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Sample records for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoidessubsp.mycoidesis the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  3. Evaluation of the xerovac process for the preparation of heat tolerant contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Litamoi, J K; Ayelet, G; Rweyemamu, M M

    2005-04-01

    The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the xerovac process as a method for preparing contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccine with increased heat resistance. The thermo-protective effects of various concentrations of trehalose in mycoplasma growth medium, various concentrations of trehalose in the dehydration stabilizer and the importance of some divalent cations were assessed. The results obtained indicate that a rapid dehydration of CBPP vaccine following the xerovac method and in an excipient composed of a high concentration of trehalose, renders the product more heat tolerant than a similar vaccine prepared using a regular or an extended freeze drying regime. It was also demonstrated that the addition of chitosan as a mycoplasma precipitating agent conferred additional heat resistance to the vaccine. It is suggested that the application of the xerovac process in the dehydration of CBPP vaccine offers the advantages of a faster, cheaper and easier process over the conventional dehydration methods like freeze drying.

  4. Challenges of controlling contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa: a Zambian perspective.

    PubMed

    Muuka, Geoffrey; Songolo, Nadi; Kabilika, Swithine; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B

    2013-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of economic importance that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan African and contributes significantly to cattle morbidity and mortality. Control of CBPP offers a number of challenges as a result many developing countries in Africa are still struggling with this disease. In this study, we look at the challenges encountered in CBPP control in sub-Saharan Africa from the Zambian perspective. In conducting this study, we reviewed scientific literature and reports from the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock and related animal institutions, and also made interviews with experts and key government officials involved in CBPP control in Zambia. Among the challenges identified for the successful control of CBPP were as follows: failure in the delivery of veterinary services, lack of a cattle identification system, natural phenomenon, livestock husbandry systems in the traditional sector, human movements, traditional practices among cattle farmers and cattle marketing systems. It was seen that the epidemiology of CBPP in Zambia is influenced by both ecological and anthological factors. Therefore, design and implementation of any control or eradication programme should be area/regional-dependent taking into account the different factors influencing disease transmission and maintenance.

  5. Quantitative risk assessment of entry of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia through live cattle imported from northwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woube, Yilkal Asfaw; Dibaba, Asseged Bogale; Tameru, Berhanu; Fite, Richard; Nganwa, David; Robnett, Vinaida; Demisse, Amsalu; Habtemariam, Tsegaye

    2015-11-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) bovine biotype (MmmSC). It has been eradicated from many countries; however, the disease persists in many parts of Africa and Asia. CBPP is one of the major trade-restricting diseases of cattle in Ethiopia. In this quantitative risk assessment the OIE concept of zoning was adopted to assess the entry of CBPP into an importing country when up to 280,000 live cattle are exported every year from the northwestern proposed disease free zone (DFZ) of Ethiopia. To estimate the level of risk, a six-tiered risk pathway (scenario tree) was developed, evidences collected and equations generated. The probability of occurrence of the hazard at each node was modelled as a probability distribution using Monte Carlo simulation (@RISK software) at 10,000 iterations to account for uncertainty and variability. The uncertainty and variability of data points surrounding the risk estimate were further quantified by sensitivity analysis. In this study a single animal destined for export from the northwestern DFZ of Ethiopia has a CBPP infection probability of 4.76×10(-6) (95% CI=7.25×10(-8) 1.92×10(-5)). The probability that at least one infected animal enters an importing country in one year is 0.53 (90% CI=0.042-0.97). The expected number of CBPP infected animals exported any given year is 1.28 (95% CI=0.021-5.42). According to the risk estimate, an average of 2.73×10(6) animals (90% CI=10,674-5.9×10(6)) must be exported to get the first infected case. By this account it would, on average, take 10.15 years (90% CI=0.24-23.18) for the first infected animal to be included in the consignment. Sensitivity analysis revealed that prevalence and vaccination had the highest impact on the uncertainty and variability of the overall risk.

  6. Estimation of impact of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia on pastoralists in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onono, J O; Wieland, B; Rushton, J

    2014-08-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an infectious disease which impacts cattle production in sub-Saharan Africa. To adequately allocate resources for its control, there is a need to assess its impact on cattle producers. The present study estimated the impact of CBPP on pastoralists through analysis of various strategies employed for its control in cattle herds including: preventive vaccination, antimicrobial treatment, slaughter of clinical cases and other combinations of these control strategies. The assessment was based on a loss-expenditure frontier framework to identify a control strategy with minimum cost from both expenditures on control strategies and output losses due to mortalities, reduced milk yield, reduced weight gain and reduced fertility rate. The analysis was undertaken in a stochastic spreadsheet model. The control strategy with minimum cost per herd was preventive vaccination with an estimated cost of US$ 193 (90% CI; 170-215) per 100 cows per year, while slaughter of clinical cases had an estimated cost of US$ 912 (90% CI; 775-1055) per 100 cows per year. The impact of CBPP to the nation was estimated at US$ 7.6 (90% CI; 6.5-8.7) million per year. Yet, if all pastoralists whose cattle are at high risk of infection adopted preventive vaccination, the aggregate national impact would be US$ 3.3 (90% CI; 2.9-3.7) million per year, with savings amounting to US$ 4.3 million through reallocation of control expenditures. The analysis predicted that control of CBPP in Kenya is profitable through preventive vaccination. However, further research is recommended for the technical and financial feasibility of implementing a vaccine delivery system in pastoral areas where CBPP is endemic.

  7. Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: a case study of Narok District of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome W; Kaitibie, Simeon; Taylor, Nick M; Gitau, George K; Heffernan, Claire; Schnier, Christian; Kiara, Henry; Taracha, Evans; McKeever, Declan

    2013-07-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (p<0.0001). The preferences for the vaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p>0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI=43.6%), price was the least important (RI=0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95-100% safety, 2h to greater than 2h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be

  8. Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: a case study of Narok District of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome W; Kaitibie, Simeon; Taylor, Nick M; Gitau, George K; Heffernan, Claire; Schnier, Christian; Kiara, Henry; Taracha, Evans; McKeever, Declan

    2013-07-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (p<0.0001). The preferences for the vaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p>0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI=43.6%), price was the least important (RI=0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95-100% safety, 2h to greater than 2h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be

  9. Willingness to pay for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination in Narok South District of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome W; Kaitibie, Simeon; Heffernan, Claire; Taylor, Nick M; Gitau, George K; Kiara, Henry; McKeever, Declan

    2014-08-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important trans-boundary cattle disease which affects food security and livelihoods. A conjoint analysis-contingent valuation was carried out on 190 households in Narok South District of Kenya to measure willingness to pay (WTP) and demand for CBPP vaccine and vaccination as well as factors affecting WTP. The mean WTP was calculated at Kenya Shillings (KSh) 212.48 (USD 3.03) for vaccination using a vaccine with the characteristics that were preferred by the farmers (preferred vaccine and vaccination) and KSh -71.45 (USD -1.02) for the currently used vaccine and vaccination. The proportion of farmers willing to pay an amount greater than zero was 66.7% and 34.4% for the preferred and current vaccine and vaccination respectively. About one third (33.3%) of farmers would need to be compensated an average amount of KSh 1162.62 (USD 13.68) per animal to allow their cattle to be vaccinated against CBPP using the preferred vaccine and vaccination. About two-thirds (65.6%) of farmers would need to be compensated an average amount of KSh 853.72 (USD 12.20) per animal to allow their cattle to be vaccinated against CBPP using the current vaccine and vaccination. The total amount of compensation would be KSh 61.39 million (USD 0.88 million) for the preferred vaccine and vaccination and KSh 90.15 million (USD 1.29 million) for the current vaccine and vaccination. Demand curves drawn from individual WTP demonstrated that only 59% and 27% of cattle owners with a WTP greater than zero were willing to pay a benchmark cost of KSh 34.60 for the preferred and current vaccine respectively. WTP was negatively influenced by the attitude about household economic situation (p=0.0078), presence of cross breeds in the herd (p<0.0001) and years since CBPP had been experienced in the herd (p=0.0375). It was positively influenced by education (p=0.0251) and the practice of treating against CBPP (p=0.0432). The benefit cost ratio (BCR

  10. Characterization of the in vitro core surface proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Ivanka; Liljander, Anne; Fischer, Anne; Smith, David G E; Inglis, Neil F; Scacchia, Massimo; Pini, Attilio; Jores, Joerg; Sacchini, Flavio

    2014-01-10

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is a severe cattle disease, present in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The development of improved diagnostic tests and vaccines for CBPP control remains a research priority. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the Triton X-114 soluble proteome of nine Mmm strains isolated from Europe or Africa. Of a total of 250 proteins detected, 67 were present in all strains investigated. Of these, 44 were predicted to be lipoproteins or cytoplasmic membrane-associated proteins and are thus likely to be members of the core in vitro surface membrane-associated proteome of Mmm. Moreover, the presence of all identified proteins in other ruminant Mycoplasma pathogens were investigated. Two proteins of the core proteome were identified only in other cattle pathogens of the genus Mycoplasma pointing towards a role in host-pathogen interactions. The data generated will facilitate the identification and prioritization of candidate Mycoplasma antigens for improved control measures, as it is likely that surface-exposed membrane proteins will include those that are involved in host-pathogen interactions.

  11. Mathematical modelling of the transmission dynamics of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia reveals minimal target profiles for improved vaccines and diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Ssematimba, Amos; Jores, Joerg; Mariner, Jeffrey C

    2015-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a cattle disease that has hampered the development of the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, vaccination with a live vaccine strain is its recommended control measure although unofficial antimicrobial use is widely practiced. Here, modelling techniques are used to assess the potential impact of early elimination of infected cattle via accurate diagnosis on CBPP dynamics. A herd-level stochastic epidemiological model explicitly incorporating test sensitivity and specificity is developed. Interventions by annual vaccination, annual testing and elimination and a combination of both are implemented in a stepwise manner and their effectiveness compared by running 1000 simulations per intervention over ten years. The model predicts that among the simulated interventions, the ones likely to eliminate the disease from an isolated herd all involved annual vaccination of more than 75% of the animals with a vaccine that protects for at least 18 months combined with annual testing (and elimination of positive reactors) of 75% of the animals every six months after vaccination. The highest probability of disease elimination was 97.5% and this could occur within a median of 2.3 years. Generally, our model predicts that regular testing and elimination of positive reactors using improved tests will play a significant role in minimizing CBPP burden especially in the current situation where improved vaccines are yet to be developed.

  12. Sero-prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bulls originated from Borena pastoral area of Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Leta, Samson; Hailu, Berhanu

    2015-06-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly infectious cattle disease, which is widespread in pastoral areas of Africa, and it imposes a major problem on Ethiopian livestock export market. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on bulls originated from Borena pastoral area to determine seroprevalence of CBPP. Forty batches of bulls containing 38,187 Borana bulls were tested using c-ELISA. Of the total 40 batches tested for the presence of antibodies, 25 (62.5 %) of them contained at least one seropositive bull. From the total of 38,187 bulls tested, 150 (0.4 %) bulls were positive. The number of seropositive animals increases as the herd size increases (P < 0.05). Both at herd and individual level, the highest CBPP prevalence was recorded in herd size >1000, and the difference was found statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was statistically significant (χ (2) = 23.73, df = 9, P = 0.005) difference of CBPP prevalence between months of the year. The present low prevalence of CBPP in the cattle feedlots indicates that the disease is decreasing progressively in Borena pastoral area, this might be associated with the ongoing mass vaccination campaign against economically important livestock diseases in pastoral areas. The decrease in the prevalence of CBPP offered a great opportunity to livestock producers and live animal and meat exporters by improving the demand of Ethiopian livestock on international market. Regular reintroduction of infected cattle from neighboring countries or herds where the disease remains endemic may change the disease dynamics again. Therefore, mass blanket vaccinations coupled with prompt diagnosis, isolation and stamping out of the outbreaks, intensive surveillance, followed by strict cattle movement control should be implemented by concerned parties.

  13. Proteomic characterization of pleural effusion, a specific host niche of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

    PubMed

    Weldearegay, Yenehiwot B; Pich, Andreas; Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Gicheru, Nimmo; Wesonga, Hezron; Thiaucourt, Francois; Kiirika, Leonard M; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen

    2016-01-10

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe pleuropneumonia in cattle. The abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid, called pleural effusion (PE), is one of the characteristics of this disease. We performed a proteomic analysis of seven PE samples from experimentally infected cattle and characterized their composition with respect to bovine and Mmm proteins. We detected a total of 963 different bovine proteins. Further analysis indicated a strong enrichment of proteins involved in antigen processing, platelet activation and degranulation and apoptosis and an increased abundance of acute phase proteins.With regard to the pathogen, up to 108 viable mycoplasma cells per ml were detected in the PE supernatant. The proteomic analysis revealed 350 mycoplasma proteins, including proteins involved in virulence-associated processes like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and capsule synthesis. The bovine proteins detected will aid to characterize the inflammasome during an acute pleuropneumonia in cattle and the identified mycoplasma proteins will serve as baseline data to be compared with in vitro studies to improve our understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Based on our results, we named the pleural effusion an “in vivo niche” of Mmm during the acute phase of CBPP. Biological significance: This is the first study on bovine pleural effusions derived from an infectious disease and the first approach to characterize the proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides in vivo. This study revealed a high number of viable Mmm cells in the pleural effusion. The bovine pleural effusion proteome during Mmm infection is qualitatively similar to plasma, but differs with respect to high abundance of acute phase proteins. On the other hand,Mmm in its natural host produces proteins involved in capsule synthesis, H2O2 production and induction of inflammatory response, supporting previous knowledge on mechanisms underlying

  14. Proteomic characterization of pleural effusion, a specific host niche of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

    PubMed

    Weldearegay, Yenehiwot B; Pich, Andreas; Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Gicheru, Nimmo; Wesonga, Hezron; Thiaucourt, Francois; Kiirika, Leonard M; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen

    2016-01-10

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe pleuropneumonia in cattle. The abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid, called pleural effusion (PE), is one of the characteristics of this disease. We performed a proteomic analysis of seven PE samples from experimentally infected cattle and characterized their composition with respect to bovine and Mmm proteins. We detected a total of 963 different bovine proteins. Further analysis indicated a strong enrichment of proteins involved in antigen processing, platelet activation and degranulation and apoptosis and an increased abundance of acute phase proteins.With regard to the pathogen, up to 108 viable mycoplasma cells per ml were detected in the PE supernatant. The proteomic analysis revealed 350 mycoplasma proteins, including proteins involved in virulence-associated processes like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and capsule synthesis. The bovine proteins detected will aid to characterize the inflammasome during an acute pleuropneumonia in cattle and the identified mycoplasma proteins will serve as baseline data to be compared with in vitro studies to improve our understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Based on our results, we named the pleural effusion an “in vivo niche” of Mmm during the acute phase of CBPP. Biological significance: This is the first study on bovine pleural effusions derived from an infectious disease and the first approach to characterize the proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides in vivo. This study revealed a high number of viable Mmm cells in the pleural effusion. The bovine pleural effusion proteome during Mmm infection is qualitatively similar to plasma, but differs with respect to high abundance of acute phase proteins. On the other hand,Mmm in its natural host produces proteins involved in capsule synthesis, H2O2 production and induction of inflammatory response, supporting previous knowledge on mechanisms underlying

  15. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P < 0.05. CBPP sero-prevalence in nomadic cattle was 16.2 % (confidence interval (CI) 13.7-19.0) and 9.6 % (CI 6.9-12.9) in sedentary cattle. The overall cattle-level sero-prevalence for two the cattle production systems was 14.0 % (CI 12.1-16.1). Age and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) associated with sero-positivity to Mmm in nomadic production. Agro-ecological zone C had the highest sero-prevalence (25.3 %, CI 20.2-31.0). No significant cattle factors were detected in sedentary production. Factors significantly associated with CBPP occurrence at herd-level were contacts with other herds during grazing (P < 0.001) and at watering points (P < 0.001). Others were introduction of new cattle into herd (P < 0.001), outbreaks of CBPP in an area (P < 0.001), socio-cultural factors of cattle gifts and dowry payment (P < 0.001), herd composition of keeping cattle and small ruminants together (P < 0.001), and long trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria.

  16. Development of a Novel Cocktail Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and a Field-Applicable Lateral-Flow Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin; Gicheru, Nimmo; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Muriuki, Cecilia; Yu, Mingyan; Botelho, Ana; Naessens, Jan; Jores, Joerg; Liljander, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease that is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, a bacterium belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the absence of an efficient CBPP vaccine, improved and easy-to-use diagnostic assays for recurrent testing combined with isolation and treatment of positive animals represent an option for CBPP control in Africa. Here we describe the comprehensive screening of 17 immunogenic Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides proteins using well-characterized bovine sera for the development of a novel cocktail enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for laboratory use. Two recombinant Mycoplasma immunogens, MSC_0136 and MSC_0636, were used to set up a standardized cocktail ELISA protocol. According to the results from more than 100 serum samples tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the novel cocktail ELISA were 85.6% and 96.4%, respectively, with an overall diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)-prescribed serological assays. In addition, we provide a proof of principle for a field-applicable, easy-to-use commercially produced prototype lateral-flow test for rapid (<30-min) diagnosis of CBPP.

  17. Rapid Detection of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia by a Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test

    PubMed Central

    March, John B.; Kerr, Karen; Lema, Benedict

    2003-01-01

    A latex agglutination test (LAT) has been developed for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The latex microspheres were coated with MmmSC polyclonal immunoglobulin G antiserum and detected MmmSC antigen in the serum of cattle infected with CBPP and in growth medium containing MmmSC. The specific antigen recognizsed by this test appeared to be the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The LAT recognized all 23 strains of MmmSC examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 5 × 103 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml. Therefore, rapid identification of MmmSC cultures should be possible. Agglutination was also observed with the related goat pathogens and “Mycoplasma mycoides” cluster members Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony biotype (four of six strains positive) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (three of six strains positive), in agreement with the suggestion that these latter two mycoplasmas may in fact represent a single species (although collectively exhibiting two capsular serotypes). Comparisons in diagnosis with the complement fixation test (CFT) were made by using African field sera from CBPP-infected cattle. After 2 (or 3) min of incubation, the test detected 55% (or 61%) of CFT-positive sera and 29% (or 40%) of CFT-negative sera, with an overall correlation in diagnosis of 62% (or 61%). The rates for false-positive diagnoses made by using “known” CBPP-negative sera from the United Kingdom were 3 or 13% after 2 or 3 min of incubation, respectively. The data agree with previous findings that some CBPP CFT-negative misdiagnoses may occur due to “antibody eclipsing” by excess circulating antigen. The LAT combines low cost and high specificity with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment. PMID:12626448

  18. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (P<0.001). This was validated by 16.2% (95% CI: 13.7, 19.0) sero-positive (quantitative impact). Highest sero-prevalence of 25.3% was observed in Northern agro-ecological zone, while lowest of 6.2% was in Eastern zone. Pastoralists in the age groups 51-60 and 61-70 years were more likely (OR 13.07; 95% CI: 3.21, 53.12 and OR 7.10; 95% CI: 1.77, 28.33, respectively) to have satisfactory information/awareness on CBPP and lowland transhumance pastoralists were more likely (OR 5.21; 95% CI: 2.01, 13.54) to have satisfactory information. Socio-cultural activities of extensive husbandry system was six times more likely (OR 5.79; 95% CI: 2.55, 13.13) to be

  19. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (P<0.001). This was validated by 16.2% (95% CI: 13.7, 19.0) sero-positive (quantitative impact). Highest sero-prevalence of 25.3% was observed in Northern agro-ecological zone, while lowest of 6.2% was in Eastern zone. Pastoralists in the age groups 51-60 and 61-70 years were more likely (OR 13.07; 95% CI: 3.21, 53.12 and OR 7.10; 95% CI: 1.77, 28.33, respectively) to have satisfactory information/awareness on CBPP and lowland transhumance pastoralists were more likely (OR 5.21; 95% CI: 2.01, 13.54) to have satisfactory information. Socio-cultural activities of extensive husbandry system was six times more likely (OR 5.79; 95% CI: 2.55, 13.13) to be

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to surface-exposes proteins of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (small-colony strain), which causes contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Kiarie, M N; Rurangirwa, F R; Perryman, L E; Jasmer, D P; McGuire, T C

    1996-01-01

    Outbreaks of bovine pleuropneumonia caused by small-colony strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides occur in Africa, and vaccination is used for control. Since protein subunits are needed to improve multivalent vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were made to facilitate protein identification and isolation. Eleven immunoglobulin M MAbs derived from mouse spleen donors immunized with disrupted whole organisms bound periodate-sensitive epitopes on externally exposed polysaccharide. Seven of these MAbs caused in vitro growth inhibition of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides; however, reaction with carbohydrate epitopes prevented their use in identifying proteins. Ten additional MAbs from mouse spleen donors immunized with Triton X-114-phase integral membrane proteins reacted with periodate-insensitive, proteinase K-sensitive epitopes. These MAbs were classified into three groups based on immunoblots of Triton X-114-phase proteins. One group reacted with 96-, 16-, and 15-kDa proteins. Another group reacted with 26-, 21-, and 16-kDa proteins, while a third group reacted only with 26- and 21-kDa proteins. One MAb from each group reacted with trypsinsensitive epitopes on live organisms, yet none caused in vitro growth inhibition. Representative MAbs reacted with all small-colony strains in immunoblots and did not react with large colony strains. However, these MAbs were not specific for small-colony strains, as proteins from two other M. mycoides cluster organisms were identified. Nevertheless, MAbs to surface-exposed epitopes on integral membrane proteins will be useful for isolation of these proteins for immunization, since one or more might induce growth-inhibiting antibodies or other protective responses. PMID:8914769

  1. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia: new aspects of an old disease.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, R; Churchward, C

    2012-06-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, is a serious OIE-listed disease affecting goats in the Middle East, north and east Africa and Asia. Mortality and morbidity rates can be as high as 60% and 90%, respectively, when the disease first enters a territory, invariably through carrier animals. Recent detections of CCPP in Pakistan and Tajikistan are probably the result of improved diagnosis as the disease has been suspected there for many years, while those in Thrace in 2003 and Mauritius in 2009 represent new outbreaks. CCPP was thought to be highly host specific until recent outbreaks in wildlife species including gazelles and gerenuks show that the causative mycoplasma has broader specificity. Diagnosis was hampered by the fastidiousness of the causative mycoplasma but molecular-based tests like PCR have greatly improved detection. Rapid latex agglutination tests that can be performed at the penside are also available for antibody detection. Clinically affected animals respond to a range of antibiotics although it is unlikely that this results in complete elimination of the mycoplasma. Vaccines consisting of saponized organisms have been shown to be protective but the quality and efficacy may be variable. PMID:21951488

  2. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles.

  3. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles. PMID:25069622

  4. The use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP).

    PubMed

    Thiaucourt, F; Bölske, G; Libeau, G; Le Goff, C; Lefèvre, P C

    1994-08-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is a severe disease affecting goats in Eastern Africa and the Middle East, caused by Mycoplasma sp. type F38. Its exact geographical distribution is however not exactly known due to the lack of specificity of the available serological tests and the difficulty in cultivating M. sp. F38. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was produced, using crude or membrane proteins antigens from type F38 strains to immunize mice. The reactivity of the mAbs was tested by an immunobinding assay with crude mycoplasma antigens spotted on nitrocellulose filters. One hundred and twelve antigens, standardized at 0.5 mg protein/ml, were used. Mycoplasma strains were chosen among closely related species of the "mycoides cluster", M. capricolum, Group 7 of Leach, M. mycoides mycoides LC, M. mycoides mycoides SC, M. mycoides capri, as well as among species that are isolated from goat lungs, M. arginini, M. ovipneumoniae, M. putrefaciens, M. agalactiae. Out of 60 mAbs, 4 were chosen to build an identification test for mycoplasmas of the "mycoides cluster". Controls showed that accurate identification could be hampered by antigenic heterogeneity within the M. capricolum species. One mAb was used for the direct detection of M. sp. F38 antigen in pleural fluid from goats suspected of CCPP. The sensitivity of the test can be estimated at 0.5 micrograms protein/ml. Comparison with isolation results show a 74% agreement between the two methods. The same mAb was used to build a blocking ELISA. This serological test was strictly specific for CCPP. It detects antibodies in sera of naturally infected or artificially immunized animals while it remained negative with hyperimmune sera to related strains such as PG 50. Direct antigen detection and blocking ELISA are tools that may enable a better assessment of CCPP distribution.

  5. A meta-analysis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Mekuria, Solomon; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Skjerve, Eystein; Szonyi, Barbara; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    This systematic literature review was initiated due to lack of comprehensive information on the status and distribution of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia. The objectives of the review were thus to provide a pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP in the country and asses the level of in between study variance among the available reports. Manual and electronic search was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. A total of twelve published articles and one MSc thesis was retrieved from 19 initially identified studies. Twenty five animal level datasets were extracted at regional level considering some hypothesized predictors. The retrieved data were summarized in a meta-analytical approach. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP was 25.7% (95% CI:20.9,31.0). The inverse variance square (I(2)) that explains the variation in effect size attributed to reports true heterogeneity was 95.7%.The sub-group analysis was also computed for assumed predictors including, age, sex, type of study population, production systems and regional states. Among these predictors, study population type revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Accordingly, the prevalence estimate for samples collected at abattoir was 39.2%, while that of samples collected at field level was 22.4%. In the final model, type of study population fitted the multivariable meta-regression model accounting for 22.87% of the explainable proportion of heterogeneity among the presumed predictors. Evidence on isolation and confirmation of Mycoplasma capricolum subspp. capripneumonie in the country was obtained from five regional states. In conclusion, it is recommended to further investigate facilities related with transportation and collection premises along with potential role of sheep in the epidemiology of CCPP. Finally, the review emphasizes the need for monitoring the ongoing CCPP control intervention and introduces amendments based on the findings

  6. Multi-locus sequence analysis of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae for the molecular epidemiology of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), a devastating disease of domestic goats. The exact distribution of CCPP is not known but it is present in Africa and the Middle East and represents a significant threat to many disease-free areas including Europe. Furthermore, CCPP has been recently identified in Tajikistan and China. A typing method with an improved resolution based on Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) has been developed to trace new epidemics and to elucidate whether the recently identified cases in continental Asia were due to recent importation of Mccp. The H2 locus, a polymorphic region already in use as a molecular marker for Mccp evolution, was complemented with seven new loci selected according to the analysis of polymorphisms observed among the genome sequences of three Mccp strains. A total of 25 strains, including the two new strains from Asia, were analysed by MLSA resulting in the discrimination of 15 sequence types based on 53 polymorphic positions. A distance tree inferred from the concatenated sequences of the eight selected loci revealed two evolutionary lineages comprising five groups, which showed good correlation with geographic origins. The presence of a distinct Asian cluster strongly indicates that CCPP was not recently imported to continental Asia. It is more likely that the disease has been endemic in the area for a long time, as supported by historical clinical descriptions. In conclusion, this MLSA strategy constitutes a highly discriminative tool for the molecular epidemiology of CCPP. PMID:21756321

  7. Diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by detection and identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bölske, G; Mattsson, J G; Bascuñana, C R; Bergström, K; Wesonga, H; Johansson, K E

    1996-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), one of the most serious and dramatic diseases of goats, is caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae). This organism is very difficult to isolate and to correctly identify. In a previous report we described a method for the rapid detection and identification of M. capripneumoniae. This method is based on a PCR system by which a segment of the 16S rRNA gene from all mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster can be amplified. The PCR product is then analyzed by restriction enzyme cleavage for the identification of M. capripneumoniae DNA. This system has now been further evaluated with respect to specificity and diagnostic efficacy for the identification and direct detection of the organism in clinical material. Identification by restriction enzyme analysis of amplified DNA from mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster was verified for 55 strains, among which were 15 strains of M. capripneumoniae. The PCR was applied to clinical samples from the nose, ear, pharynx, pleural fluid, and lung tissue containing M. capripneumoniae or other mycoplasmas. As expected, mycoplasmas belonging to the M. mycoides cluster could be detected by the PCR. Restriction enzyme analysis of the PCR products could then be applied for the identification of M. capripneumoniae. Clinical samples and cultures containing M. capripneumoniae were dried on filter paper, to try an easier sample transport method, and were tested by PCR. M. capripneumoniae DNA could be detected in the dried specimens, but the sensitivity of the PCR test was reduced. PMID:8815084

  8. Rapid Detection of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Using a Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test

    PubMed Central

    March, J. B.; Gammack, C.; Nicholas, R.

    2000-01-01

    Latex microspheres (diameter, 8 μm) were coated with anti-Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antiserum (anti-F38 biotype). The coated microspheres, when used in a latex agglutination test (LAT), detected M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae antigen in the serum of goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumoniae (CCPP). Beads also agglutinated strongly in the presence of purified M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Preabsorption of CPS-specific antibodies prior to coating of the beads removed agglutinating activity in the presence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, strongly suggesting that CPS is the likely soluble antigen recognized by the test. In addition, the specificity of the LAT exactly mirrored that of an M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (WM25): of the 8 other mycoplasma species tested, agglutination was observed only with bovine serogroup 7. The LAT detected all 11 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 1.7 × 104 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml of serum. With field sera from goats with CCPP, the results of the LAT exhibited a 67% correlation with the results of the currently used complement fixation test (CFT), with the main discrepancy in diagnosis resulting from the increased sensitivity of the LAT compared to that of CFT. This antigen-detection LAT should prove particularly useful in identifying animals in the earliest stages of CCPP and combines sensitivity and low cost with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment. PMID:11060083

  9. An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster” frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prevalence and economic impact of CCPP worldwide. A new competitive ELISA kit for CCPP, based on a previous blocking ELISA, was formatted at CIRAD and used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in some regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Tajikistan and Pakistan in an international collaborative study. Results The strict specificity of the test was confirmed in CCPP-free goat herds exposed to other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster”. Prevalence studies were performed across the enzootic range of the disease in Africa and Asia. Seroprevalence was estimated at 14.6% in the Afar region of Ethiopia, whereas all the herds presented for CCPP vaccination in Kenya tested positive (individual seroprevalence varied from 6 to 90% within each herd). In Mauritius, where CCPP emerged in 2009, nine of 62 herds tested positive. In Central Asia, where the disease was confirmed only recently, no positive animals were detected in the Wakhan District of Afghanistan or across the border in neighboring areas of Tajikistan, whereas seroprevalence varied between 2.7% and 44.2% in the other districts investigated and in northern Pakistan. The test was also used to monitor seroconversion in vaccinated animals. Conclusions This newly formatted CCPP cELISA kit has retained the high specificity of the original kit. It can therefore be used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in countries or regions without vaccination programs. It could also be used to monitor the efficacy of vaccination

  10. A large-scale genomic approach affords unprecedented resolution for the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary history of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Virginie; Verdier, Axel; Thiaucourt, François; Manso-Silván, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp), is a devastating disease of domestic goats and of some wild ungulate species. The disease is currently spreading in Africa and Asia and poses a serious threat to disease-free areas. A comprehensive view of the evolutionary history and dynamics of Mccp is essential to understand the epidemiology of CCPP. Yet, analysing the diversity of genetically monomorphic pathogens, such as Mccp, is complicated due to their low variability. In this study, the molecular epidemiology and evolution of CCPP was investigated using a large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies, applied to a sample of strains representing the global distribution of this disease. A highly discriminatory multigene typing system was developed, allowing the differentiation of 24 haplotypes among 25 Mccp strains distributed in six genotyping groups, which showed some correlation with geographic origin. A Bayesian approach was used to infer the first robust phylogeny of the species and to date the principal events of its evolutionary history. The emergence of Mccp was estimated only at about 270 years ago, which explains the low genetic diversity of this species despite its high mutation rate, evaluated at 1.3 × 10(-6) substitutions per site per year. Finally, plausible scenarios were proposed to elucidate the evolution and dynamics of CCPP in Asia and Africa, though limited by the paucity of Mccp strains, particularly in Asia. This study shows how combining large-scale genomic data with spatial and temporal data makes it possible to obtain a comprehensive view of the epidemiology of CCPP, a precondition for the development of improved disease surveillance and control measures. PMID:26149260

  11. First report on the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) in goats the cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Balochistan province of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Mohammad Arif; Abbas, Ferhat; Yasinzai, Masoom; Nicholas, Robin A J; Babar, Shakeel; Ayling, Roger D; Attique, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmed, Zafar; Wadood, Abdul; Khan, Faisal Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) is a disease of goats which causes high morbidity and mortality and is reported in many countries of the world. There are probably no reports on the molecular prevalence of Mccp, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) and Mycoplasma putrefaciens (Mp) in Balochistan and any other part of Pakistan. Thirty goats (n = 30) with marked respiratory symptoms were selected and procured from forty goat flocks in Pishin district of Balochistan in 2008. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from the lung samples (n = 30) of the slaughtered goats was purified and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the presence of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster members and Mp. The PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) was also used to further confirm the Mccp. Of the thirty lung samples 17 (56.67%) were positive for the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp and Mp. In total the molecular prevalence was observed as 17.65% for Mccp (n = 3), 70.59% for Mcc (n = 12) and 11.76% for Mp (n = 2). The RFLP profile has also validated the PCR results of Mccp by yielding two bands of 190 and 126 bp. The results of PCR-RFLP coupled with the presence of fibrinous pleuropneumonia and pleurisy during postmortem of goats (n = 3) strongly indicated the prevalence of CCPP in this part of world. Moreover the prevalence of Mcc and Mp is also alarming in the study area. We report for the very first time the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp, and Mp in the lung tissues of goats in the Pishin district of Balochistan, Pakistan.

  12. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Wesonga, HO; Bölske, G; Thiaucourt, F; Wanjohi, C; Lindberg, R

    2004-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats were killed and necropsied. Varying features signifying infection occurred in altogether 17 goats (7 inoculated, 10 in-contact). Clinical signs were severe in 8 goats but no fatalities occurred. Only 6 goats had serum antibody titres against M. capripneumoniae in ELISA. Fourteen goats (5 inoculated, 9 in-contact) had chronic pleuropulmonary lesions compatible with CCPP at necropsy and 7 of those showed M. capripneumoniae antigen in the lung by immunohistochemistry. Neither cultivation nor PCR tests were positive for the agent in any goat. The results indicate that the clinical course of CCPP in a flock may be comparatively mild, M. capripneumoniae-associated lung lesions may be present at a late stage of infection, and chronic infection may occur without a significant serological response. PMID:15663077

  13. Control of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices in Narok district of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kairu-Wanyoike, S W; Kiara, H; Heffernan, C; Kaitibie, S; Gitau, G K; McKeever, D; Taylor, N M

    2014-08-01

    CBPP is an important transboundary disease in sub-Saharan Africa whose control is urgent. Participatory data collection involving 52 focus group discussions in 37 village clusters and key informant interviews, a cross-sectional study involving 232 households and a post-vaccination follow up involving 203 households was carried out in 2006-2007 in Narok South district of Kenya. This was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices (KAPP) associated with control of CBPP as well as the adverse post-vaccination reactions in animals in order to advice the control policy. The community perceived trans-boundary CBPP threat to their cattle. They had traditional disease coping mechanisms and were conversant with CBPP prevention and control with 49.8% (95%CI: 42.8-56.7%) giving priority to CBPP control. However, 12.9% (95%CI: 9.0-18.1%) of pastoralists had no knowledge of any prevention method and 10.0% (95%CI: 6.5-14.7%) would not know what to do or would do nothing in the event of an outbreak. Although 43.5% (95%CI: 37.1-50.2%) of pastoralists were treating CBPP cases with antimicrobials, 62.5% (95%CI: 52.1-71.7%) of them doubted the effectiveness of the treatments. Pastoralists perceived vaccination to be the solution to CBPP but vaccination was irregular due to unavailability of the vaccine. Vaccination was mainly to control outbreaks rather than preventive and exhibited adverse post-vaccination reactions among 70.4% (95%CI: 63.6-76.5%) of herds and 3.8% (95%CI: 3.5-4.2%) of animals. Consequently, nearly 25.2% (95%CI: 18.5-33.2%) of pastoralists may resist subsequent vaccinations against CBPP. Pastoralists preferred CBPP vaccination at certain times of the year and that it is combined with other vaccinations. In conclusion, pastoralists were not fully aware of the preventive measures and interventions and post-vaccination reactions may discourage subsequent CBPP vaccinations. Consequently there is need for monitoring and management of post vaccination reactions and awareness creation on CBPP prevention and interventions and their merits and demerits. CBPP vaccine was largely unavailable to the pastoralists and the preference of the pastoralists was for vaccination at specified times and vaccine combinations which makes it necessary to avail the vaccine in conformity with the pastoralists preferences. In addition, planning vaccinations should involve pastoralists and neighbouring countries. As the results cannot be generalized, further studies on CBPP control methods and their effectiveness are recommended.

  14. Control of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: Knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices in Narok district of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kairu-Wanyoike, S.W.; Kiara, H.; Heffernan, C.; Kaitibie, S.; Gitau, G.K.; McKeever, D.; Taylor, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    CBPP is an important transboundary disease in sub-Saharan Africa whose control is urgent. Participatory data collection involving 52 focus group discussions in 37 village clusters and key informant interviews, a cross-sectional study involving 232 households and a post-vaccination follow up involving 203 households was carried out in 2006–2007 in Narok South district of Kenya. This was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices (KAPP) associated with control of CBPP as well as the adverse post-vaccination reactions in animals in order to advice the control policy. The community perceived trans-boundary CBPP threat to their cattle. They had traditional disease coping mechanisms and were conversant with CBPP prevention and control with 49.8% (95%CI: 42.8–56.7%) giving priority to CBPP control. However, 12.9% (95%CI: 9.0–18.1%) of pastoralists had no knowledge of any prevention method and 10.0% (95%CI: 6.5–14.7%) would not know what to do or would do nothing in the event of an outbreak. Although 43.5% (95%CI: 37.1–50.2%) of pastoralists were treating CBPP cases with antimicrobials, 62.5% (95%CI: 52.1–71.7%) of them doubted the effectiveness of the treatments. Pastoralists perceived vaccination to be the solution to CBPP but vaccination was irregular due to unavailability of the vaccine. Vaccination was mainly to control outbreaks rather than preventive and exhibited adverse post-vaccination reactions among 70.4% (95%CI: 63.6–76.5%) of herds and 3.8% (95%CI: 3.5–4.2%) of animals. Consequently, nearly 25.2% (95%CI: 18.5–33.2%) of pastoralists may resist subsequent vaccinations against CBPP. Pastoralists preferred CBPP vaccination at certain times of the year and that it is combined with other vaccinations. In conclusion, pastoralists were not fully aware of the preventive measures and interventions and post-vaccination reactions may discourage subsequent CBPP vaccinations. Consequently there is need for monitoring and management of post vaccination reactions and awareness creation on CBPP prevention and interventions and their merits and demerits. CBPP vaccine was largely unavailable to the pastoralists and the preference of the pastoralists was for vaccination at specified times and vaccine combinations which makes it necessary to avail the vaccine in conformity with the pastoralists preferences. In addition, planning vaccinations should involve pastoralists and neighbouring countries. As the results cannot be generalized, further studies on CBPP control methods and their effectiveness are recommended. PMID:24768437

  15. Risk factors associated with contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in goats in pastoral areas in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kipronoh, K A; Ombui, J N; Binepal, Y S; Wesonga, H O; Gitonga, E K; Thuranira, E; Kiara, H K

    2016-09-15

    A cross-sectional study to determine risk factors associated with sero-prevalence of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) in goats was carried out between the months of March, 2014 and March, 2015 in Pokot East, Turkana West and Kajiado Central Sub-counties. A semi-structured questionnaire focusing on risk factors for CCPP was completed for each flock whose serum samples were collected. A logistic regression model was developed to assess the association between the risk factors and CCPP sero-positivity. Of the 54 flocks, 49 (90.7%) presented at least one sero-positive animal. Two hundred and four of the 432 goats tested sero-positive at monoclonal antibody based competitive Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (c-ELISA), hence a sero-prevalence of 47.2% (95% CI=42.5- 51.9). Previous exposure of flocks to CCPP (p<0.001, OR=52.8; CI=6.45, 432), distant sources of veterinary drugs (p<0.001, OR=6.17; CI=3.41, 11.1), movement of goats to dry season feeding areas (p<0.001, OR=4.31; CI=2.39, 7.75) and markets as a source of new introductions to the flock (p=0.033, OR=1.86; CI=1.05, 3.27) were identified as risk factors significantly associated with CCPP sero-prevalence. The findings provide further evidence supporting the high prevalence and endemic state of the disease in pastoral flocks and hence there is need for adequate measures to be put in place to control the disease effectively.

  16. Risk factors associated with contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in goats in pastoral areas in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kipronoh, K A; Ombui, J N; Binepal, Y S; Wesonga, H O; Gitonga, E K; Thuranira, E; Kiara, H K

    2016-09-15

    A cross-sectional study to determine risk factors associated with sero-prevalence of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) in goats was carried out between the months of March, 2014 and March, 2015 in Pokot East, Turkana West and Kajiado Central Sub-counties. A semi-structured questionnaire focusing on risk factors for CCPP was completed for each flock whose serum samples were collected. A logistic regression model was developed to assess the association between the risk factors and CCPP sero-positivity. Of the 54 flocks, 49 (90.7%) presented at least one sero-positive animal. Two hundred and four of the 432 goats tested sero-positive at monoclonal antibody based competitive Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (c-ELISA), hence a sero-prevalence of 47.2% (95% CI=42.5- 51.9). Previous exposure of flocks to CCPP (p<0.001, OR=52.8; CI=6.45, 432), distant sources of veterinary drugs (p<0.001, OR=6.17; CI=3.41, 11.1), movement of goats to dry season feeding areas (p<0.001, OR=4.31; CI=2.39, 7.75) and markets as a source of new introductions to the flock (p=0.033, OR=1.86; CI=1.05, 3.27) were identified as risk factors significantly associated with CCPP sero-prevalence. The findings provide further evidence supporting the high prevalence and endemic state of the disease in pastoral flocks and hence there is need for adequate measures to be put in place to control the disease effectively. PMID:27664453

  17. [Diagnosis of caprine contagious pleuropneumonia: recent improvements].

    PubMed

    Thiaucourt, F; Guérin, C; Mady, V; Lefèvre, P C

    1992-09-01

    Due to the difficulty in isolating Mycoplasma sp. type F38, two techniques for rapid detection are proposed in order to identify the presence of mycoplasmas of the mycoides group in samples of pleural fluid. A modification in the composition of isolation media promotes the growth of type F38 mycoplasmas and inhibits the growth of M. ovipneumoniae strains.

  18. Specific Humoral Immune Response Induced by Propionibacterium acnes Can Prevent Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng; Ma, Qiuyue; Huang, Jing; Ji, Qun; Zhai, Ruidong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yu; Li, Linxi; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Han, Wenyu

    2014-01-01

    Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, has a major impact on economics, ecology, and animal welfare in the pig-rearing industry. Propionibacterium acnes, a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive corynebacterium, exists widely in normal healthy adult animals. We have shown previously that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice and pigs. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect and to identify novel A. pleuropneumoniae vaccines, the role of anti-P. acnes antibodies in preventing infection was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence and opsonophagocytosis assays in vitro. The role of the specific humoral immune response induced by P. acnes was confirmed in a B cell depletion mouse model. The survival rates of mice challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae exhibited a highly significant positive rank correlation with the levels of anti-P. acnes antibodies. The specific antibodies induced by P. acnes had the ability to combine with A. pleuropneumoniae and increase opsonization of A. pleuropneumoniae for phagocytosis. Furthermore, analysis in the murine B cell depletion model confirmed that the humoral immune response induced by P. acnes played an important role in resistance to A. pleuropneumoniae infection. In this study, we further elucidated the reasons that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection, which provides useful evidence for the development of heterologous vaccines for the control of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia. PMID:24429068

  19. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2015-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. PMID:26464953

  20. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alhaji, N. B.; Babalobi, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. PMID:26464953

  1. High-level association of bovine digital dermatitis Treponema spp. with contagious ovine digital dermatitis lesions and presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Clegg, S R; Angell, J W; Newbrook, K; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Bell, J; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Murray, R D; Evans, N J

    2015-05-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important foot disease in sheep, with significant animal welfare and economic implications. It is thought that CODD emerged from bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) via treponemal bacteria. With wildlife species such as elk now suffering a CODD-like disease, it is imperative to clarify these disease etiologies. A large investigation into treponemal association with CODD is warranted. CODD lesions (n = 58) and healthy sheep foot tissues (n = 56) were analyzed by PCR for the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and two other lameness-associated bacteria, Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was also attempted on CODD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like," "Treponema phagedenis-like," and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 39/58 (67%), 49/58 (85%), and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions, respectively. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of CODD lesions. Healthy foot tissues did not amplify BDD-associated Treponema phylogroup DNA. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 34/58 (59%) and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions and 22/56 (39%) and 5/56 (9%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Thirty-two spirochetes were isolated from CODD lesions, with representatives clustering with, and indistinguishable from, each of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons. This study for the first time demonstrates a high-level association for BDD treponeme phylogroups in CODD and their absence from healthy tissues, supporting the hypothesis that BDD treponemes play a primary causative role in CODD and confirming that the specific PCR assays are an effective differential diagnostic tool for CODD.

  2. High-Level Association of Bovine Digital Dermatitis Treponema spp. with Contagious Ovine Digital Dermatitis Lesions and Presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, S. R.; Angell, J. W.; Newbrook, K.; Blowey, R. W.; Carter, S. D.; Bell, J.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Murray, R. D.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important foot disease in sheep, with significant animal welfare and economic implications. It is thought that CODD emerged from bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) via treponemal bacteria. With wildlife species such as elk now suffering a CODD-like disease, it is imperative to clarify these disease etiologies. A large investigation into treponemal association with CODD is warranted. CODD lesions (n = 58) and healthy sheep foot tissues (n = 56) were analyzed by PCR for the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and two other lameness-associated bacteria, Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was also attempted on CODD lesions. “Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like,” “Treponema phagedenis-like,” and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 39/58 (67%), 49/58 (85%), and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions, respectively. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of CODD lesions. Healthy foot tissues did not amplify BDD-associated Treponema phylogroup DNA. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 34/58 (59%) and 41/58 (71%) of CODD lesions and 22/56 (39%) and 5/56 (9%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Thirty-two spirochetes were isolated from CODD lesions, with representatives clustering with, and indistinguishable from, each of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons. This study for the first time demonstrates a high-level association for BDD treponeme phylogroups in CODD and their absence from healthy tissues, supporting the hypothesis that BDD treponemes play a primary causative role in CODD and confirming that the specific PCR assays are an effective differential diagnostic tool for CODD. PMID:25740778

  3. Absence of TolC Impairs Biofilm Formation in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by Reducing Initial Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jianlin; Lau, Gee W.; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Zhao, Qin; Huang, Xiaobo; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Wen, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a major cause of economic loss in swine industry worldwide. TolC, the key component of multidrug efflux pumps and type I secretion systems, has been well-studied as an exit duct for numerous substances in many Gram-negative bacteria. By contrast, little is known on the role of TolC in biofilm formation. In this study, a ΔtolC mutant was used to examine the importance of TolC in biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae. Surface attachment assays demonstrated the essential role of TolC in initial attachment of biofilm cells. The loss of TolC function altered surface hydrophobicity, and resulted in greatly reduced autoaggregation in ΔtolC. Using both enzymatic treatments and confocal microscopy, biofilm composition and architecture were characterized. When compared against the wild-type strain, the poly-β-1, 6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA), an important biofilm matrix component of A. pleuropneumoniae, was significantly reduced at the initial attachment stage in ΔtolC. These results were confirmed by mRNA level using quantitative RT-PCR. Additionally, defective secretion systems in ΔtolC may also contribute to the deficiency in biofilm formation. Taken together, the current study demonstrated the importance of TolC in the initial biofilm formation stage in A. pleuropneumoniae. These findings could have important clinical implications in developing new treatments against biofilm-related infections by A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:27681876

  4. A Transcriptome Map of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae at Single-Nucleotide Resolution Using Deep RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jiawen; Xu, Zhuofei; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lu; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the pathogen of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a highly contagious respiratory disease of swine. Although the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae was sequenced several years ago, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis to accurately annotate the gene structures and regulatory elements. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been applied to study the transcriptional landscape of bacteria, which can efficiently and accurately identify gene expression regions and unknown transcriptional units, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), UTRs and regulatory regions. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae by RNA-seq in order to improve the existing genome annotation and promote our understanding of A. pleuropneumoniae gene structures and RNA-based regulation. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq to construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of A. pleuropneumoniae. More than 3.8 million high-quality reads (average length ~90 bp) from a cDNA library were generated and aligned to the reference genome. We identified 32 open reading frames encoding novel proteins that were mis-annotated in the previous genome annotations. The start sites for 35 genes based on the current genome annotation were corrected. Furthermore, 51 sRNAs in the A. pleuropneumoniae genome were discovered, of which 40 sRNAs were never reported in previous studies. The transcriptome map also enabled visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions, in which contained 11 sRNAs. In addition, 351 operons covering 1230 genes throughout the whole genome were identified. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map validated annotated genes and corrected annotations of open reading frames in the genome, and led to the identification of many functional elements (e.g. regions encoding novel proteins, non-coding sRNAs and operon structures). The transcriptional units described in this study

  5. A Transcriptome Map of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae at Single-Nucleotide Resolution Using Deep RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jiawen; Xu, Zhuofei; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lu; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the pathogen of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a highly contagious respiratory disease of swine. Although the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae was sequenced several years ago, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis to accurately annotate the gene structures and regulatory elements. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been applied to study the transcriptional landscape of bacteria, which can efficiently and accurately identify gene expression regions and unknown transcriptional units, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), UTRs and regulatory regions. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae by RNA-seq in order to improve the existing genome annotation and promote our understanding of A. pleuropneumoniae gene structures and RNA-based regulation. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq to construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of A. pleuropneumoniae. More than 3.8 million high-quality reads (average length ~90 bp) from a cDNA library were generated and aligned to the reference genome. We identified 32 open reading frames encoding novel proteins that were mis-annotated in the previous genome annotations. The start sites for 35 genes based on the current genome annotation were corrected. Furthermore, 51 sRNAs in the A. pleuropneumoniae genome were discovered, of which 40 sRNAs were never reported in previous studies. The transcriptome map also enabled visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions, in which contained 11 sRNAs. In addition, 351 operons covering 1230 genes throughout the whole genome were identified. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map validated annotated genes and corrected annotations of open reading frames in the genome, and led to the identification of many functional elements (e.g. regions encoding novel proteins, non-coding sRNAs and operon structures). The transcriptional units described in this study

  6. How Long Is Mono Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? How Long Is Mono Contagious? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Long Is Mono Contagious? Print A A A Text ... so lots of people are confused about how long it is contagious. Once someone gets mono, the ...

  7. Surface Polysaccharide Mutants Reveal that Absence of O Antigen Reduces Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Hathroubi, S.; Hancock, M. A.; Langford, P. R.; Tremblay, Y. D. N.; Labrie, J.

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious lung disease causing important economic losses. Surface polysaccharides, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS), are implicated in the adhesion and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, but their role in biofilm formation is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the requirement for these surface polysaccharides in biofilm formation by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Well-characterized mutants were used: an O-antigen LPS mutant, a truncated core LPS mutant with an intact O antigen, a capsule mutant, and a poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) mutant. We compared the amount of biofilm produced by the parental strain and the isogenic mutants using static and dynamic systems. Compared to the findings for the biofilm of the parental or other strains, the biofilm of the O antigen and the PGA mutants was dramatically reduced, and it had less cell-associated PGA. Real-time PCR analyses revealed a significant reduction in the level of pgaA, cpxR, and cpxA mRNA in the biofilm cells of the O-antigen mutant compared to that in the biofilm cells of the parental strain. Specific binding between PGA and LPS was consistently detected by surface plasmon resonance, but the lack of O antigen did not abolish these interactions. In conclusion, the absence of the O antigen reduces the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to form a biofilm, and this is associated with the reduced expression and production of PGA. PMID:26483403

  8. Surface Polysaccharide Mutants Reveal that Absence of O Antigen Reduces Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hathroubi, S; Hancock, M A; Bossé, J T; Langford, P R; Tremblay, Y D N; Labrie, J; Jacques, M

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious lung disease causing important economic losses. Surface polysaccharides, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS), are implicated in the adhesion and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, but their role in biofilm formation is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the requirement for these surface polysaccharides in biofilm formation by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Well-characterized mutants were used: an O-antigen LPS mutant, a truncated core LPS mutant with an intact O antigen, a capsule mutant, and a poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) mutant. We compared the amount of biofilm produced by the parental strain and the isogenic mutants using static and dynamic systems. Compared to the findings for the biofilm of the parental or other strains, the biofilm of the O antigen and the PGA mutants was dramatically reduced, and it had less cell-associated PGA. Real-time PCR analyses revealed a significant reduction in the level of pgaA, cpxR, and cpxA mRNA in the biofilm cells of the O-antigen mutant compared to that in the biofilm cells of the parental strain. Specific binding between PGA and LPS was consistently detected by surface plasmon resonance, but the lack of O antigen did not abolish these interactions. In conclusion, the absence of the O antigen reduces the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to form a biofilm, and this is associated with the reduced expression and production of PGA. PMID:26483403

  9. Early detection of contagious diseases

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  10. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G induce biofilm formation by field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hathroubi, S; Fontaine-Gosselin, S-È; Tremblay, Y D N; Labrie, J; Jacques, M

    2015-09-30

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. This is a highly contagious disease that causes important economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Penicillins are extensively used in swine production and these antibiotics are associated with high systemic clearance and low oral bioavailability. This may expose A. pleuropneumoniae to sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G when the antibiotic is administered orally. Our goal was to evaluate the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin G on the biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae. Biofilm production of 13 field isolates from serotypes 1, 5a, 7 and 15 was tested in the presence of sub-MIC of penicillin G using a polystyrene microtiter plate assay. Using microscopy techniques and enzymatic digestion, biofilm architecture and composition were also characterized after exposure to sub-MIC of penicillin G. Sub-MIC of penicillin G significantly induced biofilm formation of nine isolates. The penicillin G-induced biofilms contained more poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA), extracellular DNA and proteins when compared to control biofilms grown without penicillin G. Additionally, penicillin G-induced biofilms were sensitive to DNase which was not observed with the untreated controls. Furthermore, sub-MIC of penicillin G up-regulated the expression of pgaA, which encodes a protein involved in PGA synthesis, and the genes encoding the envelope-stress sensing two-component regulatory system CpxRA. In conclusion, sub-MICs of penicillin G significantly induce biofilm formation and this is likely the result of a cell envelope stress sensed by the CpxRA system resulting in an increased production of PGA and other matrix components.

  11. Hemolysin patterns of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, J; Nicolet, J

    1990-01-01

    The secreted hemolytic activities produced by the reference strains and field isolates of the 12 serotypes and 2 subtypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were analyzed. Serotype 1 produced a Ca2(+)-inducible hemolysin, which was previously characterized as a 105-kilodalton protein and was named hemolysin I (HlyI). Serotypes 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 produced a different hemolytic activity that was not inducible by Ca2+ but required this ion for its activity. The hemolytic activity produced by these serotypes was much weaker than that found in serotype 1 and was not neutralized by rabbit antibodies against HlyI. It was, however, neutralized by serum from pigs that were experimentally infected with a serotype 2 strain and was called hemolysin II (HlyII). Serotypes 5a, 5b, 9, 10, and 11 produced both HlyI and HlyII. In these strains, HlyI was the major contributor to the hemolytic activity. The remaining serotypes, 3 and 12, produced a very weak hemolytic activity, which was not further analyzed. Immunoblot analysis of the culture supernatants from all 12 serotypes with rabbit polyclonal antibodies directed against HlyI revealed reactions with a protein in the 105-kilodalton size range for all serotypes, indicating that HlyI and HlyII might be serologically related. Strains producing active HlyI seem to belong to serotypes that are generally considered to be virulent types and that are frequently isolated from pigs in severe pleuropneumonia outbreaks. Images PMID:2312671

  12. The Adh adhesin domain is required for trimeric autotransporter Apa1-mediated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae adhesion, autoaggregation, biofilm formation and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Yang, Shuxin; Zhai, Ruidong; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Changjiang; Pan, Fengguang; Ji, Qun; Wang, Yu; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng

    2015-05-15

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which is a highly contagious endemic disease of pigs. Adhesion is a critical first step in the infection process. Trimeric autotransporter adhesions (TAAs) have been identified as novel virulence factors; however, little is known on their roles in A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity. Here, our data show that YadA-like head region (Adh) of Apa1 was the optimal adhesion functional domain via segment expression and adhesion assays in vitro. Additionally, Adh induced partial protection against A. pleuropneumoniae 5b L20 and serotypes 1, 3, and 5a in mice. The deletion of Adh gene significantly decreased autoaggregation, biofilm formation and adherence to host cells in vitro. Furthermore, with delaying of clinical symptoms, reducing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lessening the lung injury after infection, Adh deletion strain (5bϕAdh) significantly reduced the pathogenicity to piglets. To elucidate the mechanism of lung injury, the differentially expressed genes in the lung tissues of piglets infected with the 5b L20 or 5bϕAdh strains were investigated using microarray analysis and validated by qRT-PCR. Compared with the 5b L20 infected piglets, 495 genes were differentially expressed in 5bϕAdh infected lung tissue (221 upregulated and 274 downregulated). Especially, the antigen processing and presentation gene IFI30 was increased following infection with the 5bϕAdh strain. Thus, Adh may enhance pathogenicity by depressing host immune recognition. We conclude that the head domain of the A. pleuropneumoniae trimeric autotransporter Apa1 regulates autoagglutination, biofilm formation, adhesion to host cells and pathogenicity.

  13. Microarray-based comparative genomic profiling of reference strains and selected Canadian field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Gouré, Julien; Findlay, Wendy A; Deslandes, Vincent; Bouevitch, Anne; Foote, Simon J; MacInnes, Janet I; Coulton, James W; Nash, John HE; Jacques, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH) were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology. PMID:19239696

  14. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae genes expression in biofilms cultured under static conditions and in a drip-flow apparatus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the Gram-negative bacterium responsible for porcine pleuropneumonia. This respiratory infection is highly contagious and characterized by high morbidity and mortality. The objectives of our study were to study the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae biofilms at different stages and to develop a protocol to grow an A. pleuropneumoniae biofilm in a drip-flow apparatus. This biofilm reactor is a system with an air-liquid interface modeling lung-like environment. Bacteria attached to a surface (biofilm) and free floating bacteria (plankton) were harvested for RNA isolation. Labelled cDNA was hybridized to a microarray to compare the expression profiles of planktonic cells and biofilm cells. Results It was observed that 47 genes were differentially expressed (22 up, 25 down) in a 4 h-static growing/maturing biofilm and 117 genes were differentially expressed (49 up, 68 down) in a 6h-static dispersing biofilm. The transcriptomes of a 4 h biofilm and a 6 h biofilm were also compared and 456 genes (235 up, 221 down) were identified as differently expressed. Among the genes identified in the 4 h vs 6h biofilm experiment, several regulators of stress response were down-regulated and energy metabolism associated genes were up-regulated. Biofilm bacteria cultured using the drip-flow apparatus differentially expressed 161 genes (68 up, 93 down) compared to the effluent bacteria. Cross-referencing of differentially transcribed genes in the different assays revealed that drip-flow biofilms shared few differentially expressed genes with static biofilms (4 h or 6 h) but shared several differentially expressed genes with natural or experimental infections in pigs. Conclusion The formation of a static biofilm by A. pleuropneumoniae strain S4074 is a rapid process and transcriptional analysis indicated that dispersal observed at 6 h is driven by nutritional stresses. Furthermore, A. pleuropneumoniae can form a biofilm under low

  15. Contagious Yawning in Autistic and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Molly S.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Snyder, Peter J.; Fein, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested susceptibility to contagious yawning in 120 children, 1-6 years, to identify the time course of its emergence during development. Results indicated a substantial increase in the frequency of contagious yawning at 4 years. In a second study, the authors examined contagious yawning in 28 children with autism spectrum disorders…

  16. Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in drinking water from pig farms.

    PubMed

    Loera-Muro, Victor M; Jacques, Mario; Tremblay, Yannick D N; Avelar-González, Francisco J; Loera Muro, Abraham; Ramírez-López, Elsa M; Medina-Figueroa, Alejandra; González-Reynaga, Higinio M; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma L

    2013-03-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the aetiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and is normally transmitted by aerosols and direct contact between animals. A. pleuropneumoniae has traditionally been considered an obligate pathogen of pigs and its presence in the environment has yet to be investigated. Here, the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in drinking water of pig farms in Mexico using a PCR specific for the RTX toxin gene, apxIV. The presence of A. pleuropneumoniae in farm drinking water was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific polyclonal antibody and by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Viable bacteria from the farm drinking water were detected using the Live/Dead BacLight stain. Additionally, viable A. pleuropneumoniae was selected and isolated using the cAMP test and the identity of the isolated bacteria were confirmed by Gram staining, a specific polyclonal antibody and an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific PCR. Furthermore, biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy in A. pleuropneumoniae-positive samples. In conclusion, our data suggest that viable A. pleuropneumoniae is present in the drinking water of swine farms and may use biofilm as a strategy to survive in the environment.

  17. Random modelling of contagious diseases.

    PubMed

    Demongeot, J; Hansen, O; Hessami, H; Jannot, A S; Mintsa, J; Rachdi, M; Taramasco, C

    2013-03-01

    Modelling contagious diseases needs to include a mechanistic knowledge about contacts between hosts and pathogens as specific as possible, e.g., by incorporating in the model information about social networks through which the disease spreads. The unknown part concerning the contact mechanism can be modelled using a stochastic approach. For that purpose, we revisit SIR models by introducing first a microscopic stochastic version of the contacts between individuals of different populations (namely Susceptible, Infective and Recovering), then by adding a random perturbation in the vicinity of the endemic fixed point of the SIR model and eventually by introducing the definition of various types of random social networks. We propose as example of application to contagious diseases the HIV, and we show that a micro-simulation of individual based modelling (IBM) type can reproduce the current stable incidence of the HIV epidemic in a population of HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). PMID:23525763

  18. Outer membrane protein profiles of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, V J; Munson, R S; Ross, R F

    1986-01-01

    Outer membrane protein profiles of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cells were disrupted by sonication, and outer membrane-enriched fractions were prepared by differential centrifugation and selective solubilization of the inner membrane with sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate. Colony type, growth medium, time of harvest, and in vitro or in vivo passage had no appreciable effect on the protein profiles of the strains examined. Seven patterns were distinguished among the reference strains of the nine capsular serotypes. These patterns were based on the mobility of the major outer membrane proteins migrating in the 39,000- to 44,000-molecular-weight region of the gel, a 16K to 16.5K protein, and a heat-modifiable 29K protein. Strains of serotypes 1 and 9 had identical outer membrane protein profiles, as did strains of serotypes 2 and 6. The reference strains of the remaining five serotypes each had a distinct pattern. The outer membrane protein profiles of 95 field isolates belonging to serotypes 1, 5, 7, and 9 from swine in the midwestern United States were determined and compared with the reference patterns. The results indicate that the population of H. pleuropneumoniae is clonal, with three predominant clones distinguished by both serotype and outer membrane protein profile responsible for the majority of H. pleuropneumoniae disease occurring in swine in the United States. Images PMID:3699889

  19. Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of Streptococcus halichoeri from a European badger (Meles meles) with pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Bolea, R; Morales, M; Martín-Burriel, I; González, Ch; Badiola, J J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pathological studies in European badgers (Meles meles) are limited. Badgers play a significant role in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in some countries and an accurate diagnosis is needed for this infection. However, the lesions of bovine TB are similar to those associated with other pathogens, making pathological diagnosis difficult. In the present study, Streptococcus halichoeri was isolated from a European badger with pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia and suspected of having tuberculosis. TB and other pathogens able to induce similar lesions were ruled out. Comparative 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing studies showed an identity of 99.51% and 98.28%, respectively, with S. halichoeri. This report represents the third description of this bacterium and the first in an animal species other than the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). It also shows that S. halichoeri can be associated with a pathological process characterized by granulomatous inflammation and resembling tuberculosis.

  20. Adults' Explanations and Children's Understanding of Contagious Illnesses, Non-Contagious Illnesses, and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of…

  1. Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Karwacki, Michael T; Kadouri, Daniel E; Bendaoud, Meriem; Izano, Era A; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Inzana, Thomas J; Kaplan, Jeffrey B

    2013-01-01

    Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications. PMID:23691104

  2. Antibiofilm Activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serotype 5 Capsular Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Karwacki, Michael T.; Kadouri, Daniel E.; Bendaoud, Meriem; Izano, Era A.; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Inzana, Thomas J.; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications. PMID:23691104

  3. No evidence for contagious yawning in lemurs.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Rachna B; Krupenye, Christopher; MacLean, Evan L; Hare, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Among some haplorhine primates, including humans, relaxed yawns spread contagiously. Such contagious yawning has been linked to social bonds and empathy in some species. However, no studies have investigated contagious yawning in strepsirhines. We conducted an experimental study of contagious yawning in strepsirhines, testing ring-tailed and ruffed lemurs (n = 24) in a paradigm similar to one that has induced contagious yawning in haplorhines. First, in a control experiment, we investigated whether lemurs responded to projected video content in general (experiment 1). We showed them two videos to which we expected differential responses: one featured a terrestrial predator and the other a caretaker holding food. Next, to test for yawn contagion, we showed individual lemurs life-size video projections of groupmates and conspecific strangers yawning, and control footage of the same individuals at rest (experiment 2). Then, to examine whether a group context might enhance or allow for contagion, we exposed subjects to the same videos in a group setting (experiment 3). Lemurs produced alarm vocalizations and moved upward while viewing the predator, but not the caretaker, demonstrating that they do perceive video content meaningfully. However, lemurs did not yawn in response to yawning stimuli when tested alone, or with their groupmates. This study provides preliminary evidence that lemurs do not respond to yawning stimuli similarly to haplorhines, and suggests that this behavior may have evolved or become more exaggerated in haplorhines after the two major primate lineages split.

  4. Hitting Is Contagious: Experience and Action Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob; Beilock, Sian L.

    2011-01-01

    In baseball, it is believed that "hitting is contagious," that is, probability of success increases if the previous few batters get a hit. Could this effect be partially explained by action induction--that is, the tendency to perform an action related to one that has just been observed? A simulation was used to investigate the effect of inducing…

  5. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Ito, Marie; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species.

  6. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Ito, Marie; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species. PMID:25162677

  7. Epidemiology of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs: a survey of Ontario Pork Producers, 1981.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S; Mitchell, W R

    1983-01-01

    Information about factors associated with the spread and the effect of pleuropneumonia was obtained from 418 pork producers in Ontario, who returned a mailed questionnaire. The overall herd prevalence of pleuropneumonia was 23.2%. The prevalence among herds with feeder pigs only was 34.3% and 16% among sow herds. The chance of pleuropneumonia breaking out in a herd was increased with increased traffic of pigs into the herd. The source of supplementary stock had an important effect on the chance of pleuropneumonia occurring. The highest risk resulted from introducing stock from salesbarns and the lowest from stock of health status known to the purchaser and supplied by one breeder only. Mortality, primarily among feeder pigs, and unthriftiness were the major effects of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection. Stress, such as crowding or inclement climatic conditions, was associated with outbreaks of pleuropneumonia. This would suggest that the infection with H. pleuropneumoniae can be subclinical until stress precipitates the disease. PMID:6831302

  8. Experimental aerosol transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Jobert, J L; Savoye, C; Cariolet, R; Kobisch, M; Madec, F

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possible role of aerosol in the transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an experiment including 18 specific pathogen-free (SPF), 10-week-old piglets, randomly distributed into 2 adjacent units, was carried out. In these facilities, air was forced through absolute filters to prevent any contact with infectious agents. During the first 6 d post inoculation, the 2 units were connected by a rectangular opening and the air circulation was forced by the ventilation system from unit A (inoculated pigs) to unit B (non-inoculated pigs). The A. pleuropneumoniae strain (biovar 1 serovar 9) was isolated in France from an outbreak of porcine pleuropneumonia. Two different infecting doses, 10(7) cfu/animal and 10(8) cfu/animal, were inoculated by intranasal route in 6 pigs of unit A. The infection spread quickly from the inoculated pigs to the non-inoculated pigs. Clinical signs were acute during the 4 d post inoculation: hyperthermia, respiratory distress and, sometimes, death (6 pigs of the unit A and 2 pigs of the unit B). All pigs seroconverted against A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 9 within 2 weeks. Lung lesions were severe: fibrinous pleurisy and lung hemorrhages in the acute stage, pleural adherences and focal pulmonary necrosis in the chronic stage. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was isolated from the tonsils and/or lungs in 16 animals. It could be also isolated from the air of the experimental unit. This study showed that A. pleuropneumoniae was readily transmitted through aerosol over a distance of at least 2.5 m. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10680652

  9. Prevalence, transmission and impact of bovine leukosis in Michigan dairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine leukosis, caused by infection with the retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV), has been characterized as a contagious, but practically benign disease of the immune system. National Animal Health Monitoring Surveys in 1996 and 2007 indicate complacency has resulted in high prevalence of infect...

  10. Blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, R; Plambeck, T; Foged, N T

    1991-01-01

    A blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), based upon a polyclonal rabbit antiserum specific to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, was developed for the detection of antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in pigs. By testing sera from pigs experimentally infected with the 11 recognized serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, the assay was proven to be specific for A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. With field sera from herds infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, the assay was found to be more sensitive than the complement fixation test. Positive results were not observed with field sera from herds known to be free from Actinobacillus infection or with sera from two herds infected with either A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 6 or 8. The high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the blocking ELISA will make it useful in field diagnostic work. PMID:1890179

  11. Effects of growth conditions on biofilm formation by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Josée; Pelletier-Jacques, Geneviève; Deslandes, Vincent; Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Auger, Eliane; Nash, John H.E.; Jacques, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Biofilm formation is an important virulence trait of many bacterial pathogens. It has been reported in the literature that only two of the reference strains of the swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, representing serotypes 5b and 11, were able to form biofilm in vitro. In this study, we compared biofilm formation by the serotype 1 reference strain S4074 of A. pleuropneumoniae grown in five different culture media. We observed that strain S4074 of A. pleuropneumoniae is able to form biofilms after growth in one of the culture conditions tested brain heart infusion (BHI medium, supplier B). Confocal laser scanning microscopy using a fluorescent probe specific to the poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) polysaccharide further confirmed biofilm formation. In accordance, biofilm formation was susceptible to dispersin B, a PGA hydrolase. Transcriptional profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae S4074 following growth in BHI-B, which allowed a robust biofilm formation, and in BHI-A, in which only a slight biofilm formation was observed, were compared. Genes such as tadC, tadD, genes with homology to autotransporter adhesins as well as genes pgaABC involved in PGA biosynthesis and genes involved in zinc transport were up-regulated after growth in BHI-B. Interestingly, biofilm formation was inhibited by zinc, which was found to be more present in BHI-A (no or slight biofilm) than in BHI-B. We also observed biofilm formation in reference strains representing serotypes 3, 4, 5a, 12 and 14 as well as in 20 of the 37 fresh field isolates tested. Our data indicate that A. pleuropneumoniae has the ability to form biofilms under appropriate growth conditions and transition from a biofilm-positive to a biofilm-negative phenotype was reversible. PMID:19737507

  12. Computer animations stimulate contagious yawning in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Matthew W.; Carter, J. Devyn; Proctor, Darby; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2009-01-01

    People empathize with fictional displays of behaviour, including those of cartoons and computer animations, even though the stimuli are obviously artificial. However, the extent to which other animals also may respond empathetically to animations has yet to be determined. Animations provide a potentially useful tool for exploring non-human behaviour, cognition and empathy because computer-generated stimuli offer complete control over variables and the ability to program stimuli that could not be captured on video. Establishing computer animations as a viable tool requires that non-human subjects identify with and respond to animations in a way similar to the way they do to images of actual conspecifics. Contagious yawning has been linked to empathy and poses a good test of involuntary identification and motor mimicry. We presented 24 chimpanzees with three-dimensional computer-animated chimpanzees yawning or displaying control mouth movements. The apes yawned significantly more in response to the yawn animations than to the controls, implying identification with the animations. These results support the phenomenon of contagious yawning in chimpanzees and suggest an empathic response to animations. Understanding how chimpanzees connect with animations, to both empathize and imitate, may help us to understand how humans do the same. PMID:19740888

  13. Educating Children and Youth To Prevent Contagious Disease. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    Twenty-first century contagious diseases require more than basic health lessons to prevent transmission. This Digest examines ways to prevent disease transmission in school settings. Section 1 discusses key concepts in contagion education: all people are potentially contagious; germs that cause diseases are present on many parts of the body; hand…

  14. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, M; Larivière, S; Higgins, R; Martineau, G P

    1988-01-01

    Forty-five isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents using a microdilution method for the minimal inhibitory concentration determinations. These results confirmed the high prevalence of A. pleuropneumoniae strains resistant to antibiotics as reported earlier using the disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer method). While 36% of the isolates were resistant to the penicillins, 47% were resistant to chloramphenicol and 68% were resistant to tetracycline. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for the resistant isolates were approximately 32 times higher than those for the susceptible isolates to the above antibacterial agents. The isolates were in general weakly susceptible or resistant to spectinomycin, lincomycin, tiamulin and spiramycin whereas most of them were susceptible to gentamicin, trimethoprim and erythromycin. The susceptibility pattern was similar throughout the 1980 to 1984 period. The 14 serotype 5 isolates were more resistant to tetracycline but less resistant to chloramphenicol and the penicillins than the 28 serotype 1 isolates. PMID:3167716

  15. Social Presence Diminishes Contagious Yawning in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew; Church, Allyson M.; Miller, Heather; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Contagious yawning may be a useful measure of social psychological functioning, and thus it is important to evaluate the variables influencing its expression in laboratory settings. Previous research has documented that humans yawn less frequently in crowded environments and when under direct observation, but the impact of social presence on contagious yawning remains unknown. Here we present the first study to systematically alter the degree of social presence experienced by participants in the laboratory to determine its effect on contagious yawning frequency. Our results demonstrate that both implied and actual social presence significantly diminish yawn contagion in comparison to a control condition, indicating a key social component to contagious yawning. These findings provide a framework for pursuing additional research investigating the social factors influencing contagious yawning, while also offering applications for measuring this response in laboratory settings. PMID:27112374

  16. Social Presence Diminishes Contagious Yawning in the Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew; Church, Allyson M; Miller, Heather; Risko, Evan F; Kingstone, Alan

    2016-04-26

    Contagious yawning may be a useful measure of social psychological functioning, and thus it is important to evaluate the variables influencing its expression in laboratory settings. Previous research has documented that humans yawn less frequently in crowded environments and when under direct observation, but the impact of social presence on contagious yawning remains unknown. Here we present the first study to systematically alter the degree of social presence experienced by participants in the laboratory to determine its effect on contagious yawning frequency. Our results demonstrate that both implied and actual social presence significantly diminish yawn contagion in comparison to a control condition, indicating a key social component to contagious yawning. These findings provide a framework for pursuing additional research investigating the social factors influencing contagious yawning, while also offering applications for measuring this response in laboratory settings.

  17. Efficacy of tilmicosin in the control of experimentally induced Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in swine.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Marie-Anne; Vessie, Gordon H; Merrill, John K; Dick, C Paul; Moore, Camille; Charbonneau, George; Gottschalk, M; MacInnes, Janet I; Higgins, Robert; Mittal, K R; Girard, C; Aramini, Jeffery J; Wilson, Jeffrey B

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of tilmicosin administered in the feed to control Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in pigs was evaluated through a multisite, multitrial study. For each of 6 trials, 48 pigs (stratified by weight and sex) were randomly assigned to 6 to 8 pens. Medicated feed containing tilmicosin (200 g/t) and unmedicated feed were randomly assigned at the pen level and were provided ad libitum from day -7 to trial termination (day 14). Seeder pigs (inoculated intranasally with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and showing signs of clinical disease) were introduced to each pen on day 0. Rates of death, gross lesions, and culture of A. pleuropneumoniae at necropsy, clinical scores, average daily gain in weight, and average body temperature were compared between the medicated and unmedicated pigs. Compared with the unmedicated pigs, significantly fewer (P < 0.05) pigs given tilmicosin had lesions typical of A. pleuropneumoniae or had A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from their tissues at necropsy. Together with a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the average percentage of pneumonic lung involvement (both visually and by weight), there were reductions in the numbers of pigs with moderate and severe pneumonic lung lesions and with A. pleuropneumoniae associated mortality. With tilmicosin treatment, the average daily weight gain, daily temperature, abdominal appearance, attitude, and respiration were also significantly better (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate the in vivo effectiveness of tilmicosin (200 g/t) in controlling pleuropneumonia among swine experimentally infected with A. pleuropneumoniae.

  18. Secreted proteases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 degrade porcine gelatin, hemoglobin and immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Serrano, J J; Garcia, C; de la Garza, M

    1994-01-01

    It was found that 48 hour cultures of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae secreted proteases into the medium. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels (10%) copolymerized with porcine gelatin (0.1%), of the 70% (NH4)2SO4 precipitate from the culture supernatants, displayed protease activities of different molecular weights: > 200, 200, 90, 80, 70 and 50 kDa. They had activity over a broad range of pHs (4-8), with an optimal pH of 6-7. All were inhibited by 10 mM EDTA, and reactivated by 10 mM calcium. They were stable at -20 degrees C for more than a month. The proteases also degraded porcine IgA and porcine, human, and bovine hemoglobin, although they appeared to be less active against the hemoglobins. The IgA was totally cleaved in 48 h, using supernatants concentrated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or the 70% (NH4)2SO4. Extracellular proteases could play a role in virulence. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:8004545

  19. Oral immunization against porcine pleuropneumonia using the cubic phase of monoolein and purified toxins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Bermudez, Jorge; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Lara Puente, Horacio; Tórtora Perez, Jorge; Suárez Güemez, Francisco; Ciprián Carrasco, Abel; Mendoza Elvira, Susana

    2014-11-28

    The main goal of this work was to obtain an orally administered immunogen that would protect against infections by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The Apx I, II and III toxins were obtained from the supernatants of cultures of serotypes 1 and 3 of A. pleuropneumoniae. The capacity of monoolein gel to trap and protect the Apx toxins, and the effect of their incorporation on the stability of the cubic phase were evaluated. The gel was capable of trapping a 400-μg/ml concentration of the antigen with no effects on its structure. Approximately 60% of the protein molecules were released from the gel within 4h. Four experimental groups were formed, each one with four pigs. All challenges were conducted in a nebulization chamber. Group A: Control (-) not vaccinated and not challenged; Group B: Control (+) not vaccinated but challenged; Group C: vaccinated twice intramuscularly with ToxCom (a commercial toxoid) at an interval of 15 days and then challenged; and Group D: vaccinated orally twice a week for 4 weeks with ToxOral (an oral toxoid) and challenged on day 28 of the experiment with a same dose of 2.0 × 10(4) UFC of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 3. The lesions found in group B covered 27.7-43.1% of the lungs; the pigs in group C had lesions over 12.3-28%; and those in group D over 15.4-32.3%. No lesions were found in the Group A pigs. A. pleuropneumoniae induced macroscopic lesions characteristic of infection by and lesions microscopic detected by histopathology. The etiologic agent was recovered from the infected lungs, tonsils and spleen. The serotypes identified were 1 and 3. An indirect ELISA test identified the antibodies against the Apx toxins in the serum of the animals immunized orally.

  20. Analysis of major antigens of Haemophilus (Actinobacillus) pleuropneumoniae and related organisms.

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, J I; Rosendal, S

    1987-01-01

    Outer membrane protein (OMP)-enriched extracts and whole-cell protein preparations of Haemophilus (Actinobacillus) pleuropneumoniae and related organisms were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Both the OMP-enriched and whole-cell protein profiles of Actinobacillus suis, A. pleuropneumoniae (NAD-independent biovar), A. lignieresii, and Pasteurella haemolytica were very similar to those of H. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 to 8. Antisera prepared against H. pleuropneumoniae typically recognized three major OMP antigens with approximate molecular weights of 17,000 (17K), 32K, and 42K in immunoblots of H. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 to 8, Actinobacillus spp., and P. haemolytica. Antisera prepared against Actinobacillus spp. and Haemophilus sp. "minor group" also recognized these 17K, 32K, and 42K antigens. Using absorbed sera, we demonstrated that the 17K antigen had an epitope (or epitopes) common to all the gram-negative organisms examined, including Escherichia coli. The 32K and 42K antigens had epitopes common to members of the family Pasteurellaceae but, in the case of the 32K antigen, also contained unique epitopes. These results provide a basis for understanding the lack of specificity of serodiagnostic tests for H. pleuropneumoniae infection and provide another line of evidence for the association of H. pleuropneumoniae with the genus Actinobacillus. Images PMID:3298061

  1. Detection and Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serotype 5 by Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Terry M.; Ward, Christine K.; Inzana, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    Serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is based on detection of the serotype-specific capsular antigen. However, not all isolates can be serotyped, and some may cross-react with multiple serotyping reagents. To improve sensitivity and specificity of serotyping and for early detection, a multiplex PCR assay was developed for detection of A. pleuropneumoniae and identification of serotype 5 isolates. DNA sequences specific to the conserved export and serotype-specific biosynthesis regions of the capsular polysaccharide of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were used as primers to amplify 0.7- and 1.1-kb DNA fragments, respectively. The 0.7-kb fragment was amplified from all strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested with the exception of serotype 4. The 0.7-kb fragment was not amplified from any heterologous species that are also common pathogens or commensals of swine. In contrast, the 1.1-kb fragment was amplified from all serotype 5 strains only. The assay was capable of amplifying DNA from less than 102 CFU. The A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular DNA products were readily amplified from lung tissues obtained from infected swine, although the 1.1-kb product was not amplified from some tissues stored frozen for 6 years. The multiplex PCR assay enabled us to detect A. pleuropneumoniae rapidly and to distinguish serotype 5 strains from other serotypes. The use of primers specific to the biosynthesis regions of other A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes would expand the diagnostic and epidemiologic capabilities of this assay. PMID:9620404

  2. Identification of QTL affecting resistance/susceptibility to acute Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in swine.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Gerald; Bertsch, Natalie; Hoeltig, Doris; Selke, Martin; Willems, Hermann; Gerlach, Gerald Friedrich; Tuemmler, Burkhard; Probst, Inga; Herwig, Ralf; Drungowski, Mario; Waldmann, Karl Heinz

    2014-04-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is among the most important pathogens worldwide in pig production. The agent can cause severe economic losses due to decreased performance, acute or chronic pleuropneumonia and an increased incidence of death. Therapeutics cannot be used in a sustainable manner, and vaccination is not always available, but discovering more about host defence and disease mechanisms might lead to new methods of prophylaxis. The aim of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance/susceptibility to A. pleuropneumoniae. Under controlled conditions, 170 F2 animals of a Hampshire/Landrace family, with known differences in founder populations regarding A. pleuropneumoniae resistance, were challenged with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 aerosol followed by a detailed clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, pathological and bacteriological examination. F2 pigs were genotyped with 159 microsatellite markers. Significant QTL were identified on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 2, 6, 12, 13, 16, 17 and 18. They explained 6-22% of phenotypic variance. One QTL on SSC2 reached significance on a genome-wide level for five associated phenotypic traits. A multiple regression analysis revealed a combinatory effect of markers SWR345 (SSC2) and S0143 (SSC12) on Respiratory Health Score, Clinical Score and the occurrence of death. The results indicate the genetic background of A. pleuropneumoniae resistance in swine and provide new insights into the genetic architecture of resistance/susceptibility to porcine pleuropneumonia. The results will be helpful in identifying the underlying genes and mechanisms.

  3. Experimental evidence of contagious yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Swartwood, Lexington; Militello, Janine; Sackett, Serena

    2015-09-01

    Experimental evidence of contagious yawning has only been documented in four mammalian species. Here, we report the results from two separate experimental studies designed to investigate the presence of contagious yawning in a social parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). In Study 1, birds were paired in adjacent cages with and without visual barriers, and the temporal association of yawning was assessed between visual conditions. In Study 2, the same birds were exposed to video stimuli of both conspecific yawns and control behavior, and yawning frequency was compared between conditions. Results from both studies demonstrate that yawning is contagious. To date, this is the first experimental evidence of contagious yawning in a non-mammalian species. We propose that future research could use budgerigars to explore questions related to basic forms of empathic processing. PMID:26012708

  4. Experimental evidence of contagious yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Swartwood, Lexington; Militello, Janine; Sackett, Serena

    2015-09-01

    Experimental evidence of contagious yawning has only been documented in four mammalian species. Here, we report the results from two separate experimental studies designed to investigate the presence of contagious yawning in a social parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). In Study 1, birds were paired in adjacent cages with and without visual barriers, and the temporal association of yawning was assessed between visual conditions. In Study 2, the same birds were exposed to video stimuli of both conspecific yawns and control behavior, and yawning frequency was compared between conditions. Results from both studies demonstrate that yawning is contagious. To date, this is the first experimental evidence of contagious yawning in a non-mammalian species. We propose that future research could use budgerigars to explore questions related to basic forms of empathic processing.

  5. CAPACITY OF PLEUROPNEUMONIA-LIKE MICROORGANISMS TO GROW ON CHORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANES

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Homer F.

    1941-01-01

    1. Among eight strains or variants, included in four different immunological types of pleuropneumonia-like microorganisms, all grew on chorioallantoic membranes; those belonging to Klieneberger's Type L5 (Sabin Type A) grew very poorly; and those included in three other types grew with varying degrees of vigor. 2. In all instances, strains of pleuropneumonia-like microorganisms tested grew better on dead sterile chorioallantoic membranes than on living membranes. 3. None of the strains tested was in itself lethal for chick embryos. 4. No constant macroscopic lesion developed as a result of inoculating chorioallantoic membranes with pleuropneumonia-like microorganisms. PMID:19871155

  6. Smell facilitates auditory contagious yawning in stranger rats.

    PubMed

    Moyaho, Alejandro; Rivas-Zamudio, Xaman; Ugarte, Araceli; Eguibar, José R; Valencia, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Most vertebrates yawn in situations ranging from relaxation to tension, but only humans and other primate species that show mental state attribution skills have been convincingly shown to display yawn contagion. Whether complex forms of empathy are necessary for yawn contagion to occur is still unclear. As empathy is a phylogenetically continuous trait, simple forms of empathy, such as emotional contagion, might be sufficient for non-primate species to show contagious yawning. In this study, we exposed pairs of male rats, which were selected for high yawning, with each other through a perforated wall and found that olfactory cues stimulated yawning, whereas visual cues inhibited it. Unexpectedly, cage-mate rats failed to show yawn contagion, although they did show correlated emotional reactivity. In contrast, stranger rats showed auditory contagious yawning and greater rates of smell-facilitated auditory contagious yawning, although they did not show correlated emotional reactivity. Strikingly, they did not show contagious yawning to rats from a low-yawning strain. These findings indicate that contagious yawning may be a widespread trait amongst vertebrates and that mechanisms other than empathy may be involved. We suggest that a communicatory function of yawning may be the mechanism responsible for yawn contagion in rats, as contagiousness was strain-specific and increased with olfactory cues, which are involved in mutual recognition.

  7. Immune response to an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae vaccine in swine

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Paul; Assaf, Robert; Boulay, Gaston; Désy, Marie

    1988-01-01

    Piglets vaccinated with an inactivated tetravalent vaccine (Pleurovac 4) against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7, produced circulating antibodies after a first intramuscular injection and showed an anamnestic reaction after a second. The rise in antibody levels in vaccinated piglets was statistically significant when compared with those of the control group. The administration of 1 or 2 mL of vaccine did not lead to significantly different antibody levels. The specificity of the immune response is demonstrated by an increase in titer to all four serotypes in pigs given the tetravalent vaccine, but an increase in titer to only two serotypes in pigs given a bivalent vaccine (Pleurovac). PMID:17423199

  8. Hitting is contagious: experience and action induction.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-03-01

    In baseball, it is believed that "hitting is contagious," that is, probability of success increases if the previous few batters get a hit. Could this effect be partially explained by action induction--that is, the tendency to perform an action related to one that has just been observed? A simulation was used to investigate the effect of inducing stimuli on batting performance for more-experienced (ME) and less-experienced (LE) baseball players. Three types of inducing stimuli were compared with a no-induction condition: action (a simulated ball traveling from home plate into left, right, or center field), outcome (a ball resting in either left, right, or center field), and verbal (the word "left", "center", or "right"). For both ME and LE players, fewer pitchers were required for a successful hit in the action condition. For ME players, there was a significant relationship between the inducing stimulus direction and hit direction for both the action and outcome prompts. For LE players, the prompt only had a significant effect on batting performance in the action condition, and the magnitude of the effect was significantly smaller than for ME. The effect of the inducing stimulus decreased as the delay (i.e., no. of pitches between prompt and hit) increased, with the effect being eliminated after roughly 4 pitches for ME and 2 pitches for LE. It is proposed that the differences in the magnitude and time course of action induction as a function of experience occurred because ME have more well-developed perceptual-motor representations for directional hitting. PMID:21443380

  9. Hitting is contagious: experience and action induction.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-03-01

    In baseball, it is believed that "hitting is contagious," that is, probability of success increases if the previous few batters get a hit. Could this effect be partially explained by action induction--that is, the tendency to perform an action related to one that has just been observed? A simulation was used to investigate the effect of inducing stimuli on batting performance for more-experienced (ME) and less-experienced (LE) baseball players. Three types of inducing stimuli were compared with a no-induction condition: action (a simulated ball traveling from home plate into left, right, or center field), outcome (a ball resting in either left, right, or center field), and verbal (the word "left", "center", or "right"). For both ME and LE players, fewer pitchers were required for a successful hit in the action condition. For ME players, there was a significant relationship between the inducing stimulus direction and hit direction for both the action and outcome prompts. For LE players, the prompt only had a significant effect on batting performance in the action condition, and the magnitude of the effect was significantly smaller than for ME. The effect of the inducing stimulus decreased as the delay (i.e., no. of pitches between prompt and hit) increased, with the effect being eliminated after roughly 4 pitches for ME and 2 pitches for LE. It is proposed that the differences in the magnitude and time course of action induction as a function of experience occurred because ME have more well-developed perceptual-motor representations for directional hitting.

  10. Prevalence of seroreactors to the 104-kilodalton hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in swine herds.

    PubMed Central

    Devenish, J; Rosendal, S; Bossé, J T; Wilkie, B N; Johnson, R

    1990-01-01

    A rabbit homologous polyclonal antiserum to the 104-kilodalton hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain CM-5 was specifically produced and used in an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect swine serum antibodies to this potentially important virulence factor. Sera from pigs experimentally infected with the most common disease-producing serotypes (serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 7) of A. pleuropneumoniae produced positive results in this ELISA. Of 144 serum samples collected from 10 herds free of pleuropneumonia and 155 serum samples from 11 herds with a history of the disease, 68 (47%) and 148 (95%), respectively, were found positive by the ELISA. In addition, pigs naturally infected with Actinobacillus suis produced antibodies which seroreacted in this ELISA. The results indicated that a high proportion of swine have antibodies seroreactive with the 104-kilodalton hemolysin produced by A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:2332472

  11. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499

  12. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  13. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T.; Langford, Paul R.; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5’-diphosphate 3’-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5’-triphosphate 3’-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499

  14. The effects of intranasal oxytocin on contagious yawning.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Church, Allyson M

    2015-10-21

    Contagious yawning is thought to represent a basic form of empathy involved in state matching. Despite recent evidence in support of this connection, the neurochemical basis of contagious yawning remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate whether intranasal oxytocin, a hormone and neuropeptide involved in empathic processing, bonding and social affiliation, influences contagious yawning among human participants in a laboratory setting. Using a double blind procedure, 60 male college students received 30 IU of intranasal oxytocin or placebo and were then recorded during exposure to a contagious yawning video stimulus. Contrary to the empathic modeling hypothesis, oxytocin did not increase contagious yawning but rather appeared to modulate its expression in ways indicative of an enhanced awareness of the social stigma associated with this behavior. In particular, individuals in the oxytocin condition were more likely to conceal their yawns and less likely to display overt cues associated with the behavior. Follow-up research could explore how social context and affiliation with the target stimulus alter this response.

  15. The genetic organization of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14

    PubMed Central

    ITO, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    The genetic organization of the gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 has been determined. The DNA region for the CPS biosynthesis of serotype 14 (cps14) comprised 9 open reading frames, designated as cps14AB1B2B3CDEFG genes, encoding Cps14A to Cps14G protein, respectively. Cps14A was similar to CpsA of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12; the Cps14B1 and Cps14B2 were similar to CpsB of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, suggesting that CPS structure of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 would belong to Group I including A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. Surprisingly, the overall nucleotide sequence, deduced amino acid sequence, and the genetic organization of the cps14 were nearly identical to those of Actinobacillus suis. This study will provide the molecular basic knowledge for development of diagnostics and vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14. PMID:25648373

  16. Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of conjugate vaccines directed against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae virulence determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, W; Kadis, S

    1992-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines were prepared in an attempt to protect pigs against swine pleuropneumonia induced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (SPAP). Two subunit conjugates were prepared by coupling the A. pleuropneumoniae 4074 serotype 1 capsular polysaccharide (CP) to the hemolysin protein (HP) and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the HP. Adipic acid dihydrazide was used as a spacer to facilitate the conjugation in a carbodiimide-mediated reaction. The CP and the LPS were found to be covalently coupled to the HP in the conjugates as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and detergent gel chromatography analyses. Following a booster vaccination, pigs exhibited significantly high (P less than 0.05) immunoglobulin G antibodies against CP, LPS, and HP. The anti-CP and anti-LPS immunoglobulin G antibodies were found to function as opsonins in the phagocytosis of A. pleuropneumoniae by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, whereas antibodies to the HP neutralized the cytotoxic effect of the HP on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No killing of A. pleuropneumoniae was observed when the effects of the antibodies were tested in the presence of complement. Thus, polysaccharide-protein A. pleuropneumoniae conjugates elicit significant antibody responses against each component of each conjugate, which could be instrumental in protecting swine against SPAP. Images PMID:1639471

  17. Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of conjugate vaccines directed against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Byrd, W; Kadis, S

    1992-08-01

    Conjugate vaccines were prepared in an attempt to protect pigs against swine pleuropneumonia induced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (SPAP). Two subunit conjugates were prepared by coupling the A. pleuropneumoniae 4074 serotype 1 capsular polysaccharide (CP) to the hemolysin protein (HP) and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the HP. Adipic acid dihydrazide was used as a spacer to facilitate the conjugation in a carbodiimide-mediated reaction. The CP and the LPS were found to be covalently coupled to the HP in the conjugates as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and detergent gel chromatography analyses. Following a booster vaccination, pigs exhibited significantly high (P less than 0.05) immunoglobulin G antibodies against CP, LPS, and HP. The anti-CP and anti-LPS immunoglobulin G antibodies were found to function as opsonins in the phagocytosis of A. pleuropneumoniae by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, whereas antibodies to the HP neutralized the cytotoxic effect of the HP on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No killing of A. pleuropneumoniae was observed when the effects of the antibodies were tested in the presence of complement. Thus, polysaccharide-protein A. pleuropneumoniae conjugates elicit significant antibody responses against each component of each conjugate, which could be instrumental in protecting swine against SPAP. PMID:1639471

  18. Pathogenesis of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia: Part I. Effects of surface components of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H; Potter, A A; Campos, M; Leighton, F A; Willson, P J; Yates, W D

    1998-01-01

    To understand the role of non-secreted components of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in virulence, we investigated in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo pulmonary changes in pigs due to various A. pleuropneumoniae (serotype 1) fractions. Following 1.5 h incubation, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 2 crude extracts and bacterial culture supernatant (BCS) at high concentrations were cytotoxic to porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes, neutrophils and a cultured porcine bone marrow cell line. Heat-killed bacteria were cytotoxic to PAM after 24 h incubation. The 2 crude extracts were prepared by shaking either intact bacteria after removing culture supernatants (crude surface extract, CSE), or whole bacterial culture (crude surface plus culture supernatant extract, CSSE) with glass beads in saline at 60 degrees C. Further experiments showed that proteins from the bacterial membrane were partially involved in cytotoxicities of these 2 extracts. Both BCS and CSSE caused multivocal hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltration when inoculated into porcine lungs, but CSE did not. The lung:whole body weight ratios of the pigs treated with CSSE were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of pigs treated with BCS, CSE, or control solution. It is concluded that beside the secreted proteins, bacterial surface components including LPS and non-secreted proteins were cytotoxic in vitro; and secreted and non-secreted components act synergistically to cause lung lesions. PMID:9553707

  19. The antibacterial mechanism of berberine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shuai; Li, Zhengwen; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Chen, Zhenzhen; Peng, Lianci; Qu, Jing; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lai, Xin; Wang, Guangxi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated berberine to be a potential natural compound against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Liquid doubling dilution, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SDS-PAGE and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining were employed to elucidate the antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine. The minimal inhibitory concentration of berberine was 0.3125 mg/mL, and time-kill curves showed concentration and time dependence. The TEM micrographs displayed damaged cell wall, concentrated cytoplasm, cytoplasmic content leakage and cell death. SDS-PAGE and DAPI assays revealed that berberine can restrain DNA and protein syntheses. Berberine inhibited the synthesis of proteins associated with the growth and cleavage of bacteria and then blocked the division and development of bacteria. The compound ultimately induced cytoplasm pyknosis and bacterial death.

  20. Growth of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is promoted by exogenous hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, M S; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M J; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1996-01-01

    Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and lysine-based bis-catechol (20 of 22 or 90%), while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to be neither a phenolate nor a hydroxamate by the chemical tests of Arnow and Csaky, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the production of an iron chelator and the use of exogenous siderophores by A. pleuropneumoniae. A spermidine-based bis-catechol siderophore conjugated to a carbacephalosporin was shown to inhibit growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. A siderophore-antibiotic-resistant strain was isolated and shown to have lost the ability to use ferrichrome, synthetic hydroxamate, or catechol-based siderophores when grown under conditions of iron restriction. This observation indicated that a common iron uptake pathway, or a common intermediate, for hydroxamate- and catechol-based siderophores may exist in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:8975614

  1. [Quality control of the vaccines and cold chain during the national vaccination campaigns].

    PubMed

    Couacy-Hymann, E; Kodjo, A; Ouattara, M; Kanga, K; Diawara, S; Domenech, J

    1992-01-01

    During the two vaccination campaigns against rinderpest and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in 1989 and 1990, 507 vaccine samples were collected for quality control at each step of the distribution chain from the Veterinary Pharmacy of Abidjan to the vaccinator on the field. Parallel to that, the quality of the cold chain was checked. A total of 463 titrations were performed. All the titration levels were above the OIE/FAO standards, i.e. 10(2.5) DICT50/ml for rinderpest Valence and 10(7) viable germs/ml for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia Valence.

  2. Influence of Serum and Glucose Additives on Survival of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Aerosolized from the Freeze-Dried State.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A

    1994-06-01

    Serum and/or glucose added to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae suspensions before freeze-drying significantly increased survival rates of bacteria in aerosols. Aerosols with predictable numbers of viable bacteria can be made as required in an aerosol infection model. Sucrose supplementation of impinger fluids increased recovery of viable A. pleuropneumoniae.

  3. Should Persons with Contagious Diseases Be Barred from School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews recent court decisions regarding whether individuals with contagious diseases may be barred from public schools. Devotes specific attention to the issue of whether certain communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be classified as handicaps and thereby qualify a person for protection…

  4. Supreme Court Holds That Contagious Diseases Are Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a complex case involving termination of a third-grade teacher with recurrent tuberculosis. The United States Supreme Court upheld a circuit court's ruling that the teacher's condition satisfied section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act protecting handicapped persons against discrimination. Since contagiousness was not addressed, the…

  5. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  6. What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.

    This publication presents 10 documents collected to accompany a seminar entitled "What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School," presented at the 31st annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education in 1985. The materials include (1) an agenda of the seminar listing the speakers, their topics, and the time…

  7. Brief Report: Does Eye Contact Induce Contagious Yawning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Akechi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly fail to show contagious yawning, but the mechanism underlying the lack of contagious yawning is still unclear. The current study examined whether instructed fixation on the eyes modulates contagious yawning in ASD. Thirty-one children with ASD, as well as 31 age-matched typically…

  8. Expression and phylogenetic relationships of a novel lacZ homologue from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T J; MacInnes, J I

    1997-07-01

    To learn more about the genetics and physiology of the important swine pathogen, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, we cloned the lacZ gene by complementation of an Escherichia coli delta lac mutant. The A. pleuropneumoniae lacZ gene has an open reading frame of 3015 bp which could encode a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 117022. The deduced protein shares 26.8-34.8% identity with beta-galactosidases from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Sequences with homology to seven regions commonly found in beta-galactosidases are present and amino acids corresponding to active site residues Tyr-503 and Glu-537 in E. coli LacZ are also conserved; however, there is a leucine in the place of Gly-794, a residue which has been implicated in substrate recognition. The sequences flanking the A. pleuropneumoniae lacZ gene do not share homology with known transport or regulatory genes nor do they share homology with cAMP receptor protein (CRP) or LacI binding sites. Low levels of beta-galactosidase activity could be detected when the protein was expressed from a multicopy plasmid in E. coli delta lac and when it was measured in A. pleuropneumoniae. The level of activity was not markedly reduced in the presence of glucose. Although the A. pleuropneumoniae LacZ shares some features with other beta-galactosidases, its constitutive expression and an unusual active site residue suggest that it may have a unique function. PMID:9228778

  9. A PCR assay used to study aerosol transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from samples of live pigs under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Savoye, C; Jobert, J L; Berthelot-Hérault, F; Keribin, A M; Cariolet, R; Morvan, H; Madec, F; Kobisch, M

    2000-05-11

    The study describes a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The test is based on the amplification of the omlA gene coding for an outer membrane protein of A. pleuropneumoniae. To test the specificity of the reaction, 19 other bacterial species related to A. pleuropneumoniae or isolated from pigs were assayed. They were all found negative in the PCR assay. The detection threshold of the test was 10(2) A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/assay. The test was then applied to the detection of A. pleuropneumoniae from tonsillar biopsies and tracheobronchial lavage fluids of pigs without a culture step. The detection of A. pleuropneumoniae in these samples was performed by PCR, by conventional culture and by bacteriology with immunomagnetic beads. The number of samples that were found positive by PCR was almost three times higher than the number of samples from which A. pleuropneumoniae was isolated by both bacteriological techniques. The detection of A. pleuropneumoniae in these samples allowed us to demonstrate its aerosol transmission to pigs under experimental conditions. The trial involved 18 specific pathogen free pigs. Six pigs, infected with A. pleuropneumoniae, were located in a unit A, together with four non-infected animals (contact pigs). Eight non-infected pigs (reporter pigs) were located in a unit B, adjacent to A. We detected A. pleuropneumoniae in samples from infected animals but also from 'contact' (unit A) and 'reporter' (unit B) pigs. The results of this study show that the simple preparation of the samples followed by the PCR assay may be a useful tool for epidemiological studies. PMID:10781732

  10. Electron microscopic examination of capsular material from various serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, M; Foiry, B; Higgins, R; Mittal, K R

    1988-01-01

    The capsular material on PPLO broth-grown cells of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae representing serotypes 1 to 10 was visualized by transmission electron microscopy after polycationic ferritin labeling and also after stabilization with specific antibodies. All the isolates examined were covered with a layer of capsular material whose thickness varied between 80 to 90 nm and 210 to 230 nm when examined by immunostabilization. We were also able to visualize A. pleuropneumoniae in lungs of infected pigs and to estimate the amount of capsular material covering the cells. Our results indicate that differences in capsular structure exist among the different A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes, and this result may explain in part why the serotypes are not equally virulent. Images PMID:3384814

  11. RTX toxin genotypes and phenotypes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field strains.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, M; van den Bosch, J F; Jongenelen, I M; Loeffen, P L; Nielsen, R; Nicolet, J; Frey, J

    1994-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype reference strains and 204 A. pleuropneumoniae field strains representing all 12 serotypes and both biovars 1 and 2, obtained from laboratories from various countries worldwide, were analyzed for the presence of the toxin genes apxIC, apxIA, apxIB, apxID, apxIIC, apxIIA, apxIIIC, apxIIIA, apxIIIB, and apxIIID by DNA-DNA hybridization with specific gene probes. Expression of the toxins ApxI, ApxII, and ApxIII was assessed by immunoblot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. The results show that the patterns of apx genes and those of the expressed Apx toxins in biovar 1 field strains are the same as those of the genes and toxins of corresponding serotype reference strain. We found only three strains which had certain apx genes missing compared with the genes in their serotype reference strains. Analysis of the expression of the three toxins showed that nearly all strains expressed their apx genes and produced the same Apx toxins as their serotype reference strain. We found only one strain that did not produce ApxI, although it contained the apxICABD genes, and one strain which did not express ApxII but which contained apxIICA. Several field strains which initially showed that their serotype did not correspond to the apx gene profile of the reference strain and which had an unexpected virulence for the given serotype revealed that their initial serotyping was erroneous. We show that the apx gene profiles are inherent to a given serotype. The method cannot differentiate between all 12 serotypes. However, it allowed us to distinguish five groups of toxin gene patterns which showed pathological, toxicological, and epidemiological significance. None of the biovar 2 strains contained apxIII genes. The apxI and apxII genes in the biovar 2 strains, however, were the same as those found in the serotype reference strains of biovar 1. PMID:7852567

  12. Monkey see, monkey do: contagious itch in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Feneran, Ashley N; O'Donnell, Russell; Press, Ashley; Yosipovitch, Gil; Cline, Mark; Dugan, Greg; Papoiu, Alexandru D P; Nattkemper, Leigh A; Chan, Yiong Huak; Shively, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    "Contagious itch" has been anecdotally reported and recently confirmed in a controlled setting in humans. Here, we investigated in adult rhesus macaques whether 'contagious itch' occurs spontaneously in monkeys. In a first experiment, the latency to scratch following cage-mate scratching was observed in pair-housed adult rhesus macaques. Scratching increased within the first 60 s and subsequently declined. In a second experiment, scratching behavior was recorded for individually caged adult rhesus macaques which where shown videos of monkeys scratching, but also neutral stimuli. A greater frequency of scratching was observed when monkeys viewed a video sequence of another monkey scratching as well as during the neutral stimulus immediately following the monkey scratching segment. In conclusion, viewing other monkeys scratching significantly increased scratching behavior in adult rhesus macaques.

  13. Trichophyton mentagrophytes cause underestimated contagious zoophilic fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Czaika, Viktor Alexander; Lam, Phi-Anh

    2013-05-01

    Trichophytia infection, paraphrased cuddly toy mycosis, occurs primarily in prepubertal children, occasionally in infants and adults. The presented case shows the highly contagious infection of four family members with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Effective treatment requires detailed diagnostic: identifying the dermatophyte, finding the infection source, treating the infection carriers. Tinea must be treated systemically and topically because of infectivity and ignitability. Systemic terbinafine or fluconazole treatment and topical fixed combination isoconazole nitrate/diflucortolone valerate are recommended. PMID:23574024

  14. Transportation in commerical aircraft of passengers having contagious diseases.

    PubMed

    Perin, M

    1976-10-01

    Most airlines refuse to board passengers known or believed to have contagious diseases. Such rigor can scarcely be justified by reference to either laws or regulations. It introduces the risk of arbitrary, mistaken, or prejudiced conduct in areas in which international organizations recommend the greatest liberalization, and it can cause serious harm to certain patients. Finally, it does not seem logical, for airlines learn about only a small fraction of the contagious persons who travel, and public health is much more greatly endangered by unknown contagious persons. Normal hygienic conditions aboard planes suppress the risks of contagion concerning most diseases transmitted by insects or through contact with the skin, with mucuous membranes, with the faeces, or with urine. Airlines should continue to refuse to transport only those passengers having diseases which are characterized by vomiting or serious diarrhoea or which are transmitted through the air if it is impossible by simple means to avoid the risk of contaminating other travellers and any members of the flight crew who might be receptive.

  15. Combination of medical and surgical therapy for pleuropneumonia in a horse.

    PubMed Central

    Dechan, J

    1997-01-01

    Medical management was unable to prevent the development of an extrapulmonary abscess in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with anaerobic pleuropneumonia. Intercostal thoracostomy achieved drainage of the abscess. Resolution of the abscess and subsequent bronchopleural fistulas was monitored by ultrasonography and video-endoscopy. The horse returned to training 4 mo after discharge. PMID:9262860

  16. Clonal analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae population in a geographically restricted area by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Møller, K; Nielsen, R; Andersen, L V; Kilian, M

    1992-01-01

    The genetic diversity among 250 isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from lungs of pigs with pleuropneumonia and from tonsils of apparently healthy pigs at slaughter was estimated by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The Danish strains were derived from both specific-pathogen-free and conventional herds. Sixty-six percent of the isolates belonged to three electrophoretic types (ETs) of a total of 37 ETs detected. While five biotype 2 isolates constituted a separate ET closely related to biotype 1 isolates, the type strain of the species (Shope 4074) belonged to its own ET, with a genetic distance of 0.30 from its nearest neighbor. Isolates of serotypes traditionally considered to have less pathogenic potential (serotypes 6, 10, and 12) from herds with acute outbreaks of pleuropneumonia belonged to the same ETs as isolates from apparently healthy pigs, suggesting that factors such as cross immunity and management may lead to divergent clinical results. Isolates from four herds harboring more than one serotype showed distinct profiles between the serotypes, indicating no or only limited chromosomal recombination among clones. Isolates from tonsils belonged to the same ET as isolates from lungs. The same ET was isolated from widely different parts of the world. Evidence from this study indicates that multilocus enzyme electrophoresis may be a valuable tool for the epidemiological analysis of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:1551979

  17. Apa is a trimeric autotransporter adhesin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae responsible for autoagglutination and host cell adherence.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Longwen; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Du, ChongTao; Gao, Yu; Ji, Qun; Yang, Shuxin; Wang, Yu; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng

    2012-10-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, and adherence to host cells is a key step in the pathogenic process. Although trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) were identified in many pathogenic bacteria in recent years, none in A. pleuropneumoniae have been characterized. In this study, we identified a TAA from A. pleuropneumoniae, Apa, and characterized the contribution of its amino acid residues to the adhesion process. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal amino acid residues of Apa revealed the presence of a putative translocator domain and six conserved HsfBD1-like or HsfBD2-like binding domains. Western blot analysis revealed that the 126 C-terminal amino acids of Apa could form trimeric molecules. By confocal laser scanning microscopy, one of these six domains (ApaBD3) was determined to mediate adherence to epithelial cells. Adherence assays and adherence inhibition assays using a recombinant E. coli- ApaBD3 strain which expressed ApaBD3 on the surface of E. coli confirmed that this domain was responsible for the adhesion activity. Moreover, cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that ApaBD3 mediated high-level adherence to epithelial cell lines. Intriguingly, autoagglutination was observed with the E. coli- ApaBD3 strain, and this phenomenon was dependent upon the association of the expressed ApaBD3 with the C-terminal translocator domain.

  18. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting the apxIVA gene for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wang; Pin, Chen; Haibing, Guo; Yang, Chen; Hui, Liu; Qigai, He

    2009-11-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel nucleic acid amplification method performed under isothermal conditions with high specificity and efficiency. We developed a diagnostic method based on LAMP for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Using six specific primers targeting the apxIVA gene, the LAMP assay rapidly amplified the target gene within 30 min, requiring only a laboratory water bath for the reaction to occur. The resulting amplificon was visualized by adding SYBR Green I to the mixture. The results obtained from testing 15 A. pleuropneumoniae reference strains and other seven bacterial species strains showed that the LAMP was as specific as and 10 times more sensitive than nested PCR. Sixty-five tonsil samples were collected from 65 healthy pigs. All the samples were negative for A. pleuropneumoniae by immunomagnetic separation-based (IMS) bacterial isolation, nested PCR and LAMP, respectively. Meanwhile, 115 tonsil samples were also collected from 115 pigs with apparent respiratory problems. Twenty-two were positive by IMS bacterial isolation. All the samples that were positive by IMS bacterial isolation were also positive by nested PCR and LAMP. The LAMP assay demonstrated exceptionally higher sensitivity than nested PCR by picking up 14 additional positive cases (chi(2) test, P<0.0001); we concluded that LAMP was a highly sensitive and reliable method for detection of A. pleuropneumoniae infection.

  19. Risk assessment of transmission of capsule-deficient, recombinant Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Inzana, Thomas J; Glindemann, Gretchen; Fenwick, Bradley; Longstreth, Janice; Ward, Daniel

    2004-11-30

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine pleuropneumonia. Live, non-encapsulated vaccine strains have been shown to be efficacious in preventing acute disease in pigs. Recombinant DNA technology has the advantage of generating defined mutants that are safe, but maintain critical immunoprotective components. However, some recombinant strains have the disadvantage of containing antibiotic resistance genes that could be transferred to the animal's normal bacterial flora. Using DNA allelic exchange we have constructed attenuated, capsule-deficient mutants of A. pleuropneumoniae that contain a kanamycin resistance (Kn(R)) gene within the capsule locus of the genome. Following intranasal or intratracheal challenge of pigs the encapsulated parent strains colonized the challenge pigs, and were transmitted to contact pigs. In contrast, the capsule-deficient mutants were recovered only from the challenged pigs and not from contact pigs. Each kanamycin-resistant colony type recovered from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts of pigs challenged with the recombinant strain was screened with a probe specific for the Kn(R) gene. All probe-positive colonies were assayed for the specific Kn(R) gene by amplification of a 0.9 kb fragment of the antibiotic resistance gene by PCR. The 0.9 kb fragment was amplified from the recombinant A. pleuropneumoniae colonies, but not from any of the heterologous bacteria, indicating there was no evidence of transmission of the Kn(R) gene to resident bacteria. Following aerosol exposure of 276 pigs with recombinant, non-encapsulated A. pleuropneumoniae the recombinant bacteria were not recovered from any nasal swabs of 75 pigs tested or environmental samples 18 h after challenge. Statistical risk analysis, based on the number of kanamycin-resistant colonies screened, indicated that undetected transmission of the Kn(R) gene could still have occurred in at most 1.36% of kanamycin-resistant bacteria in contact with

  20. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using an EDTA-extracted antigen for the serology of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nicolet, J; Paroz, P; Krawinkler, M; Baumgartner, A

    1981-12-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was proposed as an alternative to the complement-fixation test (CF) for the detection of antibodies of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, agent of the pleuropneumonia in pigs. In tests done with different antigen-extraction procedures (including Tween 20, sodium dodecyl sulfate, aqueous phenol, sonification, and heat treatment at 120 C), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) provided a satisfactorily reactive antigen. Chromatography purification on Sephacryl S200 improved the specificity of this antigen. Using hyperimmune rabbit sera, we investigated the specificity and the sensitivity of the ELISA with the EDTA-purified antigen of the different serotypes of H pleuropneumoniae on selected swine sera in herds with confirmed H pleuropneumoniae infection, from specific-pathogen-free animals showing doubtful CF reactions. The ELISA proved to be highly specific and more sensitive than the CF test. Furthermore, evidence of cross-reactions with H parasuis, a common bacteria isolated in swine populations, was not found.

  1. A computational strategy for the search of regulatory small RNAs in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ciro C.; Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Witney, Adam A.; Gould, Kate A.; Langford, Paul R.; Bazzolli, Denise M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and are frequently connected to the expression of virulence factors in diverse bacteria. Only a few sRNAs have been described for Pasteurellaceae pathogens and no in-depth analysis of sRNAs has been described for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, responsible for considerable losses in the swine industry. To search for sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae, we developed a strategy for the computational analysis of the bacterial genome by using four algorithms with different approaches, followed by experimental validation. The coding strand and expression of 17 out of 23 RNA candidates were confirmed by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing. Among them, two are likely riboswitches, three are housekeeping regulatory RNAs, two are the widely studied GcvB and 6S sRNAs, and 10 are putative novel trans-acting sRNAs, never before described for any bacteria. The latter group has several potential mRNA targets, many of which are involved with virulence, stress resistance, or metabolism, and connect the sRNAs in a complex gene regulatory network. The sRNAs identified are well conserved among the Pasteurellaceae that are evolutionarily closer to A. pleuropneumoniae and/or share the same host. Our results show that the combination of newly developed computational programs can be successfully utilized for the discovery of novel sRNAs and indicate an intricate system of gene regulation through sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae and in other Pasteurellaceae, thus providing clues for novel aspects of virulence that will be explored in further studies. PMID:27402897

  2. Serotype specificity and immunogenicity of the capsular polymer of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5.

    PubMed Central

    Inzana, T J; Mathison, B

    1987-01-01

    Serotyping of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae and serologic assays for detection of serotype-specific antibody are problematic due to the potential cross-reactivity of the crude antigens used for raising immune serum or for serology. The capsular polymer (CP) of H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 was investigated for serotype-specific activity with antiserum to whole cells or with antiserum made monospecific to CP by adsorption with a capsule-deficient mutant. When antiserum to whole cells or monospecific antiserum to CP was tested against purified CP from serotypes 1 to 7 by immunodiffusion or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, only capsules of serotype 5 were reactive. In addition, only encapsulated serotype 5 cells reacted with serum monospecific to CP in an indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay. Serotype-specific antibody was completely inhibited in each assay by preincubation of purified CP with the serum. Antiserum to whole cells of H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 contained antibodies to proteins and lipopolysaccharide; these antibodies cross-reacted with antigens of heterologous serotypes by dot-blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. The antigenic activity of CP was stable after heating for at least 30 min at 100 degrees C. High titers of antibody to CP were present in the sera of rabbits immunized intravenously with whole log-phase cells or in the convalescent sera of pigs experimentally infected with H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. However, the purified CP was poorly immunogenic in rabbits and swine. Our results indicate that the capsule is the serotype-specific antigen of H. pleuropneumoniae and that a monospecific antiserum to capsule or purified capsule should be used for serotyping or serologic assays, respectively. Images PMID:3110066

  3. Experimental model of swine pneumonic pasteurellosis using crude Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin and Pasteurella multocida given endobronchially.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, W B; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and characterize a swine pneumonic pasteurellosis model by concurrent introduction of Pasteurella multocida type A and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin. After a series of preliminary experiments, a combination of 4 x 10(9) P. multocida and 4,000 toxic units of A. pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin was determined to produce optimal results. A total of 48 pigs were divided into four groups of 12 pigs each. The control group received buffered saline only. Four pigs from each group were randomly selected for necropsy 3, 7 and 14 days postinoculation (PI). Inoculation of pigs with P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin (group 1) resulted in moderate to severe pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from pneumonic lesions, grossly normal lung, and bronchial lymph nodes of all group 1 pigs throughout the 14 day experimental period. Pathological changes typical of field cases of swine pneumonic pasteurellosis were produced. Pigs inoculated with P. multocida alone (group 2) had pneumonic lesions and P. multocida was reisolated from lungs at three days PI. Pasteurella multocida was not isolated from these pigs at 7 and 14 days PI, except for one pig in which an abscess developed in the thorax. Pulmonary lesions induced by A. pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin alone (group 3) were transient and resolved by seven days PI. Group 1 pigs had significantly greater lung lesion volumes than group 2 and 3 pigs at 3, 7 and 14 days PI. Statistical analysis indicated a significant interactive effect of P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin on the development of lung lesion volumes at 7 and 14 days PI (p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. PMID:8143249

  4. ICEApl1, an Integrative Conjugative Element Related to ICEHin1056, Identified in the Pig Pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Rogers, Jon; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline-resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L) serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus), conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia. PMID:27379024

  5. Identification and characterization of a DNA region involved in the export of capsular polysaccharide by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, C K; Inzana, T J

    1997-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae synthesizes a serotype-specific capsular polysaccharide that acts as a protective barrier to phagocytosis and complement-mediated killing. To begin understanding the role of A. pleuropneumoniae capsule in virulence, we sought to identify the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide export and biosynthesis. A 5.3-kb XbaI fragment of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a J45 genomic DNA that hybridized with DNA probes specific for the Haemophilus influenzae type b cap export region was cloned and sequenced. This A. pleuropneumoniae DNA fragment encoded four open reading frames, designated cpxDCBA. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of cpxDCBA contained a high degree of homology to the capsule export genes of H. influenzae type b bexDCBA, Neisseria meningitidis group B ctrABCD, and, to a lesser extent, Escherichia coli K1 and K5 kpsE and kpsMT. When present in trans, the cpxDCBA gene cluster complemented kpsM::TnphoA or kpsT::TnphoA mutations, determined by enzyme immunoassay and by restored sensitivity to a K5-specific bacteriophage. A cpxCB probe hybridized to genomic DNA from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes tested, indicating that this DNA was conserved among serotypes. These data suggest that A. pleuropneumoniae produces a group II family capsule similar to those of related mucosal pathogens. PMID:9169799

  6. ICEApl1, an Integrative Conjugative Element Related to ICEHin1056, Identified in the Pig Pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Rogers, Jon; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline-resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L) serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus), conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia. PMID:27379024

  7. Efficient detection of contagious outbreaks in massive metropolitan encounter networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Physical contact remains difficult to trace in large metropolitan networks, though it is a key vehicle for the transmission of contagious outbreaks. Co-presence encounters during daily transit use provide us with a city-scale time-resolved physical contact network, consisting of 1 billion contacts among 3 million transit users. Here, we study the advantage that knowledge of such co-presence structures may provide for early detection of contagious outbreaks. We first examine the "friend sensor" scheme--a simple, but universal strategy requiring only local information--and demonstrate that it provides significant early detection of simulated outbreaks. Taking advantage of the full network structure, we then identify advanced "global sensor sets", obtaining substantial early warning times savings over the friends sensor scheme. Individuals with highest number of encounters are the most efficient sensors, with performance comparable to individuals with the highest travel frequency, exploratory behavior and structural centrality. An efficiency balance emerges when testing the dependency on sensor size and evaluating sensor reliability; we find that substantial and reliable lead-time could be attained by monitoring only 0.01% of the population with the highest degree. PMID:24903017

  8. Evolutionary history of contagious asexuality in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Paland, Susanne; Colbourne, John K; Lynch, Michael

    2005-04-01

    Asexual taxa are short-lived, suggesting that transitions to asexuality represent evolutionary dead-ends. However, with high rates of clonal origin and coexistence of asexuals and sexuals via selective asymmetries, asexuality may persist in the long term as a result of a dynamic equilibrium between clonal origin and extinction. Few such systems have been studied in detail. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of asexual lineages of Daphnia pulex, which are derived from sexual relatives via the inheritance of a dominant female-limited meiosis-suppressing locus and inhabit ponds throughout northeastern North America (NA). Our extensive sampling and subsequent phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial sequence data reveals a young and genetically diverse asexual assemblage, reflecting high rates of clonal origin due to the contagious nature of asexuality. Yet, asexuality is restricted to two phylogroups (B and C) with historical and/or present associations with northeastern NA and is absent from a northwestern phylogroup (A), supporting a recent northeastern origin of asexuality in this species. Furthermore, macrogeographic patterns of genetic variability indicate that phylogroups B and C recolonized northeastern NA from opposite directions, yet their presently overlapping geographic distributions are similarly divided into an eastern asexual and a western sexual region. We attribute these patterns to a recent contagious spread of asexuality from a northeastern source. If environment-mediated selective asymmetries play no significant role in determining the outcome of competitive interactions between sexuals and asexuals, regions of contact may be setting the stage for continued asexual conquests.

  9. Efficient detection of contagious outbreaks in massive metropolitan encounter networks

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W.; Lee, Der-Horng; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Physical contact remains difficult to trace in large metropolitan networks, though it is a key vehicle for the transmission of contagious outbreaks. Co-presence encounters during daily transit use provide us with a city-scale time-resolved physical contact network, consisting of 1 billion contacts among 3 million transit users. Here, we study the advantage that knowledge of such co-presence structures may provide for early detection of contagious outbreaks. We first examine the “friend sensor” scheme - a simple, but universal strategy requiring only local information - and demonstrate that it provides significant early detection of simulated outbreaks. Taking advantage of the full network structure, we then identify advanced “global sensor sets”, obtaining substantial early warning times savings over the friends sensor scheme. Individuals with highest number of encounters are the most efficient sensors, with performance comparable to individuals with the highest travel frequency, exploratory behavior and structural centrality. An efficiency balance emerges when testing the dependency on sensor size and evaluating sensor reliability; we find that substantial and reliable lead-time could be attained by monitoring only 0.01% of the population with the highest degree. PMID:24903017

  10. Discrete dynamics of contagious social diseases: Example of obesity.

    PubMed

    Demongeot, J; Hansen, O; Taramasco, C

    2016-01-01

    Modeling contagious diseases needs to incorporate information about social networks through which the disease spreads as well as data about demographic and genetic changes in the susceptible population. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework (conceptualization and formalization) which seeks to model obesity as a process of transformation of one's own body determined by individual (physical and psychological), inter-individual (relational, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and others) and socio-cultural (environmental, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and his milieu) factors. Individual and inter-individual factors are tied to each other in a socio-cultural context whose impact is notably related to the visibility of anybody being exposed on the public stage in a non-contingent way. The question we are dealing with in this article is whether such kind of social diseases, i.e., depending upon socio-environmental exposure, can be considered as "contagious". In other words, can obesity be propagated from individual to individual or from environmental sources throughout an entire population?

  11. Efficient detection of contagious outbreaks in massive metropolitan encounter networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-06-06

    Physical contact remains difficult to trace in large metropolitan networks, though it is a key vehicle for the transmission of contagious outbreaks. Co-presence encounters during daily transit use provide us with a city-scale time-resolved physical contact network, consisting of 1 billion contacts among 3 million transit users. Here, we study the advantage that knowledge of such co-presence structures may provide for early detection of contagious outbreaks. We first examine the "friend sensor" scheme--a simple, but universal strategy requiring only local information--and demonstrate that it provides significant early detection of simulated outbreaks. Taking advantage of the full network structure, we then identify advanced "global sensor sets", obtaining substantial early warning times savings over the friends sensor scheme. Individuals with highest number of encounters are the most efficient sensors, with performance comparable to individuals with the highest travel frequency, exploratory behavior and structural centrality. An efficiency balance emerges when testing the dependency on sensor size and evaluating sensor reliability; we find that substantial and reliable lead-time could be attained by monitoring only 0.01% of the population with the highest degree.

  12. Discrete dynamics of contagious social diseases: Example of obesity.

    PubMed

    Demongeot, J; Hansen, O; Taramasco, C

    2016-01-01

    Modeling contagious diseases needs to incorporate information about social networks through which the disease spreads as well as data about demographic and genetic changes in the susceptible population. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework (conceptualization and formalization) which seeks to model obesity as a process of transformation of one's own body determined by individual (physical and psychological), inter-individual (relational, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and others) and socio-cultural (environmental, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and his milieu) factors. Individual and inter-individual factors are tied to each other in a socio-cultural context whose impact is notably related to the visibility of anybody being exposed on the public stage in a non-contingent way. The question we are dealing with in this article is whether such kind of social diseases, i.e., depending upon socio-environmental exposure, can be considered as "contagious". In other words, can obesity be propagated from individual to individual or from environmental sources throughout an entire population? PMID:26375495

  13. Evaluation and Field Validation of PCR Tests for Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Subclinically Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Broes, André; Harel, Josée; Kobisch, Marylène; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Eight PCR tests were evaluated for their abilities to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in swine tonsils. At first they were compared regarding their specificities by using A. pleuropneumoniae and related bacterial species and their analytical sensitivities by using tonsils experimentally infected in vitro. PCRs were carried out both directly with tonsil homogenates (direct PCR) and after culture of the sample (after-culture PCR). Most tests demonstrated good specificities; however, some tests gave false-positive results with some non-A. pleuropneumoniae species. High degrees of variation in the analytical sensitivities among the tests were observed for the direct PCRs (109 to 102 CFU/g of tonsil), whereas those of most of the after-culture PCRs were similar (102 CFU/g of tonsil). In a second phase, the effects of sample storage time and storage conditions were evaluated by using tonsils from experimentally infected animals. Storage at −20°C allowed the detection of the organism for at least 4 months. Finally, the omlA PCR test described by Savoye et al. (C. Savoye et al., Vet. Microbiol. 73:337-347, 2000) and the commercially available Adiavet App PCR test were further validated with field samples. Their effectiveness was compared to those of standard and immunomagnetic separation-based methods of bacterial isolation. In addition, a comparison of tonsil biopsy specimens (from living animals) and whole tonsils (collected at the slaughterhouse) was also conducted. A. pleuropneumoniae was neither isolated nor detected by PCR from a herd serologically negative for A. pleuropneumoniae. PCR was more sensitive than the standard isolation method with whole tonsils from three infected herds. After-culture PCR offered the highest degree of sensitivity (93 and 83% for the omlA and Adiavet App PCRs, respectively). The PCR detection rate was higher with whole tonsils than with tonsil biopsy specimens. Good agreement (κ = 0.65) was found between the presence of A

  14. Morphology of three strains of contagious equine metritis organism.

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, P J; Brown, T M; Corwin, D; Hayes, S F; Olszewski, A; Todd, W J

    1985-01-01

    Examination of recently isolated cultures of three strains of Contagious Equine Metritis Organism grown on specially formulated, serum-free, clear typing medium revealed the presence of numerous colonial opacity variants. These colonies were prepared by a number of fixation and staining techniques and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Opaque and transparent phenotypes produced copious amounts of extracellular material compared with intermediate-opacity phenotypes which produced little or none. Also unique to intermediate colonies were numerous thin intercellular strands, which may represent pili or polymers of extracellular material. The presence of an unusual fibrillar layer (with similar electron density to the extracellular material) on the outer leaf of the outer membrane also was confirmed. A number of other ultrastructural features also were noted, including an epilayer, a thin nonmembranous layer which covered colonies and adjacent agar. Images PMID:3838532

  15. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    PubMed

    Bock, Joel R; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text]) were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points), while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research. PMID:23251507

  16. Predictive Modelling of Contagious Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges “bottom up”, as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated–pre- and post-PPCDAM (“Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia”)–the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  17. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  18. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    PubMed

    Bock, Joel R; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text]) were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points), while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research.

  19. Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Atherton, Tom G; Walker, Stephanie; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2015-08-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 7.7kb mobilisable plasmid (pM3446F), isolated from a florfenicol resistant isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, showed extended similarity to plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae containing the floR gene as well as replication and mobilisation genes. Mobilisation into other Pasteurellaceae species confirmed that this plasmid can be transferred horizontally. PMID:26049592

  20. Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Atherton, Tom G; Walker, Stephanie; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Holden, Matthew TG; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 7.7 kb mobilisable plasmid (pM3446F), isolated from a florfenicol resistant isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, showed extended similarity to plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae containing the floR gene as well as replication and mobilisation genes. Mobilisation into other Pasteurellaceae species confirmed that this plasmid can be transferred horizontally. PMID:26049592

  1. Cloning and expression of a cohemolysin, the CAMP factor of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, J; Perrin, J; Nicolet, J

    1989-01-01

    The genetic determinant of the cohemolysin which is responsible for the CAMP phenomenon, a cohemolysis, of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was cloned in Escherichia coli. Total DNA from the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 type strain 4074 was used to construct a gene library in plasmid pUC18 in E. coli JM83. A total of 10,500 clones containing recombinant plasmids have been screened for hemolysis on blood plates. Fifty-five clones which showed a weak hemolytic response after 24 to 48 h of incubation were screened for the CAMP reaction with Staphylococcus aureus. This led to the identification of one clone which showed a positive CAMP reaction. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the recombinant strain expressed a protein with a molecular mass of 27,000 daltons, similar in size to the CAMP protein of the group B streptococci. Rabbit antibodies against the CAMP+ clone neutralized the CAMP reaction mediated by the E. coli strain containing the cloned CAMP gene as well as that of A. pleuropneumoniae. Antibodies raised against the cloned CAMP cohemolysin cross-reacted with Streptococcus agalactiae protein B. We designate the 27,000-dalton molecule CAMP factor protein and name its corresponding gene cfp. Images PMID:2659534

  2. Assessment of the efficacy of tilmicosin phosphate to eliminate Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from carrier pigs.

    PubMed

    Fittipaldi, N; Klopfenstein, C; Gottschalk, M; Broes, A; Paradis, M A; Dick, C P

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of in-feed medication with tilmicosin phosphate in order to eliminate or reduce the carriage of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in the tonsils of carrier pigs. Two groups of 6 carrier animals received either a non-medicated feed (control group) or feed medicated with 400 ppm of tilmicosin phosphate (treated group) for 30 d. Three sentinel pigs were then introduced in each group and left for 29 d. The presence of A. pleuropneumoniae in tonsils was monitored using several techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At the end of the treatment all of the control animals, but only 1 treated pig, were positive by PCR from tonsillar surface material. However, at necropsy, all control and most treated animals, as well as 1 sentinel animal, in both groups were positive by PCR from whole tonsils. In conclusion, under the experimental conditions, in-feed treatment with 400 ppm of tilmicosin phosphate significantly reduced the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae on the surface of tonsils but was unable to completely eliminate the organism from deeper tonsillar tissues and to prevent bacterial shedding by carrier animals.

  3. Changes in gene expression of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in response to anaerobic stress reveal induction of central metabolism and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Zhu, Jiawen; Yang, Kui; Xu, Zhuofei; Liu, Ziduo; Zhou, Rui

    2014-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Oxygen deprivation is a stress that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during both early infection and the later, persistent stage. To understand modulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression in response to the stress caused by anaerobic conditions, gene expression profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared in this study. The microarray results showed that 631 genes (27.7% of the total ORFs) were differentially expressed in anaerobic conditions. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis, carbon source uptake systems, pyruvate metabolism, fermentation and the electron respiration transport chain were up-regulated. These changes led to an increased amount of pyruvate, lactate, ethanol and acetate in the bacterial cells as confirmed by metabolite detection. Genes encoding proteins involved in cell surface structures, especially biofilm formation, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were up-regulated as well. Biofilm formation was significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that induction of central metabolism is important for basic survival of A. pleuropneumoniae after a shift to an anaerobic environment. Enhanced biofilm formation may contribute to the persistence of this pathogen in the damaged anaerobic host tissue and also in the early colonization stage. These discoveries give new insights into adaptation mechanisms of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to environmental stress.

  4. Proteomic and immunoproteomic characterization of a DIVA subunit vaccine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protection of pigs by vaccination against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is hampered by the presence of 15 different serotypes. A DIVA subunit vaccine comprised of detergent-released proteins from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2 and 5 has been developed and shown to protect pigs from clinical symptoms upon homologous and heterologous challenge. This vaccine has not been characterized in-depth so far. Thus we performed i) mass spectrometry in order to identify the exact protein content of the vaccine and ii) cross-serotype 2-D immunoblotting in order to discover cross-reactive antigens. By these approaches we expected to gain results enabling us to argue about the reasons for the efficacy of the analyzed vaccine. Results We identified 75 different proteins in the vaccine. Using the PSORTb algorithm these proteins were classified according to their cellular localization. Highly enriched proteins are outer membrane-associated lipoproteins like OmlA and TbpB, integral outer membrane proteins like FrpB, TbpA, OmpA1, OmpA2, HgbA and OmpP2, and secreted Apx toxins. The subunit vaccine also contained large amounts of the ApxIVA toxin so far thought to be expressed only during infection. Applying two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) we showed different isoforms and variations in expression levels of several proteins among the strains used for vaccine production. For detection of cross-reactive antigens we used detergent released proteins of serotype 7. Sera of pigs vaccinated with the detergent-released proteins of serotypes 1, 2, and 5 detected seven different proteins of serotype 7, and convalescent sera of pigs surviving experimental infection with serotype 7 reacted with 13 different proteins of the detergent-released proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, and 5. Conclusions A detergent extraction-based subunit vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae was characterized by mass

  5. Experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.

    PubMed

    Lance, W R; Hibler, C P; DeMartini, J

    1983-07-01

    Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with contagious ecthyma. The limited clinical responses to the virus indicated that contagious ecthyma would not seriously impact free-ranging individuals. PMID:6685778

  6. Contagious yawning and the frontal lobe: An fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Nahab, FB; Hattori, N; Saad, ZS; Hallett, M

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a slow event-related fMRI experiment with naïve subjects’ passively viewing yawn and various other control videos along with correlative behavioral testing. Specifically associated with the viewing of the contagious yawn was an area of activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest a role for the prefrontal cortex in the processing of contagious yawning, while demonstrating a unique automaticity in the processing of contagious motor programs which take place independently of mirror neuron networks. PMID:18937281

  7. Contagious Yawning and the Frontal Lobe: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Nahab, Fatta B.; Hattori, Noriaki; Saad, Ziad S.; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a slow event-related fMRI experiment with naïve subjects’ passively viewing yawn and various other control videos along with correlative behavioral testing. Specifically associated with the viewing of the contagious yawn was an area of activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest a role for the prefrontal cortex in the processing of contagious yawning, while demonstrating a unique automaticity in the processing of contagious motor programs which take place independently of mirror neuron networks. PMID:20357471

  8. Analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ArcA regulon identifies fumarate reductase as a determinant of virulence.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Falk F R; Bendallah, Ibrahim M; Bosse, Janine T; Dreckmann, Karla; Nash, John H E; Langford, Paul R; Gerlach, Gerald-F

    2008-06-01

    The ability of the bacterial pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to grow anaerobically allows the bacterium to persist in the lung. The ArcAB two-component system is crucial for metabolic adaptation in response to anaerobic conditions, and we recently showed that an A. pleuropneumoniae arcA mutant had reduced virulence compared to the wild type (F. F. Buettner, A. Maas, and G.-F. Gerlach, Vet. Microbiol. 127:106-115, 2008). In order to understand the attenuated phenotype, we investigated the ArcA regulon of A. pleuropneumoniae by using a combination of transcriptome (microarray) and proteome (two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry) analyses. We show that ArcA negatively regulates the expression of many genes, including those encoding enzymes which consume intermediates during fumarate synthesis. Simultaneously, the expression of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a component of the respiratory chain serving as a direct reduction equivalent for fumarate reductase, was upregulated. This result, together with the in silico analysis finding that A. pleuropneumoniae has no oxidative branch of the citric acid cycle, led to the hypothesis that fumarate reductase might be crucial for virulence by providing (i) energy via fumarate respiration and (ii) succinate and other essential metabolic intermediates via the reductive branch of the citric acid cycle. To test this hypothesis, an isogenic A. pleuropneumoniae fumarate reductase deletion mutant was constructed and studied by using a pig aerosol infection model. The mutant was shown to be significantly attenuated, thereby strongly supporting a crucial role for fumarate reductase in the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae infection.

  9. Transcriptional Portrait of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during Acute Disease - Potential Strategies for Survival and Persistence in the Host

    PubMed Central

    Klitgaard, Kirstine; Friis, Carsten; Jensen, Tim K.; Angen, Øystein; Boye, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene expression profiles of bacteria in their natural hosts can provide novel insight into the host-pathogen interactions and molecular determinants of bacterial infections. In the present study, the transcriptional profile of the porcine lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was monitored during the acute phase of infection in its natural host. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacterial expression profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lung lesions of 25 infected pigs were compared in samples taken 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post experimental challenge. Within 6 hours, focal, fibrino hemorrhagic lesions could be observed in the pig lungs, indicating that A. pleuropneumoniae had managed to establish itself successfully in the host. We identified 237 differentially regulated genes likely to encode functions required by the bacteria for colonization and survival in the host. This group was dominated by genes involved in various aspects of energy metabolism, especially anaerobic respiration and carbohydrate metabolism. Remodeling of the bacterial envelope and modifications of posttranslational processing of proteins also appeared to be of importance during early infection. The results suggested that A. pleuropneumoniae is using various strategies to increase its fitness, such as applying Na+ pumps as an alternative way of gaining energy. Furthermore, the transcriptional data provided potential clues as to how A. pleuropneumoniae is able to circumvent host immune factors and survive within the hostile environment of host macrophages. This persistence within macrophages may be related to urease activity, mobilization of various stress responses and active evasion of the host defenses by cell surface sialylation. Conclusions/Significance The data presented here highlight the importance of metabolic adjustments to host conditions as virulence factors of infecting microorganisms and help to provide insight into the mechanisms behind the efficient

  10. Legal briefing: coerced treatment and involuntary confinement for contagious disease.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Bughman, Heather Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving coerced treatment and involuntary confinement for contagious disease. Recent high profile court cases involving measles, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and especially Ebola, have thrust this topic back into the bioethics and public spotlights. This has reignited debates over how best to balance individual liberty and public health. For example, the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues has officially requested public comments, held open hearings, and published a 90-page report on "ethical considerations and implications" raised by "U.S. public policies that restrict association or movement (such as quarantine)." Broadly related articles have been published in previous issues of The Journal of Clinical Ethics. We categorize recent legal developments on coerced treatment and involuntary confinement into the following six categories: 1. Most Public Health Confinement Is Voluntary 2. Legal Requirements for Involuntary Confinement 3. New State Laws Authorizing Involuntary Confinement 4. Quarantine Must Be as Least Restrictive as Necessary 5. Isolation Is Justified Only as a Last Resort 6. Coerced Treatment after Persistent Noncompliance. PMID:25794297

  11. Hybridization and the Origin of Contagious Asexuality in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sen; Spitze, Ken; Ackerman, Matthew S; Ye, Zhiqiang; Bright, Lydia; Keith, Nathan; Jackson, Craig E; Shaw, Joseph R; Lynch, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Hybridization plays a potentially important role in the origin of obligate parthenogenesis (OP) in many organisms. However, it remains controversial whether hybridization directly triggers the transition from sexual reproduction to obligate asexuality or a hybrid genetic background enables asexual species to persist. Furthermore, we know little about the specific genetic elements from the divergent, yet still hybridizing lineages responsible for this transition and how these elements are further spread to create other OP lineages. In this study, we address these questions in Daphnia pulex, where cyclically parthenogenetic (CP) and OP lineages coexist. Ancestry estimates and whole-genome association mapping using 32 OP isolates suggest that a complex hybridization history between the parental species D. pulex and D. pulicaria is responsible for the introgression of a set of 647 D. pulicaria single nucleotide polymorphism alleles that show perfect association with OP. Crossing experiments using males of OP lineages and females of CP lineages strongly support a polygenic basis for OP. Single-sperm analyses show that although normal meiotic recombination occurs in the production of haploid sperm by males of OP lineages, a significant proportion of such sperm are polyploid, suggesting that the spread of asexual elements through these males (i.e., contagious asexuality) is much less efficient than previously envisioned. Although the current Daphnia genome annotation does not provide mechanistic insight into the nature of the asexuality-associated alleles, these alleles should be considered as candidates for future investigations on the genetic underpinnings of OP. PMID:26351296

  12. Hybridization and the Origin of Contagious Asexuality in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sen; Spitze, Ken; Ackerman, Matthew S; Ye, Zhiqiang; Bright, Lydia; Keith, Nathan; Jackson, Craig E; Shaw, Joseph R; Lynch, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Hybridization plays a potentially important role in the origin of obligate parthenogenesis (OP) in many organisms. However, it remains controversial whether hybridization directly triggers the transition from sexual reproduction to obligate asexuality or a hybrid genetic background enables asexual species to persist. Furthermore, we know little about the specific genetic elements from the divergent, yet still hybridizing lineages responsible for this transition and how these elements are further spread to create other OP lineages. In this study, we address these questions in Daphnia pulex, where cyclically parthenogenetic (CP) and OP lineages coexist. Ancestry estimates and whole-genome association mapping using 32 OP isolates suggest that a complex hybridization history between the parental species D. pulex and D. pulicaria is responsible for the introgression of a set of 647 D. pulicaria single nucleotide polymorphism alleles that show perfect association with OP. Crossing experiments using males of OP lineages and females of CP lineages strongly support a polygenic basis for OP. Single-sperm analyses show that although normal meiotic recombination occurs in the production of haploid sperm by males of OP lineages, a significant proportion of such sperm are polyploid, suggesting that the spread of asexual elements through these males (i.e., contagious asexuality) is much less efficient than previously envisioned. Although the current Daphnia genome annotation does not provide mechanistic insight into the nature of the asexuality-associated alleles, these alleles should be considered as candidates for future investigations on the genetic underpinnings of OP.

  13. Genetic control of contagious asexuality in the pea aphid.

    PubMed

    Jaquiéry, Julie; Stoeckel, Solenn; Larose, Chloé; Nouhaud, Pierre; Rispe, Claude; Mieuzet, Lucie; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; Legeai, Fabrice; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Prunier-Leterme, Nathalie; Tagu, Denis; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-12-01

    Although evolutionary transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction are frequent in eukaryotes, the genetic bases of such shifts toward asexuality remain largely unknown. We addressed this issue in an aphid species where both sexual and obligate asexual lineages coexist in natural populations. These sexual and asexual lineages may occasionally interbreed because some asexual lineages maintain a residual production of males potentially able to mate with the females produced by sexual lineages. Hence, this species is an ideal model to study the genetic basis of the loss of sexual reproduction with quantitative genetic and population genomic approaches. Our analysis of the co-segregation of ∼ 300 molecular markers and reproductive phenotype in experimental crosses pinpointed an X-linked region controlling obligate asexuality, this state of character being recessive. A population genetic analysis (>400-marker genome scan) on wild sexual and asexual genotypes from geographically distant populations under divergent selection for reproductive strategies detected a strong signature of divergent selection in the genomic region identified by the experimental crosses. These population genetic data confirm the implication of the candidate region in the control of reproductive mode in wild populations originating from 700 km apart. Patterns of genetic differentiation along chromosomes suggest bidirectional gene flow between populations with distinct reproductive modes, supporting contagious asexuality as a prevailing route to permanent parthenogenesis in pea aphids. This genetic system provides new insights into the mechanisms of coexistence of sexual and asexual aphid lineages.

  14. Discrete dynamics of contagious social diseases: Example of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Demongeot, J; Hansen, O; Taramasco, C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Modeling contagious diseases needs to incorporate information about social networks through which the disease spreads as well as data about demographic and genetic changes in the susceptible population. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework (conceptualization and formalization) which seeks to model obesity as a process of transformation of one's own body determined by individual (physical and psychological), inter-individual (relational, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and others) and socio-cultural (environmental, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and his milieu) factors. Individual and inter-individual factors are tied to each other in a socio-cultural context whose impact is notably related to the visibility of anybody being exposed on the public stage in a non-contingent way. The question we are dealing with in this article is whether such kind of social diseases, i.e., depending upon socio-environmental exposure, can be considered as “contagious”. In other words, can obesity be propagated from individual to individual or from environmental sources throughout an entire population? PMID:26375495

  15. Ingroup-Outgroup Bias in Contagious Yawning by Chimpanzees Supports Link to Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Matthew W.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Humans favor others seen as similar to themselves (ingroup) over people seen as different (outgroup), even without explicitly stated bias. Ingroup-outgroup bias extends to involuntary responses, such as empathy for pain. However, empathy biases have not been tested in our close primate relatives. Contagious yawning has been theoretically and empirically linked to empathy. If empathy underlies contagious yawning, we predict that subjects should show an ingroup-outgroup bias by yawning more in response to watching ingroup members yawn than outgroup. Twenty-three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from two separate groups watched videos of familiar and unfamiliar individuals yawning or at rest (control). The chimpanzees yawned more when watching the familiar yawns than the familiar control or the unfamiliar yawns, demonstrating an ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning. These results provide further empirical support that contagious yawning is a measure of empathy, which may be useful for evolutionary biology and mental health. PMID:21494669

  16. A 24-kDa cloned zinc metalloprotease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is common to all serotypes and cleaves actin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    García-Cuéllar, C; Montañez, C; Tenorio, V; Reyes-Esparza, J; Durán, M J; Negrete, E; Guerrero, A; de la Garza, M

    2000-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in swine. This bacterium secretes proteases that degrade porcine hemoglobin and IgA in vitro. To further characterize A. pleuropneumoniae proteases, we constructed a genomic library expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and selected a clone that showed proteolytic activity. The recombinant plasmid carries an 800-base pair A. pleuropneumoniae gene sequence that.codes for a 24-kDa polypeptide. A 350-base pair PstI fragment from the sequence hybridized at high stringency with DNA from 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, but not with DNA from Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida A or D, or E. coli DH5alpha, thus showing specificity for A. pleuropneumoniae. The expressed polypeptide was recognized as an antigen by convalescent-phase pig sera. Furthermore, a polyclonal antiserum developed against the purified polypeptide recognized an A. pleuropneumoniae oligomeric protein in both crude-extract and cell-free culture media. This recombinant polypeptide cleaved azocoll, gelatin, and actin. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity by diethylpyrocarbonate suggests that this polypeptide is a zinc metalloprotease. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:10805246

  17. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D. E.; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as “disease susceptibility”, in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to

  18. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    PubMed

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co

  19. Isolation and genetic characterization of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar K12:O3 strain.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    An atypical Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 12 strain, termed QAS106, was isolated from a clinical case of porcine pleuropneumonia in Japan. An immunodiffusion (ID) test identified the strain as serovar 12. However, the ID test also demonstrated that strain QAS106 shared antigenic determinants with both the serovar 3 and 15 reference strains. Strain QAS106 was positive in the capsular serovar 12-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, while the PCR toxin gene profiling and omlA PCR typing assays indicated that strain QAS106 was similar to serovar 3. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of strain QAS106 was identical with that of serovars 3 and 12, but it showed 99.7% identity with that of serovar 15. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that genes involved in biosynthesis of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of strain QAS106 were identical to those of serovar 12 at the amino acid level. On the other hand, strain QAS106 would express putative proteins involved in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-polysaccharide (O-PS), the amino acid sequences of which were identical or nearly identical to those of serovars 3 and 15. In conclusion, strain QAS106 should be recognized as K12:O3, even though typical serovar 12 strains are K12:O12. The emergence of an atypical A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 12 strain expressing a rare combination of CPS and O-PS antigens would hamper precise serodiagnosis by the use of either CPS- or LPS-based serodiagnostic methodology alone. PMID:25387844

  20. Contagious seed dispersal beneath heterospecific fruiting trees and its consequences.

    SciTech Connect

    Kwit, Charles; Levey, Douglas, J.; Greenberg, Cathyrn, H.

    2004-05-03

    Kwit, Charles, D.J. Levey and Cathryn H. Greenberg. 2004. Contagious seed dispersal beneath heterospecific fruiting trees and its consequences. Oikos. 107:303-308 A n hypothesized advantage of seed dispersal is avoidance of high per capita mortality (i.e. density-dependent mortality) associated with dense populations of seeds and seedlings beneath parent trees. This hypothesis, inherent in nearly all seed dispersal studies, assumes that density effects are species-specific. Yet because many tree species exhibit overlapping fruiting phenologies and share dispersers, seeds may be deposited preferentially under synchronously fruiting heterospecific trees, another location where they may be particularly vulnerable to mortality, in this case by generalist seed predators. We demonstrate that frugivores disperse higher densities of Cornus florida seeds under fruiting (female) I lex opaca trees than under non-fruiting (male) I lex trees in temperate hardwood forest settings in South Carolina, U SA . To determine if density of Cornus and/or I lex seeds influences survivorship of dispersed Cornus seeds, we followed the fates of experimentally dispersed Cornus seeds in neighborhoods of differing, manipulated background densities of Cornus and I lex seeds. We found that the probability of predation on dispersed Cornus seeds was a function of both Cornus and I lex background seed densities. H igher densities of I lex seeds negatively affected Cornus seed survivorship, and this was particularly evident as background densities of dispersed Cornus seeds increased. These results illustrate the importance of viewing seed dispersal and predation in a community context, as the pattern and intensity of density-dependent mortality may not be solely a function of conspecific densities.

  1. Antibody response of swine to outer membrane components of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae during infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, V J; Ross, R F

    1986-01-01

    Sera from pigs infected with Haemophilus (Actinobacillus) pleuropneumoniae were tested for antibodies to outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of the organism by immunoblotting. Convalescent sera were produced in naturally born, colostrum-fed pigs and in cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs given H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 intranasally twice at 5-week intervals. Sera, collected at weekly intervals, were reacted with Sarkosyl-insoluble, OMP-enriched preparations of H. pleuropneumoniae which had been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose. Antibodies were detected to OMPs with an apparent molecular weight of 16,500 (16.5K OMP); to 29K, 38.5K, 43.5K, 45K, 49.5K, and 66.5K OMPs; and to several high-molecular-weight (greater than or equal to 94,000) OMPs, but not to the major 42K OMP. Antibodies to the heat-modifiable OMP (29K/43.5K) and the 38.5K OMP were detected in sera from noninfected pigs. Antibodies were also detected to two broad 54,000- and 95,000-molecular-weight bands which did not stain with Coomassie blue, stained with silver nitrate, resisted proteinase K digestion, and were eliminated by oxidation with sodium metaperiodate. This indicates that the 54,000- and 95,000-molecular-weight bands represent polysaccharide, possibly capsular or lipopolysaccharide immunogens. Adsorption of sera with cells from the homologous serotype 5 strain removed antibodies to the 45K, 49.5K, 66.5K, and greater than or equal to 94K OMPs and to the two polysaccharide bands, indicating that these antibodies were directed primarily to surface-exposed epitopes. When tested with OMP preparations from other serotype 5 strains, heterogeneity was apparent, both in the reactions with OMPs and with the polysaccharide bands. Silver staining of proteinase K-treated, whole-cell lysates from serotype 5 strains also indicated variable expression of the polysaccharide bands. Sera also reacted with OMPs from

  2. Combination fibrinolytic therapy in the treatment of chronic septic pleuropneumonia in a Thoroughbred gelding.

    PubMed

    Rendle, D I; Armstrong, S K; Hughes, K J

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the treatment of a case of chronic pleuropneumonia in a 3-year-old Thoroughbred gelding. A recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tenecteplase) and a recombinant deoxyribonucleic acidase (alphadornase) were infused into the pleural cavity as adjunctive therapy in the early stages of treatment. Instillation of fibrinolytic drugs was associated with a subjective reduction in the amount of fibrin deposition and decreased fluid accumulation within the pleural cavities. Fibrinolytic therapy may be a useful adjunctive therapy in selected cases of intrapleural disease in horses. PMID:22928684

  3. Characterization of the omlA gene from different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: A new insight into an old approach

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ciro César; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares

    2013-01-01

    The OmlA protein is a virulence factor of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important pathogen in pigs. The polymorphisms present in the omlA gene sequence of 15 reference serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae and non-serotypable isolates were assessed to determine the possible evolutionary relationship among them and to validate the importance of this gene as a molecular marker for the characterization of this bacterium. Divergence among the 15 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae probably resulted initially from two major evolutionary events that led to subsequent differentiation into nine groups. This differentiation makes it possible to characterize most of the serotypes by using bionformatics, thereby avoiding problems with immunological cross-reactivity. A conserved α-helix common to all the serotypes was most likely involved in connecting the protein to the outer membrane and acting as a signal peptide. A previously unknown gene duplication was also identified and could contribute to the genetic variability that makes it difficult to serotype some isolates. Our data support the importance of the omlA gene in the biology of A. pleuropneumoniae and provide a new area of research into the OmlA protein. PMID:23885207

  4. Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs.

  5. Familiarity Bias and Physiological Responses in Contagious Yawning by Dogs Support Link to Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog’s owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects’ heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

  6. The genetic organisation of the capsule biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 6, 7, and 12.

    PubMed

    Jessing, Stine G; Ahrens, Peter; Inzana, Thomas J; Angen, Øystein

    2008-06-22

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the organisation of the genes (cps) involved in biosynthesis the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 6, 7, and 12 and to compare these to the corresponding genes previously described in other A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes. In serotypes 6 and 7 the sequenced DNA regions comprised five and four open reading frames, respectively, designated cps6ABCDE and cps7ABCD, whereas the sequenced DNA region in serotype 12 comprised only two open reading frames designated cps12AB. At the amino acid level, CpsA, CpsB, and CpsC of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 6, 7, and 8 contained a high degree of homology. At the amino acid level Cps6D revealed a high degree of homology to Cps8D, whereas Cps7D contained a high degree of homology to the Cps2D. The deduced gene product of the partially sequenced cps6E gene showed no homology to any deduced gene products of any cps genes of A. pleuropneumoniae investigated so far. None of the deduced gene products of the cps genes involved in encapsulation of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 6, 7, and 8 revealed homology to the deduced gene products of the cps genes of serotypes 1, 5A, and 12. For some genes, a local homology was found to genes probably involved in teichoic acid synthesis in other bacteria. The results obtained revealed a high degree of homology among the genes involved in CPS biosynthesis for serotypes 2, 6, 7, and 8 and a different group of homologous cps genes for serotypes 1 and 12. In some serotype 7 strains, including the serotype 7 reference strain, WF83, the cps genes were not located adjacent to the genes responsible for CPS export (cpx), probably due to genetic rearrangements.

  7. Antigenic properties of pleuropneumonia-like organisms from tissue cell cultures and the human genital area.

    PubMed

    BAILEY, J S; CLARK, H W; FELTS, W R; FOWLER, R C; BROWN, T M

    1961-10-01

    Bailey, Jack S. (George Washington University, Washington, D. C.), Harold W. Clark, William R. Felts, Richard C. Fowler, and Thomas McP. Brown. Antigenic properties of pleuropneumonia-like organisms from tissue cell cultures and the human genital area. J. Bacteriol. 82:542-547. 1961.-Antigens were prepared from several tissue culture and human genital strains of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) by a method utilizing continuous agitation of the incubating cultures. Antisera were produced in rabbits by intravenous injection of suspensions of these organisms standardized turbidimetrically. The antigenic properties of the selected strains were compared by agglutination techniques supplemented by a test based upon the inhibition of growth of PPLO by specific antisera.The majority of tissue culture strains of PPLO studied, including contaminants from several HeLa cell lines, appeared to be antigenically similar to the human type 1 strains. However, one strain (Sp-1) from a HeLa cell line was found to be related to the human type 2 PPLO.

  8. Nasal immunization with major epitope-containing ApxIIA toxin fragment induces protective immunity against challenge infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Kim, Sae-Hae; Park, Jisang; Son, Youngok; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2013-01-15

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an infective agent that leads to porcine pleuropneumonia, a disease that causes severe economic losses in the swine industry. Based on the fact that the respiratory tract is the primary site for bacterial infection, it has been suggested that bacterial exclusion in the respiratory tract through mucosal immune induction is the most effective disease prevention strategy. ApxIIA is a vaccine candidate against A. pleuropneumoniae infection, and fragment #5 (aa. 439-801) of ApxIIA contains the major epitopes for effective vaccination. In this study, we used mice to verify the efficacy of intranasal immunization with fragment #5 in the induction of protective immunity against nasal challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae and compared its efficacy with that of subcutaneous immunization. Intranasal immunization of the fragment induced significantly higher systemic and mucosal immune responses measured at the levels of antigen-specific antibodies, cytokine-secreting cells after antigen exposure, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation. Intranasal immunization not only efficiently inhibited the bacterial colonization in respiratory organs, but also prevented alveolar tissue damage in infectious condition similar to that of a contaminated pig. Moreover, intranasal immunization with fragment #5 provided acquired protective immunity against intranasal challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. In addition, it conferred cross-protection against serotype 5, a heterologous pathogen that causes severe disease by ApxI and ApxII secretion. Collectively, intranasal immunization with fragment #5 of ApxIIA can be considered an efficient protective immunization procedure against A. pleuropneumoniae infection.

  9. Catch the wave: prairie dogs assess neighbours’ awareness using contagious displays

    PubMed Central

    Hare, James F.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Senkiw, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The jump–yip display of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is contagious, spreading through a prairie dog town as ‘the wave’ through a stadium. Because contagious communication in primates serves to assess conspecific social awareness, we investigated whether instigators of jump–yip bouts adjusted their behaviour relative to the response of conspecifics recruited to display bouts. Increased responsiveness of neighbouring town members resulted in bout initiators devoting a significantly greater proportion of time to active foraging. Contagious jump–yips thus function to assess neighbours’ alertness, soliciting social information to assess effective conspecific group size in real time and reveal active probing of conspecific awareness consistent with theory of mind in these group-living rodents. PMID:24403324

  10. Catch the wave: prairie dogs assess neighbours' awareness using contagious displays.

    PubMed

    Hare, James F; Campbell, Kevin L; Senkiw, Robert W

    2014-02-22

    The jump-yip display of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is contagious, spreading through a prairie dog town as 'the wave' through a stadium. Because contagious communication in primates serves to assess conspecific social awareness, we investigated whether instigators of jump-yip bouts adjusted their behaviour relative to the response of conspecifics recruited to display bouts. Increased responsiveness of neighbouring town members resulted in bout initiators devoting a significantly greater proportion of time to active foraging. Contagious jump-yips thus function to assess neighbours' alertness, soliciting social information to assess effective conspecific group size in real time and reveal active probing of conspecific awareness consistent with theory of mind in these group-living rodents. PMID:24403324

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. PMID:24261609

  12. Serotyping reanalysis of unserotypable Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates by agar gel diffusion test

    PubMed Central

    MORIOKA, Ayako; SHIMAZAKI, Yoko; UCHIYAMA, Mariko; SUZUKI, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    We observed increasing unserotypable (UT) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates using agar gel diffusion (AGD) test. To reanalyze their serovar, we performed rapid slide agglutination (RSA) test and multiplex PCR for 47 UT isolates. Of these, 25 were serovar 1 (UT-serovar 1), 20 were serovar 2 (UT-serovar 2) and 2 were serovar 15 (UT-serovar 15). We examined serotyping antigen extraction temperature to determine heat influence. UT-serovar 1 and 15 were influenced by heat, because their precipitation lines were observed in the case of low antigen extraction temperature. To investigate the relationship between antigenicity and genotype, we performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis using UT-serovar 2 and 15. The predominant PFGE pattern of UT-serovar 2 was identical to that of serovar 2. PMID:26726101

  13. A Theory and Dynamic Model of Dyadic Interaction: Concerns, Appraisals, and Contagiousness in a Developmental Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2007-01-01

    A theory of the dynamics of dyadic interaction is presented, based on the concepts of "concern" (i.e., intentions, goals, and interests), "appraisal" and "contagiousness." Differences between children who participate in a specific interaction are linked to differences in social competence and social power. An overview is given of the social…

  14. Evidence for contagious behaviors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): an observational study of yawning and stretching.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Vicario, Shannon M; Clark, Anne B

    2012-03-01

    Yawning is contagious in humans and some non-human primates. If there are social functions to contagious behaviors, such as yawning, they might occur in other highly social vertebrates. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an observational study of yawning and an associated behavior, stretching, in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social, flock-living parrot. Flock-housed budgerigars were videotaped for 1.5h at three time-blocks during the day (early morning, afternoon and early evening), and the times of all yawns and stretches for each bird were recorded. Both yawning and stretching were temporally clumped within sessions, but were uniformly distributed across the trials of a particular time-block. This suggests that clumping was not a result of circadian patterning and that both behaviors could be contagious. There was additional evidence of contagion in stretching, which occurred in two forms - a posterior-dorsal extension of either one foot or both feet. Birds that could have observed a conspecific stretch, and that then stretched themselves within 20s, replicated the form of the earlier stretch significantly more often than expected by chance. This study provides the first detailed description of temporal patterns of yawning under social conditions in a flock-living species as well as the first support for contagious yawning and stretching in a non-primate species in a natural context. Experimental evidence will be necessary to confirm the extent of contagion in either behavior. PMID:22209955

  15. Male Yawning Is More Contagious than Female Yawning among Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Vermunt, Dorith A.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour. PMID:22808234

  16. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Vermunt, Dorith A; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour. PMID:22808234

  17. Contagious Flow: Antecedents and Consequences of Optimal Experience in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Satoris S.; Fullagar, Clive J.; Simmons, Mathias J.; Zhu, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined undergraduate student understanding of, and interest in, course material as potential antecedents to student experiences of flow within a classroom setting. In addition, the social, informative, and contagious nature of flow were examined, as was the influence of being in flow during classroom coverage of material on…

  18. Catch It If You Can: How Contagious Motivation Improves Group Projects and Course Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishen, Anjala S.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a theory-based contagious motivation model focusing on enhancing student perceptions of group projects and ultimately course satisfaction. Moreover, drawing from both pedagogical and organizational behavior literatures, a model is presented that ties together intrinsic motivation theory with social contagion and…

  19. Contagious itch: what we know and what we would like to know

    PubMed Central

    Schut, C.; Grossman, S.; Gieler, U.; Kupfer, J.; Yosipovitch, G.

    2015-01-01

    All humans experience itch in the course of their life. Even a discussion on the topic of itch or seeing people scratch can evoke the desire to scratch. These events are coined “contagious itch” and are very common. We and others have shown that videos showing people scratching and pictures of affected skin or insects can induce itch in healthy persons and chronic itch patients. In our studies, patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) were more susceptible to visual itch cues than healthy. Also, personality traits like agreeableness and public self-consciousness were associated with induced scratching in skin patients, while neuroticism correlated with induced itch in healthy subjects. The underlying course of contagious itch is not yet fully understood. It is hypothesized that there are human mirror neurons that are active when we imitate actions and/or negative affect. Until now, there has been only limited data on the mechanisms of brain activation in contagious itch though. We have barely begun to understand the underlying physiological reactions and the triggering factors of this phenomenon. We summarize what we currently know about contagious itch and provide some suggestions what future research should focus on. PMID:25717300

  20. Tissue reaction and immunity in swine immunized with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae vaccines.

    PubMed

    Willson, P J; Rossi-Campos, A; Potter, A A

    1995-10-01

    These studies were done to develop a subunit vaccine for swine that would protect against disease, but not create unacceptable tissue reactions at the immunization site. Swine were used to evaluate the local effects of subunit vaccines prepared from extracts of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 containing one of a wide variety of adjuvants. The antigen was an anionic fraction of a saline extract of A. pleuropneumoniae (ANEX). The adjuvants used were vegetable oils (peanut, sesame, canola, or corn oils, vitamin E, or Lipposyn II emulsion); mineral oil (Marcol-52) and other materials (aluminum hydroxide, polyethylene glycol, Quil-A, Amphigen, or Emulsigen-Plus). Two types of experiments were done. In the 1st set of experiments, pigs were given multiple simultaneous injections in different sites and euthanized on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, or 28. Tissues were examined for gross and histopathological lesions. In the 2nd set of experiments, 48 pigs were allocated to 6 groups and vaccinated twice with a vaccine containing ANEX antigen combined with one of various adjuvants. Antibody responses and protection from challenge were evaluated. Among the adjuvants that were tested, mineral oils induced protective immunity, although the mineral oil Marcol-52 resulted in severe tissue reactions. The vegetable oils induced little protective immunity, and some of them were quite irritating. The response to the other materials ranged from little irritation or protection induced by the vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide to effective protection without irritation after vaccination with ANEX/Amphigen or ANEX/Emulsigen-Plus combinations. In conclusion, swine were protected against disease by a subunit vaccine that did not create unacceptable tissue reaction at the immunization site.

  1. Tissue reaction and immunity in swine immunized with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Willson, P J; Rossi-Campos, A; Potter, A A

    1995-01-01

    These studies were done to develop a subunit vaccine for swine that would protect against disease, but not create unacceptable tissue reactions at the immunization site. Swine were used to evaluate the local effects of subunit vaccines prepared from extracts of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 containing one of a wide variety of adjuvants. The antigen was an anionic fraction of a saline extract of A. pleuropneumoniae (ANEX). The adjuvants used were vegetable oils (peanut, sesame, canola, or corn oils, vitamin E, or Lipposyn II emulsion); mineral oil (Marcol-52) and other materials (aluminum hydroxide, polyethylene glycol, Quil-A, Amphigen, or Emulsigen-Plus). Two types of experiments were done. In the 1st set of experiments, pigs were given multiple simultaneous injections in different sites and euthanized on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, or 28. Tissues were examined for gross and histopathological lesions. In the 2nd set of experiments, 48 pigs were allocated to 6 groups and vaccinated twice with a vaccine containing ANEX antigen combined with one of various adjuvants. Antibody responses and protection from challenge were evaluated. Among the adjuvants that were tested, mineral oils induced protective immunity, although the mineral oil Marcol-52 resulted in severe tissue reactions. The vegetable oils induced little protective immunity, and some of them were quite irritating. The response to the other materials ranged from little irritation or protection induced by the vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide to effective protection without irritation after vaccination with ANEX/Amphigen or ANEX/Emulsigen-Plus combinations. In conclusion, swine were protected against disease by a subunit vaccine that did not create unacceptable tissue reaction at the immunization site. PMID:8548692

  2. Modeling the Effect of Herd Immunity and Contagiousness in Mitigating a Smallpox Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Graeden, Ellie; Fielding, Russel; Steinhouse, Kyle E; Rubin, Ilan N

    2015-07-01

    The smallpox antiviral tecovirimat has recently been purchased by the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile. Given significant uncertainty regarding both the contagiousness of smallpox in a contemporary outbreak and the efficiency of a mass vaccination campaign, vaccine prophylaxis alone may be unable to control a smallpox outbreak following a bioterror attack. Here, we present the results of a compartmental epidemiological model that identifies conditions under which tecovirimat is required to curtail the epidemic by exploring how the interaction between contagiousness and prophylaxis coverage of the affected population affects the ability of the public health response to control a large-scale smallpox outbreak. Each parameter value in the model is based on published empirical data. We describe contagiousness parametrically using a novel method of distributing an assumed R-value over the disease course based on the relative rates of daily viral shedding from human and animal studies of cognate orthopoxvirus infections. Our results suggest that vaccination prophylaxis is sufficient to control the outbreak when caused either by a minimally contagious virus or when a very high percentage of the population receives prophylaxis. As vaccination coverage of the affected population decreases below 70%, vaccine prophylaxis alone is progressively less capable of controlling outbreaks, even those caused by a less contagious virus (R0 less than 4). In these scenarios, tecovirimat treatment is required to control the outbreak (total number of cases under an order of magnitude more than the number of initial infections). The first study to determine the relative importance of smallpox prophylaxis and treatment under a range of highly uncertain epidemiological parameters, this work provides public health decision-makers with an evidence-based guide for responding to a large-scale smallpox outbreak.

  3. Experimental parapoxvirus infection (contagious ecthyma) in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten; Klein, Jörn; Berger, Therese; Josefsen, Terje D; das Neves, Carlos G; Oksanen, Antti; Åsbakk, Kjetil

    2013-03-23

    Contagious ecthyma (contagious pustular dermatitis, orf) occurs world-wide in sheep and goats and is caused by orf virus (genus Parapoxvirus, family Poxviridae). Contagious ecthyma outbreaks have been described in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Sweden, Finland and Norway, occasionally with high mortality. Fourteen one-year-old reindeer were corralled in mid-April. One week after arrival, two animals received a commercial live orf virus vaccine for sheep (Scabivax(®)) on scarified skin of the medial thigh. Four weeks later, the two vaccinated and six additional animals were inoculated in scarified oral mucosa with parapoxvirus obtained from reindeer with clinical contagious ecthyma. The remaining six reindeer were kept as sentinels, sharing feed and water with the inoculated animals. A small whitish lesion appeared on the inoculation site and the labial skin-mucosa junction of three animals five days post inoculation (p.i.). Twelve days p.i., typical ecthyma lesions were visible on the inoculation site in six of eight animals, including both vaccinees. Four inoculated animals (including both vaccinees) and one sentinel seroconverted 12 days p.i., and five animals (including one sentinel) seroconverted 20 days p.i. No contagious ecthyma-like lesions were detected in the sentinels. All animals were euthanized at 26-29 days p.i. Histological examination of lesions showed proliferative dermatitis with epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, intra-epithelial pustules and ulcers. Orf virus DNA was detected in mandibular lymph nodes, tonsils and mucosal lesions of four animals, including one sentinel, which showed that virus transmission took place. The commercial orf virus vaccine may be difficult to administer due to the need for close-cropping and its zoonotic nature, and did not indicate significant protection, although the latter has to be verified with a larger number of animals.

  4. Antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-infected and bacterin-vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Furesz, S E; Mallard, B A; Bossé, J T; Rosendal, S; Wilkie, B N; MacInnes, J I

    1997-01-01

    Current porcine pleuropneumonia bacterins afford only partial protection by decreasing mortality but not morbidity. In order to better understand the type(s) of immune response associated with protection, antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) were compared for piglets before and after administration of a commercial bacterin, which confers partial protection, or a low-dose (10(5) CFU/ml) aerosol challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae CM5 (LD), which induces complete protection. Control groups received phosphate-buffered saline or adjuvant. Serum antibody response, antibody avidity, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and lymphocyte blastogenic responses were measured and compared among treatment groups to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsular polysaccharide (CPS), hemolysin (HLY), and outer membrane proteins (OMP) of A. pleuropneumoniae. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and sera were collected prior to and following primary and secondary immunization-infection and high-dose A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 (10(7) CFU/ml) aerosol challenge. Serum antibody and DTH, particularly that to HLY, differed significantly between treatment groups, and increases were associated with protection. LD-infected piglets had higher antibody responses (P < or = 0.01) and antibody avidity (P < or = 0.10) than bacterin-vaccinated and control groups. Anti-HLY antibodies were consistently associated with protection, whereas anti-LPS and anti-CPS antibodies were not. LD-infected animals had higher DTH responses, particularly to HLY, than bacterin-vaccinated pigs (P < or = 0.03). The LD-infected group maintained consistent blastogenic responses to HLY, LPS, CPS, and OMP over the course of infection, unlike the bacterin-vaccinated and control animals. These data suggest that the immune responses induced by a commercial bacterin are very different from those induced by LD aerosol infection and that current bacterins may be modified, for instance, by addition of HLY, so as to

  5. Purification and characterization of a protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1, an antigen common to all the serotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Guerrero, A L; García, R M; Reyes, M E; de la Garza, M

    1998-01-01

    A high molecular-mass proteolytic enzyme of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1, was purified from culture supernatants (CSN) by using DEAE-cellulose and sepharose-4B-gelatin chromatography. In 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with porcine gelatin, the protease showed a single band of activity of > 200 kDa. However, minor molecular-mass proteolytic bands were observed when the protease was electrophoresed in the presence of either 5% beta-mercaptoethanol, 50 mM dithiothreitol, or 0.25 M urea. Furthermore, when the > 200-kDa purified protein was passed through a sucrose gradient, several bands with proteolytic activity were found: 62, 90, 190, and 540 kDa. The proteolytic activity was increased in the presence of calcium or zinc and was not affected after being heated at 90 degrees C for 5 min. Proteolytic activities were also observed in CSN from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes and biotypes. The purified protease hydrolyzed porcine IgA and IgG in vitro. In addition, by immunoblot the protease was recognized by serum of naturally infected pigs with serotypes 1 and 5, and by serum of pigs experimentally infected with serotypes 1, 2, 8, or 9. Serum of a pig vaccinated with CSN of a serotype 3 strain also recognized the protease, but not sera of pigs vaccinated with a bacterin (serotype 1). Proteins from CSN of all the serotypes, which were precipitated with 70% (NH4)2SO4, were recognized by a polyclonal antibody raised against the purified protease. Taken together these results indicate that an antigenic protease is produced in vivo by all the serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. The results indicate that proteases could have a role in the disease and in the immune response of pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae. Images Figure 2A. Figure 2B. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5A. Figure 5B. Figure 6A. Figure 6B. PMID:9684047

  6. Viability of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in frozen pig lung samples and comparison of different methods of direct diagnosis in fresh samples.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, C B; Rodriguez Barbosa, J I; Gonzalez, O R; Tascon, R I; Rodriguez Ferri, E F

    1992-04-01

    A comparative study on different methods of diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from both fresh and frozen pig lungs is described. A total of 196 lung tissues with pneumonic lesions were examined for culture isolation on chocolate blood agar, as well as for antigen detection by means of the coagglutination test, the immunodiffusion test and the indirect ELISA. These samples were subsequently frozen for 1 yr and then they were recultured. A. pleuropneumoniae was recovered from fresh lung specimens in 30 cases (15.3%) and from frozen samples in only two cases (0.9%). Such a different degree of isolation demonstrates that long freezing had an adverse effect on the viability of this organism in lung samples. A pleuropneumoniae detection was positive in 134 samples (68.4%) by at least one of the immunological techniques examined. The indirect ELISA was the most sensitive and specific test, with antigen detected in 125 lungs (63.8%). In comparison with the coagglutination and immunodiffusion tests, the sensitivities of the indirect ELISA were 95.8 and 93.7%, and the specificities were 67.0 and 63.4%, respectively.

  7. Cloning and characterization of the gene coding for NADPH-sulfite reductase hemoprotein from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and use of the protein product as a vaccine.

    PubMed

    Willson, P J; Gerlach, G F; Klashinsky, S; Potter, A A

    2001-10-01

    An expression library was constructed from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 clinical isolate and screened with serum produced in pigs that had been vaccinated with the anionic fraction of a sodium chloride extract. One E. coli transformant was isolated that produced a large amount of a protein with an electrophoretic mobility of about 67,000 molecular mass. The A. pleuropneumoniae-derived DNA encoding the protein was localized and characterized by restriction enzyme digestion and nucleotide sequence analysis which showed strong homology with the cysI gene of E. coli. One open reading frame of 1764 bases in length was detected which encoded a cysI protein from serotype 1, with a calculated molecular mass of 66,678. The DNA encoding the protein was labeled with radio-isotope and the homologous gene was isolated from an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a library. The serotype 5a gene was the same length, but the cysI protein from serotype 5a was slightly larger (66,849) due to 8 substitutions in the amino acid sequence. Expression plasmids containing cysI from either serotype of A. pleuropneumoniae complemented an E. coli cysI mutant. Pigs vaccinated with the recombinant cysI were protected from challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae of the homologous serotype.

  8. [The contagious behavior model on the basis of rat drinking behavior].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, D G; Semenov, A N; Krupina, N A

    2014-01-01

    In work, the attempt of contagious behavior modeling on the basis of rat drinking behavior was made. Rats' behavior was observed in home cage with two bottles. The rat without drinking motivation (viewer) was placed in the cage for adaptation. The rat-demonstrator was placed into the same cage 3 minutes later. If the viewer was tested with drink-motivated demonstrator, it had less latency of approach to bottles, higher frequency of approaches and increased drinking behavior time than the rat tested with unmotivated demonstrator or the rat tested without demonstrator. The intragastric infusion of coffee increased frequency of approaches to demonstrated bottle. Phenazepam intragastric injection decreased frequency of approaches and drinking behavior time at demonstrated bottle. The results suggest that drugs may affect rat contagious behavior based on drinking behavior.

  9. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to a 110,000-molecular-weight hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, J N; Inzana, T J

    1990-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect swine antibody to a 110,000-molecular-weight hemolysin (110K hemolysin) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal or mouse monoclonal immunoglobulin G to the hemolysin of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 strain J45, followed by hemolysin-rich concentrated culture supernatant, was used to bind swine antibody to hemolysin to microdilution plates. Sixty-nine serum samples from swine that were clinically normal, presented with clinical evidence of pleuropneumonia, were experimentally immunized or challenged, or were free of pleuropneumonia were tested, and their ELISA titers were compared with complement fixation (CF) titers. On the basis of serum samples from swine that were clinically normal and negative by CF, an ELISA titer of 1:320 or greater was considered positive. In comparison with CF, the sensitivity of the ELISA was 98.1% and the specificity was 90%. The two samples negative by CF and positive by indirect ELISA were, however, also positive for antibody to serotype 5 capsule by ELISA. Immunization of normal pigs with whole cells or purified hemolysin boosted titers 4- to 128-fold within 4 weeks. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the affinity-purified immunoglobulin G to hemolysin used for capture in the assay recognized only a 110K protein of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 to 7, although the reactivity was quantitatively variable between serotypes. Therefore, the indirect ELISA is capable of identifying animals infected with or exposed to most, if not all, serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. If an indirect ELISA titer of 1:320 or greater is considered positive, the assay can be a valuable diagnostic tool in both clinical and research laboratories. Images PMID:2380363

  10. Aerosol exposure of pigs to viable or inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 induces antibodies in bronchoalveolar lining fluids and serum, and protects against homologous challenge.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Ganter, M; Petzoldt, K

    1995-11-01

    A dose-defined nose-only inhalation system for pigs was used to study the immunogenic and protective potentials of a single aerosol application of viable or killed Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9. Respiratory volumes were measured for each pig to calculate inhaled individual doses. Eight pigs inhaled 107 CFU A. pleuropneumoniae CVI 13261 reference strain for serotype 9. Another eight pigs received an identical dose of killed actinobacilli. After three weeks the pigs and nonexposed controls were challenged with 108 CFU of the homologous strain by aerosol. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) in pigs was performed during the experiment to obtain lavage samples for assessment of local antibodies. Isotype-specific antibody responses in serum and BAL fluids were measured by ELISAs based on whole-cell antigens. The protective efficacy of aerosol immunization was evaluated by clinical and post-mortem examinations. The controls developed fever and severe pleuropneumonia, whereas previously exposed pigs had less fever and less extensive gross pulmonary lesions. After the first aerosol exposure pulmonary IgM, and IgG antibodies reactive with A. pleuropneumoniae increased significantly in both aerosol exposed groups. IgA in BALF and serum concentrations of each Ig class were significantly increased in the group exposed to viable bacteria when compared to the non-exposed controls. After aerosol challenge a pronounced increase of systemic and pulmonary IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies was detected in both exposure groups. Aerosol application of whole-cell A. pleuropneumoniae bacterins induced similar protective effects against aerosol challenge infection as administration of an identical dose of viable bacteria. Inhalation of A. pleuropneumoniae may lead to asymptomatic carriers in some pigs that could spread the disease under field conditions.

  11. The Lon protease homologue LonA, not LonC, contributes to the stress tolerance and biofilm formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Yanhe; Zhou, Long; Liu, Shuanghong; Liu, Siguo; Wang, Chunlai

    2016-04-01

    Lon proteases are a family of ATP-dependent proteases that are involved in the degradation of abnormal proteins in bacteria exposed to adverse environmental stress. An analysis of the genome sequence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae revealed the unusual presence of two putative ATP-dependent Lon homologues, LonA and LonC. Sequence comparisons indicated that LonA has the classical domain organization of the LonA subfamily, which includes the N-terminal domain, central ATPase (AAA) domain, and C-terminal proteolytic (P) domain. LonC belongs to the recently classified LonC subfamily, which includes Lon proteases that contain neither the N-terminal domain of LonA nor the transmembrane region that is present only in LonB subfamily members. To investigate the roles of LonA and LonC in A. pleuropneumoniae, mutants with deletions in the lonA and lonC genes were constructed. The impaired growth of the △lonA mutant exposed to low and high temperatures and osmotic and oxidative stress conditions indicates that the LonA protease is required for the stress tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Furthermore, the △lonA mutant exhibited significantly reduced biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain. However, no significant differences in stress responses or biofilm formation were observed between the △lonC mutant and the wild-type strain. The △lonA mutant exhibited reduced colonization ability and attenuated virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in the BALB/c mouse model compared to the wild-type strain. Disruption of lonC gene did not significantly influence the colonization and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae. The data presented in this study illustrate that the LonA protease, but not the LonC protease, is required for the stress tolerance, biofilm formation and pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae.

  12. Laboratory generation of new parthenogenetic lineages supports contagious parthenogenesis in Artemia

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Francisco; Hontoria, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2014-01-01

    Contagious parthenogenesis—a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring—is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages. Populations of the parthenogenetic diploid brine shrimp Artemia produce fully functional males in low proportions. The evolutionary role of these so-called Artemia rare males is, however, unknown. Here we investigate whether new parthenogenetic clones could be obtained in the laboratory by mating these rare males with sexual females. We assessed the survival and sex ratio of the hybrid ovoviviparous offspring from previous crosses between rare males and females from all Asiatic sexual species, carried out cross-mating experiments between F1 hybrid individuals to assess their fertility, and estimated the viability and the reproductive mode of the resulting F2 offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the parentage of hybrid parthenogenetic F2. Our study documents the first laboratory synthesis of new parthenogenetic lineages in Artemia and supports a model for the contagious spread of parthenogenesis. Our results suggest recessive inheritance but further experiments are required to confirm the likelihood of the contagious parthenogenesis model. PMID:25024909

  13. Auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): first evidence for social modulation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karine; Bessa, Joana; de Sousa, Liliana

    2012-07-01

    Dogs' capacity to 'catch' human yawns has recently attracted the attention of researchers in the field of animal cognition. Following recent studies suggesting that contagion yawning in humans, and some other primates, is empathy-related, some authors have considered the possibility that the same mechanism may underlie contagious yawning in dogs. To date, however, no positive evidence has been found, and more parsimonious hypotheses have been put forward. The present study explored the 'contagion-only' hypothesis by testing whether the mere sound of a human yawn can be sufficient to elicit yawning in dogs, in a way that is unaffected by social-emotional factors. Unexpectedly, results showed an interesting interplay between contagion and social effects. Not only were dogs found to catch human yawns, but they were also found to yawn more at familiar than unfamiliar yawns. Although not allowing for conclusive inferences about the mechanisms underlying contagious yawning in dogs, this study provides first data that renders plausible empathy-based, emotionally connected, contagious yawning in these animals.

  14. Oral immunization of pigs with viable or inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 induces pulmonary and systemic antibodies and protects against homologous aerosol challenge.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Petzoldt, K; Lubitz, W

    1995-08-01

    A dose-defined aerosol infection of pigs was used to study the immunogenic and protective potentials of oral immunization with dead or live Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 reference strain CVI 13261 against an aerogenic challenge. Pigs were vaccinated with a single dose of 10(11) CFU of viable (n = 8) or inactivated (n = 8) A. pleuropneumoniae given orally in a gelatin capsule. After 3 weeks, vaccinated pigs and nonvaccinated controls were challenged aerogenically with a dose of 10(8) CFU of A. pleuropneumoniae CVI 13261. The protective efficacy of oral immunization was evaluated by clinical and postmortem examinations. Bronchoalveolar lavage in pigs was performed during the experiment to obtain lavage samples for assessment of local antibodies. Isotype-specific antibody responses in sera and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on whole-cell antigen. Oral immunization did not induce clinical side effects. After aerosol challenge, two animals of both vaccinated groups (25% in each case) showed a moderate fever for 2 days, whereas all four pigs (100%) of the nonvaccinated control group developed severe fever. In contrast to the controls, which developed severe pleuropneumonia, the vaccinated pigs had only mild pulmonary lesions. Three weeks after challenge, 13 of 16 vaccinated pigs (81%) were found to be free of pathomorphological changes of the lungs. From two of these pigs immunized with live bacteria we were able to reisolate A. pleuropneumoniae. A significant systemic and pulmonary increase in the concentrations of immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG antibodies reactive with A. pleuropneumoniae was detectable after aerosol challenge in both vaccinated groups. Immunization with viable bacteria was found to induce significantly higher concentrations of each Ig isotype in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and sera than immunization with inactivated A. pleuropneumoniae. These serological findings were

  15. Detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Stenbaek, E I; De LaSalle, F; Gottschalk, M

    1997-01-01

    An inhibition enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of antibodies against A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 (App-5) in pig sera, based on the inhibition of the binding of an App-5 specific monoclonal antibody was established. The monoclonal antibody (MAb 210-F11) was found to be directed against an epitope on the O-chain of App-5 LPS. In the inhibition EIA, highly purified App-5 LPS was used to coat microtitre plates. Serial dilutions of pig sera were added to the plates prior to the addition of the MAb 210-F11. The degree of binding of App-5 antibodies from pig sera was determined as the percentage inhibition of the MAb 210-F11. Pig serum from specific pathogen free (SPF) herds, from experimentally infected animals, and from acutely and chronically infected herds were tested. A serum dilution of 1/30 was found to be optimal, when using 50% inhibition as the discriminating inhibition percentage. No cross-reactivity was observed with serum from pigs infected with other App serotypes or bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract, such as A. suis and H. parasuis. The inhibition EIA will be used for surveillance of App-5 antibodies in SPF and conventional herds. Images Figure 1. PMID:9008793

  16. [Generation of nalidixic acid-resistant strains and signature-tagged mutants of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Shang, Lin; Li, Wei; Li, Liangjun; Li, Lu; Zhang, Sihua; Li, Tingting; Li, Yaokun; Liu, Lei; Guo, Zhiwei; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2008-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a very important respiratory pathogen for swine and causes great economic losses in pig industry worldwide. Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is an effective method to identify virulence genes in bacteria. In this study, we selected nalidixic acid-resistant strains of APP serotypes 1 and 3 by in vitro cultivation, and used as receipt strains for constructing transposon mutants by mating with E. coli CC 118 lambdapir or S17-1 lambdapir containing mini-Tn10 tag plasmids pLOF/TAG1-48, with or without the help of E. coli DH5alpha (pRK2073). We screened mutant strains by antibiotics selection, PCR and Southern blot identification. Our data revealed that nalidixic acid-resistance of APP strains could easily be induced in vitro and the resistance was due to the mutation in the DNA gyrase A subunit gene gyrA. In the mating experiments, the bi-parental mating was more effective and easier than tri-parental mating. Different APP strains showed a different mating and transposon efficiency in the bi-parental mating, with the strains of serotype 1 much higher than serotype 3 and the reference strain of serotype 3 higher than the field strains. These data were helpful for the construction of STM mutants and pickup of virulence genes of APP. PMID:18338580

  17. Individual variation in contagious yawning susceptibility is highly stable and largely unexplained by empathy or other known factors.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Alex J; Cirulli, Elizabeth T

    2014-01-01

    The contagious aspect of yawning is a well-known phenomenon that exhibits variation in the human population. Despite the observed variation, few studies have addressed its intra-individual reliability or the factors modulating differences in the susceptibility of healthy volunteers. Due to its obvious biological basis and impairment in diseases like autism and schizophrenia, a better understanding of this trait could lead to novel insights into these conditions and the general biological functioning of humans. We administered 328 participants a 3-minute yawning video stimulus, a cognitive battery, and a comprehensive questionnaire that included measures of empathy, emotional contagion, circadian energy rhythms, and sleepiness. Individual contagious yawning measurements were found to be highly stable across testing sessions, both in a lab setting and if administered remotely online, confirming that certain healthy individuals are less susceptible to contagious yawns than are others. Additionally, most individuals who failed to contagiously yawn in our study were not simply suppressing their reaction, as they reported not even feeling like yawning in response to the stimulus. In contrast to previous studies indicating that empathy, time of day, or intelligence may influence contagious yawning susceptibility, we found no influence of these variables once accounting for the age of the participant. Participants were less likely to show contagious yawning as their age increased, even when restricting to ages of less than 40 years. However, age was only able to explain 8% of the variability in the contagious yawn response. The vast majority of the variability in this extremely stable trait remained unexplained, suggesting that studies of its inheritance are warranted.

  18. Postantibiotic and physiological effects of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin at subminimal and suprainhibitory concentrations on some swine and bovine respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1999-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin on some important gram-negative swine and bovine pathogens namely, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were studied in vitro. The effect of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and sub-MICs (1/4, 1/2 MIC) on bacterial growth was evaluated. The presence of tilmicosin, tylosin and apramycin in the medium decreased the rate of growth of the bacterial strains tested using drug concentrations as low as 1/4 MIC. The postantibiotic effect (PAE) which is the suppression of optimal bacterial growth that persists after a short exposure (2 h) of microorganisms to an antibiotic was studied by exposure of bacteria to drugs at 1/4, 1/2, 1, 4 and 8 times MIC. The duration of PAEs increased with rising concentration for all drugs tested but at concentrations below the MIC, tilmicosin showed more significant PAEs than tylosin or apramycin against P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae. Tilmicosin and tylosin caused PAEs of up to 8 h when used at 8 times the MIC, while apramycin caused PAEs of up to 5 h when used at this concentration. Sub-MICs of either tilmicosin, tylosin, or apramycin had no effect on P. multocida dermonecrotic toxin production. However sub-MICs of tylosin, or apramycin significantly reduced the haemolytic activity of A. pleuropneumoniae and affected the capsular material production of this isolate and of one isolate of P. multocida (type A). The in vitro effect of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin (even when used at sub-MIC levels) on growth, production of capsular material, and haemolytic activity might impair the virulence of some of the microorganisms studied. In addition to the effects of these drugs on some putative virulence factors, we suggest that the strong PAEs caused by tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin may also contribute to the in vivo efficacy of these drugs. PMID:10461841

  19. Postantibiotic and physiological effects of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin at subminimal and suprainhibitory concentrations on some swine and bovine respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1999-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin on some important gram-negative swine and bovine pathogens namely, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were studied in vitro. The effect of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and sub-MICs (1/4, 1/2 MIC) on bacterial growth was evaluated. The presence of tilmicosin, tylosin and apramycin in the medium decreased the rate of growth of the bacterial strains tested using drug concentrations as low as 1/4 MIC. The postantibiotic effect (PAE) which is the suppression of optimal bacterial growth that persists after a short exposure (2 h) of microorganisms to an antibiotic was studied by exposure of bacteria to drugs at 1/4, 1/2, 1, 4 and 8 times MIC. The duration of PAEs increased with rising concentration for all drugs tested but at concentrations below the MIC, tilmicosin showed more significant PAEs than tylosin or apramycin against P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae. Tilmicosin and tylosin caused PAEs of up to 8 h when used at 8 times the MIC, while apramycin caused PAEs of up to 5 h when used at this concentration. Sub-MICs of either tilmicosin, tylosin, or apramycin had no effect on P. multocida dermonecrotic toxin production. However sub-MICs of tylosin, or apramycin significantly reduced the haemolytic activity of A. pleuropneumoniae and affected the capsular material production of this isolate and of one isolate of P. multocida (type A). The in vitro effect of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin (even when used at sub-MIC levels) on growth, production of capsular material, and haemolytic activity might impair the virulence of some of the microorganisms studied. In addition to the effects of these drugs on some putative virulence factors, we suggest that the strong PAEs caused by tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin may also contribute to the in vivo efficacy of these drugs.

  20. Oral and aerosol immunization with viable or inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bacteria: antibody response to capsular polysaccharides in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and sera of pigs.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Pabst, R; Bunka, S; Petzoldt, K

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the antibody response after local application of lung-pathogenic bacteria, pigs were immunized with viable or inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by the oral and aerogenous route. After 3 weeks class-specific immunoglobulins against purified A. pleuropneumoniae capsular polysaccharides (CP) were determined in serum and BALF by ELISA. A significant increase of IgA antibodies was found in BALF but not in sera of all immunized pigs. Oral immunization with viable A. pleuropneumoniae and aerosol immunization with either viable or inactivated bacteria resulted in a significant increase of IgG antibodies to the CP antigen in BALF, whereas only aerosol exposure to viable bacteria resulted in a significant increase in IgG antibodies in serum. A significant increase in anti-CP IgM in BALF was observed after aerosol exposure but not after oral immunization. IgM antibodies towards CP increased significantly by both routes of immunization with viable bacteria. The anti-CP activity of all three isotypes in sera and BALF was low in all groups compared with the positive controls, although inoculation of viable A. pleuropneumoniae led to higher levels of antibody concentration than inactivated bacteria. Our results indicate a traffic of primed lymphocytes from the gut into the bronchoalveolar airways and further support the hypothesis that polysaccharide-specific B cells may functionally mature at the mucosal surfaces.

  1. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kusiluka, L J; Semuguruka, W D; Kazwala, R R; Ojeniy, B; Friis, N F

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia involving about 1200 goats in the Coast and Morogoro regions of eastern Tanzania is reported. The major clinical findings were severe respiratory distress, fever, mucopurulent nasal discharge and high mortality involving all age groups and both sexes of goats. The morbidity and mortality rates were 45%-90% and 14%-50%, respectively. The principal pathological lesions were confined to the thoracic cavity and comprised hydrothorax and serofibrinous pleuropneumonia. The histopathological features consisted of a necrotizing fibrinous pleuropneumonia characterized by different degrees of vasculitis, and fibrinocellular exudation into the alveolar septae and lumina, and into interlobular septae and pleura. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were isolated from some of the examined goats including a case with a sequestrum which yielded Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type. This work reports the first description of an outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania in which M. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type were concurrently isolated.

  2. Adh enhances Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity by binding to OR5M11 and activating p38 which induces apoptosis of PAMs and IL-8 release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Che, Yanyi; Sun, Changjiang; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Richard, Paul Langford; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-04-05

    Members of the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin (TAA) family play a crucial role in the adhesion of Gram-negative pathogens to host cells, but the immunopathogenesis of TAAs remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that Adh from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is required for full bacterial pathogenicity. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against respiratory infections. This study compared the interactions between porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae (5b WT) or an Adh-deletion strain (5b ΔAdh) via gene microarray, immunoprecipitation and other technologies. We found that Adh was shown to interact with the PAMs membrane protein OR5M11, an olfactory receptor, resulting in the high-level secretion of IL-8 by activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequently, PAMs apoptosis via the activation of the Fax and Bax signaling pathways was observed, followed by activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3. The immunological pathogenic roles of Adh were also confirmed in both murine and piglets infectious models in vivo. These results identify a novel immunological strategy for TAAs to boost the pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. Together, these datas reveal the high versatility of the Adh protein as a virulence factor and provide novel insight into the immunological pathogenic role of TAAs.

  3. Adh enhances Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity by binding to OR5M11 and activating p38 which induces apoptosis of PAMs and IL-8 release

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Che, Yanyi; Sun, Changjiang; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Richard, Paul Langford; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin (TAA) family play a crucial role in the adhesion of Gram-negative pathogens to host cells, but the immunopathogenesis of TAAs remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that Adh from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is required for full bacterial pathogenicity. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against respiratory infections. This study compared the interactions between porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae (5b WT) or an Adh-deletion strain (5b ΔAdh) via gene microarray, immunoprecipitation and other technologies. We found that Adh was shown to interact with the PAMs membrane protein OR5M11, an olfactory receptor, resulting in the high-level secretion of IL-8 by activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequently, PAMs apoptosis via the activation of the Fax and Bax signaling pathways was observed, followed by activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3. The immunological pathogenic roles of Adh were also confirmed in both murine and piglets infectious models in vivo. These results identify a novel immunological strategy for TAAs to boost the pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. Together, these datas reveal the high versatility of the Adh protein as a virulence factor and provide novel insight into the immunological pathogenic role of TAAs. PMID:27046446

  4. Hierarchical mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal in complex seed-disperser networks.

    PubMed

    Fedriani, José M; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    Intra- and interspecific spatially contagious seed dispersal has far-reaching implications for plant recruitment, distribution, and community assemblage. However, logistical and analytical limitations have curtailed our understanding concerning the mechanisms and resulting spatial patterns of contagious seed dispersal in most systems and, especially, in complex seed-disperser networks. We investigated mechanisms of seed aggregation using techniques of spatial point pattern analysis and extensive data sets on mutispecific endozoochorous seed rain generated by five frugivorous mammals in three Mediterranean shrublands over two seasons. Our novel analytical approach revealed three hierarchical and complementary mechanisms of seed aggregation acting at different levels (fecal samples, seeds, pairs of seed species) and spatial scales. First, the three local guilds of frugivores tended to deliver their feces highly aggregated at small and intermediate spatial scales, and the overall pattern of fecal delivery could be described well by a nested double-cluster Thomas process. Second, once the strong observed fecal aggregation was accounted for, the distribution of mammal feces containing seeds was clustered within the pattern of all feces (i.e., with and without seeds), and the density of fecal samples containing seeds was higher than expected around other feces containing seeds in two out of the three studied seed-disperser networks. Finally, at a finer level, mark correlation analyses revealed that for some plant species pairs, the number of dispersed seeds was positively associated either at small or large spatial scales. Despite the relatively invariant patterning of nested double-clustering, some attributes of endozoochorous seed rain (e.g., intensity, scales of aggregation) were variable among study sites due to changes in the ecological context in which seeds and their dispersers interact. Our investigation disentangles for the first time the hierarchy of synergic

  5. Using friends as sensors to detect global-scale contagious outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Cebrian, Manuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global-scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global-scale networks. PMID:24718030

  6. Using Friends as Sensors to Detect Global-Scale Contagious Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Cebrian, Manuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global–scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global–scale networks. PMID:24718030

  7. Using friends as sensors to detect global-scale contagious outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Cebrian, Manuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global-scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global-scale networks.

  8. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  9. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  10. Pleural effusion associated with acute and chronic pleuropneumonia and pleuritis secondary to thoracic wounds in horses: 43 cases (1982-1992).

    PubMed

    Collins, M B; Hodgson, D R; Hutchins, D R

    1994-12-15

    Case records of 43 horses with pleural effusion associated with acute pleuropneumonia, chronic pleuropneumonia, or pleuritis secondary to a penetrating thoracic wound were reviewed to determine the predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. Acute pleuropneumonia was diagnosed in 36 horses, the majority of which were Thoroughbreds (89%). Of 22 (61%) horses that were in race training at the onset of illness, 11 (31%) had been recently transported a long distance and 4 (11%) had evidence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Physical examination findings and hematologic data were nonspecific. The most consistent abnormality was hyperfibrino-genemia. Affected horses were treated with antibiotics, thoracic drainage, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care. Twenty-two (61%) horses were discharged from the hospital, with the mean duration of hospitalization for those discharged being 23 days. Nine (25%) horses were euthanatized and 5 (14%) died. Bacterial culturing of thoracic fluid resulted in growth in 30 of the 36 (83%) horses. The finding of anaerobic bacteria in thoracic fluid was not associated with a lower survival rate (62%) than the overall survival rate (61%). Four horses with chronic pleuropneumonia had a history of lethargy and inappetence for > 2 weeks. Actinobacillus equuli was isolated, either alone or in combination with other bacteria, from thoracic fluid of these 4 horses. Each horse was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and made a rapid recovery. Three horses with acute pleuritis secondary to penetrating thoracic wounds also had nonspecific clinical signs, apart from the wound and a large volume of pleural effusion. Bacteriologic isolates from these horses differed slightly from those of horses with acute pleuropneumonia. PMID:7744650

  11. Molecular Analysis of an Alternative N-Glycosylation Machinery by Functional Transfer from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Naegeli, Andreas; Neupert, Christine; Fan, Yao-Yun; Lin, Chia-Wei; Poljak, Kristina; Papini, Anna Maria; Schwarz, Flavio; Aebi, Markus

    2014-01-01

    N-Linked protein glycosylation is a frequent post-translational modification that can be found in all three domains of life. In a canonical, highly conserved pathway, an oligosaccharide is transferred by a membrane-bound oligosaccharyltransferase from a lipid donor to asparagines in the sequon NX(S/T) of secreted polypeptides. The δ-proteobacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae encodes an unusual pathway for N-linked protein glycosylation. This pathway takes place in the cytoplasm and is mediated by a soluble N-glycosyltransferase (NGT) that uses nucleotide-activated monosaccharides to glycosylate asparagine residues. To characterize the process of cytoplasmic N-glycosylation in more detail, we studied the glycosylation in A. pleuropneumoniae and functionally transferred the glycosylation system to Escherichia coli. N-Linked glucose specific human sera were used for the analysis of the glycosylation process. We identified autotransporter adhesins as the preferred protein substrate of NGT in vivo, and in depth analysis of the modified sites in E. coli revealed a surprisingly relaxed peptide substrate specificity. Although NX(S/T) is the preferred acceptor sequon, we detected glycosylation of alternative sequons, including modification of glutamine and serine residues. We also demonstrate the use of NGT to glycosylate heterologous proteins. Therefore, our study could provide the basis for a novel route for the engineering of N-glycoproteins in bacteria. PMID:24275653

  12. Experimental Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Strains L20 and JL03 Heptosyltransferases, Evidence for a New Heptosyltransferase Signature Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally identified the activities of six predicted heptosyltransferases in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae genome serotype 5b strain L20 and serotype 3 strain JL03. The initial identification was based on a bioinformatic analysis of the amino acid similarity between these putative heptosyltrasferases with others of known function from enteric bacteria and Aeromonas. The putative functions of all the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae heptosyltrasferases were determined by using surrogate LPS acceptor molecules from well-defined A. hydrophyla AH-3 and A. salmonicida A450 mutants. Our results show that heptosyltransferases APL_0981 and APJL_1001 are responsible for the transfer of the terminal outer core D-glycero-D-manno-heptose (D,D-Hep) residue although they are not currently included in the CAZY glycosyltransferase 9 family. The WahF heptosyltransferase group signature sequence [S(T/S)(GA)XXH] differs from the heptosyltransferases consensus signature sequence [D(TS)(GA)XXH], because of the substitution of D261 for S261, being unique. PMID:23383222

  13. Susceptibility testing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Denmark. Evaluation of three different media of MIC-determinations and tablet diffusion tests.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, F M; Jensen, N E

    1999-02-12

    This study was conducted to compare the applicability of three different media in sensitivity testing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by means of MIC and tablet diffusion tests. The media used were: modified PPLO agar, chocolatized Mueller-Hinton-II and Columbia agar supplemented with NAD. Seven antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, trimethoprim + sulfadiazine and tylosin, against 40 randomly selected A. pleuropneumoniae isolates. In general, good agreement was found between results obtained with all combinations of media, most antimicrobials tested and the two-test systems. Some variations between media were observed for spectinomycin, tiamulin and tylosin. For ceftiofur and trimethoprim + sulfadiazine some isolates with low MIC-values were classified as resistant using tablet diffusion, indicating that the break points of resistance for these antimicrobials using the tablet diffusion tests need adjustment. Using current break points for resistance with MIC-determinations, all isolates tested susceptible to ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, penicillin, tiamulin and trimethoprim + sulfadiazine. A larger number of isolates tested resistant to spectinomycin and tylosin on all three media using both MIC determinations and tablet diffusion. PMID:10063535

  14. Genomic relatedness among Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field strains of sterotypes 1 and 5 isolated from healthy and diseased pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Chatellier, S; Harel, J; Dugourd, D; Chevallier, B; Kobisch, M; Gottschalk, M

    1999-01-01

    Forty-four Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates recovered from both healthy and diseased pigs were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and apx toxin gene typing. Nine RAPD types and 14 PFGE patterns were identified. No common RAPD or PFGE patterns were found between strains of serotype 1 and those of serotype 5. The RAPD analysis indicated that the 15 serotype 1 strains isolated from diseased pigs were assigned to 4 RAPD types, with 66% of strains characterized by the same RAPD type. By contrast, the 5 strains of serotype 1 isolated from healthy carriers were dispersed in 4 RAPD types. These data suggest that the diversity of strains isolated from healthy pigs could be higher than that of strains recovered from diseased pigs. In addition, all serotype 5 strains exhibited a unique RAPD type. Unlike RAPD, PFGE analysis allowed discrimination among isolates of serotype 1 and among those of serotype 5. All but 3 isolates showed the same apx genotype as their respective serotype reference strain. These data indicate that RAPD analysis is a valuable rapid tool for routine subtyping of strains of serotype 1. For strains of serotype 5, a combination of several typing methods, such as PFGE and apx gene typing, is needed to provide useful information on the molecular epidemiology of swine pleuropneumonia. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:10480458

  15. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Possesses an Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Jacques, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon γ. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24878741

  16. Emission of alarm pheromone in aphids: a non-contagious phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, F J; Mescher, M C; Haubruge, E; Moraes, C M; Schwartzberg, E G

    2008-09-01

    In response to attack by natural enemies, most aphid species release an alarm pheromone that causes nearby conspecifics to cease feeding and disperse. The primary component of the alarm pheromone of most species studied is (E)-beta-farnesene. We recently demonstrated that the production and accumulation of (E)-beta-farnesene during development by juvenile aphids is stimulated by exposure to odor cues, most likely by (E)-beta-farnesene emitted by other colony members. Here, we tested whether the release of (E)-beta-farnesene can be triggered by exposure to the alarm pheromone of other individuals, thereby amplifying the signal. Such contagious emission might be adaptive under some conditions because the amount of (E)-beta-farnesene released by a single aphid may not be sufficient to alert an appropriate number of individuals of the colony to the presence of a potential threat. By using a push-pull headspace collection system, we quantified (E)-beta-farnesene released from Acyrthosiphon pisum aphids exposed to conspecific alarm signals. Typical avoidance behavior was observed following exposure to (E)-beta-farnesene (i.e., aphids ceased feeding and dropped from host-plant); however, no increase in alarm pheromone amount was detected, suggesting that contagious release of (E)-beta-farnesene does not occur.

  17. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Verma, Amit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease. PMID:25097796

  18. Mirror neuron activity during contagious yawning--an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Herwig, Uwe; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-03-01

    Yawning is contagious. However, little research has been done to elucidate the neuronal representation of this phenomenon. Our study objective was to test the hypothesis that the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is activated by visually perceived yawning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain activity during contagious yawning (CY). Signal-dependent changes in blood oxygen levels were compared when subjects viewed videotapes of yawning faces as opposed to faces with a neutral expression. In response to yawning, subjects showed unilateral activation of their Brodmann's area 9 (BA 9) portion of the right inferior frontal gyrus, a region of the MNS. In this way, two individuals could share physiological and associated emotional states based on perceived motor patterns. This is one component of empathy (motor empathy) that underlies the development of cognitive empathy. The BA 9 is reportedly active in tasks requiring mentalizing abilities. Our results emphasize the connection between the MNS and higher cognitive empathic functions, including mentalizing. We conclude that CY is based on a functional substrate of empathy. PMID:22772979

  19. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; de Farias, Francisca Lucélia Ribeiro; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%), three (3.2%) with hepatitis C, two (2.2%) with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers. PMID:26771625

  20. Mirror neuron activity during contagious yawning--an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Herwig, Uwe; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-03-01

    Yawning is contagious. However, little research has been done to elucidate the neuronal representation of this phenomenon. Our study objective was to test the hypothesis that the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is activated by visually perceived yawning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain activity during contagious yawning (CY). Signal-dependent changes in blood oxygen levels were compared when subjects viewed videotapes of yawning faces as opposed to faces with a neutral expression. In response to yawning, subjects showed unilateral activation of their Brodmann's area 9 (BA 9) portion of the right inferior frontal gyrus, a region of the MNS. In this way, two individuals could share physiological and associated emotional states based on perceived motor patterns. This is one component of empathy (motor empathy) that underlies the development of cognitive empathy. The BA 9 is reportedly active in tasks requiring mentalizing abilities. Our results emphasize the connection between the MNS and higher cognitive empathic functions, including mentalizing. We conclude that CY is based on a functional substrate of empathy.

  1. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; de Farias, Francisca Lucélia Ribeiro; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde

    2016-01-01

    This study’s objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%), three (3.2%) with hepatitis C, two (2.2%) with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers. PMID:26771625

  2. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Mourits, M C M; van Asseldonk, M A P M; Huirne, R B M

    2010-09-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy that best meets all of the conflicting interests. The presented application focused on the evaluation of alternative strategies to control Classical Swine Fever (CSF) epidemics within the European Union (EU) according to the preferences of the European Chief Veterinary Officers (CVO). The performed analysis was centred on the three high-level objectives of epidemiology, economics and social ethics. The appraised control alternatives consisted of the EU compulsory control strategy, a pre-emptive slaughter strategy, a protective vaccination strategy and a suppressive vaccination strategy. Using averaged preference weights of the elicited CVOs, the preference ranking of the control alternatives was determined for six EU regions. The obtained results emphasized the need for EU region-specific control. Individual CVOs differed in their views on the relative importance of the various (sub)criteria by which the performance of the alternatives were judged. Nevertheless, the individual rankings of the control alternatives within a region appeared surprisingly similar. Based on the results of the described application it was concluded that the structuring feature of the MCDM technique provides a suitable tool in assisting the complex decision making process of controlling contagious animal diseases.

  3. Auditory Contagious Yawning in Humans: An Investigation into Affiliation and Status Effects

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Church, Allyson M.; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    While comparative research on contagious yawning has grown substantially in the past few years, both the interpersonal factors influencing this response and the sensory modalities involved in its activation in humans remain relatively unknown. Extending upon previous studies showing various in-group and status effects in non-human great apes, we performed an initial study to investigate how the political affiliation (Democrat vs. Republican) and status (high vs. low) of target stimuli influences auditory contagious yawning, as well as the urge to yawn, in humans. Self-report responses and a subset of video recordings were analyzed from 118 undergraduate students in the US following exposure to either breathing (control) or yawning (experimental) vocalizations paired with images of former US Presidents (high status) and their respective Cabinet Secretaries of Commerce (low status). The overall results validate the use of auditory stimuli to prompt yawn contagion, with greater response in the experimental than the control condition. There was also a negative effect of political status on self-reported yawning and the self-reported urge to yawn irrespective of the condition. In contrast, we found no evidence for a political affiliation bias in this response. These preliminary findings are discussed in terms of the existing comparative evidence, though we highlight limitations in the current investigation and we provide suggestions for future research in this area. PMID:26617557

  4. A generic model of contagious disease and its application to human-to-human transmission of avian influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Gary B.

    2007-03-01

    Modeling contagious diseases has taken on greater importance over the past several years as diseases such as SARS and avian influenza have raised concern about worldwide pandemics. Most models developed to consider projected outbreaks have been specific to a single disease. This paper describes a generic System Dynamics contagious disease model and its application to human-to-human transmission of a mutant version of avian influenza. The model offers the option of calculating rates of new infections over time based either on a fixed ''reproductive number'' that is traditional in contagious disease models or on contact rates for different sub-populations and likelihood of transmission per contact. The paper reports on results with various types of interventions. These results suggest the potential importance of contact tracing, limited quarantine, and targeted vaccination strategies as methods for controlling outbreaks, especially when vaccine supplies may initially be limited and the efficacy of anti-viral drugs uncertain.

  5. Contagious Fire? An Empirical Assessment of the Problem of Multi-Shooter, Multi-Shot Deadly Force Incidents in Police Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael D.; Klinger, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent police shootings in which multiple officers fired numerous rounds at suspects have led some observers to assert that such situations involve "contagious fire," where an initial officer's shots launch a cascade of gunfire from other officers present. Although there is anecdotal recognition of the contagious fire phenomenon among police and…

  6. A case of contagious toxicity? Isoprostanes as potential emerging contaminants of concern.

    PubMed

    Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2016-08-01

    Isoprostanes are useful biomarkers of human and animal health, being representative of oxidative stress processes, and having biological impacts associated with toxicity and disease. Isoprostanes are also chemically stable, a property facilitating population-level health assessments through wastewater sampling. However, as biologically-active entities, the presence of isoprostanes in domestic effluents could have toxic impacts on biota in receiving environments. As such it is proposed that isoprostanes are emerging organic contaminants of particular concern. Fish and aquatic invertebrates may be affected by the presence of isoprostanes in wastewaters through mechanisms such as reproductive impairment, cardiovascular disturbance and/or oxidative stress. This would represent a unique scenario of "contagious" toxicity, whereby human health has a direct toxicological consequence on aquatic animal health. PMID:27102276

  7. Contagious ecthyma in bighorn sheep and mountain goat in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Samuel, W M; Chalmers, G A; Stelfox, J G; Loewen, A; Thomsen, J J

    1975-01-01

    Contagious ecthyma (CE) is reported in bighorn sheep (Ovis c. canadensis) from several national parks in western Canada and in moutain goat (Oreamnos americanus) from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. (This is the first report of CE in mountain goat.) Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology, transmission experiments and the demonstration of a proxvirus with the electron microscope. The infection was transmitted from wild to domestic goat, but not to domestic sheep. Most infections, some of them severe, were found in lambs and kids. Clinical signs of disease were similar to those seen in domestic sheep and goats. General body condition was poor and animals had difficulty feeding normally. All infected herds had prolonged contact with areas where salt was provided artificially (i.e., salt blocks, highways and campgrounds). Fewer infected sheep were observed annually when salt blocks were removed from Jasper National Park.

  8. What Do Children Learn about Biology from Factual Information? A Comparison of Interventions to Improve Understanding of Contagious Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myant, Katherine A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children have been shown to hold misconceptions about illness, and previous work has indicated that their knowledge can be improved through the use of interventions. Aims: This study aims to evaluate interventions based on the provision of factual information for improving understanding of contagious illness. Sample: The participants…

  9. An Observational Investigation of Behavioral Contagion in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for Contagious Scent-Marking.

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gallup, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance, and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioral contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing, and scent-marking. We coded these behaviors from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-min observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday, and afternoon) to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns/h) and very little stretching behavior. For all other behaviors, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status) predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, which almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviors in marmosets. PMID:27563294

  10. An Observational Investigation of Behavioral Contagion in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for Contagious Scent-Marking

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance, and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioral contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing, and scent-marking. We coded these behaviors from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-min observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday, and afternoon) to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns/h) and very little stretching behavior. For all other behaviors, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status) predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, which almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviors in marmosets. PMID:27563294

  11. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus: Subtyping, evolution, and zoonotic transfer.

    PubMed

    Boss, R; Cosandey, A; Luini, M; Artursson, K; Bardiau, M; Breitenwieser, F; Hehenberger, E; Lam, Th; Mansfeld, M; Michel, A; Mösslacher, G; Naskova, J; Nelson, S; Podpečan, O; Raemy, A; Ryan, E; Salat, O; Zangerl, P; Steiner, A; Graber, H U

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies using ribosomal spacer (RS)-PCR, however, demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections are genetically heterogeneous, with Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and GTC being the most prominent genotypes. Furthermore, Staph. aureus GTB was found to be contagious, whereas Staph. aureus GTC and all the remaining genotypes were involved in individual cow disease. In addition to RS-PCR, other methods for subtyping Staph. aureus are known, including spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). They are based on sequencing the spa and various housekeeping genes, respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare the 3 analytic methods using 456 strains of Staph. aureus isolated from milk of bovine intramammary infections and bulk tanks obtained from 12 European countries. Furthermore, the phylogeny of animal Staph. aureus was inferred and the zoonotic transfer of Staph. aureus between cattle and humans was studied. The analyzed strains could be grouped into 6 genotypic clusters, with CLB, CLC, and CLR being the most prominent ones. Comparing the 3 subtyping methods, RS-PCR showed the highest resolution, followed by spa typing and MLST. We found associations among the methods but in many cases they were unsatisfactory except for CLB and CLC. Cluster CLB was positive for clonal complex (CC)8 in 99% of the cases and typically positive for t2953; it is the cattle-adapted form of CC8. Cluster CLC was always positive for tbl 2645 and typically positive for CC705. For CLR and the remaining subtypes, links among the 3 methods were generally poor. Bovine Staph. aureus is highly clonal and a few clones predominate. Animal Staph. aureus always evolve from human strains, such that every human strain may be the ancestor of a novel animal-adapted strain. The zoonotic transfer of IMI- and milk-associated strains

  12. Immunological study of an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium expressing ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA and OmpA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang-Youel; Choi, Yoonyoung; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium strain expressing the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae antigens, ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA and OmpA, was previously constructed as a vaccine candidate for porcine pleuropneumonia. This strain was a live attenuated (∆lon∆cpxR∆asd)Salmonella as a delivery host and contained a vector containing asd. An immunological study of lymphocyte proliferation, T-lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in the splenocytes of a mouse model was carried out after stimulation with the candidate Salmonella Typhimurium by intranasal inoculation. The splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-12 of the inoculated mice were significantly increased, and the T- and B-cell populations were also elevated. Collectively, the candidate may efficiently induce the Th1- and Th2-type immune responses.

  13. Genetic and antigenic characteristics of ApxIIA and ApxIIIA from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 15.

    PubMed

    To, Ho; Nagai, Shinya; Iwata, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Oshima, Atsushi; Tsutsumi, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Apx toxins produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae are essential components of new generation vaccines. In this study, apxIIA and apxIIIA genes of serovars 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 15 were cloned and sequenced. Amino acid sequences of ApxIIA proteins of serovars 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 15 were almost identical to those of serovars 1, 5, 7, 9 and 11-13. Immunoblot analysis showed that rApxIIA from serovars 2 and 15 reacts strongly with sera from animals infected with various serovars. Sequence analysis revealed that ApxIIIA proteins has two variants, one in strains of serovar 2 and the other in strains of serovars 3, 4, 6, 8 and 15. A mouse cross-protection study showed that mice actively immunized with rApxIIIA/2 or rApxIIIA/15 are protected against challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae strains of serovars 3, 4, 6, 8, 15, and 2 expressing ApxIII/15 and ApxIII/2, respectively. Similarly, mice passively immunized with rabbit anti-rApxIIIA/2 or anti-rApxIIIA/15 sera were found to be protected against challenge with strains of serovars 2 and 15. Our study revealed antigenic and sequence similarities within ApxIIA and ApxIIIA proteins, which may help in the development of effective vaccines against disease caused by A. pleuropneumoniae.

  14. The Live Attenuated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Triple-Deletion Mutant ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1 Strain, SLW05, Immunizes Pigs against Lethal Challenge with Haemophilus parasuis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shulin; Ou, Jiwen; Zhang, Minmin; Xu, Juan; Liu, Huazhen; Liu, Jinlin; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae both belong to the family Pasteurellaceae and are major respiratory pathogens that cause large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. We previously constructed an attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 live vaccine prototype, SLW05 (ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1), which is able to produce nontoxic but immunogenic ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA. This triple-deletion mutant strain was shown to elicit protective immunity against virulent A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we investigated whether immunization with SLW05 could also protect against lethal challenge with virulent H. parasuis SH0165 (serovar 5) or MD0322 (serovar 4). The SLW05 strain was found to elicit a strong humoral antibody response in pigs and to confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of H. parasuis SH0165 or MD0322. IgG subtype analysis revealed that SLW05 induces a bias toward a Th1-type immune response and stimulates interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production. Moreover, antisera from SLW05-vaccinated pigs efficiently inhibited both A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis growth in a whole-blood assay. This is the first report that a live attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae vaccine with SLW05 can protect against lethal H. parasuis infection, which provides a novel approach for developing an attenuated H. parasuis vaccine. PMID:23220998

  15. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen.

  16. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen. PMID:26854346

  17. [Structural requirements for the management of patients with highly contagious life-threatening infectious diseases: update 2015].

    PubMed

    Grünewald, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The care of highly contagious life-threatening infectious diseases (HLID) requires specialized treatment facilities that are capable of strict isolation measures and appropriate medical treatment. The German approach to the management of these diseases, which is maintained by the Permanent Working Group of Medical Competence and Treatment Centers for Highly Contagious and Life-Threatening Diseases (STAKOB) is adjusted in the present publication with regards to recent experiences and upcoming needs. Clear synergies in using infrastructures and bundling of resources have led to similar efforts at the European level. The German concept, therefore, has a pioneering role. This update is intended to improve professional patient care and also minimize the risk of disease spread and transmission.

  18. Familiarity-connected or stress-based contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris)? Some additional data.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karine; Bessa, Joana; de Sousa, Liliana

    2013-11-01

    The present short note aimed at further exploring data from a recent study showing socially modulated auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Two independent observers further extended the analysis of all video recordings made in the previous study and coded both the number of yawns performed by the dogs and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors exhibited throughout the presentation of familiar and unfamiliar yawns. By showing no significant difference between conditions in the frequencies or durations of the coded behaviors, nor any association between the number of yawns and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors, results raised doubt on the stress-induced yawn hypothesis, thus supporting social modulation. The exact mechanism underlying contagious yawning, however, needs further research.

  19. 21 CFR 522.313b - Ceftiofur hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bacterial pneumonia) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD, shipping fever, pneumonia) associated with...

  20. Evolution of a contagious cancer: epigenetic variation in Devil Facial Tumour Disease.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Peck, Sarah; Harmsen, Collette; Taylor, Robyn; Pyecroft, Stephen; Madsen, Thomas; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a highly contagious cancer, is driving Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) to extinction. The cancer is a genetically and chromosomally stable clonal cell line which is transmitted by biting during social interactions. In the present study, we explore the Devil Facial Tumour (DFT) epigenome and the genes involved in DNA methylation homeostasis. We show that tumour cells have similar levels of methylation to peripheral nerves, the tissue from which DFTD originated. We did not observe any strain or region-specific epimutations. However, we revealed a significant increase in hypomethylation in DFT samples over time (p < 0.0001). We propose that loss of methylation is not because of a maintenance deficiency, as an upregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 gene was observed in tumours compared with nerves (p < 0.005). Instead, we believe that loss of methylation is owing to active demethylation, supported by the temporal increase in MBD2 and MBD4 (p < 0.001). The implications of these changes on disease phenotypes need to be explored. Our work shows that DFTD should not be treated as a static entity, but rather as an evolving parasite with epigenetic plasticity. Understanding the role of epimutations in the evolution of this parasitic cancer will provide unique insights into the role of epigenetic plasticity in cancer evolution and progression in traditional cancers that arise and die with their hosts.

  1. Presence of contagious agalactia causing mycoplasmas in Spanish goat artificial insemination centres.

    PubMed

    Amores, J; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; De la Fe, C

    2011-04-15

    Male goats admitted to artificial insemination centres come from herds that have shown no clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia (CA) for the last 6 mo. However, prior reports suggest that this control measure may not be completely effective. This study was designed to detect the presence of CA-causing mycoplasmas in 9 Spanish centres, comprising 159 goats (147 males and 12 teaser does) of 8 different breeds. A microbiological study was conducted during 8 mo on 448 samples (318 ear swabs, 119 semen samples and 11 milk samples). In 86 samples (84 swabs, 1 semen sample and 1 milk sample), CA-causative mycoplasmas were detected by PCR or culture, and 52 animals (49 goat males and 3 teaser does) tested positive. Most of these positive animals were auricular carriers (n = 50), mainly of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), although some M. agalactiae (Ma) and, interestingly, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) carriers were also identified. At least 1 animal infected by CA-causing mycoplasmas was detected in 8 of the 9 centres (88.8%) although in most (66.7%) no infected animals or only 1 or 2 positive animals were identified. Our results indicate the presence of CA carriers as asymptomatic animals in reproductive programmes. These findings have already prompted efficient measures to detect and avoid the entry of these carriers in Spanish centres. We recommend similar measures for all centres in areas where CA is endemic.

  2. Prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk in Québec.

    PubMed

    Francoz, David; Bergeron, Luc; Nadeau, Marie; Beauchamp, Guy

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mycoplasma, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in bulk tank milk (BTM) in Québec dairy herds. BTM was sampled 3 times a month in 117 randomly selected dairy herds. Samples were submitted for S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and mycoplasma and for direct mycoplasma detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mycoplasma spp. was identified at least once in 3 herds (2.6%) by primary culture and/or PCR and in 4 herds (3.4%) by enrichment culture and/or PCR. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated at least once in 99 (84.6%) and 112 (95.7%) herds in primary culture and after enrichment, respectively. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated at least once in 9 (7.7%) and 10 (8.6%) herds in primary culture and after enrichment, respectively. Herd prevalence of mycoplasma was similar to that previously reported in Canada. Staphylococcus aureus is still by far the most important contagious mastitis pathogen. PMID:23543925

  3. Cross-border collaboration in the field of highly contagious livestock diseases: a general framework for policy support.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-08-01

    This paper analyses the potential gains and the main challenges for increased cross-border collaboration in the control of highly contagious livestock diseases in regions with cross-border reliance on production and consumption of livestock commodities. The aim of this intensification of cross-border collaboration is to retain the economic advantages of cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities while maintaining a low risk of highly contagious livestock diseases. From these two foci, possibilities for future policy making with respect to highly contagious livestock diseases are discussed: peacetime cross-border cooperation to improve the cost-effectiveness of routine veterinary measures and crisis time cross-border harmonization of current disease control strategies. A general disease management framework was used to describe the way in which these two fields are related to and affect the epidemiological system and, consequently, how they impact the stakeholders. In addition to this framework, the importance of a good understanding of influencing factors, that is, the production structure of livestock, was stressed because these factors are important determinants of the frequency and magnitude of highly contagious livestock diseases and their economic impact. The use of the suggested integrated approach was illustrated for the extended cross-border region of the Netherlands and Germany, that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. For this region, current difficulties in cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities and possibilities for future cross-border collaboration were examined. The concepts and ideas presented in this paper should foster future development of cross-border collaboration in animal health control.

  4. Cross-border collaboration in the field of highly contagious livestock diseases: a general framework for policy support.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-08-01

    This paper analyses the potential gains and the main challenges for increased cross-border collaboration in the control of highly contagious livestock diseases in regions with cross-border reliance on production and consumption of livestock commodities. The aim of this intensification of cross-border collaboration is to retain the economic advantages of cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities while maintaining a low risk of highly contagious livestock diseases. From these two foci, possibilities for future policy making with respect to highly contagious livestock diseases are discussed: peacetime cross-border cooperation to improve the cost-effectiveness of routine veterinary measures and crisis time cross-border harmonization of current disease control strategies. A general disease management framework was used to describe the way in which these two fields are related to and affect the epidemiological system and, consequently, how they impact the stakeholders. In addition to this framework, the importance of a good understanding of influencing factors, that is, the production structure of livestock, was stressed because these factors are important determinants of the frequency and magnitude of highly contagious livestock diseases and their economic impact. The use of the suggested integrated approach was illustrated for the extended cross-border region of the Netherlands and Germany, that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. For this region, current difficulties in cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities and possibilities for future cross-border collaboration were examined. The concepts and ideas presented in this paper should foster future development of cross-border collaboration in animal health control. PMID:23066698

  5. Protein Crystal Bovine Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Bovine Insulin space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). Facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  6. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  7. [Bovine spongiform encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, G

    2001-01-01

    An histórical and conceptual review is made about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or mad cows disease and an epidemiological analysis as a present and future health problem. This analysis of BSE should not be negative, considering the truths that we know today. PMID:11783042

  8. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  9. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  10. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal. PMID:23670215

  11. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal.

  12. Contagious Deposition of Seeds in Spider Monkeys' Sleeping Trees Limits Effective Seed Dispersal in Fragmented Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Escobar, Federico; Rös, Matthias; Oyama, Ken; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Stoner, Kathryn E.; Chapman, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rain produced by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in latrines located beneath 60 sleeping trees in two continuous forest sites (CFS) and three forest fragments (FF) in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We tested for differences among latrines, among sites, and between forest conditions in the abundance, diversity (α-, β- and, γ-components) and evenness of seed assemblages. We recorded 45,919 seeds ≥5 mm (in length) from 68 species. The abundance of seeds was 1.7 times higher in FF than in CFS, particularly because of the dominance of a few plant species. As a consequence, community evenness tended to be lower within FF. β-diversity of common and dominant species was two times greater among FF than between CFS. Although mean α-diversity per latrine did not differ among sites, the greater β-diversity among latrines in CFS increased γ-diversity in these sites, particularly when considering common and dominant species. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit scarcity in FF can ‘force’ spider monkeys to deplete the available fruit patches more intensively than in CFS. This feeding strategy can limit the effectiveness of spider monkeys as seed dispersers in FF, because (i) it can limit the number of seed dispersers visiting such fruit patches; (ii) it increases seed dispersal limitation; and (iii) it can contribute to the floristic homogenization (i.e., reduced β-diversity among latrines) in fragmented landscapes. PMID:24586705

  13. Contagious deposition of seeds in spider monkeys' sleeping trees limits effective seed dispersal in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Escobar, Federico; Rös, Matthias; Oyama, Ken; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Stoner, Kathryn E; Chapman, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rain produced by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in latrines located beneath 60 sleeping trees in two continuous forest sites (CFS) and three forest fragments (FF) in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We tested for differences among latrines, among sites, and between forest conditions in the abundance, diversity (α-, β- and, γ-components) and evenness of seed assemblages. We recorded 45,919 seeds ≥ 5 mm (in length) from 68 species. The abundance of seeds was 1.7 times higher in FF than in CFS, particularly because of the dominance of a few plant species. As a consequence, community evenness tended to be lower within FF. β-diversity of common and dominant species was two times greater among FF than between CFS. Although mean α-diversity per latrine did not differ among sites, the greater β-diversity among latrines in CFS increased γ-diversity in these sites, particularly when considering common and dominant species. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit scarcity in FF can 'force' spider monkeys to deplete the available fruit patches more intensively than in CFS. This feeding strategy can limit the effectiveness of spider monkeys as seed dispersers in FF, because (i) it can limit the number of seed dispersers visiting such fruit patches; (ii) it increases seed dispersal limitation; and (iii) it can contribute to the floristic homogenization (i.e., reduced β-diversity among latrines) in fragmented landscapes. PMID:24586705

  14. Blood values of captive beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) prior to and during an outbreak of fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome (FPPS).

    PubMed

    Gull, Jessica M; Hebel, Christiana; Deb, Amrita; Arif, Abdi; Clauss, Marcus; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, Sven

    2014-12-01

    Currently the only captive population of beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) is held at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, Qatar. An outbreak of a severe respiratory disease--fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome, most likely caused by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--led to a marked population decline. Reactive systemic inflammatory (AA) amyloidosis was noted as a chronic manifestation of the disease. Blood samples had been collected for biochemistry and hematology baseline values prior to the outbreak. Population-level changes were analyzed before and during the course of the outbreak in selected blood parameters (white blood cells [WBC], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], and creatinine). The annual population WBC increased and decreased concurrently with the population size, with a significant correlation between the two measures (R = 0.92; P = 0.001). Both BUN and creatinine values were higher during the outbreak. These values peaked at the same time as mortality, which was 1 yr after the WBC peak. These changes were interpreted as the transition from an acute disease with a primary respiratory manifestation into a chronic condition where renal amyloidosis led to chronic renal failure and death. Also, elevated liver values in diseased animals were attributed to amyloidosis. Parallels to a literature report on a lung disease complex caused by M. ovipneumoniae in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were found. Trends in population-level blood values of the beira antelopes implicate amyloidosis as a significant, long-term consequence of the putative Mycoplasma infection. PMID:25632657

  15. Immunoprotective Efficacy of Six In vivo-Induced Antigens against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae as Potential Vaccine Candidates in Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fei; Cao, Sanjie; Zhu, Zhuang; Yang, Yusheng; Wen, Xintian; Chang, Yung-Fu; Huang, Xiaobo; Wu, Rui; Wen, Yiping; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Ma, Xiaoping; Zhao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Six in vivo-induced (IVI) antigens—RnhB, GalU, GalT, Apl_1061, Apl_1166, and HflX were selected for a vaccine trial in a mouse model. The results showed that the IgG levels in each immune group was significantly higher than that of the negative control (P < 0.001). Except rRnhB group, proliferation of splenocytes was observed in all immunized groups and a relatively higher proliferation activity was observed in rGalU and rGalT groups (P < 0.05). In the rGalT vaccinated group, the proportion of CD4+ T cells in spleen was significant higher than that of negative control (P < 0.05). Moreover, proportions of CD4+ T cells in other vaccinated groups were all up-regulated to varying degrees. Up-regulation of both Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were detected. A survival rate of 87.5, 62.5, and 62.5% were obtained among rGalT, rAPL_1166, and rHflX group, respectively while the remaining three groups was only 25%. Histopathological analyses of lungs indicated that surviving animals from the vaccinated groups showed relatively normal pulmonary structure alveoli. These findings confirm that IVI antigens used as vaccine candidates provide partial protection against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in a mouse model, which could be used as potential vaccine candidates in piglets.

  16. Blood values of captive beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) prior to and during an outbreak of fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome (FPPS).

    PubMed

    Gull, Jessica M; Hebel, Christiana; Deb, Amrita; Arif, Abdi; Clauss, Marcus; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, Sven

    2014-12-01

    Currently the only captive population of beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) is held at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, Qatar. An outbreak of a severe respiratory disease--fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome, most likely caused by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--led to a marked population decline. Reactive systemic inflammatory (AA) amyloidosis was noted as a chronic manifestation of the disease. Blood samples had been collected for biochemistry and hematology baseline values prior to the outbreak. Population-level changes were analyzed before and during the course of the outbreak in selected blood parameters (white blood cells [WBC], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], and creatinine). The annual population WBC increased and decreased concurrently with the population size, with a significant correlation between the two measures (R = 0.92; P = 0.001). Both BUN and creatinine values were higher during the outbreak. These values peaked at the same time as mortality, which was 1 yr after the WBC peak. These changes were interpreted as the transition from an acute disease with a primary respiratory manifestation into a chronic condition where renal amyloidosis led to chronic renal failure and death. Also, elevated liver values in diseased animals were attributed to amyloidosis. Parallels to a literature report on a lung disease complex caused by M. ovipneumoniae in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were found. Trends in population-level blood values of the beira antelopes implicate amyloidosis as a significant, long-term consequence of the putative Mycoplasma infection.

  17. A bacterial engineered glycoprotein as a novel antigen for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Ciocchini, Andrés E; Serantes, Diego A Rey; Melli, Luciano J; Guidolin, Leticia S; Iwashkiw, Jeremy A; Elena, Sebastián; Franco, Cristina; Nicola, Ana M; Feldman, Mario F; Comerci, Diego J; Ugalde, Juan E

    2014-08-27

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects livestock and human beings. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis mainly relies on serological diagnosis using serum and/or milk samples. Although there are several serological tests with different diagnostic performance and capacity to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, there is still no standardized reference antigen for the disease. Here we validate the first recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. This antigen can be produced in homogeneous batches without the need of culturing pathogenic brucellae; all characteristics that make it appropriate for standardization. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies in bovine samples was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to magnetic beads or ELISA plates. As a proof of concept and to validate the antigen, we analyzed serum, whole blood and milk samples obtained from non-infected, experimentally infected and vaccinated animals included in a vaccination/infection trial performed in our laboratory as well as more than 1000 serum and milk samples obtained from naturally infected and S19-vaccinated animals from Argentina. Our results demonstrate that OAg-AcrA-based assays are highly accurate for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, even in vaccinated herds, using different types of samples and in different platforms. We propose this novel recombinant glycoprotein as an antigen suitable for the development of new standard immunological tests for screening and confirmatory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in regions or countries with brucellosis-control programs. PMID:24984948

  18. A bacterial engineered glycoprotein as a novel antigen for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Ciocchini, Andrés E; Serantes, Diego A Rey; Melli, Luciano J; Guidolin, Leticia S; Iwashkiw, Jeremy A; Elena, Sebastián; Franco, Cristina; Nicola, Ana M; Feldman, Mario F; Comerci, Diego J; Ugalde, Juan E

    2014-08-27

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects livestock and human beings. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis mainly relies on serological diagnosis using serum and/or milk samples. Although there are several serological tests with different diagnostic performance and capacity to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, there is still no standardized reference antigen for the disease. Here we validate the first recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. This antigen can be produced in homogeneous batches without the need of culturing pathogenic brucellae; all characteristics that make it appropriate for standardization. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies in bovine samples was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to magnetic beads or ELISA plates. As a proof of concept and to validate the antigen, we analyzed serum, whole blood and milk samples obtained from non-infected, experimentally infected and vaccinated animals included in a vaccination/infection trial performed in our laboratory as well as more than 1000 serum and milk samples obtained from naturally infected and S19-vaccinated animals from Argentina. Our results demonstrate that OAg-AcrA-based assays are highly accurate for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, even in vaccinated herds, using different types of samples and in different platforms. We propose this novel recombinant glycoprotein as an antigen suitable for the development of new standard immunological tests for screening and confirmatory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in regions or countries with brucellosis-control programs.

  19. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  20. Chimpanzees Show a Developmental Increase in Susceptibility to Contagious Yawning: A Test of the Effect of Ontogeny and Emotional Closeness on Yawn Contagion

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others’ emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the ‘chameleon effect’, targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed. PMID:24146848

  1. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed. PMID:24146848

  2. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  3. A Rational Approach to Estimating the Surgical Demand Elasticity Needed to Guide Manpower Reallocation during Contagious Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Hsiao-Mei; Sun, Ying-Chou; Liou, Der-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging infectious diseases continue to pose serious threats to global public health. So far, however, few published study has addressed the need for manpower reallocation needed in hospitals when such a serious contagious outbreak occurs. Aim To quantify the demand elasticity of the major surgery types in order to guide future manpower reallocation during contagious outbreaks. Materials and Methods Based on a nationwide research database in Taiwan, we extracted the monthly volumes of major surgery types for the period 1998–2003, which covered the SARS period, in order to carry out a time series analysis. The demand elasticity of each surgery type was then estimated by autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) analysis. Results During the study period, the surgical volumes of most selected surgery types either increased or remained steady. We categorized these surgery types into low-, moderate- and high-elastic groups according to their demand elasticity. Appendectomy, ‘open reduction of fracture with internal fixation’ and ‘free skin graft’ were in the low demand elasticity group. Transurethral prostatectomy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) were in the high demand elasticity group. The manpower of the departments carrying out the surgeries with low demand elasticity should be maintained during outbreaks. In contrast, departments in charge of surgeries mainly with high demand elasticity, like urology departments, may be in a position to have part of their staff reallocated. Conclusions Taking advantage of the demand variation during the SARS period in 2003, we adopted the concept of demand elasticity and used a time series approach to figure out an effective index of demand elasticity for various types of surgery that could be used as a rational reference to carry out manpower reallocation during contagious outbreak situations. PMID:25837596

  4. Mutation in the LPS outer core biosynthesis gene, galU, affects LPS interaction with the RTX toxins ApxI and ApxII and cytolytic activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1.

    PubMed

    Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Cox, Andrew D; Hancock, Mark A; Mourez, Michael; Labrie, Josée; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Jacques, Mario

    2008-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Apx toxins are major virulence factors of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a pathogen of the respiratory tract of pigs. Here, we evaluated the effect of LPS core truncation in haemolytic and cytotoxic activities of this microorganism. We previously generated a highly attenuated galU mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 that has an LPS molecule lacking the GalNAc-Gal II-Gal I outer core residues. Our results demonstrate that this mutant exhibits wild-type haemolytic activity but is significantly less cytotoxic to porcine alveolar macrophages. However, no differences were found in gene expression and secretion of the haemolytic and cytotoxic toxins ApxI and ApxII, both secreted by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. This suggests that the outer core truncation mediated by the galU mutation affects the toxins in their cytotoxic activities. Using both ELISA and surface plasmon resonance binding assays, we demonstrate a novel interaction between LPS and the ApxI and ApxII toxins via the core oligosaccharide. Our results indicate that the GalNAc-Gal II-Gal I trisaccharide of the outer core is fundamental to mediating LPS/Apx interactions. The present study suggests that a lack of binding between LPS and ApxI/II affects the cytotoxicity and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:18713318

  5. The Creation of a Contagious H5N1 Influenza Virus: Implications for the Education of Life Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Novossiolova, Tatyana; Minehata, Masamichi; Dando, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    The paper contends that the ongoing controversy surrounding the creation of a contagious H5N1 influenza virus has already exposed the severe limitations of the possibility of preventing the hostile misuse of the life sciences by dint of oversight of proposals and publications. It further argues that in order to prevent the potential wholesale militarisation of the life sciences, it is essential that life scientists become aware of their responsibilities within the context of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) and actively contribute their expertise to strengthening the biological weapons non-proliferation regime . PMID:22984642

  6. The Creation of a Contagious H5N1 Influenza Virus: Implications for the Education of Life Scientists.

    PubMed

    Novossiolova, Tatyana; Minehata, Masamichi; Dando, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    The paper contends that the ongoing controversy surrounding the creation of a contagious H5N1 influenza virus has already exposed the severe limitations of the possibility of preventing the hostile misuse of the life sciences by dint of oversight of proposals and publications. It further argues that in order to prevent the potential wholesale militarisation of the life sciences, it is essential that life scientists become aware of their responsibilities within the context of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) and actively contribute their expertise to strengthening the biological weapons non-proliferation regime .

  7. Bovine myocardial epithelial inclusions.

    PubMed

    Baker, D C; Schmidt, S P; Langheinrich, K A; Cannon, L; Smart, R A

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods were used to examine myocardial epithelial masses in the hearts of ten cattle. The tissues consisted of paraffin-embedded or formalin-fixed samples from eight hearts that were being inspected in slaughter houses and from two hearts from calves that died of septicemia. The ages of the cattle ranged from 4 days to 12 years; the breeds were unspecified for all but one Hereford female and the two Holstein calves; and there were three males, four females, and three steers. The masses in these cases were compared with similar appearing lesions found in other animal species. The lesions in the bovine hearts were single to multiple, well circumscribed, found in the left ventricle wall, and composed of squamous to cuboidal epithelial cells that formed tubular, ductular, and acinar structures with lumens that were void or filled with amorphous protein globules. Electron microscopic examination revealed epithelial cells that had sparse apical microvilli, tight apical intercellular junctions, perinuclear bundles of filaments, and rare cilia. Almost half of the bovine epithelial masses (4/9) had occasional diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules in their cytoplasm, and few had hyaluronidase-resistant alcian blue-positive granules (2/9) or colloidal iron-positive granules (1/9). All myocardial masses had abundant collagen surrounding the tubular and acinar structures, and 2/9 had elastin fibers as well. None of the myocardial masses had Churukian-Schenk or Fontana Masson's silver staining granules in epithelial cells. Immunohistochemically, all bovine myocardial tumors stained positively for cytokeratin (8/8), and occasional masses stained positively for vimentin (3/8) or carcinoembryonic antigen (3/8). None of the masses stained positively for desmin. The myocardial epithelial tumors most likely represent endodermal rests of tissue misplaced during organogenesis.

  8. Bovine Genital Mycoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Doig, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Infection, lesions and clinical significance of Acheloplasmas, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in genital disease of cattle are described. A more detailed account is given of ureaplasma infections. Acute and chronic forms of granular vulvitis in both field and experimental disease are described as well as the role of the organism in abortion. Recovery rates of ureaplasma and mycoplasma from semen and preputial washings in bulls are outlined and their significance in disease is discussed. There are problems in differentiating pathogenic from nonpathogenic isolates. Methods are being developed to treat semen for these organisms. This paper provides a concise summary of clinical and microbiological aspects of bovine genital mycoplasmosis. PMID:7337908

  9. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    PubMed

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  10. Pigs aerogenously immunized with genetically inactivated (ghosts) or irradiated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae are protected against a homologous aerosol challenge despite differing in pulmonary cellular and antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Katinger, A; Lubitz, W; Szostak, M P; Stadler, M; Klein, R; Indra, A; Huter, V; Hensel, A

    1999-08-20

    Aerosol immunization is a safe way to induce complete protection against pleuropneumonia in pigs caused by the lung pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In order to determine the local immune responses of vaccinees in concomitant with protection, lung lining fluid before and 3 weeks after immunization from pigs immunized three times with aerosols of either genetically inactivated ghosts which represent whole cell envelope preparations, or irradiated bacteria were examined following an homologous aerosol challenge. Specific antibody isotypes in the bronchoalveolar lavage were assayed by whole cell ELISAs. Total and relative numbers of cells including lymphocyte subsets were determined. In both vaccinated groups a net influx of plasma cells and lymphocytes, as well as a significant increase of specific IgG occurred. Concurrently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was found to increase after aerosol immunization. The lymphocyte subsets of IgG+ and IgA+ cells were found significantly higher in the group immunized with irradiated bacteria when compared to pigs immunized with bacterial ghosts. The latter group showed a significant increase of IgA, IgM, and a net influx of lymphoid blasts and granulocytes in the bronchoalveolar lining fluid. Although differences between the local immune responses of both immunized groups occurred, a significant increase of specific IgG and a net influx of plasma cells and lymphocytes were found to be associated with complete protection against a homologous aerosol challenge infection.

  11. Optimization and standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol for serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5.

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Y L; Wright, P F; Larivière, S

    1992-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol has been optimized with special emphasis given to assay standardization and quality control. Technical aspects such as choice of a microplate, antigen immobilization, buffer composition, optimal screening dilution of sera, and kinetics of the enzymatic reaction were studied and evaluated in order to design a standard protocol offering maximal analytical sensitivity and specificity, as well as to obtain minimal within- and between-plate variability. Among the 27 plates tested, the Nunc 475-094 and 269-620 immunoplates were found to be the best in terms of high positive-to-negative ratio and low variability. No significant differences in antigen immobilization were found by using buffers of various compositions or pHs; however, the presence of magnesium ions (Mg2+; 0.02 M) resulted in a twofold increase in nonspecific background. An optimal screening dilution of sera was established at 1:200. A 1-h incubation period for test serum was found to be optimal. Maximum enzymatic activity for peroxidase was obtained by adjusting both substrate (H2O2) and hydrogen donor [2,2' -azinobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline sulfonic acid)] concentrations to 4 and 1 mM, respectively. To control between-plate variability, a timing protocol was adopted. Within-plate variability was also controlled by using a sample placement configuration pattern. Sliding scales were determined by repeated testing of a cross section of samples to set acceptance limits for both within- and between-plate variability. These limits were used in a quality control program to monitor assay performance. The results obtained suggest that this standardized protocol might be useful in the serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. PMID:1734068

  12. Comparison of four lung scoring systems for the assessment of the pathological outcomes derived from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae experimental infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, four lung lesion scoring methods (Slaughterhouse Pleurisy Evaluation System [SPES], Consolidation Lung Lesion Score [LLS], Image analyses [IA] and Ratio of lung weight/body weight [LW/BW]) were compared for the assessment of the different pathological outcomes derived from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) experimental infection model. Moreover, pathological data was coupled with clinical (fever, inappetence and clinical score), production (average daily weigh gain [ADWG]) and diagnostic (PCR, ELISA and bacterial isolation) parameters within the four infection outcomes (peracute, acute, subclinically infected and non-infected). Results From the 61 inoculated animals, 9 were classified as peracute (presence of severe App-like clinical signs and lesions and sudden death or euthanasia shortly after inoculation), 31 as acutely affected (presence of App-like clinical signs and lesions and survival until the end of the experiment), 12 as subclinically infected (very mild or no clinical signs but App infection confirmed) and 9 as non-infected animals (lack of App-like clinical signs and lack of evidence of App infection). A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was found with the exception of SPES score versus LW/BW. SPES showed a statistically significant association with all clinical, production and diagnostic (with the exception of PCR detection of App in the tonsil) variables assessed. LLS and IA showed similar statistically significant associations as SPES, with the exception of seroconversion against App at necropsy. In contrast, LW/BW was statistically associated only with App isolation in lungs, presence of App-like lesions and ELISA OD values at necropsy. Conclusions In conclusion, SPES, LLS and IA are economic, fast and easy-to-perform lung scoring methods that, in combination with different clinical and diagnostic parameters, allow the characterization of different outcomes after App infection. PMID

  13. Characterization of bifunctional L-glutathione synthetases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Actinobacillus succinogenes for efficient glutathione biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianhua; Li, Wei; Wang, Dezheng; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Glutathione (GSH), an important bioactive substance, is widely applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. In this work, two bifunctional L-glutathione synthetases (GshF) from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (GshFAp) and Actinobacillus succinogenes (GshFAs) were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3). Similar to the GshF from Streptococcus thermophilus (GshFSt), GshFAp and GshFAs can be applied for high titer GSH production because they are less sensitive to end-product inhibition (Ki values 33 and 43 mM, respectively). The active catalytic forms of GshFAs and GshFAp are dimers, consistent with those of GshFPm (GshF from Pasteurella multocida) and GshFSa (GshF from Streptococcus agalactiae), but are different from GshFSt (GshF from S. thermophilus) which is an active monomer. The analysis of the protein sequences and three dimensional structures of GshFs suggested that the binding sites of GshFs for substrates, L-cysteine, L-glutamate, γ-glutamylcysteine, adenosine-triphosphate, and glycine are highly conserved with only very few differences. With sufficient supply of the precursors, the recombinant strains BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFas and BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFap were able to produce 36.6 and 34.1 mM GSH, with the molar yield of 0.92 and 0.85 mol/mol, respectively, based on the added L-cysteine. The results showed that GshFAp and GshFAs are potentially good candidates for industrial GSH production. PMID:26996628

  14. Porcine mononuclear phagocyte subpopulations in the lung, blood and bone marrow: dynamics during inflammation induced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Ondrackova, Petra; Nechvatalova, Katerina; Kucerova, Zdenka; Leva, Lenka; Dominguez, Javier; Faldyna, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (MP) are cells of nonspecific immunity, playing an essential role in defense against bacterial pathogens. Although various MP subpopulations have been described in the pig, relations among these populations in vivo are unknown to date. The present study was aimed at describing porcine MP subpopulations infiltrating inflamed tissue of pigs under in vivo conditions. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) infection was used to induce an inflammatory response. CD172α, CD14, CD163, MHCII and CD203α cell surface molecules were used to identify MP by flow cytometry. Changes in MP subpopulations in the peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) compartments along with the analysis of MP appearing in the inflamed lungs were assessed to elucidate the possible origin and maturation stages of the infiltrating MP. The MP population migrating to the inflamed lungs was phenotype CD14+ CD163+ CD203α+/− MHCII+/−. Concomitantly, after APP infection there was an increase in the PB MP CD14+ CD163+ CD203α− MHC II− population, suggesting that these cells give rise to inflammatory monocytes/macrophages. The CD203α and MHCII molecules appear on these cells after leaving the PB. In healthy animals, the BM MP precursors were represented by CD14− CD163− cells maturing directly into CD14+ CD163− that were then released into the PB. After infection, an altered maturation pathway of MP precursors appeared, represented by CD14− CD163− CD203α− MHCII− MP directly switching into CD14+ CD163+ CD203α− MHCII− MP. In conclusion, two different MP maturation pathways were suggested in pigs. The use of these pathways differs under inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions. PMID:20519113

  15. Recombinant bovine rhodanese: purification and comparison with bovine liver rhodanese.

    PubMed

    Miller, D M; Kurzban, G P; Mendoza, J A; Chirgwin, J M; Hardies, S C; Horowitz, P M

    1992-06-24

    Recombinant bovine rhodanese (thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase, EC 2.8.1.1) has been purified to homogeneity from Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) by cation-exchange chromatography. Recombinant and bovine liver rhodanese coelectrophorese under denaturing conditions, with an apparent subunit molecular weight of 33,000. The amino terminal seven residues of the recombinant protein are identical to those of the bovine enzyme, indicating that E. coli also removes the N-terminal methionine. The Km for thiosulfate is the same for the two proteins. The specific activity of the recombinant enzyme is 12% higher (816 IU/mg) than that of the bovine enzyme (730 IU/mg). The two proteins are indistinguishable as to their ultraviolet absorbance and their intrinsic fluorescence. The ability of the two proteins to refold from 8 M urea to enzymatically active species was similar both for unassisted refolding, and when folding was assisted either by the detergent, lauryl maltoside or by the E. coli chaperonin system composed of cpn60 and cpn10. Bovine rhodanese is known to have multiple electrophoretic forms under native conditions. In contrast, the recombinant protein has only one form, which comigrates with the least negatively charged of the bovine liver isoforms. This is consistent with the retention of the carboxy terminal residues in the recombinant protein that are frequently removed from the bovine liver protein.

  16. Benefits of lethal pandemics: direct impact of contagious diseases on public administration in Hungary (1867-1914).

    PubMed

    Palvolgyi, Balazs

    2013-01-01

    The reconciliation of 1867 between Austria and Hungary brought great changes to Hungarian public administration: the way towards the building up of a modern public administration had been opened. Although there was a functioning public health system and a related legislation from the late 18th century, major issues - such as balanced geographical distribution of medical personnel, fair access to medical services even in the poorer regions of the country, and the effective protection against some contagious diseases - were not resolved for decades. During the reform work of public administration since the 1870s, the lawmakers touched repeatedly the framework and functioning of the public health as well. Although the general conditions of the domain depended traditionally on the municipalities and counties due to the national importance of the matter, the government made efforts to make the functioning of the public health more efficient through centralisation. The contagious diseases continuously endangered the population, revealing the weak points in the existing public health system, thereby giving a momentum to the reforms and helping the government in its organization of prevention and clearly contributing to the legislation work.

  17. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R M

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose. PMID:16032229

  18. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival. PMID:16712863

  19. Building trust on bovine TB.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie

    2014-03-01

    Opinion on how best to control bovine TB remains divided, particularly with regard to badgers. Rosie Woodroffe believes that vets have a constructive role to play in the debate and helping farmers locally. PMID:24736823

  20. Minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints and disk diffusion inhibitory zone interpretive criteria for tilmicosin susceptibility testing against Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae associated with porcine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Shryock, Thomas R; Staples, J Mitchell; DeRosa, David C

    2002-09-01

    Tilmicosin is a novel macrolide antibiotic developed for exclusive use in veterinary medicine. Tilmicosin has been approved as a feed premix to control porcine respiratory disease associated with Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing guidelines for tilmicosin was predicated on the relationship of clinical efficacy studies that demonstrated a favorable therapeutic outcome, on pharmacokinetic data, and on in vitro test data, as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The approved breakpoints for the minimum inhibitory concentration dilution testing for both species are resistant, > or = 32 microg/ml, and susceptible, < or = 16 microg/ml. The zone of inhibition interpretive criteria for disk diffusion testing with a 15-microg tilmicosin disk are resistant, < or = 10 mm, and susceptible, > or = 11 mm.

  1. Coinfection by Ureaplasma spp., Photobacterium damselae and an Actinomyces-like microorganism in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with pleuropneumonia stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Gabriella; Cammà, Cesare; Curini, Valentina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Proietto, Umberto; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Ferri, Nicola; Di Provvido, Andrea; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400 bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1).

  2. Coinfection by Ureaplasma spp., Photobacterium damselae and an Actinomyces-like microorganism in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with pleuropneumonia stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Gabriella; Cammà, Cesare; Curini, Valentina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Proietto, Umberto; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Ferri, Nicola; Di Provvido, Andrea; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400 bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1). PMID:27033917

  3. Contagious yawning in domestic dog puppies (Canis lupus familiaris): the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on low-level imitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    Contagious yawning is a well-documented phenomenon in humans and has recently attracted much attention from developmental and comparative sciences. The function, development and underlying mechanisms of the phenomenon, however, remain largely unclear. Contagious yawning has been demonstrated in dogs and several non-human primate species, and theoretically and empirically associated with empathy in humans and non-human primates. Evidence of emotional closeness modulating contagious yawning in dogs has, nonetheless, been contradictory. Humans show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with typically developing children displaying a substantial increase at the age of four, when a number of cognitive abilities (e.g. accurate identification of others' emotions) begin to clearly manifest. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human animals have, however, thus far only involved adult individuals. Here, we report a study of the ontogeny of domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) susceptibility to yawn contagion, and whether emotional closeness to the yawning model affects this. Thirty-five dogs, aged 4-14 months, observed a familiar and unfamiliar human repeatedly yawn or gape. The dogs yawned contagiously, but emotional closeness with the model did not affect the strength of contagion, raising questions as to recent evidence of emotionally modulated auditory contagious yawning in dogs. The dogs showed a developmental effect, with only dogs above 7 months evidencing contagion. The results support the notion of a developmental increase in dogs' attention to others and identification of others' emotional states and suggest that yawn contagion is underpinned by developmental processes shared by humans and other animals.

  4. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  5. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  6. Efficacy of tilmicosin phosphate (Pulmotil premix) in feed for the treatment of a clinical outbreak of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoflack, G; Maes, D; Mateusen, B; Verdonck, M; de Kruif, A

    2001-11-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out to investigate the efficacy of tilmicosin (Pulmotil premix) for the treatment of a clinical outbreak of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in growing-finishing pigs. The effects of tilmicosin administration in the feed at 400 mg/kg and an injection therapy of clinically diseased pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline (Terramycine LA) at 20 mg/kg bodyweight were compared. Both groups, totalling 147 pigs, were compared during a medication period of 15 days and a post-medication period of 11 days by means of different clinical and performance parameters. During the medication period, the tilmicosin group showed a significant advantage with respect to the number of new disease cases (P < 0.01), and a non-significant advantage regarding the number of removed pigs (P = 0.16), the number of sick pigs that recovered (P = 0.27) and the time to recovery (P = 0.42). During the post-medication period, the pigs of the tilmicosin group showed numerical non-significant benefits (P > 0.05) with respect to the clinical parameters. During the overall study period (26 days), the average daily gain and the feed conversion ratio were both significantly (P < 0.01) better in pigs from the tilmicosin group compared with pigs from the oxytetracycline group. This study demonstrated that in-feed medication of tilmicosin at a dosage of 400 mg/kg is efficacious for the treatment of a clinical respiratory disease outbreak of A. pleuropneumoniae infection in growing-finishing pigs. Compared with oxytetracycline injection of clinically diseased pigs, the tilmicosin treatment is particularly beneficial in the prevention of new disease cases while increasing or maintaining the performance of the pigs.

  7. Pathology of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Domingo, M; Vidal, E; Marco, A

    2014-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic granulomatous caseous-necrotising inflammatory process that mainly affects the lungs and their draining lymph nodes (Ln.). The pathological changes associated with bTB infection reflect the interplay between the host defence mechanisms and the mycobacterial virulence factors and the balance between the immunologic protective responses and the damaging inflammatory processes. Inhalation is the most common infection route and causes lesions of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract, including its associated lymph nodes. The initial infection (primary complex) may be followed by chronic (post-primary) tuberculosis or may be generalised. Goat tuberculosis often produces liquefactive necrosis and caverns, similarly to human TB. The assessment of the severity of TB lesions is crucial for vaccine trials. Semi-quantitative gross lesion scoring systems have been developed for cattle, but imaging technology has allowed the development of more standardised, objective, and quantitative methods, such as multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), which provides quantitative measures of lesion volume. PMID:24731532

  8. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  9. Bovine Parathyroid Hormone: Amino Acid Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, H. Bryan; Ronan, Rosemary

    1970-01-01

    Bovine parathyroid hormone has been isolated in homogeneous form, and its complete amino acid sequence determined. The bovine hormone is a single chain, 84 amino acids long. It contains amino-terminal alanine, and carboxyl-terminal glutamine. The bovine parathyroid hormone is approximately three times the length of the newly discovered hormone, thyrocalcitonin, whose action is reciprocal to parathyroid hormone. Images PMID:5275384

  10. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and

  11. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and

  12. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  13. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and use of cartilage as a complementary or alternative treatment for cancer? Cartilage from cows (bovine cartilage) and sharks has ... of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that ...

  14. Contagious Ecthyma, Rangiferine Brucellosis, and Lungworm Infection in a Muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) from the Canadian Arctic, 2014.

    PubMed

    Tomaselli, Matilde; Dalton, Chimoné; Duignan, Pádraig J; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank; Kafle, Pratap; Surujballi, Om; Turcotte, Claude; Checkley, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    An adult male muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ), harvested on 26 August 2014 on Victoria Island, Nunavut, in the Canadian Arctic, had proliferative dermatitis on the muzzle and fetlocks suggestive of contagious ecthyma or orf (Parapoxvirus). Histopathologic features of the lesions were consistent with this diagnosis. Orf virus DNA, phylogenetically similar to an isolate from a captive muskox of the Minnesota Zoo, US, was detected in the lesions by PCR using Parapoxvirus primers. Additionally, there was a metaphyseal abscess with a cortical fistula in the right metacarpus from which Brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated and identification supported by PCR. Brucella spp. antibodies were detected in serum. Finally, 212 nodules were dissected from the lungs. Fecal analysis and lung examination demonstrated co-infection with the lungworms Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis. The zoonotic potential of orf and rangiferine brucellosis adds an important public health dimension to this case, particularly given that muskoxen are a valuable source of food for Arctic residents. Careful examination of these pathogens at a population level is needed as they may contribute to muskox population decline and potentially constitute a driver of food insecurity for local communities. This case underscores the importance of wildlife health surveillance as a management tool to conserve wildlife populations and maintain food security in subsistence-oriented communities.

  15. Concepts of diffusion theory and a graphic approach to the description of the epidemic flow of contagious disease.

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, J J; Pederneiras, C A; Ebner, W; Kimura, E M; Megale, P

    1980-01-01

    Concepts used to analyze sociological, geographic, and economic processes were adapted to an examination of the diffusion of contagious disease. The example used in applying these concepts was an epidemic of variola minor which continued for 12 months in an area of 1,006 square kilometers centered on the city of Bragança Paulista, Sao Paulo State (Brazil). A graphic procedure is proposed that depicts aspects of the epidemic flow of person-to-person transmission. Spatial, temporal, and sociological characteristics of the epidemic flow are disclosed in sequential diagrams. They represent geographic areas as well as schools and agglomerates of households affected by the epidemic at a given time, the mode of diffusion, and the source of the infection. The procedure yielded indirect evidence of the role of school pupils as introducers of variola minor into households and school classes. All subdivisions of the city, six of the seven rural districts, and four of the five elementary schools were affected through hierarchical (between-areas) diffusion. Subsequently, there was neighborhood (within-area) diffusion, and this resulted in new interactions between areas. PMID:7422812

  16. Seroprevalence of contagious ecthyma in goats of Assam: An analysis by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Mousumi; Bora, Durlav Prasad; Barman, Nagendra Nath; Borah, Biswajyoti; Das, Sutopa

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to screen the prevalence of contagious ecthyma (CE) among the goat population of Assam owing to its high prevalence rate. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 231 serum samples were collected from 12 districts of Assam during September 2013 to July 2014. The serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against Orf virus (ORFV) by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Indirect ELISA was standardized using purified Orf reference virus produced in bulk in primary lamb testes cells. Results: Studies on seroprevalence showed 76.62% of goats were seropositive. The total number of animals were divided into different age groups starting from 0-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, and above 8 months and accordingly highest prevalence of antibodies against ORFV was recorded in the age-group above 8 months of age. Significantly, lower rates of infection were observed in goats of age group 2-4 months. This study recorded that seropositivity from naturally infected animals and in contact apparently healthy animals to be 53.67% and 46.32%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that CE is a prevalent infection in goats of Assam, and the healthy population is at increased risk of infection. PMID:27733808

  17. Contagious Ecthyma, Rangiferine Brucellosis, and Lungworm Infection in a Muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) from the Canadian Arctic, 2014.

    PubMed

    Tomaselli, Matilde; Dalton, Chimoné; Duignan, Pádraig J; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank; Kafle, Pratap; Surujballi, Om; Turcotte, Claude; Checkley, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    An adult male muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ), harvested on 26 August 2014 on Victoria Island, Nunavut, in the Canadian Arctic, had proliferative dermatitis on the muzzle and fetlocks suggestive of contagious ecthyma or orf (Parapoxvirus). Histopathologic features of the lesions were consistent with this diagnosis. Orf virus DNA, phylogenetically similar to an isolate from a captive muskox of the Minnesota Zoo, US, was detected in the lesions by PCR using Parapoxvirus primers. Additionally, there was a metaphyseal abscess with a cortical fistula in the right metacarpus from which Brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated and identification supported by PCR. Brucella spp. antibodies were detected in serum. Finally, 212 nodules were dissected from the lungs. Fecal analysis and lung examination demonstrated co-infection with the lungworms Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis. The zoonotic potential of orf and rangiferine brucellosis adds an important public health dimension to this case, particularly given that muskoxen are a valuable source of food for Arctic residents. Careful examination of these pathogens at a population level is needed as they may contribute to muskox population decline and potentially constitute a driver of food insecurity for local communities. This case underscores the importance of wildlife health surveillance as a management tool to conserve wildlife populations and maintain food security in subsistence-oriented communities. PMID:27285415

  18. Whole-flock, metaphylactic tilmicosin failed to eliminate contagious ovine digital dermatitis and footrot in sheep: a cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Grove-White, D H; Williams, H J; Duncan, J S

    2016-09-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical success of whole-flock systemic tilmicosin and enhanced biosecurity in eliminating active contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) from sheep flocks. Thirty flocks in the UK were randomly allocated to receive either treatment as usual (as per the farmer's normal routine) or whole-flock treatment with tilmicosin, together with isolation and extended treatment of clinically affected individuals and isolation and treatment of purchased sheep during the study period. All flocks were visited once at onset of the trial to examine all sheep. One year later, all sheep were re-examined to determine the presence/absence of clinical lesions. The primary outcome was the clinical elimination of CODD from flocks. Secondary outcomes were reduction in prevalence of CODD, clinical elimination of footrot and reduction in prevalence of footrot. The analysis included 11 control flocks and 13 intervention flocks, with initially 3460 and 4686 sheep, respectively. For CODD: at follow-up, in the intervention group, 6/13 (46 per cent) flocks had a prevalence of zero compared with 1/11 (9 per cent) in the control group (P=0.12). For footrot: at follow-up, no flocks had a prevalence of zero. Therefore, the intervention is not recommended for the elimination of CODD or footrot in the UK.

  19. Bridging a yawning chasm: EEG investigations into the debate concerning the role of the human mirror neuron system in contagious yawning.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nicholas R; Puzzo, Ignazio; Pawley, Adam D; Bowes-Mulligan, Ruby A; Kirkpatrick, Emma V; Antoniou, Pavlina A; Kennett, Steffan

    2012-06-01

    Ongoing debate in the literature concerns whether there is a link between contagious yawning and the human mirror neuron system (hMNS). One way of examining this issue is with the use of the electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure changes in mu activation during the observation of yawns. Mu oscillations are seen in the alpha bandwidth of the EEG (8-12 Hz) over sensorimotor areas. Previous work has shown that mu suppression is a useful index of hMNS activation and is sensitive to individual differences in empathy. In two experiments, we presented participants with videos of either people yawning or control stimuli. We found greater mu suppression for yawns than for controls over right motor and premotor areas, particularly for those scoring higher on traits of empathy. In a third experiment, auditory recordings of yawns were compared against electronically scrambled versions of the same yawns. We observed greater mu suppression for yawns than for the controls over right lateral premotor areas. Again, these findings were driven by those scoring highly on empathy. The results from these experiments support the notion that the hMNS is involved in contagious yawning, emphasise the link between contagious yawning and empathy, and stress the importance of good control stimuli. PMID:22198677

  20. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... of the proposed rule would be applicable to domesticated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). The... disagrees with the commenter that the domesticated water buffalo should be included in the definition of bovines. Current trade in water buffalo products is primarily in semen and embryos and in dairy...

  1. Asymmetrical hypersensitivity to bovine collagen.

    PubMed

    Somerville, P; Wray, R C

    1993-05-01

    We report a unique patient with true asymmetrical hypersensitivity to bovine collagen. Hypersensitivity is the development of an inflammatory response at a treatment site after a negative skin test. She developed an inflammatory response in only one of two simultaneously injected sites. About 1.5% of patients with a negative skin test have a hypersensitivity reaction consisting of firmness, erythema, and swelling. The signs and symptoms generally resolve spontaneously in a few months.

  2. The Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae HMW1C-Like Glycosyltransferase Mediates N-Linked Glycosylation of the Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Grass, Susan; Paek, Seonghee; St. Geme, Joseph W.; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2010-01-01

    The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is an important virulence exoprotein that is secreted via the two-partner secretion pathway and is glycosylated at multiple asparagine residues in consensus N-linked sequons. Unlike the heavily branched glycans found in eukaryotic N-linked glycoproteins, the modifying glycan structures in HMW1 are mono-hexoses or di-hexoses. Recent work demonstrated that the H. influenzae HMW1C protein is the glycosyltransferase responsible for transferring glucose and galactose to the acceptor sites of HMW1. An Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae protein designated ApHMW1C shares high-level homology with HMW1C and has been assigned to the GT41 family, which otherwise contains only O-glycosyltransferases. In this study, we demonstrated that ApHMW1C has N-glycosyltransferase activity and is able to transfer glucose and galactose to known asparagine sites in HMW1. In addition, we found that ApHMW1C is able to complement a deficiency of HMW1C and mediate HMW1 glycosylation and adhesive activity in whole bacteria. Initial structure-function studies suggested that ApHMW1C consists of two domains, including a 15-kDa N-terminal domain and a 55-kDa C-terminal domain harboring glycosyltransferase activity. These findings suggest a new subfamily of HMW1C-like glycosyltransferases distinct from other GT41 family O-glycosyltransferases. PMID:21209858

  3. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of marbofloxacin in the treatment of Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in nursery and fattener pigs using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Vilalta, C; Giboin, H; Schneider, M; El Garch, F; Fraile, L

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the theoretical clinical outcome of three marbofloxacin posology regimens in two groups of pigs (weaners and fatteners) for the treatment of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and Haemophilus parasuis (Hp) infection and the appearance of resistant bacteria due to the antibiotic treatment. The probability of target attainment (PTA) for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and with the appearance of antimicrobial resistance for fluoroquinolones at each minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were calculated, respectively. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was calculated for the three posology regimens against App and they ranged from 91.12% to 96.37% in weaners and from 93% to 97.43% in fatteners, respectively. In the case of Hp, they ranged from 80.52% to 85.14% in weaners and from 82.01% to 88.49% in fatteners, respectively. Regarding the PTA of the PK/PD threshold associated with the appearance of antimicrobial resistance, results showed that marbofloxacin would prevent resistances in most of the animals up to the MPC value of 1 μg/mL.

  4. Magnetic beads-based enzymatic spectrofluorometric assay for rapid and sensitive detection of antibody against ApxIVA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Li, Fang; Yang, Huicui; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Kaihong; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Yonggang

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, a simple, easily-operated and enzyme-amplified fluorescence immunoassay method using magnetic particles for the detection of antibody against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) has been presented. The A protein of APP Repeats-in-Toxin IV (ApxIVA) with high specificity to the APP species was immobilized onto the magnetic bead surfaces. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which can catalyze the substrate 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (p-HPA), generating fluorescent bi-p, p'-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DBDA), was selected as an enzymatic-amplified tracer. The ApxIVA antibody was detected for the presence of APP infection by measuring the fluorescence intensity of DBDA. Under optimal conditions, the calibration plot obtained for standard positive serum was approximately linear within the dilution range 1:160-1:5120. The limit of detection (LOD) for the assay was 1:10240, considerably lower than that of ApxIVA-ELISA (1:320) (S/N=3). A series of repeatability measurements of using 1:320-fold diluted standard positive serum gave reproducible results with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.8% (n=11). The ability of the immunosensor to analyze clinical samples was tested on porcine sera. The immunosensor yielded an efficiency of 89.7%, sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 89.3% compared with ApxIVA-ELISA.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in porcine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid and effects of test conditions on in vitro activity against reference strains and field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Menge, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Wilhelm, C; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 40 mg/mL solution for injection for pigs), a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide for the treatment for swine respiratory disease (SRD), was investigated in studies collecting blood plasma and postmortem samples of lung tissue and bronchial fluid (BF) from swine. In view of factors influencing the in vitro activity of macrolides, and for the interpretation of tildipirosin pharmacokinetics in relation to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), additional experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere, buffers, and serum on tildipirosin MICs for various reference strains and Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae field isolates. After single intramuscular (i.m.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.9 μg/mL observed within 23 min (Tmax ). Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRTlast) and terminal half-life (T1/2) both were about 4 days. A dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect is observed for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUClast) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. However, linear dose proportionality could not be proven with statistical methods. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded that in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 3.1 μg/g at 2 h, peaked at 4.3 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 0.8 μg/g at day 17. In BF, tildipirosin levels were 14.3, 7.0, and 6.5 μg/g at days 5, 10, and 14. T1/2 in lung was ∼7 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination. Culture media pH and carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere (CO2 -EA) had a marked impact on in vitro activity of tildipirosin in reference strains of various rapidly growing aerobic and

  6. Childhood Contagious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  7. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of cattle and goats in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kusiluka, L J; Ojeniyi, B; Friis, N F; Kazwala, R R; Kokotovic, B

    2000-01-01

    A microbiological study of the mycoplasma flora in the respiratory tracts of cattle and goats in selected regions of Tanzania is described. In the examination of cattle, mycoplasmas were isolated from 60 (17.8%) of the 338 examined lung samples, 8 (47.1%) of the 17 lymph nodes, 4 (13.3%) of the 30 pleural fluid samples and 4 (3.9%) of the 103 nasal swabs examined. All the isolates were identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type except for one isolate from pleural fluid which was identified as Mycoplasma arginini. M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type was isolated from samples originating from Dodoma, Iringa, Mbeya, Morogoro and Shinyanga regions where outbreaks of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia had been reported. In the examination of goats, mycoplasmas were isolated from 54 (34.0%) of the 159 examined lung samples, 41 (18.1%) of the 226 nasal swabs and 4 (40.0%) of the 10 pleural fluid samples. The species demonstrated were Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and M. Capricolum subsp. arginini. The isolation of M. capripneumoniae in the Coast and Morogoro regions confirmed the presence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in the regions.

  8. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    PubMed

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (<9 months of age) have resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  9. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Le Luo Guan; Zhang Bing; Dodson, Michael V.; Okine, Erasmus; Moore, Stephen S.

    2008-02-01

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-{gamma}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-{gamma} and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro.

  10. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes. PMID:20336522

  11. Activity of antibodies against Salmonella dublin, Toxoplasma gondii, or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in sera after treatment with electron beam irradiation or binary ethylenimine.

    PubMed Central

    Kyvsgaard, N C; Lind, P; Preuss, T; Kamstrup, S; Lei, J C; Bøgh, H O; Nansen, P

    1996-01-01

    Viral contamination of biological material may constitute a risk when samples are exchanged between countries, and it may be necessary to subject the material to an inactivation treatment. The present study investigated possible adverse effects on antibody activity subsequent to either electron beam irradiation or binary ethylenimine (BEI) treatment. The treatments were performed with sera obtained from pigs or cattle. For each treatment level, the posttreatment activity was plotted against the pretreatment activity, and regression analyses were carried out. The slope of the regression line was used as an estimate for the relative posttreatment activity. For a Toxoplasma gondii indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay as well as for a Salmonella dublin indirect ELISA, the posttreatment activity was more than 89% of the pretreatment activity when the samples were irradiated in the frozen state (on dry ice) with up to 46. kGy or when they were treated with 5 or 10 mM BEI for up to 48 h. The samples were more sensitive to irradiation in the liquid state. Thus, samples irradiated with 22.6 kGy retained 98% of their activity in the indirect ELISA when they were irradiated in the frozen state on dry ice but only 35% of their activity when they were irradiated in the liquid state at 0 degrees C. The patterns seen in an S. dublin blocking ELISA and an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae complement fixation assay differed in that samples with a low level of pretreatment activity were subject to a relatively greater decrease in activity than samples with a high level of pretreatment activity. The complement fixation assay was particularly sensitive to irradiation of serum. It is concluded that serum samples retain sufficient activity by both methods of virus inactivation, especially when used in indirect ELISA or in the T. gondii agglutination assay. PMID:8914750

  12. Efficacy of two acidified chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid on prevention of contagious mastitis using an experimental challenge protocol.

    PubMed

    Oura, L Y; Fox, L K; Warf, C C; Kempt, G K

    2002-01-01

    Two acidified sodium chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants were evaluated for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae by using National Mastitis Council experimental challenge procedures. The effect of these teat dips on teat skin and teat end condition was also determined. Both dips contained 0.32% sodium chlorite, 1.32% lactic, and 2.5% glycerin. Dips differed in the amount of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (0.53 or 0.27%) added as a surfactant. Both dips significantly reduced new intramammary infection (IMI) rates compared with undipped controls. The dip containing 0.53% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 72% and Strep. agalactiae by 75%. The dip containing 0.27% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 100% and by Strep. agalactiae by 88%. Changes in teat skin and teat end condition for treatment and control groups varied in parallel over time. Teats treated with either teat dip had higher mean teat skin and teat end scores than control teats at some weeks. However, teat skin and teat end condition did not tend to change from the start to the completion of the trial. Application of the two new postmilking teat dips was effective in reducing new IMI from contagious mastitis pathogens. (Key words: teat dip, contagious mastitis, chlorous acid) PMID:11860118

  13. Citrus-derived oil inhibits Staphylococcus aureus growth and alters its interactions with bovine mammary cells.

    PubMed

    Federman, C; Joo, J; Almario, J A; Salaheen, S; Biswas, D

    2016-05-01

    This experiment examined the effects of cold-pressed, terpeneless citrus-derived oil (CDO) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which a major cause of contagious bovine mastitis, and invasion of bovine mammary cells (MAC-T). To determine minimum inhibitory concentration, we used the broth dilution method, using CDO concentrations range from 0.0125 to 0.4% with 2-fold dilutions. Growth inhibition was examined by adding 0.00, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625% CDO to 10(5) cfu/mL S. aureus in nutrient broth and enumerating colonies after serial dilution. In a 96-well plate, S. aureus (10(7) cfu/mL) was allowed to form a biofilm, treated with 0, 0.025, 0.5, or 1% CDO, and then was measured using a spectrophotometer. Cytotoxic effect on immortalized MAC-T cells was also examined at various concentrations of CDO using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. We observed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of CDO to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in vitro was 0.025% CDO. A time kill curve for CDO action on S. aureus over 4h was generated. The CDO completely eliminated S. aureus after 3h of incubation at a concentration of 0.25%, or after 2h of incubation at concentrations of 0.05%. It was also observed that CDO had no effect on preformed biofilms except at a concentration of 0.05%, in which a significant reduction in the measured absorbance was noted. In addition, the association and invasion of S. aureus to MAC-T cells were significantly inhibited after 1h of treatment with CDO. Citrus-derived oil was also able to increase cellular proliferation of MAC-T cells at concentrations up 0.05% and had no effect at a concentration of 0.1% after 1 h. Our data suggests that CDO should be considered for further research as a preventive and therapeutic against bovine mastitis. PMID:26947297

  14. Muscarine binding sites in bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Barron, B A; Murrin, L C; Hexum, T D

    1986-03-18

    The presence of muscarinic binding sites in the bovine adrenal medulla was investigated using [3H]QNB and the bovine adrenal medulla. Scatchard analysis combined with computer analysis yielded data consistent with a two binding site configuration. KDs of 0.15 and 14 nM and Bmax s of 29 and 210 fmol/mg protein, respectively, were observed. Displacement of [3H]QNB by various cholinergic agents is, in order of decreasing potency: QNB, dexetimide, atropine, scopolamine, imipramine, desipramine, oxotremorine, pilocarpine, acetylcholine, methacholine and carbachol. These results demonstrate the presence of more than one muscarine binding site in the bovine adrenal gland. PMID:3709656

  15. Fatigue of bovine trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Moore, Tara L; Gibson, Lorna J

    2003-12-01

    Fatigue loading of bone, from the activities of daily living in the elderly, or from prolonged exercise in the young, can lead to increased risk of fracture. Elderly patients with osteoporosis are particularly prone to fragility fractures of the vertebrae, where load is carried primarily by trabecular bone. In this study, specimens of bovine trabecular bone were loaded in compressive fatigue at four different normalized stresses to one of six maximum strains. The resulting change in modulus and residual strain accumulation were measured over the life of the fatigue test. The number of cycles to reach a given maximum compressive strain increased with decreasing normalized stress. Modulus reduction and specimen residual strain increased with increasing maximum compressive strain, but few differences were observed between specimens loaded to the same maximum strain at different normalized stresses.

  16. Elastomechanical properties of bovine veins.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Jenn Stroud

    2010-02-01

    Veins have historically been discussed in qualitative, relative terms: "more compliant" than arteries, subject to "lower pressures". The structural and compositional differences between arteries and veins are directly related to the different functions of these vessels. Veins are often used as grafts to reroute flow from atherosclerotic arteries, and venous elasticity plays a role in the development of conditions such as varicose veins and valvular insufficiency. It is therefore of clinical interest to determine the elastomechanical properties of veins. In the current study, both tensile and vibration testing are used to obtain elastic moduli of bovine veins. Representative stress-strain data are shown, and the mechanical and failure properties reported. Nonlinear and viscoelastic behavior is observed, though most properties show little strain rate dependence. These data suggest parameters for constitutive modeling of veins and may inform the design and testing of prosthetic venous valves as well as vein grafts. PMID:20129420

  17. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  18. Bovine mastitis: frontiers in immunogenetics.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow's natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity(+)™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population.

  19. Risk-based design of repeated surveys for the documentation of freedom from non-highly contagious diseases.

    PubMed

    Hadorn, Daniela C; Rüfenacht, Jürg; Hauser, Ruth; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2002-12-30

    The documentation of freedom from disease requires reliable information on the actual disease status in a specific animal population. The implementation of active surveillance (surveys) is an effective method to gain this information. For economical reasons, the sample size should be as small as possible but large enough to achieve the required confidence level for a targeted threshold. When conducting surveys repeatedly, various information sources about the disease status of the population can be taken into account to adjust the required level of confidence for a follow-up survey (e.g. risk assessments regarding disease introduction and results of previous surveys). As a benefit, the sample size for national surveys can be reduced considerably. We illustrate this risk-based approach using examples of national surveys conducted in Switzerland. The sample size for the documentation of freedom from enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and Brucella melitensis in sheep and in goats could be reduced from 2325 to 415 cattle herds, from 2325 to 838 sheep herds and from 1975 to 761 goat herds, respectively. PMID:12441234

  20. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies using quantitative real-time PCR and bacterial culture to identify contagious mastitis cases in large dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Murai, Kiyokazu; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Champagne, John D; Glenn, Kathy; Aly, Sharif S

    2014-03-01

    Diagnostic strategies to detect contagious mastitis caused by Mycoplasma bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in dairy herds during an outbreak have been minimally studied with regard to cost and diagnostic sensitivity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for identification of infected cows in two California dairy herds during contagious mastitis outbreaks. M. bovis was investigated in a subset of a herd (n=1210 cows) with an estimated prevalence of 2.8% (95% CI=1.9, 3.7), whereas Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae were studied in a second herd (n=351 cows) with an estimated prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI=1.5, 5.3) and 16.8% (95% CI=12.9, 20.7), respectively. Diagnostic strategies involved a combination of testing stages that utilized bacterial culture, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), or both. Strategies were applied to individual or pooled samples of 5, 10, 50 or 100 samples. Culture was considered the gold standard for sensitivity estimation of each strategy. The reference strategy was the strategy with the lowest cost per culture-positive cow which for both M. bovis and Strep. agalactiae consisted of 2 stages, culture of samples in pools of 5 followed by culture of individual samples in positive pools with a sensitivity of 73.5% (95% CI: 55.6, 87.1) and 96.6% (95% CI: 27.7, 84.8), respectively. The reference strategy for Staph. aureus consisted of 3 stages, culture of individual samples in pools of 100 (stage 1), culture constituents of those positive from stage 1 in pools of 5 (stage 2), culture constituents of those positive from stage 2 individually (stage 3) which resulted in a sensitivity of 58.3% (95% CI: 88.3, 99.6). The most cost-effective alternative to the reference strategy was whole herd milk culture for all 3 pathogens. QPCR testing was a component of the second most cost-effective alternative for M. bovis and the third most cost-effective alternatives for

  1. Removal of transferrin from fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Huebers, E; Nelson, N J; Huebers, H A; Rasey, J S

    1987-12-01

    An antiserum against purified fetal bovine serum (FBS) transferrin was produced in rabbits. The isolation of anti-bovine transferrin IgG fraction was achieved by ammonium sulfate precipitation of rabbit hyperimmune plasma followed by ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) cellulose, at both an acidic and basic pH. The various antibody fractions were analyzed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on a high-resolution mono-Q column. The specificity and efficiency of the antibody fractions obtained were tested by titration of a constant amount of fetal bovine serum with increasing amounts of antibody. The completeness of removal of the fetal bovine serum transferrin resulting from the formation of the highly stable antibody antigen complex was monitored by immunologic and radioisotope methods. The removal of FBS transferrin by this antibody precipitation technique did not interfere with the ability of added iron 59-tagged human transferrin to deliver iron to rat reticulocytes, as shown in an in vivo incubation model. The method proved to be effective for the fast and complete removal of bovine transferrin from fetal bovine serum in vitro and will be a prerequisite for more detailed studies of the interaction of transferrin of different species with tissue receptors on cell lines in culture without resorting to completely defined culture media. PMID:3681114

  2. Existence of two groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis based on biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular profile and agr-typing.

    PubMed

    Bardiau, Marjorie; Caplin, Jonathan; Detilleux, Johann; Graber, Hans; Moroni, Paolo; Taminiau, Bernard; Mainil, Jacques G

    2016-03-15

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is recognised worldwide as an important pathogen causing contagious acute and chronic bovine mastitis. Chronic mastitis account for a significant part of all bovine cases and represent an important economic problem for dairy producers. Several properties (biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular expression and group agr) are thought to be associated with this chronic status. In a previous study, we found the existence of two groups of strains based on the association of these features. The aim of the present work was to confirm on a large international and non-related collection of strains the existence of these clusters and to associate them with case history records. In addition, the genomes of eight strains were sequenced to study the genomic differences between strains of each cluster. The results confirmed the existence of both groups based on capsular typing, intracellular survival and agr-typing: strains cap8-positive, belonging to agr group II, showing a low invasion rate and strains cap5-positive, belonging to agr group I, showing a high invasion rate. None of the two clusters were associated with the chronic status of the cow. When comparing the genomes of strains belonging to both clusters, the genes specific to the group "cap5-agrI" would suggest that these strains are better adapted to live in hostile environment. The existence of these two groups is highly important as they may represent two clusters that are adapted differently to the host and/or the surrounding environment.

  3. The Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training for Public Safety Personnel. Report of the Committee on Training of the Criminal Justice Services Board to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Criminal Justice Services, Richmond.

    Through discussion and extensive research, the Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training attempted to address concerns regarding education and training of public safety personnel with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The committee's findings were based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration…

  4. Blood discard rate and the prevalence of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Takemoto, Angélica Yukari; Bértoli, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Background So that an improvement in the selection of donors can be achieved and the risk to the recipient of transfused blood can be reduced, prospective donors are submitted to clinical and serological screening. Objective This study investigated the blood discard rate and the rate of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods This study was an exploratory cross-sectional descriptive investigation with a quantitative approach of donations between January and December 2011. Results In the study period the Regional Blood center in Maringá, Brazil received 8337 blood donations from people living in the city and neighboring towns. However, 278 (3.33%) donations were discarded during serological screening owing to one or more positive serological markers. A total of 46.4% of the discarded blood units were confirmed positive by serology with anti-HBc being the most common (66.7%), followed by syphilis (22.5%), HBsAg (4.7%), anti-hepatitis C virus (3.1%), human immunodeficiency virus (1.5%) and Chagas' disease (1.5%). The rate of infectious-contagious diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusions was 1.55% (129/8337) of the donor population with a frequency of 1.03% for anti-HBc and 0.35% for syphilis. Conclusion This study demonstrates a high prevalence of the anti-HBc marker in prospective blood donors from provincial towns in the state of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:24478604

  5. Pastoral care of patients with Ebola Virus Disease: A medical and canonical opinion about pastoral visits to patients with contagious and highly fatal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Stephen E.; Nguyen, Benedict T.

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola Virus Disease is a contagious and highly fatal illness that up until recently had been geographically limited to remote areas of Africa. In 2014, Ebola patients have been transported to the United States for care or have been newly diagnosed in the United States. With the intensive medical care and isolation policies usually needed by these patients, we inquired whether pastoral care would be possible. Using clinical and canonical considerations, we analyzed the permissibility and logistical challenges pastoral care presents to the priests and lay ministers, as well as the healthcare system. We conclude that with the approval of local, state, and federal health officials, pastoral care, including provision of the sacraments, is possible. It would require proper training, proper equipment and policies, and a significant commitment of time. While the risk to the pastoral team is difficult to define, it seems low in an Ebola-capable medical system. These risks to priests and ministers seem reasonable given the inestimable benefits of receiving the sacraments during critical illness. Lay summary: Traditional pastoral visits to hospitalized patients might prove difficult or impossible for diseases that are contagious and highly fatal. This inquiry examines the feasibility, challenges, and logistical solutions to these visits. With input from bishops, priests, a canon lawyer, an epidemiologist, a physician, the CDC, and others, we conclude that pastoral visits are possible. Visits will require permission of health authorities, commitments of time, training, and a small but significant risk to the health of priests and others who volunteer for this ministry. PMID:25999614

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  7. Search for the genome of bovine herpesvirus types 1, 4 and 5 in bovine semen

    PubMed Central

    Morán, P.E.; Favier, P.A.; Lomónaco, M.; Catena, M.C.; Chiapparrone, M.L.; Odeón, A.C.; Verna, A.E.; Pérez, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory and reproductive disorders in cattle. Recently, bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) and bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) have been identified to be associated with genital disease. In this study, the presence of the genome of BoHV-1, BoHV-4 and BoHV-5 in bovine semen of Argentinean and international origin was analyzed by PCR assays. The most important finding of this study is the detection of the genome of BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 in semen of bulls maintained at artificial insemination centers. It is particularly relevant that BoHV-1 DNA was also identified in one sample of international origin suggesting the need for extensive quality control measures on international transport of bovine semen. PMID:26623325

  8. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  9. Ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin.

    PubMed

    Filho, Romualdo Morandi; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio; de Oliveira, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian semen chromatin comprises DNA, protamine, and, at lower levels, other proteins. This constitution confers intense compaction to the chromatin, helping to protect the DNA and causing the head of the sperm to be very small, facilitating the safe transport of its genetic contents. It is known that changes in the sperm chromatin compaction lead to fertility problems in bulls, justifying studies of this structure. Although there are theoretical models of sperm chromatin because of its high compaction, there is no morphological evidence of such models. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin in an attempt to corroborate the theoretical chromatin models existing today. The isolated bull sperm heads had their chromatin partially unpacked by chemical treatment using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and were then embedded in Epon resin. Using an ultramicrotome, ultrathin sections were obtained, which were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and then viewed under transmission electron microscopy. The methodology used allowed the visualization of toroidal structures interconnected by a filamentous nuclear matrix, which is entirely consistent with the most current theoretical models. PMID:26515508

  10. Prolactin stimulates the internalization of Staphylococcus aureus and modulates the expression of inflammatory response genes in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Barroso, Angelina; Anaya-López, José L; Lara-Zárate, Leticia; Loeza-Lara, Pedro D; López-Meza, Joel E; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra

    2008-01-15

    The incidence of mastitis in dairy cattle is highest at the drying off period and parturition, which are characterized by high levels of the lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL). One of the most frequently isolated contagious pathogens causing mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus. However, the role of PRL on S. aureus infection in mammary epithelium has not been studied. In this work we evaluated the effect of bovine PRL (bPRL) on S. aureus internalization in a primary culture of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and on the expression of cytokine and innate immune response genes. Our data show that 5ng/mL bPRL enhances approximately 3-fold the internalization of S. aureus (ATCC 27543) into bMEC. By RT-PCR analysis, we showed that bPRL is able to up-regulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNAs. However, bPRL together with S. aureus did not modify the expression of TNF-alpha and iNOS mRNAs, while it down-regulated the expression of beta-defensin and IL-1beta mRNAs, as well as nitric oxide production, suggesting that infection and bPRL together can inhibit elements of the host immune response. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows a role of bPRL during the internalization of S. aureus into bMEC. PMID:17988748

  11. Comparison of Virulence Gene Identification, Ribosomal Spacer PCR, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Cases of Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Pamela R F; Middleton, John R; Fox, Lawrence K

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in dairy cattle worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine if recently described S. aureus genotype B was present among previously characterized isolates from cases of bovine intramammary infection in the United States and to compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the combination of ribosomal spacer PCR (RS-PCR) and virulence gene identification for typing of S. aureus strains. The hypothesis was that isolates that were previously characterized as contagious would be identified as genotype B and that the results of the two strain-typing methods would be comparable. Isolates were selected from a collection of S. aureus isolates from eight dairy farms. Mammary quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) and N-acetyl-β-d-gluconaminidase (NAGase) activity data were known and used to evaluate strain pathogenicity. RS-PCR was performed with conventional gel electrophoresis, and PCR was used for toxin gene identification. RS-PCR patterns were associated with a specific virulence gene pattern, as previously reported. Five RS-PCR banding patterns were identified. None of the isolates were characterized as genotype B. No association between RS-PCR types and milk SCC was found; however, NAGase activity was significantly higher in milk from mammary glands infected with RS-PCR banding type 1 (RSP type 1) than in milk from those infected with RSP type 2. The discriminatory power values were 1.0 and 0.46 for PFGE and RS-PCR, respectively. These data suggest that genotype B may have a limited geographic distribution and that PFGE is more discriminatory than RS-PCR performed with conventional gel electrophoresis for typing of S. aureus isolates of bovine origin.

  12. Immune enhancing effects of recombinant bovine IL-18 on foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in mice model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xi-Ju; Wang, Bin; Wang, Ming

    2007-01-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals and can cause a considerable socio-economic loss for affected countries. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important role in both the development of a functional immune system as well as the response of the organism to infection. In the present study, bovine IL-18 (BoIL-18), Foot-and-mouth disease virus VP1 and VP1/BoIL-18 fusion genes were cloned and expressed in pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and subsequently immune effects were evaluated to study the immune enhancing effects of recombinant BoIL-18 (rBoIL-18) on FMD vaccination. The results showed that the genes encoding for BoIL-18, VP1 and VP1/BoIL-18 are successfully expressed in P. pastoris and the expressed recombinant VP1 (rVP1) proteins could induce both humoral and marginal cell-mediated immune responses in mice, while the co-inoculation with rBoIL-18 could markedly enhance both of immune responses, and the inoculation of the fusion product rVP1/BoIL-18 showed even more dramatic immune responses, suggesting rBoIL-18 has a potential to enhance the efficacy of vaccination against FMDV infection.

  13. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen. PMID:26778303

  14. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation. PMID:24738063

  15. Bovine serum albumin: survival and osmolarity effect in bovine spermatozoa stored above freezing point.

    PubMed

    Nang, C F; Osman, K; Budin, S B; Ismail, M I; Jaffar, F H F; Mohamad, S F S; Ibrahim, S F

    2012-05-01

    Liquid nitrogen preservation in remote farms is a limitation. The goal of this study was to determine optimum temperature above freezing point for bovine spermatozoa preservation using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a supplementation. Pooled semen sample from three ejaculates was subjected to various BSA concentration (1, 4, 8 and 12 mg ml(-1)), before incubation in different above freezing point temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C). Viability assessment was carried out against time from day 0 (fresh sample) until all spermatozoa become nonviable. Optimal condition for bovine spermatozoa storage was at 4 °C with 1 mg ml(-1) BSA for almost 7 days. BSA improved bovine spermatozoa viability declining rate to 44.28% at day 4 and 57.59% at day 7 compared to control, with 80.54% and 98.57% at day 4 and 7 respectively. Increase in BSA concentration did not improve sperm viability. Our results also confirmed that there was a strong negative correlation between media osmolarity and bovine spermatozoa survival rate with r = 0.885, P < 0.0001. Bovine serum albumin helps to improve survival rate of bovine spermatozoa stored above freezing point.

  16. Bovine ephemeral fever in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, F I; Hsu, A M; Huang, K J

    2001-11-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is a vector-borne disease of cattle, spanning tropical and subtropical zones of Asia, Australia, and Africa, caused by Ephemerovirus of the Rhabdoviridae. Taiwan has had 3 BEF epizootics, occurring in 1989, 1996, and 1999, since the vaccination regimen was initiated in 1984, given once a year in the spring with a single-dose formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine using the 1983 isolate as the seed virus. This study evaluated the 1999 population immunity against BEF virus in Taiwanese dairy cows with a neutralization test and whether the recent BEF virus isolates have mutated significantly from the vaccine virus. In March 1999, before vaccination, 94% of the animals studied were already seropositive, suggestive of an endemic or persistent infection from the previous year. By June 1999, when 51% of herds had been vaccinated, the antibody level rose, and by September 1999, the serum-neutralizing antibody (SNA) level fell to a minimum, preceding the outbreak of BEF in October 1999, during which the antibody levels of vaccinated cows continued to decline while those of unvaccinated cows rose sharply. The results suggest that, in 1999, vaccine-induced immunity was partially protective against BEE Because the current single-dose vaccination regimen resulted in minimal population immunity by September, a booster vaccination given in late summer may be advisable for future disease control. Analysis of the glycoprotein gene of Taiwanese isolates between 1983 and 1999 showed a 97.4-99.6% homology, with an alteration of 4 amino acids in antigenic sites G1, G3b, and G3c. Phylogenetic analysis of Taiwanese isolates revealed at least 2 distinct clusters: the 1983-1989 isolates and the 1996-1999 isolates. Both were distinct from 2 Japanese strains and the Australian BB7721 strain. Thus, at least 2 distinct BEF viruses, which had diverged before 1983, existed in Taiwanese dairy cows. PMID:11724135

  17. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  18. Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

    PubMed

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Aye, Racheal; Soi, Reuben; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Naessens, Jan; Wesonga, Hezron

    2016-01-01

    The current control method for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Africa is vaccination with a live, attenuated strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). However, this method is not very efficient and often causes serious adverse reactions. Several studies have attempted to induce protection using inactivated mycoplasma, but with widely contradictory results. Therefore, we compared the protective capacity of the live T1/44 vaccine with two inactivated preparations of Mmm strain Afadé, inoculated with an adjuvant. Protection was measured after a challenge with Afadé. The protection levels were 31%, 80.8% and 74.1% for the formalin-inactivated, heat-inactivated and live attenuated preparations, respectively. These findings indicate that low doses of heat-inactivated Mmm can offer protection to a level similar to the current live attenuated (T1/44) vaccine formulation.

  19. Comparison of in vitro activity of danofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and tilmicosin against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type.

    PubMed

    Ayling, R D; Baker, S E; Nicholas, R A; Peek, M L; Simon, A J

    2000-02-26

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentrations (MMC) of the antimicrobials danofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and tilmicosin were determined in vitro for 20 isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (MmmSC), the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The majority of strains were most susceptible to tilmicosin, followed by danofloxacin, oxytetracycline, florfenicol and spectinomycin with MIC50 values of 0.015, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 8 microg/ml, and MMC50 values of 0.06, 0.5, 8, 8 and 16 microg/ml, respectively. However, tilmicosin had poor mycoplasmacidal activity against two recent strains from Portugal. There was no evidence of resistance to danofloxacin in any of the strains. PMID:10737293

  20. Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

    PubMed

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Aye, Racheal; Soi, Reuben; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Naessens, Jan; Wesonga, Hezron

    2016-01-01

    The current control method for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Africa is vaccination with a live, attenuated strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). However, this method is not very efficient and often causes serious adverse reactions. Several studies have attempted to induce protection using inactivated mycoplasma, but with widely contradictory results. Therefore, we compared the protective capacity of the live T1/44 vaccine with two inactivated preparations of Mmm strain Afadé, inoculated with an adjuvant. Protection was measured after a challenge with Afadé. The protection levels were 31%, 80.8% and 74.1% for the formalin-inactivated, heat-inactivated and live attenuated preparations, respectively. These findings indicate that low doses of heat-inactivated Mmm can offer protection to a level similar to the current live attenuated (T1/44) vaccine formulation. PMID:26827840

  1. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  5. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  6. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  7. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  8. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  9. Characterization of the bovine C alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, W R; Rabbani, H; Butler, J E; Hammarström, L

    1997-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of a bovine C alpha gene is reported here. The genomic sequence was obtained from a C alpha phage clone that had been cloned from a genomic EMBL4 phage vector library. The C alpha sequence had previously been expressed as a chimeric antibody and identified as IgA using IgA-specific antibodies. Intron/exon boundaries were determined by comparison of the genomic sequence with an expressed bovine C alpha sequence obtained from spleen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of 50 Swedish bovine genomic DNA samples using genomic blots and five different restriction enzymes failed to detect evidence of polymorphism. However, PstI digests of Brown Swiss DNA showed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), suggesting that at least two allelic variants of bovine IgA exist. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of bovine IgA with sequences available for other species indicated that the highest homology was with that of swine, another artiodactyl. This was the highest homology observed for all mammalian IgA compared except for that between IgA1 and IgA2 in humans. Bovine IgA shares with rabbit IgA3 and IgA4, an additional N-linked glycosylation site at position 282. However, the collective data indicate that cattle are like swine and rodents and unlike rabbits in having a single locus of the gene encoding IgA of this species. Images Figure 4 PMID:9203958

  10. Bovine T lymphocyte responses to Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, John H

    2002-12-20

    The long-held paradigm of T lymphocyte-mediated activation of mononuclear phagocytes (Mø) as the major mechanism of protection against facultative intracellular pathogens such as Brucella has been modified to include killing of infected Mø by various subsets of T lymphocytes. Remnants of killed infected cells are phagocytosed by immunologically-activated Mø, which are much more efficient at killing such pathogens. Most of the detailed information regarding immunity in general and that of brucellosis specifically has been obtained using murine infection models rather than in cattle. However, there has been considerable definition of cellular phenotypes, cytokines and functional characteristics of T lymphocytes in cattle over the last decade. This was mainly due to development of monoclonal antibodies against cell surface markers and application of molecular cloning and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for isolation, characterization and detection of genes encoding bovine cytokines. This review discusses cellular and molecular immunity in bovine brucellosis as pertains to T lymphocyte interactions with the Mø. Although current knowledge directly obtained from brucellosis immunity studies in the bovine host is limited and incomplete, the many parallels between the bovine and murine immune systems allow for some extrapolation in the description of bovine host defense mechanisms. Direct information from studies with immunized cattle supports the concepts of coordinate activation of uninfected Mø and killing of Brucella-infected Mø by antigen-specific T lymphocytes as major mechanisms of host defense in bovine brucellosis. There also appears to be a bias in the T lymphocyte compartment towards recognition of particular bacterial stress proteins following immunization with live Brucella vaccines.

  11. Demecolcine-assisted enucleation for bovine cloning.

    PubMed

    Tani, Tetsuya; Shimada, Hiroaki; Kato, Yoko; Tsunoda, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    The present study demonstrated that demecolcine treatment for at least 30 min produces a membrane protrusion in metaphase II-stage bovine oocytes. The maternal chromosome mass is condensed within the protrusion, which makes it easy to remove the maternal chromosomes for nuclear transfer (NT). Maturation promoting factor activity, but not mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, increased up to 30% in oocytes during demecolcine treatment. One normal healthy calf was obtained after transfer of four NT blastocysts produced following demecolcine treatment. Demecolcine treatment did not increase the potential of NT oocytes to develop into blastocysts. The present study demonstrated that chemically-assisted removal of chromosomes is effective for bovine cloning.

  12. [Investigation on bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-Zhu; Cui, Yu-Dong; Zhu, Zhan-Bo; Cao, Hong-Wei; Piao, Fan-Ze

    2006-10-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) is autosomal recessive disease. The pathogeny of BLAD is genic mutation of CD18-integrins on the leukocyte. In order to know the carrier and occurrence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) among cows age from one to six years old in China, 1,000 cows were investigated by means of amplifying a CD18 gene fragment via reverse transcriptase-PCR followed by restriction digestion with Taq I. Results showed that 19 cows were BLAD carriers, indicating that the BLAD carrier rate was 1.9 percent. In addition, one cow was found to have BLAD. PMID:17035180

  13. Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India.

    PubMed

    Zade, Jagdish K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Desai, Sajjad A; Sabale, Rajendra N; Naik, Sameer P; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2014-08-11

    A bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) containing rotavirus human-bovine (UK) reassortant strains of serotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 has been developed by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA. The vaccine underwent animal toxicity studies and Phase I and II studies in adults, toddlers and infants. It has been found safe and immunogenic and will undergo a large Phase III study to assess efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis.

  14. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  15. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection. PMID:26511615

  16. Studying bovine early embryo transcriptome by microarray.

    PubMed

    Dufort, Isabelle; Robert, Claude; Sirard, Marc-André

    2015-01-01

    Microarrays represent a significant advantage when studying gene expression in early embryo because they allow for a speedy study of a large number of genes even if the sample of interest contains small quantities of genetic material. Here we describe the protocols developed by the EmbryoGENE Network to study the bovine transcriptome in early embryo using a microarray experimental design.

  17. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  18. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  19. A physical map of the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential geneti...

  20. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009).

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) research has provided significant understanding of the disease over the past 26 years. Modern research tools that have been used include monoclonal antibodies, genomics, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA vaccines and viral vectors coding for immunogens. Emerging/reemerging viruses and new antigenic strains of viruses and bacteria have been identified. Methods of detection and the role for cattle persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were identified; viral subunits, cellular components and bacterial products have been characterized. Product advances have included vaccines for bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida; the addition of BVDV2 to the existing vaccines and new antibiotics. The role of Mycoplasma spp., particularly Mycoplasma bovis in BRD, has been more extensively studied. Bovine immunology research has provided more specific information on immune responses, T cell subsets and cytokines. The molecular and genetic basis for viral-bacterial synergy in BRD has been described. Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs. PMID:20003649

  1. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  2. Characterization of the bovine ampkgamma1 gene.

    PubMed

    Benkel, Bernhard; Kollers, Sonja; Fries, Ruedi; Sazanov, Alexei; Yoshida, Erin; Valle, Edith; Davoren, Jon; Hickey, Donal

    2005-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents the mammalian form of the core component of a kinase cascade that is conserved between fungi, plants, and animals. AMPK plays a major role in protecting mammalian cells from metabolic stress by switching off biosynthetic pathways that require ATP and switching on ATP-regenerating pathways. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of the gene for the noncatalytic bovine gamma1 subunit of AMPK. The bovine ampkgamma1 (PRKAG1) gene spans in excess of 14 kb and is located at BTA 5q21-q22. It consists of 12 exons ranging in size from 38 b to 166 b, interspersed with 11 introns that range between 97 b and 6753 b in length. The coding region of the bovine gene shares 93% and 90% nucleotide sequence similarity with its human and rat counterparts, and the bovine AMPKgamma1 protein is 98% and 95% identical to its human and rat homologs, respectively, in amino acid sequence. SNP discovery using a cattle DNA panel revealed a number of polymorphisms that may be useful for the evaluation of ampkgamma1 as a candidate gene for energy metabolism-related production traits.

  3. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection.

  4. Identification of bovine-specific DNA in feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Krcmár, P; Rencová, E

    2001-01-01

    Considering the menace of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, feed components intended for cattle nutrition must be checked for the presence of bovine-derived materials. We have been using a method based on polymerase chain reaction for the identification of bovine-specific mitochondrial DNA sequences for this purpose. The specificity of the primers for polymerase chain reaction has been tested using samples of DNA of other vertebrate species, which may also be present in rendering plant products. The method allows the detection in concentrate mixtures of 0.125% of bovine-derived material. Bovine DNA at concentrations corresponding to less than 0.5% of bovine-derived material was detected in 3 of the 30 samples of concentrate mixtures collected from distributors' stores all over the Czech Republic. All 44 samples of fish meal collected from the same sources were free of bovine-derived material. PMID:11198432

  5. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Casas, Eduardo; Stone, Roger T; Keele, John W; Harhay, Gregory P; Bennett, Gary L; Smith, Timothy PL

    2005-01-01

    Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)sequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum) of 216 (366) informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum) of 55 (191) informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other data to guide and

  6. Molecular analysis of the bovine anaphylatoxin C5a receptor

    PubMed Central

    Nemali, Sailasree; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Nelson, Laura K.; Bunger, Peggy L.; Faulkner, Craig L.; Rainard, Pascal; Gauss, Katherine A.; Jutila, Mark A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Recruitment of phagocytes to inflammatory sites involves the coordinated action of several chemoattractants, including the anaphylatoxin C5a. While the C5a receptor (C5aR) has been well characterized in humans and rodents, little is known about the bovine C5aR. Here, we report cloning of bovine C5R1, the gene encoding bovine C5aR. We also analyzed genomic sequence upstream of the C5R1 translation start site. Although the bovine C5aR amino acid sequence was well conserved among species, significant differences in conserved features were found, including major differences in the N terminus, intracellular loop 3, and transmembrane domain VII. Analysis of C5aR expression by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy demonstrated high levels of C5aR on all bovine neutrophils and a subset of bovine monocytes. C5aR was not expressed on resting or activated bovine lymphocytes, although C5aR message was present in these cells. C5aR was also expressed on a small subset of bovine mammary epithelial cells. Pharmacological analysis of bovine C5aR-mediated responses showed that bovine C5a and C5adesArg both induced dose-dependent calcium fluxes and chemotaxis in bovine neutrophils, with similar efficacy for both agonists. Treatment of bovine neutrophils with C5a or C5adesArg resulted in homologous desensitization of bovine C5aR and cross-desensitization to interleukin 8 (IL-8) and platelet-activating factor (PAF); whereas, treatment with IL-8 or PAF did not cross-desensitize the cells to C5a or C5adesArg. Overall, these studies provide important information regarding distinct structural and functional features that may contribute to the unique pharmacological properties of bovine C5aR. PMID:18480166

  7. Molecular definition of bovine argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, J A; Healy, P J; Beaudet, A L; O'Brien, W E

    1989-01-01

    Citrullinemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to deficiency of the urea cycle enzyme, argininosuccinate synthetase [L-citrulline:L-aspartate ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.3.4.5]. The disease was first described in humans but was recently reported in dairy cattle in Australia. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of the normal bovine cDNA for argininosuccinate synthetase and the mutation present in animals with citrullinemia. Analysis of DNA from affected animals by Southern blotting did not readily identify the mutation in the bovine gene. RNA (Northern) blotting revealed a major reduction in the steady-state amount of mRNA in the liver of affected animals to less than 5% of controls. The bovine cDNA was cloned and sequenced and revealed 96% identity with the deduced human sequence at the amino acid level. Starting with mutant bovine liver, the mRNA was reverse-transcribed; the cDNA product was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. The sequence revealed a C----T transition converting arginine-86 (CGA) to a nonsense codon (TGA). A second C----T transition represented a polymorphism in proline-175 (CCC----CCT). The mutation and the polymorphism were confirmed by amplification of genomic DNA and demonstration with restriction endonuclease enzymes of both the loss of an Ava II site in DNA from mutant animals at codon 86 and the presence or absence of a Dde I site at codon 175. The loss of the Ava II site can be used for rapid, economical, nonradioactive detection of heterozygotes for bovine citrullinemia. Images PMID:2813370

  8. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  9. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea, but absence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine brucellosis in the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Corti, Paulo; Saucedo, Cristián; Herrera, Paula

    2013-07-01

    We screened 18 endangered Chilean huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) for antibodies to infectious agents. We detected no antibody to bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) or Brucella abortus (BA); two huemul had antibody to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Cattle (n=35) had antibody to BVDV and BHV-1 but not BA.

  10. Dental fluorosis in bovine temporary teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Suttie, J.W.; Clay, A.B.; Shearer, T.R.

    1985-02-01

    Deciduous incisors from calves born to dams fed an average of 40 mg of fluoride/kg of forage ration (40 ppm) were compared with incisors from calves born to dams fed a normal dairy ration. Skeletal fluoride concentration in the calves born to fluoride-fed dams was increased 5 to 8 fold, but enamel mottling and hypoplasia, typical of permanent bovine incisor dental fluorosis were not seen by gross, histologic, or radiologic examination. Decreases in the amount of enamel on the tooth or hardness of the enamel were not observed. These data do not support recent reports of widespread dental fluorosis of deciduous bovine teeth as a clinical sign of fluoride toxicity.

  11. Aetiology of bovine abortion in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Campero, C M; Moore, D P; Odeón, A C; Cipolla, A L; Odriozola, E

    2003-07-01

    Necropsies were performed on 354 fetuses from dairy and beef herds submitted from 1994 to 2000 to the diagnostic laboratories at Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Balcarce, Argentina. Samples from the fetuses were examined for pathogenic organisms and processed for microscopic examination. An aetiological diagnosis was made for 161 (45.5%) of the fetuses. No diagnosis was made for 193 (54.5%) fetuses. Infectious agents were isolated from 122 (34.4%) of the fetuses, bacterial agents being involved in 80 (22.6%) of these. The most common bacterial agents isolated from the fetuses were Brucella abortus in 28 fetuses, Campylobacter fetus in 26 cases, and Escherichia coli in 9 cases. Bovine herpesvirus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus were found in 9 and 6 cases, respectively. Neospora caninum was detected by an immunohistochemical technique in 26 cases (7.3%). Congenital abnormalities, dystocia and mummifications were found in 8, 19 and 11 cases, respectively.

  12. Evolution and recombination of bovine DNA repeats.

    PubMed

    Jobse, C; Buntjer, J B; Haagsma, N; Breukelman, H J; Beintema, J J; Lenstra, J A

    1995-09-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattle, sheep, and goat is also present in Cervidae (deer) and apparently predates the Bovidae. However, the other components of the bovine satellites were amplified after the divergence of the cattle and the Caprinae (sheep and goat). A 23-bp motif, which as subrepeat of two major satellites occupies 5% of the cattle genome, emerged only after the split of the water buffalo and other cattle species. During the evolution of the Bovidae the satellite repeat units were shaped by recombination events involving subrepeats, other satellite components, and SINE elements. Differences in restriction sites of homologous satellites indicate a continuing rapid horizontal spread of new sequence variants.

  13. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: "mad cow disease".

    PubMed

    1996-07-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as "mad cow disease," is a fatal brain disease of cattle first recognized in the United Kingdom. In humans, the most common transmissible spongiform encephalopathy is Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD). Although no cases of CJD have been directly linked to beef consumption, an advisory committee has reported that 10 recent cases of a CJD variant may be associated with BSE. This announcement has alarmed consumers well beyond the borders of the United Kingdom.

  14. [Alpha 2-antiplasmin in bovine plasma].

    PubMed

    Piliavskaia, A S; Panchenko, N E

    1985-01-01

    Bovine and human blood plasma contains alpha 2-antiplasmin which possesses affinity to lysin-binding sites in plasmin and inhibits the human plasmin. Its isolation was conducted for two stages: separation of plasminogen on lysin-cellulose, fractionation by ammonium sulphate, desalination on molselector G-25, chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and affinity chromatography on plasmin-sepharose with the blocked active site.

  15. Dynamics of collagen from bovine connective tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renou, J.-P.; Foucat, L.; Corsaro, C.; Ollivier, J.; Zanotti, J.-M.; Middendorf, H. D.

    2004-07-01

    We present first results from neutron studies of ns to ps relaxations in bovine collagen, comparing data for a minimally cross-linked sample (young calf) with those for a highly cross-linked one (old cow). Proton displacements derived from quasielastic scans (30

  16. Killing of Brucella abortus by bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, L B; Blau, K; Inzana, T J; Nielsen, K H; Jacobson, R H; Corbeil, R R; Winter, A J

    1988-12-01

    Studies of the serum bactericidal system in bovine brucellosis were undertaken to investigate the role of the humoral immune response in protection of cattle against the facultative intracellular parasite Brucella abortus. Fresh sera from normal control cattle, infected cattle, and cattle immunized with B. abortus cell envelopes were collected before treatment and during the course of immunization or infection. Normal fresh bovine serum or fresh agammaglobulinemic serum from colostrum-deprived calves was effective in killing smooth virulent B. abortus 2308, but rough strains RB51 (a rough mutant of strain 2308) and 45/20 were much more sensitive to serum. The difference in susceptibility to serum was shown to be correlated with differences in lipopolysaccharide chemotype, with the more resistant strain 2308 having O polysaccharide and the more susceptible strains 45/20 and RB51 lacking O side chains. By treatment of fresh serum with MgCl2 and EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] killing was shown to occur via the classical pathway of complement activation. When antibody to B. abortus was present, killing of strain RB51 increased but killing of smooth strain 2308 decreased. The earliest antibody response in serum from infected animals did not interfere with killing. When affinity-purified bovine immunoglobulins specific for B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide were added to fresh normal bovine serum, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 isotypes blocked killing but IgM and IgA isotypes did not. Thus, it appears that serum from previously unexposed animals or animals early during infection can kill smooth B. abortus, an appropriate defense mechanism before the organism becomes intracellular. At later stages of infection, blocking antibodies predominate.

  17. Factors associated with the presence and prevalence of contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A 2013 study of 1136 random English sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Dickins, Alan; Clark, Corinna C A; Kaler, Jasmeet; Ferguson, Eamonn; O'Kane, Holly; Green, Laura E

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, a questionnaire was used to gather data on risks for introduction, and factors associated with prevalence, of contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD). There were 1136 (28.4%) usable responses from 4000 randomly selected sheep farmers in England. CODD was present in 58% (662) of flocks, with a reported prevalence of CODD lesions of 2.3%. The geometric mean period prevalence of all lameness was 4.2% and 2.8% in CODD positive and negative flocks respectively. Factors associated with a greater risk of presence of CODD were purchasing replacement ewes, not always checking the feet of sheep before purchase, not isolating purchased sheep, foot bathing returning ewes, foot trimming the flock more than twice in the year all compared with not doing these activities and increasing log10 flock size. Farmers who vaccinated sheep with Footvax™ were less likely to report presence of CODD. Factors associated with increasing prevalence of CODD lesions were not always checking the feet of purchased sheep, flocks that mixed with other flocks and sheep that left the farm for summer grazing and later returned. In addition, flocks where farmers followed the current recommended managements for control of footrot, had a lower prevalence of CODD whilst those who used foot bathing and where feet bled during routine foot trimming had a higher prevalence of CODD. The prevalence of CODD decreased with each log10 increase in flock size. We conclude that CODD is an infectious cause of lameness in sheep of increasing importance in GB. Introduction is linked to poor biosecurity with one likely source of the pathogen being introduction of or mixing with infected sheep. As with footrot, prevalence of CODD was lower in flocks where farmers focused on individual treatment to manage lameness and avoided foot bathing and trimming feet. We conclude that most of the currently recommended biosecurity and treatment approaches to control footrot in GB are also effective for control of CODD.

  18. Factors associated with the presence and prevalence of contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A 2013 study of 1136 random English sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Dickins, Alan; Clark, Corinna C A; Kaler, Jasmeet; Ferguson, Eamonn; O'Kane, Holly; Green, Laura E

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, a questionnaire was used to gather data on risks for introduction, and factors associated with prevalence, of contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD). There were 1136 (28.4%) usable responses from 4000 randomly selected sheep farmers in England. CODD was present in 58% (662) of flocks, with a reported prevalence of CODD lesions of 2.3%. The geometric mean period prevalence of all lameness was 4.2% and 2.8% in CODD positive and negative flocks respectively. Factors associated with a greater risk of presence of CODD were purchasing replacement ewes, not always checking the feet of sheep before purchase, not isolating purchased sheep, foot bathing returning ewes, foot trimming the flock more than twice in the year all compared with not doing these activities and increasing log10 flock size. Farmers who vaccinated sheep with Footvax™ were less likely to report presence of CODD. Factors associated with increasing prevalence of CODD lesions were not always checking the feet of purchased sheep, flocks that mixed with other flocks and sheep that left the farm for summer grazing and later returned. In addition, flocks where farmers followed the current recommended managements for control of footrot, had a lower prevalence of CODD whilst those who used foot bathing and where feet bled during routine foot trimming had a higher prevalence of CODD. The prevalence of CODD decreased with each log10 increase in flock size. We conclude that CODD is an infectious cause of lameness in sheep of increasing importance in GB. Introduction is linked to poor biosecurity with one likely source of the pathogen being introduction of or mixing with infected sheep. As with footrot, prevalence of CODD was lower in flocks where farmers focused on individual treatment to manage lameness and avoided foot bathing and trimming feet. We conclude that most of the currently recommended biosecurity and treatment approaches to control footrot in GB are also effective for control of CODD

  19. Bovine colostrum and immune function after exercise.

    PubMed

    Davison, Glen

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous and/or prolonged exercise causes transient perturbations in immune function. It is well accepted that this is one mechanism contributing to the higher occurrence of infection (e.g. upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)) in athletes, especially endurance athletes. URTI or upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms can negatively affect training and competition performance but athletes must train intensively to be successful. Therefore, interventions that can legitimately enhance immune function and reduce URTI risk can be of benefit to athletes. Bovine colostrum supplementation has been investigated as a possible nutritional countermeasure to enhance (or maintain) immune function, and reduce URTI risk, following strenuous or prolonged exercise and during intensive training periods. There is convincing evidence that daily supplementation with bovine colostrum, for a number of weeks (and preliminary evidence for acute effects after a single dose), can maintain intestinal barrier integrity, immune function and reduce the chances of suffering URTI or URT symptoms in athletes or those undertaking heavy training. The mechanisms are not fully understood at present but there is preliminary evidence suggesting that the effects on immune function are attributable, at least in part, to small bioactive components that survive digestion and are biologically available after consumption, but further work is required. In summary, the balance of existing evidence does support the notion that bovine colostrum is beneficial for certain groups of athletes, such as those involved in strenuous training (e.g. endurance athletes), in terms of immunity and resistance to infection. PMID:23075556

  20. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  1. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LYOPHILIZED BOVINE BONE GRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Galia, Carlos Roberto; Lourenço, André Luis; Rosito, Ricardo; Souza Macedo, Carlos Alberto; Camargo, Lourdes Maria Araujo Quaresma

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized bovine grafts manufactured on a semi-industrial scale (Orthogen; Baumer S/A*) in accordance with a protocol previously developed by the authors. Methods: The lyophilized bovine bone grafts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential exploratory scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results: Ca was the main component (60%) found in the samples, followed by P (28%) and O (5%). The mean (sd) pore size was 316 μm (146.7), ranging from 91.2 to 497.8 μm, and 333.5 μm (304.8), ranging from 87.2 to 963.9 μm, at 50x and 150x magnification, respectively. The hydroxyapatite peaks were at 26°C and 32°C, and mass losses were observed between 250°C and 640°C, corresponding to organic material and water. Two temperature transitions (45.67°C and 91.89°C) showed denaturation of type 1 collagen and dehydration of hydroxyapatite. Conclusion: The physicochemical assessment of lyophilized bovine bone grafts in accordance with the protocol developed at semi-industrial scale confirmed that this product presents excellent biocompatibility, with characteristics similar to natural bone. PMID:27027036

  2. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 110, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is...

  3. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which allows BHEXIM1 to displace BTat from B-cyclin T1. Furthermore, we found that the C-terminal region and the centrally located region of BHEXIM1 are required for BHEXIM1 to associate with B-cyclin T1. Knockdown of BHEXIM1 enhances BIV replication. Taken together, our study provides the first clear evidence that BHEXIM1 is involved in BIV replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation. PMID:23537346

  4. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong-yan; Ma, Yong-gang; Gai, Yuan-ming; Liang, Zhi-bin; Ma, Jing; Su, Yang; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Chen, Qi-min; Tan, Juan

    2013-03-27

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which allows BHEXIM1 to displace BTat from B-cyclin T1. Furthermore, we found that the C-terminal region and the centrally located region of BHEXIM1 are required for BHEXIM1 to associate with B-cyclin T1. Knockdown of BHEXIM1 enhances BIV replication. Taken together, our study provides the first clear evidence that BHEXIM1 is involved in BIV replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation.

  5. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  6. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M. E.; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26713450

  7. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26713450

  8. In vitro protective effect of bacteria-derived bovine alpha interferon I1 against selected bovine viruses.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J H; Robson, D S; Scott, F W; Schiff, E I

    1985-12-01

    We used bacteria-derived bovine alpha-interferon I1 (Bo IFN-alpha I1) to study its antiviral effect in a bovine turbinate cell line on bovine diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, and pseudorabies virus. We based our study upon replicate tests for each strain by using a block titration system with various concentrations of Bo IFN-alpha I1 against various concentrations of virus. The data were compiled in two-axis tables (replicate X concentration) and were statistically analyzed by the Spearman-Kärber method. An increase in the concentration of Bo IFN-alpha I1 enhanced its protective effect against every test virus strain. Bo IFN-alpha I1 had a marked in vitro effect on the bovine diarrhea viral strains. It demonstrated less protection against the pseudorabies and parainfluenza 3 viruses. Its effectiveness against the two infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral strains was lesser and of a low order.

  9. Kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite neutralization by monoclonal antibodies, immune bovine serum, and immune bovine colostrum.

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, L E; Riggs, M W; Mason, P H; Fayer, R

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies, immune bovine serum, and immune bovine colostral whey neutralized infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites for mice in a time-dependent manner. Immune colostral whey neutralized sporozoites more rapidly and completely than immune serum, monoclonal antibody (MAb) 18.44, or a combination of MAb 18.44 and MAb 17.41. Mice were partially protected against oral challenge with C. parvum oocytes when treated with immune colostral whey, MAb 17.41, or a combination of MAb 17.41 and MAb 18.44. PMID:2294054

  10. Inhibition of lactogenic activities of bovine mammary gland explants by the whey fraction of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Shamay, A; Shinder, D A; Bruckental, I; Silanikove, N

    1997-09-01

    The regulation of milk constituents, synthesis and secretion in tissue cultures of the bovine mammary gland was altered by a whey fraction of bovine milk. alpha-Casein gene expression, casein secretion and fatty acid synthesis were inhibited by the whey fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The whey fraction inhibited the enhancement activity of prolactin on alpha-casein gene expression and fatty acid synthesis, and also inhibited casein secretion to the medium, in explants cultured in a medium with or without prolactin. No effect on the expression of the beta-lactoglobulin gene was found. PMID:9570895

  11. Expressions of Bovine IFN-gamma and foot-and-mouth disease VP1 antigen in P. pastoris and their effects on mouse immune response to FMD antigens.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xi-Ju; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Can; Wang, Ming

    2006-01-01

    As a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) may cause a considerable social-economic loss in those countries affected. IFN-gamma has a wide range of antiviral and immune modulating functions. Thus, to study the immune enhancing effects of recombinant Bovine IFN-gamma (rBoIFN-gamma) on a recombinant FMDV vaccine, BoIFN-gamma, FMDV VP1 and BoIFN-gamma/VP fusion genes were cloned, expressed, co-expressed in pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) respectively, and subsequent immune effects have been evaluated in this study. The results showed that the genes encoding for BoIFN-gamma, VP1 and BoIFN-gamma/VP1 are successfully expressed in P. pastoris and their products are directly secreted into the cultural supernatant at a high level of 1.0 g/L analyzed by thin-layer scanning. In addition, rVP1 alone could induce both humoral and marginal cell-mediated immune responses in mice, while the group with co-inoculations of rBoIFN-gamma could markedly enhance both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses; even more dramatic immune responses were observed with the group inoculated with the fusion product, rBoIFN-gamma/VP1. The fusion product could be further investigated for its utility of FMDV vaccine development.

  12. Using Mathematical Modelling to Explore Hypotheses about the Role of Bovine Epithelium Structure in Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus-Induced Cell Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Giorgakoudi, Kyriaki; Gubbins, Simon; Ward, John; Juleff, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhidong; Schley, David

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. FMD virus (FMDV) shows a strong tropism for epithelial cells, and FMD is characterised by cell lysis and the development of vesicular lesions in certain epithelial tissues (for example, the tongue). By contrast, other epithelial tissues do not develop lesions, despite being sites of viral replication (for example, the dorsal soft palate). The reasons for this difference are poorly understood, but hypotheses are difficult to test experimentally. In order to identify the factors which drive cell lysis, and consequently determine the development of lesions, we developed a partial differential equation model of FMDV infection in bovine epithelial tissues and used it to explore a range of hypotheses about epithelium structure which could be driving differences in lytic behaviour observed in different tissues. Our results demonstrate that, based on current parameter estimates, epithelial tissue thickness and cell layer structure are unlikely to be determinants of FMDV-induced cell lysis. However, differences in receptor distribution or viral replication amongst cell layers could influence the development of lesions, but only if viral replication rates are much lower than current estimates. PMID:26431527

  13. Perspectives on the History of Bovine TB and the Role of Tuberculin in Bovine TB Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Good, Margaret; Duignan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a significant disease of animals and humans worldwide. Bovine tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacteria with an extremely wide host range and serious, although currently probably underdiagnosed, zoonotic potential. Where bovine tuberculosis controls are effective, human zoonotic TB, due to Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae, is uncommon and clinical cases are infrequent in cattle. Therefore, the control and ultimate eradication of bovine tuberculosis is desirable. Tuberculin tests are the primary screening tool used in bovine eradication. The choice of tuberculin test is dependent on the environment in which it is to be used. Tuberculin potency is critical to test performance, and the accurate determination of potency is therefore particularly important. The design of a control or eradication programme should take into consideration the fundamental scientific knowledge, the epidemiological profile of disease, the experience of other eradication programmes, and the presence, in the same ecosystem, of maintenance hosts, in which infection is self-sustaining and which are capable of transmitting infection. A control or eradication programme will necessarily require modification as it progresses and must be under constant review to identify the optimal desirable goals, the efficacy of policy, and constraints to progress. PMID:21547209

  14. Susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial cells to bovine herpesviruses and pseudocowpox virus.

    PubMed

    Wellenberg, G J; Verstraten, E R A M; Jongejan, F; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial (BUE) cells to bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1, BHV2, BHV4 and BHV5, and to pseudocowpox virus. The detection limits and growth curves of these viruses in BUE cells were compared with those in Vero, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK). or bovine fetal diploid lung (BFDL) cells. Detection limits were determined by inoculating cell cultures with serial 10-fold dilutions of these viruses, and growth curves by titration of virus, harvested at various times after infecting cells at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1. The detection limits of BHV2 and BHV4 were lower in BUE cells than in Vero or MDBK cells, and cytopathic effects were observed earlier in BUE cells. In addition, BHV2 and BHV4 grew to higher titres in BUE cells than in Vero or MDBK cells. BUE cells appeared to be equally susceptible to BHV5, but less susceptible to BHV1.1 and BHVI.2 than MDBK cells. The study showed that BUE cells are highly susceptible to BHV2 and BHV4. and that the use of BUE cells can improve the laboratory diagnosis of these viruses. The use of BUE cells could also improve the isolation and growth of pseudocowpox virus.

  15. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as a correlate of T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays are a correlate of protection. Recent...

  16. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays measure central memory T cell (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses correlate with protection. In other species, Tcm’s pose low activation threshold and a...

  17. Contagious Ideas from Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Financial problems plague both higher education and health care, two sectors that struggle to meet public expectations for quality services at affordable rates. Both higher education and health care also have a complex bottom line, heavy reliance on relatively autonomous professionals, and clients who share personal responsibility for achieving…

  18. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase...

  2. Bovine Genetic Diversity Revealed By mtDNA Sequence Variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were used to determine genetic distance, nucleotide diversity, construction of haplotypes, estimation of information contents, and phylogenic relationships in bovine HapMap breeds. The Bovine International HapMap panel consists of 720 anima...

  3. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 13 DNA in Equine Sarcoids

    PubMed Central

    Lunardi, Michele; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Rodrigues, Wagner Borges; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Equine sarcoids are locally aggressive fibroblastic neoplasms considered to be the most common skin tumors of horses worldwide. Bovine papillomavirus types 1 and 2 have typically been associated with sarcoids in equids. Investigations aiming to identify papillomavirus strains, aside from bovine papillomaviruses 1 and 2, which might be associated with sarcoid lesions, have been lacking. The aim of this article is to report the identification of a third bovine papillomavirus type, bovine papillomavirus 13, associated with equine sarcoids. Six sarcoid lesions were collected from diverse anatomical sites on two horses from southern Brazil. To detect a broad spectrum of papillomavirus strains, eight degenerate primer pairs designed to detect conserved regions on the L1 and E1 genes were tested on the DNA samples. Direct sequencing was then performed on the obtained amplicons, and sequence identities were compared with sequences from all bovine papillomavirus types. The FAP59/FAP64, MY09/MY11, and AR-E1F2/AR-E1R4 sequences generated from the sarcoids were shown to present 99 to 100% identity with bovine papillomavirus 13, a new bovine papillomavirus type previously described in cattle. The results from this study suggest that there is a need to identify bovine papillomavirus type 13 and other papillomavirus strains that might be associated with sarcoids in diverse geographical areas; such investigations might establish the frequency of occurrence of this viral type in these common tumors of equids. PMID:23637294

  4. Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis in single and pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Hoff-Jørgensen, R

    1990-12-01

    Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis is based on detection of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, BLV. Some ELISA modifications have proved sensitive enough for use in the examination of pooled blood samples from slaughterhouses, milk and pooled milk samples. Suggestions for the standardisation of different ELISA modifications using a common reference serum are presented. PMID:1966753

  5. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood is an excellent flocculating agent, faster acting and as effective on a mass basis as polyacrylamide, the most widely utilized polymeric flocculant. To determine the molecular basis of flocculation activity, whole bovine blood (BB) and BB plasma were fractionated by size exclusion chro...

  6. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

  7. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export.

  8. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Njeumi, F.; Elsawalhy, A.; Wabacha, J.; Rushton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

  9. Discovery of a bovine enterovirus in alpaca.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L; Krause, Philip R; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.

  10. Markers on Bovine Chromosome 20 Associated with Carcass Quality and Composition Traits and Incidence of Contracting Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on bovine chromosome 20 to fine map a previously identified QTL associated with the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 539) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds...

  11. Markers on bovine chromosome 20 associated with carcass quality and composition traits and incidence of contracting infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on bovine chromosome 20 to fine map a previously identified QTL associated with the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 539) derived from sires of 7 Bos Taurus breeds and h...

  12. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun

    2015-05-01

    An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462

  13. Identification of Prototheca zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Zaini, F; Kanani, A; Falahati, M; Fateh, R; Salimi-Asl, M; Saemi, N; Farahyar, Sh; Kheirabad, A Kargar; Nazeri, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran. Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM) and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR. Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07%) were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp) was detected in four isolates. Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well. PMID:23113230

  14. Mycoplasmoses of ruminants in France: recent data from the national surveillance network

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ruminant mycoplasmoses are important diseases worldwide and several are listed by the World Organization for Animal Health to be of major economic significance. In France the distribution of mycoplasmal species isolated from clinical samples collected from diseased animals upon veterinary request, is monitored by a network known as VIGIMYC (for VIGIlance to MYCoplasmoses of ruminants). The veterinary diagnostic laboratories collaborating with VIGIMYC are responsible for isolating the mycoplasmas while identification of the isolates is centralized by the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA) in Lyon. The VIGIMYC framework can also be used for specific surveys and one example, on the prevalence of M. bovis in bovine respiratory diseases, is presented here. Results Between 2003 and 2008, 34 laboratories were involved in the network and 1904 mycoplasma isolates, originating from the main ruminant-breeding areas, were identified. For cattle, the high prevalence of M. bovis in bronchopneumonia, notably in young animals, was confirmed by VIGIMYC and an associated specific survey, whereas the non-emergence of species such as M. alkalescens and M. canis was also demonstrated. The etiological agent of bovine contagious pleuropneumonia was never isolated. The principal mycoplasmosis in goats was contagious agalactia with M. mycoides subsp. capri as main agent. Ovine mycoplasmoses, most of which were associated with pneumonia in lambs, were infrequently reported. One exception was ovine contagious agalactia (due to M. agalactiae) that has recently re-emerged in the Pyrénées where it had been endemic for years and was also reported in Corsica, which was previously considered free. Conclusions Although VIGIMYC is a passive network and somewhat biased as regards sample collection and processing, it has provided, in this study, an overview of the main mycoplasmoses of ruminants in France. The French epidemiological situation is compared to those existing elsewhere in the

  15. 78 FR 72859 - Concurrence With OIE Risk Designations for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) risk designations for 14 regions. The OIE recognizes these regions as being... ``Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products,'' Docket No. APHIS-2008... regions for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) risk. Section 92.5 of the regulations provides that...

  16. Inhibition of listeriolysin O-induced hemolysis by bovine lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Moriishi, K; Inoue, S; Koura, M; Amano, F

    1999-11-01

    Lactoferrin (LFR) plays an important role in the anti-microbial defense through iron binding, lipopolysaccharide binding and immunomodulation. In this study, we demonstrate that bovine LFR specifically inhibits the hemolytic activity of listeriolysin O (LLO) produced by Listeria monocytogenes. The hemolytic activity of LLO was completely inhibited in the presence of bovine LFR that was highly purified on two cation-exchange columns, whereas that of streptolysin O or perfringolysin O was not inhibited at all. A rabbit anti-LFR antibody canceled this inhibitory activity of bovine LFR. Although human transferrin exhibits 62% amino acid identity with bovine LFR, human apo-transferrin could not inhibit LLO-induced hemolysis. An increase in the concentration of FeCl3 or the Fe3+-saturation of bovine LFR, however, slightly reduced its inhibition of the hemolysis. The inhibitory activity of bovine LFR was dependent on pH, since it was observed under neutral and alkali conditions, but not under acidic conditions. These results suggest that the inhibition of LLO-induced hemolysis by bovine LFR is influenced by pH and iron ions, both of which may lead to conformational changes of LFR.

  17. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Kumiko; Oguma, Keisuke; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FBS, and the BVDV antibody was detected in 44 (1.60%) FBS. The survey on 139 sets of paired sera of a dam and her fetus revealed that neither the BVDV antibody nor BVDV was detected in all FBS from BVDV antibody-positive dams.

  18. Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in naturally occurring bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas.

    PubMed

    Bocaneti, F; Altamura, G; Corteggio, A; Solcan, C; Velescu, E; Borzacchiello, G

    2015-01-01

    Bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas are benign skin tumours characterized by epithelial and dermal proliferation and induced by Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs). Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 are enzymes involved in pathological conditions, such as inflammation and epithelial carcinogenesis. Here we investigated biochemically and immunohistochemically COX-2 expression in bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas. Eight of twelve fibropapillomas (67%) showed COX-2 positive immunosignal mostly in the cytoplasm of the basal cell layer, while the normal skin did not stain. Biochemical analysis confirmed the expression of COX-2 in tumour samples. This study shows COX-2 expression in cutaneous fibropapillomas, suggesting a contribution in epithelial tumour development. PMID:26618600

  19. Serological evidences of bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in bovines of organized farms in India.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Kumar, M; Yadav, V; Chander, V

    2011-04-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle causing a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, a highly infectious disease of cattle and buffaloes, occurs throughout the world including India. The present study based on micro-serum neutralization test reports the sero-epidemiology of BHV-1 infection in cattle and buffaloes from different parts of India. Serum samples from cattle, bulls, buffalo bulls and yaks were screened for BHV-1 antibodies. A total of 1115 serum samples were screened, and a total of 437 (39.2%) serum samples were found positive and 678 (60.8%) serum samples were found negative. Overall 168 (38.0%) cattle, 17 (85.0%) buffalo, 212 (38.6%) bulls, 8 (13.5%) buffalo bulls and 32 (71.1%) yaks were found positive for BHV-1 antibodies. State wise, Assam had highest seropositivity of 71.1% for yaks, Madhya Pradesh had 68.9% for cattle and Meghalaya was negative for the presence of antibodies to BHV-1 in cattle. PMID:21156033

  20. Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Meas, S; Ohashi, K; Tum, S; Chhin, M; Te, K; Miura, K; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    2000-07-01

    Since bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), known as bovine lentivirus, has been detected in dairy and beef cattle in various countries around the world, a prevalence study of antibodies to BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted in draught animals in five provinces in Cambodia, where protozoan parasite infections were suspected in some animals. To clarify the status of draught animals including Haryana, Brahman, mixed-breed, local breed cattle and muscle water buffaloes, a total of 544 cattle and 42 buffaloes were tested, and 26.3 and 16.7%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting. There were 5.3% positive for anti-BLV antibodies detected by immunodiffusion test among the cattle, but no reactors among buffaloes and no dual infection for both BIV and BLV was determined in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BIV-seropositive cattle were found to have BIV-provirus DNA, as detected by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern blot hybridization. This is the first evidence for the presence of BIV and BLV infections in draught animals in tropical countries such as Cambodia. This wide distribution of BIV suggests its association with problems in animal health as reported worldwide, and that a primary BIV infection can predispose death of affected animals by other aggressive pathogens or stresses.

  1. Tear and decohesion of bovine pericardial tissue.

    PubMed

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Elices, Manuel; Bourges, Jean Yves; Rojo, Francisco Javier; Atienza, José Miguel; Guinea, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fracture-by tear and delamination-of bovine pericardium tissues which are usually employed for the manufacture of bioprosthetic valves. A large number of samples (77) were tested in root-to-apex and circumferential directions, according to a standardised tear test (ASTM D 1938). Before performing the tear test, some samples were subjected to 1000 cycles of fatigue to a maximum stress of 3MPa. Fracture toughness of tearing and delamination were computed by following a simple fracture model. The study showed significantly lower values of delamination toughness compared with tear delamination. Moreover, tear forces were different in each test direction, revealing a clear orthotropic behaviour. All these results, as well as the testing procedure, could be of value for future research in the physiological function of pericardium tissues and clinical applications. PMID:27337412

  2. Diagnosis and Control of Bovine Neosporosis.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Milton M

    2016-07-01

    Neosporosis is one of the most common and widespread causes of bovine abortion. The causative parasite is transmitted in at least two ways, horizontally from canids, and by endogenous transmission within maternal lines of infected cattle. The prevalence of neosporosis is higher in the dairy industry than in the beef industry because of risk factors associated with intensive feeding. There are no vaccines, but logical management options are discussed that can lower the risk of abortion outbreaks and gradually reduce the prevalence of infection within herds. Steps should be taken to prevent total mixed rations from becoming contaminated by canine feces. If a herd has a high rate of infection that is associated with abortions in heifers, then the rate of reduction of infection prevalence can be speeded by only selecting seronegative replacement heifers to enter the breeding herd. Elimination of all infected cattle is not a recommended goal. PMID:27161392

  3. Presence of osteoinductive factors in bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Mussano, Federico; Bartorelli Cusani, Alberto; Brossa, Alessia; Carossa, Stefano; Bussolati, Gianni; Bussolati, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    New approaches in the treatment of skeletal defects may benefit from the use of soluble biological factors. We previously standardized a derivative of bovine colostrum (SBCD), deprived of casein and fat and rich in cytokines. In the present study, we tested its possible use as an adjuvant in bone healing. SBCD contained factors involved in stromal cell stimulation and differentiation and induced cytokine production from stimulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In vitro, SBCD promoted proliferation, migration and, in association with osteogenic factors, osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic and MSCs. In in vivo experiments of subcutaneous Matrigel injection in mice, SBCD plus hydroxyapatite, but not hydroxyapatite nor SBCD alone, induced recruitment of macrophages and stromal cells. After 60 days, plugs containing SBCD and hydroxyapatite were densely calcified and diffusely positive for osteocalcin, supporting the occurrence of an early osteogenic process. These results indicate that SBCD is a rich source of factors with osteoinductive properties. PMID:25036965

  4. Fatty acids in bovine milk fat

    PubMed Central

    Månsson, Helena Lindmark

    2008-01-01

    Milk fat contains approximately 400 different fatty acid, which make it the most complex of all natural fats. The milk fatty acids are derived almost equally from two sources, the feed and the microbial activity in the rumen of the cow and the lipids in bovine milk are mainly present in globules as an oil-in-water emulsion. Almost 70% of the fat in Swedish milk is saturated of which around 11% comprises short-chain fatty acids, almost half of which is butyric acid. Approximately 25% of the fatty acids in milk are mono-unsaturated and 2.3% are poly-unsaturated with omega-6/omega-3 ratio around 2.3. Approximately 2.7% are trans fatty acids. PMID:19109654

  5. Stroma-free hemoglobin from bovine blood.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maria Celiana P; Andrade, Cristina T

    2007-01-01

    Isolation and purification of bovine hemoglobin (HbBv) was carried out after reaction of whole blood with carbon monoxide. Washing/centrifugation steps were used to eliminate leukocytes, platelets, and plasma proteins. Hypotonic media and ultrasound radiation were used to lyse red blood cells. Lyse by ultrasound was shown to lead to solutions at the highest concentrations in HbBv, and the least concentrations in major phospholipids contaminants. Additional purification procedures were performed to remove membrane proteins and phospholipids. In the first case, proteins were denatured by thermal treatment, and filtered. To eliminate phospholipids, liquid chromatography was used with strong anion exchangers. Purity of HbBv was evaluated by normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrophoresis, and size-exclusion HPLC. PMID:17701489

  6. Bovine achondrogenesis: evidence for defective chondrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Jayo, M J; Leipold, H W; Machado, M A; Campbell, D; Ahmed, S

    1987-01-01

    A survey study of growth cartilage abnormalities in bovine bone dysplasias revealed that a disorder in Holstein cattle called bulldog calf closely resembles human achondrogenesis Type II. Substantial amounts of Type I collagen and other non Type II collagens were detected in the bulldog cartilage which was comprised primarily of extensive vascular canals and cells having the characteristics of hypertrophic and degenerative chondrocytes normally found in the growth plate. It is proposed that chondrocytes throughout the bulldog growth cartilage prematurely differentiate into hypertrophic cells that degenerate and predispose the cartilage to vascular invasion and the formation of cartilage canals. The presence of these canals probably accounts for most of the observed collagen abnormalities. PMID:3606909

  7. Tear and decohesion of bovine pericardial tissue.

    PubMed

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Elices, Manuel; Bourges, Jean Yves; Rojo, Francisco Javier; Atienza, José Miguel; Guinea, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fracture-by tear and delamination-of bovine pericardium tissues which are usually employed for the manufacture of bioprosthetic valves. A large number of samples (77) were tested in root-to-apex and circumferential directions, according to a standardised tear test (ASTM D 1938). Before performing the tear test, some samples were subjected to 1000 cycles of fatigue to a maximum stress of 3MPa. Fracture toughness of tearing and delamination were computed by following a simple fracture model. The study showed significantly lower values of delamination toughness compared with tear delamination. Moreover, tear forces were different in each test direction, revealing a clear orthotropic behaviour. All these results, as well as the testing procedure, could be of value for future research in the physiological function of pericardium tissues and clinical applications.

  8. Bovine and human papillomaviruses: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Munday, J S

    2014-11-01

    Fifty years ago, inoculation with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) was found to cause mesenchymal tumors of the skin in cattle and horses, as well as tumors of the bladder in cattle. Subsequent to these studies of BPVs, human papillomaviruses (HPVs) were found to cause cervical cancer resulting in intense research into papillomaviruses. During the past 50 years, the ways that HPVs and BPVs cause disease have been investigated, and both HPVs and BPVs have been associated with an increasingly diverse range of diseases. Herein, the biology, oncogenic mechanisms, and diseases associated with BPVs are compared with those of HPVs. As reviewed, there are currently significant differences between BPVs and HPVs. However, research 50 years ago into BPVs formed a prologue for the recognition that papillomaviruses have a significant role in human disease, and it is possible that future research may similarly reveal that BPVs are less different from HPVs than is currently recognized.

  9. Lipidome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Rascado, Tatiana D S; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia R A; Santos, Vanessa G; Valente, Roniele S; Mesquita, Fernando S; Ferreira, Christina R; Araújo, João P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2016-07-15

    Mammalian preimplantation embryonic development is a complex, conserved, and well-orchestrated process involving dynamic molecular and structural changes. Understanding membrane lipid profile fluctuation during this crucial period is fundamental to address mechanisms governing embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a comprehensive assessment of stage-specific lipid profiles during early bovine embryonic development and associate with the mRNA abundance of lipid metabolism-related genes (ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6) and with the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Immature oocytes were recovered from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries, two-cell embryos, and eight- to 16-cell embryos, morula, and blastocysts that were in vitro produced under different environmental conditions. Lipid droplets content and mRNA transcript levels for ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6, monitored by lipid staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively, increased at morula followed by a decrease at blastocyst stage. Relative mRNA abundance changes of ACSL3 were closely related to cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation. Characteristic dynamic changes of phospholipid profiles were observed during early embryo development and related to unsaturation level, acyl chain length, and class composition. ELOVL5 and ELOVL6 mRNA levels were suggestive of overexpression of membrane phospholipids containing elongated fatty acids with 16, 18, and 20 carbons. In addition, putative biomarkers of key events of embryogenesis, embryo lipid accumulation, and elongation were identified. This study provides a comprehensive description of stage-specific lipidome signatures and proposes a mechanism to explain its potential relationship with the fluctuation of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes during early bovine embryo development. PMID:27107972

  10. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  11. Conservation of molecular interactions stabilizing bovine and mouse rhodopsin †

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Shiho; Colozo, Alejandro T.; Müller, Daniel J.; Park, Paul S.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the light receptor that initiates phototransduction in rod photoreceptor cells. The structure and function of rhodopsin is tightly linked to molecular interactions that stabilize and determine the receptor's functional state. Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) was used to localize and quantify molecular interactions that structurally stabilize bovine and mouse rhodopsin from native disc membranes of rod photoreceptor cells. The mechanical unfolding of bovine and mouse rhodopsin revealed nine major unfolding intermediates, each intermediate defining a structurally stable segment in the receptor. These stable structural segments had similar localization and occurrence in both bovine and mouse samples. For each structural segment, parameters describing their unfolding energy barrier were determined by dynamic SMFS. No major differences were observed between bovine and mouse rhodopsin thereby implying that the structures of both rhodopsins are largely stabilized by similar molecular interactions. PMID:21038881

  12. Molecular and biological aspects of the bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Andrea G; St-Louis, Marie-Claude; Archambault, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was isolated in 1969 from a cow, R-29, with a wasting syndrome suggesting bovine leucosis. The virus, first designated bovine visna-like virus, remained unstudied until HIV was discovered in 1983. Then, it was demonstrated in 1987 that the bovine R-29 isolate was a lentivirus with striking similarity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, BIV has the most complex genomic structure among all identified lentiviruses shown by several regulatory/accessory genes encoding proteins, some of which are involved in the regulation of virus gene expression. This manuscript aims to review biological and molecular aspects of BIV, with emphasis on regulatory/accessory viral genes/proteins which are involved in virus expression. PMID:20210777

  13. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  14. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  15. Immune suppression in calves with bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S; Wood, C; Xue, W; Krukenberg, S M; Chen, Q; Minocha, H C

    1997-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) infection on immune functions and possible interactions between BIV and other bovine viruses in calves. Ten calves were inoculated intravenously with BIV, and five served as controls. An increased lymphocyte proliferation to BIV gag protein was demonstrated 2 to 6 weeks after BIV inoculation (P < 0.05). Lymphocyte subset differentiation revealed a decreased CD4/CD8 ratio (P < 0.05) during weeks 2 to 7, suggesting a possible immune dysfunction in BIV-infected calves. When the calves were inoculated with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), the antibody response to BHV-1 in BIV-infected calves was delayed and the antibody titers were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Injection of bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine also elicited a lower neutralizing antibody response in BIV-infected calves. The results indicated that immune suppression occurred in BIV-infected calves. PMID:9067663

  16. On-Farm Use of Ultrasonography for Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Ollivett, Theresa L; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) in young cattle has recently gained momentum as an accurate and practical tool for identifying the lung lesions associated with bovine respiratory disease. As cattle producers increasingly seek input from their veterinarians on respiratory health issues, bovine practitioners should consider adding TUS to their practice models. This article discusses the relevant literature regarding TUS in young cattle, current acceptable techniques, and practical on-farm applications. PMID:26922110

  17. Isolation and Transfection of Primary Culture Bovine Retinal Pericytes.

    PubMed

    Primo, Vincent A; Arboleda-Velasquez, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes an enzymatic approach for isolating homogeneous cultures of pericytes from retinas of bovine source. In summary, retinas are dissected, washed, digested, filtered, cultured in specific media to select for pericytes, and finally expanded for a low passage culture of about 14 million bovine retinal pericytes (BRP) within 4-6 weeks. This protocol also describes a liposomal-based technique for transfection of BRPs. PMID:27172949

  18. An inhibitor to erythrocyte agglutination in bovine albumin preparations.

    PubMed

    Gunson, H H; Phillips, P K

    1975-01-01

    Three out of 28 commercial preparations of bovine serum albumin have been encountered which have an inhibitory effect on the assay of anti-Rh-o(D) using the Technicon AutoAnalyser. The inhibitory property, which can also be demonstrated by standard manual serological techniques, appears to be directed towards the second stage of the agglutination reaction. An automated screening procedure for bovine serum albumin preparations and some properties of the inhibitor are described.

  19. Potential applications for antiviral therapy and prophylaxis in bovine medicine.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Viral disease is one of the major causes of financial loss and animal suffering in today's cattle industry. Increases in global commerce and average herd size, urbanization, vertical integration within the industry and alterations in global climate patterns have allowed the spread of pathogenic viruses, or the introduction of new viral species, into regions previously free of such pathogens, creating the potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in naïve cattle populations. Despite this, no antiviral products are currently commercially licensed for use in bovine medicine, although significant progress has been made in the development of antivirals for use against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and bovine herpesvirus (BHV). BVDV is extensively studied as a model virus for human antiviral studies. Consequently, many compounds with efficacy have been identified and a few have been successfully used to prevent infection in vivo although commercial development is still lacking. FMDV is also the subject of extensive antiviral testing due to the importance of outbreak containment for maintenance of export markets. Thirdly, BHV presents an attractive target for antiviral development due to its worldwide presence. Antiviral studies for other bovine viral pathogens are largely limited to preliminary studies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of antiviral compounds against several key bovine pathogens and the potential for commercial antiviral applications in the prevention and control of several selected bovine diseases. PMID:24810855

  20. Interactions between Euphorbia esula toxins and bovine ruminal microbes.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, Scott L; Halaweish, Fathi T; Hubert, Mindy B; Weimer, Paul J

    2006-01-01

    Cattle generally avoid grazing leafy spurge (LS; Euphorbia esula), whereas sheep and goats will often eat it. Understanding metabolism of toxic phytochemicals in LS by bovine rumen microflora may help explain why cattle often develop aversions to LS after initially eating it. Toxicity of LS compounds after in vitro fermentation with normal vs. antibiotic-modified bovine rumen digesta was evaluated at different lengths of fermentation. Levels of toxic and aversion-inducing ingenols were determined for fermented and nonfermented mixtures of LS and bovine rumen digesta, and the toxicity of an aversion-inducing extract of LS to rumen microbial species that are common in cattle, sheep, and goats was evaluated. Fermentation of LS with bovine digesta increased the toxicity of extracted compounds. Introduction of neomycin (an antibiotic that preferentially inhibits gram-negative bacteria) into the LS and bovine rumen digesta mixtures did not appear to affect toxicities regardless of fermentation length. Levels of ingenol were observed in LS and bovine digesta mixtures (both fermented and nonfermented) that were consistent with levels of ingenols reported for LS. Finally, a toxic extract of LS had little or no negative effect on the growth of several common species of rumen bacteria. The results indicate that LS is not generally toxic to the ruminal bacteria, but that microbial activity in the rumen may be responsible for enhancing LS toxicity to cattle.

  1. Potential applications for antiviral therapy and prophylaxis in bovine medicine.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Viral disease is one of the major causes of financial loss and animal suffering in today's cattle industry. Increases in global commerce and average herd size, urbanization, vertical integration within the industry and alterations in global climate patterns have allowed the spread of pathogenic viruses, or the introduction of new viral species, into regions previously free of such pathogens, creating the potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in naïve cattle populations. Despite this, no antiviral products are currently commercially licensed for use in bovine medicine, although significant progress has been made in the development of antivirals for use against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and bovine herpesvirus (BHV). BVDV is extensively studied as a model virus for human antiviral studies. Consequently, many compounds with efficacy have been identified and a few have been successfully used to prevent infection in vivo although commercial development is still lacking. FMDV is also the subject of extensive antiviral testing due to the importance of outbreak containment for maintenance of export markets. Thirdly, BHV presents an attractive target for antiviral development due to its worldwide presence. Antiviral studies for other bovine viral pathogens are largely limited to preliminary studies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of antiviral compounds against several key bovine pathogens and the potential for commercial antiviral applications in the prevention and control of several selected bovine diseases.

  2. Homologous recombination in bovine pestiviruses. Phylogenetic and statistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leandro Roberto; Weber, E Laura

    2004-12-01

    Bovine pestiviruses (Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1 (BVDV 1) and Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 2 (BVDV 2)) belong to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae), which is composed of positive stranded RNA viruses causing significant economic losses world-wide. We used phylogenetic and bootstrap analyses to systematically scan alignments of previously sequenced genomes in order to explore further the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for variation in the virus. Previously published data suggested that homologous crossover might be one of the mechanisms responsible for the genomic rearrangements observed in cytopathic (cp) strains of bovine pestiviruses. Nevertheless, homologous recombination involves not just homologous crossovers, but also replacement of a homologous region of the acceptor RNA. Furthermore, cytopathic strains represent dead paths in evolution, since they are isolated exclusively from the fatal cases of mucosal disease. Herein, we report evidence of homologous inter-genotype recombination in the genome of a non-cytopathic (ncp) strain of Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1, the type species of the genus Pestivirus. We also show that intra-genotype homologous recombination might be a common phenomenon in both species of Pestivirus. This evidence demonstrates that homologous recombination contribute to the diversification of bovine pestiviruses in nature. Implications for virus evolution, taxonomy and phylogenetics are discussed.

  3. Remodeling of bovine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Arai, Miki; Yoshioka, Shin; Tasaki, Yukari; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian endometrium changes morphologically and functionally throughout the estrous cycle. In some species, endometrial cells also undergo periodic proliferation and degeneration. However, the remodeling of bovine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle remains unclear. In the present study, we examined how the remodeling of bovine endometrium varied through the estrous cycle by measuring the relative rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cells positive for both KI-67 (a proliferation marker) and cleaved caspase-3 (CCP3: an apoptotic cell marker) were immunohistochemically evaluated throughout the estrous cycle in the luminal and glandular epithelia, and the stroma of bovine endometrium. Percentages of KI-67-positive cells tended to be higher at the early luteal and follicular stages than at the mid and late luteal stages in all cell types. Similarly, percentages of CCP3-positive cells were higher at the early luteal stage than at the mid and late luteal stages in the luminal epithelium and stroma. Furthermore, CCP3 expression levels by Western blot analysis agreed with these immunohistological observations. On the other hand, DNA fragmentation was detected in the bovine endometrium without significant differences during the estrous cycle by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Together, these results show that cell proliferation and apoptosis undergo cyclic patterns in the bovine endometrium, and suggest that the bovine endometrium is remodeled in each estrous cycle. PMID:24051170

  4. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  5. Molecular cloning of bovine lymphocyte activation gene-3 and its expression characteristics in bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Tatsuya; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Saori; Sunden, Yuji; Onuma, Misao; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2011-12-15

    Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II binding CD4 homologue has recently been shown as one of the mechanisms for down-regulating immune responses during chronic disease progression. For the first time, we cloned LAG-3 from two breeds of cattle (Holstein and Japanese Black), and analyzed its expression levels in cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a chronic viral infection that leads to immuno-suppression. The cloned cDNA of bovine LAG-3 have an open reading frame of 1551 nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 515 amino acids in length. Similar to the swine LAG-3, the bovine LAG-3 protein sequence consisted of four extracellular domains, a transmembrane domain and an inhibitory motif, KTGELE. We found that the bovine LAG-3 mRNA transcripts were expressed predominantly on T-cells such as CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, among peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In subsequent expression analysis, LAG-3 mRNA expression on CD4(+) T-cells from BLV-infected cattle was upregulated compared to that in normal cattle. Comparable results were obtained with CD8(+) T-cells from cattle infected with BLV. We further observed strong upregualtion of MHC class II molecule, the ligand for LAG-3 in BLV-infected cattle. These findings indicate an important role for inhibitory receptor molecules such as LAG-3 in chronic bovine infections and future studies will elucidate the specific role of LAG-3 in bovine diseases.

  6. Increased bovine Tim-3 and its ligand expressions during bovine leukemia virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The immunoinhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9), are involved in the immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. However, there is no report concerning the role of Tim-3 in diseases of domestic animals. In this study, cDNA encoding for bovine Tim-3 and Gal-9 were cloned and sequenced, and their expression and role in immune reactivation were analyzed in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle. Predicted amino acid sequences of Tim-3 and Gal-9 shared high homologies with human and mouse homologues. Functional domains, including tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif in the intracellular domain of Tim-3 were highly conserved among cattle and other species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that bovine Tim-3 mRNA is mainly expressed in T cells such as CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while Gal-9 mRNA is mainly expressed in monocyte and T cells. Tim-3 mRNA expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was upregulated during disease progression of BLV infection. Interestingly, expression levels for Tim-3 and Gal-9 correlated positively with viral load in infected cattle. Furthermore, Tim-3 expression level closely correlated with up-regulation of IL-10 in infected cattle. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA was upregulated when PBMC from BLV-infected cattle were cultured with Cos-7 cells expressing Tim-3 to inhibit the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway. Moreover, combined blockade of the Tim-3/Gal-9 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways significantly promoted IFN-γ mRNA expression compared with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway alone. These results suggest that Tim-3 is involved in the suppression of T cell function during BLV infection. PMID:22621175

  7. In utero infection of swine fetuses with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (bovine herpesvirus-1).

    PubMed

    Joo, H S; Dee, S A; Molitor, T W; Thacker, B J

    1984-10-01

    The pathogenesis of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus (bovine herpesvirus-1) was studied in porcine fetuses after in utero inoculation. Laparotomies were performed on 8 seronegative pregnant sows at 34 to 86 days of gestation, and all fetuses in 1 uterine horn of each sow were exposed to IBR virus via inoculation into the amniotic sacs. Fetuses in the other horn served as controls. Clinical signs of infection were not observed in the sows, except for 2 sows that aborted at postinoculation days (PID) 11 and 15. Fetuses of the remaining 6 sows were collected at slaughter on PID 15 to 28. Fetuses were examined for gross abnormalities, presence of IBR virus in tissues, and the formation of neutralizing antibodies to IBR virus. Of 33 inoculated fetuses from 6 sows, 10 were mummified, 11 were hemorrhagic and/or edematous, and 12 were alive. Necrotic lesions were observed on the skin and in the liver of dead and live fetuses. Virus was recovered from 29 of 33 inoculated fetuses. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus was isolated from fetal skin, liver, lungs, kidney, spleen, stomach contents, brain, amniotic fluid, and placenta. Virus was isolated from 4 of 11 fetuses recovered from 1 aborting sow. Antibodies to IBR virus were not detected in sera from the sows. However, antibodies were detected in 6 of 15 fetuses inoculated at 63 to 86 days of gestation and collected at slaughter at 86 to 112 days of gestation. The youngest fetus with detectable IBR antibody was estimated to be 74 days of gestation by measuring crown-rump length of the fetus.

  8. Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. PMID:26895887

  9. Sequence and structural implications of a bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Protein 37B represents bovine lumican and proteins 37A and 25 are unique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Brown, S. J.; Vergnes, J. P.; Hassell, J. R.; Mann, M. M.; Conrad, G. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Amino acid sequence from tryptic peptides of three different bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) core proteins (designated 37A, 37B, and 25) showed similarities to the sequence of a chicken KSPG core protein lumican. Bovine lumican cDNA was isolated from a bovine corneal expression library by screening with chicken lumican cDNA. The bovine cDNA codes for a 342-amino acid protein, M(r) 38,712, containing amino acid sequences identified in the 37B KSPG core protein. The bovine lumican is 68% identical to chicken lumican, with an 83% identity excluding the N-terminal 40 amino acids. Location of 6 cysteine and 4 consensus N-glycosylation sites in the bovine sequence were identical to those in chicken lumican. Bovine lumican had about 50% identity to bovine fibromodulin and 20% identity to bovine decorin and biglycan. About two-thirds of the lumican protein consists of a series of 10 amino acid leucine-rich repeats that occur in regions of calculated high beta-hydrophobic moment, suggesting that the leucine-rich repeats contribute to beta-sheet formation in these proteins. Sequences obtained from 37A and 25 core proteins were absent in bovine lumican, thus predicting a unique primary structure and separate mRNA for each of the three bovine KSPG core proteins.

  10. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  11. Immunogens of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Bolin, S R

    1993-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a ubiquitous pathogen of cattle that induces economically important diseases affecting multiple organ systems. In the United States, over 150 biological products are licensed for control of BVDV. These products contain live or killed BVDV, and many products contain other viruses or bacteria. Potency tests for these vaccines are based on animal inoculation and serology. For live virus vaccines, titration of viral infectivity in cell culture is an accepted alternative to animal inoculation. The immunogens in a killed virus vaccine may be measured by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay. Immunogens of BVDV that stimulate a protective immune response have not been conclusively identified. Epitopes on a putative viral envelope glycoprotein, gp53, are involved in viral neutralization. Other viral glycoproteins, gp48 and gp25, are immunogenic but epitopes on these proteins do not stimulate production of antibodies that efficiently neutralize virus. Progress in developing meaningful in vitro assays for quantitation of BVDV immunogens awaits identification of viral proteins that stimulate a protective immunity.

  12. [Forensic problems in bovine obstetrics and gynecology].

    PubMed

    Ahlers, D

    1992-02-01

    In the published statistical reports of liability insurance companies for veterinarians a high percentage of damage claims falls into the field of obstetrics and gynaecology, particularly in the bovine species. Veterinarians are held responsible for the consequences of insufficient clinical examinations of female animals or, after a correct diagnosis, initiation of therapeutic measures that ar not indicated. An increasing number of damage claims is due to the fact that the veterinarian has not informed the owner of an animal in advance about the possible medical or economic risks of a particular treatment. From the expert opinions requested of our clinic by insurance companies and law courts, it can be concluded that in veterinary obstetrics, lesions and damages occurring during vaginal deliveries are still the most frequent cause of compensation claims. Veterinarians are blamed for the use of too much traction force (number of persons assisting in an extraction, use of mechanical calf-pullers) and for incorrect procedures during the manual or instrumental correction of postural or positional abnormalities or a uterine torsion. Also, in case of complications after obstetrical surgery owners suspect failure of the veterinarian. Many losses in the puerperal period are due to the fact that the clinical examination after an obstetrical intervention has not been performed with the necessary accuracy or has been completely omitted. Compensation claims after gynaecological procedures are mostly based on a falsely positive or negative pregnancy diagnosis and complications after surgery involving the ovaries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Membrane associated phospholipase C from bovine brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Ryu, S.H.; Suh, P.; Choi, W.C.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-05-01

    Cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain 2 immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II, whose MW are 150,000 and 145,000 respectively, under a denaturing condition. Monoclonal antibodies were derived against each form and specific radioimmunoassays were developed. Distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in cytosolic and particulate fractions was measured using the radioimmunoassay. More than 90% of PLC-II was found in the cytosolic fraction, while the anti-PLC-I antibody cross-reacting protein was distributed nearly equally between the soluble fraction and the 2 M KCl extract of particulate fraction. The PLC enzyme in the particulate fraction was purified to homogeneity, yielding 2 proteins of 140 KDa and 150 KDa when analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Neither of the 2 enzymes cross-reacted with anti-PLC-II antibodies, but both could be immunoblotted by all 4 different anti-PLC-I antibodies. This suggests that the 140 KDa PLC was derived from the 150 KDa form. The 150 Kda form from particulate fraction was indistinguishable from the cytosolic PLC-I when their mixture was analyzed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, the elution profile of tryptic peptides derived from the 150 KDa particulate form was identical to that of cytosolic PLC-I. This result indicates that PLC-I is reversibly associated to membranes.

  14. Transmission studies with bovine malignant catarrhal fever.

    PubMed

    Selman, I E; Wiseman, A; Wright, N G; Murray, M

    1978-03-25

    The intravenous administration of whole blood from a pathologically confirmed field case of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) resulted in the appearance of the disease in three of five experimental calves 18 to 28 days later. Infection was maintained by serial calf transmissions, and produced clinical and pathological changes identical to those of the field disease for a total of 10 passages. The sixth passage involved the simultaneous infection of 10 calves from a single donor animal; six of the 10 recipients developed the typical disease after incubation periods ranging from 20 to 36 days and in each of these MCF was confirmed by pathological examination. In addition, clinical and pathological changes in the four other calves which were slaughtered either seven or 14 days post-infection suggested that they too would have developed typical clinical signs had they been allowed to survive for the necessary length of time. The results of a detailed study of the onset, progress and duration of the clinical signs of experimentally induced MCF are presented and the opportunity has been taken to discuss the available information regarding the transmission of MCF under experimental conditions and in the field. PMID:644823

  15. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-10-01

    Recently published studies on the development and use of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) vaccines incorporating either the complete envelope (env) gene or only a fragment of the env gene consisting of the coding sequence for the env glycoprotein 51 (gp51) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV. The evidence for this protection is based on the lack of persistence of high titres of anti-gp51 antibodies compared with unvaccinated BLV infected controls, on the enhanced CD4 proliferative responses to specific BLV gp51 synthetic peptides in the vaccinated sheep, and on the inability to detect BLV pro-virus by polymerase chain reaction in the vaccinated sheep after 4 months following challenge infection compared with continual detection in unvaccinated sheep over a 16 month trial period. It has been suggested that cell-mediated immune responses may be an important aspect of protective immunity against BLV infection and it has been reported that large tracts of amino acid sequences within the env and pol genes are highly conserved in different isolates from different countries which is of importance in designing peptide derived vaccines. PMID:8270269

  16. [Enzootic bovine leukosis--a retrovirus disease].

    PubMed

    Straub, O C

    1988-01-01

    After a short historical introduction and a description of some of the properties of the bovine leucosis (leukemia) virus (BLV) the natural pathways of transmission, for which most likely intact infected cells are a prerequisite, are described and the role of possible vectors mentioned. The iatrogenic transmission by needles, dehorning and perhaps even rectal examinations is discussed. Semen, embryo transfer, saliva, urine, faeces and breath do obviously not play any role in contrast to nasal secretions containing viable cells. It is pointed out that it is not inevitable to eliminate all seropositive cattle from the premises during an eradication programme provided some additional tests are carried out: determination of the white blood picture, the p 24 status and perhaps even proof of antigen production in short-term buffy coat cultures. Offspring of seropositive cattle requires some special attention and careful testing at certain intervals. The report according to which BVD/MD virus-infected cattle are superinfected with BLV leading to rather difficult situations is cited. PMID:2851883

  17. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD): a review.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Hajime

    2004-12-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Holstein cattle is an autosomal recessive congenital disease characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, delayed wound healing and stunted growth, and is also associated with persistent marked neutrophilia. The molecular basis of BLAD is a single point mutation (adenine to guanine) at position 383 of the CD18 gene, which caused an aspartic acid to glycine substitution at amino acid 128 (D128G) in the adhesion molecule CD18. Neutrophils from BLAD cattle have impaired expression of the beta2 integrin (CD11a,b,c/CD18) of the leukocyte adhesion molecule. Abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence dependent functions of leukocytes have been fully characterized. Cattle affected with BLAD have severe ulcers on oral mucous membranes, severe periodontitis, loss of teeth, chronic pneumonia and recurrent or chronic diarrhea. Affected cattle die at an early age due to the infectious complications. Holstein bulls, including carrier sires that had a mutant BLAD gene in heterozygote were controlled from dairy cattle for a decade. The control of BLAD in Holstein cattle by publishing the genotypes and avoiding the mating between BLAD carriers was found to be successful. This paper provides an overview of the genetic disease BLAD with reference to the disease in Holstein cattle. PMID:15644595

  18. Insights into the bovine rumen plasmidome.

    PubMed

    Brown Kav, Aya; Sasson, Goor; Jami, Elie; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Benhar, Itai; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Plasmids are self-replicating genetic elements capable of mobilization between different hosts. Plasmids often serve as mediators of lateral gene transfer, a process considered to be a strong and sculpting evolutionary force in microbial environments. Our aim was to characterize the overall plasmid population in the environment of the bovine rumen, which houses a complex and dense microbiota that holds enormous significance for humans. We developed a procedure for the isolation of total rumen plasmid DNA, termed rumen plasmidome, and subjected it to deep sequencing using the Illumina paired-end protocol and analysis using public and custom-made bioinformatics tools. A large number of plasmidome contigs aligned with plasmids of rumen bacteria isolated from different locations and at various time points, suggesting that not only the bacterial taxa, but also their plasmids, are defined by the ecological niche. The bacterial phylum distribution of the plasmidome was different from that of the rumen bacterial taxa. Nevertheless, both shared a dominance of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Evidently, the rumen plasmidome is of a highly mosaic nature that can cross phyla. Interestingly, when we compared the functional profile of the rumen plasmidome to two plasmid databases and two recently published rumen metagenomes, it became apparent that the rumen plasmidome codes for functions, which are enriched in the rumen ecological niche and could confer advantages to their hosts, suggesting that the functional profiles of mobile genetic elements are associated with their environment, as has been previously implied for viruses. PMID:22431592

  19. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-11-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy.

  20. Spatial epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Horacio Zendejas; Suazo, Feliciano Milián; Cuador Gil, José Quintín; Bello, Gustavo Cruz; Anaya Escalera, Ana María; Márquez, Gabriel Huitrón; Casanova, Leticia García

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use geographic information systems (GIS) and geo-statistical methods of ordinary kriging to predict the prevalence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Jalisco, Mexico. A random sample of 2 287 herds selected from a set of 48 766 was used for the analysis. Spatial location of herds was obtained by either a personal global positioning system (GPS), a database from the Instituto Nacional de Estadìstica Geografìa e Informàtica (INEGI) or Google Earth. Information on TB prevalence was provided by the Jalisco Commission for the Control and Eradication of Tuberculosis (COEETB). Prediction of TB was obtained using ordinary kriging in the geostatistical analyst module in ArcView8. A predicted high prevalence area of TB matching the distribution of dairy cattle was observed. This prediction was in agreement with the prevalence calculated on the total 48 766 herds. Validation was performed taking estimated values of TB prevalence at each municipality, extracted from the kriging surface and then compared with the real prevalence values using a correlation test, giving a value of 0.78, indicating that GIS and kriging are reliable tools for the estimation of TB distribution based on a random sample. This resulted in a significant savings of resources.

  1. Unique oligomeric intermediates of bovine liver catalase.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Koodathingal; Prajapati, Shashi; Ahmad, Atta; Jain, S K; Bhakuni, Vinod

    2002-01-01

    Catalases, although synthesized from single genes and built up from only one type of subunit, exist in heterogeneous form with respect to their conformations and association states in biological systems. This heterogeneity is not of genetic origin, but rather reflects the instability of this oligomeric heme enzyme. To understand better the factors that stabilize the various association states of catalase, we performed studies on the multimeric intermediates that are stabilized during guanidine-hydrochloride- and urea-induced unfolding of bovine liver catalase (BLC). For the first time, we have observed an enzymatically active, folded dimer of native BLC. This dimer has slightly higher enzymatic activity and altered structural properties compared to the native tetramer. Comparative studies of the effect of NaCl, GdmCl, and urea on BLC show that cation binding to negatively charged groups present in amino acid side chains of the enzyme leads to stabilization of an enzymatically active, folded dimer of BLC. Besides the folded dimer, an enzymatically active expanded tetramer and a partially unfolded, enzymatically inactive dimer of BLC were also observed. A complete recovery of native enzyme was observed on refolding of expanded tetramers and folded dimers; however, a very low recovery (maximum of approximately 5%) of native enzyme was observed on refolding of partially unfolded dimers and fully unfolded monomers. PMID:11742121

  2. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Bovine Haptoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caihong; Gu, Cheng; Guo, Donghua; Gao, Jing; Li, Chunqiu; Liu, Na; Geng, Yufei; Su, Mingjun; Wang, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Female, 8-week-old BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant proteins of the predicted immunodominant region of bovine haptoglobin (pirBoHp). Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), named 1B3 and 6D6, were prepared by conventional B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. Titers of ascitic fluid and cell culture supernatant of MAb 1B3 were 1:9.6×108 and 1:8.2×104, respectively, and that of MAb 6D6 were 1:4.4×105 and 1:1.0×104, respectively. The subtype of MAbs 1B3 and 6D6 was IgG1κ. In Western blot analysis, MAbs 1B3 and 6D6 could recognize the α-chain of native BoHp from plasma of dairy cows. These data indicated that MAbs 1B3 and 6D6 have a potential use for developing diagnostic reagents of BoHp. PMID:25358005

  3. Proteomic analysis of bovine skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Bouley, Julien; Meunier, Bruno; Chambon, Christophe; De Smet, Stefaan; Hocquette, Jean François; Picard, Brigitte

    2005-02-01

    Myostatin plays a major role in muscle growth and development and animals with disruption of this gene display marked increases in muscle mass. Little is known about muscle physiological adaptations in relation to this muscle hypertrophy. To provide a more comprehensive view, we analyzed bovine muscles from control, heterozygote and homozygote young Belgian blue bulls for myostatin deletion, which results in a normal level of inactive myostatin. Heterozygote and homozygote animals were characterized by a higher proportion of fast-twitch glycolytic fibers in Semitendinosus muscle. Differential proteomic analysis of this muscle was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Thirteen proteins, corresponding to 28 protein spots, were significantly altered in response to the myostatin deletion. The observed changes in protein expression are consistent with an increased fast muscle phenotype, suggesting that myostatin negatively controls mainly fast-twitch glycolytic fiber number. Finally, we demonstrated that differential mRNA splicing of fast troponin T is altered by the loss of myostatin function. The structure of mutually exclusive exon 16 appears predominantly expressed in muscles from heterozygote and homozygote animals. This suggests a role for exon 16 of fast troponin T in the physiological adaptation of the fast muscle phenotype.

  4. Enzymic characteristics of fat globule membranes from bovine colostrum and bovine milk

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Fat globule membranes have been isolated from bovine colostrum and bovine milk by the dispersion of the fat in sucrose solutions at 4 degrees C and fractionation by centrifugation through discontinuous sucrose gradients. The morphology and enzymic characteristics of the separated fractions were examined. Fractions comprising a large proportion of the total extracted membrane were thus obtained having high levels of the Golgi marker enzymes UDP-galactose N- acetylglucosamine beta-4-galactosyltransferase and thiamine pyrophosphatase. A membrane-derived form of the galactosyltransferase has been solubilized from fat and purified to homogeneity. This enzyme is larger in molecular weight than previously studied soluble galactosyltransferases, but resembles in size the galactosyltransferase of lactating mammary Golgi membranes. In contrast, when fat globule membranes were prepared by traditional procedures, which involved washing the fat at higher temperatures, before extraction, galactosyltransferase was not present in the membranes, having been released into supernatant fractions, When the enzyme released by this procedure was partially purified and examined by gel filtration, it was found to be of a degraded form resembling in size the soluble galactosyltransferase of milk. The release is therefore attributed to the action of proteolytic enzymes. Our observations contrast with previous biochemical studies which suggested that Golgi membranes do not contribute to the milk fat globule membrane. They are, however, consistent with electron microscope studies of the fat secretion process, which indicate that secretory vesicle membranes, derived from the Golgi apparatus, may provide a large proportion of the fat globule membrane. PMID:402369

  5. Immunological relationships between malignant catarrhal fever virus (alcelaphine herpesvirus 1) and bovine cytomegalovirus (bovine herpesvirus 3).

    PubMed

    Rossiter, P B; Gumm, I D; Mirangi, P K

    1988-03-01

    Strains of malignant catarrhal fever virus (alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AHV-1)) and bovine cytomegalovirus (bovine herpesvirus 3 (BHV-3)) were compared for serological relatedness by cross-titration in an indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) antibody assay. There was definite cross-reactivity between these 2 viruses, with heterologous sera staining intracellular and membrane antigens of infected cells. Heterologous antibody titres were approximately 50-fold lower than homologous titres and could be removed by absorption with either homologous or heterologous virus-infected cells, but not with uninfected cells. Regression analyses of IIF antibody titres to AHV-1 and BHV-3 virus in 3 groups of wild ungulate sera also indicated a serological relationship between these herpesviruses. In a cross-immunity trial, 2 of 3 cattle immunized with a BHV-3 virus and 2 of 3 cattle immunized with avirulent AHV-1 resisted challenge with virulent AHV-1-infected blood which killed 3 unimmunized controls. These results are discussed particularly with respect to the involvement of BHV-3 in malignant catarrhal fever.

  6. Bovine leucosis virus contamination of a vaccine produced in vivo against bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, R J; Dimmock, C K; de Vos, A J; Rodwell, B J

    1988-09-01

    Contamination of a batch of tick fever (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) vaccine with bovine leucosis virus (BLV) was detected when a herd, in the final stages of an enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) accreditation program, developed a large number of seropositive cattle following use of tick fever vaccine. Investigations incriminated a single calf used to produce Anaplasma centrale vaccine from which 13,959 doses were distributed. The failure of this calf to give a positive agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test before use was not fully explained. A total of 22,627 cattle from 111 herds receiving contaminated vaccine was tested to validate claims for compensation. Results showed infection rates of 62% and 51.8% in vaccinated dairy and beef cattle, respectively, compared with 6.1% and 1.5% in non-vaccinated cattle in the same herds. The results also indicated that infection did not spread from vaccinated to non-vaccinated in-contact cattle. Heavy reliance is now placed on purchase of calves for vaccine production from EBL accredited-free herds and on transmission tests from the calves to sheep to prevent a recurrence of contamination. The need for a BLV antigen detection test, with the sensitivity of the sheep transmission test but simpler and faster to perform, is evident. PMID:2847702

  7. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. PMID:26754928

  8. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available.

  9. Experimental transmission of h-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy to bovinized transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Masujin, K; Iwamaru, Y; Imamura, M; Matsuura, Y; Mohri, S; Czub, S; Yokoyama, T

    2011-09-01

    To characterize the biological and biochemical properties of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a transmission study with a Canadian H-type isolate was performed with bovinized transgenic mice (TgBoPrP), which were inoculated intracerebrally with brain homogenate from cattle with H-type BSE. All mice exhibited characteristic neurologic signs, and the subsequent passage showed a shortened incubation period. The distribution of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was determined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and paraffin-embedded tissue (PET) blot. Biochemical properties and higher molecular weight of the glycoform pattern were well conserved within mice. Immunolabeled granular PrP(Sc), aggregates, and/or plaque-like deposits were mainly detected in the following brain locations: septal nuclei, subcallosal regions, hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, interstitial nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the reticular formation of the midbrain. Weak reactivity was detected by immunohistochemistry and PET blot in the cerebral cortex, most thalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum. These findings indicate that the H-type BSE prion has biological and biochemical properties distinct from those of C-type and L-type BSE in TgBoPrP mice, which suggests that TgBoPrP mice constitute a useful animal model to distinguish isolates from BSE-infected cattle.

  10. DNA vaccine (P1-2A-3C-pCDNA) co-administered with Bovine IL-18 gives protective immune response against Foot and Mouth Disease in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kotla, Sivareddy; Sanghratna Vishanath, Bahire; H J, Dechamma; K, Ganesh; V V S, Suryanarayana; Reddy, G R

    2016-09-25

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. Presently used tissue culture inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration. DNA vaccines along with appropriate adjutants is one of the approach for the development of alternative vaccine. In the present study, we constructed P1-2A-3CpCDNA (containing P1-2A-3C coding sequences of FMDV Asia-1 Ind 63/72) and bovine IL-18 pCDNA plasmids and evaluated in cattle. Four groups of calves each group containing six calves were vaccinated with 200μg of plasmid DNA vaccine P1-2A-3CpCDNA, P1-2A-3CpCDNA+ bIL-18pCDNA and inactivated vaccine respectively where as fourth group was unvaccinated. P1-2A-3CpCDNA+bIL-18pCDNA vaccinated animals have shown higher levels of neutralizing antibodies and specific T-cell proliferation responses. Higher levels of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were observed in these animals. Similarly, IL-18 adjuvanted group has shown increased Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses. All the vaccinated animals were challenged with cattle adapted FMD homologous Asia1 virus two weeks after the booster dose. IL18 co administered DNA vaccine construct has protected four out of six animals challenged with homologous virus. PMID:27599937

  11. Measurement of betacellulin levels in bovine serum, colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Bastian, S E; Dunbar, A J; Priebe, I K; Owens, P C; Goddard, C

    2001-01-01

    Betacellulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, was originally isolated and identified from the conditioned medium from a murine pancreatic beta-cell carcinoma cell line. Recently, we isolated bovine betacellulin from a growth factor enriched cheese whey extract, but there is no information on the presence of betacellulin in other biological fluids. We have cloned the cDNA for bovine betacellulin, produced recombinant betacellulin and shown that it has a similar potency to the purified native molecule in stimulating the proliferation of Balb/c3T3 fibroblasts. We have produced a polyclonal antiserum to bovine betacellulin which did not cross-react with EGF or transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha). The antibody was used in a homologous RIA that was able to detect betacellulin in pooled bovine colostrum sampled during the first 3 days after calving (2.30+/-0.11 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=6), in bovine milk soluble fraction (1.93+/-0.64 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=5) and in bovine cheese whey (2.59+/-0.16 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=3). The betacellulin concentration in foetal bovine serum (FBS) (3.68+/-0.59 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=6) greatly exceeded that of betacellulin in serum from male calves 1 and 5 weeks of age (0.53+/-0.15 ng/ml and 0.70+/- 0.09 ng/ml respectively; mean+/-s.e.m.; n=9). Betacellulin measured in the serum of these same animals when aged between 27 and 43 weeks was below the detection limits of the RIA. Sera from 10 out of 36 unmated heifers contained betacellulin levels within the detection limits of the assay (0.433+/-0.06 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=10). The presence of betacellulin in bovine colostrum and milk suggests that it plays a role in the growth and development of the neonate and/or mammary gland function. The results also show that betacellulin is undetectable in the castrated adult male circulation. Additionally, although present in very low amounts, serum betacellulin could be under hormonal regulation in the female, since

  12. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen

    2014-04-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans. PMID:24571383

  13. Food Safety: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease).

    PubMed

    Acheson, David W. K.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is just one of a group of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Only recently has it become recognized that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are likely due to proteins known as prions. Although it has been recognized that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies may readily spread within species, the recent observations that bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle may have originated from another transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in sheep, known as scrapie, is cause for concern. Further, bovine spongiform encephalopathy has now been strongly linked with a universally fatal human neurologic disease known as new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Currently the only approach to preventing bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and subsequent new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, from ingestion of bovine spongiform encephalopathy-infected material is to avoid consumption of contaminated food. Little can be done to treat food that will destroy prions and leave a palatable product. At this stage we are continuing to learn about transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and their implications on human health. This is an ever-changing situation and has an unpredictable element in terms of the extent of the current outbreaks in England and other parts of Europe. PMID:11984426

  14. Characterization of bovine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin.

    PubMed

    van Veen, H A; Geerts, M E J; Zoetemelk, R A A; Nuijens, J H; van Berkel, P H C

    2006-09-01

    A protein of relative molecular mass of approximately 25,000 was purified from bovine colostrum by cation-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The N-terminus of the protein matched the sequence predicted by the National Center for Biotechnology Information for the bovine homolog of human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, a glycoprotein of relative molecular mass 25,000 belonging to the family of lipocalins. The protein was further designated as bovine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (bNGAL). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE of enzymically deglycosylated bNGAL indicated that the intact protein bears one N-linked glycan. Monosaccharide and mass spectrometric analyses of released N-linked carbohydrates revealed the presences of complex- and hybrid-type glycans, with galactose substituted with N-acetylgalactosamine. This substitution is typical for glycoproteins expressed in the bovine mammary gland. A specific ELISA revealed bNGAL concentrations in plasma and mature milk of about 0.05 and 1 microg/mL, respectively, whereas values as high as 51 microg/mL were measured in colostrum. Thus, we have isolated and characterized a novel bovine (milk) protein that is a new member of the lipocalin family. PMID:16899672

  15. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    PubMed Central

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  16. Structure of an Enteric Pathogen, Bovine Parvovirus

    PubMed Central

    Kailasan, Shweta; Halder, Sujata; Gurda, Brittney; Bladek, Heather; Chipman, Paul R.; McKenna, Robert; Brown, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine parvovirus (BPV), the causative agent of respiratory and gastrointestinal disease in cows, is the type member of the Bocaparvovirus genus of the Parvoviridae family. Toward efforts to obtain a template for the development of vaccines and small-molecule inhibitors for this pathogen, the structure of the BPV capsid, assembled from the major capsid viral protein 2 (VP2), was determined using X-ray crystallography as well as cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction (cryo-reconstruction) to 3.2- and 8.8-Å resolutions, respectively. The VP2 region ordered in the crystal structure, from residues 39 to 536, conserves the parvoviral eight-stranded jellyroll motif and an αA helix. The BPV capsid displays common parvovirus features: a channel at and depressions surrounding the 5-fold axes and protrusions surrounding the 3-fold axes. However, rather than a depression centered at the 2-fold axes, a raised surface loop divides this feature in BPV. Additional observed density in the capsid interior in the cryo-reconstructed map, compared to the crystal structure, is interpreted as 10 additional N-terminal residues, residues 29 to 38, that radially extend the channel under the 5-fold axis, as observed for human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1). Surface loops of various lengths and conformations extend from the core jellyroll motif of VP2. These loops confer the unique surface topology of the BPV capsid, making it strikingly different from HBoV1 as well as the type members of other Parvovirinae genera for which structures have been determined. For the type members, regions structurally analogous to those decorating the BPV capsid surface serve as determinants of receptor recognition, tissue and host tropism, pathogenicity, and antigenicity. IMPORTANCE Bovine parvovirus (BPV), identified in the 1960s in diarrheic calves, is the type member of the Bocaparvovirus genus of the nonenveloped, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) Parvoviridae family. The recent

  17. Bovine tuberculosis surveillance alternatives in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Welby, S; Govaerts, M; Vanholme, L; Hooyberghs, J; Mennens, K; Maes, L; Van Der Stede, Y

    2012-09-15

    Belgium obtained the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) officially free status in 2003 (EC Decision 2003/467/EC). This study was carried out to evaluate the components of the current bTB surveillance program in Belgium and to determine the sensitivity of this program. Secondly, alternatives to optimize the bTB surveillance in accordance with European legislation (Council Directive 64/432/EEC) were evaluated. Separate scenario trees were designed for each active surveillance component of the bTB surveillance program. Data from 2005 to 2009 regarding cattle population, movement and surveillance were collected to feed the stochastic scenario tree simulation model. A total of 7,403,826 cattle movement history records were obtained for the 2,678,020 cattle from 36,059 cattle herds still active in 2009. The current surveillance program sensitivity as well as the impact of alternative surveillance protocols was simulated in a stochastic model using 10,000 iterations per simulation. The median (50% percentile) of the component sensitivities across 10,000 iterations was 0.83, 0.85, 0.99, 0.99, respectively, for (i) testing the cattle only during the winter screening, (ii) testing only imported cattle, (iii) testing only purchased cattle and (iv) testing only all slaughtered cattle. The sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential input parameter explaining the variability around the output came from the uncertainty distribution around the sensitivity of the diagnostic tests used within the bTB surveillance. Providing all animals are inspected and post mortem inspection is highly sensitive, slaughterhouse surveillance was the most effective surveillance component. If these conditions were not met, the uncertainty around the mean sensitivity of this component was important. Using an antibody ELISA at purchase and an interferon gamma test during winter screening and at import would increase greatly the sensitivity and the confidence level of Belgium's freedom from b

  18. Cholesterol content in European bovine milk fats.

    PubMed

    Precht, D

    2001-02-01

    Data about the cholesterol content in edible fats like bovine milk fat are important for balancing the cholesterol intake with food. A comparison of 3 different cholesterol determination methods showed that with the direct analysis by a 25 m long TAP steel capillary column the same results could be obtained as with a time-consuming saponification standard method including thin-layer chromatographic cleaning and subsequent silylation. On the other hand with a rapid direct method using a short packed column 21% unsaponifiables as e.g. minor sterols or hydrocarbons could be found in the "cholesterol peak". The analysis of 1142 German milk fats led to a mean cholesterol content of 265.6 +/- 20.0 mg/100 g fat (range: 204.4 to 382.5). For 165 milk fats from other 12 EU-countries, a similar mean cholesterol content of 258.5 +/- 19.9 mg/100 g fat (range: 215.0 to 331.6) was detected. Compared with sufficiently fed cows, underfed cows demonstrated an approx. 10.1% lower mean cholesterol content (238.7 +/- 9.7 mg/100 g fat). On the other hand, during the first 7 days post partum, the colostrum showed a significantly higher mean cholesterol content of 327.2 +/- 99.0 mg/100 g fat (n = 15; range: 213.1 to 583.9). Further, with special conditions as feeding of rape-seed the cholesterol content can be significantly lowered by 8-13%. An extraordinary lowering up to 50% can be reached by dry fractionation of milk fat (stearin "hard" fraction).

  19. Prion biology relevant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Novakofski, J; Brewer, M S; Mateus-Pinilla, N; Killefer, J; McCusker, R H

    2005-06-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk are a threat to agriculture and natural resources, as well as a human health concern. Both diseases are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), or prion diseases, caused by autocatalytic conversion of endogenously encoded prion protein (PrP) to an abnormal, neurotoxic conformation designated PrPsc. Most mammalian species are susceptible to TSE, which, despite a range of species-linked names, is caused by a single highly conserved protein, with no apparent normal function. In the simplest sense, TSE transmission can occur because PrPsc is resistant to both endogenous and environmental proteinases, although many details remain unclear. Questions about the transmission of TSE are central to practical issues such as livestock testing, access to international livestock markets, and wildlife management strategies, as well as intangible issues such as consumer confidence in the safety of the meat supply. The majority of BSE cases seem to have been transmitted by feed containing meat and bone meal from infected animals. In the United Kingdom, there was a dramatic decrease in BSE cases after neural tissue and, later, all ruminant tissues were banned from ruminant feed. However, probably because of heightened awareness and widespread testing, there is growing evidence that new variants of BSE are arising "spontaneously," suggesting ongoing surveillance will continue to find infected animals. Interspecies transmission is inefficient and depends on exposure, sequence homology, TSE donor strain, genetic polymorphism of the host, and architecture of the visceral nerves if exposure is by an oral route. Considering the low probability of interspecies transmission, the low efficiency of oral transmission, and the low prion levels in nonnervous tissues, consumption of conventional animal products represents minimal risk. However, detection of rare events is challenging, and TSE

  20. Bovine viral diarrhoea: pathogenesis and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Sasha R; Hill, Fraser I; Reichel, Michael P; Brownlie, Joe

    2014-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is the most prevalent infectious disease of cattle. It causes financial losses from a variety of clinical manifestations and is the subject of a number of mitigation and eradication schemes around the world. The pathogenesis of BVDV infection is complex, with infection pre- and post-gestation leading to different outcomes. Infection of the dam during gestation results in fetal infection, which may lead to embryonic death, teratogenic effects or the birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. PI animals shed BVDV in their excretions and secretions throughout life and are the primary route of transmission of the virus. These animals can usually be readily detected by virus or viral antigen detection assays (RT-PCR, ELISA), except in the immediate post-natal period where colostral antibodies may mask virus presence. PI calves in utero (the 'Trojan cow' scenario) currently defy detection with available diagnostic tests, although dams carrying PI calves have been shown to have higher antibody levels than seropositive cows carrying non-PI calves. Acute infection with BVDV results in transient viraemia prior to seroconversion and can lead to reproductive dysfunction and immunosuppression leading to an increased incidence of secondary disease. Antibody assays readily detect virus exposure at the individual level and can also be used in pooled samples (serum and milk) to determine herd exposure or immunity. Diagnostic tests can be used to diagnose clinical cases, establish disease prevalence in groups and detect apparently normal but persistently infected animals. This review outlines the pathogenesis and pathology of BVD viral infection and uses this knowledge to select the best diagnostic tests for clinical diagnosis, monitoring, control and eradication efforts. Test methods, types of samples and problems areas of BVDV diagnosis are discussed.

  1. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  2. Morphological classification of bovine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R J; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    2010-02-01

    Follicle classification is an important aid to the understanding of follicular development and atresia. Some bovine primordial follicles have the classical primordial shape, but ellipsoidal shaped follicles with some cuboidal granulosa cells at the poles are far more common. Preantral follicles have one of two basal lamina phenotypes, either a single aligned layer or one with additional layers. In antral follicles <5 mm diameter, half of the healthy follicles have columnar shaped basal granulosa cells and additional layers of basal lamina, which appear as loops in cross section ('loopy'). The remainder have aligned single-layered follicular basal laminas with rounded basal cells, and contain better quality oocytes than the loopy/columnar follicles. In sizes >5 mm, only aligned/rounded phenotypes are present. Dominant and subordinate follicles can be identified by ultrasound and/or histological examination of pairs of ovaries. Atretic follicles <5 mm are either basal atretic or antral atretic, named on the basis of the location in the membrana granulosa where cells die first. Basal atretic follicles have considerable biological differences to antral atretic follicles. In follicles >5 mm, only antral atresia is observed. The concentrations of follicular fluid steroid hormones can be used to classify atresia and distinguish some of the different types of atresia; however, this method is unlikely to identify follicles early in atresia, and hence misclassify them as healthy. Other biochemical and histological methods can be used, but since cell death is a part of normal homoeostatis, deciding when a follicle has entered atresia remains somewhat subjective. PMID:19786400

  3. A Major Gene for Bovine Ovulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Brian W.; Morris, Chris A.

    2015-01-01

    Half-sib daughters sired by a bull believed to be a carrier of a major gene for high ovulation rate were evaluated for ovulation rate and genotyped in an effort to both test the hypothesis of segregation of a major gene and to map the gene’s location. A total of 131 daughters were produced over four consecutive years at a University of Wisconsin-Madison research farm. All were evaluated for ovulation rate over an average of four estrous cycles using transrectal ultrasonography. The sire and all daughters were genotyped using a 3K SNP chip and the genotype and phenotype data were used in a linkage analysis. Subsequently, daughters recombinant within the QTL region and the sire were genotyped successively with 50K and 777K SNP chips to refine the location of the causative polymorphism. Positional candidate genes within the fine-mapped region were examined for polymorphism by Sanger sequencing of PCR amplicons encompassing coding and 5’ and 3’ flanking regions of the genes. Sire DNA was used as template in the PCR reactions. Strong evidence of a major gene for ovulation rate was observed (p<1x10-28) with the gene localized to bovine chromosome 10. Fine-mapping subsequently reduced the location to a 1.2 Mb region between 13.6 and 14.8 Mb on chromosome 10. The location identified does not correspond to that for any previously identified major gene for ovulation rate. This region contains three candidate genes, SMAD3, SMAD6 and IQCH. While candidate gene screening failed to identify the causative polymorphism, three polymorphisms were identified that can be used as a haplotype to track inheritance of the high ovulation rate allele in descendants of the carrier sire. PMID:26046917

  4. Blockade of bovine PD-1 increases T cell function and inhibits bovine leukemia virus expression in B cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a known immunoinhibitory receptor that contributes to immune evasion of various tumor cells and pathogens causing chronic infection, such as bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection. First, in this study, to establish a method for the expression and functional analysis of bovine PD-1, hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for bovine PD-1 were established. Treatment with these anti-PD-1 mAb enhanced interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Next, to examine whether PD-1 blockade by anti-PD-1 mAb could upregulate the immune reaction during chronic infection, the expression and functional analysis of PD-1 in PBMC isolated from BLV-infected cattle with or without lymphoma were performed using anti-PD-1 mAb. The frequencies of both PD-1+ CD4+ T cells in blood and lymph node and PD-1+ CD8+ T cells in lymph node were higher in BLV-infected cattle with lymphoma than those without lymphoma or control uninfected cattle. PD-1 blockade enhanced IFN-γ production and proliferation and reduced BLV-gp51 expression and B-cell activation in PBMC from BLV-infected cattle in response to BLV-gp51 peptide mixture. These data show that anti-bovine PD-1 mAb could provide a new therapy to control BLV infection via upregulation of immune response. PMID:23876077

  5. Development of a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in bovine semen.

    PubMed Central

    van Engelenburg, F A; Maes, R K; van Oirschot, J T; Rijsewijk, F A

    1993-01-01

    We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) in bovine semen. Since bovine semen contains components that inhibit PCR amplification, a protocol was developed to purify BHV-1 DNA from bovine semen. To identify failures of PCR amplification, we used an internal control template that was coamplified by the same PCR primers. When separated fractions of BHV-1-contaminated semen were analyzed by the PCR, we found that more than 90% of the BHV-1 DNA was present in a pooled fraction consisting of seminal fluid, nonsperm cells, and virus adsorbed to spermatozoa. By using this fraction, three to five molecules of BHV-1 DNA in 50 microliters of bovine semen could be detected. A pilot study to compare this PCR assay with the routinely used virus isolation method showed that this PCR assay is 2- to 100-fold more sensitive. In addition, the results of the PCR assay are available in 1 day, whereas the virus isolation method takes 7 days. Therefore, the PCR assay may be a good alternative to the virus isolation method. Images PMID:8308103

  6. Dynamic compressive properties of bovine knee layered tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Hino, Yuki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, the most common articular disease is knee osteoarthritis. Among many treatment methodologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently received a lot of attention. In this field, cells and scaffolds are important, both ex vivo and in vivo. From the viewpoint of effective treatment, in addition to histological features, the compatibility of mechanical properties is also important. In this study, the dynamic and static compressive properties of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were measured using a universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar method. The compressive behaviors of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were examined. The effects of strain rate on the maximum stress and the slope of stress-strain curves of the bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were discussed.

  7. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age.

  8. A novel glutamate dehydrogenase from bovine brain: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kim, S W; Cho, S W

    1995-08-01

    A soluble form of novel glutamate dehydrogenase has been purified from bovine brain. The preparation was homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and composed of six identical subunits having a subunit size of 57,500 Da. The biochemical properties of glutamate dehydrogenase such as N-terminal amino acids sequences, kinetic parameters, amino acids analysis, and optimum pH were examined in both reductive amination of alpha-ketoglutarate and oxidative deamination of glutamate. N-terminal amino acid sequences of the bovine brain enzyme showed the significant differences in the first 5 amino acids compared to other glutamate dehydrogenases from various sources. These results indicate that glutamate dehydrogenase isolated from bovine brain is a novel polypeptide.

  9. Splitting and biopsy for bovine embryo sexing under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R F; Forell, F; Oliveira, A T; Rodrigues, J L

    2001-12-01

    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo bisection technology in commercial embryo transfer programs, and made possible the direct genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos by biopsy. For example, aspiration and microsection, allow bovine embryos sexing by detection of male-specific Y-chromosome in a sample of embryonic cells. We report on the application of the methodologies of splitting and biopsy of bovine embryos in field conditions, and on the results of embryo sex determination by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pregnancy rates achieved with fresh bisected or biopsied embryos (50 to 60%) were similar to the fresh intact embryos (55 to 61%). The PCR protocol used for embryo sexing showed 92% to 94% of efficiency and 90 to 100% of accuracy. These results demonstrate these procedures are suitable for use in field conditions.

  10. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections. PMID:26687332

  11. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections.

  12. Processed bovine cartilage: an improved biosynthetic implant for contour defects

    SciTech Connect

    Ersek, R.A.; Hart, W.G. Jr.; Greer, D.; Beisang, A.A.; Flynn, P.J.; Denton, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    Irradiated human cartilage has been found to be a superior implant material for correction of contour defects; however, availability problems have prevented this material from gaining wide acceptance. Implantation of processed irradiated bovine cartilage in primates and rabbits, as described here, provides strong evidence that this material performs like irradiated allograft cartilage antigenically and has certain cosmetic advantages over allograft cartilage. Our studies in primates have shown that there is no systemically measurable antibody-antigen reaction, either cellular or noncellular, to irradiated processed bovine cartilage. Neither primary nor second-set provocative implantations produced any measurable rejection. In rabbits, composite grafts of two pieces of irradiated bovine cartilage adjacent to each other were also well tolerated, with no measurable absorption and with capsule formation typical of a foreign body reaction to an inert object.

  13. Identification of genetic variation and putative regulatory regions in bovine CARD15

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutations in caspase recruitment domain 15 (CARD15) are associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease and Blau Syndrome. We performed comparative analyses of the bovine, murine, and human CARD15 transcripts to elucidate functionality of bovine CARD15 and examine its potential role in bovine dise...

  14. Establishment and characterization of feeder-cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines is described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-day bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO feeder layers and wer...

  15. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  16. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  17. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  18. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  19. Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strain M1601

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yuefeng; Gao, Pengchen; Zhao, Ping; He, Ying; Liao, Nancy; Jackman, Shaun; Zhao, Yongjun; Birol, Inanc; Duan, Xiaobo; Lu, Zhongxin

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, a devastating disease of goats listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. Here we report the first complete genome sequence of this organism (strain M1601, a clinically isolated strain from China). PMID:21994928

  20. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... such period has been entirely free from foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, contagious pleuropneumonia... freedom from the said diseases of the district of origin only: And provided further, That in the case of... disease of the district of origin only. For domestic swine, the certificate shall also show that...