise, without a decrement in performance.

  6. Quantifying consumption rates of dissolved oxygen along bed forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boano, Fulvio; De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai

    2016-04-01

    Streambed interfaces represent hotspots for nutrient transformations because they host different microbial species, and the evaluation of these reaction rates is important to assess the fate of nutrients in riverine environments. In this work we analyze a series of flume experiments on oxygen demand in dune-shaped hyporheic sediments under losing and gaining flow conditions. We employ a new modeling code to quantify oxygen consumption rates from observed vertical profiles of oxygen concentration. The code accounts for transport by molecular diffusion and water advection, and automatically determines the reaction rates that provide the best fit between observed and modeled concentration values. The results show that reaction rates are not uniformly distributed across the streambed, in agreement with the expected behavior predicted by hyporheic exchange theory. Oxygen consumption was found to be highly influenced by the presence of gaining or losing flow conditions, which controlled the delivery of labile DOC to streambed microorganisms.

  7. Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates (Final Report, 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates. This report provides a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation rate directly from their oxygen c...

  8. Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates (Final Report, 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates. This report provides a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation rate directly from their oxygen c...

  9. Metabolically Derived human ventilation rates: A revised approach based upon oxygen consumption rates (Final Report) 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to provide a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation rate directly from their oxygen consumption rate. This revised approach will be used to update the ventilation rate information in the Exposure Factors Handbook, which serve as...

  10. Oxygen Consumption Rates of Bacteria under Nutrient-Limited Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Timothy E.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Finkel, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

  11. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work.

  12. Glass Shape Influences Consumption Rate for Alcoholic Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Stothart, George; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High levels of alcohol consumption and increases in heavy episodic drinking (binge drinking) are a growing public concern, due to their association with increased risk of personal and societal harm. Alcohol consumption has been shown to be sensitive to factors such as price and availability. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of glass shape on the rate of consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Methods This was an experimental design with beverage (lager, soft drink), glass (straight, curved) and quantity (6 fl oz, 12 fl oz) as between-subjects factors. Social male and female alcohol consumers (n = 159) attended two experimental sessions, and were randomised to drink either lager or a soft drink from either a curved or straight-sided glass, and complete a computerised task identifying perceived midpoint of the two glasses (order counterbalanced). Ethical approval was granted by the Faculty of Science Research Ethics Committee at the University of Bristol. The primary outcome measures were total drinking time of an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage, and perceptual judgement of the half-way point of a straight and curved glass. Results Participants were 60% slower to consume an alcoholic beverage from a straight glass compared to a curved glass. This effect was only observed for a full glass and not a half-full glass, and was not observed for a non-alcoholic beverage. Participants also misjudged the half-way point of a curved glass to a greater degree than that of a straight glass, and there was a trend towards a positive association between the degree of error and total drinking time. Conclusions Glass shape appears to influence the rate of drinking of alcoholic beverages. This may represent a modifiable target for public health interventions. PMID:22912776

  13. Glass shape influences consumption rate for alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Stothart, George; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-01-01

    High levels of alcohol consumption and increases in heavy episodic drinking (binge drinking) are a growing public concern, due to their association with increased risk of personal and societal harm. Alcohol consumption has been shown to be sensitive to factors such as price and availability. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of glass shape on the rate of consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. This was an experimental design with beverage (lager, soft drink), glass (straight, curved) and quantity (6 fl oz, 12 fl oz) as between-subjects factors. Social male and female alcohol consumers (n = 159) attended two experimental sessions, and were randomised to drink either lager or a soft drink from either a curved or straight-sided glass, and complete a computerised task identifying perceived midpoint of the two glasses (order counterbalanced). Ethical approval was granted by the Faculty of Science Research Ethics Committee at the University of Bristol. The primary outcome measures were total drinking time of an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage, and perceptual judgement of the half-way point of a straight and curved glass. Participants were 60% slower to consume an alcoholic beverage from a straight glass compared to a curved glass. This effect was only observed for a full glass and not a half-full glass, and was not observed for a non-alcoholic beverage. Participants also misjudged the half-way point of a curved glass to a greater degree than that of a straight glass, and there was a trend towards a positive association between the degree of error and total drinking time. Glass shape appears to influence the rate of drinking of alcoholic beverages. This may represent a modifiable target for public health interventions.

  14. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-06-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC) rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126), temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39), pasture (n = 6, FC = 28), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5), chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using averaged values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.

  15. Fish consumption, sleep, daily functioning, and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anita L; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Graff, Ingvild E; Frøyland, Livar; Thayer, Julian F; Pallesen, Staale

    2014-05-15

    This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV.

  16. Oxygen consumption of cycle ergometry is nonlinearly related to work rate and pedal rate.

    PubMed

    Londeree, B R; Moffitt-Gerstenberger, J; Padfield, J A; Lottmann, D

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an equation to predict the oxygen cost of cycle ergometry. Forty subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test on three occasions at 50, 70, or 90 rpm in a counterbalanced order. Work rate was incremented every 5 or 6 min when steady rate values were achieved. To ensure accurate work rates, ergometer resistance was calibrated and flywheel revolutions were electronically measured. Oxygen consumption was measured with a computer interfaced system which provided results every minute. Oxygen consumption (mL.min-1) was the dependent variable, and independent variables were work rate (WR in kgm.min-1), pedal rate (rpm), weight (Kg), and gender (males, 0; females, 1). The following nonlinear equation was selected; VO2 = 0.42.WR1.2 + 0.00061.rpm3 + 6.35.Wt + 0.1136.RPM50.WR-0.10144.RPM90-WR-52-Gender, R2 = 0.9961, Sy.x = 106 mL.min-1, where RPM50: 50 rpm = 1, and RPM90: 90 rpm = 1, else = 0. It was concluded that the oxygen cost of cycle ergometry is nonlinearly related to work rate and pedal rate, linearly related to weight, and that females use less oxygen for a particular work rate.

  17. Oxygen Consumption by Red Wines. Part I: Consumption Rates, Relationship with Chemical Composition, and Role of SO₂.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Carrascon, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Ugliano, Maurizio; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación

    2015-12-30

    Fifteen Spanish red wines extensively characterized in terms of SO2, color, antioxidant indexes, metals, and polyphenols were subjected to five consecutive sensor-controlled cycles of air saturation at 25 °C. Within each cycle, O2 consumption rates cannot be interpreted by simple kinetic models. Plots of cumulated consumed O2 made it possible to define a fast and highly wine-dependent initial O2 consumption rate and a second and less variable average O2 consumption rate which remains constant in saturations 2 to 5. Both rates have been satisfactorily modeled, and in both cases they were independent of Fe and SO2 and highly dependent on Cu levels. Average rates were also related to Mn, pH, Folin, protein precipitable proanthocyanidins (PPAs), and polyphenolic profile. Initial rates were strong and negatively correlated to SO2 consumption, indicating that such an initial rate is either controlled by an unknown antioxidant present in some wines or affected by a poor real availability of SO2. Remaining unreacted SO2 is proportional to initial combined SO2 and to final free acetaldehyde.

  18. Per Capita Alcohol Consumption and Suicide Rates in the U.S., 1950-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landberg, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate how suicide rates in the United States are affected by changes in per capita consumption during the postwar period. The analysis included Annual suicide rates and per capita alcohol consumption data (total and beverage specific) for the period 1950-2002. Gender- and age-specific models were estimated using the…

  19. Per Capita Alcohol Consumption and Suicide Rates in the U.S., 1950-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landberg, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate how suicide rates in the United States are affected by changes in per capita consumption during the postwar period. The analysis included Annual suicide rates and per capita alcohol consumption data (total and beverage specific) for the period 1950-2002. Gender- and age-specific models were estimated using the…

  20. Determining oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point in Chanodichthys mongolicus using an improved respirometer chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Longwu; Jiang, Haifeng; Tong, Guangxiang; Xu, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of oxygen consumption rates and asphyxiation points in fish is important to determine appropriate stocking and water quality management in aquaculture. The oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point in Chanodichthys mongolicus were detected under laboratory conditions using an improved respirometer chamber. The results revealed that more accurate estimates can be obtained by adjusting the volume of the respirometer chamber, which may avoid system errors caused by either repeatedly adjusting fish density or selecting different equipment specifications. The oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point of C. mongolicus increased with increasing water temperature and decreasing fish size. Changes in the C. mongolicus oxygen consumption rate were divided into three stages at water temperatures of 11-33°C: (1) a low temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was 11-19°C, (2) the optimum temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was 19-23°C, and (3) a high temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was > 27°C. The temperature quotients (Q10) obtained suggested that C. mongolicus preferred a temperature range of 19-23°C. At 19°C, C. mongolicus exhibited higher oxygen consumption rates during the day when the maximum values were observed at 10:00 and 14:00 than at night when the minimum occurred at 02:00.

  1. Determining oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point in Chanodichthys mongolicus using an improved respirometer chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Longwu; Jiang, Haifeng; Tong, Guangxiang; Xu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of oxygen consumption rates and asphyxiation points in fish is important to determine appropriate stocking and water quality management in aquaculture. The oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point in Chanodichthys mongolicus were detected under laboratory conditions using an improved respirometer chamber. The results revealed that more accurate estimates can be obtained by adjusting the volume of the respirometer chamber, which may avoid system errors caused by either repeatedly adjusting fish density or selecting different equipment specifications. The oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point of C. mongolicus increased with increasing water temperature and decreasing fish size. Changes in the C. mongolicus oxygen consumption rate were divided into three stages at water temperatures of 11-33°C: (1) a low temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was 11-19°C, (2) the optimum temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was 19-23°C, and (3) a high temperature oxygen consumption rate stage when water temperature was > 27°C. The temperature quotients (Q10) obtained suggested that C. mongolicus preferred a temperature range of 19-23°C. At 19°C, C. mongolicus exhibited higher oxygen consumption rates during the day when the maximum values were observed at 10:00 and 14:00 than at night when the minimum occurred at 02:00.

  2. Oxygen consumption in the foraging honeybee depends on the reward rate at the food source.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, L; Núñez, J A

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen consumption of the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica was measured as a function of the flow rate supply of sucrose solution at an automatic feeder located inside a respirometric chamber. Trained bees freely entered the respirometric chamber and collected the sucrose solution supplied. The mean value of the O2 consumption rate per visit increased with the sucrose flow rate, and for a given flow rate, with increasing locomotor activity. However, when no locomotor activity was displayed, O2 consumption also increased with increasing nectar flow rate. Crop load attained at the end of the visit showed a positive relationship with the nectar flow rate; however, for a given flow rate, O2 consumption showed either no correlation or a negative one with the final crop load attained. It is concluded that the energy expenditure of the foraging bee is controlled by a motivational drive whose intensity depends on the reward rate at the food source.

  3. Oxygen Consumption Rate and Energy Expenditure in Mice: Indirect Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Global obesity epidemic demands more effective therapeutic treatments and better understanding of obesity pathophysiology. Since obesity results from energy imbalance, accurate quantification of energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) becomes an essential prerequisite to phenotype the cause for obesity development. Indirect calorimetry has long been used as one of the most established methods in EE quantification by detecting changes in levels of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In this article, we describe procedures and important considerations for an effective measurement using indirect calorimetry.

  4. Plant respirometer enables high resolution of oxygen consumption rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, D. L.

    1966-01-01

    Plant respirometer permits high resolution of relatively small changes in the rate of oxygen consumed by plant organisms undergoing oxidative metabolism in a nonphotosynthetic state. The two stage supply and monitoring system operates by a differential pressure transducer and provides a calibrated output by digital or analog signals.

  5. Alcohol consumption, alcoholics anonymous membership, and homicide mortality rates in Ontario 1968 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robert E; Zalcman, Rosely Flam; Smart, Reginald G; Rush, Brian R; Suurvali, Helen

    2006-10-01

    Research has shown a strong link between alcohol use and a variety of problems, including violence. Parker and colleagues have presented a selective disinhibition theory for the link between alcohol use and homicide (and other violence) that posits a causal relationship that is also influenced by other situational and contextual factors. This model is particularly well suited for aggregate-level investigations. In this study, we examine the impact of alcohol factors, including consumption measures and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) membership rates, on homicide mortality rates in Ontario, and test predictions derived from the selective disinhibition model. Time series analyses with ARIMA modeling were applied to total, male, and female homicide rates in Ontario between 1968 and 1991. The analyses performed included total alcohol consumption, spirits consumption, beer consumption, and wine consumption. Missing AA membership data were interpolated with cubic splines. For the total population and males, homicide rates were significantly and positively related to total alcohol consumption and to the consumption of beer and spirits. They were also negatively related to AA membership rates in the analyses involving spirits and wine and positively related to unemployment rates in the analyses involving beer, wine, and total alcohol. Among females, none of the measures were significant predictors of homicide mortality rates. These data provide important support for the selective disinhibition model and confirm important relationships between per capita consumption measures and homicide mortality rates, especially among males, seen in other studies. Additionally, the results for AA membership rates are consistent with the hypothesis that AA membership and treatment for misuse of alcohol can exert beneficial effects observable at the population level.

  6. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC is usually modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC for various biomes and fuel categories to understand FC and its variability better, and to provide a database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 77 studies covering 11 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1 with a standard deviation of 2.2), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126 ± 77), temperate forest (n = 12, FC = 58 ± 72), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 35 ± 24), pasture (n = 4, FC = 28 ± 9.3), shifting cultivation (n = 2, FC = 23, with a range of 4.0-43), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5 ± 9.0), chaparral (n = 3, FC = 27 ± 19), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314 ± 196), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42 [42-43]), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only three measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences in FC were found within the defined biomes: for example, FC of temperate pine forests in the USA was 37% lower than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that substantial uncertainties are associated with using biome-averaged values to represent FC for whole

  7. Metabolically-Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a draft report entitled, Metabolically-Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates, for independent external peer review and public comment. NCEA published the Exposure Factors Handbook in 1997. This comprehens...

  8. Metabolically-Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a draft report entitled, Metabolically-Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates, for independent external peer review and public comment. NCEA published the Exposure Factors Handbook in 1997. This comprehens...

  9. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    DOEpatents

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  10. Interindividual variability in body composition and resting oxygen consumption rate in breeding tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor.

    PubMed

    Burness, G P; Ydenberg, R C; Hochachka, P W

    1998-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate is one of the most widely measured physiological traits. Previous studies on lab mice and field-caught lizards suggest that individuals with relatively high basal metabolic rates or standard metabolic rates have relatively large masses of metabolically active tissues (e.g., heart, kidney, liver). As these are energetically expensive organs, there may be variability between breeding seasons dependent on, for example, availability of prey and capacity for energy intake. We present data from breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) collected over two successive seasons. There was no difference between years in resting oxygen consumption rates, although there were significant interannual differences in the masses of all organs and tissues except the pectoralis. Interindividual differences in the masses of the kidney and small intestine explained 21% of the variation in oxygen consumption rates. Although individuals with relatively high resting oxygen consumption rates had relatively large, metabolically active kidneys, they had relatively small intestines and pectoral muscles. This is in contrast to all previous studies on mammals and to the single interspecific study of birds. Oxygen consumption rate also correlated positively with hematocrit. Our results suggest that assumptions of consistent positive relationships between resting oxygen consumption rate and organ masses cannot be extended intraspecifically for birds.

  11. Something from nothing: Estimating consumption rates using propensity scores, with application to emissions reduction policies.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Nicholas; Büchs, Milena; Schnepf, Sylke V

    2017-01-01

    Consumption surveys often record zero purchases of a good because of a short observation window. Measures of distribution are then precluded and only mean consumption rates can be inferred. We show that Propensity Score Matching can be applied to recover the distribution of consumption rates. We demonstrate the method using the UK National Travel Survey, in which c.40% of motorist households purchase no fuel. Estimated consumption rates are plausible judging by households' annual mileages, and highly skewed. We apply the same approach to estimate CO2 emissions and outcomes of a carbon cap or tax. Reliance on means apparently distorts analysis of such policies because of skewness of the underlying distributions. The regressiveness of a simple tax or cap is overstated, and redistributive features of a revenue-neutral policy are understated.

  12. Effects of smoking cessation on weight gain, metabolic rate, caloric consumption, and blood lipids.

    PubMed

    Stamford, B A; Matter, S; Fell, R D; Papanek, P

    1986-04-01

    Thirteen sedentary adult females successfully quit smoking cigarettes for 48 days. Mean daily caloric consumption increased 227 kcal and mean weight gain was 2.2 kg. There were no measurable acute effects of smoke inhalation and no chronic net effects of smoking cessation on resting metabolic rate, as determined by oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio. After 1 yr, subjects who continued to abstain gained an average of 8.2 kg. HDL-cholesterol increased 7 mg/dl in 48 days; however, this effect was lost in those who returned to smoking. Increased caloric consumption accounted for 69% of weight gained immediately following smoking cessation. Factors other than changes in caloric consumption and metabolic rate may be responsible for a significant proportion (31%) of the weight gained in individuals who quit smoking.

  13. A New Approach for Measuring Single-Cell Oxygen Consumption Rates

    PubMed Central

    Molter, Timothy W.; McQuaide, Sarah C.; Holl, Mark R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Dragavon, Joseph M.; Anderson, Judith B.; Young, A. Cody; Burgess, Lloyd W.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    A novel system that has enabled the measurement of single-cell oxygen consumption rates is presented. The experimental apparatus includes a temperature controlled environmental chamber, an array of microwells etched in glass, and a lid actuator used to seal cells in the microwells. Each microwell contains an oxygen sensitive platinum phosphor sensor used to monitor the cellular metabolic rates. Custom automation software controls the digital image data collection for oxygen sensor measurements, which are analyzed using an image-processing program to yield the oxygen concentration within each microwell versus time. Two proof-of-concept experiments produced oxygen consumption rate measurements for A549 human epithelial lung cancer cells of 5.39 and 5.27 fmol/min/cell, closely matching published oxygen consumption rates for bulk A549 populations. PMID:21057593

  14. Fuel consumption guide: Ratings for new cars, pickup trucks and vans, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Guide to assist consumers in purchasing the most fuel efficient car. Fuel consumption rates were submitted by manufacturers. Tables are given for automobiles, pick-up trucks, vans and special purpose vehicles. Listings are by model name, with information on engine size, number of engine cylinders, high output option and city and highway ratings.

  15. Fuel consumption guide: Ratings for new cars, pickup trucks and vans, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    Guide to assist consumers in purchasing the most fuel efficient car. Fuel consumption rates were submitted by manufacturers. Tables are given for automobiles, pick-up trucks, vans and special purpose vehicles. Listings are by model name, with information on engine size, number of engine cylinders, high output option and city and highway ratings.

  16. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  17. Effects of reinforcer consumption and magnitude on response rates during noncontingent reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Roscoe, Eileen M; Iwata, Brian A; Rand, Melissa S

    2003-01-01

    Results of previous research on the effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) have been inconsistent when magnitude of reinforcement was manipulated. We attempted to clarify the influence of NCR magnitude by including additional controls. In Study 1, we examined the effects of reinforcer consumption time by comparing the same magnitude of NCR when session time was and was not corrected to account for reinforcer consumption. Lower response rates were observed when session time was not corrected, indicating that reinforcer consumption can suppress response rates. In Study 2, we first selected varying reinforcer magnitudes (small, medium, and large) on the basis of corrected response rates observed during a contingent reinforcement condition and then compared the effects of these magnitudes during NCR. One participant exhibited lower response rates when large-magnitude reinforcers were delivered; the other ceased responding altogether even when small-magnitude reinforcers were delivered. We also compared the effects of the same NCR magnitude (medium) during 10-min and 30-min sessions. Lower response rates were observed during 30-min sessions, indicating that the number of reinforcers consumed across a session can have the same effect as the number consumed per reinforcer delivery. These findings indicate that, even when response rate is corrected to account for reinforcer consumption, larger magnitudes of NCR (defined on either a per-delivery or per-session basis) result in lower response rates than do smaller magnitudes.

  18. Oxygen Consumption by Postfermentation Wine Yeast Lees: Factors Affecting Its Rate and Extent under Oenological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jonas; Schmidt, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Summary Postfermentation wine yeast lees show antioxidant properties based on their ability to consume dissolved oxygen. The oxygen consumption capacity of suspended yeast lees obtained after fermentations with six commercial active dry yeast strains was investigated in model, white and red wines using fluorescence-based oxygen sensors operating in a nondestructive way. In model solution, the oxygen consumption rate of yeast lees was shown to depend on their amount, yeast strain, sulfur dioxide and temperature. It is slightly lower in red than in white wines. It is strongly decreased by current levels of free sulfur dioxide, thus excluding the complementary use of both as antioxidants in wine. However, in 25 randomly sampled white wines produced under commercial conditions, the rate and extent of oxygen consumption during the first six months of postfermentation had no significant correlation with any of these interacting factors, making it difficult to predict the actual antioxidant effect of yeast lees. In these wines, yeast lees consumed 0 to 47% of the dissolved oxygen. Although total oxygen consumption capacity of yeast lees is not a limiting factor under commercial winemaking conditions, their oxygen consumption proceeds at a limited rate that reduces but cannot totally prevent concomitant chemical oxidation of the wine. PMID:28115896

  19. Repetition rate-dependent oxygen consumption modifies cytotoxicity in photodynamic therapy using pulsed light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Morimoto, Yuji; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Arai, Tsunenori; Sato, Shunichi; Sakata, Isao; Takemura, Takeshi; Nakajima, Susumu; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2003-06-01

    We studied the repetition-rate dependence of PDT cytotoxicity and relation between PDT cytotoxicity and both oxygen consumption and photobleaching during PDT in vitro. Mice renal carcinoma cells were incubated wtih second-generation photosensitizier, PAD-S31, and were irradiated with 670-nm nanoseconds pulsed light from YAG-OPO system. Four repetition rates of 30, 15, 5 and 3 Hz were investigated, provided that the incident peak intensity and the total light dose adjusted to 1.2 MW/cm2 and 40 J/cm2, respectively. We found limited cytotoxicity about 40% at 30 and 15 Hz and sufficient cytotoxicity about 80% at 5 and 3 Hz. The oxygen measurement during irradiation revealed that the 5- and 30Hz irradiation caused slow oxygen consumption, while rapid oxygen consumption followed by a rapid recovery of oxygenation at 30 and 15 Hz. Interestingly, the fluorescence measurement during irradiation also demonstrated that photobleaching discontinued in the same period of oxygen recovery at 30 and 15 Hz. These discontinued oxygen consumption and photobleaching at 30 and 15 Hz might have limited effective total fluence and resulted in suppressed cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the PDT efficacy using a pulsed laser significantly depends on the pulse repetition rate probably due to different oxygen consumption process during PDT.

  20. Oxygen consumption rates by different oenological tannins in a model wine solution.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Olga; Vignault, Adeline; Gombau, Jordi; Navarro, Maria; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Zamora, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    The kinetics of oxygen consumption by different oenological tannins were measured in a model wine solution using the non-invasive method based on luminiscence. The results indicate that the oxygen consumption rate follows second-order kinetics depending on tannin and oxygen concentrations. They also confirm that the oxygen consumption rate is influenced by temperature in accordance with Arrhenius law. The indications are that ellagitannins are the fastest oxygen consumers of the different oenological tannins, followed in decreasing order by quebracho tannins, skin tannins, seed tannins and finally gallotannins. This methodology can therefore be proposed as an index for determining the effectiveness of different commercial tannins in protecting wines against oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the influence of topographic factors upon the oxygen consumption rate in sill basins of fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aure, Jan; Stigebrandt, Anders

    1989-01-01

    The rate of oxygen consumption has been estimated for 29 different sill basins of fjords, all located in a relatively small area of the Norwegian west coast. It is found that CONS, the volume mean rate of oxygen consumption in a sill basin (i.e. below the sill level), is inversely proportional to the mean depth, Hb, of the sill basin. In addition it is demonstrated that CONS decreases with increasing sill depth, Ht, in an approximately linear fashion. Our results are compatible with a regionally horizontally homogeneous and downward decreasing vertical flux of organic carbon. Based on data from the present set of sill basins, an empirical formula has been derived for CONS as a function of Ht and Hb. This may be looked upon as a regionally valid empirical fjord model which may be used to determine whether or not the oxygen consumption in a sill basin is 'normal'.

  2. Oxygen consumption rate v. rate of energy utilization of fishes: a comparison and brief history of the two measurements.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J A

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for energy use by fishes has been taking place for over 200 years. The original, and continuing gold standard for measuring energy use in terrestrial animals, is to account for the waste heat produced by all reactions of metabolism, a process referred to as direct calorimetry. Direct calorimetry is not easy or convenient in terrestrial animals and is extremely difficult in aquatic animals. Thus, the original and most subsequent measurements of metabolic activity in fishes have been measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry takes advantage of the fact that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced during the catabolic conversion of foodstuffs or energy reserves to useful ATP energy. As measuring [CO2 ] in water is more challenging than measuring [O2 ], most indirect calorimetric studies on fishes have used the rate of O2 consumption. To relate measurements of O2 consumption back to actual energy usage requires knowledge of the substrate being oxidized. Many contemporary studies of O2 consumption by fishes do not attempt to relate this measurement back to actual energy usage. Thus, the rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2 ) has become a measurement in its own right that is not necessarily synonymous with metabolic rate. Because all extant fishes are obligate aerobes (many fishes engage in substantial net anaerobiosis, but all require oxygen to complete their life cycle), this discrepancy does not appear to be of great concern to the fish biology community, and reports of fish oxygen consumption, without being related to energy, have proliferated. Unfortunately, under some circumstances, these measures can be quite different from one another. A review of the methodological history of the two measurements and a look towards the future are included.

  3. Using consumption rate to assess potential predators for biological control of white perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Pope, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Control of undesirable fishes is important in aquatic systems, and using predation as a tool for biological control is an attractive option to fishery biologists. However, determining the appropriate predators for biological control is critical for success. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of consumption rate as an index to determine the most effective predators for biological control of an invasive fish. Consumption rate values were calculated for nine potential predators that prey on white perch Morone americana in Branched Oak and Pawnee reservoirs, Nebraska. The consumption rate index provided a unique and insightful means of determining the potential effectiveness of each predator species in controlling white perch. Cumulative frequency distributions facilitated interpretation by providing a graphical presentation of consumption rates by all individuals within each predator species. Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, walleye Sander vitreus and sauger S. canadensis were the most efficient white perch predators in both reservoirs; however, previous attempts to increase biomass of these predators have failed suggesting that successful biological control is unlikely using existing predator species in these Nebraska reservoirs. ?? 2011 ONEMA.

  4. Oxygen consumption, ventilatory frequency and heart rate of lampreys (Lampetra fluviatilis) during their spawning run.

    PubMed

    Claridge, P N; Potter, I C

    1975-08-01

    1. The standard rate of oxygen consumption, ventilatory frequency and heart rate of adult Lampetra fluviatilis were measured during the light phase of the photoperiod and at times corresponding to various stages in the upstream migration. 2. All three parameters increased during the spawning run but only in mature individuals were significant differences found between the sexes. 3. The regression coefficients for the logarithmic relationship between oxygen consumption and body weight of immature animals were 0.912 and 0.925 at 9.5 and 16 degrees C respectively. 4. Both the standard rate of oxygen consumption and the amount of oxygen taken up during activity increased greatly during the hours of darkness. 5. Oxygen consumption, ventilatory frequency and, to a lesser extent, heart rate increased significantly at 9.5 degrees C over the 100-20% range of saturation with air. 6. Below 20% saturation with air, lampreys no longer remained attached by their oral disc for prolonged periods and the ventilatory frequency rose even more rapidly to reach a maximum of 175 beats/min at 12.5%. Exposure to 7.5% resulted in death within 5-8 h.

  5. GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS LINNAEUS) CONSUMPTION RATES ON AND PREY PREFERENCES AMONG FOUR BIVALVE PREY SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is a recent invader to Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries with a voracious appetite, especially for bivalves. To assess their potential impact, we estimated green crab consumption rates on four PNW bivalve species, Yaquina oyster (Ostrea ...

  6. GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS LINNAEUS) CONSUMPTION RATES ON AND PREY PREFERENCES AMONG FOUR BIVALVE PREY SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is a recent invader to Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries with a voracious appetite, especially for bivalves. To assess their potential impact, we estimated green crab consumption rates on four PNW bivalve species, Yaquina oyster (Ostrea ...

  7. [Oxygen consumption rate and effects of hypoxia stress on enzyme activities of Sepiella maindron].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-lin; Wu, Dan-hua; Dong, Tian-ye; Jiang, Xia-min

    2008-11-01

    The oxygen consumption rate and suffocation point of Sepiella maindroni were determined through the measurement of dissolved oxygen in control and experimental respiration chambers by Winkler's method, and the changes of S. maindroni enzyme activities under different levels of hypoxia stress were studied. The results indicated that the oxygen consumption rate of S. maindroni exhibited an obvious diurnal fluctuation of 'up-down-up-down', and positively correlated with water temperature (16 degrees C-28 degrees C) and illumination (3-500 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) while negatively correlated with water pH (6.25-9.25). With increasing water salinity from 18.1 to 29.8, the oxygen consumption rate had a variation of 'up-down-up', being the lowest at salinity 24. 8. Female S. maindroni had a higher oxygen consumption rate than male S. maindroni. The suffocation point of S. maindroni decreased with its increasing body mass, and that of (38.70 +/- 0.52) g in mass was (0.9427 +/- 0.0318) mg x L(-1). With the increase of hypoxia stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) decreased after an initial increase, lipase activity decreased, protease activity had a variation of 'decrease-increase-decrease', and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity had a trend of increasing first and decreasing then. The enzyme activities were higher under hypoxia stress than under normal conditions.

  8. Regional Cell Density Distribution and Oxygen Consumption Rates in Porcine TMJ Discs: An Explant Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Jonathan; Shi, Changcheng; Cisewski, Sarah; Zhang, Lixia; Kern, Michael J.; Yao, Hai

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the regional cell density distribution and basal oxygen consumption rates (based on tissue volume and cell number) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) discs and further examine the impact of oxygen tension on these rates. Design TMJ discs from pigs aged 6–8 months were divided into five regions: anterior, intermediate, posterior, lateral and medial. The cell density was determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The change in oxygen tension was recorded while TMJ disc explants were cultured in sealed metabolism chambers. The volume based oxygen consumption rate of explants was determined by theoretical curve fitting of the recoded oxygen tension data with the Michaelis-Menten equation. The rate on a per-cell basis was calculated based on the cell density measurements and volume based rate measured in another group of discs. Results The overall cell density (mean, 95% CI) was 51.3(21.3–81.3)×106cells/mL wet tissue. Along the anteroposterior axis, the anterior band had 25.5% higher cell density than the intermediate zone (p<0.02) and 29.1% higher than the posterior band (p<0.008). Along the mediolateral axes, the medial region had 26.2% higher cell density than the intermediate zone (p<0.04) and 25.4% higher than the lateral region (p<0.045). The overall volume and cell based maximum oxygen consumption rates were 1.44(0.44–2.44) μmol/mL wet tissue/hr and 28.7(12.2–45.2) nmol/106 cells/hr, respectively. The central regions (intermediate, lateral, and medial) had significantly higher volume based (p<0.02) and cell based (p<0.005) oxygen consumption rates than the anterior and posterior bands. At high oxygen tension, the oxygen consumption rate remained constant, but dropped as oxygen tension fell below 5%. Conclusions The TMJ disc had higher cell density and oxygen consumption rates than articular cartilage reported in the literature. These results suggest that a steeper oxygen gradient may exist in the TMJ disc and may be

  9. Prey-Mediated Effects of Drought on the Consumption Rates of Coccinellid Predators of Elatobium abietinum

    PubMed Central

    Banfield-Zanin, Jennifer A.; Leather, Simon R.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change in the UK is predicted to cause an increase in summer drought events. Elatobium abietinum is an important pest of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), causing defoliation of trees, and is predicted to become more abundant in response to climatic change, reducing spruce productivity. Populations are also moderated by invertebrate predators, though the extent to which this might be modified under a changing climate is unclear. Elatobium abietinum is preyed upon by the coccinellid species Aphidecta obliterata (a spruce specialist) and Adalia bipunctata (a generalist), populations of which naturally occur in spruce plantations. This study sought to investigate the effect of different intensities and frequencies of drought on the consumption rate of the aphids by the two coccinellids. In Petri dish trials, severe drought stress increased the consumption rates of 3rd instar aphids by both adult and larval coccinellids. Moderate intermittent stress tended to result in a reduced consumption rate for larval coccinellids only, suggesting an age-dependent response. The findings of this study suggest that, under drought conditions, a prey-mediated effect on predator consumption, and, therefore, biocontrol efficacy, is likely, with drought intensity and frequency playing an important role in determining the nature of the response. PMID:27690111

  10. Northern squawfish Ptychochelius oregonensis, O2 consumption rate: Effects of temperature and body size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cech, Joseph J.; Castleberry, Daniel T.; Hopkins, Todd E.; Petersen, James H.

    1994-01-01

    Northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis (live weight range 0.361–1.973 kg), O2consumption was measured with temperature-controlled, flow-through respirometers for >24 h. Mean standard O2 consumption rate of northern squawfish increased with acclimation temperature: 24.3, 49.1, 75.0, and 89.4 mg∙kg−0.67∙h−1 at 9, 15, 18, and 21 °C, respectively. Q10analysis showed that O2 consumption rate temperature sensitivity was greatest at the intermediate acclimation temperatures (15–18 °C, Q10 = 4.10), moderate at the lower acclimation temperatures (9–15 °C, Q10 = 3.23), and lowest at the higher acclimation temperatures (18–21 °C, Q10 = 1.80). Overall Q10 was 2.96 (9–21 °C). Body size (W, grams) and temperature (T, degrees Celcius) were related to O2 consumption (, grams per gram per day) by W−0.285∙e0.105T. Northern squawfish red to white muscle ratios significantly exceeded those of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in cross sections at 50 and 75% of standard length. High metabolic rates and red to white muscle ratios argue for comparability of northern squawfish with active predators such as sympatric rainbow trout.

  11. Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD) such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC) over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998–2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year) (FAOSTAT-Database) in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999–2003) with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965–80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001). An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999–2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001). Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients. PMID:19440400

  12. Effect of Rocker Shoe Radius on Oxygen Consumption Rate in Young Able-bodied Persons

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Andrew H.; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We studied oxygen consumption rate of eleven young able-bodied persons walking at self-selected speed with five different pairs of shoes: one regular pair without rocker soles (REG) and four pairs with uniform hardness (35–40 shore A durometer) rocker soles of different radii (25% of leg length (LL) (R25), 40% LL (R40), 55% LL (R55), and infinite radius (FLAT)). Rocker soled shoes in the study were developed to provide similar vertical lift (three inches higher than the REG shoes condition). Oxygen consumption rate was significantly affected by the use of the different shoes (p<0.001) and pairwise comparisons indicated that persons consumed significantly less oxygen (per minute per kilogram of body mass) when walking on the R40 shoes compared with both the FLAT (p<0.001) and REG (p=0.021) shoe conditions. Oxygen consumption was also significantly less for the R25 shoes compared with the FLAT shoes (p=0.005) and for the R55 shoes compared with FLAT shoes (p=0.027). The three inch lift on the FLAT shoe did not cause a significant change in oxygen consumption compared to the shoe without the lift (REG). PMID:21371713

  13. Effect of rocker shoe radius on oxygen consumption rate in young able-bodied persons.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Andrew H; Wang, Charles C

    2011-04-07

    We studied oxygen consumption rate of eleven young able-bodied persons walking at self-selected speed with five different pairs of shoes: one regular pair without rocker soles (REG) and four pairs with uniform hardness (35-40 shore A durometer) rocker soles of different radii (25% of leg length (LL) (R25), 40% LL (R40), 55% LL (R55), and infinite radius (FLAT)). Rocker soled shoes in the study were developed to provide similar vertical lift (three inches higher than the REG shoes condition). Oxygen consumption rate was significantly affected by the use of the different shoes (p<0.001) and pairwise comparisons indicated that persons consumed significantly less oxygen (per minute per kilogram of body mass) when walking on the R40 shoes when compared with both the FLAT (p<0.001) and REG (p=0.021) shoe conditions. Oxygen consumption was also significantly less for the R25 shoes compared with the FLAT shoes (p=0.005) and for the R55 shoes compared with FLAT shoes (p=0.027). The three-inch lift on the FLAT shoe did not cause a significant change in oxygen consumption compared to the shoe without the lift (REG).

  14. Alterations in the Rate of Binge Ethanol Consumption: Implications for Preclinical Studies in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    The rate at which alcohol (ethanol) is consumed has direct impact on its behavioral and subjective effects. For this reason, alterations in the pattern of ethanol consumption as a function of drinking history might be critical to the development and maintenance of alcoholism. Furthermore, because pharmacological interventions aimed at disrupting the motivation to consume ethanol are dependent on the brain/plasma concentrations present when an individual is most likely to engage in consumption of this substance, characterizing temporal drinking patterns might be useful to determine the timing of such treatments. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate alterations in the timecourse of daily binge (Drinking-in-the-dark; DID) ethanol consumption. We gave 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions to male C57BL/6J (B6) mice using a state of the art volumetric drinking monitoring device. We then, primarily as a proof-of-principle, used the GABAB allosteric modulator GS39783 (GS) to determine how this compound influenced the timecourse of binge-like ethanol intake. The rate of ethanol consumption increased dramatically over sessions with the majority occurring in the first few minutes of the final session. Additionally, ethanol consumption occurring immediately following access was almost completely abolished in mice pretreated with GS; an effect which was ethanol-specific only at this early time interval. These data characterize progressive alterations in the rate of ethanol intake using the DID model and suggest that careful consideration of prior ethanol history and timing of drug administration are warranted when interpreting results of preclinical drug administration studies. PMID:23742054

  15. Elevated blood Hg at recommended seafood consumption rates in adult seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from seafood continues to be a public health concern due to health effects from elevated exposure, increasing worldwide seafood consumption, and continued Hg inputs into the environment. Elevated Hg exposure can occur in populations with specialized diets of sport-caught freshwater fish. However, we need a better understanding of Hg exposure from seafood, the most common exposure source, and from specific seafood types. We examined Hg exposure in avid seafood consumers, and the seafood items and consumption frequency that confer the largest Hg exposure. Adult, avid seafood consumers, in Long Island, NY, USA, with blood total Hg concentrations predicted to exceed the USEPA reference concentration that is considered safe (5.8 μg L(-1)), were eligible for the study; 75% of self-reported avid seafood consumers were eligible to participate. We measured blood total Hg concentrations and seafood consumption in 285 participants. We examined relationships between Hg and seafood consumption using multiple linear regression. Seafood consumption rate for our population (14.4 kg yr(-1)) was >2 times that estimated for the U.S. (6.8 kg yr(-1)), and lower than the worldwide estimate (18.4 kg yr(-1)). Mean blood Hg concentration was 4.4 times the national average, and 42% of participants had Hg concentrations exceeding 5.8 μg L(-1). Elevated Hg exposures occurred at all seafood consumption frequencies, including the recommended frequency of 2 meals per week. Blood Hg concentrations were positively associated with weekly tuna steak or sushi intake (β=6.30 change in blood Hg, μg L(-1)) and monthly (β=2.54) or weekly (β=9.47) swordfish, shark or marlin intake. Our findings show that seafood consumers in this population have elevated Hg exposures even at relatively low seafood consumption rates that are at or below current dietary recommendations. Further study should examine health risks and benefits of avid seafood consumption, and consider modifying

  16. Indoor Air Pollution, Nighttime Heart Rate Variability and Coffee Consumption among Convenient Store Workers

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between ambient air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV) has been well-documented. Little is known about the association of HRV at night with indoor air pollution and coffee consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HRV indices with indoor air pollution, working time and coffee consumption. Methods We recruited 60 young healthy convenient store workers to monitor indoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) exposures, coffee consumption (yes vs. no) and HRV indices during daytime (0700–1500 hours) and nighttime (2300-0700 hours). We used linear mixed effects models to assess the associations of HRV indices with indoor PM2.5 exposures and coffee consumption. Results We observed the inverse association between indoor PM2.5 exposures and HRV indices, with a decrease in all HRV indices with increased indoor PM2.5 exposures. However, the decrease was most pronounced during nighttime, where a 1 interquartile range (IQR) increase in indoor PM2.5 at 4-hr time-weighted moving average was associated with a change of −4.78% 5-min standard deviation (SD) of normal-to-normal intervals for 5-min segment (SDNN) and −3.23% 5-min square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals for 5-min segment (r-MSSD). Effects of indoor PM2.5 were lowest for participants with coffee consumption during daytime. Conclusions Indoor PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased 5-min SDNN and 5-min r-MSSD, especially during nighttime. The effect of indoor PM2.5 on HRV indices may be modified by coffee consumption in young healthy convenient store workers. PMID:24312680

  17. Effects of oil prices and exchange rates on world oil consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.P.A.; Phillips, K.R.

    1984-07-01

    From 1980 to 1983, oil consumption in most industrial countries declined, even though the real dollar price of oil fell and world economic activity increased. A common explanation for this decline is that consumers continued to adjust to the sharp oil price increase occurring in 1979. A more-complete analysis reveals that exchange-rate movements have also reduced oil consumption. Because world oil prices are denominated in US dollars, movements in exchange rates can alter the price of oil faced by countries other than the United States. In fact, increases in the value of the dollar raised the effective price of oil for some major industrial countries to levels that were higher in 1983 than in 1980. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  18. Rate of oxygen consumption in seasonal and non-seasonal depression.

    PubMed

    Pinchasov, Boris B; Grischin, Oleg V; Putilov, Arcady A

    2002-04-01

    Most depressives suffer from weight loss, anorexia and insomnia, while for winter depressives the typical symptoms are weight gain, carbohydrate craving, overeating, oversleeping and extreme lack of energy. It is important to know whether winter depressives differ from most other depressives on measures of energy regulation. In wintertime, we evaluated the rate of oxygen consumption in relationship to neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms in 92 Siberian women. The seated subjects underwent oxyspirography in the mid-morning (1.5 hours after a standard breakfast). It was found that the oxygen consumption rate was similar in non-depressed women (n = 25) and depressed women with non-seasonal depression (n = 27). The comparatively lower values were obtained in women with winter depression (n = 40). This finding supports the suggestion that the behaviour disturbances typical for winter depression may represent a physiological feedback loop to energy conservation.

  19. Oxygen consumption rates in subseafloor basaltic crust derived from a reaction transport model.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, Beth N; Wheat, C Geoffrey; Rouxel, Olivier; Hulme, Samuel; Edwards, Katrina J; Bach, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Oceanic crust is the largest potential habitat for life on Earth and may contain a significant fraction of Earth's total microbial biomass; yet, empirical analysis of reaction rates in basaltic crust is lacking. Here we report the first assessment of oxygen consumption in young (~8 Ma) and cool (<25 °C) basaltic crust, which we calculate from modelling dissolved oxygen and strontium pore water gradients in basal sediments collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 336 to 'North Pond' on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Dissolved oxygen is completely consumed within the upper to middle section of the sediment column, with an increase in concentration towards the sediment-basement interface, indicating an upward supply from oxic fluids circulating within the crust. A parametric reaction transport model of oxygen behaviour in upper basement suggests oxygen consumption rates of 1 nmol  cm(-3)ROCK d(-1) or less in young and cool basaltic crust.

  20. Measurement of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates in mouse primary neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sofia M; Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Danial, Nika N

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of microplate-based assays that measure extracellular fluxes in intact, living cells has revolutionized the field of cellular bioenergetics. Here, we describe a method for real time assessment of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates in primary mouse cortical neurons and astrocytes. This method requires the Extracellular Flux Analyzer Instrument (XF24, Seahorse Biosciences), which uses fluorescent oxygen sensors in a microplate assay format.

  1. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Omili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oral health condition and lifestyle in term of tobacco use and alcohol consumption of custodian of prisons have been left unstudied. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and self-rated oral health among Nigerian prison officials. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among prison officials working in Abuja, Nassarawa and Kano prison yards between March and June 2011 using 28-item self-administered questionnaire as a tool of data collection. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors, oral health conditions, tobacco use, pattern and quit attempts, alcohol consumption, type and pattern. Results: The participants were aged between 20 and 51 years, with a mean age of 32.25 ± 6.13 years. The majority of the participants were males (66.4%), Christians (76.7%), junior officials (78.1%) and of Northern origin (50.7%). A total of 50 (34.2%) of the participants indicated that they were tobacco users and 39 (78.0%) indulged in cigarette smoking only. Of the study participants, 67 (45.9%) indicated they consume alcohol, beer majorly and gin rarely with 23 (34.3%) consuming it excessively. The dominant tooth cleaning device utilized by the participants was toothbrush and toothpaste, and 65 (44.5%) had visited the dentists with the majority of the visit done >5 years ago. About one-third 57 (39.0%) reported experiencing one or more forms of oral disease. However, it was only 17 (11.6%) of them that rated their oral health poor/fair, and the determinants of self-rated oral health were age, rank, and oral health condition. Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and

  2. Oxygen production/consumption rates in the upper layer of the northwestern subtropical North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubono, K.; Suga, T.; Sukigara, C.; Kobayashi, T.; Hosoda, S.

    2010-12-01

    The cycling of nutrients in the subtropical gyre is crucial in sustaining primary production and the biological pump. Recently it has been proposed that subtropical mode water (STMW) and its subduction processes play a major role in sustaining nutrient distribution in the permanent pycnocline in the subtropical gyres and also facilitating nutrient supply to the euphotic zone. It is not easy, however, to describe temporal evolution of nutrients themselves associated with those processes over a few months to a year or so. As an alternative approach, we examine temporal evolution of dissolved oxygen, which increases or decreases associated with the nutrient utilization by primary production or its production by remineralization. We analyze time-series data of dissolved oxygen obtained by profiling floats drifting over several months to a year in the upper layer of the northwestern subtropical North Pacific. The purpose of this study is to document the temporal variation of dissolved oxygen in STMW and its adjacent layers, to estimate oxygen production/consumption rates at each vertical level, and to discuss their implication in nutrient cycle. The dissolved oxygen in the subsurface layer centered at 50-70 m continuously increased over a few months after the formation of the seasonal pycnocline, resulting in a distinctive shallow oxygen maximum (SOM). Since the SOM is insulated from the atmosphere, the net increase in its oxygen concentration must be attributable to biological oxygen production. On the other hand, a continuous decrease in dissolved oxygen over several months is observed in the layer below 100 m probably due to biological consumption. The estimation of the oxygen production/consumption rates is done by applying the least square method for the time series of dissolved oxygen either at each depth or each isopycnal surface. The Net Community Production (NCP) is estimated for the depth range of 0-100m, where the remarkable oxygen increase occurs. The

  3. ON THE RATE OF OXYGEN CONSUMPTION BY FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZED EGGS

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, D. M.

    1931-01-01

    1. The unfertilized eggs of Fucus vesiculosus, in the dark, consume about 5.2 mm.3 O2 per hour per 10 mm.3 eggs. 2. With an illumination of 100,000 foot candles in photosynthesis they liberate more than twice as much oxygen as they consume. 3. The actively swimming antherozoids or sperm of Fucus consume oxygen at a very high rate: 25.5 mm.3 O2 per hour per 10 mm.3 antherozoids. 4. Immediately following fertilization, in the dark, the Fucus eggs increase the rate of oxygen consumption to about 190 per cent of the prefertilization rate. 5. This rate for fertilized eggs, about 190 per cent, is maintained uniformly for 13 or 14 hours, after which there is a barely perceptible rise until 24 hours (when measurements ceased). At 18°C. 50 per cent of the spores in a population have completed the first cell division about 15 hours after fertilization. PMID:19872637

  4. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A. M.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7 % of males and 4.3 % of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6 % and 6.1 % respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90 %), and many eat fish at restaurants (65 % and 48 %, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. PMID:24926920

  5. Estimating streambed travel times and respiration rates based on temperature and oxygen consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen consumption is a common proxy for aerobic respiration and novel in situ measurement techniques with high spatial resolution enable an accurate determination of the oxygen distribution in the streambed. The oxygen concentration at a certain location in the streambed depends on the input concentration, the respiration rate, temperature, and the travel time of the infiltrating flowpath. While oxygen concentrations and temperature can directly be measured, respiration rate and travel time must be estimated from the data. We investigated the interplay of these factors using a 6 month long, 5-min resolution dataset collected in a 3rdorder gravel-bed stream. Our objective was twofold, to determine transient rates of hyporheic respiration and to estimate travel times in the streambed based solely on oxygen and temperature measurements. Our results show that temperature and travel time explains ~70% of the variation in oxygen concentration in the streambed. Independent travel times were obtained using natural variations in the electrical conductivity (EC) of the stream water as tracer (µ=4.1 h; σ=2.3 h). By combining these travel times with the oxygen consumption, we calculated a first order respiration rate (µ=9.7 d-1; σ=6.1 d-1). Variations in the calculated respiration rate are largely explained by variations in streambed temperature. An empirical relationship between our respiration rate and temperature agrees with the theoretical Boltzmann-Arrhenius equation. With this relationship, a temperature-based respiration rate can be estimated and used to re-estimate subsurface travel times. The resulting travel times distinctively resemble the EC-derived travel times (R20.47; Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient 0.32). Both calculations of travel time are correlated to stream water levels and increase during discharge events, enhancing the oxygen consumption for these periods. No other physical factors besides temperature were significantly correlated with the respiration

  6. Brazil's resolutions to regulate the sale of antibiotics: Impact on consumption and Escherichia coli resistance rates.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Karen P H; Visacri, Marília B; Quintanilha, Júlia C F; Lloret, Gustavo R; Cursino, Maria A; Levin, Anna S; Levy, Carlos E; Moriel, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of two resolutions to restrict antibiotic use (RDCs no. 44/2010 and 20/2011) in the Campinas metropolitan area (Sao Paulo, Brazil) on antibiotic consumption, resistance rates, and trends in Escherichia coli-causing community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI). The annual retail sale information of antibiotics from drugstores in the Campinas metropolitan area between 2008 and 2012 were obtained through the Intercontinental Medical Statistics Health of Brazil. The daily-defined dose (DDD)/1000 inhabitants/day was calculated from these data to measure consumption. To examine resistance rates, we performed an observational retrospective study in a Campinas teaching hospital, where urinary cultures from outpatients with a clinical suspicion of UTI between October 2009 and September 2015 were analyzed. We observed an increase in rates of antibiotic sales from 2008 to 2011 (cephalosporin: 216.8%, quinolones: 170.9%, aminopenicillins: 140.9%), followed by a decrease in sales in 2012 (cephalosporin: 19.4%, quinolones: 12.7%, aminopenicillins: 11.1%). Sale of nitrofurans, however, did not significantly change during this period. In the retrospective analysis, we observed a significant increasing trend of E. coli resistance for all antibiotic classes, except nitrofurans and folate pathway inhibitors. We found changes in antibiotic consumption, with an initial increase, followed by a decrease in sales after implementation of the resolutions. However, bacterial resistance does not appear to be affected by the RDCs. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developmental patterns of O2 consumption, heart rate and O2 pulse in unturned eggs.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J T; Haque, M A; Hou, P C; Tazawa, H

    1996-01-01

    The effects of failure to turn eggs on the developmental patterns of oxygen consumption (MO2), heart rate (fH) and O2 pulse during the second half of incubation of individual chicken eggs were examined. The MO2 of unturned eggs increased at a significantly lower rate than the control toward the end of prenatal incubation, and the plateau MO2 between day 17 and 19 was significantly lower than the control. Lack of turning also resulted in significant changes in the developmental patterns of fH and O2 pulse. It is suggested that the effects of lack of egg-turning on the developmental patterns of MO2 may be attributable to lower embryonic growth rate in addition to impairment of gas exchange through the chorioallantoic gas exchanger.

  8. Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Luarte, T; Bonta, C C; Silva-Rodriguez, E A; Quijón, P A; Miranda, C; Farias, A A; Duarte, C

    2016-11-01

    The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem.

  9. [Effects of temperature and salinity on oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point of Sagitta crassa].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Liu, Fang; Ding, Zi-Yuan

    2011-11-01

    A laboratory test was conducted to study the effects of different temperature and salinity on the oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point of chaetognath Sagitta crassa. Both temperature and salinity had significant effects on the oxygen consumption rate (IO) and specific oxygen consumption rate (SO) of S. crassa. When the temperature raised from 5 degrees C to 25 degrees C, the IO and SO of S. crassa increased first, and then presented an obvious decreasing trend, with the regression function being y = 0.0058x3-0.2956x2 +4.415x-8.7816 (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.05) for IO and y = 0.0011x3-0.0546x2+0.8161x-1.6232 (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.05) for SO. The IO and SO at different temperature were in the ranges of 6.30-11.71 microg x ind(-1) x h(-1) and 1.22-2.16 microg x mg(-1) x h(-1), respectively, and the asphyxiation point was 4.18-6.87 mg x L(-1). When the salinity increased from 10 to 40, the IO and SO of S. crassa decreased gradually, with the regression function being y = -0.0068x2-0.1412x+21.702 (R2 = 0.89, P < 0.05) for IO and y = -0.0013x2 -0.0261x+ 4.0114 (R2 = 0.89, P < 0.05) for SO. The IO and SO at different salinity were in the ranges of 4.98-17.73 microg x ind(-1) x h(-1) and 0.92-3.56 microg x mg(-1) x h(-1), respectively, and the asphyxiation point was 4.02-6.24 mg x L(-1). Based on the differences in the oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point between S. crassa and other aquatic animals, it was concluded that S. crassa was a stenooxybiotic zooplankton species.

  10. Health Care Consumption among Elderly Patients in California: A Comprehensive 10-Year Evaluation of Trends in Hospitalization Rates and Charges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koziol, James A.; Zuraw, Bruce L.; Christiansen, Sandra C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This report examines health care rates, charges, and patterns of consumption from a comprehensive California hospitalization data set covering 1986-1995. An improved understanding of current trends in health care consumption would facilitate the development of future resource allocation models. Design and Methods: We obtained discharge…

  11. Health Care Consumption among Elderly Patients in California: A Comprehensive 10-Year Evaluation of Trends in Hospitalization Rates and Charges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koziol, James A.; Zuraw, Bruce L.; Christiansen, Sandra C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This report examines health care rates, charges, and patterns of consumption from a comprehensive California hospitalization data set covering 1986-1995. An improved understanding of current trends in health care consumption would facilitate the development of future resource allocation models. Design and Methods: We obtained discharge…

  12. A microwell array device capable of measuring single-cell oxygen consumption rates

    PubMed Central

    Molter, Timothy W.; McQuaide, Sarah C.; Suchorolski, Martin T.; Strovas, Tim J.; Burgess, Lloyd W.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Due to interest in cell population heterogeneity, the development of new technology and methodologies for studying single cells has dramatically increased in recent years. The ideal single cell measurement system would be high throughput for statistical relevance, would measure the most important cellular parameters, and minimize disruption of normal cell function. We have developed a microwell array device capable of measuring single cell oxygen consumption rates (OCR). This OCR device is able to diffusionally isolate single cells and enables the quantitative measurement of oxygen consumed by a single cell with fmol/min resolution in a non-invasive and relatively high throughput manner. A glass microwell array format containing fixed luminescent sensors allows for future incorporation of additional cellular parameter sensing capabilities. To demonstrate the utility of the OCR device, we determined the oxygen consumption rates of a small group of single cells (12 to 18) for three different cells lines: murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7, human epithelial lung cancer cell line A549, and human Barrett’s esophagus cell line CP-D. PMID:20084089

  13. A new method for measuring the oxygen diffusion constant and oxygen consumption rate of arteriolar walls.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Nobuhiko; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Ushiyama, Akira; Minamitani, Haruyuki

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen transport is believed to primarily occur via capillaries and depends on the oxygen tension gradient between the vessels and tissues. As blood flows along branching arterioles, the O(2) saturation drops, indicating either consumption or diffusion. The blood flow rate, the O(2) concentration gradient, and Krogh's O(2) diffusion constant (K) of the vessel wall are parameters affecting O(2)delivery. We devised a method for evaluating K of arteriolar wall in vivo using phosphorescence quenching microscopy to measure the partial pressure of oxygen in two areas almost simultaneously. The K value of arteriolar wall (inner diameter, 63.5 ± 11.9 μm; wall thickness, 18.0 ± 1.2 μm) was found to be 6.0 ± 1.2 × 10(-11) (cm(2)/s)(ml O(2)·cm(-3) tissue·mmHg(-1)). The arteriolar wall O(2) consumption rate (M) was 1.5 ± 0.1 (ml O(2)·100 cm(-3) tissue·min(-1)), as calculated using Krogh's diffusion equation. These results suggest that the arteriolar wall consumes a considerable proportion of the O(2) that diffuses through it.

  14. Quinalphos induced alteration in respiratory rate and food consumption of freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Muttappa, K; Reddy, H R V; Rajesh, Mridula; Padmanabha, A

    2014-03-01

    Acute toxicity of commercial grade organophosphate insecticide, quinalphos (25% emulsified concentration) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was tested through bioassay. The acute toxicity of quinalphos to the fingerlings exposed for 96 hr was found to be 2.75 ppm. For sub lethal toxicity study, the fish were exposed to two concentration viz., 1/10th of LC50 (0.275 ppm) and 1/5th of LC50 (0.55 ppm) along with lethal concentration (2.75 ppm) as reference for 48 hr. The carps were under stress and mortality was insignificant in both sub lethal and lethal concentrations. However, considerable variation in respiration rate and food consumption rate was observed in both lethal and sublethal concentrations. The alteration observed in the physiological condition may be a consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological stress by fish against quinalphos.

  15. Metabolic rates, food consumption and thermoregulation in seasonal acclimatization of the Cape porcupine Hystrix africaeaustralis.

    PubMed

    Haim, A; Van Aarde, R J; Skinner, J D

    1990-06-01

    Metabolic rates by means of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) at various ambient temperatures (T (a)) and food consumption as well as water intake and thermoregulation were compared between individuals of the Cape porcupine Hystrix africaeaustralis acclimated to T (a)=32°C with a photoperiod of 16L:8D summer-acclimated and T (a)=10°C; 8L:16D winter-acclimated. The lower critical temperature as well as overall minimal thermal conductance were lower for the winter-acclimated porcupines when compared to summer-acclimated ones, while VO(2) at the thermoneutral-zone was significantly (P<0.001) higher in the winter-acclimated porcupines. Dry matter intake, apparent digestible dry matter intake, gross digestible energy intake, as well as water intake, were significantly higher in the winter-acclimated porcupines. Yet, while dry matter intake increased 4 times in the winter-acclimated porcupines, apparent digestible dry matter increased only at a rate of 2.9 times. This difference is better reflected in terms of digestibility efficiency which in the winter-acclimated porcupines is only at a rate of 67.5% while in the summer-acclimated porcupines it is at a rate of 90%. From the results of this study, it is possible to assume that heat production in the winter-acclimated porcupines is partly increased by food intake. Increased heat production on the one hand, and a decrease in overall minimal thermal conductance on the other, seem to be important mechanisms in winter acclimatization of the Cape porcupine.

  16. Hip fracture rates and bisphosphonate consumption in Spain. An ecologic study.

    PubMed

    Arias, L H Martín; Treceño, C; García-Ortega, P; Rodríguez-Paredes, J; Escudero, A; Sáinz, M; Salado, I; Velasco, V; Carvajal, A

    2013-03-01

    Bisphosphonates are used worldwide to treat osteoporosis and, thus, to prevent fractures. Though they have been proven in clinical trials to avoid some fractures, their effectiveness in reducing hip fractures is unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between bisphosphonate use and hip fracture trends in Spain. For this purpose, an ecologic study spanning 2002 to 2008 was conducted in Spain. Consumption data were obtained from the Spanish Ministry of Health and Social Policy. The number of hip fractures was obtained from hospital discharges; annual hip fracture rates were determined and standardized using the Spanish 2002 population census. A linear regression was performed between fracture rate and use of bisphosphonates; R(2) and Pearson correlation coefficient were calculated. From 2002 to 2008, dispensed prescriptions of bisphosphonates in Spain increased from 3.28 to 17.66 DDD/1,000 inhabitants per day. In the same period, the crude hip fracture rate increased from 2.85 to 3.02 cases per 1,000 inhabitants older than 50 years; however, when age standardized rates were estimated, the rate declined from 2.85 to 2.79. Analyzed by sex, the standardized rate for men slightly increased from 1.45 to 1.48, while for women the rate significantly dropped from 4.00 to 3.91. A small effect of bisphosphonates on hip fracture rates can not be ruled out; however, other factors might partially explain this decline. Assuming this medication was the only cause for hip fracture rate reduction, the elevated medication cost to avoid a single hip fracture makes it necessary to explore less expensive interventions.

  17. Differences in reported satisfaction ratings by consumptive and nonconsumptive recreationists: A comparative analysis of three decades of research

    Treesearch

    Jennifer M. Roemer; Jerry J. Vaske

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates a previous comparative analysis article (Vaske et al. 1982) by analyzing differences in satisfaction ratings reported by consumptive and nonconsumptive recreationists over a 30-year period.

  18. Consumption rates and prey preference of the invasive gastropod Rapana venosa in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savini, Dario; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2006-05-01

    The alien Asian gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenciennes 1846) was first recorded in 1973 along the Italian coast of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Recently, this predator of bivalves has been spreading all around the world oceans, probably helped by ship traffic and aquaculture trade. A caging experiment in natural environment was performed during the summer of 2002 in Cesenatico (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) in order to estimate consumption rates and prey preference of R. venosa. The prey items chosen were the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819), the introduced carpet clam Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850), both supporting the local fisheries, and the Indo-Pacific invasive clam Anadara (Scapharca) inaequivalvis (Bruguière 1789). Results showed an average consumption of about 1 bivalve prey per day (or 1.2 g wet weight per day). Predation was species and size selective towards small specimens of A. inaequivalvis; consumption of the two commercial species was lower. These results might reduce the concern about the economical impact on the local bivalve fishery due to the presence of the predatory gastropod. On the other hand, selective predation might probably alter local community structure, influencing competition amongst filter feeder/suspension feeder bivalve species and causing long-term ecological impact. The large availability of food resource and the habitat characteristics of the Emilia-Romagna littoral makes this area an important breeding ground for R. venosa in the Mediterranean Sea, thus worthy of consideration in order to understand the bioinvasion ecology of this species and to control its likely further dispersal.

  19. Oxygen consumption rates and oxygen concentration in molt-4 cells and their mtDNA depleted (rho0) mutants.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiangang; Khan, Nadeem; Lewis, Lionel D; Armand, Ray; Grinberg, Oleg; Demidenko, Eugene; Swartz, Harold

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory deficient cell lines are being increasingly used to elucidate the role of mitochondria and to understand the pathophysiology of mitochondrial genetic disease. We have investigated the oxygen consumption rates and oxygen concentration in wild-type (WT) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depleted (rho(0)) Molt-4 cells. Wild-type Molt-4 cells have moderate oxygen consumption rates, which were significantly reduced in the rho(0) cells. PCMB (p-chloromercurobenzoate) inhibited the oxygen consumption rates in both WT and rho(0) cells, whereas potassium cyanide decreased the oxygen consumption rates only in WT Molt-4 cells. Menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB) increased the oxygen consumption rates in both cell lines, whereas CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone) stimulated the oxygen consumption rates only in WT Molt-4 cells. Superoxide radical adducts were observed in both WT and rho(0) cells when stimulated with MSB. The formation of this adduct was inhibited by PCMB but not by potassium cyanide. These results suggest that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by MSB were at least in part produced via a mitochondrial independent pathway. An oxygen gradient between the extra- and intracellular compartments was observed in WT Molt-4 cells, which further increased when cells were stimulated by CCCP and MSB. The results are consistent with our earlier findings suggesting that such oxygen gradients may be a general phenomenon found in most or all cell systems under appropriate conditions.

  20. The relationship between heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption in Galapagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) at two different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Butler, Patrick J; Frappell, Peter B; Wang, Tobias; Wikelski, Martin

    2002-07-01

    To enable the use of heart rate (fH) for estimating field metabolic rate (FMR) in free-ranging Galapagos marine iguanas Amblyrhynchus cristatus, we determined the relationships between fH and mass-specific rate of oxygen consumption (sVO2) in seven iguanas before and during exercise on a treadmill and during the post-exercise period. The experiments were conducted at 27 and 35 degrees C, which are the temperatures that represent the lowest and highest average body temperatures of these animals in the field during summer. There were linear and significant relationships between fH and sVO2 at both temperatures (r(2)=0.86 and 0.91 at 27 degrees C and 36 degrees C, respectively). The slopes of the two regression lines did not differ, but there were significant differences in their intercepts. Thus, while heart rate can be used to predict FMR, the effects of temperature on the intercept of the regression must be taken into account when converting fH to sVO2. On the basis of our data, this can be achieved by applying the following formula: sVO2=0.0113fH-0.2983Q(10)((T(b)-27)/10). The increase in sVO2 with elevated body temperature results from an increase in fH, with no significant change in mass-specific oxygen pulse (sO(2) pulse; cardiac stroke volume times the difference in oxygen content between arterial and mixed venous blood). However, during exercise at both temperatures, increases in fH are insufficient to provide all of the additional O(2) required and there are also significant increases in the sO(2) pulses. This creates the situation whereby the same fH at the two temperatures can represent different values of sVO2.

  1. Comparison of Oxygen Consumption Rates of Nondegenerate and Degenerate Human IVD Cells.

    PubMed

    Cisewski, Sarah E; Wu, Yongren; Damon, Brooke J; Sachs, Barton L; Kern, Michael J; Yao, Hai

    2017-05-24

    In vitro measurements of the oxygen consumption rates (OCR) of human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. To determine the differences in the OCR of nondegenerate and degenerate human annulus fibrosus (AF), nucleus pulposus (NP), and cartilage endplate (CEP) cells at different glucose concentrations. The avascular nature of the IVD creates a delicate balance between rate of nutrient transport through the matrix and rate of disc cell consumption necessary to maintain tissue health. Previous studies have shown a dependence of OCR for animal (e.g. bovine and porcine) IVD cells on oxygen level and glucose concentration. However, the OCR of nondegenerate human IVD cells compared to degenerate human IVD cells at different glucose concentrations has not been investigated. IVD cells were isolated from the AF, NP, and CEP regions of human cadaver spines and surgical samples. The changes in oxygen concentration were recorded when cells were sealed in a metabolic chamber. The OCR of cells was determined by curve fitting using the Michaelis-Menton equation. Under identical cell culture conditions, the OCR of degenerate human IVD cells was 3-5 times greater than that of nondegenerate human IVD cells. The degenerate IVD cells cultured in low glucose medium (1 mM) exhibited the highest OCR compared to degenerate cells cultured at higher glucose levels (i.e., 5 mM, 25 mM), while no significant differences in OCR was found among the nondegenerate IVD cells for all glucose levels. Considering the significantly higher OCR and unique response to glucose of degenerate human IVD cells, the degeneration of the IVD is associated with a cell phenotypic change related to OCR. The OCR of IVD cells reported in this study will be valuable for understanding human IVD cellular behavior and tissue nutrition in response to disc degeneration. N/A.

  2. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals.

  3. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  4. Protein expression and oxygen consumption rate of early postmortem mitochondria relate to meat tenderness.

    PubMed

    Grabež, V; Kathri, M; Phung, V; Moe, K M; Slinde, E; Skaugen, M; Saarem, K; Egelandsdal, B

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of muscle fibers from bovine semimembranosus muscle of 41 animals was investigated 3 to 4 h and 3 wk postmortem. Significant relations (P < 0.05) were found between OCR measurements and Warner-Bratzler shear force measurement. Muscles with high mitochondrial OCR after 3 to 4 h and low nonmitochondrial oxygen consumption gave more tender meat. Tender (22.92 ± 2.2 N/cm2) and tough (72.98 ± 7.2 N/cm2) meat samples (4 samples each), separated based on their OCR measurements, were selected for proteomic studies using mitochondria isolated approximately 2.5 h postmortem. Twenty-six differently expressed proteins (P < 0.05) were identified in tender meat and 19 in tough meat. In tender meat, the more prevalent antioxidant and chaperon enzymes may reduce reactive oxygen species and prolong oxygen removal by the electron transport system (ETS). Glycolytic, Krebs cycle, and ETS enzymes were also more abundant in tender meat

  5. Body temperature and rate of O2 consumption in Chinese pangolins.

    PubMed

    Heath, M E; Hammel, H T

    1986-03-01

    Body temperatures and rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were measured in four Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) during short-term exposures (2-4 h) to ambient temperatures (Ta) of 10-34 degrees C. At Ta less than 27 degrees C the pangolins curled into a sphere. At Ta greater than 28 degrees C the animals laid on their backs with their soft abdominal skin exposed. Rectal temperatures between 33.4 and 35.5 degrees C were recorded from animals exposed to Ta of 10-32 degrees C. At Ta greater than or equal to 32 degrees C the animals appeared to be markedly heat stressed, rate of breathing was elevated, and core temperature rose somewhat. Resting metabolic rates averaged 3.06 ml O2 X kg-1 X min-1. This is significantly lower than would be predicted from the relationship between body mass and metabolic rate established by Kleiber (The Fire of Life: an Introduction to Animal Energetics. New York: Wiley, 1975) for other eutherian mammals. The magnitude of the metabolic response to Ta below the lower critical temperature was inversely correlated to the mass of the pangolin, the slope being greatest for the smallest animals. Respiratory quotients of 0.85-1.0 were observed.

  6. Acclimation to constant and variable temperatures in plethodontid salamanders--I. Rates of oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Feder, M E

    1985-01-01

    In preliminary experiments, salamanders of three species (Desmognathus ochrophaeus, Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon jordani) required 5-11 days to complete metabolic acclimation to a constant warm temperature; the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) decreased 16-28% during acclimation. Unfed animals of each species underwent cyclic exposure to 5 and 21 degrees C at three different cycle periods (12 hr, 4-5 days, 51 days), or constant exposure to 14 degrees C for 102 days. The experimental treatments significantly affected the VO2 measured at 5, 14, 17.5 and 21 degrees C. The direction and magnitude of the acclimatory effects upon VO2 were inconsistent among species and among experimental temperatures, and resulted in little energy saving. The VO2 during exposure to cyclic temperatures averaged only 83% of that during preliminary experiments, perhaps as a response to starvation.

  7. Tide-related biological rhythm in the oxygen consumption rate of ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea uncinata).

    PubMed

    Leiva, Félix P; Niklitschek, Edwin J; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Urbina, Mauricio A

    2016-07-01

    The effects of tidal height (high and low), acclimation to laboratory conditions (days in captivity) and oxygen level (hypoxia and normoxia) were evaluated in the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata We evaluated the hypothesis that N. uncinata reduces its OCR during low tide and increases it during high tide, regardless of oxygen level or acclimation. Additionally, the existence of an endogenous rhythm in OCR was explored, and we examined whether it synchronized with tidal, diurnal or semidiurnal cycles. Unexpectedly, high OCRs were observed at low tide, during normoxia, in non-acclimated animals. Results from a second, longer experiment under normoxic conditions suggested the presence of a tide-related metabolic rhythm, a response pattern not yet demonstrated for a burrowing decapod. Although rhythms persisted for only 2 days after capture, their period of 12.8 h closely matched the semidiurnal tidal cycle that ghost shrimp confront inside their burrows.

  8. Effect of exercise intensity on post-exercise oxygen consumption and heart rate recovery.

    PubMed

    Mann, Theresa N; Webster, Christopher; Lamberts, Robert P; Lambert, Michael I

    2014-09-01

    There is some evidence that measures of acute post-exercise recovery are sensitive to the homeostatic stress of the preceding exercise and these measurements warrant further investigation as possible markers of training load. The current study investigated which of four different measures of metabolic and autonomic recovery was most sensitive to changes in exercise intensity. Thirty-eight moderately trained runners completed 20-min bouts of treadmill exercise at 60, 70 and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and four different recovery measurements were determined: the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOCMAG), the time constant of the oxygen consumption recovery curve (EPOCτ), heart rate recovery within 1 min (HRR60s) and the time constant of the heart rate recovery curve (HRRτ) . Despite significant differences in exercise parameters at each exercise intensity, only EPOCMAG showed significantly slower recovery with each increase in exercise intensity at the group level and in the majority of individuals. EPOCτ was significantly slower at 70 and 80% of VO₂max vs. 60% VO₂max and HRRτ was only significantly slower when comparing the 80 vs. 60% VO₂max exercise bouts. In contrast, HRR60s reflected faster recovery at 70 and 80% of VO₂max than at 60% VO₂max. Of the four recovery measurements investigated, EPOCMAG was the most sensitive to changes in exercise intensity and shows potential to reflect changes in the homeostatic stress of exercise at the group and individual level. Determining EPOCMAG may help to interpret the homeostatic stress of laboratory-based research trials or training sessions.

  9. Detection of the oxygen consumption rate of migrating zebrafish by electrochemical equalization systems.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Koide, Masahiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Abe, Ryoko; Shiku, Hitoshi; Mizutani, Fumio; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-01-07

    A novel measurement system to determine oxygen consumption rates via respiration in migrating Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been developed. A signal equalization system was adapted to detect oxygen in a chamber with one fish, because typical electrochemical techniques cannot measure respiration activities for migrating organisms. A closed chamber was fabricated using a pipet tip attached to a Pt electrode, and a columnar Vycor glass tip was used as the salt bridge. Pt electrode, which was attached to the chamber with one zebrafish, and Ag electrode were immersed in 10 mM potassium iodide (KI), and both the electrodes were connected externally to form a galvanic cell. Pt and Ag electrodes act as the cathode and anode to reduce oxygen and oxidize silver, respectively, allowing the deposition of insoluble silver iodide (AgI). The AgI acts as the signal source accumulated on the Ag electrode by conversion of oxygen. The amount of AgI deposited on the Ag electrode was determined by cathodic stripping voltammetry. The presence of zebrafish or its embryo led to a decrease in the stripping currents generated by a 10 min conversion of oxygen to AgI. The conversion of oxygen to AgI is disturbed by the migration of the zebrafish and allows the detection of different equalized signals corresponding to respiration activity. The oxygen consumption rates of the zebrafish and its embryo were estimated and determined to be ∼4.1 and 2.4 pmol·s(-1), respectively. The deposited AgI almost completely disappeared with a single stripping process. The signal equalization system provides a method to determine the respiration activities for migrating zebrafish and could be used to estimate environmental risk and for effective drug screening.

  10. 1990 Fuel consumption guide: Ratings for new cars, pick-up trucks and vans. Annual publication

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This guide has been prepared to assist the consumer in purchasing the most fuel-efficient new vehicle. Information on automobiles includes factors affecting fuel consumption, the fuel consumption labelling program, and the car economy book. Consumption for pick-up trucks, vans and special purpose vehicles is also provided.

  11. Caffeine Consumption and Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Response to Regadenoson.

    PubMed

    Bitar, Abbas; Mastouri, Ronald; Kreutz, Rolf P

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend that caffeinated products should be avoided for at least 12 hours prior to regadenoson administration. We intended to examine the effect of caffeine consumption and of timing of last dose on hemodynamic effects after regadenoson administration for cardiac stress testing. 332 subjects undergoing regadenoson stress testing were enrolled. Baseline characteristics, habits of coffee/caffeine exposure, baseline vital signs and change in heart rate, blood pressure, percent of maximal predicted heart rate, and percent change in heart rate were prospectively collected. Non-coffee drinkers (group 1) (73 subjects) and subjects who last drank coffee >24 hours (group 3) (139 subjects) prior to regadenoson did not demonstrate any difference in systolic blood pressure, heart rate change, maximal predicted heart rate and percent change in heart rate. Systolic blood pressure change (15.2±17.1 vs. 7.2±10.2 mmHg, p = 0.001), heart rate change (32.2±14 vs. 27.3±9.6 bpm, p = 0.038) and maximal predicted heart rate (65.5±15.6 vs. 60.7±8.6%, p = 0.038) were significantly higher in non-coffee drinkers (group 1) compared to those who drank coffee 12-24 hours prior (group 2) (108 subjects). Subjects who drank coffee >24 hours prior (group 3) exhibited higher systolic blood pressure change (13±15.8 vs. 7±10.2, p = 0.007), and heart rate change (32.1±15.3 vs. 27.3±9.6, p = 0.017) as compared to those who drank coffee 12-24 hours prior to testing (group 2). Caffeine exposure 12-24 hours prior to regadenoson administration attenuates the vasoactive effects of regadenoson, as evidenced by a blunted rise in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that caffeine exposure within 24 hours may reduce the effects of regadenoson administered for vasodilatory cardiac stress testing.

  12. Caffeine Consumption and Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Response to Regadenoson

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Abbas; Mastouri, Ronald; Kreutz, Rolf P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines recommend that caffeinated products should be avoided for at least 12 hours prior to regadenoson administration. We intended to examine the effect of caffeine consumption and of timing of last dose on hemodynamic effects after regadenoson administration for cardiac stress testing. Methods 332 subjects undergoing regadenoson stress testing were enrolled. Baseline characteristics, habits of coffee/caffeine exposure, baseline vital signs and change in heart rate, blood pressure, percent of maximal predicted heart rate, and percent change in heart rate were prospectively collected. Results Non-coffee drinkers (group 1) (73 subjects) and subjects who last drank coffee >24 hours (group 3) (139 subjects) prior to regadenoson did not demonstrate any difference in systolic blood pressure, heart rate change, maximal predicted heart rate and percent change in heart rate. Systolic blood pressure change (15.2±17.1 vs. 7.2±10.2 mmHg, p = 0.001), heart rate change (32.2±14 vs. 27.3±9.6 bpm, p = 0.038) and maximal predicted heart rate (65.5±15.6 vs. 60.7±8.6%, p = 0.038) were significantly higher in non-coffee drinkers (group 1) compared to those who drank coffee 12–24 hours prior (group 2) (108 subjects). Subjects who drank coffee >24 hours prior (group 3) exhibited higher systolic blood pressure change (13±15.8 vs. 7±10.2, p = 0.007), and heart rate change (32.1±15.3 vs. 27.3±9.6, p = 0.017) as compared to those who drank coffee 12–24 hours prior to testing (group 2). Conclusions Caffeine exposure 12–24 hours prior to regadenoson administration attenuates the vasoactive effects of regadenoson, as evidenced by a blunted rise in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that caffeine exposure within 24 hours may reduce the effects of regadenoson administered for vasodilatory cardiac stress testing. PMID:26098883

  13. Body downsizing caused by non-consumptive social stress severely depresses population growth rate.

    PubMed

    Edeline, Eric; Haugen, Thrond O; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2010-03-22

    Chronic social stress diverts energy away from growth, reproduction and immunity, and is thus a potential driver of population dynamics. However, the effects of social stress on demographic density dependence remain largely overlooked in ecological theory. Here we combine behavioural experiments, physiology and population modelling to show in a top predator (pike Esox lucius) that social stress alone may be a primary driver of demographic density dependence. Doubling pike density in experimental ponds under controlled prey availability did not significantly change prey intake by pike (i.e. did not significantly change interference or exploitative competition), but induced a neuroendocrine stress response reflecting a size-dependent dominance hierarchy, depressed pike energetic status and lowered pike body growth rate by 23 per cent. Assuming fixed size-dependent survival and fecundity functions parameterized for the Windermere (UK) pike population, stress-induced smaller body size shifts age-specific survival rates and lowers age-specific fecundity, which in Leslie matrices projects into reduced population rate of increase (lambda) by 37-56%. Our models also predict that social stress flattens elasticity profiles of lambda to age-specific survival and fecundity, thus making population persistence more dependent on old individuals. Our results suggest that accounting for non-consumptive social stress from competitors and predators is necessary to accurately understand, predict and manage food-web dynamics.

  14. Body downsizing caused by non-consumptive social stress severely depresses population growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Edeline, Eric; Haugen, Thrond O.; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Vøllestad, L. Asbjørn

    2010-01-01

    Chronic social stress diverts energy away from growth, reproduction and immunity, and is thus a potential driver of population dynamics. However, the effects of social stress on demographic density dependence remain largely overlooked in ecological theory. Here we combine behavioural experiments, physiology and population modelling to show in a top predator (pike Esox lucius) that social stress alone may be a primary driver of demographic density dependence. Doubling pike density in experimental ponds under controlled prey availability did not significantly change prey intake by pike (i.e. did not significantly change interference or exploitative competition), but induced a neuroendocrine stress response reflecting a size-dependent dominance hierarchy, depressed pike energetic status and lowered pike body growth rate by 23 per cent. Assuming fixed size-dependent survival and fecundity functions parameterized for the Windermere (UK) pike population, stress-induced smaller body size shifts age-specific survival rates and lowers age-specific fecundity, which in Leslie matrices projects into reduced population rate of increase (λ) by 37–56%. Our models also predict that social stress flattens elasticity profiles of λ to age-specific survival and fecundity, thus making population persistence more dependent on old individuals. Our results suggest that accounting for non-consumptive social stress from competitors and predators is necessary to accurately understand, predict and manage food-web dynamics. PMID:19923130

  15. Elevated Oxygen Consumption Rate in Response to Acute Low- Glucose Stress: Metformin Restores Rate to Normal Level

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emmanuel D.; Rogers, Steven C.; Zhang, Xiaomin; Azhar, Gohar; Wei, Jeanne Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of mortality among all age demographics in the United States, with the highest occurrence in populations aged 65 and older. Glucose levels, particularly hyperglycemia, are associated with the premature onset of age-related diseases including CVD. A major challenge in the treatment of elderly patients with chronically elevated blood glucose is the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes. Molecular mechanisms of hypoglycemia remain unclear, but are associated with premature onset of age-related-diseases. Here we report a mitochondrial metabolic profile assessing short-term (up to six hours) and longer-term (12–24 hours) durations of low-glucose stress. We observed that the antidiabetic biguanide and mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, metformin, can lower and restore the elevated oxygen consumption rate during shorter-term glucose stress to levels similar to that of cells cultured in normal glucose. This effect appears, in part, to involve activation of the 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). PMID:26256471

  16. Growth, condition, diet, and consumption rates of northern pike in three Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinders, J.M.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) introductions are controversial in the western United States due to suspected impacts they might have on established sport fisheries and potential illegal introductions. Tbree Arizona reservoirs, Parker Canyon Lake, Upper Lake Mary and Long Lake were sampled to examine the diet, consumption dynamics, and growth of northern pike. Northern pike diets varied by season and reservoir. In Parker Canyon Lake, diets were dominated by rainbow trout in winter and spring and bluegill and green sunfish in the fall. In Long Lake the northern pike ate crayfish in spring and early summer and switched to young of the year common carp in summer and fall. Black crappie, golden shiners, and crayfish were the major prey in Upper Lake Mary during spring, but they switched to stocked rainbow trout in the fall. Northern pike growth was in the high range of growth reported throughout the United States. Estimated northern pike specific consumption rate (scr) of rainbow trout (g/g/d ?? 10-6) was greatest in Upper Lake Mary (scr = 329.1 ?? 23.7 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where stocked fingerling (280 mm TL) rainbow trout stocked in Long Lake (scr = 1.4 ?? 0.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) and Parker Canyon Lake (scr = 287.2 ?? 15.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where catchable-sized rainbow trout were stocked. Managers should consider the cost-benefits of stocking fish >200 mm TL in lakes containing northern pike. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2008.

  17. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and oxygen pulse associated with selected exercise-to-muscle class elements.

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, P; Batman, P

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate and oxygen pulse associated with the constituent elements of an exercise-to-music class. Six women exercise-to-music leaders with a mean(s.d.) age, weight and height of 33.2(5.2) years, 51.0(2.8) kg and 157.9(5.6) cm respectively, completed five distinct exercise-to-music movement elements. The movement elements were of a locomoter (circuit, jump and low impact) and callisthenic (prone and side/supine) nature. The movement elements were distinguishable from one another in terms of their movement patterns, posture and tempo. Relative VO2 values were greatest for the circuit element (40.6 ml kg-1 min-1) and least for the side/supine element (20.0 ml kg-1 min-1). The differences in VO2 between the locomotrr and callisthenic elements were significant (circuit approximately jump approximately low impact > prone approximately side/supine). However, effect size data suggested that the differences between the low impact and jump elements and the prone and side/supine elements were of practical significance (circuit approximately jump > low impact > prone > side/supine). With a single exception similar parametric statistics and effect size trends were identified for absolute heart rate. Specifically, the heart rate associated with the low impact element was not significantly greater than the prone element. The oxygen pulse associated with the locomotor elements was significantly greater than the callisthenic elements (circuit approximately jump approximately low impact > prone > side/supine). This suggested that heart rate may be an inappropriate index for making comparisons between exercise-to-music elements. Reasons for differences in oxygen uptake values between movement elements are discussed. PMID:8044493

  18. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Rocke, Tonie E; Streich, Sean P; Brown, Nathanael L; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥ 65/ha (or ≥ 1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  19. A mesoscopic stochastic model for the specific consumption rate in substrate-limited microbial growth

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The specific consumption rate of substrate, as well as the associated specific growth rate, is an essential parameter in the mathematical description of substrate-limited microbial growth. In this paper we develop a completely new kinetic model of substrate transport, based on recent knowledge on the structural biology of transport proteins, which correctly describes very accurate experimental results at near-zero substrate concentration values found in the literature, where the widespread Michaelis-Menten model fails. Additionally, our model converges asymptotically to Michaelis-Menten predictions as substrate concentration increases. Instead of the single active site enzymatic reaction of Michaelis-Menten type, the proposed model assumes a multi-site kinetics, simplified as an apparent all-or-none mechanism for the transport, which is controlled by means of the local substrate concentration in the close vicinity of the transport protein. Besides, the model also assumes that this local concentration is not equal to the mean substrate concentration experimentally determined in the culture medium. Instead, we propose that it fluctuates with a mostly exponential distribution of Weibull type. PMID:28187189

  20. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Brown, Nathanael L.; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥65/ha (or ≥1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  1. Rate and mechanism of maximal oxygen consumption decline with aging: implications for exercise training.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Steven; Wiswell, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Because of the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on functional independence, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, tremendous interest has been directed towards describing the age-related change in maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)). Current evidence supports a 10% per decade decline in VO(2max) in men and women regardless of activity level. High-intensity exercise may reduce this loss by up to 50% in young and middle-aged men, but not older men, if maintained long term. Middle-aged and older women do not appear to be able to reduce loss rates in VO(2max) to less than 10% per decade, which may be related to estrogen status. However, maintaining high-intensity training seems limited to approximately one decade at best and to a select few individuals. While the factors limiting the ability to maintain high-intensity training are not completely known, aging most likely plays a role as studies have demonstrated that training maintenance becomes more difficult with advancing age. Age-related loss of VO(2max) seems to occur in a non-linear fashion in association with declines in physical activity. In sedentary individuals, this non-linear decline generally occurs during the twenties and thirties whereas athletic individuals demonstrate a non-linear decline upon decreasing or ceasing training. Non-linear loss rates are also demonstrated in individuals over the age of 70 years. The decline in VO(2max) seems to be due to both central and peripheral adaptations, primarily reductions in maximal heart rate (HR(max)) and lean body mass (LBM). Exercise training does not influence declines in HR(max), while LBM can be maintained to some degree by exercise. Recommendations for exercise training should include aerobic activities utilising guidelines established by the American College of Sports Medicine for improving CV fitness and health, as well as strength training activities for enhancing LBM.

  2. High rate of prey consumption in a small predatory fish on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, W. E.; Lönnstedt, O. M.; Bosiger, Y.; Martin, J.; Jones, G. P.; Rowe, R. J.; McCormick, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    Small piscivores are regarded as important regulators of the composition of coral reef fish communities, but few studies have investigated their predatory ecology or impact on assemblages of juvenile fishes. This study investigated the foraging ecology of a common coral reef predator, the dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus, using underwater focal animal observations. Observations were conducted at two times of year: the summer, when recruit fishes were an available food item and winter, when remaining juveniles had outgrown vulnerability to P. fuscus. During the summer, P. fuscus directed 76% of its strikes at invertebrates and 24% at recruiting juvenile fishes. When striking at fishes, P. fuscus exhibited two distinct feeding modes: an ambush (26% successful) and a pursuit mode (5% successful). Predator activity in the field peaked at midday, averaging 2.5 captures h-1 of juvenile fishes. Monitoring of activity and foraging in the laboratory over 24-h periods found that P. fuscus was a diurnal predator and was active for 13 h d-1 during the summer. The number of hours during which foraging was recorded differed greatly among individuals ( n = 10), ranging from 4 to 13 h. The number of predatory strikes did not increase with standard length, but the success rate and consumption rate of juvenile fishes did increase with size. Estimated hourly mortality on juvenile fish ranged from 0.49 fish h-1 in small P. fuscus individuals (30-39 mm standard length, SL; equating to 6.3 per 13 h day) to 2.4 fish h-1 in large P. fuscus individuals (55-65 mm SL; 30.6 per 13 h day). During the winter, P. fuscus struck at invertebrates with a similar rate to the summer period. These observations of the predatory ecology of P. fuscus support the hypothesis that in coral reef systems, small piscivores, because of their high metabolism and activity, are probably important regulators of coral reef fish community composition.

  3. Dynamic shear-stress-enhanced rates of nutrient consumption in gas-liquid semi-continuous-flow suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Laurence A.; Volpato, Fabio Z.; Paulino, Alexandre T.; Belfiore, Carol J.

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to establish guidelines for generating significant mammalian cell density in suspension bioreactors when stress-sensitive kinetics enhance the rate of nutrient consumption. Ultra-low-frequency dynamic modulations of the impeller (i.e., 35104 Hz) introduce time-dependent oscillatory shear into this transient analysis of cell proliferation under semi-continuous creeping flow conditions. Greater nutrient consumption is predicted when the amplitude A of modulated impeller rotation increases, and stress-kinetic contributions to nutrient consumption rates increase linearly at higher modulation frequency via an application of fluctuation-dissipation response. Interphase mass transfer is required to replace dissolved oxygen as it is consumed by aerobic nutrient consumption in the liquid phase. The theory and predictions described herein could be important at small length scales in the creeping flow regime where viscous shear is significant at the interface between the nutrient medium and isolated cells in suspension. Two-dimensional flow around spherically shaped mammalian cells, suspended in a Newtonian culture medium, is analyzed to calculate the surface-averaged magnitude of the velocity gradient tensor and modify homogeneous rates of nutrient consumption that are stimulated by viscous shear, via the formalism of stress-kinetic reciprocal relations that obey Curie's theorem in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Time constants for stress-free free and stress-sensitive stress nutrient consumption are defined and quantified to identify the threshold (i.e., stress,threshold) below which the effect of stress cannot be neglected in accurate predictions of bioreactor performance. Parametric studies reveal that the threshold time constant for stress-sensitive nutrient consumption stress,threshold decreases when the time constant for stress

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse among College Students: Alarming Rates among the Best and the Brightest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Hoffman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption at two college campuses, a "dry" urban campus and a "wet" rural campus. We examined alcohol consumption as a function of students' membership in: Greek Organizations, NCAA Varsity Athletic teams, or as being Unaffiliated in these groups. Participants: Two hundred eighty-eight…

  5. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse among College Students: Alarming Rates among the Best and the Brightest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Hoffman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption at two college campuses, a "dry" urban campus and a "wet" rural campus. We examined alcohol consumption as a function of students' membership in: Greek Organizations, NCAA Varsity Athletic teams, or as being Unaffiliated in these groups. Participants: Two hundred eighty-eight…

  6. Oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomšić, Sanja; Stanković, Suzana; Lucu, Čedomil

    2011-09-01

    Changes in oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity during early development were studied in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam. The oxygen consumption rate increased from 0.12 μmol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 in unfertilized eggs to 0.38 μmol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 25 min after fertilization. Specific activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase was significantly stimulated after fertilization, ranging up to 1.07 μmol Pi h-1 mg protein-1 in the late blastula stage and slightly lower values in the early and late pluteus stages.

  7. Human islet oxygen consumption rate and DNA measurements predict diabetes reversal in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Papas, K K; Colton, C K; Nelson, R A; Rozak, P R; Avgoustiniatos, E S; Scott, W E; Wildey, G M; Pisania, A; Weir, G C; Hering, B J

    2007-03-01

    There is a need for simple, quantitative and prospective assays for islet quality assessment that are predictive of islet transplantation outcome. The current state-of-the-art athymic nude mouse bioassay is costly, technically challenging and retrospective. In this study, we report on the ability of 2 parameters characterizing human islet quality: (1) oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measure of viable volume; and (2) OCR/DNA, a measure of fractional viability, to predict diabetes reversal in nude mice. Results demonstrate that the probability for diabetes reversal increases as the graft's OCR/DNA and total OCR increase. For a given transplanted OCR dose, diabetes reversal is strongly dependent on OCR/DNA. The OCR and OCR/DNA (the 'OCR test') data exhibit 89% sensitivity and 77% specificity in predicting diabetes reversal in nude mice (n = 86). We conclude that the prospective OCR test can effectively replace the retrospective athymic nude mouse bioassay in assessing human islet quality prior to islet transplantation.

  8. System for measuring oxygen consumption rates of mammalian cells in static culture under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yuki; Miyahara, Hirotaka; Ota, Yuri; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) of mammalian cells in hypoxic environments is essential for designing and developing a three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture system. However, OCR measurements under hypoxic conditions are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we developed a system for measuring OCRs at low oxygen levels. The system injects nitrogen gas into the environment and measures the oxygen concentration by an optical oxygen microsensor that consumes no oxygen. The developed system was applied to HepG2 cells in static culture. Specifically, we measured the spatial profiles of the local dissolved oxygen concentration in the medium, then estimated the OCRs of the cells. The OCRs, and also the pericellular oxygen concentrations, decreased nonlinearly as the oxygen partial pressure in the environment decreased from 19% to 1%. The OCRs also depended on the culture period and the matrix used for coating the dish surface. Using this system, we can precisely estimate the OCRs of various cell types under environments that mimic 3-D culture conditions, contributing crucial data for an efficient 3-D culture system design.

  9. Oxygen consumption and heart rate responses to isolated ballet exercise sets.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Dos Santos Cunha, Giovani; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Follmer, Bruno; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Ballet stage performances are associated with higher cardiorespiratory demand than rehearsals and classes. Hence, new interest is emerging to create periodized training that enhances dancers' fitness while minimizing delayed exercise-induced fatigue and possible injuries. Finding out in what zones of intensity dancers work during different ballet movements may support the use of supplemental training adjusted to the needs of the individual dancer. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to describe dancers' oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) responses during the performance of nine isolated ballet exercise sets, as correlated with their first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2). Twelve female ballet dancers volunteered for the study. Their maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), VT1, and VT2 were determined by use of an incremental treadmill test. Nine sets of ballet movements were assessed: pliés, tendus, jetés, rond de jambes, fondus, grand adage (adage), grand battements, temps levés, and sautés. The sets were randomly executed and separated by 5 minute rest periods. ANOVA for repeated measurements followed by the Bonferroni Post-hoc test were applied (p < 0.05). VO2 responses were as follows: pliés (17.6 ± 1.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)); tendus and adage were not significantly greater than VT1; rond de jambes (21.8 ± 3.1 ml·kg(-1) ·min(-1)); fondus and jetés were higher than VT1 and the previous exercises; grand battements (25.8 ± 2.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) was greater than all the other exercises and VT1; and VT2 was significantly higher than all ballet sets. This stratification followed closely, but not exactly, the variation in HR. For example, rond de jambes (156.8 ± 19 b·min(-1)) did not show any significant difference from all the other ballet sets, nor VT1 or VT2. It is concluded that the workloads of isolated ballet sets, based on VO2 responses, vary between low and moderate aerobic intensity in relation to dancers' VT1 and

  10. On-line monitoring of oxygen as a method to qualify the oxygen consumption rate of wines.

    PubMed

    Nevares, Ignacio; Martínez-Martínez, Víctor; Martínez-Gil, Ana; Martín, Roberto; Laurie, V Felipe; Del Álamo-Sanza, María

    2017-08-15

    Measuring the oxygen content during winemaking and bottle storage has become increasingly popular due to its impact on the sensory quality and longevity of wines. Nevertheless, only a few attempts to describe the kinetics of oxygen consumption based on the chemical composition of wines have been published. Therefore, this study proposes firstly a new fitting approach describing oxygen consuming kinetics and secondly the use of an Artificial Neural Network approach to describe and compare the oxygen avidity of wines according to their basic chemical composition (i.e. the content of ethanol, titratable acidity, total sulfur dioxide, total phenolics, iron and copper). The results showed no significant differences in the oxygen consumption rate between white and red wines, and allowed the sorting of the wines studied according to their oxygen consumption rate.

  11. Differences in the consumption rates and regulatory barriers to the accessibility of strong opioid analgesics in Israel and St. Petersburg.

    PubMed

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Pchelintsev, Michael V; Marom, Eli; Zvartau, Edwin E

    2012-01-01

    To compare trends in opioid consumption in Israel and St. Petersburg/Russia (morphine, oxycodone, pethidine, fentanyl, methadone, buprenorphine, trimeperidine, and papaveretum) over the period 2000-2008, and to describe the regulatory barriers to their accessibility as an exploratory variable for between-country differences. Data were drawn from the databases maintained by the Israel Ministry of Health's Pharmaceutical Administration and the St. Petersburg Central Pharmaceutical Reserve. The data were converted into a defined daily dose (DDD)/1,000 inhabitants/day. Regulation was evaluated according to the WHO guidelines for the assessment of national opioid regulation. The opioid consumption rates in Israel were substantially higher than those in St. Petersburg. The excess in DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day was for fentanyl +0.287 in 2000 and +1.206 in 2008, for morphine +0.245 in 2000 and +0.122 in 2008, and for pethidine/trimeperidine +0.035 in 2000 and +0.007 in 2008. Oxycodone consumption increased in Israel from 0.31 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day in 2000 to 0.46 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day in 2008, whereas this analgesic is not available in St. Petersburg. Methadone and buprenorphine consumption rose in Israel, whereas these drugs are not available in Russia. Conversely, omnopon consumption decreased in St. Petersburg from 0.0206 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day in 2000 to 0.00304 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day in 2008, whereas the compound is not available in Israel. St. Petersburg differs from Israel with less opioid formulary availability and greater regulatory restrictions. The results suggest that strong opioid analgesics consumption rates in St. Petersburg yield those in Israel, and that the between-countries differences in opioid formularies availability and legal and regulatory barriers to opioids accessibility are responsible for the consumption discrepancies.

  12. Association of water softness and heavy alcohol consumption with higher hospital admission rates for alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Mark; Riva, Antonio; Marks, Peter; Williams, Roger

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that regional variations in the prevalence of alcoholic liver disease are contributed to by regional variations in 'softness' of drinking water, i.e. its mineral content. Annual hospital admission rates for alcoholic liver disease per 100,000 population in the 28 Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs) existing in England over the period 2003-2006 were compared with regional measures of water hardness, alcohol consumption and social deprivation. As corroborative evidence, the same relations were examined for hospital admission rates for osteoporosis, a disorder with an already established link with calcium deficiency in drinking water (as well as with heavy drinking). Hospital admissions rates for alcoholic liver disease were higher in predominant-soft-water SHAs than with hard water SHAs. These areas, with one exception, were also associated with high alcohol consumption, but not with greater social deprivation. Hospital admission rates for osteoporosis were found to vary in a way similar to that for alcoholic liver disease, with significant correlations with soft water and alcohol consumption. Given experimental evidence that magnesium deficiency can aggravate liver damage from alcohol, soft water with its low magnesium concentration may be a factor additional to alcohol consumption in the development of liver damage. The parallel findings with osteoporosis admissions, explainable by low calcium and magnesium levels present in soft water, along with the known effect of heavy drinking on bone metabolism, provide corollary support for the hypothesis linking soft water with the pathogenesis of these two diseases.

  13. Oxygen consumption rates of grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) embryos exposed to the petroleum hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Hose, J E; Puffer, H W

    1984-12-01

    Bioconcentration of [14C]benzo[a]pyrene and effects of unlabeled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) accumulation on the routine oxygen consumption of embryonic grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) were studied. At Day 15, bioconcentration factors over dissolved BaP levels ranged from 249 to 466. Weight-specific respiration rates at Days 14-15 were significantly increased (P less than or equal to 0.05) at a mean BaP body burden of 0.51 ppm wet wt. Oxygen consumption rates of embryos containing 0.70 to 12.80 ppm BaP were not significantly different from control rates. Because in a previous study embryos containing 0.51 ppm BaP exhibited hatching and developmental rates similar to those of controls, their metabolic response to low-level hydrocarbon exposure may be an example of hormesis, an overcompensating metabolic regulation to inhibitory challenges.

  14. Relation of body weight and food consumption to metabolic rate of juvenile Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Xin-Hua

    2000-12-01

    The metabolic rate of Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus (C & V), was estimated in laboratory at temperature 25.2±0.5°C. The fresh weight of the fish was 4.64 52.28 g (average of 17.81±0.33 g). The routine metabolism was related to body weight by the exponential equation: R r =14.966 W 0.74 ( r=0.934). The rate of feeding metabolism increased linearly with food consumption. Feeding metabolic rate was 1.8 2.4 times the routine metabolic rate.

  15. The relationship between body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and rate of oxygen consumption, in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at various levels of activity.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), breathing frequency (fR), heart rate (fH), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on fR, tidal volume (VT), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2-FEO2), fH, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in VO2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in fH and fR. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between fH, fR and VO2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of fR and fH were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r(2) values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using fR and fH as predictors of metabolic rate, respectively.

  16. Calculation: Values and Consumption Rates of Locally Produced Food and Tap Water for the Receptor of Interest

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bland

    2000-07-31

    This calculation produces standard statistical data on the consumption of locally produced food and tap water. The results of this calculation provide input parameters for the GENII-S (Leigh et al. 1993) computer code to support calculation of Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCF) for the nominal performance (groundwater contamination) scenario and the volcanic eruption (contamination of soil by volcanic ash deposition) scenario. The requirement and parameters for these data are identified in ''Identification Of The Critical Group (Consumption Of Locally Produced Food And Tap Water)'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This calculation is performed in accordance with the ''Development Plan for Calculation: Values and Consumption Rates of Locally Produced Food and Tap Water for the Receptor of Interest'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b).

  17. Both superficial and deep zone articular chondrocyte subpopulations exhibit the Crabtree effect but have different basal oxygen consumption rates.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Hannah K; Knight, Martin M; Lee, David A

    2010-06-01

    In the absence of in vivo measurements, the oxygen concentration within articular cartilage is calculated from the balance between cellular oxygen consumption and mass transfer. Current estimates of the oxygen tension within articular cartilage are based on oxygen consumption data from full-depth tissue samples. However, superficial and deep cell subpopulations of articular cartilage express intrinsic metabolic differences. We test the hypothesis that the subpopulations differ with respect to their intrinsic oxygen consumption rate. Chondrocytes from the full cartilage thickness demonstrate enhanced oxygen consumption when deprived of glucose, consistent with the Crabtree phenomena. Chondrocyte subpopulations differ in the prevailing availability of oxygen and glucose, which decrease with distance from the cartilage-synovial fluid interface. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the oxygen consumption of each subpopulation is modulated by nutrient availability, by examining the expression of the Crabtree effect. The deep cells had a greater oxygen consumption than the superficial cells (V(max) of 6.6 compared to 3.2 fmol/cell/h), consistent with our observations of mitochondrial volume (mean values 52.0 vs. 36.4 microm(3)/cell). Both populations expressed the Crabtree phenomena, with oxygen consumption increasing approximately 2.5-fold in response to glycolytic inhibition by glucose deprivation or 2-deoxyglucose. Over 90% of this increase was oligomycin-sensitive and thus accounted for by oxidative phosphorylation. The data contributes towards our understanding of chondrocyte energy metabolism and provides information valuable for the accurate calculation of the oxygen concentration that the cells experience in vivo. The work has further application to the optimisation of bioreactor design and engineered tissues.

  18. Development, consumption rates and reproductive biology of Orius albidipennis reared on various prey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The reproductive biology and feeding consumption of Orius albidipennis fed on eggs of Anagasta (Ephestia) kuehniella, Tetranychus urticae, and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and larvae of Gynaikothrips ficorum were investigated under 26±1°C, 60±10 % RH and 16:8 L/D photoperiod in laboratory. Results ind...

  19. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Luis F; da Silva, Ana R Ferreira; Hernández, Saul I; Aguilella, M; Andrio, Andreu; Mollá, Sergio; Compañ, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the corneal oxygen consumption Qc from non-linear models, using data of oxygen partial pressure or tension (P(O2) ) obtained from in vivo estimation previously reported by other authors. (1) METHODS: Assuming that the cornea is a single homogeneous layer, the oxygen permeability through the cornea will be the same regardless of the type of lens that is available on it. The obtention of the real value of the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max is very important because this parameter is directly related with the gradient pressure profile into the cornea and moreover, the real corneal oxygen consumption is influenced by both anterior and posterior oxygen fluxes. Our calculations give different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max, when different oxygen pressure values (high and low P(O2)) are considered at the interface cornea-tears film. Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  20. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear

    PubMed Central

    Del Castillo, Luis F.; da Silva, Ana R. Ferreira; Hernández, Saul I.; Aguilella, M.; Andrio, Andreu; Mollá, Sergio; Compañ, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We present an analysis of the corneal oxygen consumption Qc from non-linear models, using data of oxygen partial pressure or tension (pO2) obtained from in vivo estimation previously reported by other authors.1 Methods Assuming that the cornea is a single homogeneous layer, the oxygen permeability through the cornea will be the same regardless of the type of lens that is available on it. The obtention of the real value of the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max is very important because this parameter is directly related with the gradient pressure profile into the cornea and moreover, the real corneal oxygen consumption is influenced by both anterior and posterior oxygen fluxes. Results Our calculations give different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max, when different oxygen pressure values (high and low pO2) are considered at the interface cornea-tears film. Conclusion Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility. PMID:25649636

  1. Oxygen consumption and heart rate during repeated squatting exercises with or without whole-body vibration in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Núbia Cp; Simão, Adriano P; Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Neves, Camila Dc; Mezencio, Bruno; Szmuchrowski, Leszek; Coimbra, Cândido C; Lacerda, Ana Cr

    2011-12-01

    Avelar, NCP, Simão, AP, Tossige-Gomes, R, Neves, CDC, Mezencio, B, Szmuchrowski, L, Coimbra, CC, and Lacerda, ACR. Oxygen consumption and heart rate during repeated squatting exercises with or without whole-body vibration in the elderly. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3495-3500, 2011-The aim of this study was to investigate whether vibration plus squatting would increase cardiovascular demand to the optimal exercise limits needed for the prescription of cardiovascular training. Oxygen consumption, measured breath by breath by a portable gas analysis system, and heart rate (HR), measured using an HR monitor, were evaluated in 18 elderly individuals, 15 women and 3 men with a mean age of 72 ± 6 years. These variables were measured simultaneously and at the same time points in each subject during rest and randomly during the performance of squatting exercises (8 series of 40 seconds, with 40 seconds of rest between series of performing squats in 3-second cycles with 10-60° of flexion, a total of 5 repetitions for 40 seconds) with or without vibration at a frequency of 40 Hz and amplitude of 4 mm, separated by at least 1 day. Associating whole-body vibration with squatting exercise resulted in an additional increase of around 20% in oxygen consumption and 7.5% in the HR recorded during exercise. However, during squatting exercise with vibration, the increase achieved in oxygen consumption was limited to around 2 metabolic equivalents, and mean HR represented around 56% of the predicted maximum HR for age. The results of this study show that, despite the fact that vibration increased oxygen consumption and HR during the performance of squatting exercise, the minimum standards of intensity for the prescription of physical exercise with the specific objective of improving cardiorespiratory fitness were not achieved. Therefore, a protocol such as that used in the study does not meet the threshold for cardiovascular training prescription.

  2. Trophic interactions and consumption rates of subyearling Chinook Salmon and nonnative juvenile American Shad in Columbia River reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, Craig A.; Beauchamp, David A.; Bollins, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    We used a large lampara seine coupled with nonlethal gastric lavage to examine the diets and estimate consumption rates of subyearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha during July and August 2013. During August we also examined the diet and consumption rates of juvenile American Shad Alosa sapidissima, a potential competitor of subyearling Chinook Salmon. Subyearling Chinook Salmon consumed Daphnia in July but switched to feeding on smaller juvenile American Shad in August. We captured no juvenile American Shad in July, but in August juvenile American Shad consumed cyclopoid and calanoid copepods. Stomach evacuation rates for subyearling Chinook Salmon were high during both sample periods (0.58 h−1 in July, 0.51 h−1 in August), and daily ration estimates were slightly higher than values reported in the literature for other subyearlings. By switching from planktivory to piscivory, subyearling Chinook Salmon gained greater growth opportunity. While past studies have shown that juvenile American Shad reduce zooplankton availability for Chinook Salmon subyearlings, our work indicates that they also become important prey after Daphnia abundance declines. The diet and consumption data here can be used in future bioenergetics modeling to estimate the growth of subyearling Chinook Salmon in lower Columbia River reservoirs.

  3. Effect of glucose concentration on the rate of fructose consumption in native strains isolated from the fermentation of Agave duranguensis.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Campillo, M; Urtíz, N; Soto, O; Barrio, E; Rutiaga, M; Páez, J

    2012-12-01

    Studies on hexose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that glucose is consumed faster than fructose when both are present (9:1 fructose to glucose) in the medium during the fermentation of Agave. The objective of this work was to select strains of S. cerevisiae that consume fructose equal to or faster than glucose at high fructose concentrations by analyzing the influence of different glucose concentrations on the fructose consumption rate. The optimal growth conditions were determined by a kinetics assay using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using 50 g of glucose and 50 g of fructose per liter of synthetic medium containing peptone and yeast extract. Using the same substrate concentrations, strain ITD-00185 was shown to have a higher reaction rate for fructose over glucose. At 75 g of fructose and 25 g of glucose per liter, strain ITD-00185 had a productivity of 1.02 gL(-1) h(-1) after 40 h and a fructose rate constant of 0.071 h(-1). It was observed that glucose concentration positively influences fructose consumption when present in a 3:1 ratio of fructose to glucose. Therefore, adapted strains at high fructose concentrations could be used as an alternative to traditional fermentation processes.

  4. Alcohol consumption and rates of cancer screening: Is cancer risk overestimated?

    PubMed

    Mu, Lin; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption in moderation has been associated with incident breast and colorectal cancer. Whether these associations may be overestimated by more intensive screening among moderate consumers is unknown. This study examines the associations of alcohol consumption with cancer screening. In six iterations (2002-2012) of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a telephone survey of US adults conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, participants reported their alcohol use and recent screening for several cancers. We assessed whether alcohol use was associated with breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening after sample-weighted adjustment for sociodemographic and healthcare utilization factors. Among 2,191,483 survey respondents, 80.5 % (weighted prevalence) of eligible individuals reported having an up-to-date mammogram, 87.7 % having a Pap test, and 56.8 % having a colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy. For all breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers, moderate consumers were more likely to report screening (84.7, 91.2, 61.1 %) than non-consumers, even after multivariate adjustment (adjusted prevalence ratios 1.04, 1.04, 1.07; p < 0.001 for all). Among binge consumers, the weighted prevalence was lower than that in non-binge consumers (binge vs non-binge moderate consumers 80.5 vs 85.5 %, 89.9 vs 91.8 %, 52.8 vs 63.3 %) but still higher than non-consumers for breast and cervical cancer screening. In the USA, moderate consumers consistently report a greater likelihood of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening than do non-consumers. Given the likelihood of overdiagnosis, further study of alcohol consumption and cancer should include cancer-specific mortality, which is less sensitive to differences in screening and detection.

  5. The Effects of the Habitual Consumption of Miso Soup on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Japanese Adults: A Cross-sectional Study of a Health Examination.

    PubMed

    Ito, Koji; Miyata, Kenji; Mohri, Masahiro; Origuchi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hideo

    Objective It is recommended that middle-aged and elderly individuals reduce their salt intake because of the high prevalence of hypertension. The consumption of miso soup is associated with salt intake, and the reduced consumption of miso soup has been recommended. Recent studies have demonstrated that the consumption of miso soup can attenuate an autonomic imbalance in animal models. However, it is unclear whether these results are applicable to humans. This study examined the cross-sectional association between the frequency of miso soup consumption and the blood pressure and heart rate of human subjects. Methods A total of 527 subjects of 50 to 81 years of age who participated in our hospital health examination were enrolled in the present study and divided into four groups based on the frequency of their miso soup consumption ([bowl(s) of miso soup/week] Group 1, <1; Group2, <4; Group3, <7; Group4, ≥7). The blood pressure levels and heart rates of the subjects in each group were compared. Furthermore, a multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether miso soup consumption was an independent factor affecting the incidence of hypertension or the heart rate. Results The frequency of miso soup consumption was not associated with blood pressure. The heart rate was, however, lower in the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption. A multivariable analysis revealed that the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption were more likely to have a lower heart rate, but that the consumption of miso soup was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. Conclusion These results indicate that miso soup consumption might decrease the heart rate, but not have a significant effect on the blood pressure of in middle-aged and elderly Japanese individuals.

  6. The Effects of the Habitual Consumption of Miso Soup on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Japanese Adults: A Cross-sectional Study of a Health Examination

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Koji; Miyata, Kenji; Mohri, Masahiro; Origuchi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    Objective It is recommended that middle-aged and elderly individuals reduce their salt intake because of the high prevalence of hypertension. The consumption of miso soup is associated with salt intake, and the reduced consumption of miso soup has been recommended. Recent studies have demonstrated that the consumption of miso soup can attenuate an autonomic imbalance in animal models. However, it is unclear whether these results are applicable to humans. This study examined the cross-sectional association between the frequency of miso soup consumption and the blood pressure and heart rate of human subjects. Methods A total of 527 subjects of 50 to 81 years of age who participated in our hospital health examination were enrolled in the present study and divided into four groups based on the frequency of their miso soup consumption ([bowl(s) of miso soup/week] Group 1, <1; Group2, <4; Group3, <7; Group4, ≥7). The blood pressure levels and heart rates of the subjects in each group were compared. Furthermore, a multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether miso soup consumption was an independent factor affecting the incidence of hypertension or the heart rate. Results The frequency of miso soup consumption was not associated with blood pressure. The heart rate was, however, lower in the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption. A multivariable analysis revealed that the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption were more likely to have a lower heart rate, but that the consumption of miso soup was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. Conclusion These results indicate that miso soup consumption might decrease the heart rate, but not have a significant effect on the blood pressure of in middle-aged and elderly Japanese individuals. PMID:28049996

  7. The relationship between energy-dependent phagocytosis and the rate of oxygen consumption in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Skriver, L; Nilsson, J R

    1978-12-01

    The induction of high rates of food vacuole formation in Tetrahymena pyriformis increased the rate of respiration in exponentially growing cells by 17% and in starving cells by 47.5%. The increased rate of oxygen uptake was caused by phagocytosis itself, as shown by comparing the rates of respiration of a Tetrahymena mutant exposed to particles at the permissive or restrictive temperatures for food vacuole formation. During cell division, heat-synchronized cells in rich, particle-supplemented medium showed a significant decrease in the rate of respiration. Furthermore, dimethyl sulphoxide, in concentrations sufficient to block food vacuole formation, suppressed the rate of respiration to a level similar to that of starved cells. Cytochalasin B, fowever, did not reduce the rate of oxygen uptake despite the inability of the cells to complete the formation of food vacuoles during treatment; a possible explanation for this finding is discussed. There was a strong correlation between formation of food vacuoles and a high metabolic rate in Tetrahymena.

  8. Low plastic ingestion rate in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from Newfoundland destined for human consumption collected through citizen science methods.

    PubMed

    Liboiron, Max; Liboiron, France; Wells, Emily; Richárd, Natalie; Zahara, Alexander; Mather, Charles; Bradshaw, Hillary; Murichi, Judyannet

    2016-12-15

    Marine microplastics are a contaminant of concern because their small size allows ingestion by a wide range of marine life. Using citizen science during the Newfoundland recreational cod fishery, we sampled 205 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) destined for human consumption and found that 5 had eaten plastic, an ingestion prevalence rate of 2.4%. This ingestion rate for Atlantic cod is the second lowest recorded rate in the reviewed published literature (the lowest is 1.4%), and the lowest for any fish in the North Atlantic. This is the first report for plastic ingestion in fish in Newfoundland, Canada, a province dependent on fish for sustenance and livelihoods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimates of fish consumption rates for consumers of bought and self-caught fish in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Moya, Jacqueline; Itkin, Cheryl; Selevan, Sherry G; Rogers, John W; Clickner, Robert P

    2008-09-15

    Fish consumption rates derived from national surveys may not accurately reflect consumption rates in a particular population such as recreational anglers. Many state and local health agencies in the U.S. have conducted area-specific surveys to study fish consumption patterns in local populations, assess exposure to environmental contaminants, or evaluate compliance with fish advisories. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has analyzed the raw data from fish consumption surveys in Florida, Connecticut, Minnesota, and North Dakota for the purpose of deriving distributions of fish consumption rates and studying the variables that may be more predictive of high-end consumers. Distributions of fish consumption for different age cohorts, ethnic groups, socioeconomic statuses, types of fish (i.e., freshwater, marine, estuarine), and source of fish (i.e., store-bought versus self-caught) were derived. Consumption of fish and shellfish for those who consume both caught and bought fish is higher than those who reported eating only bought or only self-caught. Mean fish consumption per kilogram of body weight ranged from 0.11 g/kg-day to 2.3 g/kg-day. The highest values were observed in Florida for children 1<6 years of age. The Florida data show a statistically significant increase in the percentage of the population reporting fish and shellfish consumption with an increase in household income and education. This trend was not observed in the other states.

  10. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  11. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-06-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity.

  12. The relationship between oxygen consumption rate and viability of in vivo-derived pig embryos vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, N; Nishida, K; Misumi, K; Hirayama, Y; Yamashita, S; Hoshi, H; Misawa, H; Akiyama, K; Suzuki, C; Yoshioka, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viability of vitrified-warmed in vivo-derived pig embryos after measuring the oxygen consumption rate. Six days after artificial insemination, blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method. The oxygen consumption rate was measured in 60 vitrified-warmed embryos, which were then cultured for 48h to assess the viability. The survival (re-expansion) rate of embryos after warming was 85.0%. The average oxygen consumption rate of embryos immediately after warming was greater in embryos which could re-expand during subsequent culture (F=0.75±0.04) than that in those which failed to re-expand (F=0.33±0.05). Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed embryos was greater in the hatched (F=0.88±0.06) than that in the not-hatched group (F=0.53±0.04). When the oxygen consumption rate of the vitrified-warmed embryos and the numbers of viable and dead cells in embryos were determined, there was a positive correlation between the oxygen consumption rate and the number of live cells (P<0.01, r=0.538). A total of 29 vitrified embryos after warming and measuring the oxygen consumption rate were surgically transferred into uterine horns of two recipients. Both of the recipients become pregnant and farrowed 12 healthy piglets. These results demonstrate that the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed pig embryos can be related to the number of live cells and that the measurement of oxygen consumption of embryos after cryopreservation may be useful for estimating embryo survivability.

  13. Persistence, switch rates, drug consumption and costs of biological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: an observational study in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Favalli, Ennio Giulio; Sangiorgi, Diego; Di Turi, Roberta; Farina, Giuseppina; Gambera, Marco; Ravasio, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this analysis was to provide an estimate of drug utilization indicators (persistence, switch rate and drug consumption) on biologics and the corresponding costs (drugs, admissions and specialist care) incurred by the Italian National Health Service in the management of adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the administrative databases of three local health units. We considered all patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of RA and at least one biologic drug prescription between January 2010 and December 2012 (recruitment period). Persistence was defined as maintenance over the last 3 months of the follow-up period of the same biological therapy administered at the index date. A switch was defined as the presence of a biological therapy other than that administered at the index date during the last 3 months of the follow-up period. Hospital admissions (with a diagnosis of RA or other RA-related diagnoses), specialist outpatient services, instrumental diagnostics and pharmaceutical consumption were assessed. Results The drug utilization analysis took into account only biologics with at least 90 patients on treatment at baseline (adalimumab n=144, etanercept n=236 and infliximab n=94). In each year, etanercept showed better persistence with initial treatment than adalimumab or infliximab. Etanercept was characterized by the lowest number of patients increasing the initial drug consumption (2.6%) and by the highest number of patients reducing the initial drug consumption (10.5%). The mean cost of treatment for a patient persisting with the initial treatment was €12,388 (€14,182 for adalimumab, €12,103 for etanercept and €11,002 for infliximab). The treatment costs for patients switching from initial treatment during the first year of follow-up were higher than for patients who did not switch (€12,710 vs. €11,332). Conclusion Persistence, switch rate

  14. Persistence, switch rates, drug consumption and costs of biological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: an observational study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Favalli, Ennio Giulio; Sangiorgi, Diego; Di Turi, Roberta; Farina, Giuseppina; Gambera, Marco; Ravasio, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to provide an estimate of drug utilization indicators (persistence, switch rate and drug consumption) on biologics and the corresponding costs (drugs, admissions and specialist care) incurred by the Italian National Health Service in the management of adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the administrative databases of three local health units. We considered all patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of RA and at least one biologic drug prescription between January 2010 and December 2012 (recruitment period). Persistence was defined as maintenance over the last 3 months of the follow-up period of the same biological therapy administered at the index date. A switch was defined as the presence of a biological therapy other than that administered at the index date during the last 3 months of the follow-up period. Hospital admissions (with a diagnosis of RA or other RA-related diagnoses), specialist outpatient services, instrumental diagnostics and pharmaceutical consumption were assessed. The drug utilization analysis took into account only biologics with at least 90 patients on treatment at baseline (adalimumab n=144, etanercept n=236 and infliximab n=94). In each year, etanercept showed better persistence with initial treatment than adalimumab or infliximab. Etanercept was characterized by the lowest number of patients increasing the initial drug consumption (2.6%) and by the highest number of patients reducing the initial drug consumption (10.5%). The mean cost of treatment for a patient persisting with the initial treatment was €12,388 (€14,182 for adalimumab, €12,103 for etanercept and €11,002 for infliximab). The treatment costs for patients switching from initial treatment during the first year of follow-up were higher than for patients who did not switch (€12,710 vs. €11,332). Persistence, switch rate and drug consumption seem to directly

  15. The Virgin River Tamarisk Defoliation by Diorhabda carinulata: It's Effects on Evapotranspiration Rates and Groundwater Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueki, S.; Healey, J. M.; Acharya, K.

    2013-12-01

    Saltcedar (tamarisk; Tamarix spp) has become the most widespread invasive plant species in the western United States. Waterways and their corridors have evolved into mono-species stands of saltcedar. Chemical and mechanical methods of tamarisk eradication have been partially effective and prove to be expensive and cause irrepressible damage to natural resources. In the late 1960s, biological control program began in order to reduce the risk of damaging native plants. In 2001, Diorhabda elongate (leaf beetles) was released for open field tests followed by other releases in several locations in the western United States. One of the successful releases occurred in St. George, UT along the Virgin River in 2006. The last few years has seen establishment of large scale populations in the lower Virgin River. Eddy covariance (EC) tower including groundwater monitoring well was set up along the Virgin River near Mesquite, NV in 2010 to monitor effects of tamarisk defoliation on evapotranspiration (ET). Initial 2010 data (pre-beetle) established a baseline for characterization of tamarisk ET and groundwater consumption prior to defoliation of tamarisk. The beetles arrived at the site in late 2010 and established a healthy population at the growing season of 2011. 2010 data compared to the episodic herbivore events, observed at the site in 2011 and 2012, clearly show the direct impact of tamarisk defoliation. The results show that the post-defoliation ET values along with magnitude of diurnal fluctuations, found in the water level record, decreased compared to the pre-defoliation values. However, magnitude of the effects of defoliation seemed to be dependent on growth stage of tamarisk at the time of defoliation. Also, the defoliation periods are short lived as tamarisk quickly recovered and establish new growth. In 2012, the defoliation occurred twice since tamarisk re-foliated quickly after the first defoliation by late summer before beetles started overwintering

  16. Chemical weathering rate, denudation rate, and atmospheric and soil CO2 consumption of Paraná flood basalts in São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; dos Santos, Carolina Mathias; de Souza Sardinha, Diego; Navarro, Guillermo Rafael Beltran; Godoy, Letícia Hirata

    2015-03-01

    The chemical weathering rate and atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption of Paraná flood basalts in the Preto Stream basin, São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated using major elements as natural tracers. Surface and rain water samples were collected in 2006, and analyses were performed to assess pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS), including SO42-, NO3-, PO43 -, HCO3-, Cl-, SiO2, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Na+ and K+. Fresh rocks and C horizon samples were also collected, taking into account their geological context, abundance and spatial distribution, to analyze major elements and mineralogy. The Preto Stream, downstream from the city of Ribeirão Preto, receives several elements/compounds as a result of anthropogenic activities, with only sulfate yielding negative flux values. The negative flux of SO42 - can be attributed to atmospheric loading that is mainly related to anthropogenic inputs. After corrections were made for atmospheric inputs, the riverine transport of dissolved material was found to be 30 t km- 2 y- 1, with the majority of the dissolved material transported during the summer (wet) months. The chemical weathering rate and atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption were 6 m/Ma and 0.4 · 106 mol km- 2 y- 1, respectively. The chemical weathering rate falls within the lower range of Paraná flood basalt denudation rates between 135 and 35 Ma previously inferred from chronological studies. This comparison suggests that rates of basalt weathering in Brazil's present-day tropical climate differ by at most one order of magnitude from those prevalent at the time of hothouse Earth. The main weathering process is the monosiallitization of anorthoclase, augite, anorthite and microcline. Magnetite is not weathered and thus remains in the soil profile.

  17. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (\\Vdot O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and \\Vdot O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (r\\Vdot O2). The rBF and r\\Vdot O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and \\Vdot O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology.

  18. Effects of active drinking practices on fluid consumption and sweat rate while exercising in a hot environment

    PubMed Central

    Son, Youn Sun; Hwang, Bong Yeon; Lee, Dae Taek; Bae, Yoon Jung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the effects of active drinking practices on fluid consumption and sweat rate while exercising in a hot environment. [Methods] Nine men completed two experiments. Each consisted of 3 phases: pre-testing (pre), training period, and post-testing (post). During testing, the subjects ran on a treadmill at a moderate intensity for 90 min at 39 ± 1℃ followed by a 3-h recovery. They drank ad libitum. During training, they ran for 90 min for 7 days while either drinking actively (AH, 150% of weight loss) or passively (PH, 50% of weight loss). [Results] The actual volume consumed in training was three times greater during AH than during PH. In post during AH, the volume of drinking was two times greater than pre (1592 ± 953 and 855 ± 551 mL, respectively; p < 0.05). No difference in volume consumption during PH between pre and post was found. The sweat loss during exercise was greater in post (1377 ± 956 mL) than in pre (558 ± 642 mL) during AH (p < 0.05), but not during PH. Rectal temperature and heart rate decreased after training. Serum osmolality following exercise were not different than the baseline or between the conditions. [Conclusion] Active drinking practices while exercising in a hot environment induced greater voluntary fluid intake and sweat loss. PMID:25566458

  19. Larval consumption rates, interspecific predation, and local guild composition of egg-overwintering Agabus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) species in vernal ponds.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anders N; Söderström, Olle

    1988-06-01

    In vernal ponds in the boreal region, egg-over-wintering Agabus species form a guild that feeds mainly on larvae and pupae of aedine mosquitoes. The regular co-existence of very similar Agabus species indicates local communities not structured by interspecific competition. However, the lower number of species in local guilds than in the regional species pool poses a problem of limited membership. We suggest that the species of this guild display habitat differences mainly with respect to water temperature, pond size and prey density. In this view, habitat selection reflects body size and thermal growth response of the species, mainly in connection with larval development. We present field data from two northern Swedish vernal ponds. Based on these data, feeding experiments were performed to test the hypothesis outlined above. At a high prey density, larvae of all instars of the larger species A. erichsoni Gemm. & Har. had a significantly higher consumption rate than those of the smaller species A. opacus Aubé. At a low prey density the differences were smaller, and only the third instar larvae differed significantly. At 2° C, larvae of A. opacus had a significantly higher consumption rate than those of A. congener (Thunberg). At 15° C, no significant difference was observed. In studies of within-guild interspecific predation, always the larger larvae consumed the smaller ones. Field data show that egg hatching is spread out in time, and show interspecific differences. Consequently, the effects of unexpected droughts differ with species.

  20. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (V˙O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and V˙O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (rV˙O2). The rBF and rV˙O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and V˙O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology. PMID:22894482

  1. Seasonal variations in production and consumption rates of dissolved organic carbon in an organic-rich coastal sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alperin, M. J.; Albert, D. B.; Martens, C. S.

    1994-11-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in anoxic marine sediments are controlled by at least three processes: (1) production of nonvolatile dissolved compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, soluble saccharides and fatty acids, via hydrolysis of particulate organic carbon (POC). (2) conversion of these compounds to volatile fatty acids and alcohols by fermentative bacteria. (3) consumption of volatile fatty acids and alcohols by terminal bacteria, such as sulfate reducers and methanogens. We monitored seasonal changes in concentration profiles of total DOC, nonacid-volatile (NAV) DOC and acid-volatile (AV) DOC in anoxic sediment from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, USA, in order to investigate the factors that control seasonal variations in rates of hydrolysis, fermentation, and terminal metabolism. During the winter months, DOC concentrations increased continuously from 0.2 mM in the bottomwater to ~4 mM at a depth of 36 cm in the sediment column. During the summer, a large DOC maximum developed between 5 and 20 cm, with peak concentrations approaching 10 mM. The mid-depth summertime maximum was driven by increases in both NAV- and AV-DOC concentrations. Net NAV-DOC reaction rates were estimated by a diagenetic model applied to NAV-DOC concentration profiles. Depth-integrated production rates of NAV-DOC increased from February through July, suggesting that net rates of POC hydrolysis during this period are controlled by temperature. Net consumption of NAV-DOC during the late summer and early fall suggests reduced gross NAV-DOC production rates, presumably due to a decline in the availability of labile POC. A distinct subsurface peak in AV-DOC concentration developed during the late spring, when the sulfate depletion depth shoaled from 25 to 10 cm. We hypothesize that the AV-DOC maximum results from a decline in consumption by sulfate-reducing bacteria (due to sulfate limitation) and a lag in the development of an active population of methanogenic

  2. [Effect of temperature on the rate of oxygen consumption during the second half of embryonic and early postembryonic development of European pond turtle Emys orbicularis (Reptilia: Emydidae)].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, I G; Alekseeva, T A; Nechaeva, M V

    2005-01-01

    Oxygen consumption by eggs of European pond turtle was determined at two constant incubation temperatures of 25 and 28 degrees C during the second half of embryogenesis. During development at both temperatures, the rate of oxygen consumption initially increased to remain constant during the last quarter of embryogenesis. The difference between the rates of oxygen consumption at these temperatures decreased during the studied period. The coefficient Q10 for the rate of oxygen consumption decreased from 9 to 1.7. At an incubation temperature of 28 degrees C, the changes in the rate of oxygen consumption in response to a short-term temperature decrease to 25 degrees C or increase to 30 degrees C depended on the developmental stage and were most pronounced at the beginning of the studied period. During late embryonic and first 2.5 months of postembryonic development, the rate of oxygen consumption did not significantly differ after such temperature changes. The regulatory mechanisms formed during embryonic development are proposed to maintain the level of oxygen consumption during temperature changes.

  3. FORMING SELF-ASSEMBLED CELL ARRAYS AND MEASURING THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION RATE OF A SINGLE LIVE CELL.

    PubMed

    Etzkorn, James R; McQuaide, Sarah C; Anderson, Judy B; Meldrum, Deirdre R; Parviz, Babak A

    2009-06-01

    We report a method for forming arrays of live single cells on a chip using polymer micro-traps made of SU8. We have studied the toxicity of the microfabricated structures and the associated environment for two cell lines. We also report a method for measuring the oxygen consumption rate of a single cell using optical interrogation of molecular oxygen sensors placed in micromachined micro-wells by temporarily sealing the cells in the micro-traps. The new techniques presented here add to the collection of tools available for performing "single-cell" biology. A single-cell self-assembly yield of 61% was achieved with oxygen draw down rates of 0.83, 0.82, and 0.71 fmol/minute on three isolated live A549 cells.

  4. Methods for Individualized Determination of Methylmercury Elimination Rate and De-Methylation Status in Humans Following Fish Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Mathew D.; Vorojeikina, Daria; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Jackson, Brian P.; Scrimale, Thomas; Zareba, Grazyna; Love, Tanzy M.; Myers, Gary J.; Watson, Gene E.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure via fish in the diet remains a priority public health concern. Individual variation in response to a given MeHg exposure and the biotransformation of MeHg that follows complicate our understanding of this issue. MeHg elimination from the human body occurs slowly (elimination rate (kel) approximately 0.01 day−1 or approximately 70 days half-life [t1/2]) and is a major determinant of the Hg body burden resulting from fish consumption. The underlying mechanisms that control MeHg elimination from the human body remain poorly understood. We describe here improved methods to obtain a MeHg elimination rate via longitudinal Hg analysis in hair using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. We measured MeHg elimination rates in eight individuals following the consumption of 3 fish meals in two 75-day trials separated by a 4-month washout period. In addition, since MeHg biotransformation to inorganic Hg (I-Hg) is associated with Hg excretion, we speciated Hg in feces samples to estimate individual MeHg de-methylation status. We observed a wide range of MeHg elimination rates between individuals and within individuals over time (kel = 0.0163–0.0054 day−1; estimated t1/2 = 42.5–128.3 days). The ratio of MeHg and I-Hg in feces also varied widely among individuals. While the %I-Hg in feces was likely influenced by dental amalgams, findings with subjects who lacked amalgams suggest that faster MeHg elimination is associated with a higher %I-Hg in feces indicating more complete de-methylation. We anticipate these methods will contribute to future investigations of genetic and dietary factors that influence MeHg disposition in people. PMID:26572661

  5. Relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production in Nellore steers.

    PubMed

    Chaves, A S; Nascimento, M L; Tullio, R R; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Lanna, D P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production (EHP) in Nellore steers. Eighteen steers were individually lot-fed diets of 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM for 84 d. Estimated heat production was determined using oxygen pulse (OP) methodology, in which heart rate (HR) was monitored for 4 consecutive days. Oxygen pulse was obtained by simultaneously measuring HR and oxygen consumption during a 10- to 15-min period. Efficiency traits studied were feed efficiency (G:F) and residual feed intake (RFI) obtained by regression of DMI in relation to ADG and midtest metabolic BW (RFI). Alternatively, RFI was also obtained based on equations reported by the NRC's to estimate individual requirement and DMI (RFI calculated by the NRC [1996] equation [RFI]). The slope of the regression equation and its significance was used to evaluate the effect of efficiency indices (RFI, RFI, or G:F) on the traits studied. A mixed model was used considering RFI, RFI, or G:F and pen type as fixed effects and initial age as a covariate. For HR and EHP variables, day was included as a random effect. There was no relationship between efficiency indices and back fat depth measured by ultrasound or daily HR and EHP ( > 0.05). Because G:F is obtained in relation to BW, the slope of G:F was positive and significant ( < 0.05). Regardless of the method used, efficient steers had lower DMI ( < 0.05). The initial LM area was indirectly related to RFI and RFI ( < 0.05); however, the final muscle area was related to only RFI. Oxygen consumption per beat was not related to G:F; however, it was lower for RFI- and RFI-efficient steers, and consequently, oxygen volume (mL·min·kg) and OP (μL O·beat·kg) were also lower ( < 0.05). Blood parameters were not related to RFI and RFI ( > 0.05); however, G:F-efficient steers showed lower hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations ( < 0

  6. Mandated recycling rates: Impacts on energy consumption and municipal waste volume

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite its comprehensive solid waste legislation the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging, materials and newsprint. In this paper, we compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts associated with alternative methods of disposition to determine, the optimal method for each material. Alternative paths for material disposition include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfilling. The recovery rates considered during RCRA reauthorization are summarized. Combustion was specifically excluded by Congress to meet recovery goals. This exclusion is probably based on the idea that combustion is a form of disposal and therefore wastes resources and has negative environmental effects. Our paper does not make that assumption. A report by Gaines and Stodolsky, from which this paper is derived, offers a more complete discussion of energy and S impacts.

  7. Mandated recycling rates: Impacts on energy consumption and municipal solid waste volume

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1993-12-01

    Two bills were introduced in the 102nd Congress that would have rewritten the nation`s comprehensive solid waste legislation--the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint. In this report, the authors compare the effects on energy use, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at the mandated rates to the effects for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. They also compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies required to produce the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective. Environmentally sound material disposition options considered include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goals, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have negative environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels--in some cases, more fossil fuels than by recycling. Therefore, the objectives of the proposed legislation must be examined to see if they can most effectively be achieved by recycling at the mandated rates or by other methods of disposition.

  8. Effect of thiamine pyrophosphate on levels of serum lactate, maximum oxygen consumption and heart rate in athletes performing aerobic activity.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Hernández, V M; López-Ascencio, R; Del Toro-Equihua, M; Vásquez, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) on serum lactate levels, maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)) and heart rate in male athletes performing aerobic activity. A double-blind, randomized, crossover study was performed in which lactate levels, Vo(2max) and heart rates in 27 male athletes were compared at rest and after exercise, following administration of placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%) or TPP (1 mg/kg). At rest, serum lactate levels after placebo or TPP were similar; however, after exercise, the levels were lower in the athletes after taking TPP than after placebo. During exercise, Vo(2max) in athletes on TPP was higher than on placebo. At rest, heart rate after taking placebo or TPP was similar but, after exercise, heart rate was lower after taking TPP than after placebo. It is concluded that TPP caused serum lactate levels and heart rate to be lower than placebo and Vo(2max) to be higher in athletes performing aerobic physical activity.

  9. Pornography consumption, sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health among male adolescents in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2013-09-01

    To describe patterns of pornography use among high school boys and to investigate differences between frequent, average, and nonfrequent users of pornography with respect to sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health. A population-based classroom survey among 16-year-old boys (n = 477), from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden. Almost all boys, 96% (n = 453), had watched pornography. Frequent users of pornography (everyday) (10%, n = 47) differed from average users (63%, n = 292) and nonfrequent users (27%, n = 126). Frequent users versus average users and nonfrequent users had more sexual experiences, such as one night stands (45, 32, 25%, respectively) and sex with friends more than 10 times (13, 10, 2%). A higher proportion of frequent users spent more than 10 straight hours at the computer several times a week (32, 5, 8%) and reported more relationship problems with peers (38, 22, 21%), truancy at least once a week (11, 6, 5%), obesity (13, 3, 3%), use of oral tobacco (36, 29, 20%), and use of alcohol (77, 70, 52%) versus average and nonfrequent users. One third of frequent users watched more pornography than they actually wanted. There were no differences between the groups regarding physical and psychological self-rated health. The boys, defined as frequent users of pornography, were more sexually experienced, spent more time at the computer, and reported an unhealthier lifestyle compared with average and nonfrequent users. No differences regarding self-rated health were detected even though obesity was twice as common among frequent users.

  10. Induction of microcin B17 formation in Escherichia coli ZK650 by limitation of oxygen and glucose is independent of glucose consumption rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Q.; Fang, A.; Demain, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the consumption of glucose from the media in which Escherichia coli ZK650 was grown. This organism, which produces the polypeptide antibiotic microcin B17 best under conditions of limiting supplies of glucose and air, was grown with a low level of glucose (0.5 mg/ml) as well as a high level (5.0 mg/ml) under both high and low aeration. Glucose consumption rates were virtually identical under both high and low aeration. Thus, glucose consumption rate is not a regulating factor in microcin B17 formation.

  11. Induction of microcin B17 formation in Escherichia coli ZK650 by limitation of oxygen and glucose is independent of glucose consumption rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Q.; Fang, A.; Demain, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the consumption of glucose from the media in which Escherichia coli ZK650 was grown. This organism, which produces the polypeptide antibiotic microcin B17 best under conditions of limiting supplies of glucose and air, was grown with a low level of glucose (0.5 mg/ml) as well as a high level (5.0 mg/ml) under both high and low aeration. Glucose consumption rates were virtually identical under both high and low aeration. Thus, glucose consumption rate is not a regulating factor in microcin B17 formation.

  12. Population growth rate and energy consumption correlations: Implications for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1998-01-01

    The fertility rate for women and the related population growth rate, for numerous developing (transitional) countries, show a downward trend with increasing annual per capita energy use. On the assumption that such historic trends will continue, estimates are made for some simple cases of the energy demands required to stabilize the world`s population in the period 2,100 to 2,150. An assessment is then made of how these energy demands might be met, capitalizing as much as possible on the indigenous energy resources for each of the ten major regions of the world: North America, Latin America, Europe OECD, Former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe, China, Pacific OECD, East Asia, South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Consideration is also given to the potential need to limit carbon emissions because of global warming concerns. The study highlights the crucial nature of energy efficiency improvements and the need to utilize all energy sources, if the world is to find a sustainable future with an improved standard of living for the developing world.

  13. Short-term changes in consumption and oviposition rates of Neoseiulus californicus strains (Acari: Phytoseiidae) after a diet shift.

    PubMed

    Castagnoli, M; Simoni, S; Nachman, G

    2001-01-01

    Short-term effects on consumption and oviposition rates of four strains of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) after a diet shift were evaluated. The new feeding conditions experienced by the predators were six fixed densities of eggs or protonymphs of Tetranychus urticae Koch placed on excised strawberry leaflet discs and maintained under laboratory conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 75-85% RH, 16L: 8D). The observations were made on the first and the fifth day of the experiment. The phytoseiids came from three long-term mass-reared strains fed on T. urticae, Dermatophagoidesfarinae Hughes, or Quercus spp. pollen, respectively. The fourth strain was collected directly in a strawberry field. Time since diet transfer can be added to the factors (i.e. feeding history and prey density) already known to affect the functional and numerical responses of N. californicus, both when it feeds on prey eggs and protonymphs. If consumption rates were averaged over all strains and densities, 9.04 and 11.41 eggs, and 6.97 and 6.48 protonymphs were consumed on the first and the fifth day, respectively. If the same was done for oviposition rates, predators feeding on eggs produced 1.46 and 2.36 eggs/female/day, whereas predators feeding on protonymphs produced 1.35 and 2.29 eggs/female/day. Time had the greatest impact on the functional response of the strain that had previously fed on tetranychids, while an effect of time on the numerical response was detectable in all strains.

  14. Effect of flow rate on growth and oxygen consumption of biofilm in gravity sewer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingwei; Li, Muzhi; He, Qiang; Sun, Xingfu; Zhou, Xiangren; Su, Zhenping; Ai, Hainan

    2017-01-01

    The function of sewer as reactors must rely on the biofilm in it. In this paper, the formation, structure, oxygen transfer, and activity of the biofilm under different hydraulic conditions were studied by the microelectrode technology, oxygen uptake rate (OUR) technology, and 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing technology. Results showed that when the wall-shear stresses were 1.12, 1.29, and 1.45 Pa, the porosity of the steady-state biofilm were 69.1, 64.4, and 55.1 %, respectively. The maximum values of OUR were 0.033, 0.027, and 0.022 mg/(L*s), respectively, and the COD removal efficiency in the sewers reached 40, 35, and 32 %, respectively. The research findings had an important significance on how to improve the treatment efficiency of the sewers. Fig. a Graphical Abstract.

  15. The jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), living in oxygen minimum zones I: Oxygen consumption rates and critical oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Lloyd A.; Seibel, Brad A.

    2013-10-01

    Dosidicus gigas is a large, metabolically active, epipelagic squid known to undertake diel vertical migrations across a large temperature and oxygen gradient in the Eastern Pacific. Hypoxia is known to cause metabolic suppression in D. gigas. However, the precise oxygen level at which metabolic suppression sets in is unknown. Here we describe a novel ship-board swim tunnel respirometer that was used to measure metabolic rates and critical oxygen partial pressures (Pcrit) for adult squids (2-7kg). Metabolic rate measurements were validated by comparison to the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, citrate synthase, in mantle muscle tissue (2-17kg). We recorded a mean routine metabolic rate of 5.91μmolg-1h-1 at 10°C and 12.62μmolg-1h-1 at 20°C. A temperature coefficient, Q10, of 2.1 was calculated. D. gigas had Pcrits of 1.6 and 3.8kPa at 10 and 20°C, respectively. Oxygen consumption rate (MO2) varied with body mass (M) according to MO2=11.57M-0.12±0.03 at 10°C. Citrate synthase activity varied with body mass according to Y=9.32M-0.19±0.02.

  16. Geomicrobiological linkages between short-chain alkane consumption and sulfate reduction rates in seep sediments.

    PubMed

    Bose, Arpita; Rogers, Daniel R; Adams, Melissa M; Joye, Samantha B; Girguis, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Marine hydrocarbon seeps are ecosystems that are rich in methane, and, in some cases, short-chain (C2-C5) and longer alkanes. C2-C4 alkanes such as ethane, propane, and butane can be significant components of seeping fluids. Some sulfate-reducing microbes oxidize short-chain alkanes anaerobically, and may play an important role in both the competition for sulfate and the local carbon budget. To better understand the anaerobic oxidation of short-chain n-alkanes coupled with sulfate-reduction, hydrocarbon-rich sediments from the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) were amended with artificial, sulfate-replete seawater and one of four n-alkanes (C1-C4) then incubated under strict anaerobic conditions. Measured rates of alkane oxidation and sulfate reduction closely follow stoichiometric predictions that assume the complete oxidation of alkanes to CO2 (though other sinks for alkane carbon likely exist). Changes in the δ(13)C of all the alkanes in the reactors show enrichment over the course of the incubation, with the C3 and C4 incubations showing the greatest enrichment (4.4 and 4.5‰, respectively). The concurrent depletion in the δ(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) implies a transfer of carbon from the alkane to the DIC pool (-3.5 and -6.7‰ for C3 and C4 incubations, respectively). Microbial community analyses reveal that certain members of the class Deltaproteobacteria are selectively enriched as the incubations degrade C1-C4 alkanes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that distinct phylotypes are enriched in the ethane reactors, while phylotypes in the propane and butane reactors align with previously identified C3-C4 alkane-oxidizing sulfate-reducers. These data further constrain the potential influence of alkane oxidation on sulfate reduction rates (SRRs) in cold hydrocarbon-rich sediments, provide insight into their contribution to local carbon cycling, and illustrate the extent to which short-chain alkanes can serve as electron donors and govern microbial community

  17. Geomicrobiological linkages between short-chain alkane consumption and sulfate reduction rates in seep sediments

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Arpita; Rogers, Daniel R.; Adams, Melissa M.; Joye, Samantha B.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Marine hydrocarbon seeps are ecosystems that are rich in methane, and, in some cases, short-chain (C2–C5) and longer alkanes. C2–C4 alkanes such as ethane, propane, and butane can be significant components of seeping fluids. Some sulfate-reducing microbes oxidize short-chain alkanes anaerobically, and may play an important role in both the competition for sulfate and the local carbon budget. To better understand the anaerobic oxidation of short-chain n-alkanes coupled with sulfate-reduction, hydrocarbon-rich sediments from the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) were amended with artificial, sulfate-replete seawater and one of four n-alkanes (C1–C4) then incubated under strict anaerobic conditions. Measured rates of alkane oxidation and sulfate reduction closely follow stoichiometric predictions that assume the complete oxidation of alkanes to CO2 (though other sinks for alkane carbon likely exist). Changes in the δ13C of all the alkanes in the reactors show enrichment over the course of the incubation, with the C3 and C4 incubations showing the greatest enrichment (4.4 and 4.5‰, respectively). The concurrent depletion in the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) implies a transfer of carbon from the alkane to the DIC pool (−3.5 and −6.7‰ for C3 and C4 incubations, respectively). Microbial community analyses reveal that certain members of the class Deltaproteobacteria are selectively enriched as the incubations degrade C1–C4 alkanes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that distinct phylotypes are enriched in the ethane reactors, while phylotypes in the propane and butane reactors align with previously identified C3–C4 alkane-oxidizing sulfate-reducers. These data further constrain the potential influence of alkane oxidation on sulfate reduction rates (SRRs) in cold hydrocarbon-rich sediments, provide insight into their contribution to local carbon cycling, and illustrate the extent to which short-chain alkanes can serve as electron donors and govern microbial

  18. Direct measurement of oxygen consumption rates from attached and unattached cells in a reversibly sealed, diffusionally isolated sample chamber

    PubMed Central

    Strovas, Timothy J.; McQuaide, Sarah C.; Anderson, Judy B.; Nandakumar, Vivek; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Burgess, Lloyd W.; Holl, Mark R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen consumption is a fundamental component of metabolic networks, mitochondrial function, and global carbon cycling. To date there is no method available that allows for replicate measurements on attached and unattached biological samples without compensation for extraneous oxygen leaking into the system. Here we present the Respiratory Detection System, which is compatible with virtually any biological sample. The RDS can be used to measure oxygen uptake in microliter-scale volumes with a reversibly sealed sample chamber, which contains a porphyrin-based oxygen sensor. With the RDS, one can maintain a diffusional seal for up to three hours, allowing for the direct measurement of respiratory function of samples with fast or slow metabolic rates. The ability to easily measure oxygen uptake in small volumes with small populations or dilute samples has implications in cell biology, environmental biology, and clinical diagnostics. PMID:21546993

  19. In vitro measurements of oxygen consumption rates in hTERT-RPE cells exposed to low levels of red light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigle, Jeffrey C.; Castellanos, Cherry C.

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to 2.88 J/cm2 of red light induces an adaptive response against a lethal pulse of 2.0 μm laser radiation in hTERT-RPE cells in vitro, but not in a knockdown mutant for vascular endothelial growth factor c (VEGF-C). The generally accepted initiation sequence for photobiomodulation is that absorption of red light by cytochome c oxidase (CCOX) of the electron transport chain increases the binding affinity of CCOX for O2 vs. nitric oxide (NO). This results in displacement of NO by O2 in the active site of CCOX, thereby increasing cellular respiration and intracellular ATP. We've previously reported that red-light exposure induces a small, but consistently reproducible, increase in NO levels in these cells. But the relative importance of NO and oxidative phosphorylation is unclear because little is known about the relative contributions of NO and ATP to the response. However, if NO dissociation from CCOX actually increases oxidative phosphorylation, one should see a corresponding increase in oxygen consumption. A Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer was used to measure oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in normal and mutant cells as a proxy for oxidative phosphorylation. Both basal respiration and maximum respiration rates in normal cells are significantly higher than in the mutant. The normal cells have a significant amount of "excess capacity," whereas the VEGF-C(KD) have little or none. The OCR in exposed normal cells is lower than in unexposed cells when measured immediately after exposure. The exposures used for these experiments had no effect on the OCR in mutant cells.

  20. Method for determining oxygen consumption rates of static cultures from microplate measurements of pericellular dissolved oxygen concentration.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Richard D; Dike, Laura E; Haq, Tariq A; Rowley, Jon A; Pitner, J Bruce; Timmins, Mark R

    2004-06-30

    We describe a simple protocol for determining the oxygen consumption of cells in static culture. The protocol is based on a noninvasive oxygen-sensing microplate and a simple mathematical model derived from Fick's Law. The applicability of the model is confirmed by showing the correlation of computed oxygen consumption rate (OCR) values to actual cell densities ascertained by direct cell counting and/or MTT for HL60 and U937 cells cultured in suspension. Correlation between computed OCR and these other indications of cell number was quite good, as long as the cultures were not diffusion-limited for oxygen. The impact of the geometric factors of media depth and well size were confirmed to be consistent with the model. Based on this demonstrated correlation, we also developed a simple, completely noninvasive algorithm for ascertaining the per-cell oxygen utilization rate (OUR), which is the ratio of OCR to cell number, and a fundamental cell characteristic. This is accomplished by correlating the known seed densities to extrapolated determinations of OCR at time zero. Such determinations were performed for numerous cell types, in varying well sizes. Resulting OUR values are consistent with literature values acquired by far more painstaking methods, and ranged from <0.01 fmol.min(-1).cell(-1) for bacteria to 0.1-10 fmol.min(-1).cell(-1) for immortalized mammalian and insect cell lines to >10 fmol.min(-1).cell(-1) for primary hepatocytes. This protocol for determining OCR and OUR is extremely simple and broadly applicable and can afford rapid, informative, and noninvasive insight into the state of the culture. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Multiplexed MRI methods for rapid estimation of global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunyeol; Langham, Michael C; Rodriguez-Soto, Ana E; Wehrli, Felix W

    2017-04-01

    The global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), which reflects metabolic activity of the brain under various physiologic conditions, can be quantified using a method, referred to as 'OxFlow', which simultaneously measures hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a draining vein (Yv) and total cerebral blood flow (tCBF). Conventional OxFlow (Conv-OxFlow) entails four interleaves incorporated in a single pulse sequence - two for phase-contrast based measurement of tCBF in the supplying arteries of the neck, and two to measure the intra- to extravascular phase difference in the superior sagittal sinus to derive Yv [Jain et al., JCBFM 2010]. However, this approach limits achievable temporal resolution thus precluding capture of rapid changes of brain metabolic states such as the response to apneic stimuli. Here, we developed a time-efficient, multiplexed OxFlow method and evaluated its potential for measuring dynamic alterations in global CMRO2 during a breath-hold challenge. Two different implementations of multiplexed OxFlow were investigated: 1) simultaneous-echo-refocusing based OxFlow (SER-OxFlow) and 2) simultaneous-multi-slice imaging-based dual-band OxFlow (DB-OxFlow). The two sequences were implemented on 3T scanners (Siemens TIM Trio and Prisma) and their performance was evaluated in comparison to Conv-OxFlow in ten healthy subjects for baseline CMRO2 quantification. Comparison of measured parameters (Yv, tCBF, CMRO2) revealed no significant bias of SER-OxFlow and DB-OxFlow, with respect to the reference Conv-OxFlow while improving temporal resolution two-fold (12.5 versus 25s). Further acceleration shortened scan time to 8 and 6s for SER and DB-OxFlow, respectively, for time-resolved CMRO2 measurement. The two sequences were able of capturing smooth transitions of Yv, tCBF, and CMRO2 over the time course consisting of 30s of normal breathing, 30s of volitional apnea, and 90s of recovery. While both SER- and DB-OxFlow techniques provide significantly improved

  2. Methods for Individualized Determination of Methylmercury Elimination Rate and De-Methylation Status in Humans Following Fish Consumption.

    PubMed

    Rand, Mathew D; Vorojeikina, Daria; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Jackson, Brian P; Scrimale, Thomas; Zareba, Grazyna; Love, Tanzy M; Myers, Gary J; Watson, Gene E

    2016-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure via fish in the diet remains a priority public health concern. Individual variation in response to a given MeHg exposure and the biotransformation of MeHg that follows complicate our understanding of this issue. MeHg elimination from the human body occurs slowly (elimination rate (kel) approximately 0.01 day(-1) or approximately 70 days half-life [t1/2]) and is a major determinant of the Hg body burden resulting from fish consumption. The underlying mechanisms that control MeHg elimination from the human body remain poorly understood. We describe here improved methods to obtain a MeHg elimination rate via longitudinal Hg analysis in hair using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. We measured MeHg elimination rates in eight individuals following the consumption of 3 fish meals in two 75-day trials separated by a 4-month washout period. In addition, since MeHg biotransformation to inorganic Hg (I-Hg) is associated with Hg excretion, we speciated Hg in feces samples to estimate individual MeHg de-methylation status. We observed a wide range of MeHg elimination rates between individuals and within individuals over time (kel = 0.0163-0.0054 day(-1); estimated t1/2 = 42.5-128.3 days). The ratio of MeHg and I-Hg in feces also varied widely among individuals. While the %I-Hg in feces was likely influenced by dental amalgams, findings with subjects who lacked amalgams suggest that faster MeHg elimination is associated with a higher %I-Hg in feces indicating more complete de-methylation. We anticipate these methods will contribute to future investigations of genetic and dietary factors that influence MeHg disposition in people. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Comparison of Vehicle-Broadcasted Fuel Consumption Rates against Precise Fuel Measurements for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Engines

    DOE PAGES

    Pink, Alex; Ragatz, Adam; Wang, Lijuan; ...

    2017-03-28

    Vehicles continuously report real-time fuel consumption estimates over their data bus, known as the controller area network (CAN). However, the accuracy of these fueling estimates is uncertain to researchers who collect these data from any given vehicle. To assess the accuracy of these estimates, CAN-reported fuel consumption data are compared against fuel measurements from precise instrumentation. The data analyzed consisted of eight medium/heavy-duty vehicles and two medium-duty engines. Varying discrepancies between CAN fueling rates and the more accurate measurements emerged but without a vehicular trend-for some vehicles the CAN under-reported fuel consumption and for others the CAN over-reported fuel consumption.more » Furthermore, a qualitative real-time analysis revealed that the operating conditions under which these fueling discrepancies arose varied among vehicles. A drive cycle analysis revealed that while CAN fueling estimate accuracy differs for individual vehicles, that CAN estimates capture the relative fuel consumption differences between drive cycles within 4% for all vehicles and even more accurately for some vehicles. Furthermore, in situations where only CAN-reported data are available, CAN fueling estimates can provide relative fuel consumption trends but not accurate or precise fuel consumption rates.« less

  4. Oxygen consumption and filtering rate of Daphnia Pulex after exposure to water-soluble fractions of naphthalene, phenanthrene, No. 2 fuel oil, and coal-tar creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, J.G.; Buikema, A.L.

    1981-12-01

    The effects of short-term exposure to water-soluble fractions (WSF) of naphthalene, phenanthrene, No. 2 fuel oil, and coal-tar creosote upon oxygen consumption and filtering rates of Daphnia pulex are examined. Approximately 60 young Daphnia were exposed to test solutions of LC20 and LC30 concentrations of WSF for at least three molt cycles. Oxygen consumption was determined by the azide modification of the Winkler Method (American Public Health Association et al. 1975). Algal counts were made for experimental and control bottles using an Electrozone electronic particle counter interfaced with a PDP-11 minicomputer. Filtering rates were computed and expressed as ml/Daphnia/day. Results indicate no significant differences in oxygen consumption rates. However, changes in filtering rates may be a sensitive indicator of sublethal stress. 3 tables (JMT)

  5. Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar Mendes; Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2017-07-13

    Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008-2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35-74), based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption "never or almost never", "≤1 cup/day", "2-3 cups/day", "≥3 cups/day", and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.

  6. The effects of physical fitness and body composition on oxygen consumption and heart rate recovery after high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Campos, E Z; Bastos, F N; Papoti, M; Freitas Junior, I F; Gobatto, C A; Balikian Junior, P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), heart rate recovery (HRR) and their respective time constants (tvo2 and t HR) and body composition and aerobic fitness (VO2max) variables after an anaerobic effort. 14 professional cyclists (age=28.4±4.8 years, height=176.0±6.7 cm, body mass=74.4±8.1 kg, VO2max=66.8±7.6 mL·kg - 1·min - 1) were recruited. Each athlete made 3 visits to the laboratory with 24 h between each visit. During the first visit, a total and segmental body composition assessment was carried out. During the second, the athletes undertook an incremental test to determine VO2max. In the final visit, EPOC (15-min) and HRR were measured after an all-out 30 s Wingate test. The results showed that EPOC is positively associated with % body fat (r=0.64), total body fat (r=0.73), fat-free mass (r=0.61) and lower limb fat-free mass (r=0.55) and negatively associated with HRR (r= - 0.53, p<0.05 for all). HRR had a significant negative correlation with total body fat and % body fat (r= - 0.62, r= - 0.56 respectively, p<0.05 for all). These findings indicate that VO2max does not influence HRR or EPOC after high-intensity exercise. Even in short-term exercise, the major metabolic disturbance due to higher muscle mass and total muscle mass may increase EPOC. However, body fat impedes HRR and delays recovery of oxygen consumption after effort in highly trained athletes.

  7. Association of heart rate and blood pressure among European adolescents with usual food consumption: The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Julián-Almárcegui, C; Vandevijvere, S; Gottrand, F; Beghin, L; Dallongeville, J; Sjöstrom, M; Leclercq, C; Manios, Y; Widhalm, K; Ferreira De Morares, A C; Gónzalez-Gross, M; Stehle, P; Castillo, M J; Moreno, L A; Kersting, M; Vyncke, K; De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I

    2016-06-01

    In adults, there is some evidence that improving diet reduces blood pressure (BP) and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, studies that analyse this association in adolescents are still scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between heart rate, systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) among European adolescents and usual intake of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, meat, fish, high-sugar foods and savoury snacks. In total, 2283 adolescents from the HELENA-study (12.5-17.5 years old; 1253 girls) were included. Dietary intake was assessed using two computerized 24-hour dietary recalls. Age, sex, body mass index, maternal educational level, physical activity and Tanner stage were considered as confounders. Associations were examined by mixed model analysis stratified by sex. Tests for trend were assessed by tertiles of intake while controlling for the aforementioned confounders. Dairy products and fish intake were negatively associated with BP and heart rate. Significant decreasing trends were observed for heart rate and BP across tertiles of dairy products, fish intake and high-sugar foods intake (p < 0.05). Significant increasing trends were observed for SBP and MAP across tertiles of savoury snack intake (p < 0.05). Significant but small inverse associations between fish and dairy products consumption with blood pressure and heart rate have been found in European adolescents. Dietary intervention studies are needed to explore these associations in the context of the modification of several risk factors for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1985: Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Douglas E.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1985 to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. To estimate consumption of juvenile salmonids we used the composition of the natural diet of predators and in the laboratory determined rate of gastric evacuation by predators. Salmonids were the single most important food item for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 11.6% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1985 which was about twice that found in previous years. Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in 1985 was similar to 1983 and 1984 with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), northern squawfish, largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch at main channel stations and crappies (Pomoxis spp.) and largescale sucker dominating at backwater stations. Preliminary results of beach seine efficiency studies suggest that seine efficiency varied significantly among prey species and between substrate types in 1985. Results of digestion rate experiments indicate that gastric evacuation in northern squawfish can be predicted using water temperature, prey weight, predator weight and time. 19 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Consumption rate, functional response and preference of the predaceous mite Iphiseius degenerans to Tetranychus urticae and Eutetranychus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Fantinou, A A; Baxevani, A; Drizou, F; Labropoulos, P; Perdikis, D; Papadoulis, G

    2012-10-01

    The functional response of females of the phytoseiid mite, Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese), to increasing densities of females of its prey, Tetranychus urticae Koch and Eutetranychus orientalis Klein, on bean leaves, were studied under laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the predator consumed significantly more items of E. orientalis than of T. urticae at all densities treatments. Daily consumption of the predator increased with increasing prey density until a plateau was reached-maximum number of prey consumed was ca. 4 for T. urticae and ca. 12 for E. orientalis. A Type II functional response was determined by a logistic regression model. The highest estimated value a (instantaneous rate of attack) and the lowest value of T ( h ) (handling time) were found for the predator feeding on E. orientalis. Prey selection was evaluated by simultaneously presenting both prey species to the predator in various ratios and at increasing densities. I. degenerans showed a higher predation rate and higher preference for E. orientalis at all the ratios and prey densities tested. This may be due to the smaller size or the inactivity of E. orientalis and the inability of the predator to cope with the webbing of T. urticae. Our results suggest that I. degenerans can be considered a suitable biological control candidate based on its preference for E. orientalis in the Mediterranean region.

  10. THE USE OF HEART RATE TO ESTIMATE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF FREE-RANGING BLACK-BROWED ALBATROSSES DIOMEDEA MELANOPHRYS

    PubMed

    Bevan; Woakes; Butler; Boyd

    1994-08-01

    Heart rates (fh) and rates of oxygen consumption (V(dot)O2) were measured in eight black-browed albatrosses (Diomedea melanophrys) when walking on a treadmill, with the aim of using fh to predict V(dot)O2 in free-ranging albatrosses. The resulting relationship between the variables was: V(dot)O2 (ml min-1) = [0.0157fh (beats min-1)]1.60, r2=0.80, P<0.001. In addition to the calibration procedure, six of the albatrosses were injected with doubly labelled water (DLW), and fh and V(dot)O2 were monitored continuously over a 3 day period while the birds were held in a respirometer. During the 3 day period, the birds were walked for up to 3­4 h day-1 in bouts lasting approximately 0.5 h. The heart rate data were used to estimate the metabolic rates of these birds using the above regression. Estimates of metabolic rate derived from fh, DLW and respirometry did not differ (ANOVA; P=0.94), primarily because of the variance between individual birds. There was also no significant difference between the different estimates obtained from the different equations used to calculate energy expenditure from the DLW technique (ANOVA; P=0.95). Mean estimates of V(dot)O2 from fh under active and inactive conditions differed from measured values of V(dot)O2 by -5.9 % and -1.7 % respectively. In addition, the estimates of V(dot)O2 from fh at different walking speeds did not differ significantly from the measured values. It appears that, in the black-browed albatross, fh is as good a predictor of the mean metabolic rate of free-ranging birds as DLW or time­energy budgets combined with either respirometry or DLW. However, the method should be applied to as many individuals and as many instances of a particular behaviour as possible. The heart rate technique offers potential for much more detailed analyses of the daily energy budgets of these birds, and over much longer periods, than has previously been possible.

  11. The effect of caffeine consumption on the success rate of pregnancy as well various performance parameters of in-vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; El-Doush, Inaam; Grisellhi, Bellido; Coskun, Serdar

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of caffeine consumption on the success rate of pregnancy and various in vitro fertilization (IVF) performance parameters. Serum and follicular fluid samples were collected from 619 women undergoing IVF treatment (2002-2003). Caffeine assessment was based on measuring the levels of caffeine in serum and follicular fluid and on the number of coffee or tea or caffeinated drinks consumed per day. A total of 97.3% of participants reported the consumption of caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea and soft drinks. Their average caffeine consumption was 455.82 mg/day (range: 3.71-3561 mg/day). Coffee was the primary source of caffeine intake. The average caffeine levels in serum (0.913 µg/ml) were significantly higher than in follicular fluid (0.701 µg/ml). After controlling for various potential confounding variables, no association was found between coffee or tea consumption and the success rate of pregnancy. Looking at the effect of caffeine consumption on the IVF performance parameters, we found that the number of eggs decreased as the caffeine serum levels increased (P=0.011). An increase in coffee consumption was positively associated with the number of aborted pregnancy (P=0.007), while the number of good embryo decreased with high tea consumption (P=0.015). Though no association was seen between coffee or tea consumption and pregnancy rate, this study is the first to report that caffeine can reach the follicular fluid and there is a suggestive evidence of its possible harmful role on the consequences of reproductive process. This clearly warrants further investigation.

  12. Scaling the amplitudes of the circadian pattern of resting oxygen consumption, body temperature and heart rate in mammals.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Lanthier, Clement

    2004-09-01

    We questioned whether the amplitudes of the circadian pattern of body temperature (T(b)), oxygen consumption (V (O(2))) and heart rate (HR) changed systematically among species of different body weight (W). Because bodies of large mass have a greater heat capacitance than those of smaller mass, if the relative amplitude (i.e., amplitude/mean value) of metabolic rate was constant, one would expect the T(b) oscillation to decrease with the increase in the species W. We compiled data of T(b), V (O(2)) and HR from a literature survey of over 200 studies that investigated the circadian pattern of these parameters. Monotremata, Marsupials and Chiroptera, were excluded because of their characteristically low metabolic rate and T(b). The peak-trough ratios of V (O(2)) (42 species) and HR (35 species) averaged, respectively, 1.57+/-0.08, and 1.35+/-0.07, and were independent of W. The daily high values of T(b) did not change, while the daily low T(b) values slightly increased, with the species W; hence, the high-low T(b) difference (57 species) decreased with W (3.3 degrees C.W(-0.13)). However, the decrease in T(b) amplitude with W was much less than expected from physical principles, and the high-low T(b) ratio remained significantly above unity even in the largest mammals. Thus, it appears that in mammals, despite the huge differences in physical characteristics, the amplitude of the circadian pattern is a fixed (for V (O(2)) and HR), or almost fixed (for T(b)), fraction of the 24-h mean value. Presumably, the amplitudes of the oscillations are controlled parameters of physiological significance.

  13. Oxygen and SO2 consumption rates in white and rosé wines. Relationship with and effects on wine chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Carrascón, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación; Ferreira, Vicente

    2017-10-02

    This paper addresses the study of O2 and SO2 consumption rates of white and rosé wines, their relationship to the initial chemical composition and their effects on the chemical changes experienced by wine during oxidation. Eight wines were subjected to five consecutive air-saturation cycles. O2 was monitored periodically; SO2, color and antioxidant indexes were determined after each cycle, and the initial and final composition of the wines were thoroughly determined. Wines consumed oxygen at progressively decreasing rates. In the last cycles, after a strong decrease, consistent increases of oxygen levels were seen. Oxygen consumption rates were satisfactorily modelled, being proportional to wine Copper, quercetin and kaempherol contents, and negatively proportional to cinnamic acids. SO2 consumption rates were highly diverse between wines and were positively related to free SO2, Mn and pH, among others. In the last saturations, SO2 consumption took place regardless O2 consumption, implying that SO2 should reduce chemical species oxidized in previous saturations. Some volatile phenols seem to be the endpoint of radical-mediated oxidation of polyphenols taking place preferably in the first saturation.

  14. Quantification of Low-Level Drug Effects Using Real-Time, in vitro Measurement of Oxygen Consumption Rate.

    PubMed

    Neal, Adam; Rountree, Austin M; Philips, Craig W; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Williams, Dominic P; Newham, Peter; Khalil, Gamal; Cook, Daniel L; Sweet, Ian R

    2015-12-01

    There is a general need to detect toxic effects of drugs during preclinical screening. We propose that increased sensitivity of xenobiotics toxicity combined with improved in vitro physiological recapitulation will more accurately assess potentially toxic perturbations of cellular biochemistry that are near in vivo pharmacological exposure levels. Importantly, measurement of such cytopathologies avoids activating mechanisms mediating toxicity at suprapharmacologic levels not relevant to in vivo effects. We present a sensitive method to measure changes in oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a well-established parameter reflecting a potential hazard, in response to exposure to pharmacologic levels of drugs using a flow culture system and state of the art oxygen sensing system. We tested metformin and acetaminophen on rat liver slices to illustrate the method. The features of the method include continuous and very stable measurement of OCR over the course of 48 h in liver slices in a continuous flow chamber with the ability to resolve changes as small as 0.3%/h. Kinetic modeling of metformin inhibition of OCR over a wide range of concentrations revealed both a slow and fast mechanism, where the fast mechanism activated only at concentrations above 0.6 mM. For both drugs, small amounts of inhibition were reversible, but higher decrements were irreversible. Overall the study highlights the advantages of measuring low-level toxicity so as to avoid the common extrapolations made about drug toxicity based on effects of drugs tested at suprapharmacologic levels.

  15. Effects of auricular acupuncture on heart rate, oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid for elite basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zen-Pin; Chen, Yi-Hung; Fan, Chia; Wu, Huey-June; Lan, Lawrence W; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of auricular acupuncture on athletes' recovery abilities after exercise. Subjects were selected from twenty-four male elite university basketball players, randomly divided into two groups: auricular acupuncture group (AAG), and normal control group (NCG), each group containing twelve subjects. Auricular acupuncture was experimented to each AAG athlete while no auricular acupuncture was conducted to each NCG athlete. Each subject in both groups performed a ride on the stationary bike until exhausted. The data of heart rate (HR(max)), oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)), and blood lactic acid were measured at four points of time: during the rest period after warm-ups and at the 5th, 30th and 60th minutes post-exercise, respectively. One-way ANOVA and repeated Scheffé methods were used to test the differences of the data between these two groups. The results showed that both HR(max) and blood lactic acid in AAG were significantly lower than those in NCG at the 30th and 60th minutes post-exercise. This suggests that auricular acupuncture can enhance athletes' recovery abilities after aggressive exercise.

  16. Aclarubicin, an anthracycline anti-cancer drug, fluorescently contrasts mitochondria and reduces the oxygen consumption rate in living human cells.

    PubMed

    Iihoshi, Haruka; Ishihara, Takaya; Kuroda, Shogo; Ishihara, Naotada; Saitoh, Hisato

    2017-08-05

    Aclarubicin (Acla), an effective anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent for hematologic cancers and solid tumors, is documented to perturb chromatin function via histone eviction and DNA topoisomerase inhibition in the nucleus, but much less attention has been paid to cytotoxic function in the cytoplasm. Here, we showed that Acla emitted fluorescence and that human cervical cancer HeLa cells exposed to Acla exhibited bright fluorescence signals in the cytoplasm when fluorescence microscopy was performed using the red filter (excitation 530-550nm/emission 575nm). Intriguingly, most of the signals appeared to be partitioned and enriched in entangled tubule-like structures; moreover, these signals merged with the mitochondria-specific MitoTracker signals. Notably, analysis of mitochondrial respiratory activity revealed that the oxygen consumption rate was decreased in Acla-treated cells. These findings suggest that Acla accumulates efficiently in the mitochondria of living human cells and leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, implying a previously overlooked cytotoxicity of Acla in the cytoplasm and adding mechanistic insight of the anti-cancer activity, as well as the side effects, of Acla/anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Event-Associated Oxygen Consumption Rate Increases ca. Five-Fold When Interictal Activity Transforms into Seizure-Like Events In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Schoknecht, Karl; Berndt, Nikolaus; Rösner, Jörg; Heinemann, Uwe; Dreier, Jens P; Kovács, Richard; Friedman, Alon; Liotta, Agustin

    2017-09-07

    Neuronal injury due to seizures may result from a mismatch of energy demand and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. However, ATP demand and oxygen consumption rates have not been accurately determined, yet, for different patterns of epileptic activity, such as interictal and ictal events. We studied interictal-like and seizure-like epileptiform activity induced by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline alone, and with co-application of the M-current blocker XE-991, in rat hippocampal slices. Metabolic changes were investigated based on recording partial oxygen pressure, extracellular potassium concentration, and intracellular flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) redox potential. Recorded data were used to calculate oxygen consumption and relative ATP consumption rates, cellular ATP depletion, and changes in FAD/FADH₂ ratio by applying a reactive-diffusion and a two compartment metabolic model. Oxygen-consumption rates were ca. five times higher during seizure activity than interictal activity. Additionally, ATP consumption was higher during seizure activity (~94% above control) than interictal activity (~15% above control). Modeling of FAD transients based on partial pressure of oxygen recordings confirmed increased energy demand during both seizure and interictal activity and predicted actual FAD autofluorescence recordings, thereby validating the model. Quantifying metabolic alterations during epileptiform activity has translational relevance as it may help to understand the contribution of energy supply and demand mismatches to seizure-induced injury.

  18. Oxygen consumption rate of cells in 3D culture: the use of experiment and simulation to measure kinetic parameters and optimise culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Streeter, Ian; Cheema, Umber

    2011-10-07

    Understanding the basal O(2) and nutrient requirements of cells is paramount when culturing cells in 3D tissue models. Any scaffold design will need to take such parameters into consideration, especially as the addition of cells introduces gradients of consumption of such molecules from the surface to the core of scaffolds. We have cultured two cell types in 3D native collagen type I scaffolds, and measured the O(2) tension at specific locations within the scaffold. By changing the density of cells, we have established O(2) consumption gradients within these scaffolds and using mathematical modeling have derived rates of consumption for O(2). For human dermal fibroblasts the average rate constant was 1.19 × 10(-17) mol cell(-1) s(-1), and for human bone marrow derived stromal cells the average rate constant was 7.91 × 10(-18) mol cell(-1) s(-1). These values are lower than previously published rates for similar cells cultured in 2D, but the values established in this current study are more representative of rates of consumption measured in vivo. These values will dictate 3D culture parameters, including maximum cell-seeding density and maximum size of the constructs, for long-term viability of tissue models.

  19. Do christian denominations exhibit higher rates of alcohol consumption? A study of Korean American women in California.

    PubMed

    Kang Sim, D Eastern; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Ayers, John W; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-03-01

    Although Korean American women show high levels of involvement in religious practices and high prevalence of alcohol consumption, no studies have assessed the association between religious denomination and alcohol intake among this group of women. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption among Korean American women in California. Polychotomous regression models were used to provide estimates of the associations between religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption. Catholic Korean American women (OR 5.61 P < 0.01) and Independent Christian women (OR 4.87 P < 0.01) showed stronger associations to heavy alcohol consumption when compared to Conservative Christian Korean American women. Path analysis suggested that specific denominations had both direct and indirect effects on the outcome of interest, and that religious commitment and drinking models served as moderators for this phenomenon.

  20. Effects of food ration on SMR: influence of food consumption on individual variation in metabolic rate in juvenile coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2012-03-01

    1. Consistency of differences in standard metabolic rate (SMR) between individual juvenile salmonids and the apparently limited ability of individuals to regulate their SMR has led many researchers to conclude that differences in individual SMR are fixed (i.e. genetic). 2. To test for the effects of food ration on individual performance and metabolism, SMR was estimated by measuring oxygen consumption using flow-through respirometry on individually separated young of the year coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) placed on varying food rations over a period of 44 days. 3. Results demonstrate that the quantity of food consumed directly affects SMR of juvenile coho salmon, independent of specific dynamic action (SDA, an elevation in metabolic rate from the increased energy demands associated with digestion immediately following a meal) and indicates that higher food consumption is a cause of elevated SMR rather than a consequence of it. Juvenile coho salmon therefore demonstrated an ability to regulate their SMR according to food availability and ultimately food consumption. 4. This study indicates that food consumption may play a pivotal role in understanding individual variation in SMR independent of inherent genetic differences. We suggest that studies involving SMR need to be cautious about the effects of intra-individual differences in food consumption in communal tanks or in different microhabitats in the wild as disproportionate food consumption may contribute more to variation in SMR than intrinsic (genetic) factors. 5. In general, our results suggest that evolutionary changes in SMR are likely a response to selection on food consumption and growth, rather than SMR itself.

  1. Simultaneous evaluation of substrate-dependent oxygen consumption rates and mitochondrial membrane potential by TMRM and safranin in cortical mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Subir Roy; Djordjevic, Jelena; Albensi, Benedict C.; Fernyhough, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane potential (mtMP) is critical for maintaining the physiological function of the respiratory chain to generate ATP. The present study characterized the inter-relationship between mtMP, using safranin and tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), and mitochondrial respiratory activity and established a protocol for functional analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a multi-sensor system. Coupled respiration was decreased by 27 and 30–35% in the presence of TMRM and safranin respectively. Maximal respiration was higher than coupled with Complex I- and II-linked substrates in the presence of both dyes. Safranin showed decreased maximal respiration at a higher concentration of carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) compared with TMRM. FCCP titration revealed that maximal respiration in the presence of glutamate and malate was not sustainable at higher FCCP concentrations as compared with pyruvate and malate. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mtMP in response to mitochondrial substrates were higher in isolated mitochondria compared with tissue homogenates. Safranin exhibited higher sensitivity to changes in mtMP than TMRM. This multi-sensor system measured mitochondrial parameters in the brain of transgenic mice that model Alzheimer's disease (AD), because mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to be a primary event in the pathogenesis of AD. The coupled and maximal respiration of electron transport chain were decreased in the cortex of AD mice along with the mtMP compared with age-matched controls. Overall, these data demonstrate that safranin and TMRM are suitable for the simultaneous evaluation of mtMP and respiratory chain activity using isolated mitochondria and tissue homogenate. However, certain care should be taken concerning the selection of appropriate substrates and dyes for specific experimental circumstances. PMID:26647379

  2. Metabolic profile analysis of a single developing zebrafish embryo via monitoring of oxygen consumption rates within a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Huang, Kuo-Sheng; Yu, Chu-Hung; Gong, Hong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    A combination of a microfluidic device with a light modulation system was developed to detect the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of a single developing zebrafish embryo via phase-based phosphorescence lifetime detection. The microfluidic device combines two components: an array of glass microwells containing Pt(II) octaethylporphyrin as an oxygen-sensitive luminescent layer and a microfluidic module with pneumatically actuated glass lids above the microwells to controllably seal the microwells of interest. The total basal respiration (OCR, in pmol O2/min/embryo) of a single developing zebrafish embryo inside a sealed microwell has been successfully measured from the blastula stage (3 h post-fertilization, 3 hpf) through the hatching stage (48 hpf). The total basal respiration increased in a linear and reproducible fashion with embryonic age. Sequentially adding pharmacological inhibitors of bioenergetic pathways allows us to perform respiratory measurements of a single zebrafish embryo at key developmental stages and thus monitor changes in mitochondrial function in vivo that are coordinated with embryonic development. We have successfully measured the metabolic profiles of a single developing zebrafish embryo from 3 hpf to 48 hpf inside a microfluidic device. The total basal respiration is partitioned into the non-mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial respiration, respiration due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) turnover, and respiration due to proton leak. The changes in these respirations are correlated with zebrafish embryonic development stages. Our proposed platform provides the potential for studying bioenergetic metabolism in a developing organism and for a wide range of biomedical applications that relate mitochondrial physiology and disease.

  3. Simultaneous evaluation of substrate-dependent oxygen consumption rates and mitochondrial membrane potential by TMRM and safranin in cortical mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Subir Roy; Djordjevic, Jelena; Albensi, Benedict C; Fernyhough, Paul

    2015-12-08

    Mitochondrial membrane potential (mtMP) is critical for maintaining the physiological function of the respiratory chain to generate ATP. The present study characterized the inter-relationship between mtMP, using safranin and tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), and mitochondrial respiratory activity and established a protocol for functional analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a multi-sensor system. Coupled respiration was decreased by 27 and 30-35% in the presence of TMRM and safranin respectively. Maximal respiration was higher than coupled with Complex I- and II-linked substrates in the presence of both dyes. Safranin showed decreased maximal respiration at a higher concentration of carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) compared with TMRM. FCCP titration revealed that maximal respiration in the presence of glutamate and malate was not sustainable at higher FCCP concentrations as compared with pyruvate and malate. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mtMP in response to mitochondrial substrates were higher in isolated mitochondria compared with tissue homogenates. Safranin exhibited higher sensitivity to changes in mtMP than TMRM. This multi-sensor system measured mitochondrial parameters in the brain of transgenic mice that model Alzheimer's disease (AD), because mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to be a primary event in the pathogenesis of AD. The coupled and maximal respiration of electron transport chain were decreased in the cortex of AD mice along with the mtMP compared with age-matched controls. Overall, these data demonstrate that safranin and TMRM are suitable for the simultaneous evaluation of mtMP and respiratory chain activity using isolated mitochondria and tissue homogenate. However, certain care should be taken concerning the selection of appropriate substrates and dyes for specific experimental circumstances.

  4. The contribution of heart rate to the oxygen consumption of the chicken embryo during cold- or hypoxia-hypometabolism.

    PubMed

    Ide, Satoko Tomita; Ide, Ryoji; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2017-01-01

    In embryos, cooling and hypoxia cause a decrease in oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ); we asked what was the relative contribution of heart rate (HR) and of the 'not-HR' factor (the product of stroke volume and arterial-venous O2 difference) to the drop in [Formula: see text] . Data of HR (with subcutaneous electrodes) and [Formula: see text] (by an open-flow methodology) were collected simultaneously on chicken embryos close to end-incubation. Over the last four days of incubation (E16-E20) differences in HR contributed about 30% of the differences in resting [Formula: see text] among embryos. At E20, progressive cooling from 38 to 8°C decreased [Formula: see text] entirely because of the decrease in HR, with minimal compensation of the 'not-HR' component. The same pattern during cooling occurred in younger embryos (age E16), in E20 embryos simultaneously exposed to hypoxia (15% O2) and in E20 normoxic embryos which were incubated in hypoxia (15% O2). Differently, in E20 embryos in normothermia, progressive hypoxia (15%, 10% or 5% O2) lowered [Formula: see text] largely because of the reduction in the 'not-HR' component. We conclude that at end incubation during hypometabolism the changes in HR contribute very differently to the decrease in [Formula: see text] , from about the totality of it during cold to only about 10-20% during hypoxia, depending on its severity. It follows that during cold-hypometabolism, but not during hypoxic hypometabolism, the changes in HR are a good index of the changes in [Formula: see text] . The close relationship between [Formula: see text] and HR during cold-hypometabolism may permit estimates of the changes in [Formula: see text] from the changes in HR in infants undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High temporal resolution MRI quantification of global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption in response to apneic challenge.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Zachary B; Jain, Varsha; Englund, Erin K; Langham, Michael C; Wehrli, Felix W

    2013-10-01

    We present a technique for quantifying global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) in absolute physiologic units at 3-second temporal resolution and apply the technique to quantify the dynamic CMRO2 response to volitional apnea. Temporal resolution of 3 seconds was achieved via a combination of view sharing and superior sagittal sinus-based estimation of total cerebral blood flow (tCBF) rather than tCBF measurement in the neck arteries. These modifications were first validated in three healthy adults and demonstrated to produce minimal errors in image-derived blood flow and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) values. The technique was then applied in 10 healthy adults during an apnea paradigm of three repeated 30-second breath-holds. Subject-averaged baseline tCBF, arteriovenous oxygen difference (AVO2D), and CMRO2 were 48.6 ± 7.0 mL/100 g per minute, 29.4 ± 3.4 %HbO2, and 125.1 ± 11.4 μmol/100 g per minute, respectively. Subject-averaged maximum changes in tCBF and AVO2D were 43.5 ± 9.4% and -32.1 ± 5.7%, respectively, resulting in a small (6.0 ± 3.5%) but statistically significant (P=0.00044, two-tailed t-test) increase in average end-apneic CMRO2. This method could be used to investigate neurometabolic-hemodynamic relationships in normal physiology, to better define the biophysical origins of the BOLD signal, and to quantify neurometabolic responsiveness in diseases of altered neurovascular reactivity.

  6. Light-addressable measurements of cellular oxygen consumption rates in microwell arrays based on phase-based phosphorescence lifetime detection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Hsu, Yu-Hsuan; Wu, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2012-01-01

    A digital light modulation system that utilizes a modified commercial digital micromirror device (DMD) projector, which is equipped with a UV light-emitting diode as a light modulation source, has been developed to spatially direct excited light toward a microwell array device to detect the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of single cells via phase-based phosphorescence lifetime detection. The microwell array device is composed of a combination of two components: an array of glass microwells containing Pt(II) octaethylporphine (PtOEP) as the oxygen-sensitive luminescent layer and a microfluidic module with pneumatically actuated glass lids set above the microwells to controllably seal the microwells of interest. By controlling the illumination pattern on the DMD, the modulated excitation light can be spatially projected to only excite the sealed microwell for cellular OCR measurements. The OCR of baby hamster kidney-21 fibroblast cells cultivated on the PtOEP layer within a sealed microwell has been successfully measured at 104 ± 2.96 amol s−1 cell−1. Repeatable and consistent measurements indicate that the oxygen measurements did not adversely affect the physiological state of the measured cells. The OCR of the cells exhibited a good linear relationship with the diameter of the microwells, ranging from 400 to 1000 μm and containing approximately 480 to 1200 cells within a microwell. In addition, the OCR variation of single cells in situ infected by Dengue virus with a different multiplicity of infection was also successfully measured in real-time. This proposed platform provides the potential for a wide range of biological applications in cell-based biosensing, toxicology, and drug discovery. PMID:24348889

  7. Metabolic profile analysis of a single developing zebrafish embryo via monitoring of oxygen consumption rates within a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Huang, Kuo-Sheng; Yu, Chu-Hung; Gong, Hong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    A combination of a microfluidic device with a light modulation system was developed to detect the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of a single developing zebrafish embryo via phase-based phosphorescence lifetime detection. The microfluidic device combines two components: an array of glass microwells containing Pt(II) octaethylporphyrin as an oxygen-sensitive luminescent layer and a microfluidic module with pneumatically actuated glass lids above the microwells to controllably seal the microwells of interest. The total basal respiration (OCR, in pmol O2/min/embryo) of a single developing zebrafish embryo inside a sealed microwell has been successfully measured from the blastula stage (3 h post-fertilization, 3 hpf) through the hatching stage (48 hpf). The total basal respiration increased in a linear and reproducible fashion with embryonic age. Sequentially adding pharmacological inhibitors of bioenergetic pathways allows us to perform respiratory measurements of a single zebrafish embryo at key developmental stages and thus monitor changes in mitochondrial function in vivo that are coordinated with embryonic development. We have successfully measured the metabolic profiles of a single developing zebrafish embryo from 3 hpf to 48 hpf inside a microfluidic device. The total basal respiration is partitioned into the non-mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial respiration, respiration due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) turnover, and respiration due to proton leak. The changes in these respirations are correlated with zebrafish embryonic development stages. Our proposed platform provides the potential for studying bioenergetic metabolism in a developing organism and for a wide range of biomedical applications that relate mitochondrial physiology and disease. PMID:24396541

  8. Light-addressable measurements of cellular oxygen consumption rates in microwell arrays based on phase-based phosphorescence lifetime detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Hsu, Yu-Hsuan; Wu, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2012-01-01

    A digital light modulation system that utilizes a modified commercial digital micromirror device (DMD) projector, which is equipped with a UV light-emitting diode as a light modulation source, has been developed to spatially direct excited light toward a microwell array device to detect the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of single cells via phase-based phosphorescence lifetime detection. The microwell array device is composed of a combination of two components: an array of glass microwells containing Pt(II) octaethylporphine (PtOEP) as the oxygen-sensitive luminescent layer and a microfluidic module with pneumatically actuated glass lids set above the microwells to controllably seal the microwells of interest. By controlling the illumination pattern on the DMD, the modulated excitation light can be spatially projected to only excite the sealed microwell for cellular OCR measurements. The OCR of baby hamster kidney-21 fibroblast cells cultivated on the PtOEP layer within a sealed microwell has been successfully measured at 104 ± 2.96 amol s(-1) cell(-1). Repeatable and consistent measurements indicate that the oxygen measurements did not adversely affect the physiological state of the measured cells. The OCR of the cells exhibited a good linear relationship with the diameter of the microwells, ranging from 400 to 1000 μm and containing approximately 480 to 1200 cells within a microwell. In addition, the OCR variation of single cells in situ infected by Dengue virus with a different multiplicity of infection was also successfully measured in real-time. This proposed platform provides the potential for a wide range of biological applications in cell-based biosensing, toxicology, and drug discovery.

  9. Oxygen concentration profiles and the consumption rates at the sediment-water interface off Hachinohe, Northeastern Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, K.; Toyofuku, T.; Fontanier, C.; Schiebel, R.; de Noojer, L. J.; Koho, K.; Reichart, G. J.; Kitazato, H.

    2012-04-01

    The intermediate waters off Hachinohe (northeastern Japan) signify one of the lowest oxygen (O2) concentrations in the open ocean around Japanese islands today, indicating below 40μM O2 between 800 to 1200m water depths due to high seasonal primary productivity at the sea surface. To investigate biogeochemical microenvironments, especially to unravel the relationships and interactions between distributions of benthic organisms and the O2 distributions where the low O2 water intersect the sea floor, we conducted a multidisciplinary cruise (KT11-20) by R/V Tansei-maru, JAMSTEC from 21 to 25/Aug/2011. During the cruise, we selected twelve sampling sites offshore from 50 to 2000m in water depth. Dissolved O2 concentrations 10m above the sea floor at 200, 500, 1000, 1250, and 2000m absolute water depths were 253, 112, 36.4, 33.1 and 70μM, respectively. From 500, 1000, and 2000m sites, undisturbed sediment cores were collected using with a multiple core sampler. O2 microprofiles in these cores were measured after on board incubations of >7 hours, using an incubator set to the temperatures and O2 concentrations observed at the sampling sites. O2 penetration depths at the respective sites at 500, 1000, and 2000m were 1.5-2.8, 3.9-6.8 and 5.0mm respectively, which implies O2 consumption rates (using the model by Berg et al. 1998) of 2.7-4.2, 0.6-0.7 and 1.4-1.6 mmol/m2/d, respectively. Our results indicate that in O2 depleted area off Hachinohe, minimum remineralization of organic materials by molecular O2 diffusion is very low in the area impacted by O2 depletion (1000m) nevertheless the O2 penetration depths at the site show deeper values than those from 500m depth.

  10. Wood fuel consumption and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from a dynamic panel study.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S; Chin, Lee; Mohd-Shahwahid, H O

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the impact of wood fuel consumption on health outcomes, specifically under-five and adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, where wood usage for cooking and heating is on the increase. Generalized method of moment (GMM) estimators were used to estimate the impact of wood fuel consumption on under-five and adult mortality (and also male and female mortality) in the region. The findings revealed that wood fuel consumption had significant positive impact on under-five and adult mortality. It suggests that over the studied period, an increase in wood fuel consumption has increased the mortality of under-five and adult. Importantly, it indicated that the magnitude of the effect of wood fuel consumption was more on the under-five than the adults. Similarly, assessing the effect on a gender basis, it was revealed that the effect was more on female than male adults. This finding suggests that the resultant mortality from wood smoke related infections is more on under-five children than adults, and also are more on female adults than male adults. We, therefore, recommended that an alternative affordable, clean energy source for cooking and heating should be provided to reduce the wood fuel consumption.

  11. Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Tucker, Amy J; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-01-28

    Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite.

  12. Wii, Kinect, and Move. Heart Rate, Oxygen Consumption, Energy Expenditure, and Ventilation due to Different Physically Active Video Game Systems in College Students

    PubMed Central

    SCHEER, KRISTA S.; SIEBRANT, SARAH M.; BROWN, GREGORY A.; SHAW, BRANDON S.; SHAW, INA

    2014-01-01

    Nintendo Wii, Sony Playstation Move, and Microsoft XBOX Kinect are home video gaming systems that involve player movement to control on-screen game play. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that playing Wii is moderate physical activity at best, but Move and Kinect have not been as thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation while playing the games Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation were measured at rest and during a graded exercise test in 10 males and 9 females (19.8 ± 0.33 y, 175.4 ± 2.0 cm, 80.2 ± 7.7 kg,). On another day, in a randomized order, the participants played Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat while heart rate, ventilation, and oxygen consumption were measured. There were no differences in heart rate (116.0 ± 18.3 vs. 119.3 ± 17.6 vs. 120.1 ± 17.6 beats/min), oxygen consumption (9.2 ± 3.0 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 9.6 ± 2.4 ml/kg/min), or minute ventilation (18.9 ± 5.7 vs. 20.8 ± 8.0 vs. 19.7 ± 6.4 L/min) when playing Wii boxing, Kinect boxing, or Move Gladiatorial Combat (respectively). Playing Nintendo Wii Boxing, XBOX Kinect Boxing, and Sony PlayStation Move Gladiatorial Combat all increase heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation above resting levels but there were no significant differences between gaming systems. Overall, playing a “physically active” home video game system does not meet the minimal threshold for moderate intensity physical activity, regardless of gaming system. PMID:27182399

  13. Wii, Kinect, and Move. Heart Rate, Oxygen Consumption, Energy Expenditure, and Ventilation due to Different Physically Active Video Game Systems in College Students.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Krista S; Siebrant, Sarah M; Brown, Gregory A; Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina

    Nintendo Wii, Sony Playstation Move, and Microsoft XBOX Kinect are home video gaming systems that involve player movement to control on-screen game play. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that playing Wii is moderate physical activity at best, but Move and Kinect have not been as thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation while playing the games Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation were measured at rest and during a graded exercise test in 10 males and 9 females (19.8 ± 0.33 y, 175.4 ± 2.0 cm, 80.2 ± 7.7 kg,). On another day, in a randomized order, the participants played Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat while heart rate, ventilation, and oxygen consumption were measured. There were no differences in heart rate (116.0 ± 18.3 vs. 119.3 ± 17.6 vs. 120.1 ± 17.6 beats/min), oxygen consumption (9.2 ± 3.0 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 9.6 ± 2.4 ml/kg/min), or minute ventilation (18.9 ± 5.7 vs. 20.8 ± 8.0 vs. 19.7 ± 6.4 L/min) when playing Wii boxing, Kinect boxing, or Move Gladiatorial Combat (respectively). Playing Nintendo Wii Boxing, XBOX Kinect Boxing, and Sony PlayStation Move Gladiatorial Combat all increase heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation above resting levels but there were no significant differences between gaming systems. Overall, playing a "physically active" home video game system does not meet the minimal threshold for moderate intensity physical activity, regardless of gaming system.

  14. Non-linear scaling of oxygen consumption and heart rate in a very large cockroach species (Gromphadorhina portentosa): correlated changes with body size and temperature.

    PubMed

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; Cox, Christian L; Birchard, Geoffrey F

    2012-04-01

    Although well documented in vertebrates, correlated changes between metabolic rate and cardiovascular function of insects have rarely been described. Using the very large cockroach species Gromphadorhina portentosa, we examined oxygen consumption and heart rate across a range of body sizes and temperatures. Metabolic rate scaled positively and heart rate negatively with body size, but neither scaled linearly. The response of these two variables to temperature was similar. This correlated response to endogenous (body mass) and exogenous (temperature) variables is likely explained by a mutual dependence on similar metabolic substrate use and/or coupled regulatory pathways. The intraspecific scaling for oxygen consumption rate showed an apparent plateauing at body masses greater than about 3 g. An examination of cuticle mass across all instars revealed isometric scaling with no evidence of an ontogenetic shift towards proportionally larger cuticles. Published oxygen consumption rates of other Blattodea species were also examined and, as in our intraspecific examination of G. portentosa, the scaling relationship was found to be non-linear with a decreasing slope at larger body masses. The decreasing slope at very large body masses in both intraspecific and interspecific comparisons may have important implications for future investigations of the relationship between oxygen transport and maximum body size in insects.

  15. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative pray fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vigg, Steven; Poe, Thomas P.; Prendergast , Linda A.; Hansel, Hal C.

    1991-01-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983–1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish (0.7 and 0.5 prey/predator) occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes (0.2 prey/predator) and smallmouth bass (0.04) occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn (0600–1200 hours) and near midnight (2000–2400). Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length (> 13.2 mg/g predator), for walleyes 201–250 mm (42.5 mg/g), for smallmouth bass 176–200 mm (30.4 mg/g), and for channel catfish 401–450 mm (17.1 mg/g). Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April–August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass (28.7 mg/ g) was about twice that of channel catfish (12.6), northern squawfish (14.1), and walleyes (14.2). However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids.

  16. Is rate-pressure product of any use in the isolated rat heart? Assessing cardiac 'effort' and oxygen consumption in the Langendorff-perfused heart.

    PubMed

    Aksentijević, Dunja; Lewis, Hannah R; Shattock, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Rate-pressure product (RPP) is commonly used as an index of cardiac 'effort'. In canine and human hearts (which have a positive force-frequency relationship), RPP is linearly correlated with oxygen consumption and has therefore been widely adopted as a species-independent index of cardiac work. However, given that isolated rodent hearts demonstrate a negative force-frequency relationship, its use in this model requires validation. What is the main finding and its importance? Despite its widespread use, RPP is not correlated with oxygen consumption (or cardiac 'effort') in the Langendorff-perfused isolated rat heart. This lack of correlation was also evident when perfusions included a range of metabolic substrates, insulin or β-adrenoceptor stimulation. Langendorff perfusion of hearts isolated from rats and mice has been used extensively for physiological, pharmacological and biochemical studies. The ability to phenotype these hearts reliably is, therefore, essential. One of the commonly used indices of function is rate-pressure product (RPP); a rather ill-defined index of 'work' or, more correctly, 'effort'. Rate-pressure product, as originally described in dog or human hearts, was shown to be correlated with myocardial oxygen consumption (MV̇O2). Despite its widespread use, the application of this index to rat or mouse hearts (which, unlike the dog or human, have a negative force-frequency relationship) has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between RPP and MV̇O2 in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Paced hearts (300-750 beats min(-1)) were perfused either with Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer (11 mm glucose) or with buffer supplemented with metabolic substrates and insulin. The arteriovenous oxygen consumption (MV̇O2) was recorded. Metabolic status was assessed using (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and lactate efflux. Experiments were repeated in the presence of

  17. Ventilatory threshold may be a more specific measure of aerobic capacity than peak oxygen consumption rate in persons with stroke.

    PubMed

    Boyne, Pierce; Reisman, Darcy; Brian, Michael; Barney, Brian; Franke, Ava; Carl, Daniel; Khoury, Jane; Dunning, Kari

    2017-03-01

    After stroke, aerobic deconditioning can have a profound impact on daily activities. This is usually measured by the peak oxygen consumption rate achieved during exercise testing (VO2-peak). However, VO2-peak may be distorted by motor function. The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) and VO2 at the ventilatory threshold (VO2-VT) could more specifically assess aerobic capacity after stroke, but this has not been tested. To assess the differential influence of motor function on three measures of aerobic capacity (VO2-peak, OUES, and VO2-VT) and to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of VO2-VT determination post-stroke. Among 59 persons with chronic stroke, cross-sectional correlations with motor function (comfortable gait speed [CGS] and lower extremity Fugl-Meyer [LEFM]) were compared between the different aerobic capacity measures, after adjustment for covariates, in order to isolate any distorting effect of motor function. Reliability of VO2-VT determination between three raters was assessed with intra-class correlation (ICC). CGS was moderately correlated with VO2-peak (r = 0.52, p < 0.0001) and weakly correlated with OUES (r = 0.41, p = 0.002) and VO2-VT (r = 0.37, p = 0.01). LEFM was weakly correlated with VO2-peak (r = 0.26, p = 0.055) and very weakly correlated with OUES (r = 0.19, p = 0.17) and VO2-VT (r = 0.14, p = 0.31). Compared to VO2-peak, VO2-VT was significantly less correlated with CGS (r difference = -0.16, p = 0.02). Inter-rater reliability of VO2-VT determination was high (ICC: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.96). Motor dysfunction appears to artificially lower measured aerobic capacity. VO2-VT seemed to be less distorted than VO2-peak and had good inter-rater reliability, so it may provide more specific assessment of aerobic capacity post-stroke.

  18. EFFECT OF HYPOXIA ON THE RATE OF OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF NEWBORN, YOUNG, AND ADULT MICE AT VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Critical Po2 that is, Po2 below the point at which oxygen consumption is reduced - was measured in newborn, 5-day-old, and adult mice. At...thermoneutral environmental temperatures, the critical Po2 of newborn was 85 mm. Hg; that of 5-day-old mice was 100 mm. Hg; and that of adults was 70 mm. Hg

  19. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  20. Temporal changes and spatial variation of soil oxygen consumption, nitrification and denitrification rates in a tidal salt marsh of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Svensson, J. M.; Carrer, G. M.

    2003-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal and spatial patterns of soil oxygen consumption, nitrification, denitrification and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in a tidal salt marsh of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. In the salt marsh, intact soil cores including overlying water were collected monthly at high tide from April to October in salt marsh creeks and in areas covered by the dominant vegetation, Limonium serotinum. In May, cores were also collected in areas with vegetation dominated by Juncus maritimus and Halimione portulacoides. In laboratory incubations at in situ temperature in the dark, flux rates of oxygen and DIN were monitored in the overlying water of the intact cores. 15N-nitrate was added to the overlying water and nitrification and denitrification were measured using isotope-dilution and -pairing techniques. The results show that highest soil oxygen consumption coincided with the highest water temperature in June and July. The highest denitrification rates were recorded in spring and autumn coinciding with the highest nitrate concentrations. Soil oxygen consumption and nitrification rates differed between sampling sites, but denitrification rates were similar among the different vegetation types. The highest rates were recorded in areas covered with L. serotinum. Burrowing soil macrofauna enhanced oxygen consumption, nitrification and denitrification in April and May. The data presented in this study indicate high temporal as well as spatial variations in the flux of oxygen and DIN, and nitrogen transformations in the tidal salt marshes of the Venice lagoon during the growth season. The results identify the salt marshes of the Venice lagoon as being metabolically very active ecosystems with a high capacity to process nitrogen.

  1. Vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces by Eisenia fetida: effect of stocking density on feed consumption rate, growth characteristics and vermicompost production.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kunwar D; Tare, Vinod; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the optimum stocking density for feed consumption rate, biomass growth and reproduction of earthworm Eisenia fetida as well as determining and characterising vermicompost quantity and product, respectively, during vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces. For this, a number of experiments spanning up to 3 months were conducted using soil and vermicompost as support materials. Stocking density in the range of 0.25-5.00 kg/m(2) was employed in different tests. The results showed that 0.40-0.45 kg-feed/kg-worm/day was the maximum feed consumption rate by E. fetida in human faeces. The optimum stocking densities were 3.00 kg/m(2) for bioconversion of human faeces to vermicompost, and 0.50 kg/m(2) for earthworm biomass growth and reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coffee and tea consumption in relation to estimated glomerular filtration rate: results from the population-based longitudinal Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; van Essen, Hanneke; Verschuren, Wm Monique; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Gansevoort, Ron T; Bakker, Stephan Jl; Spijkerman, Annemieke Mw

    2016-05-01

    Although coffee consumption and tea consumption have been linked to diabetes, the relation with kidney function is less clear and is underresearched. We investigated the prospective associations of coffee and tea consumption with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We included 4722 participants aged 26-65 y from the Doetinchem Cohort Study who were examined every 5 y for 15 y. Coffee and tea consumption (in cups/d) were assessed at each round. eGFR was assessed by using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation based on both plasma creatinine and cystatin C. We determined the association between categories of coffee and tea intake and 1) eGFR and 2) subsequent annual changes in eGFR by using generalized estimating equation analyses. Baseline mean ± SD eGFR was 108.0 ± 14.7 mL · min(-1) · 1.73 m(-2) Tea consumption was not associated with eGFR. Those individuals who drank >6 cups coffee/d had a 1.33 (95% CI: 0.24, 2.43) mL · min(-1) · 1.73 m(-2) higher eGFR than those who drank <1 cup/d (P-trend = 0.02). This association was most apparent among those with a median age of ≥46 y at baseline, with eGFR being 2.47 (95% CI: 0.42, 4.51) mL · min(-1) · 1.73 m(-2) higher in participants drinking >6 cups/d compared with <1 cup/d (P-trend = 0.02). Adjustment for biological risk factors and coffee constituents did not attenuate the associations. Neither coffee nor tea consumption was associated with changes in eGFR. Coffee consumption was associated with a slightly higher eGFR, particularly in those aged ≥46 y. The absence of an association with eGFR changes suggests that the higher eGFR among coffee consumers is unlikely to be a result of glomerular hyperfiltration. Therefore, low to moderate coffee consumption is not expected to be a concern for kidney health in the general population. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Effects of feed consumption rate of beef cattle offered a diet supplemented with nitrate ad libitum or restrictively on potential toxicity of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of feed consumption rate on potential toxicity, rumen fermentation, and eating behavior when beef heifers were fed a diet supplemented with nitrate (NI). Twelve ruminally cannulated heifers (827 ± 65.5 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment consisted of 10-d adaptation, 8-d urea-feeding, and 3-d nitrate-feeding periods. All heifers were fed a diet supplemented with urea (UR) during the adaptation and urea-feeding periods, whereas the NI diet (1.09% NO in dietary DM) was fed during the nitrate-feeding period. After adaptation, heifers were randomly assigned to ad libitum or restrictive feeding (about 80% of ad libitum intake) for the urea- and nitrate-feeding periods. Ad libitum DMI decreased (14.1 vs. 15.1 kg/d; < 0.01) when heifers were fed the NI diet compared with the UR diet. The amount of feed consumed increased ( < 0.01) at 0 to 3 h and decreased ( ≤ 0.03) at 3 to 24 h for restrictive vs. ad libitum feeding of both the UR and NI diets. Compared to the UR diet, the NI diet decreased ( < 0.01) feed consumption at 0 to 3 h and increased ( < 0.02) feed consumption at 3 to 24 h (except feed consumption at 9 to 12 h; = 0.90), indicating nitrate feeding changed the consumption pattern (a more even distribution of feed intake over the day). The increased feed consumption from 0 to 3 h after feeding the NI diet restrictively vs. ad libitum numerically decreased ( = 0.11) rumen pH and numerically or significantly increased ( = 0.01 to 0.28) rumen ammonia, NO, and NO; blood methemoglobin; and plasma NO and NO at 3 h. Regression analysis indicated that increased feed consumption (0 to 3 h) exponentially elevated ( < 0.01; = 0.75) blood methemoglobin, and plasma NO + NO among other rumen and blood variables had the greatest correlation (sigmoid response; < 0.01, = 0.47) with feed consumption (0 to 3 h). Particle size distribution of orts was partially altered ( = 0.02 to 0

  4. 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms and ingestion doses to man from high consumption rates of these wild foods.

    PubMed

    Gwynn, Justin P; Nalbandyan, Anna; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses activity concentrations of (210)Po, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of (210)Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of (210)Po and (40)K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate (210)Po and/or translocate (210)Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by (210)Po, while for berries, (40)K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of (210)Po, (210)Pb and (40)K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of (210)Po.

  5. Metabolism and Excretion Rates of Parent and Hydroxy-PAHs in Urine Collected after Consumption of Traditionally Smoked Salmon for Native American Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Santiago-Delgado, Lisandra; Rohlman, Diana; Schrlau, Jill E.; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Kile, Molly L.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 hours. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 μg/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 hr post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 hr for retene to 3.3 hr for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 hr for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 hr for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 hr post-consumption. PMID:25659315

  6. Metabolism and excretion rates of parent and hydroxy-PAHs in urine collected after consumption of traditionally smoked salmon for Native American volunteers.

    PubMed

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Santiago-Delgado, Lisandra; Rohlman, Diana; Schrlau, Jill E; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Kile, Molly L; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated the metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 h. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 μg/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 h post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 h for retene to 3.3h for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 h for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 h for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 h post-consumption.

  7. Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xi-Lin; Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Shi, Yong-Hai; Liu, Wen-Cui; Xu, Gui-Rong; Li, Shi-Hua

    1999-06-01

    Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn ( Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn ( P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate ( V, mg/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature, V increased with water temperature and dissolved oxygen content. The V of the above three prawn species increased 0.085 mg/g·h, 0.093 mg/g·h and 0.08 mg/g·h respectively with each °C of rising temperature. The comatose point and stifling point of the juveniles rose obviously at unsuitable temperature.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of the metals Cd, Cr, Pb and their mixture on the filtration and oxygen consumption rates in catarina scallop, Argopecten ventricosus juveniles.

    PubMed

    Sobrino-Figueroa, Alma S; Cáceres-Martinez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of sublethal concentrations ( LC25, LC10 and LC5) of cadmium, chromium, lead, and their mixture on the filtration rate and oxygen consumption rate of Catarina scallop, Argopecten ventricosus (Sowerby, 1842), juveniles, in order to evaluate the use of these biomarkers as a reliable tool in environmental monitoring studies, because these metals have been found at high levels in water and sediments in the Mexican Pacific systems. An inverse dose-response relationship was observed when metal concentration and exposure time increased, the filtration rate and oxygen consumption rate reduced. The physiological responses evaluated in this study were sufficiently sensitive to detect alterations in the organisms at 0.014 mg l(-1) Cd, 0.311 mg l(-1) Cr, 0.125 mg l(-1) Pb and 0.05 mg l(-1) Cd + Cr + Pb at 24 and 72 hrs. Cd showed the most drastic effect. The Catarina scallop juveniles were more sensitive to Cd, Cr and Pb as compared to other bivalves. The biomarkers evaluated are a reliable tool to carry out environmental monitoring studies.

  9. Analysis of the application of the generalized monod kinetics model to describe the human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Compañ, V; Aguilella-Arzo, M; Del Castillo, L F; Hernández, S I; Gonzalez-Meijome, J M

    2017-11-01

    This work is an analysis of the application of the generalized Monod kinetics model describing human corneal oxygen consumption during soft contact lens wear to models previously used by Chhabra et al. (J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2009a;90:202-209, Optom Vis Sci 2009b;86:454-466) and Larrea and Büchler (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:1076-1080). We use oxygen tension from in vivo estimations provided by Bonanno [Bonanno et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43:371-376, and Bonanno et al 2009]. We consider four hydrogel and six silicone hydrogel lenses. The cornea is considered a single homogeneous layer, with constant oxygen permeability regardless of the type of lens worn. Our calculations yield different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max , whith differents oxygen tensions (high and low pc ) at the cornea-tears interface. Surprisingly, for both models, we observe an increase in oxygen consumption near an oxygen tension of 105 mmHg until a maximum is reached, then decreasing for higher levels of oxygen pressure. That is, when lowering the pressure of oxygen, the parameter Qc,max initially increases depending on the intensity of the change in pressure. Which, it could be related with the variation of the pH. Furthermore, it is also noted that to greater reductions in pressure, this parameter decreases, possibly due to changes in the concentration of glucose related to the anaerobic respiration. The averaged in vivo human corneal oxygen consumption rate of 1.47 × 10(-4) cm(3) of O2 /cm(3) tissue s, with Monod kinetics model, considering all the lenses studied, is smaller than the average oxygen consumption rate value obtained using the Larrea and Büchler model. The impact that these calculations have on the oxygen partial pressure available at different depths in the corneal tissue is presented and discussed, taking into consideration previous models used in this study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl

  10. Excessive alcohol consumption and dependence on amphetamine are associated with parallel increases in subjective ratings of both 'wanting' and 'liking'.

    PubMed

    Willner, Paul; James, Darren; Morgan, Michael

    2005-10-01

    One of the tenets of the incentive sensitization theory of drug addiction is that 'as drugs come to be wanted more and more, they often come to be liked less and less'. The aim of this study was to test whether this assumption holds true. Specifically, the study aimed to test the hypothesis that in non-clinical samples, dependence on amphetamines and excessive alcohol use are associated with increased 'wanting' but decreased 'liking' for the drug. In two studies, the Desires for Alcohol Questionnaire (DAQ) was administered to 380 recreational drinkers, and the Desires for Speed Questionnaire (DSQ) and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ) were administered to 174 amphetamine users. Scales were derived from the DAQ and DSQ representing craving, on one hand, and positive and negative reinforcement on the other hand. Craving and positive reinforcement were taken as measures of alcohol or amphetamine 'wanting' and 'liking', respectively. Scores on all three DAQ scales increased monotonically as a function of the extent of alcohol consumption. Scores on all three DSQ scales increased monotonically as a function of dependence, as measured by the LDQ. 'Liking' for amphetamine was unrelated to time since the drug was last taken. (These data were not available for alcohol.) The finding that 'wanting' increased as a function of dependence on amphetamine or level of consumption in the case of alcohol is as predicted by the incentive sensitization theory, but the finding that 'liking' also increased as a function of dependence or excess is the opposite of the predicted effects While not refuting the incentive sensitization theory directly, the study questions the validity of one of the tenets of the theory.

  11. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, and blood lactate responses to an acute bout of plyometric depth jumps in college-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory A; Ray, Michael W; Abbey, Bryce M; Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina

    2010-09-01

    Although plyometrics are widely used in athletic conditioning, the acute physiologic responses to plyometrics have not been described. The purpose of this study was to investigate the oxygen consumption, heart rate, and blood lactate responses to a single session of plyometric depth jumps. Twenty recreationally trained college-aged subjects (10 men, 10 women) participated in a single session of 8 sets of 10 box depth jumps from a height of 0.8 m with 3 minutes of passive recovery between each set. Plyometric depth jumping elicited 82.5 +/- 3.1% and 77.8 +/- 3.1% of the measured maximal oxygen consumption (O2max) for women and men, respectively, with no difference in oxygen consumption in ml/kg/min or percent O2max between sexes or sets. Heart rate significantly increased (p < 0.05) from 68.1 +/- 2.9 beatsxmin-1 at rest to 169.6 +/- 1.2 beatsxmin-1 during depth jumping. Sets 5 to 8 elicited a higher (p < 0.05) heart rate (173.3 +/- 1.3 beatsxmin-1) than sets 1 to 4 (164.6 +/- 1.8 beatsxmin-1). Women exhibited a higher heart rate (p < 0.05) during sets 1 and 2 (169.9 +/- 2.8 beatsxmin-1) than men (150.7 +/- 4.4 beatsxmin-1). The blood lactate concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) increased above resting throughout all sets (1.0 +/- 0.2 mmolxL-1 compared with 2.9 +/- 0.1 mmolxL-1), with no differences between sexes or sets. Plyometric depth jumping significantly increased oxygen consumption, heart rate, and blood lactate in both men and women, but no significant difference was found between the sexes. Plyometric depth jumping from a height of 0.8 m has similar energy system requirements to what Wilmore and Costill termed "Aerobic Power" training, which should enhance O2max, lactate tolerance, oxidative enzymes, and lactate threshold.

  12. Ambulatory 24-hour cardiac oxygen consumption and blood pressure-heart rate variability: effects of nebivolol and valsartan alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Joseph L; Khan, Safi U; Saleem, Osman; Osmond, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    We compared an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan; VAL), a beta-blocker (nebivolol; NEB) and the combination of NEB/VAL with respect to 24-hour myocardial oxygen consumption (determined by 24-hour ambulatory heart rate-central systolic pressure product [ACRPP]) and its components. Subjects with hypertension (systolic blood pressure >140 or diastolic blood pressure >90; n = 26) were studied in a double-blinded, double-dummy, forced-titration, crossover design with 3 random-order experimental periods: VAL 320 mg, NEB 40 mg, and NEB/VAL 320/40 mg daily. After 4 weeks of each drug, ambulatory pulse wave analysis (MobilOGraph) was performed every 20 minutes for 24 hours. All three treatments resulted in nearly identical brachial and central systolic blood pressures. NEB alone or in combination with VAL resulted in lower ACRPP (by 11%-14%; P < .001 each) and heart rate (by 18%-20%; P < .001 each) compared with VAL, but stroke work (ACRPP per beat) was lower with VAL. Relative and adjusted variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of heart rate were also lower with NEB and NEB/VAL than VAL. Results in African Americans, the majority subpopulation, were similar to those of the entire treatment group. We conclude that the rate-slowing effects of NEB cause ambulatory cardiac myocardial oxygen consumption to be lower with NEB monotherapy or NEB/VAL combination therapy than with VAL monotherapy. NEB/VAL is not superior to NEB alone in controlling heart rate, blood pressure, or ACRPP. Heart rate variability but not ACRPP variability is reduced by NEB or the combination NEB/VAL. There is no attenuation of beta-blocker-induced rate-slowing effects of in African Americans. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute Alcohol Consumption and Secondary Psychopathic Traits Increase Ratings of the Attractiveness and Health of Ethnic Ingroup Faces but Not Outgroup Faces

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ian J.; Gillespie, Steven M.; Leverton, Monica; Llewellyn, Victoria; Neale, Emily; Stevenson, Isobel

    2015-01-01

    Studies have consistently shown that both consumption of acute amounts of alcohol and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits are associated with an impaired ability for prepotent response inhibition. This may manifest as a reduced ability to inhibit prepotent race biased responses. Here, we tested the effects of acute alcohol consumption, and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits, on judgments of the attractiveness and health of ethnic ingroup and outgroup faces. In the first study, we show that following acute alcohol consumption, at a dose that is sufficient to result in impaired performance on tests of executive function, Caucasian participants judged White faces to be more attractive and healthier compared to when sober. However, this effect did not extend to Black faces. A similar effect was found in a second study involving sober Caucasian participants where secondary psychopathic traits were related to an intergroup bias in the ratings of attractiveness for White versus Black faces. These results are discussed in terms of a model which postulates that poor prefrontal functioning leads to increases in ingroup liking as a result of impaired abilities for prepotent response inhibition. PMID:25745403

  14. The Optimal Capital Stock and Consumption Evolution for Non Zero Consumers Growth Rate in the Framework of Ramsey Model on Finite Horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonchiş, N.; Balint, Şt.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper the Ramsey optimal growth of the capital stock and consumption on finite horizon is analyzed when the growth rate of consumers is strictly positive. The main purpose is to establish the dependence of the optimal capital stock and consumption evolution on the growth rate of consumers. The analysis reveals: for any initial value k0≥0 there exists a unique optimal evolution path of length N+1 for the capital stock; if k0 is strictly positive then all the elements of the optimal capital stock evolution path are strictly positives except the last one which is zero; the optimal capital stock evolution of length N+1 starting from k0≥0 satisfies the Euler equation; the value function VN is strictly increasing, strictly concave and continuous on R+. The family of functions {VN-T}T = 0…N-1 satisfies the Bellman equation and it is the unique solution of this equation which is both continuous and satisfies the transversality condition. The Mangasarian Lemma is also satisfied. For N tending to infinity the optimal evolution path of length N of the capital stock tends to those on the infinite time horizon. For any k0>0 the value function in k0 decreases when the consumers growth rate increases.

  15. On the depth and scale of metabolic rate variation: scaling of oxygen consumption rates and enzymatic activity in the Class Cephalopoda (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Seibel, Brad A

    2007-01-01

    Recent ecological theory depends, for predictive power, on the apparent similarity of metabolic rates within broad taxonomic or functional groups of organisms (e.g. invertebrates or ectotherms). Such metabolic commonality is challenged here, as I demonstrate more than 200-fold variation in metabolic rates independent of body mass and temperature in a single class of animals, the Cephalopoda, over seven orders of magnitude size range. I further demonstrate wide variation in the slopes of metabolic scaling curves. The observed variation in metabolism reflects differential selection among species for locomotory capacity rather than mass or temperature constraints. Such selection is highest among epipelagic squids (Lolignidae and Ommastrephidae) that, as adults, have temperature-corrected metabolic rates higher than mammals of similar size.

  16. Interactive effects of temperature and hypoxia on heart rate and oxygen consumption of the 3-day old chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Wills, Kathryn; Trippenbach, Teresa; Al Awam, Khalid

    2010-03-01

    In the chick embryo at day 3, gas exchange occurs by diffusion and oxygen consumption (V(O(2))) does not depend on the cardiovascular convection of O(2). Whether or not this is the case in hypoxia is not known and represents the aim of the study. The heart of chicken embryos at 72 h (stage HH18) was filmed through a window of the eggshell by a camera attached to a microscope. Stroke volume was estimated from the changes in heart silhouette between systole and diastole. V(O(2))was measured by a closed system methodology. In normoxia, a decrease in temperature (T) from 39 to 31 degrees C had parallel depressant effects on V(O(2))and HR. At 39 degrees C, a progressive decrease in O(2) lowered V(O(2)); HR was maintained until the O(2) threshold of approximately 15%. In severe hypoxia (4% O(2)) V(O(2))and HR were, respectively, approximately 12% and approximately 62% of normoxia. At 32 degrees C the hypoxic threshold for HR was significantly lower. During constant hypoxia (7% O(2)) V(O(2))did not respond to T, while the HR response was preserved. Stroke volume changed little with changes in T or O(2), except at 6 and 4% O(2), when it decreased by approximately 20 and 30%. In embryos growth-retarded because of incubation in chronic hypoxia, V(O(2))and HR responses to T and hypoxia were similar to those of normal embryos. We conclude that in the early embryo during hypoxia cardiovascular O(2) convection is not responsible for the drop in V(O(2)). The generalised hypometabolic response, in combination with the extremely small cardiac V(O(2)), probably explains the minor effects of hypoxia on cardiac activity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Farnworth, Edward R; Savard, Tony; Chabot, Denise; Mafu, Akier; Jones, Peter JH

    2002-01-01

    Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p < 0.05) fecal isobutyric, isovaleric and propionic acids as well as the total amount of fecal short chain fatty acids. Kefir supplementation resulted in increased fecal bacterial content in the majority of the subjects. Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent. PMID:11825344

  18. Oral glucose before venepuncture relieves neonates of pain, but stress is still evidenced by increase in oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Karl; Ketteler, Jörg; Hellwig, Magdalena; Laurenz, Maren; Versmold, Hans

    2004-04-01

    Oral glucose was recommended as pain therapy during venepuncture in neonates. It is unclear whether this intervention reduces excess oxygen consumption (o(2)), energy loss, or cardiovascular destabilization associated with venepuncture, and whether <2 mL glucose solution is effective. We tested the hypothesis that oral glucose solution attenuates the increases in neonatal oxygen consumption, energy expenditure (EE), and heart rate associated with venepuncture for two different volumes of glucose solution (2 and 0.4 mL). In this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, 58 neonates (gestational age, 31-42 wk; postnatal age, 1-7 d) were randomized to 2 mL glucose 30%, 0.4 mL glucose 30%, or 2 mL water by mouth before venepuncture. The videotaped behavioral pain reactions were scored with the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Cry duration, o(2), EE (indirect calorimetry), and heart rate were measured. The 2 mL glucose solution reduced pain score and crying after venepuncture compared with controls [median pain score, 5.5 (interquartile range, 4-9) versus 11 (7-12), p = 0.01; median duration of first cry, 0 s (0-43 s) versus 13 s (2-47 s), p < 0.05, respectively]. The 0.4 mL glucose solution had no effect. The 2 mL glucose solution did not attenuate the o(2) increase during venepuncture (1.5 +/- 0.2 mL/kg min (water) versus 1.7 +/- 0.5 (0.4 mL glucose) versus 1.1 +/- 0.2 (2 mL glucose) (mean +/- SEM) nor EE nor heart rate. We conclude that oral administration of 2 mL glucose 30% before venepuncture reduced pain expression and crying, but did not prevent the rise in o(2), EE, or heart rate. Alternative therapies against the stress of nonpainful handling during venepuncture should be explored.

  19. Consumption of drugs for sea lice infestations in Norwegian fish farms: methods for assessment of treatment patterns and treatment rate.

    PubMed

    Grave, K; Horsberg, T E; Lunestad, B T; Litleskare, I

    2004-08-09

    Sea lice are a major problem in Norwegian fish farms; however, data on drug treatment patterns or treatment rates of sea lice infestations are not available. Such data are important for analysing resistance patterns against drugs used for such infestations. The main objective of the present study was to develop a method to estimate the treatment patterns and treatment rates for drugs used in the treatment against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus) in farm salmonids by means of national sales statistics. Annual sales figures, as weight of active substances, were obtained from the drug wholesalers and the feed mills. The weight of active drug substances is not useful as a unit of measurement of drug use in an epidemiological context because it does not correct for dosage differences and number of repeat treatments. To correct for these factors, we introduced approved daily dose (ADD(farm fish)) and treatment course-doses(farm fish) kg(-1) live-weight fish. To express the drug treatment patterns, the biomass (in weight) of farm salmonids treated with 1 course of a drug were estimated. When measured as kg active substance, the quantities of drugs for the treatment of sea lice infestations declined by 98% during the study period (1989 to 2002) but this figure increased 5-fold when it was corrected for differences in dosage. To correct for amounts of farm salmonids liable to require treatment we estimated the annual treatment rate, defined as the number of treatments for sea lice infestations per biomass slaughtered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The annual treatment rate increased gradually during the study period; however, it varied considerably (range 0.45 to 1.34, mean 0.90). Before 1995, organophosphates were the most frequently used drugs against sea lice; since then pyrethroids have become the dominating drug group.

  20. The effects of interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate oxidation rates in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Karstoft, Kristian; Wallis, Gareth A; Pedersen, Bente K; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2016-09-01

    For unknown reasons, interval training often reduces body weight more than energy-expenditure matched continuous training. We compared the acute effects of time-duration and oxygen-consumption matched interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), substrate oxidation rates and lipid metabolism in the hours following exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Following an overnight fast, ten T2D subjects (M/F: 7/3; age=60.3±2.3years; body mass index (BMI)=28.3±1.1kg/m(2)) completed three 60-min interventions in a counterbalanced, randomized order: 1) control (CON), 2) continuous walking (CW), 3) interval-walking (IW - repeated cycles of 3min of fast and 3min of slow walking). Indirect calorimetry was applied during each intervention and repeatedly for 30min per hour during the following 5h. A liquid mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT, 450kcal) was consumed by the subjects 45min after completion of the intervention with blood samples taken regularly. Exercise interventions were successfully matched for total oxygen consumption (CW=1641±133mL/min; IW=1634±126mL/min, P>0.05). EPOC was higher after IW (8.4±1.3l) compared to CW (3.7±1.4l, P<0.05). Lipid oxidation rates were increased during the MMTT in IW (1.03±0.12mg/kg per min) and CW (0.87±0.04mg/kg per min) compared with CON (0.73±0.04mg/kg per min, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), with no difference between IW and CW. Moreover, free fatty acids and glycerol concentrations, and glycerol kinetics were increased comparably during and after IW and CW compared to CON. Interval exercise results in greater EPOC than oxygen-consumption matched continuous exercise during a post-exercise MMTT in subjects with T2D, whereas effects on substrate oxidation and lipid metabolism are comparable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pistachio Nut Consumption Modifies Systemic Hemodynamics, Increases Heart Rate Variability, and Reduces Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Well‐Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Katherine A.; McCrea, Cindy E.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Managing cardiovascular risk factors is important for reducing vascular complications in type 2 diabetes, even in individuals who have achieved glycemic control. Nut consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk; however, there is mixed evidence about the effect of nuts on blood pressure (BP), and limited research on the underlying hemodynamics. This study assessed the effect of pistachio consumption on BP, systemic hemodynamics, and heart rate variability in adults with well‐controlled type 2 diabetes. Methods and Results We enrolled 30 adults (40 to 74 years) with type 2 diabetes in a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. After a 2‐week run‐in period, participants consumed a low‐fat control diet (27% fat) containing low‐fat/high‐carbohydrate snacks and a moderate‐fat diet (33% fat) containing pistachios (20% of total energy) for 4 weeks each, separated by a 2‐week washout. Following each diet period, we assessed BP, systemic hemodynamics, and heart rate variability at rest and during acute mental stress, and, in a subset of participants (n=21), 24‐hour ambulatory BP. BP at rest and during stress did not differ between treatments. The pistachio diet significantly reduced total peripheral resistance (−3.7±2.9%, P=0.004), increased cardiac output (3.1±2.3%, P=0.002), and improved some measures of heart rate variability (all P<0.05). Systolic ambulatory BP was significantly reduced by 3.5±2.2 mm Hg (P=0.046) following the pistachio diet, with the greatest reduction observed during sleep (−5.7±2.6 mm Hg, P=0.052). Conclusions A moderate‐fat diet containing pistachios modestly improves some cardiovascular risk factors in adults with well‐controlled type 2 diabetes. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00956735. PMID:24980134

  2. Caura River basin: Weathering rates, CO2 consumption, and chemistry of major and trace elements in an Orinoco River tributary coming from the Precambrian Guayana Shield, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Abrahan; Alfonso, Juan A.; Baquero, Juan Carlos; Balza, Laura; Pisapia, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the geochemistry of dissolved elements in the Caura River and gives information about weathering rates and associated CO2 consumption in an Orinoco River subbasin. Physicochemical variables (pH, conductivity, HCO3-, dissolved O2, and temperature), dissolved elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Al, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Cr), total suspended sediments (TSS), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured monthly from June 2007 to August 2008 in the Caura River. Major element concentrations (Na, Ca, Mg, and Si) showed an inverse correlation with discharge, whereas K showed high concentration values during the rising waters, probably due to biogenic sources. All these elements are provided mainly from weathering of plagioclases and K feldspars. The weathering rate (riverine flux of dissolved major cations and SiO2 derived from weathering per unit area) and the CO2 consumption rate in the Caura basin (15.4 tons km-2 yr-1 and 1.1 × 105 mol km-2 yr-1, respectively) were higher than those reported for the Orinoco basin and other black water river basins. This fact can be due to several factors such as lithology (volcanic rocks), high runoff, and the presence of organic acids, which can enhance the chemical weathering. The variability of the trace elements showed a different behavior than major elements. Fe and Al concentrations were correlated with DOC. Dissolved Mn content was correlated with pH, whereas the low concentrations of Cu and Cr are possibly associated with the low content of small size organic colloids. The high values of Zn observed during the decreasing stage suggest biogenic input of Zn to river waters.

  3. ATP Consumption by Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Pumps Accounts for 40-50% of Resting Metabolic Rate in Mouse Fast and Slow Twitch Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ian Curtis; Bombardier, Eric; Vigna, Chris; Tupling, A. Russell

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to directly quantify the relative contribution of Ca2+ cycling to resting metabolic rate in mouse fast (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow (soleus) twitch skeletal muscle. Resting oxygen consumption of isolated muscles (VO2, µL/g wet weight/s) measured polarographically at 30°C was ~20% higher (P<0.05) in soleus (0.326 ± 0.022) than in EDL (0.261 ± 0.020). In order to quantify the specific contribution of Ca2+ cycling to resting metabolic rate, the concentration of MgCl2 in the bath was increased to 10 mM to block Ca2+ release through the ryanodine receptor, thus eliminating a major source of Ca2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), and thereby indirectly inhibiting the activity of the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCAs). The relative (%) reduction in muscle VO2 in response to 10 mM MgCl2 was similar between soleus (48.0±3.7) and EDL (42.4±3.2). Using a different approach, we attempted to directly inhibit SERCA ATPase activity in stretched EDL and soleus muscles (1.42x optimum length) using the specific SERCA inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, up to 160 µM), but were unsuccessful in removing the energetic cost of Ca2+ cycling in resting isolated muscles. The results of the MgCl2 experiments indicate that ATP consumption by SERCAs is responsible for 40–50% of resting metabolic rate in both mouse fast- and slow-twitch muscles at 30°C, or 12–15% of whole body resting VO2. Thus, SERCA pumps in skeletal muscle could represent an important control point for energy balance regulation and a potential target for metabolic alterations to oppose obesity. PMID:23840903

  4. ATP consumption by sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pumps accounts for 40-50% of resting metabolic rate in mouse fast and slow twitch skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian Curtis; Bombardier, Eric; Vigna, Chris; Tupling, A Russell

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to directly quantify the relative contribution of Ca²⁺ cycling to resting metabolic rate in mouse fast (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow (soleus) twitch skeletal muscle. Resting oxygen consumption of isolated muscles (VO₂, µL/g wet weight/s) measured polarographically at 30°C was ~20% higher (P<0.05) in soleus (0.326 ± 0.022) than in EDL (0.261 ± 0.020). In order to quantify the specific contribution of Ca²⁺ cycling to resting metabolic rate, the concentration of MgCl₂ in the bath was increased to 10 mM to block Ca²⁺ release through the ryanodine receptor, thus eliminating a major source of Ca²⁺ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), and thereby indirectly inhibiting the activity of the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPases (SERCAs). The relative (%) reduction in muscle VO₂ in response to 10 mM MgCl₂ was similar between soleus (48.0±3.7) and EDL (42.4±3.2). Using a different approach, we attempted to directly inhibit SERCA ATPase activity in stretched EDL and soleus muscles (1.42x optimum length) using the specific SERCA inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, up to 160 µM), but were unsuccessful in removing the energetic cost of Ca²⁺ cycling in resting isolated muscles. The results of the MgCl₂ experiments indicate that ATP consumption by SERCAs is responsible for 40-50% of resting metabolic rate in both mouse fast- and slow-twitch muscles at 30°C, or 12-15% of whole body resting VO₂. Thus, SERCA pumps in skeletal muscle could represent an important control point for energy balance regulation and a potential target for metabolic alterations to oppose obesity.

  5. Will co-trimoxazole resistance rates ever go down? Resistance rates remain high despite decades of reduced co-trimoxazole consumption.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, Koen B; Batra, Rahul; Patel, Amita; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Robotham, Julie V; Smieszek, Timo

    2017-07-31

    Several studies showed that a substantial decline in the use of co-trimoxazole did not result in a decline in resistance rates among Escherichia coli isolates. Since mathematical models have shown that it may take decades before resistance rates start to decline to relevant levels, we performed a new analysis using more recently collected data. Data were extracted from Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals Transmission and Antimicrobial Record database which contains microbiological test results from all specimens tested between 2002 and 2014. We selected all blood samples positive for E. coli which were tested for resistance against co-trimoxazole. Prevalence of co-trimoxazole resistance among the tested samples by year was modelled by a Poisson model. Almost all (96%) of E. coli blood isolates were tested for co-trimoxazole resistance. In total, 2,070 E. coli isolates were available for analyses. Resistance to co-trimoxazole fluctuated over the years, but there was no clear increasing or decreasing trend; the annual percentage change in the prevalence of co-trimoxazole resistance was 0.52 (95% confidence interval -0.75% to 1.81%). Including co-trimoxazole or trimethoprim use in the year before the sample was taken did not improve the model. The prevalence of co-trimoxazole resistance among E. coli blood isolates remained high, almost three decades after a substantial decline in co-trimoxazole use. Our results further emphasize the importance of prudent antibiotics use, as antibiotic resistance may not always be easily reversible. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maximal oxygen consumption increases with temperature in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) through increased heart rate and arteriovenous extraction.

    PubMed

    Claësson, Débora; Wang, Tobias; Malte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Global warming results in increasing water temperature, which may represent a threat to aquatic ectotherms. The rising temperature affects ecology through physiology, by exerting a direct limiting effect on the individual. The mechanism controlling individual thermal tolerance is still elusive, but some evidence shows that the heart plays a central role, and that insufficient transport of oxygen to the respiring tissues may determine the thermal tolerance of animals. In this study, the influence of the heart in thermal limitation was investigated by measurements of aerobic scope in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) together with measurements of cardiac output during rest and activity. Aerobic capacity was not limited by an acutely increased temperature in the European eel. Oxygen demand was met by an increase in heart rate and arteriovenous extraction. These findings suggest that thermal tolerance during exposure to acute temperature changes is not defined by oxygen transport capacity in the eel, and other mechanisms may play a central role in limiting thermal tolerance in these fish.

  7. Acute Consumption of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake but Has No Effect on Appetite Ratings in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A.; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Servin-Cruz, Magda Z.; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I.; Nolasco-Coleman, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW. PMID:28677623

  8. Maximal oxygen consumption increases with temperature in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) through increased heart rate and arteriovenous extraction

    PubMed Central

    Claësson, Débora; Wang, Tobias; Malte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Global warming results in increasing water temperature, which may represent a threat to aquatic ectotherms. The rising temperature affects ecology through physiology, by exerting a direct limiting effect on the individual. The mechanism controlling individual thermal tolerance is still elusive, but some evidence shows that the heart plays a central role, and that insufficient transport of oxygen to the respiring tissues may determine the thermal tolerance of animals. In this study, the influence of the heart in thermal limitation was investigated by measurements of aerobic scope in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) together with measurements of cardiac output during rest and activity. Aerobic capacity was not limited by an acutely increased temperature in the European eel. Oxygen demand was met by an increase in heart rate and arteriovenous extraction. These findings suggest that thermal tolerance during exposure to acute temperature changes is not defined by oxygen transport capacity in the eel, and other mechanisms may play a central role in limiting thermal tolerance in these fish. PMID:27766150

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation of l-tryptophan on thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption rate in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings under varied stocking density.

    PubMed

    Tejpal, C S; Sumitha, E B; Pal, A K; Shivananda Murthy, H; Sahu, N P; Siddaiah, G M

    2014-04-01

    A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary l-tryptophan on thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption rate of freshwater fish, mrigala, Cirrhinus mrigala reared under ambient temperature at low and high stocking density. Four hundred eighty fingerlings were distributed into eight experimental groups. Four groups each of low density group (10 fishes/75L water) and higher density group (30 fishes/75L water) were fed a diet containing 0, 0.68, 1.36 or 2.72% l-tryptophan in the diet, thus forming eight experimental groups namely, Low density control (LC) (basal feed +0% l-tryptophan); LT1 (basal feed+0.68% l-tryptophan); LT2 (basal feed+1.36% l-tryptophan); LT3 (basal feed+2.72% l-tryptophan); high density control (HC) (basal feed+0% l-tryptophan); HT1 (basal feed+0.68% l-tryptophan); HT2 (basal feed+1.36% l-tryptophan); and HT3 (basal feed+2.72% l-tryptophan) were fed at 3% of the body weight. The test diets having crude protein 34.33±0.23 to 35.81±0.18% and lipid 423.49±1.76 to 425.85±0.31KCal/100g were prepared using purified ingredients. The possible role of dietary l-tryptophan on thermal tolerance and oxygen consumption rate was assessed in terms of critical thermal maxima (CTMax), critical thermal minima (CTMin), lethal thermal maxima (LTMax) and lethal thermal minima (LTMin). The CTMax, CTMin, LTMax and LTMin values were found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in the treatment groups with CTMax 42.94±0.037 (LT2); LT Max 43.18±0.070 (LT2); CTMin 10.47±0.088 (LT2) and LTMin 9.42±0.062 (LT3), whereas the control group showed a lower tolerance level. The same trend was observed in the high density group (CTMax 42.09±0.066 (LT3); LTMax 43 23±0.067 (HT3); CTMin 10.98±0.040 (HT3) and LTMin 9.74±0.037 (HT3). However, gradual supplementation of dietary l-tryptophan in the diet significantly reduced the oxygen consumption rate in both the low density group (Y=-26.74x+222.4, r²=0.915) and the high density group (Y=-32.96x+296.5, r²=0

  10. Oxygen consumption and heart rate responses during and after constant load and alternating intensity exercise at 105% of lactate threshold.

    PubMed

    Spanoudaki, S; Karatzanos, E; Baltopoulos, P; Maridaki, M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was a secondary-analysis of previously published data, in order to compare the acute VO2 responses, the time spent at high percentage of VO2max and total VO2 consumed (TVO2) between constant and alternating intensity exercise of the same intensity and duration. This study also aimed to examine VO2 and heart rate (HR) responses one hour after both exercises. Ten recreationally trained men (24.7±4.7 years) completed the following two exercise tests lasting an hour each and having the same mean intensity at 105% of lactate threshold (70% VO2max): 1) constant load cycling (CON), and 2) alternating intensity exercise (ALT), during which 40 seconds of light exercise (47% VO2max) were alternated with 20 seconds of supramaximal intensity at 120% of VO2max. TVO2 (69.89±7.02 vs. 58.22±9.13 mL/kg/min, P=0.03) and HR (142±16, 128±12, P=0.04) was higher in CON exercise compared to ALT. All participants reached 70% and 80% of VO2max irrespective of the exercise protocol. In ALT exercise the time spent at 90% was higher compared to CON exercise (70.81±21.37 vs. 36.88±11.88 seconds). Also, TVO2 recovery values after ALT exercise was higher compared to CON (11.1 ±2.93 vs. 9.94±3.54 mL/kg/min). ALT exercise allowed participants to spend longer time at 90% of VO2max, even if TVO2 in CON exercise was higher, suggesting that in ALT exercise greater aerobic stress (as based on exercise intensity) is imposed on the athletes. While VO2 recovery values were higher in ALT compared to CON, indicating different substrate utilization during and after exercise.

  11. Mass-balance modeling of mineral weathering rates and CO2 consumption in the forested, metabasaltic Hauver Branch watershed, Catoctin Mountain, Maryland, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen; Price, Jason R.; Szymanski, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral weathering rates and a forest macronutrient uptake stoichiometry were determined for the forested, metabasaltic Hauver Branch watershed in north-central Maryland, USA. Previous studies of Hauver Branch have had an insufficient number of analytes to permit determination of rates of all the minerals involved in chemical weathering, including biomass. More equations in the mass-balance matrix were added using existing mineralogic information. The stoichiometry of a deciduous biomass term was determined using multi-year weekly to biweekly stream-water chemistry for a nearby watershed, which drains relatively unreactive quartzite bedrock.At Hauver Branch, calcite hosts ~38 mol% of the calcium ion (Ca2+) contained in weathering minerals, but its weathering provides ~90% of the stream water Ca2+. This occurs in a landscape with a regolith residence time of more than several Ka (kiloannum). Previous studies indicate that such old regolith does not typically contain dissolving calcite that affects stream Ca2+/Na+ ratios. The relatively high calcite dissolution rate likely reflects dissolution of calcite in fractures of the deep critical zone.Of the carbon dioxide (CO2) consumed by mineral weathering, calcite is responsible for approximately 27%, with the silicate weathering consumption rate far exceeding that of the global average. The chemical weathering of mafic terrains in decaying orogens thus may be capable of influencing global geochemical cycles, and therefore, climate, on geological timescales. Based on carbon-balance calculations, atmospheric-derived sulfuric acid is responsible for approximately 22% of the mineral weathering occurring in the watershed. Our results suggest that rising air temperatures, driven by global warming and resulting in higher precipitation, will cause the rate of chemical weathering in the Hauver Branch watershed to increase until a threshold temperature is reached. Beyond the threshold temperature, increased recharge would

  12. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption upon cardiovascular reactivity, heart rate and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Beilin, L J; Hoffmann, P; Nilsson, H; Skarphedinsson, J; Folkow, B

    1992-07-01

    Clarification of the effect of chronic ethanol consumption upon cardiovascular reactivity in rats. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats were randomly allocated in groups of 10 to ethanol in tap water [20% (v:v) after the first week or tap water for 7-12 weeks]. Intra-arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured at rest and in response to vibration and noise stress. Vascular reactivity was assessed in isolated paired perfused hindquarters and in mesenteric arterioles in a Mulvany-Halpern myograph. Resting intra-arterial blood pressure but not heart rate was lower in both ethanol-treated groups. The ethanol treatment increased the SHR heart rate response to sudden noise but the WKY response did not increase. Pressor responses to noise were initially greater in the ethanol-treated SHR. The ethanol had no effect upon isolated perfused hindquarter resistance at maximal dilation, dose-response curves in response to noradrenaline or vasopressin, or maximal contractile strength. Isolated mesenteric arterioles showed that ethanol had no effect upon responses to nerve stimulation or upon the 50% effective dose required for a response to noradrenaline or vasopressin. Ethanol treatment heightened the heart rate reactivity to stress without substantially affecting vascular neuro-effector characteristics in SHR. This is likely to be a central effect, caused by suppression of the central nervous inhibitory systems that influence the heart rate and baroreflex activity in a strain of rat already showing evidence of an impaired ability to modulate the heart rate and blood pressure in response to stress. The small reduction in resting blood pressure may be a consequence of the lower weight in the ethanol-treated rats, and/or may reflect a direct depressing action by the alcohol on vascular and cardiac muscle. These findings are discussed in the context of ethanol-induced hypertension in humans and possible genetic variations in

  13. Antibiotic Stewardship Ward Rounds and a Dedicated Prescription Chart Reduce Antibiotic Consumption and Pharmacy Costs without Affecting Inpatient Mortality or Re-Admission Rates

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Tom H.; Whitelaw, Andrew; Bamford, Colleen; Moodley, Mischka; Bonorchis, Kim; Morris, Vida; Rawoot, Naazneen; Naicker, Vanishree; Lusakiewicz, Irena; Black, John; Stead, David; Lesosky, Maia; Raubenheimer, Peter; Dlamini, Sipho; Mendelson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic consumption is a major driver of bacterial resistance. To address the increasing burden of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections, antibiotic stewardship programmes are promoted worldwide to rationalize antibiotic prescribing and conserve remaining antibiotics. Few studies have been reported from developing countries and none from Africa that report on an intervention based approach with outcomes that include morbidity and mortality. Methods An antibiotic prescription chart and weekly antibiotic stewardship ward round was introduced into two medical wards of an academic teaching hospital in South Africa between January-December 2012. Electronic pharmacy records were used to collect the volume and cost of antibiotics used, the patient database was analysed to determine inpatient mortality and 30-day re-admission rates, and laboratory records to determine use of infection-related tests. Outcomes were compared to a control period, January-December 2011. Results During the intervention period, 475.8 defined daily doses were prescribed per 1000 inpatient days compared to 592.0 defined daily doses/1000 inpatient days during the control period. This represents a 19.6% decrease in volume with a cost reduction of 35% of the pharmacy’s antibiotic budget. There was a concomitant increase in laboratory tests driven by requests for procalcitonin. There was no difference in inpatient mortality or 30-day readmission rate during the control and intervention periods. Conclusions Introduction of antibiotic stewardship ward rounds and a dedicated prescription chart in a developing country setting can achieve reduction in antibiotic consumption without harm to patients. Increased laboratory costs should be anticipated when introducing an antibiotic stewardship program. PMID:24348995

  14. The Online Morphology Control and Dynamic Studies on Improving Vitamin B12 Production by Pseudomonas denitrificans with Online Capacitance and Specific Oxygen Consumption Rate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze-Jian; Shi, Hui-Lin; Wang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphological character of Pseudomonas denitrificans and vitamin B12 synthesis based on real-time capacitance measurement and online specific oxygen consumption rate (Q O2) control was established for enhancing vitamin B12 production. Results demonstrated that the threshold Q O2 value lower than 2.0 mmol/gDCW/l would greatly stimulate the state transfer from the cell number growth phase to the cell elongation phase and promote rapid vitamin B12 biosynthesis, while the vitamin B12 biosynthesis rate could also be inhibited when the rate of cell's length-to-width ratio (ratio-LW) was higher than 10:1. Furthermore, the optimal morphology controlling strategy was achieved based on online Q O2 control, which increases the appropriate active cell numbers at the former phase, and then control the elongation of ratio-LW no more than 10:1 at the vitamin B12 biosynthesis phase. The maximal vitamin B12 production reached 239.7 mg/l at 168 h, which was improved by 14.7 % compared with the control (208 mg/l). This online controlling strategy would be effectively applied for improving industrial vitamin B12 fermentation.

  15. An ecological study of cancer mortality rates in the United States with respect to solar ultraviolet-B doses, smoking, alcohol consumption and urban/rural residence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Polling Project of Rarer Cancers (VDPP ) study failed to find a beneficial role of prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels on risk of seven types of rarer cancer: endometrial, esophageal, gastric, kidney, ovarian and pancreatic cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, ecological studies and studies of oral vitamin D intake have generally found solar ultraviolet B (UVB) and oral vitamin D inversely correlated with incidence and/or mortality rates of these cancers. To explore the discrepancy, I conducted an ecological study of cancer mortality rates for white Americans in the United States for 1950–1994 with data for 503 state economic areas in multiple linear regression analyses with respect to UVB for July, lung cancer, alcohol consumption and urban/rural residence. UVB was significantly inversely correlated with six types of cancer (not pancreatic cancer) in both periods. However, the adjusted R2 values were much lower for cancers with lower mortality rates than those in an earlier ecological study that used state-averaged data. This finding suggests that the VDPP study may have had too few cases. Thus, the VDPP study should not be considered as providing strong evidence against the solar UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis. PMID:21547102

  16. Association between coffee consumption and the estimated glomerular filtration rate in the general Japanese population: preliminary data regarding C-reactive protein concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Sakane, Naoki; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2010-12-01

    Cardiometabolic disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVD) where the relevance of regular coffee consumption is debatable, has been linked with the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A more recent study suggests that coffee consumption is associated with normal or increased kidney function as assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The present study investigated whether the association between coffee and the eGFR was independent of chronic inflammation, and whether adding sugar to coffee could affect the eGFR. A total of 114 age- and gender-matched Japanese individuals (females/males=68/46, mean age=59.5 years), without CVD and severe CKD, were studied. Clinical variables, such as body mass index, blood pressure, blood glucose, lipids and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), in addition to eGFR [the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation], were measured. Coffee drinkers had higher eGFR values [73.9±16.5 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m(2)] than non-coffee drinkers (68.6±11.7). The difference remained significant (F=5.04, p=0.027), independently of clinical variables, including hsCRP. The eGFR values among coffee drinkers were similar between the subjects with and without use of sugar. The association of coffee drinking habits to eGFR may occur independently of inflammation as assessed by hsCRP. The use of sugar may have no effect on GFR. Further research is needed to clarify this phenomenon.

  17. Prediction of peak oxygen consumption from the ratings of perceived exertion during a graded exercise test and ramp exercise test in able-bodied participants and paraplegic persons.

    PubMed

    Al-Rahamneh, Harran Q; Eston, Roger G

    2011-02-01

    To assess the accuracy of predicting peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)peak) from a graded exercise test (GXT) and a ramp exercise test during arm exercise in able-bodied persons and persons with paraplegia using ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs). Each participant performed a GXT (started at 30W and increased by 15W every 2min) and a ramp exercise test (started at 0W and increased by 15W·min(-1)). Universities' laboratories. Able-bodied men (n=13; mean ± SD, 27.2±4.3y) and men with paraplegia (n=12; 31.1±5.7y). Six of the persons with paraplegia had flaccid paralysis as a result of poliomyelitis infection. The other 6 persons had complete spinal cord injuries with neurologic levels at and below T6. Not applicable. Prediction of Vo(2)peak by extrapolating submaximal oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) and RPE values to RPE 20 on the Borg 6 to 20 RPE scale. This study showed a very strong linear relationship between RPE and Vo(2) during the GXT and the ramp test for able-bodied persons (R(2)≥.95 and R(2)≥.96, respectively) and persons with paraplegia (R(2)≥.96 and R(2)≥.95, respectively). There was no significant difference between measured and predicted Vo(2)peak from RPEs before and including RPE 13, 15, and 17 during the GXT for persons with paraplegia (P>.05). For the able-bodied participants, there was no significant difference between measured and predicted Vo(2)peak from RPEs before and including RPE 15 and 17 during the ramp exercise test (P>.05). The GXT provided acceptable predictions of Vo(2)peak for persons with paraplegia, and the ramp test provided acceptable predictions of Vo(2)peak for able-bodied persons. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of ozone air pollution on plant-herbivore interactions. Part 2: Effects of ozone on feeding preference, growth and consumption rates of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).

    PubMed

    Bolsinger, M; Lier, M E; Hughes, P R

    1992-01-01

    Effects of ozone fumigation of Asclepias curassavica L. and A. syriaca L. on feeding preference, growth, development, and nutritional indices of monarch larvae were investigated in conjunction with changes in specific leaf metabolites. While foliar chemistry was quite variable, fumigation generally decreased sugars and proteins, and increased amino acids and phenolics in A. curassavica. Effects were similar in A. syriaca except that sugars were generally increased while amino acids were usually not affected. On A. curassavica, 3rd instar larvae preferred ozone-treated leaves while 4th instars showed no preference; conversely, on A. syriaca, 3rd instars showed no preference while 4th instars preferred control leaves. Relative growth rate and relative consumption rate of 5th instars were greater on fumigated plants of both species, but other nutritional indices were unaffected. Larvae developed more rapidly on intact fumigated plants of both species than on the respective controls. The results suggest that enhanced feeding stimulation may be the primary cause of the altered behavior and performance on ozone-fumigated plants.

  19. Trends in incidence rate, health care consumption, and costs for patients admitted with a humeral fracture in The Netherlands between 1986 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Mahabier, Kiran C; Hartog, Dennis Den; Van Veldhuizen, Joyce; Panneman, Martien J M; Polinder, Suzanne; Verhofstad, Michael H J; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to examine long-term population-based trends in the incidence rate of patients with a humeral fracture admitted to a hospital in the Netherlands from 1986 to 2012 and to give a detailed overview of the health care consumption and productivity loss with associated costs. Age and gender-standardised incidence rates of hospital admissions for patients with a proximal, shaft, or distal humeral fracture were calculated for each year (1986-2012). Injury cases, length of hospital stay (LOS), trauma mechanism, and operation rate were extracted from the National Medical Registration. An incidence-based cost model was applied to calculate costs for direct health care and lost productivity in 2012. Between 1986 and 2012 112,910 patients were admitted for a humeral fracture. The incidence rate increased from 17.8 in 1986 to 40.0 per 100,000 person years in 2012. Incidence rates of proximal fractures increased the most, especially in elderly women. Operation rates decreased in patients aged 70 years or older. The mean LOS decreased from nine days in 1997 to five days in 2012. The cumulative LOS of all patients in 2012 was 28,880 days of which 73% were caused by women and 81% were caused by patients aged 50 years or older. Cumulative medical costs in 2012 were M€55.4, of which M€43.4 was spent on women. Costs increased with age. Costs for hospital care contributed most to the overall costs per case until 70 years of age. From 70 years onwards, the main cost determinants were hospital care, rehabilitation/nursing care, and home care. Cumulative costs due to lost productivity were M€23.5 in 2012. Costs per case increased with age in all anatomic regions. The crude number of patients admitted for a humeral fracture increased 124% in 27 years, and was associated with age and gender. Proximal fractures in elderly women accounted most significantly for this increase and most of the costs. The main cost determinants were hospital care and productivity loss

  20. Maximum rate of oxygen consumption related to succinate dehydrogenase activity in skeletal muscle fibres of chronic heart failure patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Bekedam, Martijn A; van Beek-Harmsen, Brechje J; Boonstra, Anco; van Mechelen, Willem; Visser, Frans C; van der Laarse, Willem J

    2003-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the low maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max) of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients is not because of impaired pump function of the heart. We hypothesize that VO2 during maximum exercise is determined by the total oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. VO2max of six controls and 14 CHF patients, New York Heart Association class I-III, was determined using an incremental bicycle ergometer test. Cryostat sections of a biopsy from the quadriceps femoris muscle were incubated for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) using quantitative histochemistry. VO2max (range: 29 ml O2 kg muscle(-1) min(-1) in a class III patient to 118 ml O2 kg muscle(-1) min(-1) in a control subject) correlates with the mean SDH activity of skeletal muscle fibres (r=0.79 or r=0.81, including or excluding oxygen uptake at rest, respectively; P<0.001). The relationship between VO2max and SDH activity is similar to that determined previously using isolated single muscle fibres and myocardial trabeculae under hyperoxic conditions. From the product of SDH activity and the cross-sectional area of the fibre (i.e. spatially integrated SDH activity), it is possible to calculate the maximum oxygen uptake rate per unit muscle fibre length. This uptake rate is linearly related to the number of capillaries per fibre (r=0.76, P<0.001) in all subjects, suggesting that oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle fibres in CHF patients decreases in proportion to the oxygen supply capacity of the microcirculation.

  1. Changes in food group consumption and associations with self-rated diet, health, life satisfaction, and mental and physical functioning over 5 years in very old Canadian men: the Manitoba Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, S; Lengyel, C; Tate, R

    2012-08-01

    To identify longitudinal food group consumption trends and the relationship to perceived changes in diet, health, and functioning. A prospective longitudinal study. Canada. Seven hundred and thirty-six community-dwelling Canadian men (mean age: 2000=79.4 yrs; 2005=84.5 yrs) participating in the Manitoba Follow-up Study. Self-reported food consumption, self-rated diet and health, life satisfaction, physical and mental functioning from questionnaires completed in 2000 and 2005. The majority of participants did not consume from all four food groups daily, based on Canada's Food Guide recommendations, with only 8% in 2000 and up to 15% in 2005. However, over a five year period, more men improved their consumption in each food group than declined. An association was found between change in the self-rating of the healthiness of their diet and change in consumption of vegetables and fruit, or grain products. Men whose self-rating of the healthiness of their diet remained high or improved between 2000 and 2005, were 2.15 times more likely (95% CI=1.45, 3.17) to also have increased consumption of vegetables and fruit, and 1.71 times more likely (95% CI=1.51, 2.54) to have increased consumption of grain products, relative to men whose self-rating of the healthiness of their diet declined between 2000 and 2005. Men who consumed more food groups daily had better mental and physical component scores. Dietary improvements are possible in very old men. Greater daily food group consumption is associated with better mental and physical functioning. Given these positive findings, there is still a need to identify older men who require support to improve their dietary habits as nearly half of the participants consumed two or fewer groups daily.

  2. Prey consumption rates and compatibility with pesticides of four predatory mites from the family Phytoseiidae attacking Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Mathers, James J; Croft, Pat; Nattriss, Nicola; Blackburn, Lisa F; Luo, Weiqi; Northing, Phil; Murai, Tamotsu; Jacobson, Robert J; Walters, Keith F A

    2012-09-01

    Predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, Typhlodromips montdorensis Schicha, Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) and Iphiseius degenerans Berlese) were investigated for their potential to act as control agents for Thrips palmi Karny. Prey consumption rates and compatibility with pesticides were assessed. Second-instar larvae were the preferred life stage. Typhlodromips montdorensis consumed the most larvae (2.8) and also an average of 1.2 adult T. palmi per 5 day period. Both 24 and 48 h assessments following application of abamectin, spinosad and imazalil demonstrated mortality of predatory mites (across all species), which was significantly higher than with the other treatments (P < 0.001). Spraying with pymetrozine did not provide any increased mortality when compared with the water control. Application of thiacloprid proved detrimental only to I. degenerans. Following indirect exposure of predatory mites to pymetrozine and imazalil, no significant differences in mite mortality were obtained. Indirect exposure to spinosad was identified as the most detrimental treatment (P < 0.001) to all mites. Abamectin also proved detrimental, with only T. montdorensis showing any potential tolerance. All predatory mites investigated offer potential for controlling T. palmi. Compatibility with chemicals varied between the mites. The potential of incorporating the mites into eradication strategies for T. palmi is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The effects of green tea consumption and resistance training on body composition and resting metabolic rate in overweight or obese women.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Gabrielle Aparecida; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Cesar, Marcelo de Castro; Donado-Pestana, Carlos Mario

    2013-02-01

    Green tea has been shown to have thermogenic and antiobesity properties. Therefore, it is important to investigate its effect on weight loss in humans, especially in women. We investigated the effects of green tea consumption combined with resistance training on the body composition and the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in women who were overweight or obese (grade I). After 4 weeks on an adaptive diet, 36 women were divided into four groups (group 1 green tea; group 2 placebo; group 3 green tea plus resistance training; group 4 placebo plus resistance training). The study was double-blinded and placebo-controlled. The RMR and body composition were ascertained for each volunteer, blood tests were performed, and subjects in groups 3 and 4 were tested for their one repetition maximum. Each subject followed the protocol and continued the diet for eight additional weeks, and periodic evaluations were administered. The mean RMR of group 1 decreased significantly and was accompanied by weight loss, maintenance of lean body mass, and decreases in both waist circumference and body mass index. Group 2 showed no variations in anthropometric or blood variables and significantly decreased their mean RMR. Group 3 showed significant increases in RMR, lean body mass, and muscle strength, and significant decreases in body fat, triglycerides, and waist circumference as compared to group 4. Green tea combined with resistance training its potential is increased with decreasing body fat, waist circumference, and triacylglyceride levels and by increasing lean body mass and muscle strength.

  4. Human CHCHD4 mitochondrial proteins regulate cellular oxygen consumption rate and metabolism and provide a critical role in hypoxia signaling and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Staples, Oliver; Thomas, Luke W; Briston, Thomas; Robson, Mathew; Poon, Evon; Simões, Maria L; El-Emir, Ethaar; Buffa, Francesca M; Ahmed, Afshan; Annear, Nicholas P; Shukla, Deepa; Pedley, Barbara R; Maxwell, Patrick H; Harris, Adrian L; Ashcroft, Margaret

    2012-02-01

    Increased expression of the regulatory subunit of HIFs (HIF-1α or HIF-2α) is associated with metabolic adaptation, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Understanding how HIFs are regulated is of intense interest. Intriguingly, the molecular mechanisms that link mitochondrial function with the HIF-regulated response to hypoxia remain to be unraveled. Here we describe what we believe to be novel functions of the human gene CHCHD4 in this context. We found that CHCHD4 encodes 2 alternatively spliced, differentially expressed isoforms (CHCHD4.1 and CHCHD4.2). CHCHD4.1 is identical to MIA40, the homolog of yeast Mia40, a key component of the mitochondrial disulfide relay system that regulates electron transfer to cytochrome c. Further analysis revealed that CHCHD4 proteins contain an evolutionarily conserved coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix (CHCH) domain important for mitochondrial localization. Modulation of CHCHD4 protein expression in tumor cells regulated cellular oxygen consumption rate and metabolism. Targeting CHCHD4 expression blocked HIF-1α induction and function in hypoxia and resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Overexpression of CHCHD4 proteins in tumor cells enhanced HIF-1α protein stabilization in hypoxic conditions, an effect insensitive to antioxidant treatment. In human cancers, increased CHCHD4 expression was found to correlate with the hypoxia gene expression signature, increasing tumor grade, and reduced patient survival. Thus, our study identifies a mitochondrial mechanism that is critical for regulating the hypoxic response in tumors.

  5. Development of a new oxygen consumption rate assay in cultures of Acanthamoeba (Protozoa: Lobosea) and its application to evaluate viability and amoebicidal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heredero-Bermejo, I; Criado-Fornelio, A; Soliveri, J; Díaz-Martín, J A; Matilla-Fuentes, J; Sánchez-Arias, J A; Copa-Patiño, J L; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2015-08-01

    A new fluorometric method has been developed for measuring the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of Acanthamoeba cultures in microplates and for screening molecules with amoebicidal activity against this microorganism. The use of a biofunctional matrix (containing an oxygen-sensitive fluorogenic probe) attached to the microplate wells allowed continuous measurement of OCR in the medium, hence assessment of amoebic growth. The new OCR method applied to cell viability yielded a linear relationship and monitoring was much quicker than with indirect viability assays previously used. In addition, two drugs were tested in a cytotoxicity assay monitored by the new OCR viability test. With this procedure, the standard amoebicidal drug chlorhexidine digluconate showed an IC50 of 3.53 + 1.3 mg/l against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and 3.19 + 1.2 mg/l against Acanthamoeba castellanii, whereas a cationic dendrimer [G1Si(NMe3+)4] showed an IC50 of 6.42 + 1.3 mg/l against A. polyphaga. These data agree with previous studies conducted in our laboratory. Therefore, the new OCR method has proven powerful and quick for amoebicidal drug screening and is likely to be applied in biochemical studies concerning protozoa respiration and metabolism.

  6. Human CHCHD4 mitochondrial proteins regulate cellular oxygen consumption rate and metabolism and provide a critical role in hypoxia signaling and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Staples, Oliver; Thomas, Luke W.; Briston, Thomas; Robson, Mathew; Poon, Evon; Simões, Maria L.; El-Emir, Ethaar; Buffa, Francesca M.; Ahmed, Afshan; Annear, Nicholas P.; Shukla, Deepa; Pedley, Barbara R.; Maxwell, Patrick H.; Harris, Adrian L.; Ashcroft, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Increased expression of the regulatory subunit of HIFs (HIF-1α or HIF-2α) is associated with metabolic adaptation, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Understanding how HIFs are regulated is of intense interest. Intriguingly, the molecular mechanisms that link mitochondrial function with the HIF-regulated response to hypoxia remain to be unraveled. Here we describe what we believe to be novel functions of the human gene CHCHD4 in this context. We found that CHCHD4 encodes 2 alternatively spliced, differentially expressed isoforms (CHCHD4.1 and CHCHD4.2). CHCHD4.1 is identical to MIA40, the homolog of yeast Mia40, a key component of the mitochondrial disulfide relay system that regulates electron transfer to cytochrome c. Further analysis revealed that CHCHD4 proteins contain an evolutionarily conserved coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix (CHCH) domain important for mitochondrial localization. Modulation of CHCHD4 protein expression in tumor cells regulated cellular oxygen consumption rate and metabolism. Targeting CHCHD4 expression blocked HIF-1α induction and function in hypoxia and resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Overexpression of CHCHD4 proteins in tumor cells enhanced HIF-1α protein stabilization in hypoxic conditions, an effect insensitive to antioxidant treatment. In human cancers, increased CHCHD4 expression was found to correlate with the hypoxia gene expression signature, increasing tumor grade, and reduced patient survival. Thus, our study identifies a mitochondrial mechanism that is critical for regulating the hypoxic response in tumors. PMID:22214851

  7. The effect of three weeks green tea extract consumption on blood pressure, heart rate responses to a single bout resistance exercise in hypertensive women.

    PubMed

    Arazi, Hamid; Samami, Nader; Kheirkhah, Jalal; Taati, Behzad

    2014-09-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) may lead to a post-exercise hypotension (PEH) response. Previous studies showed that green tea (GT) and its polyphenols, especially Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may have a favorable effect on blood pressure (BP). We investigated the green tea extract (GTE) effects on BP, heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product (RPP) responses to a low-intensity RE in hypertensive women. Middle-aged women (n = 24, 46.4 ± 6.3 years old; 66.6 ± 9.2 kg; 166.3 ± 4.2 cm) were randomly assigned into three groups of eight persons. GTE consumption group (T) and RE group (R), respectively, ingested GTE (~75 mg EGCG) and placebo (PL; maltodextrin) capsules two times a day for three weeks and then completed 2 circuits of six RE using 50% one repetition maximum (1RM). Patients of control group (C) just ingested PL and rested in a non-exercise control trial. BP, HR and RPP were measured prior and post-exercise at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. The repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that there were no significant alterations for arterial BP, HR and RPP of C group. HR of T and R groups was increased immediately after RE. A significant fall of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) occurred in both T and R groups for 60 min post-exercise compared to resting values. Mean arterial BP (MAP) and RPP decreased significantly after RE in both exercise groups from 15 to 60 min. During 45 and 60 time points, T group had a lower RPP values than C group. The differences between T and R groups were only MAP at 0 and 15 time points. Three weeks of GTE ingestion did not influenced SBP, DBP and HR but may be have a favorable effect on MAP and RPP responses to an acute RE during 1 h recovery of exercise.

  8. Deep Ocean Oxygen Consumption Rates: Ocean Chemistry Clues from a van `t Hoff Based Formulation of the Speed of Sound in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Ryan, J. P.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Hofmann, A. F.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean water masses are undergoing change from warming climate. Dissolved oxygen is widely used as a water mass signature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations are declining. The rate of oxygen consumption is typically represented as a function of depth, yet while temperature is the dominant control the properties of temperature and depth are unfortunately comingled. We show that it is possible to more clearly separate the combined temperature and depth controls on ocean biogeochemical cycles via the sound speed proxy. For over 50 years scientists have represented the speed of sound in sea water as an ad hoc high order polynomial with up to 42 coefficients linking temperature, pressure, and salinity, or via an equation of state with 104 coefficients. (A "computationally efficient" version of the latter uses just 75 coefficients.) While this has allowed accurate calculation of sound speed profiles, these are formulations with no underlying molecular basis. We show that a simple van 't Hoff formulation with a plot of lnV versus 1/T, where T is the absolute temperature, as a basis leads to a simpler formulation with minimal error with at most only 28 coefficients required. This finding suggests that the dominant control on the speed of sound within the oceanic range appears to have the form of simple reversible equilibria within the water structure system and that V mimics, or may be treated as resulting from, a simple pressure perturbation between apparent equilibria within the water structures. Further, the van 't Hoff slope correctly indicates an endothermic reaction in which the sound wave loses energy into the ocean. Since sound speed profiles are fundamentally separable into their temperature and depth (pressure) dependencies their partial correlation with some chemical profiles may offer a potentially powerful proxy for separating the typically comingled properties of temperature and depth in describing ocean chemical profiles and rates.

  9. Dive behaviour impacts the ability of heart rate to predict oxygen consumption in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) foraging at depth.

    PubMed

    Young, Beth L; Rosen, David A S; Hindle, Allyson G; Haulena, Martin; Trites, Andrew W

    2011-07-01

    The predictive relationship between heart rate (f(H)) and oxygen consumption (VO2) has been derived for several species of marine mammals swimming horizontally or diving in tanks to shallow depths. However, it is unclear how dive activity affects the f(H):VO2 relationship and whether the existing equations apply to animals diving to deeper depths. We investigated these questions by simultaneously measuring the f(H) and VO2 of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) under different activity states (surface resting or diving), types of dives (single dives or dive bouts), and depths (10 or 40 m). We examined the relationship over dives only and also over dive cycles (dive + surface interval). We found that f(H) could only predict VO2 over a complete single dive cycle or dive bout cycle (i.e. surface intervals had to be included). The predictive equation derived for sea lions resting on the surface did not differ from that for single dive cycles. However, the equation derived over dive bout cycles (multiple dives + surface intervals) differed from those for single dive cycles or surface resting, with similar f(H) for multiple dive bout equations yielding higher predicted VO2 than that for single dive bout cycles (or resting). The f(H):VO2 relationships were not significantly affected by dive duration, dive depth, water temperature or cumulative food consumed under the conditions tested. Ultimately, our results demonstrate that f(H) can be used to predict activity-specific metabolic rates of diving Steller sea lions, but only over complete dive cycles that include a post-dive surface recovery period.

  10. Investigation of an Immediate Effect of Bright Light on Oxygen Consumption, Heart Rate, Cortisol, and α-Amylase in Seasonal Affective Disorder Subjects and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Iana A; Danilenko, Konstantin V; Aftanas, Lyubomir I

    2016-01-01

    Body (fat) mass has been shown to decrease following bright light treatment for overweight women, irrespective of their seasonal (light) dependence. It is not known if this is due to an (immediate) increase of metabolism. Ten women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and 10 non-SAD women matched by age, body mass index, and menopausal status participated in a laboratory study in the morning, twice within 1-5 days. During one session, bright light (4,300 lx) was presented for 30 min, and during the other session, red light (250 lx "placebo") was used. After an initial 15 min of sitting quietly in an experimental chamber, 10-min measurements were done before, at the end, and 15 min after light exposure; the subjects remained seated for 80 min in total. The measurements included 5-min oxyspirography (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide emission, and heart rate), saliva sampling for the estimation of cortisol and α-amylase concentrations, and self-rating of mood, energy, and sleepiness. There was no light-specific effect on the measured variables, except that sleepiness was reduced more with bright light than with red light in the combined group. α-Amylase values were lower in the SAD patients than in the non-SAD controls. Morning artificial bright light, in comparison with dim red light, had no immediate effect on metabolism and resting sympathetic tone, though subjective sleepiness decreased more with bright light. SAD patients have low salivary α-amylase levels, indicating lower sympathetic tone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Optimal Consumption When Consumption Takes Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Norman C.

    2009-01-01

    A classic article by Gary Becker (1965) showed that when it takes time to consume, the first order conditions for optimal consumption require the marginal rate of substitution between any two goods to equal their relative full costs. These include the direct money price and the money value of the time needed to consume each good. This important…

  12. Self-ratings of materialism and status consumption in a Malaysian sample: effects of answering during an assumed recession versus economic growth.

    PubMed

    Jusoh, W J; Heaney, J G; Goldsmith, R E

    2001-06-01

    Consumers' self-assessments of materialism and status consumption may be influenced by external economic conditions. In this study, 239 Malaysian students were asked to describe their levels of materialism using Richins and Dawson's 1992 Materialism scale and status consumption using Eastman, Goldsmith, and Flynn's 1999 Status Consumption Scale. Half the students were told to respond assuming that they were in an expanding economy, and half as if the economy was in a recession. Comparison of the groups' mean scores showed no statistically significant differences.

  13. Effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on resting metabolic rate, sub-maximal running and post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Burt, Dean Gareth; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), described as the acute weakness of the musculature after unaccustomed eccentric exercise, increases oxidative metabolism at rest and during endurance exercise. However, it is not known whether oxygen uptake during recovery from endurance exercise is increased when experiencing symptoms of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EIMD on physiological and metabolic responses before, during and after sub-maximal running. After a 12 h fast, eight healthy male participants completed baseline measurements comprising resting metabolic rate (RMR), indirect markers of EIMD, 10 min of sub-maximal running and 30 min of recovery to ascertain excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Measurements were then repeated at 24 and 48 h after 100 Smith-machine squats. Data analysis revealed significant (P<0.05) increases in muscle soreness and creatine kinase (CK) and decreases in peak knee extensor torque at 24 and 48 h after squatting exercise. Moreover, RMR, physiological, metabolic and perceptual responses during sub-maximal running and EPOC were increased in the two days after squatting exercise (P<0.05). It is suggested that the elevated RMR was a consequence of a raised energy requirement for the degradation and resynthesis of damaged muscle fibres. The increased oxygen demand during sub-maximal running after muscle damage was responsible for the increase in EPOC. Individuals engaging in unaccustomed resistance exercise that results in muscle damage should be mindful of the increases in resting energy expenditure and increased metabolic demand to exercise in the days that follow.

  14. Slower heart rate and oxygen consumption kinetic responses in the on- and off-transient during a discontinuous incremental exercise: effects of aging.

    PubMed

    Simões, Rodrigo P; Bonjorno, José C; Beltrame, Thomas; Catai, Aparecida M; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the kinetic responses of heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) are an important tool for the evaluation of exercise performance and health status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aging on the HR and VO(2) kinetics during the rest-exercise transition (on-transient) and the exercise-recovery transition (off-transient), in addition to investigating the influence of exercise intensity (mild and moderate) on these variables. A total of 14 young (23±3 years) and 14 elderly (70±4 years) healthy men performed an incremental exercise testing (ramp protocol) on a cycle-ergometer to determine the maximal power (MP). Discontinuous exercise testing was initiated at 10% of the MP with subsequent increases of 10% until exhaustion. The measurement of HR, ventilatory and metabolic variables and blood lactate were obtained at rest and during the discontinuous exercise. The lactate threshold was determined in each subject and was similar between the groups (30±7% of MP in the young group and 29±5% of MP in the elderly group, p>0.05). The HR and VO(2) kinetics (on- and off-transient) were slower in the elderly group compared to the young group (p<0.05). Additionally, in the young group, the values of HR and VO(2) kinetics were higher in the moderate compared to the mild exercise intensity. We concluded that the elderly group presented with slower HR and VO(2) kinetics in relation to the young group for both on- and off-transients of the dynamic exercise. Moreover, in the young group, the kinetic responses were slower in the moderate intensity in relation to the mild intensity.

  15. Assessment of the inhibition of Dengue virus infection by carrageenan via real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen consumption rates within a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Yi-Syun; Wu, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic device combined with a light modulation system was developed to assess the inhibitory effect of carrageenan on Dengue virus (DENV) infection via real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen consumption rates (OCRs). Measuring cellular OCRs, which can reflect cellular metabolic activity, enabled us to monitor the process of viral infection in real time and to rapidly determine the antiviral activity of potential drugs/chemical compounds. The time variation of the cellular OCR of single cells that were infected in situ by DENV at different multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) values was first successfully measured within a microfluidic device. The influence of the timing of carrageenan treatment on DENV infection was then examined by real-time monitoring of cellular OCRs in three groups. Cells that were pre-treated with carrageenan and then infected with DENV served as a pre-treatment group, cells to which carrageenan was added simultaneously with DENV served as a virucide group, and cells that were pre-infected with DENV and then treated with carrageenan served as a post-treatment group. By monitoring cellular OCRs, we could rapidly evaluate the inhibitory effect of carrageenan on DENV infection, obtaining a result within 7 h and showing that carrageenan had strong and effective anti-DENV activity in the three groups. In particular, a strong inhibitory effect was observed in the virucide group. Moreover, once the virus enters host cells in the post-treatment group, the immediate treatment with carrageenan for the infected cells has higher efficiency of antiviral activity. Our proposed platform enables to perform time-course or dose-response measurements of changes in cellular metabolic activity caused by diseases, chemical compounds, and drugs via monitoring of the cellular OCR, with rapid and real-time detection. This approach provides the potential to study a wide range of biological applications in cell-based biosensing, toxicology, and drug discovery

  16. Energy Requirements for the Transport of Methylthio-β-d-Galactoside by Escherichia coli: Measurement by Microcalorimetry and by Rates of Oxygen Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Production1

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard A.; Martin, W. G.; Schneider, Henry

    1977-01-01

    The energy cost for maintenance of gradients of methylthio-β-d-galactoside in Escherichia coli was evaluated. Information was also obtained concerning the energy flow associated with gradient establishment under some circumstances. Energy flow was evaluated from transport-induced changes in the rate of heat evolution, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production in metabolically active cells. Heats were measured with an isothermal calorimeter. Energy expenditure behavior was characterized by a transition that depended on the level of accumulation. The data for steady-state maintenance could be rationalized in terms of the Mitchell hypothesis, two models for influx and efflux, and a transition between them. At low levels of uptake, steady-state proton-methylthio-β-d-galactoside (TMG) symport for influx and efflux occurred via a nonenergy-requiring exchange process. The only energy requirement was that necessary to pump back in any TMG exiting via a leakage pathway (model I). Above the transition, all influx occurred with proton symport, but all exit, leak and carrier mediated, occurred without proton symport (model II). The H+/TMG stoichiometric ratio computed for the region of model II applicability (carbon source present, high level of uptake) approached 1. This value agreed with that of other workers for downhill β-galactoside flow, suggesting that the energy cost for both downhill and uphill flow was approximately the same. For low levels of uptake, initial establishment of the gradient was followed by a burst of metabolism that was much larger than that expected on the basis of the chemiosmotic hypothesis. In the absence of carbon source, the stimulation in respiration was sufficient to produce 13 times more protons than are apparently necessary to establish the gradient. The results indicate also that the nature of the biochemical process stimulated by TMG depends on its level of uptake. Insight into several aspects of the nature of these processes was

  17. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative prey fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River. [Ptychocheilus oregonensis; Stizostedion vitreum; Micropterus dolomieu; Ictalurus punctatus; Oncorhynchus spp

    SciTech Connect

    Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P.; Prendergast, L.A.; Hansel, H.C. )

    1991-07-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983-1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes and smallmouth bass occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn and near midnight. Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length, for walleyes 201-250 mm, for smallmouth bass 176-200 mm, and for channel catfish 401-450 mm. Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April-August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass was about twice that of channel catfish, northern squawfish, and walleyes. However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids.

  18. Critical windows in embryonic development: Shifting incubation temperatures alter heart rate and oxygen consumption of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos and hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Eme, J; Mueller, C A; Manzon, R G; Somers, C M; Boreham, D R; Wilson, J Y

    2015-01-01

    Critical windows are periods of developmental susceptibility when the phenotype of an embryonic, juvenile or adult animal may be vulnerable to environmental fluctuations. Temperature has pervasive effects on poikilotherm physiology, and embryos are especially vulnerable to temperature shifts. To identify critical windows, we incubated whitefish embryos at control temperatures of 2°C, 5°C, or 8°C, and shifted treatments among temperatures at the end of gastrulation or organogenesis. Heart rate (fH) and oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ) were measured across embryonic development, and [Formula: see text] was measured in 1-day old hatchlings. Thermal shifts, up or down, from initial incubation temperatures caused persistent changes in fH and [Formula: see text] compared to control embryos measured at the same temperature (2°C, 5°C, or 8°C). Most prominently, when embryos were measured at organogenesis, shifting incubation temperature after gastrulation significantly lowered [Formula: see text] or fH. Incubation at 2°C or 5°C through gastrulation significantly lowered [Formula: see text] (42% decrease) and fH (20% decrease) at 8°C, incubation at 2°C significantly lowered [Formula: see text] (40% decrease) and fH (30% decrease) at 5°C, and incubation at 5°C and 8°C significantly lowered [Formula: see text] at 2°C (27% decrease). Through the latter half of development, [Formula: see text] and fH in embryos were not different from control values for thermally shifted treatments. However, in hatchlings measured at 2°C, [Formula: see text] was higher in groups incubated at 5°C or 8°C through organogenesis, compared to 2°C controls (43 or 65% increase, respectively). Collectively, these data suggest that embryonic development through organogenesis represents a critical window of embryonic and hatchling phenotypic plasticity. This study presents an experimental design that identified thermally sensitive periods for fish embryos. Crown Copyright

  19. Lean consumption.

    PubMed

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  20. [Substitution of protein feed through lysine-supplemented high-protein wheat during the rearing and laying period of hens. 2. Effect of graded lysine doses on food consumption and the rate of weight gain in young hens].

    PubMed

    Hennig, A; Schubert, R; Jeroch, H; Gruhn, K

    1976-09-01

    In a feeding trial 1920 young hens received rations consisting mainly of high-protein wheat with or without additions of lysine or methionine (table 1) and a control ration. The five rations contained 0.77%, 0,59%, 0,61%, 0,54% of 0,46% lysine. In the period between the 9th and 20th week of experiment the hens receiving less lysine consumed less food in the beginning but more food towards the end of this experimental period (12th to 16th week of experiment). The lower energy content of the control diet produced a higher rate of food consumption. Variations in the lysine supply in general produced only slight differences in feed consumption and weight gain in the rearing period of the hens, whereas a compensatory effect was observed with regard to the growth rate of the birds. Despite the balanced crude protein consumption of the birds a positive linear regression of crude protein utilization was calculated for the percantege crude protein retention (y) as depending upon the lysine content of the ration (x) (y = 11.34 + 19,61x; B = 0.93). The wheat protein could be improved by lysine supplements.

  1. Oxygenation, local muscle oxygen consumption and joint specific power in cycling: the effect of cadence at a constant external work rate.

    PubMed

    Skovereng, Knut; Ettema, Gertjan; van Beekvelt, Mireille C P

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the effect of cadence on joint specific power and oxygenation and local muscle oxygen consumption in the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis in addition to the relationship between joint specific power and local muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2). Seventeen recreationally active cyclists performed 6 stages of constant load cycling using cadences of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 110 rpm. Joint specific power was calculated using inverse dynamics and mVO2 and oxygenation were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Increasing cadence led to increased knee joint power and decreased hip joint power while the ankle joint was unaffected. Increasing cadence also led to an increased deoxygenation in both the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis. Vastus lateralis mVO2 increased when cadence was increased. No effect of cadence was found for vastus medialis mVO2. This study demonstrates a different effect of cadence on the mVO2 of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis. The combined mVO2 of the vastus lateralis and medialis showed a linear increase with increasing knee joint specific power, demonstrating that the muscles combined related to power generated over the joint.

  2. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  3. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  4. Feasibility of mapping the tissue mass corrected bioscale of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption using 17-oxygen and 23-sodium MR imaging in a human brain at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ian C; Thulborn, Keith R

    2010-06-01

    The reduction of molecular oxygen to water is the final step of oxidative phosphorylation that couples adenosine triphosphate production to the reoxidation of reducing equivalents formed during the oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide. This coupling makes the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) an excellent reflection of the metabolic health of the brain. A multi-nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) imaging based method for CMRO(2) mapping is proposed. Oxygen consumption is determined by applying a new three-phase metabolic model for water generation and clearance to the changing 17-oxygen ((17)O) labeled water MR signal measured using quantitative (17)O MR imaging during inhalation of (17)O-enriched oxygen gas. These CMRO(2) data are corrected for the regional brain tissue mass computed from quantitative 23-sodium MR imaging of endogenous tissue sodium ions to derive quantitative results of oxygen consumption in micromoles O(2)/g tissue/minute that agree with literature results reported from positron emission tomography. The proposed technique is demonstrated in the human brain using a 9.4 T MR scanner optimized for human brain imaging. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The importance of delivery rate on odds ratios by cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption for esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lubin, Jay H.; Cook, Michael B.; Pandeya, Nirmala; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Abnet, Christian C.; Giffen, Carol; Webb, Penelope M.; Murray, Liam J.; Casson, Alan G.; Risch, Harvey A.; Ye, Weimin; Kamangar, Farin; Bernstein, Leslie; Sharp, Linda; Nyrén, Olof; Gammon, Marilie D.; Corley, Douglas A.; Wu, Anna H.; Brown, Linda M.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ward, Mary H.; Freedman, Neal D.; Whiteman, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and alcohol consumption with ESCC. However, no analyses have examined how delivery rate modifies the strength of odds ratio (OR) trends with total exposure, i.e., the impact on the OR for a fixed total exposure of high exposure rate for short duration compared with low exposure rate for long duration. Methods The authors pooled data from 12 case-control studies from the Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON), including 1,242 (EAC), 1,263 (EGJA) and 954 (ESCC) cases and 7,053 controls, modeled joint ORs for cumulative exposure and exposure rate for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, and evaluated effect modification by sex, body mass index (BMI), age and self-reported acid reflux. Results For smoking, all sites exhibited inverse delivery rate effects, whereby ORs with pack-years increased, but trends weakened with increasing cigarettes/day. None of the examined factors modified associations, except for ESCC where younger ages at diagnosis enhanced smoking effects (P<0.01). For EAC and EGJA, ORs with drink-years exhibited inverse associations in <5 drinks/day consumers and no association in heavier consumers. For ESCC, ORs with drink-years increased, with trends strengthening with greater drinks/day. There was no significant effect modification, except for EAC and EGJA where acid reflux mitigated the inverse associations (P=0.02). For ESCC, younger ages at diagnosis enhanced drinking-related ORs (P<0.01). Conclusions Patterns of ORs by pack-years and drink-years, delivery rate effects and effect modifiers revealed common as well as distinct etiologic elements for these diseases. PMID:22504051

  6. Patterns in Vegetable Consumption: Implications for Tailored School Meal Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlowski, Marietta; Lee, Miryoung; Spears, William; Narayan, Roopsi; Pobocik, Rebecca S.; Kennel, Julie; Krafka, Erin; Patton, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vegetable consumption is a challenging behavioral target; consumption rates are below recommended levels and when interventions produce improvements, increases in vegetable consumption are typically a fraction of the change in fruit consumption. We describe vegetable consumption within Ohio school meals and examine how fruit selection,…

  7. Alcohol consumption predicts the EU suicide rates in young women aged 15-29 years but not in men: analysis of trends and differences among early and new EU countries since 2004.

    PubMed

    Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto; Pompili, Maurizio

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were to study suicide rates in youths aged 15-29 years in the European Union (EU), to identify differences between early members and new members to the EU since 2004, and to evaluate the association between alcohol-related variables and suicide rates, while controlling for indicators of social stress. We explored temporal trends in age-adjusted suicide rates for youths aged 15-29 years resident in EU nations since 1980. Social changes in EU nations were associated with increased inequalities between the countries in suicide, especially in male youths (new/early EU members: relative risk=1.55; 95% confidence interval: 1.48/1.61). Pure alcohol consumption predicts suicide rates in female youths, whereas social stress related to violence against youths predicts suicide rates in male youths. EU political and heath agencies should devise policies to prevent youth suicide with a focus on alcohol misuse and societal stress associated with violence against youths. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of wearing personal protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus on heart rate, temperature and oxygen consumption during stepping exercise and live fire training exercises.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Low, S S; Cotterrell, D; Jones, G E

    2007-01-15

    Fire fighter breathing apparatus instructors (BAIs) must possess the ability to respond to both the extrinsic stress of a high temperature environment and the intrinsic stress from wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), repeatedly and regularly, whilst training recruits in live fire training exercises (LFTEs). There are few previous investigations on BAIs in hot environments such as LFTEs, since the main research focus has been on regular fire fighters undertaking exercises in temperate or fire conditions at a moderate to high exercise intensity. In this study, the intrinsic cardiovascular stress effects of wearing PPE + SCBA were first investigated using a step test whilst wearing gym kit (control), weighted gym kit (a rucksack weighted to the equivalent of PPE + SCBA) and full PPE + SCBA (weight plus the effects of protective clothing). The extrinsic effects of the very hot environment were investigated in BIAs in LFTEs compared to mock fire training exercises (MFTEs), where the fire was not ignited. There was an increase in heart rate due to the modest workload imposed on the BAIs through carrying out the MFTEs (25.0 (18.7)%) compared to resting. However, when exposed to fire during the LFTEs, heat storage appears to be significant as the heart rate increased by up to 39.8 (+/-20.1)% over that of the mock LFTEs at temperate conditions. Thus, being able to dissipate heat from the PPE is particularly important in reducing the cardiovascular responses for BAIs during LFTEs.

  9. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California. Predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Mendell, Mark J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Dutton, Spencer M.; Berkeley, Pam M.; Spears, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Through mass-balance modeling of various ventilation scenarios that might satisfy the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedure, we estimate indoor concentrations of contaminants of concern (COCs) in California “big box” stores, compare estimates to available thresholds, and for selected scenarios estimate differences in energy consumption. Findings are intended to inform decisions on adding performance-based approaches to ventilation rate (VR) standards for commercial buildings. Using multi-zone mass-balance models and available contaminant source rates, we estimated concentrations of 34 COCs for multiple ventilation scenarios: VRmin (0.04 cfm/ft2 ), VRmax (0.24 cfm/ft2 ), and VRmid (0.14 cfm/ft2 ). We compared COC concentrations with available health, olfactory, and irritant thresholds. We estimated building energy consumption at different VRs using a previously developed EnergyPlus model. VRmax did control all contaminants adequately, but VRmin did not, and VRmid did so only marginally. Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources both showed promise. Higher VRs increased indoor concentrations of outdoor air pollutants. Lowering VRs in big box stores in California from VRmax to VRmid would reduce total energy use by an estimated 6.6% and energy costs by 2.5%. Reducing the required VRs in California’s big box stores could reduce energy use and costs, but poses challenges for health and comfort of occupants. Source removal, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reduced VRs, and even at current recommended VRs. Also, alternative ventilation strategies taking climate and season into account in ventilation schedules may provide greater energy cost savings than constant ventilation rates, while improving IAQ.

  10. Effect of membranes on oxygen transfer rate and consumption within a newly developed three-compartment bioartificial liver device: Advanced experimental and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I; Yousef, Basem F

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict oxygen transfer in the fiber-in-fiber (FIF) bioartificial liver device. The model parameters are taken from the constructed and tested FIF modules. We extended the Krogh cylinder model by including one more zone for oxygen transfer. Cellular oxygen uptake was based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The effect of varying a number of important model parameters is investigated, including (1) oxygen partial pressure at the inlet, (2) the hydraulic permeability of compartment B (cell region), (3) the hydraulic permeability of the inner membrane, and (4) the oxygen diffusivity of the outer membrane. The mathematical model is validated by comparing its output against the experimentally acquired values of an oxygen transfer rate and the hydrostatic pressure drop. Three governing simultaneous linear differential equations are derived to predict and validate the experimental measurements, e.g., the flow rate and the hydrostatic pressure drop. The model output simulated the experimental measurements to a high degree of accuracy. The model predictions show that the cells in the annulus can be oxygenated well even at high cell density or at a low level of gas phase PG if the value of the oxygen diffusion coefficient Dm is 16 × 10(-5) . The mathematical model also shows that the performance of the FIF improves by increasing the permeability of polypropylene membrane (inner fiber). Moreover, the model predicted that 60% of plasma has access to the cells in the annulus within the first 10% of the FIF bioreactor axial length for a specific polypropylene membrane permeability and can reach 95% within the first 30% of its axial length. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Differences in Plasma Concentrations of Arabinose and Xylose after Consumption of Fiber-Rich Pasta and Wheat Bread with Differential Rates of Systemic Appearance of Exogenous Glucose in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Pantophlet, Andre J; Wopereis, Suzan; Eelderink, Coby; Vonk, Roel J; Stroeve, Johanna H; Bijlsma, Sabina; van Stee, Leo; Bobeldijk, Ivana; Priebe, Marion G

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of products rich in cereal fiber and with a low glycemic index is implicated in a lower risk of metabolic diseases. Previously, we showed that the consumption of fiber-rich pasta compared with bread resulted in a lower rate of appearance of exogenous glucose and a lower glucose clearance rate quantified with a dual-isotope technique, which was in accordance with a lower insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response. To gain more insight into the acute metabolic consequences of the consumption of products resulting in differential glucose kinetics, postprandial metabolic profiles were determined. In a crossover study, 9 healthy men [mean ± SEM age: 21 ± 0.5 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (kg/m(2)): 22 ± 0.5] consumed wheat bread (132 g) and fresh pasta (119 g uncooked) enriched with wheat bran (10%) meals. A total of 134 different metabolites in postprandial plasma samples (at -5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min) were quantified by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach (secondary outcomes). Two-factor ANOVA and advanced multivariate statistical analysis (partial least squares) were applied to detect differences between both food products. Forty-two different postprandial metabolite profiles were identified, primarily representing pathways related to protein and energy metabolism, which were on average 8% and 7% lower after the men consumed pasta rather than bread, whereas concentrations of arabinose and xylose were 58% and 53% higher, respectively. Arabinose and xylose are derived from arabinoxylans, which are important components of wheat bran. The higher bioavailability of arabinose and xylose after pasta intake coincided with a lower rate of appearance of glucose and amino acids. We speculate that this higher bioavailability is due to higher degradation of arabinoxylans by small intestinal microbiota, facilitated by the higher viscosity of arabinoxylans after pasta intake than after bread

  12. Understanding the energetic costs of living in saline environments: effects of salinity on basal metabolic rate, body mass and daily energy consumption of a long-distance migratory shorebird.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Masero, José A; Abad-Gómez, José M; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M

    2011-03-01

    Many migratory vertebrates typically move between habitats with varying salinities during the annual cycle. These organisms clearly exhibit a remarkable phenotypic flexibility in their 'osmoregulatory machinery', but the metabolic consequences of salinity acclimatization are still not well understood. We investigated the effects of salinity on basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass and daily energy consumption of a long-distance migratory shorebird, the dunlin (Calidris alpina), outside the breeding season. Mass-corrected BMR and daily energy consumption increased significantly by 17 and 20% between freshwater (0.3‰ NaCl) and saltwater (33.0-35.0‰ NaCl), respectively. Body mass in both captive and wild dunlins was lower (9-16%) in saline than in freshwater environments. These changes on BMR and body mass were quickly reversed by returning the birds to freshwater, suggesting that metabolic adjustment to saltwater and metabolic readjustment to freshwater are both processes that occur in a few days. Our findings support empirically that the processes of developing and maintaining an active osmoregulatory machinery are energetically expensive, and they could help to explain diet and/or habitat selection patterns along the flyway. Finally, we discuss whether body mass loss in saltwater may be a strategy to reduce maintenance cost in osmotically stressful conditions such as overwintering in marine habitats, and raise some methodological implications for studies of BMR-related outcomes using captive birds captured in saline environments.

  13. The fate of cetacean carcasses in the deep sea: observations on consumption rates and succession of scavenging species in the abyssal north-east Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Jones, E. G.; Collins, M. A.; Bagley, P. M.; Addison, S.; Priede, I. G.

    1998-01-01

    The fate of cetacean carcasses in the deep sea was investigated using autonomous deep-sea lander vehicles incorporating time-lapse camera systems, fish and amphipod traps. Three lander deployments placed cetacean carcasses at depths of 4000 to 4800 m in the north-east Atlantic for periods of 36 h, 152 h and 276 h before being recovered. The photographic sequences revealed that carcasses were rapidly consumed by fish and invertebrate scavengers with removal rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 kg h-1. In the longest experiment the carcass was skeletonized within five days. In each deployment, approximately an hour after emplacement, the grenadier Coryphaenoides (Nematonurus) armatus and large numbers of lysianassid amphipods had arrived at the food-fall. The initially high numbers of grenadiers declined once the majority of the bait had been consumed and a variety of other fish and invertebrates were then observed, some taking up residence at the site. None of the fish species appeared to consume the carcass directly, but preyed upon amphipods instead. Funnel traps recovered with the carcass indicated a succession in the species composition of amphipods, with the specialist necrophages such as Paralicella spp. being replaced by more generalist feeders of the Orchomene species complex.

  14. Positive effect of reduced aeration rate on growth and stereospecificity of DL-malic acid consumption by Azospirillum brasilense: improving the shelf life of a liquid inoculant formulation.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Espinosa, Karen; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Bedoya-López, Andrea; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A

    2015-02-10

    Azospirillum brasilense has significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. Two industrial native strains (Start and Calf), used as a part of an inoculant formulation in Mexico during the last 15 years, were incubated in laboratory-scale pneumatic bioreactors at different aeration rates. In both strains, the positive effect of decreased aeration was observed. At the lowest (0.1 vvm, air volume/liquid volume×minute), the highest biomass were obtained for Calf (7.8 × 10(10)CFU/ml), and Start (2.9 × 10(9)CFU/ml). These were higher in one magnitude order compared to cultures carried out at 0.5 vvm, and two compared to those at 1.0 vvm. At lower aeration, both stereoisomeric forms of malic acid were consumed, but at higher aeration, just L-malate was consumed. A reduction in aeration allows an increase of the shelf life and the microorganism saved higher concentrations of polyhydroxybutyrate. The selected fermentation conditions are closely related to those prevalent in large-scale bioreactors and offer the possibility of achieving high biomass titles with high shelf life at a reduced costs, due to the complete use of a carbon source at low aeration of a low cost raw material as DL-malic acid mixture in comparison with the L-malic acid stereoisomer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Randomized Study of the Effects of Additional Fruit and Nuts Consumption on Hepatic Fat Content, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Basal Metabolic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Romu, Thobias; Dahlqvist-Leinhard, Olof; Borga, Magnus; Leandersson, Per; Nystrom, Fredrik H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fruit has since long been advocated as a healthy source of many nutrients, however, the high content of sugars in fruit might be a concern. Objectives To study effects of an increased fruit intake compared with similar amount of extra calories from nuts in humans. Methods Thirty healthy non-obese participants were randomized to either supplement the diet with fruits or nuts, each at +7 kcal/kg bodyweight/day for two months. Major endpoints were change of hepatic fat content (HFC, by magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), basal metabolic rate (BMR, with indirect calorimetry) and cardiovascular risk markers. Results Weight gain was numerically similar in both groups although only statistically significant in the group randomized to nuts (fruit: from 22.15±1.61 kg/m2 to 22.30±1.7 kg/m2, p = 0.24 nuts: from 22.54±2.26 kg/m2 to 22.73±2.28 kg/m2, p = 0.045). On the other hand BMR increased in the nut group only (p = 0.028). Only the nut group reported a net increase of calories (from 2519±721 kcal/day to 2763±595 kcal/day, p = 0.035) according to 3-day food registrations. Despite an almost three-fold reported increased fructose-intake in the fruit group (from 9.1±6.0 gram/day to 25.6±9.6 gram/day, p<0.0001, nuts: from 12.4±5.7 gram/day to 6.5±5.3 gram/day, p = 0.007) there was no change of HFC. The numerical increase in fasting insulin was statistical significant only in the fruit group (from 7.73±3.1 pmol/l to 8.81±2.9 pmol/l, p = 0.018, nuts: from 7.29±2.9 pmol/l to 8.62±3.0 pmol/l, p = 0.14). Levels of vitamin C increased in both groups while α-tocopherol/cholesterol-ratio increased only in the fruit group. Conclusions Although BMR increased in the nut-group only this was not linked with differences in weight gain between groups which potentially could be explained by the lack of reported net caloric increase in the fruit group. In healthy non-obese individuals an increased fruit intake seems safe from cardiovascular risk perspective, including

  16. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations. PMID:23429423

  17. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-02-07

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations.

  18. Population growth and consumption.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development.

  19. Firewood consumption in a Nepali village

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    1984-05-01

    People's dependence on firewood as a primary source of energy is causing serious deforestation problems in many developing countries. Reliable information on firewood consumption rates is needed to develop afforestation plans and to control deforestation. This study compares three methods used to determine firewood consumption in a Nepali village. Cultural and environmental factors that affect firewood consumption in the village are also examined. The weight survey proved to be the most accurate method used. The less precise daily recall and annual recall surveys overestimated actual firewood consumption by factors of 1.76 and 1.95, respectively. Overestimates are attributed to both physical and social factors. In view of the good agreement between daily and annual recall surveys, and the much greater ease of conducting the latter, annual recall surveys are recommended as the most practical method of monitoring firewood consumption rates. Validating the survey with occasional weighted measurements is suggested as a means of improving accuracy.

  20. Food consumption trends and drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the ‘nutrition transition’ that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment. PMID:20713385

  1. Food consumption trends and drivers.

    PubMed

    Kearney, John

    2010-09-27

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the 'nutrition transition' that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment.

  2. Predicting Consumption Poverty Using Non-Consumption Indicators: Experiments Using Indonesian Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumarto, Sudarno; Suryadarma, Daniel; Suryahadi, Asep

    2007-01-01

    Household consumption expenditure data is crucial for calculating important welfare measures such as poverty headcount rate. However, collecting such data is difficult and cumbersome. As an alternative, we experiment with three methods--consumption correlates model, poverty probability model, and wealth index principal components analysis…

  3. Predicting Consumption Poverty Using Non-Consumption Indicators: Experiments Using Indonesian Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumarto, Sudarno; Suryadarma, Daniel; Suryahadi, Asep

    2007-01-01

    Household consumption expenditure data is crucial for calculating important welfare measures such as poverty headcount rate. However, collecting such data is difficult and cumbersome. As an alternative, we experiment with three methods--consumption correlates model, poverty probability model, and wealth index principal components analysis…

  4. Consumptive orientation of anglers in Engerdal, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aas, Østein; Kaltenborn, Bjørn Petter

    1995-09-01

    In a study of consumptiveness among Swedish and Norwegian anglers in Engerdal, eastern Norway, three segments of low-, mid-, and high-consumptive anglers were identified by replicating a methodology of an earlier study of North American anglers. The Engerdal anglers were somewhat more catch-oriented than the North American anglers. Anglers in Norway fish to satisfy a complex set of experience preferences. Low-consumptive anglers rate nature experiences higher than mid- and high-consumptive anglers. High-consumptive anglers have a somewhat narrower range of experience preferences and are more oriented towards competitive aspects of fishing. All anglers generally support management efforts directed toward restricting other types of use of the waters, such as reducing pollution and reducing local fishermen's leisure gill-net fishing. They also support stocking of fish, but oppose actions restricting angling. However, low-consumptive anglers do not oppose angling restrictions to the same degree as mid- and high-consumptive groups. Low-consumptive fishermen show a higher degree of specialization and report higher overall satisfaction with their fishing trips than the other two groups.

  5. Bat consumption in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption. PMID:26806167

  6. Bat consumption in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  7. Systematic review of antibiotic consumption in acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bitterman, R; Hussein, K; Leibovici, L; Carmeli, Y; Paul, M

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic consumption is an easily quantifiable performance measure in hospitals and might be used for monitoring. We conducted a review of published studies and online surveillance reports reporting on antibiotic consumption in acute care hospitals between the years 1997 and 2013. A pooled estimate of antibiotic consumption was calculated using a random effects meta-analysis of rates with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was assessed through subgroup analysis and metaregression. Eighty studies, comprising data from 3130 hospitals, met the inclusion criteria. The pooled rate of hospital-wide consumption was 586 (95% confidence interval 540 to 632) defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 hospital days (HD) for all antibacterials. However, consumption rates were highly heterogeneous. Antibacterial consumption was highest in intensive care units, at 1563 DDD/1000 HD (95% confidence interval 1472 to 1653). Hospital-wide antibacterial consumption was higher in Western Europe and in medium-sized, private and university-affiliated hospitals. The methods of data collection were significantly associated with consumption rates, including data sources, dispensing vs. purchase vs. usage data, counting admission and discharge days and inclusion of low-consumption departments. Heterogeneity remained in all subgroup analyses. Major heterogeneity currently precludes defining acceptable antibiotic consumption ranges in acute care hospitals. Guidelines on antibiotic consumption reporting that will account for case mix and a minimal set of hospital characteristics recommending standardized methods for monitoring and reporting are needed. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy-consumption modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  9. Oxygen consumption in weakly electric Neotropical fishes.

    PubMed

    Julian, David; Crampton, William G R; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Albert, James S

    2003-12-01

    Weakly electric gymnotiform fishes with wave-type electric organ discharge (EOD) are less hypoxia-tolerant and are less likely to be found in hypoxic habitats than weakly electric gymnotiforms with pulse-type EOD, suggesting that differences in metabolism resulting from EOD type affects habitat choice. Although gymnotiform fishes are common in most Neotropical freshwaters and represent the dominant vertebrates in some habitats, the metabolic rates of these unique fishes have never been determined. In this study, O(2) consumption rates during EOD generation are reported for 34 gymnotiforms representing 23 species, all five families and 17 (59%) of the 28 genera. Over the size range sampled (0.4 g to 125 g), O(2) consumption of gymnotiform fishes was dependent on body mass, as expected, fitting a power function with a scaling exponent of 0.74, but the O(2) consumption rate was generally about 50% of that expected by extrapolation of temperate teleost metabolic rates to a similar ambient temperature (26 degrees C). O(2) consumption rate was not dependent on EOD type, but maintenance of "scan swimming" (continuous forwards and backwards swimming), which is characteristic only of gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs, increased O(2) consumption 2.83+/-0.49-fold (mean+/-SD). This suggests that the increased metabolic cost of scan swimming could restrict gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs from hypoxic habitats.

  10. Data on oxygen consumption rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and movement in C57BL/6J female mice on the third day of consuming a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Marvyn, Phillip M.; Bradley, Ryan M.; Mardian, Emily B.; Marks, Kristin A.; Duncan, Robin E.

    2016-01-01

    Whole animal physiological measures were assessed following three days of either standard diet or high fat diet, in either the fasted or non-fasted states. Our data shows that acute 3-day high fat feeding increases whole body lipid oxidation. When this feeding protocol is followed by an overnight fast, oxygen consumption (VO2) in the light phase is reduced in both dietary groups, but oxygen consumption in the dark phase is only reduced in mice fed the high-fat diet. Furthermore, the fasting-induced rise in dark cycle activity level observed in mice maintained on a standard diet is abolished when mice are fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27014733

  11. Human Biomass Consumption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Humans are using an increasing amount of Earth’s annual production of plants. Research shows that, from 1995 to 2005, consumption rose from 20 to 25 percent of the planet's annual production. Wha...

  12. Rituals enhance consumption.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Wang, Yajin; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2013-09-01

    Four experiments tested the novel hypothesis that ritualistic behavior potentiates and enhances ensuing consumption--an effect found for chocolates, lemonade, and even carrots. Experiment 1 showed that participants who engaged in ritualized behavior, compared with those who did not, evaluated chocolate as more flavorful, valuable, and deserving of behavioral savoring. Experiment 2 demonstrated that random gestures do not boost consumption as much as ritualistic gestures do. It further showed that a delay between a ritual and the opportunity to consume heightens enjoyment, which attests to the idea that ritual behavior stimulates goal-directed action (to consume). Experiment 3 found that performing a ritual oneself enhances consumption more than watching someone else perform the same ritual, suggesting that personal involvement is crucial for the benefits of rituals to emerge. Finally, Experiment 4 provided direct evidence of the underlying process: Rituals enhance the enjoyment of consumption because of the greater involvement in the experience that they prompt.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTER ASSISTED PERSONAL INTERVIEW SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR COLLECTION OF TRIBAL FISH CONSUMPTION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Native Americans who consume seafood often have higher seafood consumption rates and consequently greater exposures to contaminants in seafood than the general U.S. population. Defensible and quantifiable tribal seafood consumption rates are needed for development of ...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTER ASSISTED PERSONAL INTERVIEW SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR COLLECTION OF TRIBAL FISH CONSUMPTION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Native Americans who consume seafood often have higher seafood consumption rates and consequently greater exposures to contaminants in seafood than the general U.S. population. Defensible and quantifiable tribal seafood consumption rates are needed for development of ...

  15. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Modeling fuel consumption

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    Fuel consumption specifies the amount of vegetative biomass consumed during wildland fire. It is a two-stage process of pyrolysis and combustion that occurs simultaneously and at different rates depending on the characteristics and condition of the fuel, weather, topography, and in the case of prescribed fire, ignition rate and pattern. Fuel consumption is the basic...

  16. Oxygen consumption by conserved archaeological wood.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin N; Matthiesen, Henning

    2013-07-01

    Rates of oxygen consumption have been measured over extended time periods for 29 whole samples of conserved, archaeological wood and four samples of fresh, unconserved wood, at 50% relative humidity and room temperature. Samples from the Swedish Warship Vasa and the Danish Skuldelev Viking ships are included. Most rates were close to 1 μg O2 (g wood)(-1) day(-1) and the process persisted for several years at least. Consumption of oxygen is related to change in chemical composition, which is, in turn, related to degradation. It is thus demonstrated that despite conservation, waterlogged archaeological wood continues to degrade in a museum climate.

  17. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  18. Reducing theatre energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Tom; Morris, Gemma; Parker, Beena

    2014-03-01

    As little has been written to describe the electrical energy required to deliver anaesthesia, we undertook to measure the total electrical energy consumption for a day's clinical anaesthesia. Daily energy consumption related to anaesthesia was measured with commercially available 'plug-in' power and energy meters, and additional in-use energy estimates were based on direct observation made in theatre and from measuring the power consumption of anaesthetic gas scavenging system (AGSS) pumps. Total energy use for anaesthesia per day was 28 kWh, and cost the modest sum of around pound 2.24 per day. Disproportionately large amounts of energy were required to run the anaesthetic gas scavenging pumps and the overhead radiant heaters. Energy saving can be safely obtained by switching off AGSS out of hours, and placing radiant heaters on timing or thermostatic controls.

  19. Amtrak fuel consumption study

    SciTech Connect

    Hitz, J.

    1981-02-01

    This report documents a study of fuel consumption on National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) trains and is part of an effort to determine effective ways of conserving fuel on the Amtrak system. The study was performed by the Transportation Systems Center (TSC). A series of 26 test runs were conducted on Amtrak trains operating between Boston, Massachusetts, and New Haven, Connecticut, to measure fuel consumption, trip time and other fuel-use-related parameters. The test data were analyzed and compared with results of the TSC Train Performance Simulator replicating the same operations.

  20. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  1. Respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Makarov, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the physiological indices of respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption in spacecrews under weightlessness conditions manifest themselves in increased metabolic rates, higher pulmonary ventilation volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination, energy consumption levels in proportion to reduction in neuroemotional and psychic stress, adaptation to weightlessness and work-rest cycles, and finally in a relative stabilization of metabolic processes due to hemodynamic shifts.

  2. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, A. J.; Lawton, R. J.; Pratchett, M. S.; Wilson, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between predators and prey organisms are of fundamental importance to ecological communities. While the ecological impact that grazing predators can have in terrestrial and temperate marine systems are well established, the importance of coral grazers on tropical reefs has rarely been considered. In this study, we estimate the biomass of coral tissue consumed by four prominent species of corallivorous butterflyfishes. Sub-adult butterflyfishes (60-70 mm, 6-11 g) remove between 0.6 and 0.9 g of live coral tissue per day, while larger adults (>110 mm, ~40-50 g) remove between 1.5 and 3 g of coral tissue each day. These individual consumption rates correspond to the population of coral-feeding butterflyfishes at three exposed reef crest habitats at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, consuming between 14.6 g (±2.0) and 19.6 g (±3.9) .200 m-2 day-1 of coral tissue. When standardised to the biomass of butterflyfishes present, a combined reefwide removal rate of 4.2 g (±1.2) of coral tissue is consumed per 200 m-2 kg-1 of coral-feeding butterflyfishes. The quantity of coral tissue removed by these predators is considerably larger than previously expected and indicates that coral grazers are likely to play an important role in the transfer of energy fixed by corals to higher consumers. Chronic coral consumption by butterflyfishes is expected to exact a large energetic cost upon prey corals and contribute to an increased rate of coral loss on reefs already threatened by anthropogenic pressure and ongoing climate change.

  3. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  4. Ketones suppress brain glucose consumption.

    PubMed

    LaManna, Joseph C; Salem, Nicolas; Puchowicz, Michelle; Erokwu, Bernadette; Koppaka, Smruta; Flask, Chris; Lee, Zhenghong

    2009-01-01

    The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta HB) and acetoacetate (AcAc), as occurs with fasting, prolonged starvation or chronic feeding of a high fat/low carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet). In this study, the local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose consumption (CMRglu; microM/min/100g) was calculated in the cortex and cerebellum of control and ketotic rats using Patlak analysis. Rats were imaged on a rodent PET scanner and MRI was performed on a 7-Tesla Bruker scanner for registration with the PET images. Plasma glucose and beta HB concentrations were measured and 90-minute dynamic PET scans were started simultaneously with bolus injection of 2-Deoxy-2[18F]Fluoro-D-Glucose (FDG). The blood radioactivity concentration was automatically sampled from the tail vein for 3 min following injection and manual periodic blood samples were taken. The calculated local CMRGlu decreased with increasing plasma BHB concentration in the cerebellum (CMRGlu = -4.07*[BHB] + 61.4, r2 = 0.3) and in the frontal cortex (CMRGlu = -3.93*[BHB] + 42.7, r2 = 0.5). These data indicate that, under conditions of ketosis, glucose consumption is decreased in the cortex and cerebellum by about 10% per each mM of plasma ketone bodies.

  5. Frigate Fuel Consumption Indicator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-20

    Report DRDC-RDDC-2014- C50 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the...number. 1 . REPORT DATE 20 SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Frigate Fuel Consumption

  6. Development of Scales to Assess Homeownership Consumption and Investment Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Jeanette A.; Olson, Geraldine I.

    1986-01-01

    A method to measure homeowners' housing consumption and investment attitudes was developed. Dimensions in the consumption scale were space, tenure, structure, quality, and neighborhood. The investment scale included tax benefits, equity, rate of return, leverage, and risk. Personal variables were hypothesized to have an effect on overall…

  7. The Consumption and Investment Behavior of Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frank G.

    The black community is considered as an economy where the consumption and investment behavior of black families have no significant impact on the growth rate of family income. This is seen to be a problem. The thrust of the argument that follows is that in the absence of a closer relationship between aggregate black family consumption spending,…

  8. Colorectal cancer and consumption of beef and fat.

    PubMed Central

    Enstrom, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Secular, socioeconomic and urban-rural gradients and geographical differences in beef and fat consumption within the United States of America are compared with corresponding data on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates. These results, together with the results of most previous epidemiological studies, appear to contradict the hypothesis that beef and fat consumption are involved in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. PMID:1212410

  9. 6,000,000,000 consumption machines.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1999-01-01

    Human activities caused by population growth and consumption patterns are taking a heavy toll on the Earth's life-support systems as well as on Earth's other species, which are disappearing at record rates as human numbers rise. It has been reported that sometime on October 12, 1999, the 6 billionth human will be born on the planet. This report looks at the collective effect of 6 billion ¿consumption machines¿ on six aspects of the natural world. These include water, forest, air, soil, oceans, and animals. All these resources are projected to deplete substantially and quantifiably in the next years to come, adding to the ongoing degradation of the Earth's natural system happening today. Factors contributing to the drastic increase of exhaustion include population growth and the increasing demands of humans for such expedients. However, successful initiatives are being promoted and undertaken in some countries which could help stabilize the level of consumption of global resources.

  10. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    PubMed

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  11. Energy consumption: Past, present, future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The energy consumption history of the United States and the changes which could occur in consumption characteristics in the next 50 years are presented. The various sources of energy are analyzed to show the limitations involved in development and utilization as a function of time available. Several scenarios were prepared to show the consumption and supply of energy under varying conditions.

  12. Is oil consumption constrained by industrial structure? Evidence from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y. Q.; Duan, H. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines whether oil consumption is constrained by output value, applying a cointegration test and an ECM to the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors in China during 1985-2013. The empirical results indicate that oil consumption in China is constrained by the industrial structure both in the short run and in the long run. Regardless of the time horizon considered, the oil consumption constraint is the lowest for the primary sector as well as the highest for the tertiary sector. This is because the long-term industrial structure formation and the technological level of each sector underlines the existence of long run equilibrium and short run fluctuations of output value and oil consumption, with the latter being constrained by adjustments in industrial structure. In order to decrease the constraining effect of output value on oil consumption, the government should take some measures to improve the utilization rate, reducing the intensity of oil consumption, and secure the supply of oil.

  13. Metabolic rate measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

  14. Energy and resource consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  15. QUINAULT INDIAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quinault Indian Nation needed to determine appropriate seafood consumption rates for development of their water quality standards. EPA Region 10 and EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory had been collaborating on computer assisted personal inter...

  16. QUINAULT INDIAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quinault Indian Nation needed to determine appropriate seafood consumption rates for development of their water quality standards. EPA Region 10 and EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory had been collaborating on computer assisted personal inter...

  17. Consumption of sugars.

    PubMed

    Gibney, M; Sigman-Grant, M; Stanton, J L; Keast, D R

    1995-07-01

    The mean percent of energy from total sugars minus lactose is 18% in the United States, according to data from the 1987-1988 US Department of Agriculture Nationwide Food Consumption Survey. When sugars intake is distributed among food pyramid groupings, the primary contributor is the "others" group (39%). The relationship between sugars intakes and micronutrients was age and sex dependent. Consumers of high amounts of sugars do not necessarily have poorer quality diets. In the European Union, the mean percent energy from all sugars is 15.2%. The top five sources of sugar contributed 68% of sugar intake but only 11% of fat intake (UK data). Although sugars intake varies among these major developed regions, the consistent inverse relation between fat and sugars intake and the scarcity of individuals achieving dietary guidelines raises serious questions regarding current dietary recommendations.

  18. Plant resistance reduces the strength of consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators on aphids.

    PubMed

    Kersch-Becker, Mônica F; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    1. The impact of predators on prey has traditionally been attributed to the act of consumption. Prey responses to the presence of the predator (non-consumptive effects), however, can be as important as predation itself. While plant defences are known to influence predator-prey interactions, their relative effects on consumptive vs. non-consumptive effects are not well understood. 2. We evaluated the consequences of plant resistance and predators (Hippodamia convergens) on the mass, number of nymphs, population growth, density and dispersal of aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). We tested for the effects of plant resistance on non-consumptive and consumptive effects of predators on aphid performance and dispersal using a combination of path analysis and experimental manipulation of predation risk. 3. We manipulated plant resistance using genetically modified lines of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) that vary incrementally in the expression of the jasmonate pathway, which mediates induced resistance to insects and manipulated aphid exposure to lethal and risk predators. Predation risk predators had mandibles impaired to prevent killing. 4. Plant resistance reduced predation rate (consumptive effect) on high resistance plants. As a consequence, predators had no impact on the number of nymphs, aphid density or population growth on high resistance plants, whereas on low resistance plants, predators reduced aphid density by 35% and population growth by 86%. Path analysis and direct manipulation of predation risk showed that predation risk rather than predation rate promoted aphid dispersal and varied with host plant resistance. Aphid dispersal in response to predation risk was greater on low compared to high resistance plants. The predation risk experiment also showed that the number of aphid nymphs increased in the presence of risk predators but did not translate into increased population growth. 5. In conclusion, the consumptive and non-consumptive components of predators

  19. Some implications of changing patterns of mineral consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Steblez, Walter G.

    2003-01-01

    DeYoung and Menzie (1999) examined the relations among population, Gross Domestic Product, and mineral consumption (aluminum, cement, copper, and salt) for Japan, Korea, and the United States between 1965 and 1995. They noted the extremely rapid growth of consumption in Korea between 1975 and 1995. Concomitantly, Korea's population growth rate declined. This paper extends that earlier work by examining patterns of consumption of these same commodities in the twenty most populous countries for the period 1970 through 1995. Developed countries, such as France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, show patterns of consumption that are stable (cement, copper, and salt) or grow slowly (aluminum). Some developing countries, including China, Thailand, and Turkey, show more rapid growth of consumption, especially of cement, copper, and aluminum. These changing patterns of mineral consumption in developing countries have important implications -- if they continue, there could be major increases in world mineral consumption and major increases in environmental residuals from mineral production and use. If China reaches the level of consumption of copper of developed countries, world consumption could reach levels more than twice that of 1995 (10.5 million tons).

  20. Controlling Energy Consumption in Single Buildings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    able to make an accu- rate assessment of the opportunities for reducing the energy consumption of existing buildlings . A cost benefit analysis provides...Energy Conservation with Comfort - published by Honeywell Information on how to obtain these documents is contained in Appendix A, Table A.3. 1. All...intelligence and capabilities to the control field. It is now possible, using these microprocessors, to scan sensors and to gather information such as temper

  1. Machining strategies exploring reduction in energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al

    The main aim of this thesis is to explore machining strategies, analyzing energy consumption using Design of Experiments (DOE) at the material removal rate (MRR), compare to cutting geometrical trajectories according to CNC parameters such as spindle RPM, feed rate, depth of cut per pass and total depth of cut. Spindle RPM, depth of cut per pass, and feed rate are selected as the main three factors and each factor has two levels: low-level (-) and high-level (+). These experiments have been performed at an end-milling machine by using a concept of a constant volume of material removal processes in the circular and linear geometrical slots in pine wood blocks. Standard energy logger equipment has used to measure energy consumption during end-milling operation. Different statistical analysis, such as ANOVA, regression line, and cause & effect diagram have used to show different energy consumption results in the material removal process. At the end the of data analysis, it is found that a significant amount of electricity demand is associated with machining pre-cutting & post-cutting stage and this significant amount of electricity demand is defined as peripheral energy. This peripheral energy is not involved in the actual performance of material removal process in the end-milling process. In the [Figure 11] end-milling process has been involved with pine wood blocks at constant volume of material removal (2.8 cubic inch) process. Results can be varied using of hard material removal process, such as steel & aluminum metals.

  2. Biomonitoring for Improving Alcohol Consumption Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess alcohol consumption levels in large populations, researchers often rely on self-report measures. However, these approaches are associated with several limitations, particularly underreporting. Use of noninvasive biomonitoring approaches may help validate self-report alcohol consumption measurements and thus improve their accuracy. Two such devices currently are available, the WrisTAS™ and SCRAM™ devices, both of which measure alcohol vapors emitted through the skin after alcohol consumption. Several studies assessing the utility of the WrisTAS™ bracelet in determining alcohol consumption levels noted that it was associated with relatively high failure rates. The SCRAM™ is an ankle bracelet intended for court-ordered alcohol monitoring. In studies, its sensitivity exceeded that of the WrisTAS™ and increased with increasing blood alcohol concentrations. Although early studies also identified some equipment concerns with the SCRAM™, studies of its ability to detect moderate and heavy drinking recently have yielded good results. Biomonitoring devices already are valuable tools and with further improvements may become even more useful in both research and practical applications. PMID:26258999

  3. 24 CFR 965.506 - Surcharges for excess consumption of PHA-furnished utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... electricity) or for stated blocks of excess consumption, and shall be based on the PHA's average utility rate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surcharges for excess consumption... Resident Allowances for Utilities § 965.506 Surcharges for excess consumption of PHA-furnished...

  4. 24 CFR 965.506 - Surcharges for excess consumption of PHA-furnished utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... electricity) or for stated blocks of excess consumption, and shall be based on the PHA's average utility rate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surcharges for excess consumption... Resident Allowances for Utilities § 965.506 Surcharges for excess consumption of PHA-furnished...

  5. Consumption of atmospheric methane by desert soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; McConnaughey, T.A.; Thorstenson, D.C.; Weeks, E.P.; Woodward, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    ATMOSPHERIC concentrations of methane, a greenhouse gas, are increasing at a rate of about 1% yr-1 (refs 1-4). Oxidation by methylotrophic bacteria in soil is the largest terrestrial sink for atmospheric CH4, and is estimated to consume about 30?? 1012 g CH4 yr-1 (refs 4-6). Spatial and temporal variability in the rate of soil CH4 consumption are incompletely understood6-19, as are the apparent inhibitory12,13,18 or enhancing20 effects of changes in land use. Dry deserts, which constitute 20% of total land surface, are not currently included in global soil uptake estimates. Here we describe measurements of the rate of uptake of atmospheric CH4 by undisturbed desert soils. We observed rates as great as 4.38 mg CH4 m-2 day-1; 50% of the measured rates were between 0.24 and 0.92 mg CH4 m2 d-1. Uptake of CH4 by desert soil is enhanced by rainfall after an initial soil-drainage period - opposite to the response of temperate forest soils12. Methane is consumed to a depth of about 2 m, allowing for deep removal of atmospheric CH4 if near-surface conditions are unfavourable for consumption. On the basis of an annual average CH4 consumption rate of 0.66 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, we estimate that the global CH4 sink term needs to be increased by about 7 ?? 1012 g yr-1 to account for the contribution of desert soils.

  6. Greenhouse energy consumption

    Treesearch

    Eric van Steenis

    2009-01-01

    Depending on location and luck, natural gas rates have gone from less that CAN$ 3.00 to more than CAN$ 20.00/gigajoule (Gj). Natural gas rates are currently around CAN$ 13.00/Gj, although industry "analysts" predict an increase. A gigajoule is equivalent to the energy released by the combustion of approximately 30 L (8 gal) of gasoline. It is also equivalent...

  7. Intergenerational Linkages in Consumption Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldkirch, Andreas; Ng, Serena; Cox, Donald

    2004-01-01

    We investigate familial relationships in consumption patterns using a sample of parents and their children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We find a positive and statistically significant parent-specific effect on children's consumption even after controlling for the effect of parental income. This correlation is found in different…

  8. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  9. Intergenerational Linkages in Consumption Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldkirch, Andreas; Ng, Serena; Cox, Donald

    2004-01-01

    We investigate familial relationships in consumption patterns using a sample of parents and their children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We find a positive and statistically significant parent-specific effect on children's consumption even after controlling for the effect of parental income. This correlation is found in different…

  10. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  11. A consumption value-gap analysis for sustainable consumption.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Aindrila

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies on consumption behavior have depicted environmental apprehension resulting from across wide consumer segments. However, this has not been widely reflected upon the growth in the market shares for green or environment-friendly products mostly because gaps exist between consumers' expectations and perceptions for those products. Previous studies have highlighted the impact of perceived value on potential demand, consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The necessity to understand the effects of gaps in expected and perceived values on consumers' behavioral intention and potential demand for green products cannot be undermined as it shapes the consumers' inclination to repeated purchase and consumption and thus foster potential market demand. Pertaining to this reason, the study aims to adopt a consumption value-gap model based on the theory of consumption values to assess their impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand of green products. Consumption value refers to the level of fulfillment of consumer needs by assessment of net utility derived after effective comparison between the benefits (financial or emotional) and the gives (money, time, or energy). The larger the gaps the higher will be the adversarial impact on behavioral intentions. A structural equation modeling was applied to assess data collected through questionnaire survey. The results indicate that functional value-gap and environmental value-gap has the most adversarial impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand for green products.

  12. Manufacturing energy consumption survey: Consumption of energy, 1985. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-18

    In recent years, industrial consumption of energy in the United States has been declining despite increasing industrial output. Nevertheless, total net energy consumption by the entire industrial sector was 20.4 quadrillion Btu (quads) in 1985, which was 37 percent of the US total for the residential, commercial, transportation, and industrial sectors. A clearer understanding of how energy is used in the industrial sector can help the Nation anticipate how future expansion of and change in the US industrial base might affect future energy requirements. The Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) is designed to contribute to this understanding. This report, the first of a series based on the 1985 MECS, provides a comprehensive description of energy consumption by manufacturing industries in the United States. The MECS is the first survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to collect detailed data on energy use by manufacturing industries. The MECS does not include energy consumption by mining, agriculture, construction, and electric utilities. Energy consumption by manufacturers is approximately 80 percent of the consumption of the entire industrial sector. 55 refs., 7 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  14. [Alcohol consumption among industrial workers in Monterrey, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Campa Magallón, Teresita de Jesús; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to describe alcohol consumption among 129 industrial workers. Data were collected by means of the instruments called AUDIT and CECA. The highest consumption rates were for 31-year old male workers, with 9.8 years of education, 5 years of work experience and married. The average consumption per occasion was between 3 and 4 drinks for 38.5%. 32.7% of the workers consumed 6 or more glasses per month. Consumption frequency per month was 2 or 4 times, 46.5% were dependent and damage had occurred in 55% of the workers and employees. The workers mentioned alcohol consumption during social meetings with friends (63.6%). Consequences of consumption were: physical fatigue (44.2%), physical problems (29.5%), decreased work performance (29.5%) and decreased reflexes (21.7%). The higher the alcohol consumption levels, the smaller the consequences of this consumption perceived by workers. Those workers mentioning that they did not consume alcohol were in the pre-contemplation stage.

  15. Energy consumption testing of innovative refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.T.; Howell, B.T.; Jones, W.R.; Long, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The high ambient temperature of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the AHAM/DOE Refrigerator-Freezer Energy Consumption Standards is intended to compensate for the lack of door openings and other heat loads. Recently published results by Meier and Jansky (1993) indicate labeled consumption overpredicting typical field consumption by 15%. In-house field studies on conventional models showed labeled consumption overpredicting by about 22%. The Refrigerator-Freezer Technology Assessment (RFTA) test was developed to more accurately predict field consumption. This test has ambient temperature and humidity, door openings, and condensation control set at levels intended to typify Canadian household conditions. It also assesses consumption at exactly defined compartment rating temperatures. Ten conventional and energy-efficient production models were laboratory tested. The RFTA results were about 30% lower than labeled. Similarly, the four innovative refrigerator-freezer models, when field tested, also had an average of 30% lower consumption than labeled. Thus, the results of the limited testing suggest that the RFTA test may be a more accurate predictor of field use. Further testing with a larger sample is recommended. Experimental results also indicated that some innovative models could save up to 50% of the energy consumption compared with similar conventional units. The technologies that contributed to this performance included dual compressors, more efficient compressors and fan motors, off-state refrigerant control valve, fuzzy logic control, and thicker insulation. The larger savings were on limited production models, for which additional production engineering is required for full marketability.

  16. Food consumption patterns in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Tina; Galloway, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    Food consumption was investigated in children attending three elementary schools in urban Hamilton, Ontario. Dietary data were collected from 92 children in grades 2 to 4 through 24-hour dietary recalls (39% participation rate). Servings of four food groups were compared with recommended daily servings in Canada's Food Guide. The majority of students did not consume the recommended five daily servings of vegetables and fruit. On average, they consumed a high number of servings of "other foods," which were not included in the four food groups. More than 50% of the students did not consume the recommended daily servings of milk products, and only a small proportion (21%) drank milk during school lunch. We recommend that primary school educators promote the consumption of vegetables and fruits and milk products at school, either through healthy snack programs or educational programs.

  17. Categorizing US State Drinking Practices and Consumption Trends

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, William C.

    2010-01-01

    US state alcohol consumption patterns and trends are examined in order to identify groups of states with similar drinking habits or cultures. Rates of heavy drinking and current abstention and per capita apparent consumption levels are used to categorize states. Six state groupings were identified: North Central and New England with the highest consumption and heavy drinking levels; Middle Atlantic, Pacific and South Coast with moderate drinking levels; and Dry South with the lowest drinking levels. Analyses of relationships between beer and spirits series for states within groups as compared to those in different groups failed to clearly indicate group cohesiveness. PMID:20195444

  18. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied.

  19. Influence of Educational Attainment on Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuemin; He, Youning

    2007-01-01

    In market economy, man is both the essential productive factor and the consuming subject. Education promotes the two aspects. As shown by investigations on the influence of educational attainment on consumption, education has great influences on people's consumption level, consumption structure, consumption modes and consumption concepts. The…

  20. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study`s scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  1. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study's scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  2. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-02

    DOE2.1E-121SUNOS is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating, cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS).

  3. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  4. Caffeine consumption in young children.

    PubMed

    Warzak, William J; Evans, Shelby; Floress, Margaret T; Gross, Amy C; Stoolman, Sharon

    2011-03-01

    Two hundred twenty-eight surveyed parents reported that their 5 to 7 year old children drank approximately 52 mg of caffeine daily and their 8 to 12 year old children drank 109 mg daily. Caffeine consumption and hours slept were significantly negatively correlated, but caffeine consumption and enuresis were not significantly correlated. Spanish-speaking parents reported fewer bedwetting events than their English-speaking peers.

  5. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  6. Daily practices, consumption and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Jane M; Morigi, Valdir J; Kaufmann, Cristine; Farias, Alessandra M B; Fernandes, Diefersom A

    2011-12-01

    This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between daily practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from daily consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the daily consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her daily practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces.

  7. 76 FR 27658 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... United States consumption of tuna in airtight containers during the preceding Calendar Year. This...-rate quota is applicable to tuna entered or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption during the period... for consumption during the Calendar Year 2011, at the rate of 6 percent ad valorem under subheading...

  8. 77 FR 22796 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... United States consumption of tuna in airtight containers during the preceding Calendar Year. This...-rate quota is applicable to tuna fish entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption during the... warehouse, for consumption during the Calendar Year 2012, at the rate of 6 percent ad valorem under...

  9. Assessment of Housing Energy Consumption in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerel Kandemir, Suheyla; Erdem Çerçevik, Ali; Ankara, Huseyin; Ozgur Yayli, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we analyze housing energy consumption in Turkey. The energy consumption is evaluated by using the multivariate techniques such as cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. The number of clusters for housing energy consumption was selected as five years. Finally, cluster and MDS analysis results show that the 2009 and 2010 was the most similar consumption years in housing energy consumption. Finally, this paper present that the usefulness of cluster and MDS analysis for assessment in the energy consumption.

  10. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-24

    DOE2.1E-121 is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating, cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS). DOE2.1E-121 contains modifications to DOE2.1E which allows 1000 zones to be modeled.

  11. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  12. Alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy and correlated factors among indigenous pregnant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Chih; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wang, Peng-Wei

    2012-02-01

    To examine the rates and factors associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women, as well as the rates and factors associated with continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan. A total of 806 indigenous women who had just given birth in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan were recruited. They were interviewed to collect their substance use information, demographic characteristics, psychological health status, history of physical abuse, and pregnancy history. The rates of alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy in all indigenous pregnant women and the rates of continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among those who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were calculated. The factors relating to alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy were examined using logistic regression analyses. The results of this study found that 26.6% of indigenous pregnant women drank alcohol at any stage after the recognition of pregnancy, and 52.5% of indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy persisted in drinking alcohol after the recognition of pregnancy. Multiple parities, smoking or chewing betel quid after the recognition of pregnancy, and a higher frequency of drinking alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. Meanwhile, being single or divorced, and intimate partner violence after the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. High prevalence rates of alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of

  13. Development of a model to determine oxygen consumption when crawling.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J P; Heberger, J R; Dempsey, P G

    During a mine disaster or emergency, underground air can quickly become contaminated. In these circumstances, all underground mine workers are taught to don breathable air supply units at the first sign of an emergency. However, no contemporary oxygen consumption data is available for the purposes of designing breathing air supply equipment specifically for mine escape. Further, it would be useful to quantify the oxygen requirements of breathing air supply users for various escape scenarios. To address this need, 14 participants crawled a distance of 305 m each while their breath-by-breath oxygen consumption measurements were taken. Using these data, linear regression models were developed to determine peak and average oxygen consumption rates as well as total oxygen consumption. These models can be used by manufacturers of breathing air supply equipment to aid in the design of devices that would be capable of producing sufficient on-demand oxygen to allow miners to perform self-escape.

  14. Development of a model to determine oxygen consumption when crawling

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, J.P.; Heberger, J.R.; Dempsey, P.G.

    2016-01-01

    During a mine disaster or emergency, underground air can quickly become contaminated. In these circumstances, all underground mine workers are taught to don breathable air supply units at the first sign of an emergency. However, no contemporary oxygen consumption data is available for the purposes of designing breathing air supply equipment specifically for mine escape. Further, it would be useful to quantify the oxygen requirements of breathing air supply users for various escape scenarios. To address this need, 14 participants crawled a distance of 305 m each while their breath-by-breath oxygen consumption measurements were taken. Using these data, linear regression models were developed to determine peak and average oxygen consumption rates as well as total oxygen consumption. These models can be used by manufacturers of breathing air supply equipment to aid in the design of devices that would be capable of producing sufficient on-demand oxygen to allow miners to perform self-escape. PMID:26997858

  15. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  16. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seleshe, Semeneh; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Mooha

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently.

  17. Risks and Benefits of Consumption of Great Lakes Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P.; Bowerman, William; Boysen, Eric; Clark, Milton; Diamond, Miriam; Mergler, Donna; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Schantz, Susan; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk–benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. Objectives: The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. Methods: We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Data synthesis: Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants—many of which have documented adverse health effects —that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Conclusions: Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk–benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed. PMID

  18. Risks and benefits of consumption of Great Lakes fish.

    PubMed

    Turyk, Mary E; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Bowerman, William; Boysen, Eric; Clark, Milton; Diamond, Miriam; Mergler, Donna; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Schantz, Susan; Carpenter, David O

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk-benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants--many of which have documented adverse health effects--that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk-benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed.

  19. Soft drink consumption among US children and adolescents: nutritional consequences.

    PubMed

    Harnack, L; Stang, J; Story, M

    1999-04-01

    To determine whether carbonated soft drink consumption is associated with consumption of milk, fruit juice, and the nutrients concentrated in these beverages. Data collected as part of the 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were analyzed. Information on food and nutrient intake was derived from 2 days of dietary recall data collected via an in-person interview. Nationally representative sample of people of all ages residing in the United States (response rate = 76.2%). Analyses were restricted to children aged 2 to 18 years (N = 1,810). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict the odds of low milk and juice consumption by soft drink consumption level. To determine whether intake of select nutrients varied by soft drink consumption, multiple linear regression modeling was conducted. Analyses were conducted using sample weights and software appropriate for the survey design. Energy intake was positively associated with consumption of nondiet soft drinks. For example, mean adjusted energy intake was 1,830 kcal/day for school-aged children who were nonconsumers of soft drinks compared with 2,018 kcal/day for children in this age group who consumed an average of 9 oz of soda or more per day. Those in the highest soft drink consumption category consumed less milk and fruit juice compared with those in the lowest consumption category (nonconsumers). Nutrition education messages targeted to children and/or their parents should encourage limited consumption of soft drinks. Policies that limit children's access to soft drinks at day care centers and schools should be promoted.

  20. Socio-economic status and fruit juice consumption in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shupler, Matthew; Raine, Kim D

    2017-06-16

    The role of socio-economic status (SES) in fruit juice and fruit drink consumption is not well understood in a Canadian context. This study examines the relationship between SES and Canadian fruit juice and fruit drink consumption. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2011-2012), a cross-sectional survey that employs multistage cluster sampling, provided relevant data for a sample of 103 125 Canadians, aged 12 and older, living in the 10 provinces. Household income level decile, ranked at the health region level, was used as a surrogate measure of SES. Fruit juice and fruit drink consumption data were collected via self-report in telephone/in-person interviews. Multivariable gamma regression was used to model the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes status, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, education level, racial identity and physical activity. A negative relationship was found, with a decreasing daily rate of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption associated with increasing SES. In the adjusted model, Canadians in the lowest SES category consumed fruit juice and fruit drinks at an average daily rate 1.18 times (95% CI: 1.14-1.23) that of Canadians in the highest SES category. The negative association between health region-adjusted SES and fruit juice and fruit drink consumption highlights the potentially important role of socio-economic factors at a local level. Canadian policy that aims to lower fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, and thus sugar intake, should target financial avenues (such as making fruit juice less financially attractive by lowering the cost of whole fruit and vegetables) in addition to communicating health benefits.

  1. Tattoos, piercings, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have found a link between body tattoos or piercings and risky behavior. However, these studies only examined survey data but not real behavior. Young men (mean = 20.6 years) and women (mean = 20.2 years) leaving a bar were asked whether they wore tattoos and piercings or not and were requested to breathe into a breathalyzer in order to evaluate their alcohol consumption. It was found that participants with piercings and/or tattoos as well as combined piercings and tattoos revealed higher levels of alcohol consumption. Piercings and tattoos could serve as signs of alcohol consumption for educators, parents, and physicians. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  3. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  4. Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret; Eliot, Katie; Heuertz, Rita M; Weiss, Edward

    2012-04-01

    Nitrate ingestion improves exercise performance; however, it has also been linked to adverse health effects, except when consumed in the form of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to determine, in a double-blind crossover study, whether whole beetroot consumption, as a means for increasing nitrate intake, improves endurance exercise performance. Eleven recreationally fit men and women were studied in a double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial performed in 2010. Participants underwent two 5-km treadmill time trials in random sequence, once 75 minutes after consuming baked beetroot (200 g with ≥500 mg nitrate) and once 75 minutes after consuming cranberry relish as a eucaloric placebo. Based on paired t tests, mean running velocity during the 5-km run tended to be faster after beetroot consumption (12.3±2.7 vs 11.9±2.6 km/hour; P=0.06). During the last 1.1 miles (1.8 km) of the 5-km run, running velocity was 5% faster (12.7±3.0 vs 12.1±2.8 km/hour; P=0.02) in the beetroot trial, with no differences in velocity (P≥0.25) in the earlier portions of the 5-km run. No differences in exercise heart rate were observed between trials; however, at 1.8 km into the 5-km run, rating of perceived exertion was lower with beetroot (13.0±2.1 vs 13.7±1.9; P=0.04). Consumption of nitrate-rich, whole beetroot improves running performance in healthy adults. Because whole vegetables have been shown to have health benefits, whereas nitrates from other sources may have detrimental health effects, it would be prudent for individuals seeking performance benefits to obtain nitrates from whole vegetables, such as beetroot.

  5. US energy consumption and supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanatta, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy consumption and cost in 1978 and 1979 are discussed with emphasis on the effect of imported oil on the economy of the United States. Some of the international aspects of energy supply are described, and actions to meet the probability of a cutoff of oil imports from the Persian Gulf area are suggested. Short and long range strategies for ensuring energy self sufficiency are discussed. A rationale for major, long range dependence on fission and fusion power is given, and the possible advantages of a nearly all electric energy system are mentioned. Projection of energy consumption and supply to the year 2020 based upon economic and demographic models is discussed.

  6. Consumption: Challenge to sustainable development ... or distraction?

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, J.R.; Panayotou, T.

    1997-04-04

    This editorial about sustainable development views it as a distraction to the main issues, pointing out that consumption patterns, not consumption levels is the critical problem. Topics include private consumption and environmental quality, private consumption and resource depletion, patterns versus levels. 21 refs.

  7. Oxygen consumption in subseafloor basaltic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Wheat, C. G.; Hulme, S.; Edwards, K. J.; Bach, W.

    2012-12-01

    Oceanic crust is the largest potential habitat for life on Earth and may contain a significant fraction of Earth's total microbial biomass, yet little is known about the form and function of life in this vast subseafloor realm that covers nearly two-thirds of the Earth's surface. A deep biosphere hosted in subseafloor basalts has been suggested from several lines of evidence; yet, empirical analysis of metabolic reaction rates in basaltic crust is lacking. Here we report the first measure of oxygen consumption in young (~ 8 Ma) and cool (<25 degrees C) basaltic crust, calculated from modeling oxygen and strontium profiles in basal sediments collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 336 to 'North Pond', a sediment 'pond' on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), where vigorous fluid circulation within basaltic crust occurs. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased towards the sediment-basement interface, indicating an upward diffusional supply from oxic fluids circulating within the crust. A parametric reaction-transport model suggests oxygen consumption rates on the order of 0.5-500 nmol per cubic centimeter fluid per day in young and cool basaltic crust, providing sufficient energy to support a subsurface crustal biosphere.

  8. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Food choice and food consumption frequency for Uruguayan consumers.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-05-01

    The aims of the present work were to study motives underlying Uruguayan consumers' food choice behaviour and to study the consumption frequency of some selected food items. A modification of the Food Choice Questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire was administered to a group of 200 Uruguayan consumers. Feeling good and safety, sensory appeal and health and nutrient content were rated as the most important factors, while familiarity was rated as the least important. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, three clusters with different choice patterns were identified. Frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, and whole cereals, increased as the importance attributed to health and nutrition increased; consumption of fatty foods decreased.

  10. [Effects of alcohol consumption on traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Katada, Ryuichi

    2011-10-01

    It has been well known that alcohol consumption affects traumatic brain injury. The mechanism of detrimental effect of ethanol on traumatic brain injury has not been clarified. This review focused on the relationship among traumatic brain injury, ethanol and aquaporin-4. We have reported that ethanol increased brain edema after brain contusion and decreased survival rates in rats. It was suggested that increasing brain edema by ethanol after brain contusion may be caused by oxidative stress. Brain edema consists of cytotoxic brain edema, vasogenic brain edema, interstitial brain edema and osmotic edema. Ethanol mainly increases cytotoxic brain edema. Both alcohol consumption and brain contusion cause oxidative stress. Antioxidant treatment decreases cytotoxic brain edema. Aquaporin-4, an water channel, was increased by ethanol 24 hr after traumatic brain injury in rat. The aquaporin-4 inhibitor decreased brain edema after brain contusion and increased survival rates under ethanol consumption. Aquaporin-4 may have strict relation between ethanol and brain edema increasing after brain contusion.

  11. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  12. Caffeine Consumption by College Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Wing Hong

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 542 undergraduates concerning their caffeine consumption. Found that subjects consumed less caffeine than average caffeine-drinking population. Coffee was main beverage used. Subjects reported drinking more caffeine when preparing for examinations. Suggests that caffeine may have some beneficial effects on learning. (Author/NB)

  13. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  14. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  15. Shifting Preferences in Pornography Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that subjects with considerable prior exposure to common, nonviolent pornography preferred to watch uncommon pornography. Male nonstudents preferred it almost exclusively, as did male students to a lesser extent. Females also exhibited this consumption preference, though it was far less pronounced, especially in female students. (JD)

  16. Caffeine Consumption by College Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Wing Hong

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 542 undergraduates concerning their caffeine consumption. Found that subjects consumed less caffeine than average caffeine-drinking population. Coffee was main beverage used. Subjects reported drinking more caffeine when preparing for examinations. Suggests that caffeine may have some beneficial effects on learning. (Author/NB)

  17. Effect of Solcoseryl on cadaveric split-skin oxygen consumption during 4 degrees C storage and in frozen biopsies.

    PubMed

    Alsbjörn, B F; Jensen, M G; Sørensen, B

    1989-04-01

    Oxygen consumption rate in cadaveric split-skin biopsies was investigated. Biopsies were harvested at different times postmortem and stored at different temperatures in either Solcoseryl (a protein-free bovine hemodialysate) or placebo-containing media. During the first week of storage Solcoseryl had no influence on oxygen consumption. However, in the second and third weeks the oxygen consumption was improved by Solcoseryl.

  18. Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women.

    PubMed

    Trondsen, Torbjørn; Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Eggen, Anne E

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize constraints on consumption of fish perceived by consumers in Norway. A random sample of Norwegian women aged 45-69 years answered a self-administered mail questionnaire in 1996 about eating habits, perceived barriers to fish consumption, socioeconomic status, and questions related to health. Altogether, 9407 women answered the questionnaire (response rate: 52.5%). Data were analyzed by means of logistic regression. Limited supply of fish products that satisfy children's wishes reduce at-home fish consumption. People with health problems and those who wish to lose weight are dissatisfied with the range of products offered in the marketplace. Satisfaction with quality and availability of wild lean codfish, especially in inland regions, is lower than for aqua-cultured fat salmon. Neither income nor education or health factors were significantly associated with consumption levels among those who would like to eat more fish. Higher education and income were associated with increased dissatisfaction about fish consumption, but also with reduced perception of most barriers. It is concluded that improvements in the supply of high-quality fresh and processed fish products that satisfy (a) children's wishes, (b) health-oriented family members, and (c) convenience-oriented consumers, will significantly increase at-home consumption of fish.

  19. [Overpopulation is bad, but excessive consumption is worse].

    PubMed

    Susuki, D

    1993-12-01

    The notion that consumption in developed countries is the main cause of ecological deterioration and planetary contamination is contested by many who assert that overpopulation in the developing world is the main factor. But the great disparity in income and consumption between rich and poor countries cannot be ignored. Each Canadian consumes 16 to 20 times more than an inhabitant of India or China and 60 to 70 times more than an inhabitant of Bangladesh. Consequently, the 1.1 billion inhabitants of industrialized countries cause ecological effects equivalent to what would be produced by 17 to 70 billion inhabitants of developing countries. The planet could not support 5.5 billion persons consuming at the rate of the 1.1 billion in the developed world. Consumption has been encouraged by the government and businesses in the U.S. and is an important factor in the health of the economy. But increases in consumption are not sustainable indefinitely. Much of current consumption results from inefficiency and waste. The life style of the developed countries has a high price in violence, alienation, alcoholism, vandalism, loneliness, pollution, and disturbance of the family and neighborhood. Becoming content with less consumption and striving for a future based on communities with greater self-confidence and self-sufficiency is a reasonable goal from both ecological and social points of view.

  20. Hypercoagulability after energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Cardenas, Jessica C; Radwan, Zayde A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Energy drink consumption in the United States has more than doubled over the last decade and has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and even sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that energy drink consumption may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing platelet aggregation, thereby resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state and increased risk of thrombosis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers aged 18-40 y were given 16 oz of bottled water or a standardized, sugar-free energy drink on two separate occasions, 1-wk apart. Beverages were consumed after an overnight fast over a 30-min period. Coagulation parameters and platelet function were measured before and 60 min after consumption using thrombelastography and impedance aggregometry. No statistically significant differences in coagulation were detected using kaolin or rapid thrombelastography. In addition, no differences in platelet aggregation were detected using ristocetin, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, or adenosine diphosphate-induced multiple impedance aggregometry. However, compared to water controls, energy drink consumption resulted in a significant increase in platelet aggregation via arachidonic acid-induced activation (area under the aggregation curve, 72.4 U versus 66.3 U; P = 0.018). Energy drinks are associated with increased platelet activity via arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation within 1 h of consumption. Although larger clinical studies are needed to further address the safety and health concerns of these drinks, the increased platelet response may provide a mechanism by which energy drinks increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The power-consumption-controlled extruder: a tool for pellet production.

    PubMed

    Kleinebudde, P; Sølvberg, A J; Lindner, H

    1994-07-01

    Based on the assumption that there is a link between power consumption of an extruder and pellet properties, a control circuit for power consumption was developed. Powder and granulation liquid are fed separately into a twin-screw extruder. The power consumption is controlled by varying the pump rate at a given powder-feed rate; consequently each level of power consumption results in a specific water content of the extrudate for a particular formulation. The shape of pellets depends almost entirely on the level of power consumption irrespective of formulation. The size of dry pellets is additionally affected by a shrinking factor which depends on the water content. The power-consumption-controlled extruder is an appropriate tool for the production of pellets. The system is able to adapt the water content for a formulation automatically.

  2. Effect of alcohol consumption selenium bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on selenium bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/Kg or at 0.085 mg Se/Kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at three levels: 0%, 10% and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, liver Se concentration, and total liver Se content. Alcohol consumption significantly increased liver Se concentrations and total liver Se in rats fed the adequate Se diet. In rates fed the low Se diet, this pattern was not shown. There was a significant interaction between alcohol and Se level in terms of liver Se concentration and total liver Se. In the first week of Se repletion, fecal Se. Se absorption and Se balance were significantly higher in the 10% alcohol group fed the low Se repletion diet compared to rats given 0% and 20% alcohol in the same Se group. In the final week Se repletion the parameters of Se balance were not affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption did not influence whole blood Se and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity; however alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  3. 2-Chlorophenol consumption and its effect on the nitrifying sludge.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Sergio; Texier, Anne-Claire; de María Cuervo-López, Flor; Gómez, Jorge

    2011-01-30

    The kinetic behavior of a nitrifying sludge exposed to 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) was evaluated in batch culture. The assays were performed using a stabilized nitrifying sludge. In control assays with (mg L(-1)): NH(4)(+)-N (100) and NaHCO(3)(-)-C (250), the substrates were consumed in 8h, the ammonium consumption efficiency was 99% and the NO(3)(-) yield higher than 0.9. When 5mg 2-CP-C L(-1) was added, it was transformed into an unidentified intermediate and the nitrifying efficiency decreased to 10%. Ammonium specific consumption rate diminished 95%, but the NO(3)(-) yield remained higher than 0.9. The biomass previously exposed to 2-CP was newly suspended with NH(4)(+)-N or NO(2)(-)-N in order to evaluate the ammonium and nitrite oxidizing processes. The consumption efficiencies and NO(3)(-) yields were similar to those obtained in control assays. However, the total time required for ammonium and nitrite consumption increased to 120 and 42 h, respectively. Specific consumption rates for NH(4)(+)-N and NO(2)(-)-N decreased by 95% and 83% respectively, compared to control assays. Thus, the previous contact to 2-CP had more influence on ammonium oxidizing process than the nitrite oxidizing process. These are the first evidences where a nitrifying sludge exposed to 2-CP are reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimum alcohol taxation: balancing consumption and external costs.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Crowley, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers alternative approaches to the evaluation of the total cost of alcohol consumption in Australia. It calculates the impact of alternative tax rates on beer, wine and spirits separately and the 'consumption cost' of these taxes in terms of the distortion caused to consumption patterns. Two separate analyses are carried out. First optimal taxation is calculated which minimises the total loss from the 'consumption cost' of taxation plus the external cost of alcohol consumption. Secondly, the benefits of life are separated from other benefits and the impact of tax expressed in terms of the cost per life year gained. Conceptualised in this way, the results of this 'tax' program may be expressed in the same way as other health programs, namely as a net cost per life year gained. Alcohol taxation may then be compared with other life saving interventions. The chief conclusion reached is that in Australia there is a very compelling case for a new tax base and for a very significant increase in the rate of alcohol taxation.

  5. Spatial Variations in Vitreous Oxygen Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Karthik; Kang, Dongyang; Nazari, Hossein; Scianmarello, Nicholas; Cadenas, Enrique; Tai, Yu-Chong; Kashani, Amir; Humayun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of vitreous oxygen consumption in enucleated porcine eyes. A custom made oxygen source was fabricated that could be localized to either the mid or posterior vitreous cavity and steady state vitreous oxygen tension was measured as a function of distance from the source using a commercially available probe. The reaction rate constant of ascorbate oxidation was estimated ex vivo by measuring the change in oxygen tension over time using vitreous harvested from porcine eyes. Vitreous ascorbate from mid and posterior vitreous was measured spectrophotometrically. When the oxygen source was placed in either the mid-vitreous (N = 6) or the posterior vitreous (N = 6), we measured a statistically significant decrease in vitreous oxygen tension as a function of distance from the oxygen source when compared to control experiments without an oxygen source; (p<0.005 for mid-vitreous and p<0.018 for posterior vitreous at all distances). The mid-vitreous oxygen tension change was significantly different from the posterior vitreous oxygen tension change at 2 and 3mm distances from the respective oxygen source (p<0.001). We also found a statistically significant lower concentration of ascorbate in the mid-vitreous as compared to posterior vitreous (p = 0.02). We determined the reaction rate constant, k = 1.61 M-1s-1 ± 0.708 M-1s-1 (SE), of the oxidation of ascorbate which was modeled following a second order rate equation. Our data demonstrates that vitreous oxygen consumption is higher in the posterior vitreous compared to the mid-vitreous. We also show spatial variations in vitreous ascorbate concentration. PMID:26930281

  6. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks in the highest fish-consuming group ({approx}3 times

  7. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  8. Research of Tianjin's future water consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yinhe

    2017-03-01

    Water shortage has been a great issue in nowadays. Thus, the prediction of future water consumption situation in an area appears especially important. The water demand includes industrial water, agricultural water and domestic water. The paper take Tianjin, China as the study object to predict the Tianjin's water consumption in future 15 years. To get more accurate result, we use Grey Forecasting Model, to get the correlation degree between water consumption, domestic water consumption, industrial water consumption and agricultural water consumption, we successfully figure out the water demand in 2030 will be 2.47 billion cubic meters.

  9. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  10. Fuel consumption in optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Jim; Silverberg, Larry

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for comparing three optimal control strategies based on fuel consumption. A general cost function minimization procedure was developed by applying two theorems associated with convex sets. Three cost functions associated with control saturation, pseudofuel, and absolute fuel are introduced and minimized. The first two cost functions led to the bang-bang and continuous control strategies, and the minimization of absolute fuel led to an impulsive strategy. The three control strategies were implemented on two elementary systems and a comparison of fuel consumption was made. The impulse control strategy consumes significantly less fuel than the continuous and bang-bang control strategies. This comparison suggests a potential for fuel savings in higher-order systems using impulsive control strategies. However, since exact solutions to fuel-optimal control for large-order systems are difficult if not impossible to achieve, the alternative is to develop near-optimal control strategies.

  11. Alcohol and tobacco consumption among police officers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R; Devine, Sue; Leggat, Peter A; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    Police occupy an important position within the community as both enforcers of the law and as role models for appropriate behavior. Despite this interesting juxtaposition, research has shown that they may consume alcohol and tobacco at rates higher than the general population. A significant causal factor is occupational stress, and the fact that police are regularly exposed to stressors beyond the range of normal human experiences. Given this ongoing and unavoidable relationship, the recognition and control of stress is paramount within law enforcement. Because police stressors are usually multi-faceted, health promotion interventions should focus on stress-reduction at both the institutional and individual level. Examples of health promotion strategies may include reducing overtime, carefully organizing shift rosters, streamlining administrative processes and allowing rest breaks for those on the night-shift. Interventions which focus on the individual are also important, because excess alcohol and tobacco consumption levels often relate to individual stress-coping mechanisms. Programs to help recognize and prevent excess alcohol and tobacco consumption may be worthwhile, as too, counseling, interpersonal support and critical incident debriefing. Promoting non-drinking and non-smoking stress-reduction activities where police can socialize and de-brief with their colleagues may be beneficial. Encouraging social events at sports clubs and gymnasiums has also been suggested. In order to achieve these goals however, governments will need to place a greater emphasis on the occupational health of police officers and the law enforcement agencies in which they work.

  12. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    PubMed

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 78 FR 24430 - Tuna-Tariff Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... States consumption of tuna in airtight containers during the preceding Calendar Year. This document sets... is applicable to tuna fish entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption during the period... warehouse, for consumption during the Calendar Year 2013, at the rate of 6.0 percent ad valorem under...

  14. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  15. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide and is only second to water drinking and is consumed by 83% of adults in the United States. The long-held controversy regarding the association of coffee consumption with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hypertension has been reversed by several recent prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses, which have demonstrated that coffee consumption is not associated with increased incidence of CVDs and hypertension and instead it could have a beneficial effect. To get a better understanding of the effects of coffee consumption on cardiovascular health, a Medline search of the English language literature was conducted from 2010 to early 2015 and 25 pertinent reports with information on the effects of coffee drinking, the incidence of CVDs, and hypertension and its mechanism of action were selected for inclusion in this commentary. These studies have shown either a neutral or beneficial effect of coffee on cardiovascular health. In conclusion, coffee is safe to drink by both normal subjects and by those with preexisting CVDs and hypertension.

  16. Caffeine consumption among medical students.

    PubMed

    Mino, Y; Yasuda, N; Fujimura, T; Ohara, H

    1990-12-01

    Recently, caffeine consumption in Japan is thought to have increased. Although caffeine had been considered to be harmless, there have been studies which suggests an association between caffeine and health and give rise to vigorous discussion. However, in Japan, there have been few epidemiological studies on caffeine consumption among a general population. A questionnaire survey was conducted among medical students and the results were as follows: 1) High dose users (estimated daily caffeine use is 250 mg or more) were observed in 15.2% and the proportion was higher in males than in females. 2) The respondents gave sleepiness, dry mouth and so on, as reasons for taking caffeine beverages, and gave, as the effects of caffeine, becoming clear-headed, shaking off sleepiness, and epigastric discomfort or pain. 3) A third of respondents have experienced taking caffeine tablets and ampules to shake off sleepiness and, in males, the more caffeine they had daily, the more who reported the experience. 4) Caffeine consumption has an association with alcohol use and smoking habit among males.

  17. Beverage consumption and paediatric NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Antonella; Della Corte, Claudia; Sartorelli, Maria Rita; Ferretti, Francesca; Nicita, Francesco; Vania, Andrea; Nobili, Valerio

    2016-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. It is difficult to define the role of the various components of soft drinks and energy drinks in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression in NASH, but the major role is played by high calorie and high sugar consumption, mainly fructose. In addition, other components of these beverages (e.g. xanthine) seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, crucial pathways involved in NAFLD/NASH. The drastic reduction in the consumption of energy drinks and soft drinks is an appropriate intervention for the prevention of obesity and NAFLD in young people.

  18. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  19. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  20. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  1. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  2. Health benefits of nut consumption.

    PubMed

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-07-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets.

  3. Sweet babies: chocolate consumption during pregnancy and infant temperament at six months.

    PubMed

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Strandberg, Timo E

    2004-02-01

    Chocolate contains several biologically active components potentially having behavioral and psychological consequences. We tested whether chocolate consumption and stress experiences during pregnancy predict mother-rated infant temperament at 6 months. Prenatal frequency of chocolate consumption and intensity of psychological stress experience of the mothers, and temperament characteristics of the infants 6 months postpartum were evaluated in 305 consecutive, healthy mother-infant dyads. Mothers who reported daily consumption of chocolate rated more positively the temperament of their infants at 6 months. Maternal prenatal stress predicted more negatively tuned ratings of the infant temperament, particularly among those who reported never/seldom chocolate consumption. However, this effect was not observed among the mothers reporting weekly or daily chocolate consumption. In addition to producing subjective feelings of psychological well being, chocolate may have effects at multiple environmental and psychological levels.

  4. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among a Subset of Canadian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as…

  5. Estimating production and consumption of solid reactive Fe phases in marine sediments from concentration profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    1D diffusion models may be used to estimate rates of production and consumption of dissolved metabolites in marine sediments, but are applied less often to the solid phase. Here we used a numerical inverse method to estimate solid phase Fe(III) and Fe(II) consumption and product...

  6. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among a Subset of Canadian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as…

  7. Estimating production and consumption of solid reactive Fe phases in marine sediments from concentration profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    1D diffusion models may be used to estimate rates of production and consumption of dissolved metabolites in marine sediments, but are applied less often to the solid phase. Here we used a numerical inverse method to estimate solid phase Fe(III) and Fe(II) consumption and product...

  8. Fuelwood consumption and deforestation in african countries

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.; Fishwick, R.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of recent reports (mostly unpublished) on the rate of fuelwood consumption in Africa and its growth, and on the ecological, economic and possible micro-climatic effects of consequent deforestation. A discussion is given of the economic and operational aspects of policies open to governments: (a) to encourage fuelwood conservation; (b) to facilitate the substitution of commercial energy for fuelwood, where desirable on grounds of relative costs; (c) in developing the traditional functions of the forestry services in maintaining the forest reserves and undertaking plantings in watersheds and shelterbelts; and (d) in promoting the practice of agro-forestry, i.e. the planting and maintenance of trees in copses and around farms by the farm families themselves. Policy (d) is considered particularly promising, and the research, education, training and other requirements of this policy are discussed. 55 references.

  9. [Botulism caused by consumption of smoked salmon].

    PubMed

    Dressler, D

    2005-06-01

    Fresh fish products are exquisitely prone to be the source for food botulism because of primary contamination with Clostridium botulinum spores, lack of heat inactivation of C. botulinum spores, frequently used air-tight packaging, lack of preservatives, lack of heat inactivation of already produced botulinum toxin and because of substantial low temperature resistance of C. botulinum type E typically found in fish botulism. We can reporting a 25-year-old patient with food botulism presenting with an anticholinergic syndrome with mydriasis, accommodation difficulties, dryness of mouth, reduced sweating, constipation and reduced heart rate variance and only discrete involvement of striate muscles with ptosis, diplopia and generalised fatigue, all of which developed 12 h after the consumption of airtight sealed smoked salmon. The salmon was consumed 3 days after the 'use by' date had expired.

  10. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  11. Does coffee consumption impact on heaviness of smoking?

    PubMed

    Ware, Jennifer J; Tanner, Julie-Anne; Taylor, Amy E; Bin, Zhao; Haycock, Philip; Bowden, Jack; Rogers, Peter J; Davey Smith, George; Tyndale, Rachel F; Munafò, Marcus R

    2017-10-01

    Coffee consumption and cigarette smoking are strongly associated, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We sought to: (1) determine whether coffee consumption influences cigarette smoking causally, (2) estimate the magnitude of any association and (3) explore potential mechanisms. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of observational data, using publicly available summarized data from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium, individual-level data from the UK Biobank and in-vitro experiments of candidate compounds. The TAG consortium includes data from studies in several countries. The UK Biobank includes data from men and women recruited across England, Wales and Scotland. The TAG consortium provided data on n ≤ 38 181 participants. The UK Biobank provided data on 8072 participants. In MR analyses, the exposure was coffee consumption (cups/day) and the outcome was heaviness of smoking (cigarettes/day). In our in-vitro experiments we assessed the effect of caffeic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid on the rate of nicotine metabolism in human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed human CYP2A6. Two-sample MR analyses of TAG consortium data indicated that heavier coffee consumption might lead to reduced heaviness of smoking [beta = -1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -2.88 to -0.09]. However, in-vitro experiments found that the compounds investigated are unlikely to inhibit significantly the rate of nicotine metabolism following coffee consumption. Further MR analyses in UK Biobank found no evidence of a causal relationship between coffee consumption and heaviness of smoking (beta = 0.20, 95% CI = -1.72 to 2.12). Amount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact upon amount of cigarette smoking. If it does influence smoking, this is not likely to operate via effects of caffeic acid, quercetin or p-coumaric acid on nicotine metabolism. The observational association between coffee consumption and cigarette

  12. Soda taxes, soft drink consumption, and children's body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Roland; Powell, Lisa M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2010-05-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed to combat obesity. Using data on state sales taxes for soda and individual-level data on children, we examine whether small taxes are likely to change consumption and weight gain or whether larger tax increases would be needed. We find that existing taxes on soda, which are typically not much higher than 4 percent in grocery stores, do not substantially affect overall levels of soda consumption or obesity rates. We do find, however, that subgroups of at-risk children--children who are already overweight, come from low-income families, or are African American--may be more sensitive than others to soda taxes, especially when soda is available at school. A greater impact of these small taxes could come from the dedication of the revenues they generate to other obesity prevention efforts rather than through their direct effect on consumption.

  13. Chinese tea consumption and lower risk of Helicobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Yee, Yuk-kei; Koo, Marcel Wing-leung; Szeto, Ming-leung

    2002-05-01

    Our first study had shown that Chinese tea has anti-Helicobacter activity. The present study investigated the relationship between patients'Helicobacter status and the history of Chinese tea consumption. Chinese patients who had their first upper endoscopy were recruited. Before the procedure, patients completed questionnaires about their current Chinese tea consumption habits and those when they were around 10-25 years old. This information was used to calculate the tea consumption indices (TCI). Gastric biopsies (two from the antrum and two from the corpus) were taken for histological examination for Helicobacter. Eighty patients were recruited. Eight patients were rejected because of either an incomplete questionnaire, absence of gastric biopsy or a suspected history of treatment for Helicobacter infection. Of the 72 patients, 42 (58.3%) were Helicobacter positive. The age, sex ratio and indications for endoscopy were similar in both Helicobacter-positive and -negative groups. Classifying patients using either current, past or total TCI, patients with high tea consumption had significantly lower Helicobacter infection rate than those with low tea consumption (45% compared to 74%, 42% compared to 67% and 40% compared to 83%, respectively). Helicobacter-negative patients had higher overall TCI than Helicobacter-positive patients (28.2:17.3). When current and previous histories were analyzed separately, Helicobacter-negative patients also had a trend towards higher TCI currently (16.6:11.0) and in their 20s (11.6:6.1). There is a significant inverse relationship between Chinese tea consumption and Helicobacter infection. Chinese tea consumption may decrease the chance of Helicobacter infection. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  14. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wireless network interface energy consumption implications of popular streaming formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar

    2001-12-01

    With the proliferation of mobile streaming multimedia, available battery capacity constrains the end-user experience. Since streaming applications tend to be long running, wireless network interface card's (WNIC) energy consumption is particularly an acute problem. In this work, we explore the WNIC energy consumption implications of popular multimedia streaming formats from Microsoft (Windows media), Real (Real media) and Apple (Quick Time). We investigate the energy consumption under varying stream bandwidth and network loss rates. We also explore history-based client-side strategies to reduce the energy consumed by transitioning the WNICs to a lower power consuming sleep state. We show that Microsoft media tends to transmit packets at regular intervals; streams optimized for 28.8 Kbps can save over 80% in energy consumption with 2% data loss. A high bandwidth stream (768 Kbps) can still save 57% in energy consumption with less than 0.3% data loss. For high bandwidth streams, Microsoft media exploits network-level packet fragmentation, which can lead to excessive packet loss (and wasted energy) in a lossy network. Real stream packets tend to be sent closer to each other, especially at higher bandwidths. Quicktime packets sometimes arrive in quick succession; most likely an application level fragmentation mechanism. Such packets are harder to predict at the network level without understanding the packet semantics.

  16. Economic and geographic drivers of wildlife consumption in rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Brashares, Justin S; Golden, Christopher D; Weinbaum, Karen Z; Barrett, Christopher B; Okello, Grace V

    2011-08-23

    The harvest of wildlife for human consumption is valued at several billion dollars annually and provides an essential source of meat for hundreds of millions of rural people living in poverty. This harvest is also considered among the greatest threats to biodiversity throughout Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Economic development is often proposed as an essential first step to win-win solutions for poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation by breaking rural reliance on wildlife. However, increases in wealth may accelerate consumption and extend the scale and efficiency of wildlife harvest. Our ability to assess the likelihood of these two contrasting outcomes and to design approaches that simultaneously consider poverty and biodiversity loss is impeded by a weak understanding of the direction and shape of their interaction. Here, we present results of economic and wildlife use surveys conducted in 2,000 households from 96 settlements in Ghana, Cameroon, Tanzania, and Madagascar. We examine the individual and interactive roles of wealth, relative food prices, market access, and opportunity costs of time spent hunting on household rates of wildlife consumption. Despite great differences in biogeographic, social, and economic aspects of our study sites, we found a consistent relationship between wealth and wildlife consumption. Wealthier households consume more bushmeat in settlements nearer urban areas, but the opposite pattern is observed in more isolated settlements. Wildlife hunting and consumption increase when alternative livelihoods collapse, but this safety net is an option only for those people living near harvestable wildlife.

  17. Economic and geographic drivers of wildlife consumption in rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brashares, Justin S.; Golden, Christopher D.; Weinbaum, Karen Z.; Barrett, Christopher B.; Okello, Grace V.

    2011-01-01

    The harvest of wildlife for human consumption is valued at several billion dollars annually and provides an essential source of meat for hundreds of millions of rural people living in poverty. This harvest is also considered among the greatest threats to biodiversity throughout Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Economic development is often proposed as an essential first step to win–win solutions for poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation by breaking rural reliance on wildlife. However, increases in wealth may accelerate consumption and extend the scale and efficiency of wildlife harvest. Our ability to assess the likelihood of these two contrasting outcomes and to design approaches that simultaneously consider poverty and biodiversity loss is impeded by a weak understanding of the direction and shape of their interaction. Here, we present results of economic and wildlife use surveys conducted in 2,000 households from 96 settlements in Ghana, Cameroon, Tanzania, and Madagascar. We examine the individual and interactive roles of wealth, relative food prices, market access, and opportunity costs of time spent hunting on household rates of wildlife consumption. Despite great differences in biogeographic, social, and economic aspects of our study sites, we found a consistent relationship between wealth and wildlife consumption. Wealthier households consume more bushmeat in settlements nearer urban areas, but the opposite pattern is observed in more isolated settlements. Wildlife hunting and consumption increase when alternative livelihoods collapse, but this safety net is an option only for those people living near harvestable wildlife. PMID:21873180

  18. [Soft drink consumption patterns in a Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Maupomé-Carvantes, G; Sánchez-Reyes, V; Laguna-Ortega, S; Andrade-Delgado, L C; Diez de Bonilla-Calderón, J

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate soft drink consumption patterns in the Mexican population, the authors conducted a survey among people over 10 years of age in Mexico City (september-october 1993). Also, pH levels of commonly available beverages were measured using standard laboratory techniques. Results indicated that each one of the 33 soft drink brands and 15 brands of juices and beverages available, had markedly acidic pH values (between 2.46 and 3.96). Out of the 2,008 respondents (55.3% male, 44.7% female; response rate, 90.1%), 1,657 (82.5%) admitted drinking soft drinks daily, while 351 (17.5%) said they did not drink this type of beverages. Even though high consumption was frequent in all age groups, self-reported consumption was partially associated to age, being higher in the younger groups. The mean number of soft drinks ingested per day was reported to be 1.7, SD 1.3, and 9.3 per week SD 9.9. Self-reported consumption appeared to be independent of schooling level. Even though the largest proportion of non-consumers was found in the group that considered soft drinks to be a very important contributing factor to caries development, most interviewees agreed that soft drinks consumption was an important cariogenic factor. This attributed role was more prominent among interviewees with a higher level of schooling.

  19. Association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American children.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy L; Tschann, Jeanne; Butte, Nancy F; Penilla, Carlos; Greenspan, Louise C

    2014-02-01

    To determine the association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American school-aged children. Cross-sectional study using the baseline data from a cohort study. Mothers and children answered questions about the frequency and quantity of the child's consumption of soda, diet soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice, milk and water. The questions were adapted from the Youth/Adolescent FFQ. Children were weighed and measured. Data were collected on the following potential confounders: maternal BMI, household income, maternal education, maternal occupational status, maternal acculturation, child physical activity, child screen time and child fast-food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between servings (240 ml) of each beverage per week and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile). Participants were recruited from among enrolees of the Kaiser Permanente Health Plan of Northern California. Data were collected via an in-home assessment. Mexican American children (n 319) aged 8-10 years. Among participants, 20% were overweight and 31% were obese. After controlling for potential confounders, consuming more servings of soda was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR = 1·29; P < 0·001). Consuming more servings of flavoured milk per week was associated with lower odds of obesity (OR = 0·88; P = 0·004). Consumption of other beverages was not associated with obesity in the multivariate model. Discouraging soda consumption among Mexican American children may help reduce the high obesity rates in this population.

  20. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  1. Residential electricity demand in Mexico: a model distinguishing access from consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, E.R.; Samaniego, R.

    1984-08-01

    Electricity access-consumption data of households by region and over time are the empirical basis for this paper. Following a brief background on residential electricity and energy consumption in Mexico, the authors discuss important demographic phenomena, the goals of electrification programs, and features of the electricity tariff schedules. They extend typical residential demand models to include separately the demand for electricity hook-ups. A principal finding is that a developing country like Mexico experiences a double whammy impact on electricity consumption with increases in income because of the demand for new hook-ups and the increased consumption by those who already have access. Policy implications are that pricing policy has a statistically significant impact on demand; that government-sponsored rural electrification programs have a major impact on consumption; and that the growth rates of consumption will level off as access becomes universal by 1990. 30 references 2 tables.

  2. Comparison and Evolution of Energy Consumption in Moroccan Agro-food Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Badaoui, Meryem; Touzani, Abdellatif

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish a comparison between the Moroccan energy consumption and the BREF the reference document on best available techniques in the food industries, then an evolution of this consumption by 2030 in order to better understand it and to define strategies to reduce energy bill. According to a survey conducted among 5000 Moroccan companies, we were able to compare the energy consumption of the agro-food industries including sugar industry, dairy industry, cereal industry; fatty substances industry and fishing industry with that of the BREF. Also an evolution of Moroccan consumption was established by 2030 using the linear regression method, and then calculated a non-negligible average annual growth rate (AAGR). The results show that the Moroccan energy consumption is adequate to that of the BREF, and an energy consumption constantly increasing by registering a non-negligible AAGR.

  3. [Energy consumption and GDP growth in Beijing: cointegration and causality analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Chun-Lan; Wang, Hai-Hua; Li, Zheng

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, the Johansen cointegration technique and the vector error correction model (VECM) were used to examine the causal relationship between energy consumption (LEC) and gross domestic product (LGDP) for Beijing during the period of 1980 to 2008. Results indicated that LEC and LGDP for Beijing were related by one cointegrating vector and there was a long-run unidirectional causal relationship from GDP to energy consumption. The long-term and short-term elasticity from economy to energy consumption were 0.44 and 0.12 separately. Statistic analysis showed that from 1980 to 2008 every 1% growth in GDP annually would drive energy consumption increasing rate by 0.4% correspondently. And the effect imposed from economy to energy consumption was lagging. It showed that energy consumption was not a strong exogenous variable as to economy. The finding has significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation, emission reduction and economic development.

  4. Optimizing electrical power consumption in SOA based optical packet switching nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaotang; Hu, Weisheng; Sun, Weiqiang; He, Hao

    2011-12-01

    Since the underlying demand for network capacity can be satisfied only by extremely increasing transmission bit rate, processing speed, and switching capacity, it definitely will lead to increased power consumption of network nodes. Energy crisis is global crisis nowadays and it has brought up many problems. Power consumption is becoming a crucial issue in designing high-performance network devices. This paper studies the power consumption model of a kind of Optical Packet Switching (OPS) node based on Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA). Our results show that by dynamically adjusting the bias current of SOAs, the power consumption on an OPS node can be reduced considerably, especially when the traffic distribution across multiple ports is not balanced and inter-nodal distances vary. The total electrical power consumption can be cut off significantly. We also show the power consumption can be further reduced by jointly optimizing the thermoelectric cooler current.

  5. Sociological Ambivalence and Funeral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Szmigin, Isabelle; Canning, Louise

    2015-08-01

    This article builds on Hillcoat-Nallétamby and Phillips' (2011) conceptualization of sociological ambivalence within the relational framework to examine a particular consumption practice, the funeral. We develop understanding of social, cultural and relational issues that arise from the experience associated with funeral-arranging. This is not a voluntary behaviour but one engaged with through force of circumstance and which involves commercial and relational decisions. Drawing on data from 10 interviews from a larger UK study, we focus on ambivalence surrounding choice and its impact on relations, showing how sentiments including love, obligation, regret and revenge evolve and transform past and future relationships.

  6. Sociological Ambivalence and Funeral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on Hillcoat-Nallétamby and Phillips’ (2011) conceptualization of sociological ambivalence within the relational framework to examine a particular consumption practice, the funeral. We develop understanding of social, cultural and relational issues that arise from the experience associated with funeral-arranging. This is not a voluntary behaviour but one engaged with through force of circumstance and which involves commercial and relational decisions. Drawing on data from 10 interviews from a larger UK study, we focus on ambivalence surrounding choice and its impact on relations, showing how sentiments including love, obligation, regret and revenge evolve and transform past and future relationships. PMID:26236046

  7. Predicting Ship Fuel Consumption: Update.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of

  8. The Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI 2005-06: main results in terms of food consumption.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Catherine; Arcella, Davide; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Le Donne, Cinzia; Turrini, Aida

    2009-12-01

    The current paper aims to present the main results of the Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI 2005-06. A cross-sectional study was performed. Households were randomly selected after geographical stratification of the national territory. Food consumption was assessed on three consecutive days through individual estimated dietary records. Italy. The final study sample comprised 3323 subjects (1501 males and 1822 females) aged 0.1 to 97.7 years belonging to 1329 households: fifty-two infants (0-2.9 years), 193 children (3-9.9 years), 247 teenagers (10-17.9 years), 2313 adults (18-64.9 years) and 518 elderly (65 years and above). Participation rate was 33 %. The mean ratio of estimated energy intake to estimated BMR was 1.41 in adults. Indicators of mean and high individual consumption are presented for fifteen large categories and fifty-one subcategories of foods and beverages, in the total population and in consumers, by age and sex categories. The overall consumption of fruit and vegetables was 418 g/d. The consumption of red meat was approximately 700 g/week, expressed as raw weight. Some specific aspects of the Italian food consumption pattern were confirmed: a large contribution from bread, pasta and pizza to cereals, from olive oil to fats and from wine to alcoholic beverages. The database obtained from the survey will be the key reference for Italian food consumption during the coming years and will be utilized for a variety of purposes including the assessment of nutrient intakes and risk analysis.

  9. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  10. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Chassin, David P.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Winiarski, David W.; Pratt, Robert G.; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  11. Oxygen consumption dynamics in steady-state tumour models.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David Robert; Fletcher, Alexander G; Partridge, Mike

    2014-09-01

    Oxygen levels in cancerous tissue can have a significant effect on treatment response: hypoxic tissue is both more radioresistant and more chemoresistant than well-oxygenated tissue. While recent advances in medical imaging have facilitated real-time observation of macroscopic oxygenation, the underlying physics limits the resolution to the millimetre domain, whereas oxygen tension varies over a micrometre scale. If the distribution of oxygen in the tumour micro-environment can be accurately estimated, then the effect of potential dose escalation to these hypoxic regions could be better modelled, allowing more realistic simulation of biologically adaptive treatments. Reaction-diffusion models are commonly used for modelling oxygen dynamics, with a variety of functional forms assumed for the dependence of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) on cellular status and local oxygen availability. In this work, we examine reaction-diffusion models of oxygen consumption in spherically and cylindrically symmetric geometries. We consider two different descriptions of oxygen consumption: one in which the rate of consumption is constant and one in which it varies with oxygen tension in a hyperbolic manner. In each case, we derive analytic approximations to the steady-state oxygen distribution, which are shown to closely match the numerical solutions of the equations and accurately predict the extent to which oxygen can diffuse. The derived expressions relate the limit to which oxygen can diffuse into a tissue to the OCR of that tissue. We also demonstrate that differences between these functional forms are likely to be negligible within the range of literature estimates of the hyperbolic oxygen constant, suggesting that the constant consumption rate approximation suffices for modelling oxygen dynamics for most values of OCR. These approximations also allow the rapid identification of situations where hyperbolic consumption forms can result in significant differences from constant

  12. Resource consumption, sustainability, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kareva, Irina; Morin, Benjamin; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Preserving a system's viability in the presence of diversity erosion is critical if the goal is to sustainably support biodiversity. Reduction in population heterogeneity, whether inter- or intraspecies, may increase population fragility, either decreasing its ability to adapt effectively to environmental changes or facilitating the survival and success of ordinarily rare phenotypes. The latter may result in over-representation of individuals who may participate in resource utilization patterns that can lead to over-exploitation, exhaustion, and, ultimately, collapse of both the resource and the population that depends on it. Here, we aim to identify regimes that can signal whether a consumer-resource system is capable of supporting viable degrees of heterogeneity. The framework used here is an expansion of a previously introduced consumer-resource type system of a population of individuals classified by their resource consumption. Application of the Reduction Theorem to the system enables us to evaluate the health of the system through tracking both the mean value of the parameter of resource (over)consumption, and the population variance, as both change over time. The article concludes with a discussion that highlights applicability of the proposed system to investigation of systems that are affected by particularly devastating overly adapted populations, namely cancerous cells. Potential intervention approaches for system management are discussed in the context of cancer therapies.

  13. Egg consumption and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed

    Fuertes García, Antonio

    2016-07-12

    Diet, along with exercise, is the determining factor in primary prevention –and secondary– of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This disease remains the leading cause of death in our country, as well as neighboring countries. After the publication of the results of the study of the Seven Countries in 1980, egg consumption was discouraged because it was thought falsely that the consumption of it had the same harmful effect as saturated fats increasing CVD risk. This idea, that was proved wrong later, was in general accepted by the medical profession as much as the general population. Simultaneously numerous clinical studies were performed and they clearly contradict that belief, concluding that egg intake do not increase CVD risk. In conclusion, although the literature on this topic is abundant, we cite the works that seem most significant in this regard. Consequently and following the recommendations of the American Heart Association Guidelines, since 2000, we can conclude that intake of up to one egg a day does not modify the risk for CVD in healthy adults.

  14. Oxygen consumption by mitochondria from an endotherm and an ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Berner, N J

    1999-09-01

    Comparisons of metabolic properties of mitochondria from an endothermic and an ectothermic vertebrate were performed. Oxygen (O2) consumption rates of liver mitochondria from laboratory mice and western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) were determined over a range of temperatures (10, 20, 30 and 37 degrees C) and in the presence of a variety of substrates. At 37 degrees C the O2 consumption rate of mouse mitochondria was 4-11 times higher than lizard mitochondria in the presence of five of eight substrates. This range of differences is similar to differences reported for O2 consumption of endothermic animals, tissues and cells over those of ectotherms. Thermal sensitivity of mitochondria was measured by calculation of Q10s for O2 consumption. Q10s were highest for mouse mitochondria overall. The range that showed the highest Q10s for the mouse mitochondria was 30-20 degrees C, whereas for the lizard mitochondria it was 20-10 degrees C. Thus, mitochondria from the ectotherm showed a lower degree of temperature sensitivity than did mitochondria from the endotherm. The preferred substrate for all mitochondria at all temperatures was succinate, but mouse mitochondria then showed some preference for alpha-ketoglutarate and citrate, whereas lizard mitochondria showed a preference for pyruvate and malate + pyruvate.

  15. Associations between schools' guidelines and pupils' smoking and sweet consumption.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, R; Tolvanen, M; Anttila, J; Lahti, S

    2014-12-01

    The aims were to find out if schools' sweet-selling was associated with pupils' sweet consumption, and whether the school's guideline about leaving the school area was associated with pupils' tobacco and sweet consumption. Two independently collected datasets from all Finnish upper secondary schools (N = 988) were linked together. The first dataset on schools' sweet-selling (yes/no) and guideline about leaving school area (yes/no) was collected via school principals in 2007 using an Internet questionnaire with a response rate of 49%, n = 480. The second dataset on pupils' self-reported: weekly school-time (0, never; 1, less than once; 2, 1-2 times; 3, 3-5 times), overall sweet consumption frequencies (1, never; 2, 1-2 times; 3, 3-5 times; 4, 6-7 times) and smoking and snuff-using frequencies (1, never; 2, every now and then; 3 = every day) was collected in 2006-2007 in the School Health Promotion Study from pupils. An average was calculated for the school-level with a response rate 80%, n = 790. The total response rate of the linked final data was 42%, n = 414. Mean values of self-reported sweet and tobacco consumption frequencies between sweet-selling and non-sweet-selling schools and between schools with different guidelines were compared using Mann-Whitney test. Pupils in sweet-selling schools and in schools without a guideline about leaving the school area, more frequently used sweet products and tobacco products than their peers in other schools. Schools may need help in building permanent guidelines to stop sweet-selling in school and to prevent leaving the school area to decrease pupils' sweet consumption and smoking.

  16. Oxygen consumption of human heart cells in monolayer culture.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Kaori; Kagawa, Yuki; Maeyama, Erina; Ota, Hiroki; Haraguchi, Yuji; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2014-09-26

    Tissue engineering in cardiovascular regenerative therapy requires the development of an efficient oxygen supply system for cell cultures. However, there are few studies which have examined human cardiomyocytes in terms of oxygen consumption and metabolism in culture. We developed an oxygen measurement system equipped with an oxygen microelectrode sensor and estimated the oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) by using the oxygen concentration profiles in culture medium. The heart is largely made up of cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, and cardiac endothelial cells. Therefore, we measured the oxygen consumption of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), cardiac fibroblasts, human cardiac microvascular endothelial cell and aortic smooth muscle cells. Then we made correlations with their metabolisms. In hiPSC-CMs, the value of the OCR was 0.71±0.38pmol/h/cell, whereas the glucose consumption rate and lactate production rate were 0.77±0.32pmol/h/cell and 1.61±0.70pmol/h/cell, respectively. These values differed significantly from those of the other cells in human heart. The metabolism of the cells that constitute human heart showed the molar ratio of lactate production to glucose consumption (L/G ratio) that ranged between 1.97 and 2.2. Although the energy metabolism in adult heart in vivo is reported to be aerobic, our data demonstrated a dominance of anaerobic glycolysis in an in vitro environment. With our measuring system, we clearly showed the differences in the metabolism of cells between in vivo and in vitro monolayer culture. Our results regarding cell OCRs and metabolism may be useful for future tissue engineering of human heart.

  17. Characterization of proton production and consumption associated with microbial metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Production or consumption of protons in growth medium during microbial metabolism plays an important role in determining the pH of the environment. Such pH changes resulting from microbial metabolism may influence the geochemical speciation of many elements in subsurface environments. Protons produced or consumed during microbial growth were measured by determining the amount of acid or base added in a 5 L batch bioreactor equipped with pH control for different species including Escherichia coli, Geobacter sulfurreducens, and Geobacter metallireducens. Results An in silico model was used to predict the proton secretion or consumption rates and the results were compared with the data. The data was found to confirm predictions of proton consumption during aerobic growth of E. coli with acetate as the carbon source. However, in contrast to proton consumption observed during aerobic growth of E. coli with acetate, proton secretion was observed during growth of Geobacter species with acetate as the donor and Fe(III) as the extracellular electron acceptor. Conclusions In this study, we have also shown that the final pH of the medium can be either acidic or basic depending on the choice of the electron acceptor for the same electron donor. In all cases, the in silico model could predict qualitatively the proton production/consumption rates obtained from the experimental data. Therefore, measurements of pH equivalents generated or consumed during growth can help characterize the microbial physiology further and can be valuable for optimizing practical applications such as microbial fuel cells, where growth associated pH changes can limit current generation rates. PMID:20089195

  18. Yogurt consumption and abdominal obesity reversion in the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Santiago, S; Sayón-Orea, C; Babio, N; Ruiz-Canela, M; Martí, A; Corella, D; Estruch, R; Fitó, M; Aros, F; Ros, E; Gómez-García, E; Fiol, M; Lapetra, J; Serra-Majem, Ll; Becerra-Tomás, N; Salas-Salvadó, J; Pinto, X; Schröder, H; Martínez, J A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence on the association yogurt consumption and obesity is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association between yogurt consumption, reversion of abdominal obesity status and waist circumference change in elderly. 4545 individuals at high cardiovascular risk were prospectively followed. Total, whole-fat and low-fat yogurt consumption were assessed using food frequency questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between yogurt consumption and waist circumference change (measured at baseline and yearly during the follow-up). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the reversion rate of abdominal obesity for each quintile of yogurt consumption compared with the lowest quintile. After multivariable adjustment, the average yearly waist circumference change in the quintiles of whole-fat yogurt consumption was: Q1: 0.00, Q2: 0.00 (-0.23 to 0.23), Q3: -0.15 (-0.42 to 0.13), Q4: 0.10 (-0.21 to 0.42), and Q5: -0.23 (-0.46 to -0.00) cm; p for trend = 0.05. The ORs for the reversion of abdominal obesity for whole-fat yogurt consumption were Q1: 1.00, Q2: 1.40 (1.04-1.90), Q3: 1.33 (0.94-1.89), Q4: 1.21 (0.83-1.77), and Q5: 1.43 (1.06-1.93); p for trend = 0.26. Total yogurt consumption was not significantly associated with reversion of abdominal obesity status and a lower waist circumference. However, consumption of whole-fat yogurt was associated with changes in waist circumference and higher probability for reversion of abdominal obesity. Therefore, it seems that whole-fat yogurt has more beneficial effects in management of abdominal obesity in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Energy consumption in buildings and female thermal demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings and offices adds up to about 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions; and occupant behaviour contributes to 80% of the variation in energy consumption. Indoor climate regulations are based on an empirical thermal comfort model that was developed in the 1960s (ref. ). Standard values for one of its primary variables--metabolic rate--are based on an average male, and may overestimate female metabolic rate by up to 35% (ref. ). This may cause buildings to be intrinsically non-energy-efficient in providing comfort to females. Therefore, we make a case to use actual metabolic rates. Moreover, with a biophysical analysis we illustrate the effect of miscalculating metabolic rate on female thermal demand. The approach is fundamentally different from current empirical thermal comfort models and builds up predictions from the physical and physiological constraints, rather than statistical association to thermal comfort. It provides a substantiation of the thermal comfort standard on the population level and adds flexibility to predict thermal demand of subpopulations and individuals. Ultimately, an accurate representation of thermal demand of all occupants leads to actual energy consumption predictions and real energy savings of buildings that are designed and operated by the buildings services community.

  20. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  1. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  2. Fertilizer consumption trend in developing countries vs. developed countries.

    PubMed

    Motesharezadeh, Babak; Etesami, Hassan; Bagheri-Novair, Sepideh; Amirmokri, Hormoz

    2017-03-01

    The study of the chemical fertilizer consumption in different countries provides basal data for the decision-making of fertilizer production and for the environmental impact assessment of fertilizer application. Hence, the aim of this research was to study and compare the trend of the chemical fertilizer consumption from 1980 to 2012 in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA. For this purpose, various indices such as application rates (kg ha(-1)) of N, P, and K, arable land, and total fertilizer consumption were analysed. Results showed that the application rates of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA in 2012 were 100-42-7, 100-42-7, 100-94-60, 100-17-25, 100-13-38, and 100-33-35, respectively. The lowest and highest area under production were observed in Japan with 4.0 million ha (0.033 ha/person) and in the USA with 155.0 million ha (0.51 ha/person) during 2008-2015, respectively. In addition, the highest and lowest application rates of net nutrient consumption were recorded in France and Germany (285 and 285 kg ha(-1)) and in Iran (66 kg ha(-1)), respectively. Overall, the average net consumption of fertilizers in the studied countries in three recent decades (million tonnes) decreased in the order: the USA (19.282) > France (4.601) > Germany (3.302) > Turkey (1.825) > Japan (1.604) > Iran (1.130). Regarding an estimated 9.2 billion people by 2050, the balanced consumption of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) and the principles of optimal consumption of fertilizers are keys for achieving the increased food production, food security, and environmental conservation.

  3. Energy consumption in thermomechanical pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Marton, R.; Tsujimoto, N.; Eskelinen, E.

    1981-08-01

    Various components of refining energy were determined experimentally and compared with those calculated on the basis of the dimensions of morphological elements of wood. The experimentally determined fiberization energy of spruce was 6 to 60 times larger than the calculated value and that of birch 3 to 15 times larger. The energy consumed in reducing the Canadian standard freeness of isolated fibers from 500 to 150 ml was found to be approximately 1/3 of the total fiber development energy for both spruce and birch TMP. Chip size affected the refining energy consumption; the total energy dropped by approximately 30% when chip size was reduced from 16 mm to 3 mm in the case of spruce and approximately 40% for birch. 6 refs.

  4. Plants Consumption and Liver Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a very important organ with a lot of functions for the host to survive. Dietary components are essential for and can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. Plants food is an essential part of the human diet and comprises various compounds which are closely related to liver health. Selected food plants can provide nutritional and medicinal support for liver disease. At the present, the knowledge of the effects of plants on the liver is still incomplete. The most urgent task at the present time is to find the best dietary and medicinal plants for liver health in an endless list of candidates. This review article updates the knowledge about the effects of plants consumption on the health of the liver, putting particular emphasis on the potential beneficial and harmful impact of dietary and medicinal plants on liver function. PMID:26221179

  5. Plants Consumption and Liver Health.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yong-Song; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a very important organ with a lot of functions for the host to survive. Dietary components are essential for and can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. Plants food is an essential part of the human diet and comprises various compounds which are closely related to liver health. Selected food plants can provide nutritional and medicinal support for liver disease. At the present, the knowledge of the effects of plants on the liver is still incomplete. The most urgent task at the present time is to find the best dietary and medicinal plants for liver health in an endless list of candidates. This review article updates the knowledge about the effects of plants consumption on the health of the liver, putting particular emphasis on the potential beneficial and harmful impact of dietary and medicinal plants on liver function.

  6. Sodium Consumption: An Individual's Choice?

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Norm R. C.; Johnson, Jillian A.; Campbell, Tavis S.

    2012-01-01

    Excess intake of dietary salt is estimated to be one of the leading risks to health worldwide. Major national and international health organizations, along with many governments around the world, have called for reductions in the consumption of dietary salt. This paper discusses behavioural and population interventions as mechanisms to reduce dietary salt. In developed countries, salt added during food processing is the dominant source of salt and largely outside of the direct control of individuals. Population-based interventions have the potential to improve health and to be cost saving for these countries. In developing economies, where salt added in cooking and at the table is the dominant source, interventions based on education and behaviour change have been estimated to be highly cost effective. Regardless, countries with either developed or developing economies can benefit from the integration of both population and behavioural change interventions. PMID:22263106

  7. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  8. Processed and unprocessed red meat consumption and hypertension in women.

    PubMed

    Lajous, Martin; Bijon, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Rossignol, Emilie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2014-09-01

    High processed red meat consumption is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The high sodium content of processed red meat could increase blood pressure and explain the association with cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the relation between the consumption of unprocessed and processed red meat and incident hypertension. In a prospective cohort of 44,616 disease-free French women who responded to a validated dietary questionnaire, we observed 10,256 incident cases of hypertension between 1993 and 2008. Cases were identified through self-reports of diagnosed or treated hypertension. Multivariate Cox regression models were adjusted for age, education, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, and alcohol, bread, coffee, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Women who consumed ≥5 servings of processed red meat/wk (50 g = 1 serving) had a 17% higher rate of hypertension than that of women who consumed <1 serving/wk (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.26; P-trend = 0.0002). No association was observed between unprocessed red meat consumption and hypertension. When women who consumed ≥5 servings of unprocessed red meat/wk (100 g = 1 serving) were compared with women who consumed <1 serving unprocessed red meat/wk, the multivariate HR was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.08; P-trend = 0.63). In this large prospective cohort of French women, we observed an association between the consumption of processed red meat and hypertension. We observed no association for unprocessed red meat consumption and hypertension. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption.

  10. Biomass burning fuel consumption dynamics in the tropics and subtropics assessed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, Niels; van der Werf, Guido R.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; van Leeuwen, Thijs T.; Wooster, Martin J.; Lehmann, Caroline E. R.

    2016-06-01

    Landscape fires occur on a large scale in (sub)tropical savannas and grasslands, affecting ecosystem dynamics, regional air quality and concentrations of atmospheric trace gasses. Fuel consumption per unit of area burned is an important but poorly constrained parameter in fire emission modelling. We combined satellite-derived burned area with fire radiative power (FRP) data to derive fuel consumption estimates for land cover types with low tree cover in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Australia. We developed a new approach to estimate fuel consumption, based on FRP data from the polar-orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) in combination with MODIS burned-area estimates. The fuel consumption estimates based on the geostationary and polar-orbiting instruments showed good agreement in terms of spatial patterns. We used field measurements of fuel consumption to constrain our results, but the large variation in fuel consumption in both space and time complicated this comparison and absolute fuel consumption estimates remained more uncertain. Spatial patterns in fuel consumption could be partly explained by vegetation productivity and fire return periods. In South America, most fires occurred in savannas with relatively long fire return periods, resulting in comparatively high fuel consumption as opposed to the more frequently burning savannas in Sub-Saharan Africa. Strikingly, we found the infrequently burning interior of Australia to have higher fuel consumption than the more productive but frequently burning savannas in northern Australia. Vegetation type also played an important role in explaining the distribution of fuel consumption, by affecting both fuel build-up rates and fire return periods. Hummock grasslands, which were responsible for a large share of Australian biomass burning, showed larger fuel build-up rates than equally productive grasslands in

  11. Decreasing fuel-oil consumption through feedback and social commendation.

    PubMed

    Seaver, W B; Patterson, A H

    1976-01-01

    The energy crisis of the winter of 1973-74 led to severe shortages of fuel oil for home heating and a government request for voluntary conservation by the oil consumer. This experiment tested two methods of facilitating fuel-oil conservation. Home fuel-oil consumers were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: feedback of information on rate of oil use, feedback plus commendation for reduced consumption, or a no-treatment control. The consumption rate for the feedback plus commendation group was significantly lower than that of either the informational feedback group or the control group. The informational feedback group did not differ from the control group. The results suggest that feedback alone may not result in oil conservation, but that feedback combined with commendation can produce socially significant savings.

  12. [Self-assessment of adolescents regarding water pipe consumption].

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Mario; Thomas, Jule; Nedela-Morales, Michaela; Kaltenbach, Martin; Herrmann, Eva; Groneberg, David

    2015-01-01

    The use of water pipes is an alternative to cigarette smoking. Current studies show that water pipe smoking is as hazardous as smoking cigarettes. However, rates of water pipe consumption are still high. The consumption behaviour of students was investigated within the evaluation of the school-based prevention program Rauchzeichen. Data about the water pipe use of students was collected using a specially designed questionnaire. Water pipe user rates among students of 8th to 10th grade are still high (7.5 - 21.2 %). 13.2 % of the students, who consume water pipe regularly, state to be non smokers. It seems that many adolescents do not estimate water pipe use as smoking, which might lead to an underestimation of health risks or the use of the water pipe as an alternative addictive drug. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Study of the Potential Energy Consumption Impacts of Connected and Automated Vehicles

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    A new study commissioned by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, finds that the introduction of connected and automated vehicle technologies have the potential to affect vehicle energy consumption, travel, usage, vehicle design and attributes, and personal ownership rates. Rate of technology development, consumer acceptance, and regulatory support and oversight will affect the rate of market penetration of these vehicle technologies.

  14. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  15. Ground beef consumption patterns in the United States, FoodNet, 2006 through 2007.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ethel V; Holt, Kristin G; Mahon, Barbara E; Ayers, Tracy; Norton, Dawn; Gould, L Hannah

    2012-02-01

    Infection resulting from foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, is often associated with consumption of raw or undercooked ground beef. However, little is known about the frequency of ground beef consumption in the general population. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of self-reported ground beef and pink ground beef consumption using data from the 2006 through 2007 FoodNet Population Survey. From 1 July 2006 until 30 June 2007, residents of 10 FoodNet sites were contacted by telephone and asked about foods consumed within the previous week. The survey included questions regarding consumption of ground beef patties both inside and outside the home, the consumption of pink ground beef patties and other types of ground beef inside the home, and consumption of ground beef outside the home. Of 8,543 survey respondents, 75.3% reported consuming some type of ground beef in the home. Of respondents who ate ground beef patties in the home, 18.0% reported consuming pink ground beef. Consumption of ground beef was reported most frequently among men, persons with incomes from $40,000 to $75,000 per year, and persons with a high school or college education. Ground beef consumption was least often reported in adults ≥65 years of age. Men and persons with a graduate level education most commonly reported eating pink ground beef in the home. Reported consumption of ground beef and pink ground beef did not differ by season. Ground beef is a frequently consumed food item in the United States, and rates of consumption of pink ground beef have changed little since previous studies. The high rate of consumption of beef that has not been cooked sufficiently to kill pathogens makes pasteurization of ground beef an important consideration, especially for those individuals at high risk of complications from foodborne illnesses such as hemolytic uremic syndrome.

  16. Expanding perceptions of subsistence fish consumption: evidence of high commercial fish consumption and dietary mercury exposure in an urban coastal community.

    PubMed

    Holloman, Erica L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    Through collaborative partnerships established between current researchers and The Moton Community House (a local community center), African American women (ages 16-49yrs) from the Southeast Community of Newport News, Virginia, USA were surveyed to assess the reproducibility and consistency of fish consumption patterns (ingestion rates, exposure frequencies, weight, and fish consumption rates) derived from a community-specific fish consumption survey. Women were also surveyed to assess the reliability of the survey responses, and to estimate daily mercury intake. Fish consumption patterns were reproducible and the survey responses were reliable. Comparison between years revealed that fish consumption patterns remained consistent over time. In addition, the high fish consumption rate estimated in 2008 (147.8g/day; 95% CI: 117.6-185.8g/day) was confirmed with a rate (134.9g/day; 95% CI: 88-207g/day) not materially different and still considerably higher than mean fish consumption rates reported for U.S. women. Daily mercury intake rates were estimated using consumption data from 2008 and three consumption scenarios (canned white, canned light, and no tuna) due to confirmed differences in mercury concentration between canned white and light tuna. Arithmetic mean daily mercury intake rates were 0.284μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.229-0.340μg/kg bw/day) using canned white tuna, 0.212μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.165-0.259μg/kg bw/day) using light tuna, and 0.197μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.151-0.243μg/kg bw/day) using no tuna. Approximately 58%-73% of the daily mercury intake rates for African American women in the Southeast Community exceeded US EPA's oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.10μg/kg bw/day for mercury. In addition, 2% of the rates exceeded a level (1.00μg/kg bw/day) documented to produce adverse health effects. Past and current investigations confirmed that even though women in this community were not subsistence fishers, they are subsistence fish consumers.

  17. Consumption by marine mammals on the Northeast U.S. continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laurel A; Link, Jason S; Cadrin, Steven X; Palka, Debra L

    2015-03-01

    The economic and ecological impacts of fish consumption by marine mammals, the associated interactions with commercial fish stocks, and the forage demands of these marine mammal populations are largely unknown. Consumption estimates are often either data deficient or not fully evaluated in a rigorous, quantitative manner. Although consumption estimates exist for the Northeast United States (NEUS) Large Marine Ecosystem, there is considerable uncertainty in those estimates. We examined consumption estimates for 12 marine mammal species inhabiting the regional ecosystem. We used sensitivity analyses to examine metabolically driven daily individual consumption rates, resulting in a suite of feasible parameter-pair ranges for each of three taxonomic groups: mysticetes, odontocetes, and pinnipeds. We expanded daily individual consumption to annual consumption based on abundance estimates of marine mammals found on the NEUS continental shelf coupled with estimates of annual residence time for each species. To examine consumptive removals for specific prey, diet compositions were summarized into major prey categories, and predatory removals by marine mammal species as well as for total marine mammal consumption were estimated for each prey taxa. Bounds on consumption estimates for each marine mammal species were determined using Monte Carlo resampling simulations. Our results suggest that consumption for these 12 marine mammal species combined may be similar in magnitude to commercial fishery landings for small pelagic and groundfish prey groups. Consumption by marine mammals warrants consideration both as a source of mortality in assessments of prey-stocks, and to determine marine mammal forage demands in ecosystem assessment models. The approach that we present represents a rigorous, quantitative method to scope the bounds of the biomass that marine mammals are expected to consume, and is appropriate for use in other ecosystems where the interaction between marine

  18. Credit Cards, Economization of Money, and Interest Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steindl, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the effect of interest rates on the increased use of credit cards, a popular method of financing households. Uses three models to demonstrate that interest rates must rise, resulting in increased consumption expenditures. (CMK)

  19. Credit Cards, Economization of Money, and Interest Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steindl, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the effect of interest rates on the increased use of credit cards, a popular method of financing households. Uses three models to demonstrate that interest rates must rise, resulting in increased consumption expenditures. (CMK)

  20. Water consumption and urinary tract infections: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Cai, Xiang; Wazir, Romel; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hong

    2016-06-01

    To address to a better understanding of whether increased water consumption is associated with beneficial effects of urinary tract infections prophylaxis and treatment, and if so, the mechanism involved in this process. Models of the catheterized bladder were infected with Escherichia coli. Artificial urine was supplied at various flow rates and various concentrations to separately assess the "flushing effect" and "dilution effect" of increased water consumption on catheter blockage time, encrustation formation, and bacterial growth. There were no statistical significances regarding catheter blockage time (P = 0.92), encrustation formation, and bacterial growth among bladder models supplied with various flow rates. When the flow rate was set as 1 ml/min, however, there showed significant decrease trend of the time to blockage (P = 0.0005), encrustation formation, and bacterial growth as the concentration of the artificial urine increased except the twofold-concentration urine group. Increased water consumption is associated with beneficial effects of urinary tract infection prophylaxis and treatment, and dilution effect of bacteria nutrition in the urine is at least partly involved in this process if not all, rather than the "flushing effect". Considering the flaws and the in vitro design of the current study, however, an in vivo study is warranted.

  1. Increased Facial Attractiveness Following Moderate, but not High, Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Abbeele, Jana; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Attwood, Angela S.; Stephen, Ian D.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol consumption is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviours, but this relationship may be complex and bidirectional. We explored whether alcohol consumption leads to the consumer being rated as more attractive than sober individuals. Methods: Heterosexual social alcohol consumers completed an attractiveness-rating task, in which they were presented with pairs of photographs depicting the same individual, photographed while sober and after having consumed alcohol (either 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg), and required to decide which image was more attractive. Results: Photographs of individuals who had consumed a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 250 ml of wine at 14% alcohol by volume for a 70 kg individual) were rated as more attractive than photographs of sober individuals. This was not observed for photographs of individuals who had consumed a high dose of alcohol. Conclusion: In addition to perceiving others as more attractive, a mildly intoxicated alcohol consumer may also be perceived as more attractive by others. This in turn may play a role in the relationship between alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour. PMID:25716115

  2. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fuel Consumption of a Carburetor Engine at Various Speeds and Torques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Clark, J Denny

    1938-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain fuel-consumption curves for a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G and Pratt & Whitney 1340-H cylinder at varying speeds, manifold pressures, and air-fuel ratios. The 1340- H cylinder was tested at speeds from 1,200 to 2,400 r.p.m. and at manifold pressures from 21 to 38 inches of mercury absolute. Less than extensive tests were made of the 1820-G cylinder. The results of the tests showed that the minimum brake fuel consumption was obtained when the engines were operating at high torques and at speeds from 60 to 70 percent of the rated speed. The fuel consumption increased at an increasing rate as the torque was reduced; and, at 45 percent of maximum torque, the fuel consumption was 20 percent higher than at maximum torque when the engines were operating at 70 percent of rated speed. Minimum specific fuel consumption was obtained at the same air-fuel ratio regardless of compression ratio. No improvement in fuel consumption was obtained when mixtures leaner than an air-fuel ratio of 15.5 were used. The leanest mixture ratio on which the engine with the 1340-H cylinder would operate smoothly was 18.5 and the spark advance for maximum power with this mixture ratio was 50 degrees B.T.C. A method is discussed for reducing the amount of testing necessary to obtain curves for minimum brake fuel consumption.

  4. Legitimacy of concerns about caffeine and energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Wesensten, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    Whether caffeine and energy drink consumption presents a critical emerging health problem is not currently known. Available evidence suggests that energy drink consumption represents a change in the ways in which individuals in the United States consume caffeine but that the amount of caffeine consumed daily has not appreciably increased. In the present review, the question of whether Americans are sleep deprived (a potential reason for using caffeine) is briefly explored. Reported rates of daily caffeine consumption (based on beverage formulation) and data obtained from both civilian and military populations in the United States are examined, the efficacy of ingredients other than caffeine in energy drinks is discussed, and the safety and side effects of caffeine are addressed, including whether evidence supports the contention that excessive caffeine/energy drink consumption induces risky behavior. The available evidence suggests that the main legitimate concern regarding caffeine and energy drink use is the potential negative impact on sleep but that, otherwise, there is no cause for concern regarding caffeine use in the general population. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Health Risks and Benefits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Consumption.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Gupta, Kriti; Sharma, Akanksha; Das, Mukul; Ansari, Irfan Ahmad; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2017-01-11

    Chickpeas (CPs) are one of the most commonly consumed legumes, especially in the Mediterranean area as well as in the Western world. Being one of the most nutritional elements of the human diet, CP toxicity and allergy have raised health concerns. CPs may contain various antinutritional compounds, including protease inhibitors, phytic acid, lectins, oligosaccharides, and some phenolic compounds that may impair the utilization of the nutrients by people. Also, high consumption rates of CPs have enhanced the allergic problems in sensitive individuals as they contain many allergens. On the other hand, beneficial health aspects of CP consumption have received attention from researchers recently. Phytic acid, lectins, sterols, saponins, dietary fibers, resistant starch, oligosaccharides, unsaturated fatty acids, amylase inhibitors, and certain bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and isoflavones have shown the capability of lowering the clinical complications associated with various human diseases. The aim of this paper is to unravel the health risks as well as health-promoting aspects of CP consumption and to try to fill the gaps that currently exist. The present review also focuses on various prevention strategies to avoid health risks of CP consumption using simple but promising ways.

  6. Breakfast consumption and depressive mood: A focus on socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ah; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Yeong Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon; Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2017-04-08

    Skipping breakfast can be potentially harmful because breakfast consumption is considered one of the important health-related behaviors that benefit physical and mental health. As the rate of depression has increased recently, we investigated the association between the frequency of eating breakfast and depression in adults. We obtained the data from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey; a total of 207,710 survey participants aged 20 years or over were studied. Participants were categorized into three groups by the frequency of breakfast consumption as follows: "seldom," "sometimes," and "always." We performed a multiple logistic regression to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and depressive mood. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying socioeconomic variables controlling for variables known to be associated with depressive symptoms. Participants who had breakfast seldom or sometimes had higher depressive symptoms than those who always ate breakfast ("seldom": OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.36-1.52; "sometimes": OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.23-1.40). Subgroup analyses showed that this association was more marked in those who were 80 years or older, those who had low household income, or those with elementary school education level or less. The result of this study suggests that lack of breakfast consumption is associated with depression among adults with different socioeconomic factors.

  7. Demographic projections of future pharmaceutical consumption in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Aa, N G F M; Kommer, G J; van Montfoort, J E; Versteegh, J F M

    2011-01-01

    Over the next few decades, many Western European countries will undergo a large demographic transformation introduced by the retirement of the "baby boomers" and the possibility of striking increases in longevity. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of a growing and ageing Dutch population on the future consumption of pharmaceuticals, so as to be able to anticipate the potential future emissions of these pharmaceuticals and their residues to surface waters. A total of 354 prescribed pharmaceuticals from 40 therapeutic groups was selected for study. These constitute 1.251 metric tonnes (98%) of the total Dutch consumption of prescribed pharmaceuticals in 2007. Calculations based on a fixed consumption rate (2007) predict that demographic developments can be expected to push consumption up to 1.504 metric tonnes in 2020 (+17%) and 1.851 metric tonnes by 2050 (+37%). Therapeutic groups showing the largest increase are related to illnesses associated with old age. The only groups showing a decrease are the antivirals and drugs for addiction treatments as well as ethinylestradiol, an active compound in contraceptives.

  8. Prediction of reported consumption of selected fat-containing foods.

    PubMed

    Tuorila, H; Pangborn, R M

    1988-10-01

    A total of 100 American females (mean age = 20.8 years) completed a questionnaire, in which their beliefs, evaluations, liking and consumption (frequency, consumption compared to others, intention to consume) of milk, cheese, ice cream, chocolate and "high-fat foods" were measured. For the design and analysis, the basic frame of reference was the Fishbein-Ajzen model of reasoned action, but the final analyses were carried out with stepwise multiple regression analysis. In addition to the components of the Fishbein-Ajzen model, beliefs and evaluations were used as independent variables. On the average, subjects reported liking all the products but not "high-fat foods", and thought that milk and cheese were "good for you" whereas the remaining items were "bad for you". Principal component analysis for beliefs revealed factors related to pleasantness/benefit aspects, to health and weight concern and to the "functionality" of the foods. In stepwise multiple regression analyses, liking was the predominant predictor of reported consumption for all the foods, but various belief factors, particularly those related to concern with weight, also significantly predicted consumption. Social factors played only a minor role. The multiple R's of the predictive functions varied from 0.49 to 0.74. The fact that all four foods studied elicited individual sets of beliefs and belief structures, and that none of them was rated similar to the generic "high-fat foods", emphasizes that consumers attach meaning to integrated food entities rather than to ingredients.

  9. [Growth and oxygen consumption in embryonic and early postembryonic development of European pond turtle Emys orbicularis (Reptilia: Emydidae)].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, I G; Alekseeva, T A; Nechaeva, M V

    2005-01-01

    Experiments on developing eggs of European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) demonstrated S-shaped changes in the rate of oxygen consumption and body weight during embryonic development. The rate of oxygen consumption and weight progressively increased within 70 days after hatching. During embryogenesis, the rate of oxygen consumption decreased. After hatching, it increased but then decreased to a certain level, which remained constant to the end of the studied period. We observed unidirectional changes in oxygen consumption rate during embryonic period and this pattern was maintained after hatching as well. The coefficients of the allometric relationship between oxygen consumption and body weight were a = 0.33 and k = 0.52 during the embryonic period and a = 0.17 and k = 0.89 during the postembryonic period.

  10. [An approach to food consumption in an urban environment. The case of west Africa].

    PubMed

    Ag Bendech, M; Gerbouin-Rerolle, P; Chauliac, M; Malvy, D

    1996-01-01

    West Africa has undergone rapid economic and political changes during the last 20 years. After the failure of economic policies implemented since independence, programs for structural adjustment have strongly influenced the economy. Food problems affect each country differently. The Sahel has experienced food shortages and starvation whereas in forested countries the food supply has remained stable. Nevertheless, food policies have not succeeded in contributing to urban and rural development. The rate of urbanization in west Africa is generally low but the rate of urban population growth is particularly high, much more than the growth rates of industry and infrastructure. Although metropolitan areas are affected by poverty, they offer more hope and opportunities than rural areas. Urban markets have expanded and diversified as social differences have also increased and contributed to changes in consumption structure. Urban growth has contributed to the increase of imported food: this is indicated by both the strong dependency and the change of food habits towards western food patterns. Recently however, west African urban dwellers are still preferring local items if they are affordable. When imported products are used, they are integrated within a stable meal plan consisting of a single dish with a base and a sauce, which is typical of African food preparation. Surveys of consumption-budgets are still only available on a national scale. These can provide accurate information about food consumption patterns of families, particularly for significant trends. However, they do not provide information about the dynamics of food consumption, neither for urban areas or the individual. Now a significant proportion of individual food consumption occurs outside of the home, mainly with food provided by street vendors. This new consumption habit is a response to the urban food crisis. Consumption of street-vendor-food comprises one component but this cannot be dissociated from

  11. Contaminated fish consumption in California's Central Valley Delta.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Fraser; White, Aubrey; Lippert, Lucas; Lubell, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Extensive mercury contamination and angler selection of the most contaminated fish species coincide in California's Central Valley. This has led to a policy conundrum: how to balance the economic and cultural impact of advising subsistence anglers to eat less fish with the economic cost of reducing the mercury concentrations in fish? State agencies with regulatory and other jurisdictional authority lack sufficient data and have no consistent approach to this problem. The present study focused on a critical and contentious region in California's Central Valley (the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers Delta) where mercury concentrations in fish and subsistence fishing rates are both high. Anglers and community members were surveyed for their fish preferences, rates of consumption, the ways that they receive health information, and basic demographic information. The rates of fish consumption for certain ethnicities were higher than the rates used by state agencies for planning pollution remediation. A broad range of ethnic groups were involved in catching and eating fish. The majority of anglers reported catching fish in order to feed to their families, including children and women of child-bearing age. There were varied preferences for receiving health information and no correlation between knowledge of fish contamination and rates of consumption. Calculated rates of mercury intake by subsistence anglers were well above the EPA reference dose. The findings here support a comprehensive policy strategy of involvement of the diverse communities in decision-making about education and clean-up and an official recognition of subsistence fishers in the region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Low power consumption current transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A low power consumption current transducer utilizes a saturable core reactor which includes a pair of opposed gate windings and a control winding. The control winding of the saturable reactor is arranged to receive the current to be measured. A square wave generator is connected to the gate winding of the transformer connected across the square wave generator and the secondary connected in series with the gate windings of the reactor. A full wave rectifier is connected to the gate windings and a resistor is connected across the rectifier to provide a DC voltage to cross it representative of the current flow through the control winding. A DC power supply is provided to supply power to the square wave voltage source. A diode is connected between each end of the primary winding of the transformer and one polarity of the DC power supply to commutate the reactive current resulting from the counter emf generated in the reactor back to the DC supply to eliminate potentially damaging reactive voltage spikes which would otherwise appear at the output of the square wave generator and conserve energy.

  13. Neurobehavioral Effects of Aspartame Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lindseth, Glenda N.; Coolahan, Sonya E.; Petros, Thomas V.; Lindseth, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40–50 mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health. PMID:24700203

  14. Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda N; Coolahan, Sonya E; Petros, Thomas V; Lindseth, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40-50 mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ultra-low power consumption military communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowy, Menahem; Chin, Chi-Yuan; Tiemann, Jerome J.

    The authors present general techniques to reduce the power consumption while increasing the clock rate and maximizing the silicon area of CMOS circuits. Modern digital signal processing implementations suffer from high power dissipation while requiring large silicon area. A technique based on the use of additional transistors with a modified threshold is described. This technique lowers the power-delay product of transmission-gate intensive CMOS circuits compared to standard CMOS technology. Resulting circuits exhibit a reduced power dissipation while enabling increased clock rate and reduced implementation area by a factor of 2. Use of additional circuit optimization techniques improves the efficiency of CMOS circuits by a factor of 3 to 4.

  16. Prediction of Iron and Steel Consumption of Iran Using Panel Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarra Nezhad, Mansour; Anvari, Ebrahim

    Considering the different usages of iron and steel in industrial activities and their efficient role in economic development, the prediction of the amount of iron and steel consumption has always been one of the concerns of experts and planners. In the present study for prediction of the amount of iron and steel consumption from 2004 to 2014 the method used by Croupton and generalized by Robert is adopted. The studied iron and steel are mainly used in the construction of buildings, dikes, bridges, tunnels, watering networks and draining. The consumption of iron and steel depend on the mean of consumed steel in each of given production units (MPC), relative portion of each unit production from the total amount of raw production and the rate of GDP. Based on prediction, the consumption of iron and steel will increase drastically till 2011 and the amount of consumption development will be fixed from 2004 to 2008.

  17. Power Play: Calculating Home Electricity Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    With both energy usage and energy costs rising rapidly, people can benefit from paying closer attention to their consumption of energy. Students can gain greater awareness of their personal use of electricity and get some excellent experience with the practical application of mathematics by studying their families' consumption of electricity. A…

  18. Power Play: Calculating Home Electricity Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    With both energy usage and energy costs rising rapidly, people can benefit from paying closer attention to their consumption of energy. Students can gain greater awareness of their personal use of electricity and get some excellent experience with the practical application of mathematics by studying their families' consumption of electricity. A…

  19. The Production and Consumption of Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussex, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Examines the current state of play in text production and consumption in the specific context of electronic text production and consumption. The article points out that the key to the modern textual revolution is the captured keystroke. It is concluded that text on paper, or some synthetic equivalent, will survive, although voice-driven tex