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Sample records for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia

  1. Quantitative risk assessment of entry of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia through live cattle imported from northwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woube, Yilkal Asfaw; Dibaba, Asseged Bogale; Tameru, Berhanu; Fite, Richard; Nganwa, David; Robnett, Vinaida; Demisse, Amsalu; Habtemariam, Tsegaye

    2015-11-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) bovine biotype (MmmSC). It has been eradicated from many countries; however, the disease persists in many parts of Africa and Asia. CBPP is one of the major trade-restricting diseases of cattle in Ethiopia. In this quantitative risk assessment the OIE concept of zoning was adopted to assess the entry of CBPP into an importing country when up to 280,000 live cattle are exported every year from the northwestern proposed disease free zone (DFZ) of Ethiopia. To estimate the level of risk, a six-tiered risk pathway (scenario tree) was developed, evidences collected and equations generated. The probability of occurrence of the hazard at each node was modelled as a probability distribution using Monte Carlo simulation (@RISK software) at 10,000 iterations to account for uncertainty and variability. The uncertainty and variability of data points surrounding the risk estimate were further quantified by sensitivity analysis. In this study a single animal destined for export from the northwestern DFZ of Ethiopia has a CBPP infection probability of 4.76×10(-6) (95% CI=7.25×10(-8) 1.92×10(-5)). The probability that at least one infected animal enters an importing country in one year is 0.53 (90% CI=0.042-0.97). The expected number of CBPP infected animals exported any given year is 1.28 (95% CI=0.021-5.42). According to the risk estimate, an average of 2.73×10(6) animals (90% CI=10,674-5.9×10(6)) must be exported to get the first infected case. By this account it would, on average, take 10.15 years (90% CI=0.24-23.18) for the first infected animal to be included in the consignment. Sensitivity analysis revealed that prevalence and vaccination had the highest impact on the uncertainty and variability of the overall risk.

  2. Louis Willems (1822-1907) and the immunization against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. An evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huygelen, C

    1997-01-01

    Louis Willems's name is intimately linked with the history of prophylactic immunization in the nineteenth century. When he obtained his medical degree in 1849 contagious bovine pleuropneumonia or lung sickness was raging among the cattle population in most European countries. As the son of a cattle fattener Willems was confronted directly with the problem in his father's stables and decided to study the disease and to search for a remedy to combat it. The disease is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides and subspecies mycoides, but in the middle of the nineteenth century during the battle between the miasmatists and the contagionists, many had doubts about its contagiousness. Willems defended from the start the contagiousness of the disease and noticed that animals who had survived an infection did not contract it a second time. He demonstrated that inoculation of the serous fluid from the lungs or from the pleural cavity of affected animals into healthy cattle led to pronounced local reactions. When these inoculated animals later on came into contact with diseased cattle they were shown to be immune. In his first trials he inoculated at the base of the tail or around the nostrils but this led to very severe reactions and frequently to death. He then started inoculating at the tip of the tail with much better results. Most animals showed a more or less pronounced reaction at the inoculation site and about seven percent lost their tail partially or completely through necrosis, but the mortality remained very limited. The local reactions were caused by the etiological agent itself. The lesions in the connective tissue of the tail showed much resemblance to those in the interlobular septa of the lungs and contained strong accumulations of serous fluid. The tip of the tail was obviously a good choice; this was confirmed later by many authors and the procedure is still being used today in areas where the disease is still prevalent. Inoculation at other sites of the body such as

  3. Characterization of the in vitro core surface proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Ivanka; Liljander, Anne; Fischer, Anne; Smith, David G E; Inglis, Neil F; Scacchia, Massimo; Pini, Attilio; Jores, Joerg; Sacchini, Flavio

    2014-01-10

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is a severe cattle disease, present in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The development of improved diagnostic tests and vaccines for CBPP control remains a research priority. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the Triton X-114 soluble proteome of nine Mmm strains isolated from Europe or Africa. Of a total of 250 proteins detected, 67 were present in all strains investigated. Of these, 44 were predicted to be lipoproteins or cytoplasmic membrane-associated proteins and are thus likely to be members of the core in vitro surface membrane-associated proteome of Mmm. Moreover, the presence of all identified proteins in other ruminant Mycoplasma pathogens were investigated. Two proteins of the core proteome were identified only in other cattle pathogens of the genus Mycoplasma pointing towards a role in host-pathogen interactions. The data generated will facilitate the identification and prioritization of candidate Mycoplasma antigens for improved control measures, as it is likely that surface-exposed membrane proteins will include those that are involved in host-pathogen interactions.

  4. A contagious bovine pleuropneumonia outbreak on a research farm in Ethiopia, and its dynamics over an eight-month period.

    PubMed

    Almaw, G; Duguma, M; Wubetie, A; Tuli, G; Koran, T

    2016-12-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) was recognised on Bako Agricultural Research Farm, in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia, for the first time on 5 May 2011. The outbreak was investigated by combining recognition of clinical signs, post-mortem examination, mycoplasma isolation and serological testing using competitive enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). The clinical cases were monitored for eight months; sick animals were treated with a range of antibiotics and isolated if necessary. The outbreak of CBPP was confirmed both bacteriologically and serologically and had spread to almost the entire herd (96.7%) within the eight-month observation period. Of the animals that recovered after antibiotic treatment, 12.3% fell sick again, showed typical signs of CBPP and were considered to be carriers. The role of treatment in the prevention of the spread of CBPP was minimal. Newly purchased animals that were not tested and quarantined before being introduced onto the farm were suspected to have been the most probable source of infection.

  5. Development of an improved vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: an African perspective on challenges and proposed actions.

    PubMed

    Jores, Joerg; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Naessens, Jan

    2013-12-20

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is an economically very important cattle disease in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP impacts animal health and poverty of livestock-dependent people through decreased animal productivity, reduced food supply, and the cost of control measures. CBPP is a barrier to trade in many African countries and this reduces the value of livestock and the income of many value chain stakeholders. The presence of CBPP also poses a constant threat to CBPP-free countries and creates costs in terms of the measures necessary to ensure the exclusion of disease. This opinion focuses on the biomedical research needed to foster the development of better control measures for CBPP. We suggest that different vaccine development approaches are followed in parallel. Basic immunology studies and systematic OMICs studies will be necessary in order to identify the protective arms of immunity and to shed more light on the pathogenicity mechanisms in CBPP. Moreover a robust challenge model and a close collaboration with African research units will be crucial to foster and implement a new vaccine for the progressive control of this cattle plague.

  6. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P < 0.05. CBPP sero-prevalence in nomadic cattle was 16.2 % (confidence interval (CI) 13.7-19.0) and 9.6 % (CI 6.9-12.9) in sedentary cattle. The overall cattle-level sero-prevalence for two the cattle production systems was 14.0 % (CI 12.1-16.1). Age and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) associated with sero-positivity to Mmm in nomadic production. Agro-ecological zone C had the highest sero-prevalence (25.3 %, CI 20.2-31.0). No significant cattle factors were detected in sedentary production. Factors significantly associated with CBPP occurrence at herd-level were contacts with other herds during grazing (P < 0.001) and at watering points (P < 0.001). Others were introduction of new cattle into herd (P < 0.001), outbreaks of CBPP in an area (P < 0.001), socio-cultural factors of cattle gifts and dowry payment (P < 0.001), herd composition of keeping cattle and small ruminants together (P < 0.001), and long trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria.

  7. Development of a Novel Cocktail Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and a Field-Applicable Lateral-Flow Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Martin; Gicheru, Nimmo; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Muriuki, Cecilia; Yu, Mingyan; Botelho, Ana; Naessens, Jan; Jores, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease that is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, a bacterium belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the absence of an efficient CBPP vaccine, improved and easy-to-use diagnostic assays for recurrent testing combined with isolation and treatment of positive animals represent an option for CBPP control in Africa. Here we describe the comprehensive screening of 17 immunogenic Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides proteins using well-characterized bovine sera for the development of a novel cocktail enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for laboratory use. Two recombinant Mycoplasma immunogens, MSC_0136 and MSC_0636, were used to set up a standardized cocktail ELISA protocol. According to the results from more than 100 serum samples tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the novel cocktail ELISA were 85.6% and 96.4%, respectively, with an overall diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)-prescribed serological assays. In addition, we provide a proof of principle for a field-applicable, easy-to-use commercially produced prototype lateral-flow test for rapid (<30-min) diagnosis of CBPP. PMID:27053669

  8. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (P<0.001). This was validated by 16.2% (95% CI: 13.7, 19.0) sero-positive (quantitative impact). Highest sero-prevalence of 25.3% was observed in Northern agro-ecological zone, while lowest of 6.2% was in Eastern zone. Pastoralists in the age groups 51-60 and 61-70 years were more likely (OR 13.07; 95% CI: 3.21, 53.12 and OR 7.10; 95% CI: 1.77, 28.33, respectively) to have satisfactory information/awareness on CBPP and lowland transhumance pastoralists were more likely (OR 5.21; 95% CI: 2.01, 13.54) to have satisfactory information. Socio-cultural activities of extensive husbandry system was six times more likely (OR 5.79; 95% CI: 2.55, 13.13) to be

  9. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia outbreak in captive wild ungulates at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, State of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Arif, Abdi; Schulz, Julia; Thiaucourt, François; Taha, Abid; Hammer, Sven

    2007-03-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a highly contagious and serious respiratory disease of domestic goats, characterized by coughing, severe respiratory distress, and high mortality rates. The lesions at necropsy are mainly a fibrinous pleuropneumonia with increased straw-colored pleural fluid. An outbreak of CCPP in wild goat (Capra aegagrus), Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), Laristan mouflon (Ovis orientalis laristanica), and gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) occurred at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. The disease was suspected because of the clinical symptoms and the necropsy findings and was confirmed by the isolation and identification of the causative organism. This new finding indicates that CCPP should be considered a potential threat to wildlife and the conservation of endangered ruminant species, especially in the Middle East, where it is enzootic because of its presence in chronic carriers. Susceptible imported animals should be quarantined and vaccinated. The preferred samples for diagnosis are the pleural fluid, which contains high numbers of Mycoplasma, and sections of hepatized lung, preferably at the interface of normal and diseased tissues. Samples must be shipped to diagnostic laboratories rapidly, and appropriate cool conditions must be maintained during shipping.

  10. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles.

  11. Diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by detection and identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bölske, G; Mattsson, J G; Bascuñana, C R; Bergström, K; Wesonga, H; Johansson, K E

    1996-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), one of the most serious and dramatic diseases of goats, is caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae). This organism is very difficult to isolate and to correctly identify. In a previous report we described a method for the rapid detection and identification of M. capripneumoniae. This method is based on a PCR system by which a segment of the 16S rRNA gene from all mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster can be amplified. The PCR product is then analyzed by restriction enzyme cleavage for the identification of M. capripneumoniae DNA. This system has now been further evaluated with respect to specificity and diagnostic efficacy for the identification and direct detection of the organism in clinical material. Identification by restriction enzyme analysis of amplified DNA from mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster was verified for 55 strains, among which were 15 strains of M. capripneumoniae. The PCR was applied to clinical samples from the nose, ear, pharynx, pleural fluid, and lung tissue containing M. capripneumoniae or other mycoplasmas. As expected, mycoplasmas belonging to the M. mycoides cluster could be detected by the PCR. Restriction enzyme analysis of the PCR products could then be applied for the identification of M. capripneumoniae. Clinical samples and cultures containing M. capripneumoniae were dried on filter paper, to try an easier sample transport method, and were tested by PCR. M. capripneumoniae DNA could be detected in the dried specimens, but the sensitivity of the PCR test was reduced. PMID:8815084

  12. Rapid Detection of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Using a Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test

    PubMed Central

    March, J. B.; Gammack, C.; Nicholas, R.

    2000-01-01

    Latex microspheres (diameter, 8 μm) were coated with anti-Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antiserum (anti-F38 biotype). The coated microspheres, when used in a latex agglutination test (LAT), detected M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae antigen in the serum of goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumoniae (CCPP). Beads also agglutinated strongly in the presence of purified M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Preabsorption of CPS-specific antibodies prior to coating of the beads removed agglutinating activity in the presence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, strongly suggesting that CPS is the likely soluble antigen recognized by the test. In addition, the specificity of the LAT exactly mirrored that of an M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (WM25): of the 8 other mycoplasma species tested, agglutination was observed only with bovine serogroup 7. The LAT detected all 11 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 1.7 × 104 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml of serum. With field sera from goats with CCPP, the results of the LAT exhibited a 67% correlation with the results of the currently used complement fixation test (CFT), with the main discrepancy in diagnosis resulting from the increased sensitivity of the LAT compared to that of CFT. This antigen-detection LAT should prove particularly useful in identifying animals in the earliest stages of CCPP and combines sensitivity and low cost with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment. PMID:11060083

  13. An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster” frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prevalence and economic impact of CCPP worldwide. A new competitive ELISA kit for CCPP, based on a previous blocking ELISA, was formatted at CIRAD and used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in some regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Tajikistan and Pakistan in an international collaborative study. Results The strict specificity of the test was confirmed in CCPP-free goat herds exposed to other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster”. Prevalence studies were performed across the enzootic range of the disease in Africa and Asia. Seroprevalence was estimated at 14.6% in the Afar region of Ethiopia, whereas all the herds presented for CCPP vaccination in Kenya tested positive (individual seroprevalence varied from 6 to 90% within each herd). In Mauritius, where CCPP emerged in 2009, nine of 62 herds tested positive. In Central Asia, where the disease was confirmed only recently, no positive animals were detected in the Wakhan District of Afghanistan or across the border in neighboring areas of Tajikistan, whereas seroprevalence varied between 2.7% and 44.2% in the other districts investigated and in northern Pakistan. The test was also used to monitor seroconversion in vaccinated animals. Conclusions This newly formatted CCPP cELISA kit has retained the high specificity of the original kit. It can therefore be used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in countries or regions without vaccination programs. It could also be used to monitor the efficacy of vaccination

  14. Control of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: Knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices in Narok district of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kairu-Wanyoike, S.W.; Kiara, H.; Heffernan, C.; Kaitibie, S.; Gitau, G.K.; McKeever, D.; Taylor, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    CBPP is an important transboundary disease in sub-Saharan Africa whose control is urgent. Participatory data collection involving 52 focus group discussions in 37 village clusters and key informant interviews, a cross-sectional study involving 232 households and a post-vaccination follow up involving 203 households was carried out in 2006–2007 in Narok South district of Kenya. This was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices (KAPP) associated with control of CBPP as well as the adverse post-vaccination reactions in animals in order to advice the control policy. The community perceived trans-boundary CBPP threat to their cattle. They had traditional disease coping mechanisms and were conversant with CBPP prevention and control with 49.8% (95%CI: 42.8–56.7%) giving priority to CBPP control. However, 12.9% (95%CI: 9.0–18.1%) of pastoralists had no knowledge of any prevention method and 10.0% (95%CI: 6.5–14.7%) would not know what to do or would do nothing in the event of an outbreak. Although 43.5% (95%CI: 37.1–50.2%) of pastoralists were treating CBPP cases with antimicrobials, 62.5% (95%CI: 52.1–71.7%) of them doubted the effectiveness of the treatments. Pastoralists perceived vaccination to be the solution to CBPP but vaccination was irregular due to unavailability of the vaccine. Vaccination was mainly to control outbreaks rather than preventive and exhibited adverse post-vaccination reactions among 70.4% (95%CI: 63.6–76.5%) of herds and 3.8% (95%CI: 3.5–4.2%) of animals. Consequently, nearly 25.2% (95%CI: 18.5–33.2%) of pastoralists may resist subsequent vaccinations against CBPP. Pastoralists preferred CBPP vaccination at certain times of the year and that it is combined with other vaccinations. In conclusion, pastoralists were not fully aware of the preventive measures and interventions and post-vaccination reactions may discourage subsequent CBPP vaccinations. Consequently there is need for monitoring and management of post vaccination reactions and awareness creation on CBPP prevention and interventions and their merits and demerits. CBPP vaccine was largely unavailable to the pastoralists and the preference of the pastoralists was for vaccination at specified times and vaccine combinations which makes it necessary to avail the vaccine in conformity with the pastoralists preferences. In addition, planning vaccinations should involve pastoralists and neighbouring countries. As the results cannot be generalized, further studies on CBPP control methods and their effectiveness are recommended. PMID:24768437

  15. Efficacy of two vaccine formulations against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Kenyan indigenous cattle

    PubMed Central

    Nkando, Isabel; Ndinda, Joycelyne; Kuria, Joseph; Naessens, Jan; Mbithi, Flora; Schnier, Christian; Gicheru, Michael; McKeever, Declan; Wesonga, Hezron

    2012-01-01

    A live, attenuated vaccine is currently the only viable option to control of CBPP in Africa. It has been suggested that simple modifications to current vaccines and protocols might improve efficacy in the field. In this report we compared the current vaccine formulation with a buffered preparation that maintains Mycoplasma viability at ambient temperature for a longer time. Groups of animals were vaccinated with the two formulations and compared with non vaccinated groups. Half of the animals in each group were challenged 3 months post vaccination, the other half after 16 months. Protection levels were measured using the pathology index, calculated from post mortem scores of lesions from animals killed during the course of clinical disease. In the challenge at 3 months post vaccination, the protection levels were 52% and 77% for the modified and current vaccine preparations, respectively. At 16 months post vaccination, the protection levels were 56% and 62% for the modified and current vaccine preparations, respectively. These findings indicate that there are no differences in protection levels between the two vaccines. Because of its longer half life after reconstitution, the modified vaccine might be preferred in field situations where the reconstituted vaccine is likely not to be administered immediately. PMID:21963291

  16. Control of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices in Narok district of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kairu-Wanyoike, S W; Kiara, H; Heffernan, C; Kaitibie, S; Gitau, G K; McKeever, D; Taylor, N M

    2014-08-01

    CBPP is an important transboundary disease in sub-Saharan Africa whose control is urgent. Participatory data collection involving 52 focus group discussions in 37 village clusters and key informant interviews, a cross-sectional study involving 232 households and a post-vaccination follow up involving 203 households was carried out in 2006-2007 in Narok South district of Kenya. This was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices (KAPP) associated with control of CBPP as well as the adverse post-vaccination reactions in animals in order to advice the control policy. The community perceived trans-boundary CBPP threat to their cattle. They had traditional disease coping mechanisms and were conversant with CBPP prevention and control with 49.8% (95%CI: 42.8-56.7%) giving priority to CBPP control. However, 12.9% (95%CI: 9.0-18.1%) of pastoralists had no knowledge of any prevention method and 10.0% (95%CI: 6.5-14.7%) would not know what to do or would do nothing in the event of an outbreak. Although 43.5% (95%CI: 37.1-50.2%) of pastoralists were treating CBPP cases with antimicrobials, 62.5% (95%CI: 52.1-71.7%) of them doubted the effectiveness of the treatments. Pastoralists perceived vaccination to be the solution to CBPP but vaccination was irregular due to unavailability of the vaccine. Vaccination was mainly to control outbreaks rather than preventive and exhibited adverse post-vaccination reactions among 70.4% (95%CI: 63.6-76.5%) of herds and 3.8% (95%CI: 3.5-4.2%) of animals. Consequently, nearly 25.2% (95%CI: 18.5-33.2%) of pastoralists may resist subsequent vaccinations against CBPP. Pastoralists preferred CBPP vaccination at certain times of the year and that it is combined with other vaccinations. In conclusion, pastoralists were not fully aware of the preventive measures and interventions and post-vaccination reactions may discourage subsequent CBPP vaccinations. Consequently there is need for monitoring and management of post vaccination reactions and awareness creation on CBPP prevention and interventions and their merits and demerits. CBPP vaccine was largely unavailable to the pastoralists and the preference of the pastoralists was for vaccination at specified times and vaccine combinations which makes it necessary to avail the vaccine in conformity with the pastoralists preferences. In addition, planning vaccinations should involve pastoralists and neighbouring countries. As the results cannot be generalized, further studies on CBPP control methods and their effectiveness are recommended.

  17. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alhaji, N. B.; Babalobi, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. PMID:26464953

  18. A Transcriptome Map of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae at Single-Nucleotide Resolution Using Deep RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jiawen; Xu, Zhuofei; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lu; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the pathogen of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a highly contagious respiratory disease of swine. Although the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae was sequenced several years ago, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis to accurately annotate the gene structures and regulatory elements. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been applied to study the transcriptional landscape of bacteria, which can efficiently and accurately identify gene expression regions and unknown transcriptional units, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), UTRs and regulatory regions. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae by RNA-seq in order to improve the existing genome annotation and promote our understanding of A. pleuropneumoniae gene structures and RNA-based regulation. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq to construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of A. pleuropneumoniae. More than 3.8 million high-quality reads (average length ~90 bp) from a cDNA library were generated and aligned to the reference genome. We identified 32 open reading frames encoding novel proteins that were mis-annotated in the previous genome annotations. The start sites for 35 genes based on the current genome annotation were corrected. Furthermore, 51 sRNAs in the A. pleuropneumoniae genome were discovered, of which 40 sRNAs were never reported in previous studies. The transcriptome map also enabled visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions, in which contained 11 sRNAs. In addition, 351 operons covering 1230 genes throughout the whole genome were identified. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map validated annotated genes and corrected annotations of open reading frames in the genome, and led to the identification of many functional elements (e.g. regions encoding novel proteins, non-coding sRNAs and operon structures). The transcriptional units described in this study

  19. Production and immunogenicity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIIA protein in transgenic rice callus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Tae-Geum; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2017-04-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a major etiological agent that is responsible for swine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory infection that causes severe economic losses in the swine production industry. ApxIIA is one of the virulence factors in A. pleuropneumoniae and has been considered as a candidate for developing a vaccine against the bacterial infection. A gene encoding an ApxIIA fragment (amino acids 439-801) was modified based on a plant-optimized codon and constructed into a plant expression vector under the control of a promoter and the 3' UTR of the rice amylase 3D gene. The plant expression vector was introduced into rice embryogenic callus (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) via particle bombardment-mediated transformation. The integration and transcription of the ApxIIA439-801 gene were confirmed by using genomic DNA PCR amplification and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The synthesis of ApxIIA439-801 antigen protein in transgenic rice callus was confirmed by western blot analysis. The concentration of antigen protein in lyophilized samples of transgenic rice callus was 250 μg/g. Immunizing mice with protein extracts from transgenic plants intranasally elicited secretory IgA. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a transgenic plant to elicit immune responses against A. pleuropneumoniae.

  20. A TolC-Like Protein of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Is Involved in Antibiotic Resistance and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Cao, Sanjie; Zhang, Luhua; Lau, Gee W.; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Zhao, Qin; Huang, Xiaobo; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Wen, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a significant disease that causes serious economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Persistent infections caused by bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to treat because of the particular drug resistance of biofilm-dwelling cells. TolC, a key component of multidrug efflux pumps, are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) in many Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we identified two TolC-like proteins, TolC1 and TolC2, in A. pleuropneumoniae. Deletion of tolC1, but not tolC2, caused a significant reduction in biofilm formation, as well as increased drug sensitivity of both planktonic and biofilm cells. The genetic-complementation of the tolC1 mutation restored the competent biofilm and drug resistance. Besides, biofilm formation was inhibited and drug sensitivity was increased by the addition of phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAβN), a well-known efflux pump inhibitor (EPI), suggesting a role for EPI in antibacterial strategies toward drug tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Taken together, TolC1 is required for biofilm formation and is a part of the MDR machinery of both planktonic and biofilm cells, which could supplement therapeutic strategies for resistant bacteria and biofilm-related infections of A. pleuropneumoniae clinical isolate SC1516. PMID:27822201

  1. Surface Polysaccharide Mutants Reveal that Absence of O Antigen Reduces Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Hathroubi, S.; Hancock, M. A.; Langford, P. R.; Tremblay, Y. D. N.; Labrie, J.

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious lung disease causing important economic losses. Surface polysaccharides, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS), are implicated in the adhesion and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, but their role in biofilm formation is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the requirement for these surface polysaccharides in biofilm formation by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Well-characterized mutants were used: an O-antigen LPS mutant, a truncated core LPS mutant with an intact O antigen, a capsule mutant, and a poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) mutant. We compared the amount of biofilm produced by the parental strain and the isogenic mutants using static and dynamic systems. Compared to the findings for the biofilm of the parental or other strains, the biofilm of the O antigen and the PGA mutants was dramatically reduced, and it had less cell-associated PGA. Real-time PCR analyses revealed a significant reduction in the level of pgaA, cpxR, and cpxA mRNA in the biofilm cells of the O-antigen mutant compared to that in the biofilm cells of the parental strain. Specific binding between PGA and LPS was consistently detected by surface plasmon resonance, but the lack of O antigen did not abolish these interactions. In conclusion, the absence of the O antigen reduces the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to form a biofilm, and this is associated with the reduced expression and production of PGA. PMID:26483403

  2. Early detection of contagious diseases

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  3. The role of contagious disease in udder health

    PubMed Central

    Barkema, H. W.; Green, M. J.; Bradley, A. J.; Zadoks, R. N.

    2009-01-01

    Contagious diseases are a threat to animal health and productivity, both nationally and at the farm level. This makes implementation of biosecurity measures to prevent their introduction and spread within countries and farms a necessity. Mastitis is the most common and costly contagious disease affecting dairy farms in the western world. The major mastitis pathogens are endemic in most countries, and biosecurity measures to prevent introduction and transmission must therefore be implemented at farm level. The 40-yr-old mastitis control plan remains a solid foundation to prevent the spread of contagious intramammary infections. Contagious diseases that do not affect the mammary gland directly may have an indirect effect on mastitis. This is true for list A diseases such as foot and mouth disease, for which biosecurity measures may need to be taken at national level, and for other infections with nonmastitis pathogens such as bovine viral diarrhea virus and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Maintaining a closed herd decreases the risk of introduction of pathogens that affect udder health directly or indirectly. If animals are purchased, their udder health history should be evaluated and they should be examined and tested for contagious diseases. Transmission of infections by and to humans and nonbovine animals may occur. Contact with visitors and nonbovine animals should therefore be minimized. Because of globalization and heightened consumer awareness, the importance of biosecurity now supersedes individual farms, and increased pressure to control transmission of contagious diseases can be expected at industry or government levels in western countries and elsewhere. PMID:19762787

  4. The N-linking glycosylation system from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is required for adhesion and has potential use in glycoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Li, Yanwen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Vohra, Prerna; Tucker, Alexander W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Aebi, Markus; Langford, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a mucosal respiratory pathogen causing contagious porcine pleuropneumonia. Pathogenesis studies have demonstrated a major role for the capsule, exotoxins and outer membrane proteins. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae can also glycosylate proteins, using a cytoplasmic N-linked glycosylating enzyme designated NGT, but its transcriptional arrangement and role in virulence remains unknown. We investigated the NGT locus and demonstrated that the putative transcriptional unit consists of rimO, ngt and a glycosyltransferase termed agt. From this information we used the A. pleuropneumoniae glycosylation locus to decorate an acceptor protein, within Escherichia coli, with a hexose polymer that reacted with an anti-dextran antibody. Mass spectrometry analysis of a truncated protein revealed that this operon could add up to 29 repeat units to the appropriate sequon. We demonstrated the importance of NGT in virulence, by creating deletion mutants and testing them in a novel respiratory cell line adhesion model. This study demonstrates the importance of the NGT glycosylation system for pathogenesis and its potential biotechnological application for glycoengineering. PMID:28077594

  5. DNA vaccine encoding type IV pilin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae induces strong immune response but confers limited protective efficacy against serotype 2 challenge.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Chun; Li, Min-Chen; Chen, Yi-Min; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Shuen-Fuh; Yang, Wen-Jen

    2011-10-13

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes swine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious and often fatal disease that occurs worldwide. Our previous study showed that DNA vaccines encoding Apx exotoxin structural proteins ApxIA and/or ApxIIA, are a promising novel approach for immunization against the lethal challenge of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Vaccination against A. pleuropneumoniae is impeded by the lack of vaccines inducing reliable cross-serotype protection. Type IV fimbrial protein ApfA has been shown to be present and highly conserved in various serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. A novel DNA vaccine encoding ApfA (pcDNA-apfA) was constructed to evaluate the protective efficacy against infection with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. A significant antibody response against pilin was generated following pcDNA-apfA immunization, suggesting that it was expressed in vivo. The IgG subclass (IgG1 and IgG2a) analysis indicates that the pcDNA-apfA vaccine induces both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The IgA analysis shows that mucosal immunity could be enhanced by this DNA vaccine. Nevertheless, the strong antibody response induced by pcDNA-apfA vaccine only provided limited 30% protective efficacy against the serotype 2 challenge. These results in this study do not coincide with that the utility of type IV pilin is a good vaccine candidate against other infectious pathogens. It indicates that pilin should play a limited role in the development of a vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae infection.

  6. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G induce biofilm formation by field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hathroubi, S; Fontaine-Gosselin, S-È; Tremblay, Y D N; Labrie, J; Jacques, M

    2015-09-30

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. This is a highly contagious disease that causes important economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Penicillins are extensively used in swine production and these antibiotics are associated with high systemic clearance and low oral bioavailability. This may expose A. pleuropneumoniae to sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G when the antibiotic is administered orally. Our goal was to evaluate the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin G on the biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae. Biofilm production of 13 field isolates from serotypes 1, 5a, 7 and 15 was tested in the presence of sub-MIC of penicillin G using a polystyrene microtiter plate assay. Using microscopy techniques and enzymatic digestion, biofilm architecture and composition were also characterized after exposure to sub-MIC of penicillin G. Sub-MIC of penicillin G significantly induced biofilm formation of nine isolates. The penicillin G-induced biofilms contained more poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA), extracellular DNA and proteins when compared to control biofilms grown without penicillin G. Additionally, penicillin G-induced biofilms were sensitive to DNase which was not observed with the untreated controls. Furthermore, sub-MIC of penicillin G up-regulated the expression of pgaA, which encodes a protein involved in PGA synthesis, and the genes encoding the envelope-stress sensing two-component regulatory system CpxRA. In conclusion, sub-MICs of penicillin G significantly induce biofilm formation and this is likely the result of a cell envelope stress sensed by the CpxRA system resulting in an increased production of PGA and other matrix components.

  7. Microarray-based comparative genomic profiling of reference strains and selected Canadian field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Gouré, Julien; Findlay, Wendy A; Deslandes, Vincent; Bouevitch, Anne; Foote, Simon J; MacInnes, Janet I; Coulton, James W; Nash, John HE; Jacques, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH) were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology. PMID:19239696

  8. Stomach Flu: How Long Am I Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... am I contagious if I have the stomach flu? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M.D. You can be contagious ... depending on which virus is causing your stomach flu (gastroenteritis). A number of viruses can cause gastroenteritis, ...

  9. How Long Is Mono Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is contagious. Once someone gets mono, the virus stays in that person's body for life. That doesn't mean that you are always ... as long as 18 months. After that, the virus remains dormant (inactive) in the body for the rest of a person's life. If you've had mono, the virus can ...

  10. Characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae riboflavin biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, T E; Mulks, M H

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we report the identification, cloning, and complete nucleotide sequence of four genes from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae that are involved in riboflavin biosynthesis. The cloned genes can specify production of large amounts of riboflavin in Escherichia coli, can complement several defined genetic mutations in riboflavin biosynthesis in E. coli, and are homologous to riboflavin biosynthetic genes from E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and Bacillus subtilis. The genes have been designated A. pleuropneumoniae ribGBAH because of their similarity in both sequence and arrangement to the B. subtilis ribGBAH operon. PMID:8522537

  11. Contagious Yawning in Autistic and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Molly S.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Snyder, Peter J.; Fein, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested susceptibility to contagious yawning in 120 children, 1-6 years, to identify the time course of its emergence during development. Results indicated a substantial increase in the frequency of contagious yawning at 4 years. In a second study, the authors examined contagious yawning in 28 children with autism spectrum disorders…

  12. The RNA Chaperone Hfq Promotes Fitness of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during Porcine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Leveque, Rhiannon M.; Kirkwood, Roy N.; Kiupel, Matti

    2013-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, an economically important disease of pigs. The hfq gene in A. pleuropneumoniae, encoding the RNA chaperone and posttranscriptional regulator Hfq, is upregulated during infection of porcine lungs. To investigate the role of this in vivo-induced gene in A. pleuropneumoniae, an hfq mutant strain was constructed. The hfq mutant was defective in biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The level of pgaC transcript, encoding the biosynthesis of poly-β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG), a major biofilm matrix component, was lower and PNAG content was 10-fold lower in the hfq mutant than in the wild-type strain. When outer membrane proteins were examined, cysteine synthase, implicated in resistance to oxidative stress and tellurite, was not found at detectable levels in the absence of Hfq. The hfq mutant displayed enhanced sensitivity to superoxide generated by methyl viologen and tellurite. These phenotypes were readily reversed by complementation with the hfq gene expressed from its native promoter. The role of Hfq in the fitness of A. pleuropneumoniae was assessed in a natural host infection model. The hfq mutant failed to colonize porcine lungs and was outcompeted by the wild-type strain (median competitive index of 2 × 10−5). Our data demonstrate that the in vivo-induced gene hfq is involved in the regulation of PNAG-dependent biofilm formation, resistance to superoxide stress, and the fitness and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in pigs and begin to elucidate the role of an in vivo-induced gene in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia. PMID:23732171

  13. The RNA chaperone Hfq promotes fitness of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during porcine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Leveque, Rhiannon M; Kirkwood, Roy N; Kiupel, Matti; Mulks, Martha H

    2013-08-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, an economically important disease of pigs. The hfq gene in A. pleuropneumoniae, encoding the RNA chaperone and posttranscriptional regulator Hfq, is upregulated during infection of porcine lungs. To investigate the role of this in vivo-induced gene in A. pleuropneumoniae, an hfq mutant strain was constructed. The hfq mutant was defective in biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The level of pgaC transcript, encoding the biosynthesis of poly-β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG), a major biofilm matrix component, was lower and PNAG content was 10-fold lower in the hfq mutant than in the wild-type strain. When outer membrane proteins were examined, cysteine synthase, implicated in resistance to oxidative stress and tellurite, was not found at detectable levels in the absence of Hfq. The hfq mutant displayed enhanced sensitivity to superoxide generated by methyl viologen and tellurite. These phenotypes were readily reversed by complementation with the hfq gene expressed from its native promoter. The role of Hfq in the fitness of A. pleuropneumoniae was assessed in a natural host infection model. The hfq mutant failed to colonize porcine lungs and was outcompeted by the wild-type strain (median competitive index of 2 × 10(-5)). Our data demonstrate that the in vivo-induced gene hfq is involved in the regulation of PNAG-dependent biofilm formation, resistance to superoxide stress, and the fitness and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in pigs and begin to elucidate the role of an in vivo-induced gene in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia.

  14. Contagious ovine digital dermatitis: an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J S; Angell, J W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J; Sullivan, L E; Grove-White, D H

    2014-09-01

    The novel sheep disease, contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) was first described in the UK in 1997. The disease is characterised by severe lameness associated with initial inflammation at the coronary band, followed by progressive separation of the hoof capsule from the underlying tissue. On microbiological examination, treponeme bacteria have been frequently isolated from cases of CODD, including treponemes phylogenetically identical to those associated with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD). Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum have also been isolated from CODD lesions although their role in the pathogenesis remains uncertain. While epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of CODD is increasing in the UK, the routes of transmission and associated risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. Evidenced-based treatment trials indicate that parenteral administration of long-acting amoxicillin is an efficacious treatment for CODD, while anecdotal evidence suggests other antibiotics, given locally and/or parenterally, may also be beneficial. Further microbiological and epidemiological research is urgently required to develop sustainable control strategies, including the development of vaccines and appropriate biosecurity and farm management protocols. In this review current knowledge of the clinical, aetiological, and epidemiological aspects of CODD is assessed as well as approaches to its control.

  15. Developmental and comparative perspectives of contagious yawning.

    PubMed

    Senju, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Contagious yawning (i.e. yawning triggered by perceiving others' yawning) is a well-documented phenomenon, but the mechanism underlying it is still unclear. In this chapter, I review the current evidence about: (1) developmental studies with typically and atypically developing populations, and (2) comparative studies in non-human animals. Developmental studies have revealed that contagious yawning is disturbed in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that contagious yawning may share a developmental basis with the capacity for theory of mind. Comparative studies have suggested that contagious yawning can be observed in non-primate species, such as domestic dogs. As dogs are known to have exceptional skills in communicating with humans, it has also been suggested that contagious yawning may be related to the capacity for social communication. These results from developmental and comparative studies are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy.

  16. Contagious yawning in autistic and typical development.

    PubMed

    Helt, Molly S; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Snyder, Peter J; Fein, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested susceptibility to contagious yawning in 120 children, 1-6 years, to identify the time course of its emergence during development. Results indicated a substantial increase in the frequency of contagious yawning at 4 years. In a second study, the authors examined contagious yawning in 28 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), 6-15 years. Children with ASD showed diminished susceptibility to contagious yawning compared with 2 control groups matched for mental and chronological age, respectively. In addition, children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) a milder variant of autism, were more susceptible to contagious yawning than were children diagnosed with full Autistic Disorder. The authors explore the implications of these findings for theories about the development of mimicry and emotional contagion.

  17. Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of Streptococcus halichoeri from a European badger (Meles meles) with pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Bolea, R; Morales, M; Martín-Burriel, I; González, Ch; Badiola, J J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pathological studies in European badgers (Meles meles) are limited. Badgers play a significant role in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in some countries and an accurate diagnosis is needed for this infection. However, the lesions of bovine TB are similar to those associated with other pathogens, making pathological diagnosis difficult. In the present study, Streptococcus halichoeri was isolated from a European badger with pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia and suspected of having tuberculosis. TB and other pathogens able to induce similar lesions were ruled out. Comparative 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing studies showed an identity of 99.51% and 98.28%, respectively, with S. halichoeri. This report represents the third description of this bacterium and the first in an animal species other than the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). It also shows that S. halichoeri can be associated with a pathological process characterized by granulomatous inflammation and resembling tuberculosis.

  18. Presence of contagious yawning in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Kohei; Uchida, Mona; Matsuki, Naoaki; Yamazaki, Atusi

    2017-01-01

    Contagious yawning is triggered by others yawning, and it has previously been reported in humans, primates and several experimental and companion mammals. Whereas it might be a response to an innate releasing mechanism, contagious yawning is also considered to involve emotional contagion. Here, we demonstrate that sheep, the animal model of livestock animals, also experience contagious yawning. Twelve adult castrated Corriedale sheep were used in this study. Pairs of sheep were adjacently restrained with or without a wooden divider panel to shield them from viewing the other. Their behaviors were video-recorded for 3 days in each condition. Sheep yawned 2.0 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 1.1 times/day/head in the unshielded and shielded conditions, respectively. Unshielded restrained sheep yawned within 1 min after the other one 11.1% of the time, while shielded pairs did not exhibit contagious yawning. Rumination was also highly synchronized under the unshielded condition. These data reveal that contagious yawning and behavioral synchronicity occur in ruminants like sheep, making them a suitable animal model to investigate contagious yawning and the underlying mechanism.

  19. Catecholamines promote Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Bei, Weicheng; Su, Zhipeng; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM). We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn't play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC.

  20. Adults' Explanations and Children's Understanding of Contagious Illnesses, Non-Contagious Illnesses, and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of…

  1. No evidence for contagious yawning in lemurs.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Rachna B; Krupenye, Christopher; MacLean, Evan L; Hare, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Among some haplorhine primates, including humans, relaxed yawns spread contagiously. Such contagious yawning has been linked to social bonds and empathy in some species. However, no studies have investigated contagious yawning in strepsirhines. We conducted an experimental study of contagious yawning in strepsirhines, testing ring-tailed and ruffed lemurs (n = 24) in a paradigm similar to one that has induced contagious yawning in haplorhines. First, in a control experiment, we investigated whether lemurs responded to projected video content in general (experiment 1). We showed them two videos to which we expected differential responses: one featured a terrestrial predator and the other a caretaker holding food. Next, to test for yawn contagion, we showed individual lemurs life-size video projections of groupmates and conspecific strangers yawning, and control footage of the same individuals at rest (experiment 2). Then, to examine whether a group context might enhance or allow for contagion, we exposed subjects to the same videos in a group setting (experiment 3). Lemurs produced alarm vocalizations and moved upward while viewing the predator, but not the caretaker, demonstrating that they do perceive video content meaningfully. However, lemurs did not yawn in response to yawning stimuli when tested alone, or with their groupmates. This study provides preliminary evidence that lemurs do not respond to yawning stimuli similarly to haplorhines, and suggests that this behavior may have evolved or become more exaggerated in haplorhines after the two major primate lineages split.

  2. Transposon mutagenesis in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with a Tn10 derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Tascon, R I; Rodriguez-Ferri, E F; Gutierrez-Martin, C B; Rodriguez-Barbosa, I; Berche, P; Vazquez-Boland, J A

    1993-01-01

    A transposon mutagenesis procedure functional in the gram-negative swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was developed for the first time. The technique involved the use of a suicide conjugative plasmid, pLOF/Km, carrying a mini-Tn10 with an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible transposase located outside the mobile element (M. Herrero, V. de Lorenzo, and K. N. Timmis, J. Bacteriol. 172:6557-6567, 1990). The plasmid was mobilized from Escherichia coli to A. pleuropneumoniae through the RP4-mediated broad-host-range conjugal transfer functions provided by the chromosome of the donor strain. When IPTG was present in the mating medium, A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 transposon mutants were obtained at a frequency of 10(-5), while no mutants were detected in the absence of IPTG. Since the frequency of conjugal transfer of the RP4 plasmid from E. coli to A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 was found to be as low as 10(-4), the above result indicated that the expression level of the transposase was a critical factor for obtaining a workable efficiency of transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertions occurred at random, as determined by Southern blotting of chromosomal DNA of randomly selected mutants and by the ability to generate mutants defective for the selected phenotypes. Almost all the mutants analyzed resulted from a single insertion of the Tn10 element. About 1.2% of the mutants resulted from the cointegration of pLOF/Km into the A. pleuropneumoniae chromosome. The applicability of this transposon mutagenesis system was verified on other A. pleuropneumoniae strains of different serotypes. The usefulness of this transposon mutagenesis system in genetic studies of A. pleuropneumoniae is discussed. Images PMID:8396122

  3. Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?

    PubMed

    Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2009-11-01

    We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008).

  4. Blood gas and hematological changes in experimental peracute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R

    1990-01-01

    The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and microscopic changes were typical of porcine pleuropneumonia in all pigs. Changes in the leukogram included a rapid decline in total white cells, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. Pigs maintained alveolar ventilation throughout the study as arterial CO2 tension was unchanged; however, arterial O2 tension and pH decreased from (mean +/- SD) 95.2 +/- 5.7 torr and 7.463 +/- 0.018 at baseline to 62.1 +/- 12.3 torr and 7.388 +/- 0.045, respectively, within 90 minutes prior to death. The data showed that in this model of peracute porcine pleuropneumonia, progressive ventilatory failure was not a feature of the disease, and the blood gas values and acid base status were maintained within physiological ranges. The histopathological hematological and physiological findings were consistent with the hypothesis that peracute porcine pleuropneumonia resembles septic shock. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2106382

  5. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Ito, Marie; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species.

  6. Social Modulation of Contagious Yawning in Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Ito, Marie; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skilful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species. PMID:25162677

  7. Hitting Is Contagious: Experience and Action Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob; Beilock, Sian L.

    2011-01-01

    In baseball, it is believed that "hitting is contagious," that is, probability of success increases if the previous few batters get a hit. Could this effect be partially explained by action induction--that is, the tendency to perform an action related to one that has just been observed? A simulation was used to investigate the effect of inducing…

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 51 strains of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbride, K A; Rosendal, S

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-one strains of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae were tested for susceptibility to 27 antimicrobial agents using agar disc diffusion, broth-tube dilution and microdilution methods. There was generally good agreement between the interpretation of the disc diffusion inhibition zones and the actual minimal inhibitory concentrations obtained with the dilution methods. The agreement between the results obtained with the broth-tube dilution method and the microdilution method was very good. Three strains were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, methicillin and tetracycline. One of those was also resistant to chloramphenicol. Forty strains were resistant to streptomycin, 23 strains were resistant to novobiocin and seven were resistant to triple sulfa. It is thus necessary to consider resistance development against antimicrobial agents chosen for the treatment of pleuro-pneumonia in pigs caused by Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae. PMID:6713256

  9. Experimental aerosol transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Jobert, J L; Savoye, C; Cariolet, R; Kobisch, M; Madec, F

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possible role of aerosol in the transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an experiment including 18 specific pathogen-free (SPF), 10-week-old piglets, randomly distributed into 2 adjacent units, was carried out. In these facilities, air was forced through absolute filters to prevent any contact with infectious agents. During the first 6 d post inoculation, the 2 units were connected by a rectangular opening and the air circulation was forced by the ventilation system from unit A (inoculated pigs) to unit B (non-inoculated pigs). The A. pleuropneumoniae strain (biovar 1 serovar 9) was isolated in France from an outbreak of porcine pleuropneumonia. Two different infecting doses, 10(7) cfu/animal and 10(8) cfu/animal, were inoculated by intranasal route in 6 pigs of unit A. The infection spread quickly from the inoculated pigs to the non-inoculated pigs. Clinical signs were acute during the 4 d post inoculation: hyperthermia, respiratory distress and, sometimes, death (6 pigs of the unit A and 2 pigs of the unit B). All pigs seroconverted against A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 9 within 2 weeks. Lung lesions were severe: fibrinous pleurisy and lung hemorrhages in the acute stage, pleural adherences and focal pulmonary necrosis in the chronic stage. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was isolated from the tonsils and/or lungs in 16 animals. It could be also isolated from the air of the experimental unit. This study showed that A. pleuropneumoniae was readily transmitted through aerosol over a distance of at least 2.5 m. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10680652

  10. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of contagious ecthyma virus from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Oryan, Ahmad; Mosadeghhesari, Mahboobe; Zibaee, Saeed; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-03-24

    Contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants such as sheep, goats and camels. The identification and characterisation of a parapoxvirus (PPV) infecting camels is described here. The virus was detected in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Kerman and Shiraz in Iran. PPV-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) further confirmed that the disease was associated with PPV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF011 (B2L) gene sequences showed 99.79% and 82.13% similarity of the PPV identified in this study with the Jodhpur isolate and the bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) isolates (CE41), respectively. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the ORF045 gene indicated that the Shiraz sample was in all probability closely related to VR634 and to F00.120R and PCPV776. In conclusion, the results suggest that camel PPV (CPPV) is a likely cause of contagious ecthyma in dromedary camels in Iran.

  11. An investigation of auditory contagious yawning.

    PubMed

    Arnott, Stephen R; Singhal, Anthony; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2009-09-01

    Despite a widespread familiarity with the often compelling urge to yawn after perceiving someone else yawn, an understanding of the neural mechanism underlying contagious yawning remains incomplete. In the present auditory fMRI study, listeners used a 4-point scale to indicate how much they felt like yawning following the presentation of a yawn, breath, or scrambled yawn sound. Not only were yawn sounds given significantly higher ratings, a trait positively correlated with each individual's empathy measure, but relative to control stimuli, random effects analyses revealed enhanced hemodynamic activity in the right posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) in response to hearing yawns. Moreover, pIFG activity was greatest for yawn stimuli associated with high as opposed to low yawn ratings and for control sounds associated with equally high yawn ratings. These results support a relationship between contagious yawning and empathy and provide evidence for pIFG involvement in contagious yawning. A supplemental figure for this study may be downloaded from http://cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  12. Nucleotide sequence of the hemolysin I gene from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, J; Meier, R; Gygi, D; Nicolet, J

    1991-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the gene encoding the structural protein of hemolysin I (HlyI) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain 4074 was analyzed. The nucleotide sequence shows a 3,072-bp reading frame encoding a protein of 1,023 amino acids with a calculated molecular size of 110.1 kDa. This corresponds to the HlyI protein, which has an apparent molecular size on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels of 105 kDa. The structure of the protein derived from the DNA sequence shows three hydrophobic regions in the N-terminal part of the protein, 13 glycine-rich domains in the second half of the protein, and a hydrophilic C-terminal area, all of which are typical of the cytotoxins of the RTX (repeats in the structural toxin) toxin family. The derived amino acid sequence of HlyI shows 42% homology with the hemolysin of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5, 41% homology with the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica, and 56% homology with the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin. The 13 glycine-rich repeats and three hydrophobic areas of the HlyI sequence show more similarity to the E. coli alpha-hemolysin than to either the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 hemolysin or the leukotoxin (while the last two are more similar to each other). Two types of RTX hemolysins therefore seem to be present in A. pleuropneumoniae, one (HlyI) resembling the alpha-hemolysin and a second more closely related to the leukotoxin. Ca(2+)-binding experiments using HlyI and recombinant A. pleuropneumoniae prohemolysin (HlyIA) that was produced in E. coli shows that HlyI binds 45Ca2+, probably because of the 13 glycine-rich repeated domains. Activation of the prohemolysin is not required for Ca2+ binding. Images PMID:1879928

  13. Prevalence, transmission and impact of bovine leukosis in Michigan dairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine leukosis, caused by infection with the retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV), has been characterized as a contagious, but practically benign disease of the immune system. National Animal Health Monitoring Surveys in 1996 and 2007 indicate complacency has resulted in high prevalence of infect...

  14. Computer animations stimulate contagious yawning in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew W; Carter, J Devyn; Proctor, Darby; Eisenberg, Michelle L; de Waal, Frans B M

    2009-12-07

    People empathize with fictional displays of behaviour, including those of cartoons and computer animations, even though the stimuli are obviously artificial. However, the extent to which other animals also may respond empathetically to animations has yet to be determined. Animations provide a potentially useful tool for exploring non-human behaviour, cognition and empathy because computer-generated stimuli offer complete control over variables and the ability to program stimuli that could not be captured on video. Establishing computer animations as a viable tool requires that non-human subjects identify with and respond to animations in a way similar to the way they do to images of actual conspecifics. Contagious yawning has been linked to empathy and poses a good test of involuntary identification and motor mimicry. We presented 24 chimpanzees with three-dimensional computer-animated chimpanzees yawning or displaying control mouth movements. The apes yawned significantly more in response to the yawn animations than to the controls, implying identification with the animations. These results support the phenomenon of contagious yawning in chimpanzees and suggest an empathic response to animations. Understanding how chimpanzees connect with animations, to both empathize and imitate, may help us to understand how humans do the same.

  15. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, M; Larivière, S; Higgins, R; Martineau, G P

    1988-01-01

    Forty-five isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents using a microdilution method for the minimal inhibitory concentration determinations. These results confirmed the high prevalence of A. pleuropneumoniae strains resistant to antibiotics as reported earlier using the disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer method). While 36% of the isolates were resistant to the penicillins, 47% were resistant to chloramphenicol and 68% were resistant to tetracycline. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for the resistant isolates were approximately 32 times higher than those for the susceptible isolates to the above antibacterial agents. The isolates were in general weakly susceptible or resistant to spectinomycin, lincomycin, tiamulin and spiramycin whereas most of them were susceptible to gentamicin, trimethoprim and erythromycin. The susceptibility pattern was similar throughout the 1980 to 1984 period. The 14 serotype 5 isolates were more resistant to tetracycline but less resistant to chloramphenicol and the penicillins than the 28 serotype 1 isolates. PMID:3167716

  16. Educating Children and Youth To Prevent Contagious Disease. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    Twenty-first century contagious diseases require more than basic health lessons to prevent transmission. This Digest examines ways to prevent disease transmission in school settings. Section 1 discusses key concepts in contagion education: all people are potentially contagious; germs that cause diseases are present on many parts of the body; hand…

  17. Social Presence Diminishes Contagious Yawning in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew; Church, Allyson M.; Miller, Heather; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Contagious yawning may be a useful measure of social psychological functioning, and thus it is important to evaluate the variables influencing its expression in laboratory settings. Previous research has documented that humans yawn less frequently in crowded environments and when under direct observation, but the impact of social presence on contagious yawning remains unknown. Here we present the first study to systematically alter the degree of social presence experienced by participants in the laboratory to determine its effect on contagious yawning frequency. Our results demonstrate that both implied and actual social presence significantly diminish yawn contagion in comparison to a control condition, indicating a key social component to contagious yawning. These findings provide a framework for pursuing additional research investigating the social factors influencing contagious yawning, while also offering applications for measuring this response in laboratory settings. PMID:27112374

  18. Oral immunization against porcine pleuropneumonia using the cubic phase of monoolein and purified toxins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Bermudez, Jorge; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Lara Puente, Horacio; Tórtora Perez, Jorge; Suárez Güemez, Francisco; Ciprián Carrasco, Abel; Mendoza Elvira, Susana

    2014-11-28

    The main goal of this work was to obtain an orally administered immunogen that would protect against infections by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The Apx I, II and III toxins were obtained from the supernatants of cultures of serotypes 1 and 3 of A. pleuropneumoniae. The capacity of monoolein gel to trap and protect the Apx toxins, and the effect of their incorporation on the stability of the cubic phase were evaluated. The gel was capable of trapping a 400-μg/ml concentration of the antigen with no effects on its structure. Approximately 60% of the protein molecules were released from the gel within 4h. Four experimental groups were formed, each one with four pigs. All challenges were conducted in a nebulization chamber. Group A: Control (-) not vaccinated and not challenged; Group B: Control (+) not vaccinated but challenged; Group C: vaccinated twice intramuscularly with ToxCom (a commercial toxoid) at an interval of 15 days and then challenged; and Group D: vaccinated orally twice a week for 4 weeks with ToxOral (an oral toxoid) and challenged on day 28 of the experiment with a same dose of 2.0 × 10(4) UFC of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 3. The lesions found in group B covered 27.7-43.1% of the lungs; the pigs in group C had lesions over 12.3-28%; and those in group D over 15.4-32.3%. No lesions were found in the Group A pigs. A. pleuropneumoniae induced macroscopic lesions characteristic of infection by and lesions microscopic detected by histopathology. The etiologic agent was recovered from the infected lungs, tonsils and spleen. The serotypes identified were 1 and 3. An indirect ELISA test identified the antibodies against the Apx toxins in the serum of the animals immunized orally.

  19. Secreted proteases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 degrade porcine gelatin, hemoglobin and immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Serrano, J J; Garcia, C; de la Garza, M

    1994-01-01

    It was found that 48 hour cultures of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae secreted proteases into the medium. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels (10%) copolymerized with porcine gelatin (0.1%), of the 70% (NH4)2SO4 precipitate from the culture supernatants, displayed protease activities of different molecular weights: > 200, 200, 90, 80, 70 and 50 kDa. They had activity over a broad range of pHs (4-8), with an optimal pH of 6-7. All were inhibited by 10 mM EDTA, and reactivated by 10 mM calcium. They were stable at -20 degrees C for more than a month. The proteases also degraded porcine IgA and porcine, human, and bovine hemoglobin, although they appeared to be less active against the hemoglobins. The IgA was totally cleaved in 48 h, using supernatants concentrated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or the 70% (NH4)2SO4. Extracellular proteases could play a role in virulence. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:8004545

  20. Agricultural Terrorism (Agroterror) and Escalation Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Trypanosomosis (tsetse-transmitted) Malignant catarrhal fever Bovine spongiform encephalopathy 167 From The...Heartwater Peste des petits ruminants Leptospirosis Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia Q fever Lumpy skin disease Rabies Rift Valley fever...diseases): Article 1.1.2.4. The following diseases are included in List B, (sheep and goat diseases): Bovine anaplasmosis Ovine epididymitis

  1. Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biovars 1 and 2 in pigs using a PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Rubio, Luis E; Tenorio-Gutiérrez, Víctor; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Reyes-Cortés, Ruth; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Martha; Arias-Castro, Carlos; Godínez-Vargas, Delfino; de la Garza, Mireya

    2008-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes swine pleuropneumonia worldwide. Previously, we described a gene sequence of approximately 800bp in A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 that encodes a metalloprotease of 24kDa, (Genbank accession no. AY217757). We selected primers carrying the forward and reverse 5'-terminal sequences of this region of the gene for the development of a species-specific PCR assay. The primers amplified an 800bp sequence from isolated DNA and lysed bacteria of the 13 A. pleuropneumoniae biovar 1 serotypes, with the exception of subtype 1b. The primers also amplified the sequence in nasal secretion cultures from pigs with chronic and acute experimental pleuropneumonia. No PCR products were detected when A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes of biovar 2 were used. Internal primers from this gene sequence detected biovar 2 and subtype 1b, leading to the production of a 350bp PCR product. The primers did not amplify DNA from other related species from the Pasteurellaceae family. The 800bp PCR assay was sensitive in vitro, with a detection limit of 5.5pg of extracted DNA, and an average of 120CFU. The specificity and sensitivity of this PCR assay make it a useful method for the rapid identification and diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae.

  2. Galleria mellonella is an effective model to study Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Monalessa Fábia; Rossi, Ciro César; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Isaac, Clement; Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Wren, Brendan W; Terra, Vanessa Sofia; Cuccui, Jon; Langford, Paul R; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares

    2015-02-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is responsible for swine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease that causes significant global economic loss. Its virulence depends on many factors, such as capsular polysaccharides, RTX toxins and iron-acquisition systems. Analysis of virulence may require easy-to-use models that approximate mammalian infection and avoid ethical issues. Here, we investigate the potential use of the wax moth Galleria mellonella as an informative model for A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Genotypically distinct A. pleuropneumoniae clinical isolates were able to kill larvae at 37 °C but had different LD50 values, ranging from 10(4) to 10(7) c.f.u. per larva. The most virulent isolate (1022) was able to persist and replicate within the insect, while the least virulent (780) was rapidly cleared. We observed a decrease in haemocyte concentration, aggregation and DNA damage post-infection with isolate 1022. Melanization points around bacterial cells were observed in the fat body and pericardial tissues of infected G. mellonella, indicating vigorous cell and humoral immune responses close to the larval dorsal vessel. As found in pigs, an A. pleuropneumoniae hfq mutant was significantly attenuated for infection in the G. mellonella model. Additionally, the model could be used to assess the effectiveness of several antimicrobial agents against A. pleuropneumoniae in vivo. G. mellonella is a suitable inexpensive alternative infection model that can be used to study the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, as well as assess the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents against this pathogen.

  3. Experimental evidence of contagious yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Swartwood, Lexington; Militello, Janine; Sackett, Serena

    2015-09-01

    Experimental evidence of contagious yawning has only been documented in four mammalian species. Here, we report the results from two separate experimental studies designed to investigate the presence of contagious yawning in a social parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). In Study 1, birds were paired in adjacent cages with and without visual barriers, and the temporal association of yawning was assessed between visual conditions. In Study 2, the same birds were exposed to video stimuli of both conspecific yawns and control behavior, and yawning frequency was compared between conditions. Results from both studies demonstrate that yawning is contagious. To date, this is the first experimental evidence of contagious yawning in a non-mammalian species. We propose that future research could use budgerigars to explore questions related to basic forms of empathic processing.

  4. Smell facilitates auditory contagious yawning in stranger rats.

    PubMed

    Moyaho, Alejandro; Rivas-Zamudio, Xaman; Ugarte, Araceli; Eguibar, José R; Valencia, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Most vertebrates yawn in situations ranging from relaxation to tension, but only humans and other primate species that show mental state attribution skills have been convincingly shown to display yawn contagion. Whether complex forms of empathy are necessary for yawn contagion to occur is still unclear. As empathy is a phylogenetically continuous trait, simple forms of empathy, such as emotional contagion, might be sufficient for non-primate species to show contagious yawning. In this study, we exposed pairs of male rats, which were selected for high yawning, with each other through a perforated wall and found that olfactory cues stimulated yawning, whereas visual cues inhibited it. Unexpectedly, cage-mate rats failed to show yawn contagion, although they did show correlated emotional reactivity. In contrast, stranger rats showed auditory contagious yawning and greater rates of smell-facilitated auditory contagious yawning, although they did not show correlated emotional reactivity. Strikingly, they did not show contagious yawning to rats from a low-yawning strain. These findings indicate that contagious yawning may be a widespread trait amongst vertebrates and that mechanisms other than empathy may be involved. We suggest that a communicatory function of yawning may be the mechanism responsible for yawn contagion in rats, as contagiousness was strain-specific and increased with olfactory cues, which are involved in mutual recognition.

  5. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T.; Langford, Paul R.; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5’-diphosphate 3’-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5’-triphosphate 3’-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499

  6. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is impaired by the garlic volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) in vitro and in-feed garlic alleviates pleuropneumonia in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Becker, Petra M; van Wikselaar, Piet G; Mul, Monique F; Pol, Arjan; Engel, Bas; Wijdenes, Jan W; van der Peet-Schwering, Carola M C; Wisselink, Henk J; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2012-01-27

    Decomposition products of ingested garlic are to a certain extent excreted via the lungs. If the supposed health-supporting capacities associated with garlic extend to these exhaled sulfurous compounds, they could have an effect on the course of pneumonia. In this study, the garlic-derived volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) as a lead compound of volatile garlic metabolites was shown to exhibit an antibacterial effect against the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9. AMS caused a delay in the appearance of the optical density-monitored growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in medium when compared to unaffected growth curves, yet without lowering the stationary phase yield at the concentration range tested. At 1.1mM, AMS impaired the in vitro growth rate of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 by 8% compared to unimpeded growth. In an animal trial, a garlic-fed group of 15 pigs that received a diet with 5% garlic feed component and a control group of 15 pigs that received a diet without garlic were infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 via an aerosol and subsequently followed for 4 days. At the day of the challenge, blood AMS in the garlic-fed group amounted to 0.32 ± 0.13 μM. A beneficial, alleviating effect of garlic on the course and severity of an A. pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs was indicated by the reduced occurrence of characteristic pleuropneumonia lesions (27% of the lungs affected in the garlic-fed group vs. 47% in the control group) and a near to significant (p=0.06) lower relative lung weight post mortem in the garlic-fed group.

  7. The effects of intranasal oxytocin on contagious yawning.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Church, Allyson M

    2015-10-21

    Contagious yawning is thought to represent a basic form of empathy involved in state matching. Despite recent evidence in support of this connection, the neurochemical basis of contagious yawning remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate whether intranasal oxytocin, a hormone and neuropeptide involved in empathic processing, bonding and social affiliation, influences contagious yawning among human participants in a laboratory setting. Using a double blind procedure, 60 male college students received 30 IU of intranasal oxytocin or placebo and were then recorded during exposure to a contagious yawning video stimulus. Contrary to the empathic modeling hypothesis, oxytocin did not increase contagious yawning but rather appeared to modulate its expression in ways indicative of an enhanced awareness of the social stigma associated with this behavior. In particular, individuals in the oxytocin condition were more likely to conceal their yawns and less likely to display overt cues associated with the behavior. Follow-up research could explore how social context and affiliation with the target stimulus alter this response.

  8. Absence of contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Senju, Atsushi; Maeda, Makiko; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2007-12-22

    This study is the first to report the disturbance of contagious yawning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-four children with ASD as well as 25 age-matched typically developing (TD) children observed video clips of either yawning or control mouth movements. Yawning video clips elicited more yawns in TD children than in children with ASD, but the frequency of yawns did not differ between groups when they observed control video clips. Moreover, TD children yawned more during or after the yawn video clips than the control video clips, but the type of video clips did not affect the amount of yawning in children with ASD. Current results suggest that contagious yawning is impaired in ASD, which may relate to their impairment in empathy. It supports the claim that contagious yawning is based on the capacity for empathy.

  9. Contagious cancer: lessons from the devil and the dog.

    PubMed

    Belov, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    Cancer is generally defined as uncontrollable growth of cells caused by genetic aberrations and/or environmental factors. Yet contagious cancers also occur. The recent emergence of a contagious cancer in Tasmanian devils has reignited interest in transmissible cancers. Two naturally occurring transmissible cancers are known: devil facial tumour disease and canine transmissible venereal tumour. Both cancers evolved once and have then been transmitted from one individual to another as clonal cell lines. The dog cancer is ancient; having evolved more than 6,000 years ago, while the devil disease was first seen in 1996. In this review I will compare and contrast the two diseases focusing on the life histories of the clonal cell lines, their evolutionary trajectories and the mechanisms by which they have achieved immune tolerance. A greater understanding of these contagious cancers will provide unique insights into the role of the immune system in shaping tumour evolution and may uncover novel approaches for treating human cancer.

  10. The antibacterial mechanism of berberine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shuai; Li, Zhengwen; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Chen, Zhenzhen; Peng, Lianci; Qu, Jing; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lai, Xin; Wang, Guangxi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated berberine to be a potential natural compound against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Liquid doubling dilution, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SDS-PAGE and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining were employed to elucidate the antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine. The minimal inhibitory concentration of berberine was 0.3125 mg/mL, and time-kill curves showed concentration and time dependence. The TEM micrographs displayed damaged cell wall, concentrated cytoplasm, cytoplasmic content leakage and cell death. SDS-PAGE and DAPI assays revealed that berberine can restrain DNA and protein syntheses. Berberine inhibited the synthesis of proteins associated with the growth and cleavage of bacteria and then blocked the division and development of bacteria. The compound ultimately induced cytoplasm pyknosis and bacterial death.

  11. Growth of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is promoted by exogenous hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M J; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1996-03-01

    Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and lysine-based bis-catechol (20 of 22 or 90%), while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to be neither a phenolate nor a hydroxamate by the chemical tests of Arnow and Csaky, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the production of an iron chelator and the use of exogenous siderophores by A. pleuropneumoniae. A spermidine-based bis-catechol siderophore conjugated to a carbacephalosporin was shown to inhibit growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. A siderophore-antibiotic-resistant strain was isolated and shown to have lost the ability to use ferrichrome, synthetic hydroxamate, or catechol-based siderophores when grown under conditions of iron restriction. This observation indicated that a common iron uptake pathway, or a common intermediate, for hydroxamate- and catechol-based siderophores may exist in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  12. Differential gene expression profiling of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during induction of primary alveolar macrophage apoptosis in piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Ruidong, Zhai; Liu, Shiting; Zhang, Hu; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Gu, Jingmin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a disease that causes serious problems for the swine industry. Successful infection by this bacterium requires breaking the first line of defence in the lungs, the primary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Therefore, exploring A. pleuropneumoniae-PAM interactions will provide vital groundwork for the scientific control of this infectious disease, which has been little studied up to now. In this work, PAMs were isolated from piglets and co-incubated with A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 5b strain L20 in vitro, and their interaction, PAM cell death, and differential gene expression of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to PAM cell death were observed and analysed using confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, RT-PCR, Western blot, flow cytometry and the use of a gene expression profile chip. A. pleuropneumoniae quickly adhered to and invaded PAMs, inducing apoptosis, which was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest percentage of apoptosis in cells was confirmed using flow cytometry when the cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 and incubated for 5 h, with higher expression of activated caspase-3 as measured by Western blot. Using microarray gene chips with 2868 probes containing nearly all of the genomic sequence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b strain L20, a total of 185 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed (including 92 up-regulated and 93 down-regulated genes) and involved in the process of apoptosis, as compared with the expression of control bacteria cultured without PAMs in BHI medium (mean expression ratios >1.5-fold, p < 0.05). The up-regulated genes are involved in energy metabolism, gene transcription and translation, virulence related gene such as LPS, Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin, RTX and similar genes. The down-regulated genes are

  13. What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.

    This publication presents 10 documents collected to accompany a seminar entitled "What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School," presented at the 31st annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education in 1985. The materials include (1) an agenda of the seminar listing the speakers, their topics, and…

  14. Should Persons with Contagious Diseases Be Barred from School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews recent court decisions regarding whether individuals with contagious diseases may be barred from public schools. Devotes specific attention to the issue of whether certain communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be classified as handicaps and thereby qualify a person for protection…

  15. Supreme Court Holds That Contagious Diseases Are Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a complex case involving termination of a third-grade teacher with recurrent tuberculosis. The United States Supreme Court upheld a circuit court's ruling that the teacher's condition satisfied section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act protecting handicapped persons against discrimination. Since contagiousness was not addressed, the…

  16. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  17. Experimental infection of SPF pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 alone or in association with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Marois, Corinne; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Morvan, Hervé; Fablet, Christelle; Madec, François; Kobisch, Marylène

    2009-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare in SPF pigs, the pathogenicity of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 strain 21 (isolated from the palatine tonsils of a healthy gilt on a French nucleus pig farm, with no clinical signs or lung lesions but a highly positive reaction to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 antibodies) with a pathogenic A. pleuropneumoniae strain 4915 serotype 9 (isolated in France from an outbreak of porcine pleuropneumonia). The pathogenicity of one Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain alone or associated with A. pleuropneumoniae strain 21 was also compared. Eight groups of 7 pigs were infected (at 6 or 10 weeks of age) and a control group was kept non-infected. Results showed that sensitivity to A. pleuropneumoniae was related to the age of the pig (6 weeks vs 10 weeks) whatever the strain. Surviving pigs infected at 6 weeks of age developed severe clinical signs, lung lesions typical of A. pleuropneumoniae and they seroconverted. In contrast, symptoms and lung lesions were almost non-existent in pigs infected with strain 21 at 10 weeks of age, but a seroconversion was observed with very high ELISA titres. These results were in accordance with those observed in the nucleus pig farm. Infection with M. hyopneumoniae alone induced typical mycoplasmal symptoms, pneumonia and seroconversion. Symptoms and lung lesions were the most noticeable in pigs infected with M. hyopneumoniae at 6 weeks of age and with A. pleuropneumoniae 4 weeks later. Our results show that the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 in a pig herd may be clinically unnoticed and that M. hyopneumoniae may potentiate A. pleuropneumoniae infection.

  18. Macrophages largely contribute to heterologous anti-Propionibacterium acnes antibody-mediated protection from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiuyue; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Xia, Xiaojing; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Gu, Jingmin; Han, Wenyu; Lei, Liancheng

    2015-03-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of acute and chronic pleuropneumonia. Propionibacterium acnes is a facultative anaerobic gram-positive corynebacterium. We have previously found that anti-P. acnes antibodies can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice. To investigate the role of macrophages in this process, affinity-purified anti-P. acnes IgG and anti-A. pleuropneumoniae IgG were used in opsonophagocytosis assays. Additionally, the efficacy of passive immunization with P. acnes serum against A. pleuropneumoniae was tested in macrophage-depleted mice. It was found that anti-P. acnes IgG had an effect similar to that of anti-A. pleuropneumoniae IgG (P > 0.05), which significantly promotes phagocytosis of A. pleuropneumoniae by macrophages (P < 0.01). It was also demonstrated that, after passive immunization with anti-P. acnes serum, macrophage-replete mice had the highest survival rate (90%), whereas the survival rate of macrophage-depleted mice was only 40% (P < 0.05). However, macrophage-depleted mice that had been passively immunized with naïve serum had the lowest survival rate (20%), this rate being lower than that of macrophage-replete mice that had been passively immunized with naïve serum. Overall, anti-P. acnes antibodies did not prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection under conditions of macrophage depletion (P > 0.05). Furthermore, in mice that had been passively immunized with anti-P. acnes serum, macrophage depletion resulted in a greater A. pleuropneumoniae burden and more severe pathological features of pneumonia in lung tissues than occurred in macrophage-replete mice. It was concluded that macrophages are essential for the process by which anti-P. acnes antibody prevents A. pleuropneumoniae infection in mice.

  19. Brief Report: Does Eye Contact Induce Contagious Yawning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Akechi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly fail to show contagious yawning, but the mechanism underlying the lack of contagious yawning is still unclear. The current study examined whether instructed fixation on the eyes modulates contagious yawning in ASD. Thirty-one children with ASD, as well as 31 age-matched typically…

  20. Effects of ketoprofen and flunixin in pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Swinkels, J M; Pijpers, A; Vernooy, J C; Van Nes, A; Verheijden, J H

    1994-08-01

    The antipyretic effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ketoprofen (3 mg/kg) and flunixin (2 mg/kg) were studied in pigs. The drugs were administered intramuscularly at 8 and 32 h following endobronchial challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Infected (non-medicated) and non-infected (non-medicated) controls were used. Endobronchial challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae induced laboured breathing, coughing, fever, reduced food and water consumption and increased white blood cell counts. At autopsy, pleuropneumonia was evident. Ketoprofen showed a highly significant antipyretic effect but flunixin did not. The decrease in food consumption of ketoprofen-treated pigs was significantly less than that of the infected (non-medicated) controls. Blood parameters were not significantly influenced by either NSAID and, at necropsy, gastric and renal side-effects were not observed for either drug.

  1. Serological characterisation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains isolated from pigs in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, C B; Rodríguez Barbosa, J I; Tascón, R I; Costa, L; Riera, P; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1995-07-15

    Seventy-one isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from the lungs of pigs in outbreaks of pleuropneumonia in Spain were serotyped by indirect haemagglutination. Serotype 4 (42.2 per cent), serotype 7 (22.5 per cent) and serotype 2 (12.8 per cent) were predominant, whereas serotypes 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 and untypable isolates were present only in small numbers. Serotypes 1, 2, 4 and 7 originated mainly from cases of acute pleuropneumonia, whereas serotypes 3, 6, 8, 9 and 12 were associated with chronically infected herds. The susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined by agar disc diffusion. Most were susceptible to cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefazolin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, oxolinic acid, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, thiamphenicol, colistin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Marked resistance was found with amoxicillin, ticarcillin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline and metronidazole. Rifampicin, fosfomycin and tiamulin were the agents most effective against the isolates tested.

  2. Genetic Diversity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Assessed by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis▿

    PubMed Central

    Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, Øystein

    2007-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was evaluated as a method for genotypic characterization and subtyping within the bacterial species Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. A total of 155 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae, representing the serotypic variation described to occur within this species, were analyzed. In order to elucidate the species boundaries, six strains of the phylogenetically closely related species Actinobacillus lignieresii were also included. Furthermore, the ability of AFLP to subtype was studied using 42 isolates of serovar 2 and the performance compared to that obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). AFLP analysis provided a clear separation of A. lignieresii and A. pleuropneumoniae and divided the isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae into 20 clusters. Most of the serovars of A. pleuropneumoniae were represented by single and quite homogeneous clusters. The exceptions were serovars 10, K2:O7, and K1:O7, which were represented by two clusters each. In the cases where the serovars were represented by more than one cluster, the existence of these clusters was supported by additional phenotypic or genotypic properties. Furthermore, AFLP typing was able to allocate serologically nontypeable isolates to appropriate genetic groups within the species. Further investigations are needed to determine whether some of the clusters revealed through AFLP analysis represent additional serovars. When evaluated as a method for subtyping within serovar 2 of A. pleuropneumoniae, AFLP was found to achieve a degree of separation among isolates superior to that obtained by PFGE. However, a higher degree of separation between serovar 2 isolates was obtained by a combination of the two methods. PMID:17959758

  3. Type IV fimbrial subunit protein ApfA contributes to protection against porcine pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Porcine pleuropneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae accounts for serious economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide. We examined here the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant type IV fimbrial subunit protein ApfA as a single antigen vaccine against pleuropneumonia, or as a component of a multi-antigen preparation comprising five other recombinant antigens derived from key virulence factors of A. pleuropneumoniae (ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA, ApxIVA and TbpB). Immunization of pigs with recombinant ApfA alone induced high levels of specific serum antibodies and provided partial protection against challenge with the heterologous A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 strain. This protection was higher than that engendered by vaccination with rApxIVA or rTbpB alone and similar to that observed after immunization with the tri-antigen combination of rApxIA, rApxIIA and rApxIIIA. In addition, rApfA improved the vaccination potential of the penta-antigen mixture of rApxIA, rApxIIA, rApxIIIA, rApxIVA and rTbpB proteins, where the hexa-antigen vaccine containing rApfA conferred a high level of protection on pigs against the disease. Moreover, when rApfA was used for vaccination alone or in combination with other antigens, such immunization reduced the number of pigs colonized with the challenge strain. These results indicate that ApfA could be a valuable component of an efficient subunit vaccine for the prevention of porcine pleuropneumonia. PMID:22240397

  4. β-D-Glucoside utilization by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC: possible involvement in the control of cytotoxicity towards bovine lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Vilei, Edy M; Correia, Ivone; Ferronha, M Helena; Bischof, Daniela F; Frey, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Background Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type (SC) is among the most serious threats for livestock producers in Africa. Glycerol metabolism-associated H2O2 production seems to play a crucial role in virulence of this mycoplasma. A wide number of attenuated strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC are currently used in Africa as live vaccines. Glycerol metabolism is not affected in these vaccine strains and therefore it does not seem to be the determinant of their attenuation. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the bgl gene coding for the 6-phospho-β-glucosidase (Bgl) has been described recently. The SNP differentiates virulent African strains isolated from outbreaks with severe CBPP, which express the Bgl isoform Val204, from strains to be considered less virulent isolated from CBPP outbreaks with low mortality and vaccine strains, which express the Bgl isoform Ala204. Results Strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC considered virulent and possessing the Bgl isoform Val204, but not strains with the Bgl isoform Ala204, do trigger elevated levels of damage to embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells upon incubation with the disaccharides (i.e., β-D-glucosides) sucrose and lactose. However, strains expressing the Bgl isoform Val204 show a lower hydrolysing activity on the chromogenic substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPbG) when compared to strains that possess the Bgl isoform Ala204. Defective activity of Bgl in M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC does not lead to H2O2 production. Rather, the viability during addition of β-D-glucosides in medium-free buffers is higher for strains harbouring the Bgl isoform Val204 than for those with the isoform Ala204. Conclusion Our results indicate that the studied SNP in the bgl gene is one possible cause of the difference in bacterial virulence among strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. Bgl does not act as a direct virulence

  5. In vitro activity and rodent efficacy of clinafloxacin for bovine and swine respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Michael T.; Quesnell, Rebecca; Tiwari, Raksha; LeMay, Mary; Watts, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Clinafloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone that was originally developed and subsequently abandoned in the late 1990s as a human health antibiotic for respiratory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of clinafloxacin as a possible treatment for respiratory disease in cattle and pigs. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended procedures with recent strains from the Zoetis culture collection. Rodent efficacy was determined in CD-1 mice infected systemically or intranasally with bovine Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, or swine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and administered clinafloxacin for determination of ED50 (efficacious dose-50%) values. The MIC90 values for clinafloxacin against bovine P. multocida, M. haemolytica, Histophilus somni, and M. bovis were 0.125, 0.5, 0.125, and 1 μg/ml, respectively, and the MIC90 values against swine P. multocida, A. pleuropneumoniae, S. suis, and M. hyopneumoniae were í0.03, í0.03, 0.125, and í0.008 μg/ml, respectively. Efficacy in mouse models showed average ED50 values of 0.019 mg/kg/dose in the bovine M. haemolytica systemic infection model, 0.55 mg/kg in the bovine P. multocida intranasal lung challenge model, 0.08 mg/kg/dose in the bovine P. multocida systemic infection model, and 0.7 mg/kg/dose in the swine A. pleuropneumoniae systemic infection model. Clinafloxacin shows good in vitro activity and efficacy in mouse models and may be a novel treatment alternative for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and pigs. PMID:23785362

  6. In vitro activity and rodent efficacy of clinafloxacin for bovine and swine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Michael T; Quesnell, Rebecca; Tiwari, Raksha; Lemay, Mary; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-01

    Clinafloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone that was originally developed and subsequently abandoned in the late 1990s as a human health antibiotic for respiratory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of clinafloxacin as a possible treatment for respiratory disease in cattle and pigs. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended procedures with recent strains from the Zoetis culture collection. Rodent efficacy was determined in CD-1 mice infected systemically or intranasally with bovine Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, or swine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and administered clinafloxacin for determination of ED50 (efficacious dose-50%) values. The MIC90 values for clinafloxacin against bovine P. multocida, M. haemolytica, Histophilus somni, and M. bovis were 0.125, 0.5, 0.125, and 1 μg/ml, respectively, and the MIC90 values against swine P. multocida, A. pleuropneumoniae, S. suis, and M. hyopneumoniae were í0.03, í0.03, 0.125, and í0.008 μg/ml, respectively. Efficacy in mouse models showed average ED50 values of 0.019 mg/kg/dose in the bovine M. haemolytica systemic infection model, 0.55 mg/kg in the bovine P. multocida intranasal lung challenge model, 0.08 mg/kg/dose in the bovine P. multocida systemic infection model, and 0.7 mg/kg/dose in the swine A. pleuropneumoniae systemic infection model. Clinafloxacin shows good in vitro activity and efficacy in mouse models and may be a novel treatment alternative for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and pigs.

  7. Presence of Contagious Yawning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Akechi, Hironori; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Most previous studies suggest diminished susceptibility to contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it could be driven by their atypical attention to the face. To test this hypothesis, children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children were shown yawning and control movies. To ensure participants' attention to the face, an eye tracker controlled the onset of the yawning and control stimuli. Results demonstrated that both TD children and children with ASD yawned more frequently when they watched the yawning stimuli than the control stimuli. It is suggested therefore that the absence of contagious yawning in children with ASD, as reported in previous studies, might relate to their weaker tendency to spontaneously attend to others' faces. PMID:23970970

  8. Methodological problems in the study of contagious yawning.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew W; de Waal, Frans B M

    2010-01-01

    The recent interest in contagious yawning has raised several challenges as the varied methods of testing have left some unresolved issues. We do not know how differences in key variables affect the observed rates of yawning, and we highlight these as being in need of direct testing. Different researchers analyze their results differently, and we make some recommendations for more rigorous, thorough and informative analyses. Ultimately, problems arise when authors compare studies that used different methods and different analyses without acknowledging how these differences may have affected the results. In these cases, authors make inappropriate comparisons, which lead to conclusions that add confusion to the literature. Our goal in raising awareness of these issues is to generate new experiments and improve the discussion of existing research. With its link to empathy, a more standardized study of contagious yawning may be a useful tool for a variety of disciplines.

  9. Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Atherton, Tom G; Walker, Stephanie; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2015-08-05

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 7.7kb mobilisable plasmid (pM3446F), isolated from a florfenicol resistant isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, showed extended similarity to plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae containing the floR gene as well as replication and mobilisation genes. Mobilisation into other Pasteurellaceae species confirmed that this plasmid can be transferred horizontally.

  10. Apa is a trimeric autotransporter adhesin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae responsible for autoagglutination and host cell adherence.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Longwen; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Du, ChongTao; Gao, Yu; Ji, Qun; Yang, Shuxin; Wang, Yu; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng

    2012-10-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, and adherence to host cells is a key step in the pathogenic process. Although trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) were identified in many pathogenic bacteria in recent years, none in A. pleuropneumoniae have been characterized. In this study, we identified a TAA from A. pleuropneumoniae, Apa, and characterized the contribution of its amino acid residues to the adhesion process. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal amino acid residues of Apa revealed the presence of a putative translocator domain and six conserved HsfBD1-like or HsfBD2-like binding domains. Western blot analysis revealed that the 126 C-terminal amino acids of Apa could form trimeric molecules. By confocal laser scanning microscopy, one of these six domains (ApaBD3) was determined to mediate adherence to epithelial cells. Adherence assays and adherence inhibition assays using a recombinant E. coli- ApaBD3 strain which expressed ApaBD3 on the surface of E. coli confirmed that this domain was responsible for the adhesion activity. Moreover, cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that ApaBD3 mediated high-level adherence to epithelial cell lines. Intriguingly, autoagglutination was observed with the E. coli- ApaBD3 strain, and this phenomenon was dependent upon the association of the expressed ApaBD3 with the C-terminal translocator domain.

  11. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 10 derived ApxI induces apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chien, Maw-Sheng; Chan, You-Yu; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Wu, Chi-Ming; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Yeh, Kuang-Sheng; Hsuan, Shih-Ling

    2009-03-30

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (AP) is the causative agent of swine pleuropneumonia, a fibrinous, exudative, hemorrhagic, necrotizing pleuropneumonia affecting all ages of pigs. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxins (Apx) are one of the major virulence factors of AP. Due to the complex nature of Apx toxins produced by AP, little is known regarding the interactions of individual species of Apx toxin with target cells. The objective of this study was to examine whether AP serotype 10-derived exotoxin, ApxI, caused apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and to delineate the underlying signaling pathways. Isolated PAMs were stimulated with different concentrations of native ApxI and monitored for apoptosis using Hoechst staining, TUNEL, and DNA laddering assays. The ApxI-stimulated PAMs exhibited typical morphological features of apoptosis, including condensation of chromatin, formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA laddering. ApxI-induced apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, to delineate the signaling events involved in ApxI-induced apoptosis, it was observed that caspase 3 was activated in ApxI-stimulated PAMs. Ablation of caspase 3 activity via specific inhibitors protected PAMs from apoptosis by ApxI. This study is the first to demonstrate that native ApxI causes apoptosis in PAMs at low concentrations and that these apoptotic events are mediated via a caspase 3-dependent pathway. These findings suggest a role of ApxI in AP infection as it might impair the host defense system through the induction of apoptosis in PAMs.

  12. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in Spain during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; del Blanco, Noemí García; Blanco, Mónica; Navas, Jesús; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F

    2006-06-15

    A total of 229 Spanish Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates recovered from diseased pigs with pleuropneumonia from 1997 to 2004 was tested for their susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials in a broth microdilution method. All the isolates were susceptible to florfenicol and most of them to cephalothin; however, a high rate of resistance was observed to tetracycline. A bimodal or multimodal distribution of isolates over the MIC range were observed for penicillins, tetracycline, trimethoprim, sulfisoxazole and nalidixic acid, suggesting the development of acquired resistance. Eight resistance patterns were established, and 21.1% of the isolates were resistant to at least two antimicrobials. In addition, a considerable increase in the resistance to tetracyclines was observed during the last decade in Spain, when compared with other A. pleuropneumoniae strains isolated during 1987-1988 (Gutiérrez, C.B., Píriz, S., Vadillo, S., Rodríguez Ferri, E.F., 1993. In vitro susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains to 42 antimicrobial agents. Am. J. Vet. Res. 54, 546-550); this finding was also observed for gentamicin in minor percentage.

  13. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in closed swine herds: infection patterns and serological profiles.

    PubMed

    Chiers, Koen; Donné, Eef; Van Overbeke, Ingrid; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2002-04-02

    Many farrow-to-finish herds are endemically infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In order to control the disease efficiently, a better knowledge of the ages at which pigs become infected is necessary. Furthermore, no information is available concerning the influence of maternally derived antibodies on the colonization of the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, A. pleuropneumoniae infection patterns were studied in five farrow-to-finish pig herds (A-E) with a history of pleuropneumonia. A longitudinal study was carried out in herds A and B. In these herds, piglets from sows carrying A. pleuropneumoniae in their noses or tonsils were sampled. Nasal and tonsillar swabs as well as sera, were collected from these animals at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16 (herds A and B) and 23 weeks (herd B). At these ages other pigs from the same sows were euthanized. The lungs were macroscopically examined and samples from nose, tonsils and lungs were collected at necropsy. A cross-sectional study was performed in herds C-E. In these herds nasal and tonsillar swabs, as well as sera, were taken from 10 animals of 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Lung, nasal and tonsillar samples were tested for the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae by routine bacteriology and PCR with mixed bacterial cultures. The sera were examined for the presence of Apx toxin neutralizing antibodies. In herd A, A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 and 10 strains were isolated, whereas serotype 2, 3, 5b and 8 strains were demonstrated in herd B. In most herds, A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in mixed bacterial cultures of tonsillar and/or nasal samples by PCR from the age of 4 weeks onwards. Colonization of the lungs and development of lung lesions was observed in 12- and 16-week-old animals of herd A and 23-week-old animals of herd B. In most herds, high antibody titres were detected in 4-week-old piglets. These titres decreased during the first 12 weeks of age, but thereafter, increased. It was concluded that PCR with

  14. A computational strategy for the search of regulatory small RNAs in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ciro C.; Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Witney, Adam A.; Gould, Kate A.; Langford, Paul R.; Bazzolli, Denise M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and are frequently connected to the expression of virulence factors in diverse bacteria. Only a few sRNAs have been described for Pasteurellaceae pathogens and no in-depth analysis of sRNAs has been described for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, responsible for considerable losses in the swine industry. To search for sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae, we developed a strategy for the computational analysis of the bacterial genome by using four algorithms with different approaches, followed by experimental validation. The coding strand and expression of 17 out of 23 RNA candidates were confirmed by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing. Among them, two are likely riboswitches, three are housekeeping regulatory RNAs, two are the widely studied GcvB and 6S sRNAs, and 10 are putative novel trans-acting sRNAs, never before described for any bacteria. The latter group has several potential mRNA targets, many of which are involved with virulence, stress resistance, or metabolism, and connect the sRNAs in a complex gene regulatory network. The sRNAs identified are well conserved among the Pasteurellaceae that are evolutionarily closer to A. pleuropneumoniae and/or share the same host. Our results show that the combination of newly developed computational programs can be successfully utilized for the discovery of novel sRNAs and indicate an intricate system of gene regulation through sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae and in other Pasteurellaceae, thus providing clues for novel aspects of virulence that will be explored in further studies. PMID:27402897

  15. A Unique Capsule Locus in the Newly Designated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serovar 16 and Development of a Diagnostic PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanwen; Sárközi, Rita; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Angen, Øystein; Nedbalcova, Katerina; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Fodor, László

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia, an economically significant lung disease of pigs. Recently, isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae that were serologically distinct from the previously characterized 15 serovars were described, and a proposal was put forward that they comprised a new serovar, serovar 16. Here we used whole-genome sequencing of the proposed serovar 16 reference strain A-85/14 to confirm the presence of a unique capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic locus. For molecular diagnostics, primers were designed from the capsule locus of strain A-85/14, and a PCR was formulated that differentiated serovar 16 isolates from all 15 known serovars and other common respiratory pathogenic/commensal bacteria of pigs. Analysis of the capsule locus of strain A-85/14 combined with the previous serological data show the existence of a sixteenth serovar—designated serovar 16—of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:28053219

  16. Development of a cps-based multiplex PCR for typing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2 and 5.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroya

    2010-05-01

    A cps-based multiplex PCR for typing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2 and 5 was developed. This method should be specific and practical in Japan where more than 88% of isolates are serotypes 1, 2 or 5.

  17. A Unique Capsule Locus in the Newly Designated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serovar 16 and Development of a Diagnostic PCR Assay.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Sárközi, Rita; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Angen, Øystein; Nedbalcova, Katerina; Rycroft, Andrew N; Fodor, László; Langford, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia, an economically significant lung disease of pigs. Recently, isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae that were serologically distinct from the previously characterized 15 serovars were described, and a proposal was put forward that they comprised a new serovar, serovar 16. Here we used whole-genome sequencing of the proposed serovar 16 reference strain A-85/14 to confirm the presence of a unique capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic locus. For molecular diagnostics, primers were designed from the capsule locus of strain A-85/14, and a PCR was formulated that differentiated serovar 16 isolates from all 15 known serovars and other common respiratory pathogenic/commensal bacteria of pigs. Analysis of the capsule locus of strain A-85/14 combined with the previous serological data show the existence of a sixteenth serovar-designated serovar 16-of A. pleuropneumoniae.

  18. ICEApl1, an Integrative Conjugative Element Related to ICEHin1056, Identified in the Pig Pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Rogers, Jon; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline-resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L) serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus), conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia. PMID:27379024

  19. Adhesion Protein ApfA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Is Required for Pathogenesis and Is a Potential Target for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Huanchun

    2013-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which causes serious economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide. Due to a lack of knowledge of its virulence factors and a lack of effective vaccines able to confer cross-serotype protection, it is difficult to place this disease under control. By analyzing its genome sequences, we found that type IV fimbrial subunit protein ApfA is highly conserved among different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. Our study shows that ApfA is an adhesin since its expression was greatly upregulated (135-fold) upon contact with host cells, while its deletion mutant attenuated its capability of adhesion. The inactivation of apfA dramatically reduced the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to colonize mouse lung, suggesting that apfA is a virulence factor. Purified recombinant ApfA elicited an elevated humoral immune response and conferred robust protection against challenges with A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 strain 4074 and serovar 7 strain WF83 in mice. Importantly, the anti-ApfA serum conferred significant protection against both serovar 1 and serovar 7 in mice. These studies indicate that ApfA promotes virulence through attachment to host cells, and its immunogenicity renders it a promising novel subunit vaccine candidate against infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:23269417

  20. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR to identify and serotype Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1, 5, 7, 12 and 15.

    PubMed

    Turni, C; Singh, R; Schembri, M A; Blackall, P J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a multiplex PCR for the species identification and serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1, 5, 7, 12 and 15. All 15 reference strains and 411 field isolates (394 from Australia, 11 from Indonesia, five from Mexico and one from New Zealand) of A. pleuropneumoniae were tested with the multiplex PCR. The specificity of this multiplex PCR was validated on 26 non-A. pleuropneumoniae species. The multiplex PCR gave the expected results with all 15 serovar reference strains and agreed with conventional serotyping for all field isolates from serovars 1 (n = 46), 5 (n = 81), 7 (n = 80), 12 (n = 16) and serovar 15 (n = 117). In addition, a species-specific product was amplified in the multiplex PCR with all 411 A. pleuropneumoniae field isolates. Of 25 nontypeable field isolates only two did not yield a serovar-specific band in the multiplex PCR. This multiplex PCR for serovars 1, 5, 7, 12 and 15 is species specific and capable of serotyping isolates from diverse locations. Significance and impact of the study: A multiplex PCR that can recognize serovars 1, 5, 7, 12 and 15 of A. pleuropneumoniae was developed and validated. This novel diagnostic tool will enable frontline laboratories to provide key information (the serovar) to guide targeted prevention and control programmes for porcine pleuropneumonia, a serious economic disease of pigs. The previous technology, traditional serotyping, is typically provided by specialized reference laboratories, limiting the capacity to respond to this key disease.

  1. Identification and characterization of a DNA region involved in the export of capsular polysaccharide by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, C K; Inzana, T J

    1997-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae synthesizes a serotype-specific capsular polysaccharide that acts as a protective barrier to phagocytosis and complement-mediated killing. To begin understanding the role of A. pleuropneumoniae capsule in virulence, we sought to identify the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide export and biosynthesis. A 5.3-kb XbaI fragment of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a J45 genomic DNA that hybridized with DNA probes specific for the Haemophilus influenzae type b cap export region was cloned and sequenced. This A. pleuropneumoniae DNA fragment encoded four open reading frames, designated cpxDCBA. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of cpxDCBA contained a high degree of homology to the capsule export genes of H. influenzae type b bexDCBA, Neisseria meningitidis group B ctrABCD, and, to a lesser extent, Escherichia coli K1 and K5 kpsE and kpsMT. When present in trans, the cpxDCBA gene cluster complemented kpsM::TnphoA or kpsT::TnphoA mutations, determined by enzyme immunoassay and by restored sensitivity to a K5-specific bacteriophage. A cpxCB probe hybridized to genomic DNA from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes tested, indicating that this DNA was conserved among serotypes. These data suggest that A. pleuropneumoniae produces a group II family capsule similar to those of related mucosal pathogens. PMID:9169799

  2. ICEApl1, an Integrative Conjugative Element Related to ICEHin1056, Identified in the Pig Pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Rogers, Jon; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline-resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L) serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus), conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia.

  3. A severe case of contagious ecthyma in Tswana goats.

    PubMed

    Baipoledi, E K; Nyange, J F C; Hyera, J M K

    2002-06-01

    The first severe case of caprine contagious ecthyma (parapox) in Tswana goats is described from Botswana. Affected animals were indigenous adult Tswana goats. The case involved a flock of 12 goats of which 4 (33.3%) were very severely affected but none died. The lesions were confined to the head and included swollen lips, swollen submandibular lymph nodes, gingivitis, glossitis, ulceration on lip and gum mucosae and scab formation on ulcerated areas. No lesions were found on other parts of the body. This case was clinically indistinguishable from bluetongue.

  4. Genomic insights into a contagious cancer in Tasmanian devils.

    PubMed

    Grueber, Catherine E; Peel, Emma; Gooley, Rebecca; Belov, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    The Tasmanian devil faces extinction due to a contagious cancer. Genetic and genomic technologies revealed that the disease arose in a Schwann cell of a female devil. Instead of dying with the original host, the tumour was passed from animal to animal, slipping under the radar of the immune system. Studying the genomes of the devil and the cancer has driven our understanding of this unique disease. From characterising immune genes and immune responses to studying tumour evolution, we have begun to uncover how a cancer can be 'caught' and are using genomic data to manage an insurance population of disease-free devils for the long-term survival of the species.

  5. Yawn, yawn, yawn, yawn; yawn, yawn, yawn! The social, evolutionary and neuroscientific facets of contagious yawning.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Contagious yawning is a common phenomenon affecting upwards of 60% of healthy humans. It has also been observed, at a lesser rate, in great apes and other primates. Here I summarize the suggestion that contagious yawning is a primitive expression of social cognition, namely empathy. Susceptibility to contagious yawning is correlated with the speed in recognizing one's own face, theory of mind processing, and is also associated with activation in regions of the brain that have been associated with social cognitive processes. This suggests that contagious yawning may be an evolutionarily old process that begot a higher level of social cognition in certain species.

  6. Discrete dynamics of contagious social diseases: Example of obesity.

    PubMed

    Demongeot, J; Hansen, O; Taramasco, C

    2016-01-01

    Modeling contagious diseases needs to incorporate information about social networks through which the disease spreads as well as data about demographic and genetic changes in the susceptible population. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework (conceptualization and formalization) which seeks to model obesity as a process of transformation of one's own body determined by individual (physical and psychological), inter-individual (relational, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and others) and socio-cultural (environmental, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and his milieu) factors. Individual and inter-individual factors are tied to each other in a socio-cultural context whose impact is notably related to the visibility of anybody being exposed on the public stage in a non-contingent way. The question we are dealing with in this article is whether such kind of social diseases, i.e., depending upon socio-environmental exposure, can be considered as "contagious". In other words, can obesity be propagated from individual to individual or from environmental sources throughout an entire population?

  7. Structural analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-RTX-toxin I (ApxI) operon.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, R; Briaire, J; Kamp, E M; Gielkens, A L; Smits, M A

    1993-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-RTX-toxin I (ApxI), an important virulence factor, is secreted by serotypes 1, 5, 9, 10, and 11 of A. pleuropneumoniae. However, sequences homologous to the secretion genes apxIBD of the ApxI operon are present in all 12 serotypes except serotype 3. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the structures of the ApxI operons of the 12 A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes. We focused on the nucleotide sequence comparison of the ApxI-coding genes, the structures of the ApxI operons, and the transcription of the ApxI operons. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the toxin-encoding apxICA genes of serotype 9 and found that the gene for the structural toxin, apxIA, was almost identical to the apxIA gene of serotype 1. The toxin-encoding genes of the other serotypes are also similar for the main part; nevertheless, two variants were identified, one in serotypes 1, 9, and 11 and one in serotypes 5 and 10. The two apxIA variants differ mainly within the distal 110 nucleotides. Structural analysis demonstrated that intact ApxI operons, consisting of the four contiguous genes apxICABD, are present in serotypes 1, 5, 9, 10, and 11. ApxI operons with a major deletion in the apxICA genes are present in serotypes 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 12. Serotype 3 does not contain ApxI operon sequences. We found that all ApxI operons are transcriptionally active despite the partial deletion of the operon in some serotypes. The implications of these data for the expression and secretion of ApxI and the other Apx-toxins, ApxII and ApxIII, as well as for the development of a subunit vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae will be discussed. Images PMID:8359891

  8. Improved protection against lung colonization by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ghosts: characterization of a genetically inactivated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Huter, V; Hensel, A; Brand, E; Lubitz, W

    2000-09-29

    Pigs immunized with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ghosts or a formalin-inactivated bacterin were found to be protected against clinical disease in both vaccination groups, whereas colonization of the lungs with A. pleuropneumoniae was only prevented in ghost-vaccinated pigs. Bacterial ghosts are empty cell envelopes created by the expression of a cloned bacteriophage lysis gene and, unlike formalin-inactivated bacteria, suffer no denaturing steps during their production. This quality may lead to a superior presentation of surface antigens to the immune system. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of the two vaccine preparations revealed different contents of antigenic proteins. In order to better understand the immunogenic properties of A. pleuropneumoniae ghosts and formalin-inactivated bacteria, we compared the serum antibody response induced in both treatment groups. Immune sera were tested on whole cell antigen or purified virulence factors including outer membrane protein preparations (OMPs), outer membrane lipoprotein OmlA1, transferrin binding proteins (TfbA1, TfbA7 and TfbB) and Apx toxins (ApxI, II and III). SDS-PAGE and immunoblots revealed no specific antibody response against the single virulence factors tested in any vaccinated animal. The two vaccination groups showed different recognition patterns of whole cell antigen and OMP-enriched preparations. A 100 kDa protein was recognized significantly stronger by ghost-vaccinated pigs than convalescent pigs. This unique antibody population induced by ghosts could play a determining role in the prevention of lung colonization. The same 100 kDa antigen was recognized by ghost-sera in homologous as well as heterologous serotype A. pleuropneumoniae protein preparations. Indications for a crossprotective potential in the ghost vaccine were supported by studies on rabbit hyperimmune sera.

  9. Cloning and expression of a transferrin-binding protein from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, G F; Anderson, C; Potter, A A; Klashinsky, S; Willson, P J

    1992-01-01

    An expression library was constructed from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7. Escherichia coli transformants expressing recombinant proteins were identified by immunoscreening with porcine convalescent serum. One transformant expressing a 60-kDa protein (60K protein) in aggregated form was identified. Serum raised against the recombinant protein recognized a polypeptide with an indistinguishable electrophoretic mobility in the A. pleuropneumoniae wild type after iron-restricted growth only. The recombinant protein bound transferrin after blotting onto nitrocellulose. Using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the specificity of this binding for the amino-terminal half of iron-saturated porcine transferrin was established. Also, the 60K wild-type protein bound hemin as assessed by hemin-agarose chromatography. Hemin could inhibit transferrin binding of the recombinant protein in the competitive ELISA, whereas hemoglobin and synthetic iron chelators failed to do so. Southern blot analysis of several other A. pleuropneumoniae strains indicated that highly homologous sequence is present in eight of eight isolates of serotype 7 and in some isolates of serotypes 2, 3, and 4. Images PMID:1541562

  10. Morphological and biochemical comparison of virulent and avirulent isolates of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, A E; Bertram, T A

    1986-01-01

    Capsular structure and biochemical composition varied between two isolates (virulent and avirulent) of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. The presence of capsule was determined by transmission electron microscopy with glutaraldehyde-osmium, ruthenium red, alcian blue, and phosphotungstic acid staining procedures. The virulent isolate of H. pleuropneumoniae had a distinct, adherent capsule. The avirulent isolate had a fragile, easily removed capsule. Capsular material (CM) and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were isolated from each bacterial isolate and were compared biochemically and biologically. CM from both isolates contained carbohydrates, no detectable protein, and no detectable to trace amounts of lipid A. Each LPS contained heptose, hexose, galactose, glucosamine, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate, and lipid A. Biological responses to CM and LPS from both isolates were demonstrated in the proclotting enzyme of Limulus polyphemus amebocyte lysate activation and in serological cross-reactions by immunofluorescence and immunodiffusion precipitation. The virulent isolate contained approximately 10 mg of LPS per g more on an original dry weight basis than the avirulent isolate. LPS from the virulent isolate contained approximately 13 times more galactose than LPS from the avirulent isolate. The differences of capsular structure and biochemical composition may contribute to the role of CM in porcine H. pleuropneumoniae infections. Images PMID:3943895

  11. Development of two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1-9-11 and serovar 2.

    PubMed

    Marois-Créhan, Corinne; Lacouture, Sonia; Jacques, Mario; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kobisch, Marylène; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Two real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were developed to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 1-9-11 (highly related serovars with similar virulence potential) and serovar 2, respectively. The specificity of these assays was verified on a collection of 294 strains, which included all 16 reference A. pleuropneumoniae strains (including serovars 5a and 5b), 263 A. pleuropneumoniae field strains isolated between 1992 and 2009 in different countries, and 15 bacterial strains other than A. pleuropneumoniae. The detection levels of both qPCR tests were evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA from reference strains of A. pleuropneumoniae serovars 1 and 2, and the detection limit for both assays was 50 fg per assay. The analytical sensitivities of the qPCR tests were also estimated by using pure cultures and tonsils experimentally spiked with A. pleuropneumoniae. The detection threshold was 2.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/ml and 2.9 × 10(5) CFU/0.1 g of tonsil, respectively, for both assays. These specific and sensitive tests can be used for the serotyping of A. pleuropneumoniae in diagnostic laboratories to control porcine pleuropneumonia.

  12. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  13. Predictive Modelling of Contagious Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges “bottom up”, as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated–pre- and post-PPCDAM (“Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia”)–the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  14. Changes in gene expression of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in response to anaerobic stress reveal induction of central metabolism and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Zhu, Jiawen; Yang, Kui; Xu, Zhuofei; Liu, Ziduo; Zhou, Rui

    2014-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Oxygen deprivation is a stress that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during both early infection and the later, persistent stage. To understand modulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression in response to the stress caused by anaerobic conditions, gene expression profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared in this study. The microarray results showed that 631 genes (27.7% of the total ORFs) were differentially expressed in anaerobic conditions. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis, carbon source uptake systems, pyruvate metabolism, fermentation and the electron respiration transport chain were up-regulated. These changes led to an increased amount of pyruvate, lactate, ethanol and acetate in the bacterial cells as confirmed by metabolite detection. Genes encoding proteins involved in cell surface structures, especially biofilm formation, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were up-regulated as well. Biofilm formation was significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that induction of central metabolism is important for basic survival of A. pleuropneumoniae after a shift to an anaerobic environment. Enhanced biofilm formation may contribute to the persistence of this pathogen in the damaged anaerobic host tissue and also in the early colonization stage. These discoveries give new insights into adaptation mechanisms of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to environmental stress.

  15. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of Actionbacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from slaughter pigs in Taiwan (2002-2007).

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Yao; Lin, Chao-Nan; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Chiou, Ming-Tang

    2011-02-01

    In total, 211 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae were collected from pigs with hemorrhagic pneumonia at slaughterhouses during 2002-2007. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for each isolate of A. pleuropneumoniae to 10 antimicrobial agents. Serovar 1 of A. pleuropneumoniae was predominant in Taiwan in 138 of the 211 isolates, followed by serovars 2 and 5. More than 90% of collected isolates were sensitive to ceftiofur, cephalothin, and chloramphenical. However, lincospectin and gentamicin were relatively less susceptible with sensitivities of only 2.4 and 5.7%, respectively. Additionally, ceftiofur had the highest in vitro activity with an MIC(50) of 2.2 µg/ml, followed by cephalothin (2.7 µg/ml) and chloramphenicol (7.9 µg/ml). Lincospectin had the least activity with MIC(50) and MIC(90) values of 73.9 and 114.5 µg/ml, respectively. The data indicate that ceftiofur and cephalothin were extremely active against A. pleuropneumoniae and with minimum MIC values. These drugs are suitable for controlling and treating hemorrhagic pleuropneumonia outbreaks in swine.

  16. Experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.

    PubMed

    Lance, W R; Hibler, C P; DeMartini, J

    1983-07-01

    Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with contagious ecthyma. The limited clinical responses to the virus indicated that contagious ecthyma would not seriously impact free-ranging individuals.

  17. Branched-Chain Amino Acids Are Required for the Survival and Virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Swine▿

    PubMed Central

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; LeVeque, Rhiannon M.; Wagner, Trevor K.; Kirkwood, Roy N.; Kiupel, Matti; Mulks, Martha H.

    2009-01-01

    In Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes porcine pleuropneumonia, ilvI was identified as an in vivo-induced (ivi) gene and encodes the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) required for branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis. ilvI and 7 of 32 additional ivi promoters were upregulated in vitro when grown in chemically defined medium (CDM) lacking BCAA. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that BCAA would be found at limiting concentrations in pulmonary secretions and that A. pleuropneumoniae mutants unable to synthesize BCAA would be attenuated in a porcine infection model. Quantitation of free amino acids in porcine pulmonary epithelial lining fluid showed concentrations of BCAA ranging from 8 to 30 μmol/liter, which is 10 to 17% of the concentration in plasma. The expression of both ilvI and lrp, a global regulator that is required for ilvI expression, was strongly upregulated in CDM containing concentrations of BCAA similar to those found in pulmonary secretions. Deletion-disruption mutants of ilvI and lrp were both auxotrophic for BCAA in CDM and attenuated compared to wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae in competitive index experiments in a pig infection model. Wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae grew in CDM+BCAA but not in CDM−BCAA in the presence of sulfonylurea AHAS inhibitors. These results clearly demonstrate that BCAA availability is limited in the lungs and support the hypothesis that A. pleuropneumoniae, and potentially other pulmonary pathogens, uses limitation of BCAA as a cue to regulate the expression of genes required for survival and virulence. These results further suggest a potential role for AHAS inhibitors as antimicrobial agents against pulmonary pathogens. PMID:19703979

  18. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D. E.; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as “disease susceptibility”, in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to

  19. Hybridization and the Origin of Contagious Asexuality in Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sen; Spitze, Ken; Ackerman, Matthew S.; Ye, Zhiqiang; Bright, Lydia; Keith, Nathan; Jackson, Craig E.; Shaw, Joseph R.; Lynch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization plays a potentially important role in the origin of obligate parthenogenesis (OP) in many organisms. However, it remains controversial whether hybridization directly triggers the transition from sexual reproduction to obligate asexuality or a hybrid genetic background enables asexual species to persist. Furthermore, we know little about the specific genetic elements from the divergent, yet still hybridizing lineages responsible for this transition and how these elements are further spread to create other OP lineages. In this study, we address these questions in Daphnia pulex, where cyclically parthenogenetic (CP) and OP lineages coexist. Ancestry estimates and whole-genome association mapping using 32 OP isolates suggest that a complex hybridization history between the parental species D. pulex and D. pulicaria is responsible for the introgression of a set of 647 D. pulicaria single nucleotide polymorphism alleles that show perfect association with OP. Crossing experiments using males of OP lineages and females of CP lineages strongly support a polygenic basis for OP. Single-sperm analyses show that although normal meiotic recombination occurs in the production of haploid sperm by males of OP lineages, a significant proportion of such sperm are polyploid, suggesting that the spread of asexual elements through these males (i.e., contagious asexuality) is much less efficient than previously envisioned. Although the current Daphnia genome annotation does not provide mechanistic insight into the nature of the asexuality-associated alleles, these alleles should be considered as candidates for future investigations on the genetic underpinnings of OP. PMID:26351296

  20. Discrete dynamics of contagious social diseases: Example of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Demongeot, J; Hansen, O; Taramasco, C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Modeling contagious diseases needs to incorporate information about social networks through which the disease spreads as well as data about demographic and genetic changes in the susceptible population. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework (conceptualization and formalization) which seeks to model obesity as a process of transformation of one's own body determined by individual (physical and psychological), inter-individual (relational, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and others) and socio-cultural (environmental, i.e., relative to the relationship between the individual and his milieu) factors. Individual and inter-individual factors are tied to each other in a socio-cultural context whose impact is notably related to the visibility of anybody being exposed on the public stage in a non-contingent way. The question we are dealing with in this article is whether such kind of social diseases, i.e., depending upon socio-environmental exposure, can be considered as “contagious”. In other words, can obesity be propagated from individual to individual or from environmental sources throughout an entire population? PMID:26375495

  1. Genetic Control of Contagious Asexuality in the Pea Aphid

    PubMed Central

    Jaquiéry, Julie; Stoeckel, Solenn; Larose, Chloé; Nouhaud, Pierre; Rispe, Claude; Mieuzet, Lucie; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; Legeai, Fabrice; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Prunier-Leterme, Nathalie; Tagu, Denis; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Although evolutionary transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction are frequent in eukaryotes, the genetic bases of such shifts toward asexuality remain largely unknown. We addressed this issue in an aphid species where both sexual and obligate asexual lineages coexist in natural populations. These sexual and asexual lineages may occasionally interbreed because some asexual lineages maintain a residual production of males potentially able to mate with the females produced by sexual lineages. Hence, this species is an ideal model to study the genetic basis of the loss of sexual reproduction with quantitative genetic and population genomic approaches. Our analysis of the co-segregation of ∼300 molecular markers and reproductive phenotype in experimental crosses pinpointed an X-linked region controlling obligate asexuality, this state of character being recessive. A population genetic analysis (>400-marker genome scan) on wild sexual and asexual genotypes from geographically distant populations under divergent selection for reproductive strategies detected a strong signature of divergent selection in the genomic region identified by the experimental crosses. These population genetic data confirm the implication of the candidate region in the control of reproductive mode in wild populations originating from 700 km apart. Patterns of genetic differentiation along chromosomes suggest bidirectional gene flow between populations with distinct reproductive modes, supporting contagious asexuality as a prevailing route to permanent parthenogenesis in pea aphids. This genetic system provides new insights into the mechanisms of coexistence of sexual and asexual aphid lineages. PMID:25473828

  2. Hitting Is Contagious in Baseball: Evidence from Long Hitting Streaks

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Joel R.; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that “hitting is contagious”. A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates’ batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising streaks of length games, including a total observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups () were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter’s team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean for the treatment group was found to be to percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased points), while the batting heat index introduced here was observed to increase by points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a “statistical contagion effect”. Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research. PMID:23251507

  3. A 24-kDa cloned zinc metalloprotease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is common to all serotypes and cleaves actin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    García-Cuéllar, C; Montañez, C; Tenorio, V; Reyes-Esparza, J; Durán, M J; Negrete, E; Guerrero, A; de la Garza, M

    2000-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in swine. This bacterium secretes proteases that degrade porcine hemoglobin and IgA in vitro. To further characterize A. pleuropneumoniae proteases, we constructed a genomic library expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and selected a clone that showed proteolytic activity. The recombinant plasmid carries an 800-base pair A. pleuropneumoniae gene sequence that.codes for a 24-kDa polypeptide. A 350-base pair PstI fragment from the sequence hybridized at high stringency with DNA from 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, but not with DNA from Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida A or D, or E. coli DH5alpha, thus showing specificity for A. pleuropneumoniae. The expressed polypeptide was recognized as an antigen by convalescent-phase pig sera. Furthermore, a polyclonal antiserum developed against the purified polypeptide recognized an A. pleuropneumoniae oligomeric protein in both crude-extract and cell-free culture media. This recombinant polypeptide cleaved azocoll, gelatin, and actin. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity by diethylpyrocarbonate suggests that this polypeptide is a zinc metalloprotease. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:10805246

  4. Ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning by chimpanzees supports link to empathy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew W; de Waal, Frans B M

    2011-04-06

    Humans favor others seen as similar to themselves (ingroup) over people seen as different (outgroup), even without explicitly stated bias. Ingroup-outgroup bias extends to involuntary responses, such as empathy for pain. However, empathy biases have not been tested in our close primate relatives. Contagious yawning has been theoretically and empirically linked to empathy. If empathy underlies contagious yawning, we predict that subjects should show an ingroup-outgroup bias by yawning more in response to watching ingroup members yawn than outgroup. Twenty-three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from two separate groups watched videos of familiar and unfamiliar individuals yawning or at rest (control). The chimpanzees yawned more when watching the familiar yawns than the familiar control or the unfamiliar yawns, demonstrating an ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning. These results provide further empirical support that contagious yawning is a measure of empathy, which may be useful for evolutionary biology and mental health.

  5. Brief report: does eye contact induce contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder?

    PubMed

    Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Akechi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2009-11-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly fail to show contagious yawning, but the mechanism underlying the lack of contagious yawning is still unclear. The current study examined whether instructed fixation on the eyes modulates contagious yawning in ASD. Thirty-one children with ASD, as well as 31 age-matched typically developing (TD) children, observed video clips of either yawning or control mouth movements. Participants were instructed to fixate to the eyes of the face stimuli. Following instructed fixation on the eyes, both TD children and children with ASD yawned equally frequently in response to yawning stimuli. Current results suggest that contagious yawning could occur in ASD under an experimental condition in which they are instructed to fixate on the yawning eyes.

  6. Contagious seed dispersal beneath heterospecific fruiting trees and its consequences.

    SciTech Connect

    Kwit, Charles; Levey, Douglas, J.; Greenberg, Cathyrn, H.

    2004-05-03

    Kwit, Charles, D.J. Levey and Cathryn H. Greenberg. 2004. Contagious seed dispersal beneath heterospecific fruiting trees and its consequences. Oikos. 107:303-308 A n hypothesized advantage of seed dispersal is avoidance of high per capita mortality (i.e. density-dependent mortality) associated with dense populations of seeds and seedlings beneath parent trees. This hypothesis, inherent in nearly all seed dispersal studies, assumes that density effects are species-specific. Yet because many tree species exhibit overlapping fruiting phenologies and share dispersers, seeds may be deposited preferentially under synchronously fruiting heterospecific trees, another location where they may be particularly vulnerable to mortality, in this case by generalist seed predators. We demonstrate that frugivores disperse higher densities of Cornus florida seeds under fruiting (female) I lex opaca trees than under non-fruiting (male) I lex trees in temperate hardwood forest settings in South Carolina, U SA . To determine if density of Cornus and/or I lex seeds influences survivorship of dispersed Cornus seeds, we followed the fates of experimentally dispersed Cornus seeds in neighborhoods of differing, manipulated background densities of Cornus and I lex seeds. We found that the probability of predation on dispersed Cornus seeds was a function of both Cornus and I lex background seed densities. H igher densities of I lex seeds negatively affected Cornus seed survivorship, and this was particularly evident as background densities of dispersed Cornus seeds increased. These results illustrate the importance of viewing seed dispersal and predation in a community context, as the pattern and intensity of density-dependent mortality may not be solely a function of conspecific densities.

  7. Comparison of conventional and long-acting oxytetracyclines in prevention of induced Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae infection of growing swine.

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, A L; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T; Kruse, G O

    1989-01-01

    These experiments tested the hypothesis that long-acting oxytetracycline (oxytetracycline-LA) was more effective than regular oxytetracycline in preventing porcine pleuropneumonia when administered either 24 or 48 h prior to experimental challenge with virulent strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Two experiments (1 and 2) were conducted using growing pigs (average weight 12-15 kg). Antibiotic treatments were administered once intramuscularly at 20 mg/kg body weight; controls received an equivalent volume of saline. Clinical signs were recorded over seven days, and mortality rates and pathological lesions were analyzed using analysis of variance. Serum oxytetracycline levels were compared 48 and 72 h postinjection. All pigs developed clinical disease following experimental infection. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was recovered from 42% of experiment 1 pigs and all of experiment 2 pigs. The data showed that both oxytetracycline and oxytetracycline-LA given at the same dose protected pigs against experimental infection when given 24 h prior to challenge, and there was no difference between the efficacy of the two drugs in this experiment. When administered 48 h prior to challenge, only oxytetracycline-LA reduced the clinical signs and pathological changes following A. pleuropneumoniae challenge. Between 48 and 72 h postinjection, oxytetracycline-LA blood levels were significantly greater compared to oxytetracycline-treated pigs. PMID:2531629

  8. Renaturation and purification of ApxII toxin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlai; Liu, Siguo; Peng, Yonggang; Shao, Meili; Wang, Yong; Gong, Qiang; Chang, Yuehong; Liu, Jiandong; Liu, Huifang; Liu, Di; Kong, Xiangang

    2007-04-01

    ApxII toxin is the only Apx toxin that is produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7. In order to determine whether the recombinant ApxII that derived from Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression is faithful to the natural ApxII so that can be used as additional component in vaccine preparation, the structure gene apxIIA of ApxII toxin was expressed in E. coli with prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-6p-1 (formed pGEX-6p-A). pGZRS-C which is A. pleuropneumoniae-E. coli shuttle vector pGZRS-38 expressing the post-transcriptional activation gene apxII C was co-expressed with pGEX-6p-A. The expression product of rApxII A formed inclusion. The inclusion protein was oxidized, refolded and restored hemolytic activity after denaturation, renaturation and purification. The result indicated that E. coli expressed recombinant ApxII toxin has good fidelity, which makes it possible to produce this valuable antigen for vaccine preparation or diagnosis.

  9. Familiarity Bias and Physiological Responses in Contagious Yawning by Dogs Support Link to Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog’s owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects’ heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

  10. Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs.

  11. Contagious yawning in gelada baboons as a possible expression of empathy.

    PubMed

    Palagi, E; Leone, A; Mancini, G; Ferrari, P F

    2009-11-17

    Yawn contagion in humans has been proposed to be related to our capacity for empathy. It is presently unclear whether this capacity is uniquely human or shared with other primates, especially monkeys. Here, we show that in gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada) yawning is contagious between individuals, especially those that are socially close, i.e., the contagiousness of yawning correlated with the level of grooming contact between individuals. This correlation persisted after controlling for the effect of spatial association. Thus, emotional proximity rather than spatial proximity best predicts yawn contagion. Adult females showed precise matching of different yawning types, which suggests a mirroring mechanism that activates shared representations. The present study also suggests that females have an enhanced sensitivity and emotional tuning toward companions. These findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning reveals an emotional connection between individuals. This phenomenon, here demonstrated in monkeys, could be a building block for full-blown empathy.

  12. Catch the wave: prairie dogs assess neighbours’ awareness using contagious displays

    PubMed Central

    Hare, James F.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Senkiw, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The jump–yip display of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is contagious, spreading through a prairie dog town as ‘the wave’ through a stadium. Because contagious communication in primates serves to assess conspecific social awareness, we investigated whether instigators of jump–yip bouts adjusted their behaviour relative to the response of conspecifics recruited to display bouts. Increased responsiveness of neighbouring town members resulted in bout initiators devoting a significantly greater proportion of time to active foraging. Contagious jump–yips thus function to assess neighbours’ alertness, soliciting social information to assess effective conspecific group size in real time and reveal active probing of conspecific awareness consistent with theory of mind in these group-living rodents. PMID:24403324

  13. Catch the wave: prairie dogs assess neighbours' awareness using contagious displays.

    PubMed

    Hare, James F; Campbell, Kevin L; Senkiw, Robert W

    2014-02-22

    The jump-yip display of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is contagious, spreading through a prairie dog town as 'the wave' through a stadium. Because contagious communication in primates serves to assess conspecific social awareness, we investigated whether instigators of jump-yip bouts adjusted their behaviour relative to the response of conspecifics recruited to display bouts. Increased responsiveness of neighbouring town members resulted in bout initiators devoting a significantly greater proportion of time to active foraging. Contagious jump-yips thus function to assess neighbours' alertness, soliciting social information to assess effective conspecific group size in real time and reveal active probing of conspecific awareness consistent with theory of mind in these group-living rodents.

  14. Contagious yawning in gelada baboons as a possible expression of empathy

    PubMed Central

    Palagi, E.; Leone, A.; Mancini, G.; Ferrari, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    Yawn contagion in humans has been proposed to be related to our capacity for empathy. It is presently unclear whether this capacity is uniquely human or shared with other primates, especially monkeys. Here, we show that in gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada) yawning is contagious between individuals, especially those that are socially close, i.e., the contagiousness of yawning correlated with the level of grooming contact between individuals. This correlation persisted after controlling for the effect of spatial association. Thus, emotional proximity rather than spatial proximity best predicts yawn contagion. Adult females showed precise matching of different yawning types, which suggests a mirroring mechanism that activates shared representations. The present study also suggests that females have an enhanced sensitivity and emotional tuning toward companions. These findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning reveals an emotional connection between individuals. This phenomenon, here demonstrated in monkeys, could be a building block for full-blown empathy. PMID:19889980

  15. [Importation of rare but life-threatening and highly contagious diseases. Current situation and outlook].

    PubMed

    Burchard, G D

    2015-10-01

    Internists should expect to be the first contact for patients with rare, but highly contagious, life-threatening illnesses. Although certainly not encountered often, it is associated with significant consequences. Thus, physicians should be familiar with viral hemorrhagic fevers: filoviruses cause Ebola and Marburg fever, arenaviruses cause Lassa fever and South American hemorrhagic fevers, and the bunyaviruses cause among others Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Furthermore, physicians should be familiar with highly contagious respiratory infections, such as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, pneumonic plague, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

  16. SIZE AND SHAPE OF PLEUROPNEUMONIA-LIKE ORGANISMS GROWN IN LIQUID MEDIA

    PubMed Central

    Weibull, C.; Lundin, Britt-Marie

    1962-01-01

    Weibull, C. (Central Bacteriological Laboratory of Stockholm City, Stockholm, Sweden), and Britt-Marie Lundin. Size and shape of pleuropneumonia-like organisms grown in liquid media. J. Bacteriol. 84:513–519. 1962.—Samples of liquid cultures containing mainly nonaggregated cells of Mycoplasma agalactiae or M. laidlawii were transferred to agar blocks containing the same medium as the liquid cultures. By use of a phase-contrast microscope, photomicrographs were made of the slide cultures immediately after they had been prepared, and the dimensions of a large number of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) were measured. These measurements indicated that, in young cultures (incubated for 24 to 48 hr), the size of the cells did not vary much more than that of ordinary bacteria; 95% of the cells had a width of 0.2 to 0.6 μ. The growth of individual PPLO was followed during incubation of the slide cultures. It was found that 80 to 100% of the cells present in liquid overnight cultures divided and gave rise to microcolonies within a few hours. Rod-shaped, ellipsoidal, and spherical cells were seen in these cultures. Liquid cultures incubated for several days contained mainly spherical cells. Fewer than 5% of the cells in these cultures showed any indication of growth during incubation in slide cultures for 5 days. Photomicrographs of cells of M. agalactiae moving freely in liquid medium were taken with an electronic flash as the light source. The photographs thus obtained directly demonstrated the existence of rod-shaped cells. Images PMID:13999518

  17. Whole Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Rogers, Jon; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Li, Yinghui; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of 96 clinical isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important porcine respiratory pathogen, and the identification of AMR genes in whole genome sequence (wgs) data. Susceptibility of the isolates to nine antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, tilmicosin, trimethoprim, and tylosin) was determined by agar dilution susceptibility test. Except for the macrolides tested, elevated MICs were highly correlated to the presence of AMR genes identified in wgs data using ResFinder or BLASTn. Of the isolates tested, 57% were resistant to tetracycline [MIC ≥ 4 mg/L; 94.8% with either tet(B) or tet(H)]; 48% to sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥ 256 mg/L or DD = 6; 100% with sul2), 20% to ampicillin (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L; 100% with blaROB-1), 17% to trimethoprim (MIC ≥ 32 mg/L; 100% with dfrA14), and 6% to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.25 mg/L; 100% with GyrAS83F). Only 33% of the isolates did not have detectable AMR genes, and were sensitive by MICs for the antimicrobial agents tested. Although 23 isolates had MIC ≥ 32 mg/L for tylosin, all isolates had MIC ≤ 16 mg/L for both erythromycin and tilmicosin, and no macrolide resistance genes or known point mutations were detected. Other than the GyrAS83F mutation, the AMR genes detected were mapped to potential plasmids. In addition to presence on plasmid(s), the tet(B) gene was also found chromosomally either as part of a 56 kb integrative conjugative element (ICEApl1) in 21, or as part of a Tn7 insertion in 15 isolates. Our results indicate that, with the exception of macrolides, wgs data can be used to accurately predict resistance of A. pleuropneumoniae to the tested antimicrobial agents and provides added value for routine surveillance.

  18. Tissue reaction and immunity in swine immunized with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Willson, P J; Rossi-Campos, A; Potter, A A

    1995-01-01

    These studies were done to develop a subunit vaccine for swine that would protect against disease, but not create unacceptable tissue reactions at the immunization site. Swine were used to evaluate the local effects of subunit vaccines prepared from extracts of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 containing one of a wide variety of adjuvants. The antigen was an anionic fraction of a saline extract of A. pleuropneumoniae (ANEX). The adjuvants used were vegetable oils (peanut, sesame, canola, or corn oils, vitamin E, or Lipposyn II emulsion); mineral oil (Marcol-52) and other materials (aluminum hydroxide, polyethylene glycol, Quil-A, Amphigen, or Emulsigen-Plus). Two types of experiments were done. In the 1st set of experiments, pigs were given multiple simultaneous injections in different sites and euthanized on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, or 28. Tissues were examined for gross and histopathological lesions. In the 2nd set of experiments, 48 pigs were allocated to 6 groups and vaccinated twice with a vaccine containing ANEX antigen combined with one of various adjuvants. Antibody responses and protection from challenge were evaluated. Among the adjuvants that were tested, mineral oils induced protective immunity, although the mineral oil Marcol-52 resulted in severe tissue reactions. The vegetable oils induced little protective immunity, and some of them were quite irritating. The response to the other materials ranged from little irritation or protection induced by the vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide to effective protection without irritation after vaccination with ANEX/Amphigen or ANEX/Emulsigen-Plus combinations. In conclusion, swine were protected against disease by a subunit vaccine that did not create unacceptable tissue reaction at the immunization site. PMID:8548692

  19. Purification and characterization of a protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1, an antigen common to all the serotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Guerrero, A L; García, R M; Reyes, M E; de la Garza, M

    1998-01-01

    A high molecular-mass proteolytic enzyme of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1, was purified from culture supernatants (CSN) by using DEAE-cellulose and sepharose-4B-gelatin chromatography. In 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with porcine gelatin, the protease showed a single band of activity of > 200 kDa. However, minor molecular-mass proteolytic bands were observed when the protease was electrophoresed in the presence of either 5% beta-mercaptoethanol, 50 mM dithiothreitol, or 0.25 M urea. Furthermore, when the > 200-kDa purified protein was passed through a sucrose gradient, several bands with proteolytic activity were found: 62, 90, 190, and 540 kDa. The proteolytic activity was increased in the presence of calcium or zinc and was not affected after being heated at 90 degrees C for 5 min. Proteolytic activities were also observed in CSN from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes and biotypes. The purified protease hydrolyzed porcine IgA and IgG in vitro. In addition, by immunoblot the protease was recognized by serum of naturally infected pigs with serotypes 1 and 5, and by serum of pigs experimentally infected with serotypes 1, 2, 8, or 9. Serum of a pig vaccinated with CSN of a serotype 3 strain also recognized the protease, but not sera of pigs vaccinated with a bacterin (serotype 1). Proteins from CSN of all the serotypes, which were precipitated with 70% (NH4)2SO4, were recognized by a polyclonal antibody raised against the purified protease. Taken together these results indicate that an antigenic protease is produced in vivo by all the serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. The results indicate that proteases could have a role in the disease and in the immune response of pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae. Images Figure 2A. Figure 2B. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5A. Figure 5B. Figure 6A. Figure 6B. PMID:9684047

  20. Children's Understanding of the Transmission of Genetic Disorders and Contagious Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Lakshmi; Gelman, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies suggesting that children attribute different modes of transmission to genetic disorders and contagious illnesses. Study 1 presented preschoolers through 5th graders and adults with "switched-at-birth" scenarios for various disorders. Study 2 presented preschoolers with the same disorders but used contagion links in…

  1. High Court Rules that Law Bars Bias against Persons with Contagious Ills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1987-01-01

    The Supreme Court has ruled that Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which protects disabled people from discrimination, covers persons with contagious diseases. This decision is seen as strengthening the rights of people suffering from AIDS as well as other diseases. (MSE)

  2. 76 FR 52547 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... comment period for an interim rule that amended the regulations regarding the testing requirements...

  3. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Vermunt, Dorith A; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2012-01-01

    Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour.

  4. Evidence for contagious behaviors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): an observational study of yawning and stretching.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Vicario, Shannon M; Clark, Anne B

    2012-03-01

    Yawning is contagious in humans and some non-human primates. If there are social functions to contagious behaviors, such as yawning, they might occur in other highly social vertebrates. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an observational study of yawning and an associated behavior, stretching, in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social, flock-living parrot. Flock-housed budgerigars were videotaped for 1.5h at three time-blocks during the day (early morning, afternoon and early evening), and the times of all yawns and stretches for each bird were recorded. Both yawning and stretching were temporally clumped within sessions, but were uniformly distributed across the trials of a particular time-block. This suggests that clumping was not a result of circadian patterning and that both behaviors could be contagious. There was additional evidence of contagion in stretching, which occurred in two forms - a posterior-dorsal extension of either one foot or both feet. Birds that could have observed a conspecific stretch, and that then stretched themselves within 20s, replicated the form of the earlier stretch significantly more often than expected by chance. This study provides the first detailed description of temporal patterns of yawning under social conditions in a flock-living species as well as the first support for contagious yawning and stretching in a non-primate species in a natural context. Experimental evidence will be necessary to confirm the extent of contagion in either behavior.

  5. Contagious Flow: Antecedents and Consequences of Optimal Experience in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Satoris S.; Fullagar, Clive J.; Simmons, Mathias J.; Zhu, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined undergraduate student understanding of, and interest in, course material as potential antecedents to student experiences of flow within a classroom setting. In addition, the social, informative, and contagious nature of flow were examined, as was the influence of being in flow during classroom coverage of material on…

  6. Two contagious ectoparasites in an orphanage children in Nasr City, Cairo.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el-Ela, R G; Morsy, A T; Nassar, M M; Khalaf, S A

    2000-12-01

    Lice and scabies are the main ectoparasites transmitted by contagious, particularly among children living in crowded areas. Examination of an orphanage children (both sex, 2-6 years old), showed infestation with head louse (64.1%), body louse (53.8%) and scabies (26.9%). The results were discussed on the light of the work done before.

  7. A Theory and Dynamic Model of Dyadic Interaction: Concerns, Appraisals, and Contagiousness in a Developmental Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2007-01-01

    A theory of the dynamics of dyadic interaction is presented, based on the concepts of "concern" (i.e., intentions, goals, and interests), "appraisal" and "contagiousness." Differences between children who participate in a specific interaction are linked to differences in social competence and social power. An overview is given of the social…

  8. Contagious itch: what we know and what we would like to know

    PubMed Central

    Schut, C.; Grossman, S.; Gieler, U.; Kupfer, J.; Yosipovitch, G.

    2015-01-01

    All humans experience itch in the course of their life. Even a discussion on the topic of itch or seeing people scratch can evoke the desire to scratch. These events are coined “contagious itch” and are very common. We and others have shown that videos showing people scratching and pictures of affected skin or insects can induce itch in healthy persons and chronic itch patients. In our studies, patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) were more susceptible to visual itch cues than healthy. Also, personality traits like agreeableness and public self-consciousness were associated with induced scratching in skin patients, while neuroticism correlated with induced itch in healthy subjects. The underlying course of contagious itch is not yet fully understood. It is hypothesized that there are human mirror neurons that are active when we imitate actions and/or negative affect. Until now, there has been only limited data on the mechanisms of brain activation in contagious itch though. We have barely begun to understand the underlying physiological reactions and the triggering factors of this phenomenon. We summarize what we currently know about contagious itch and provide some suggestions what future research should focus on. PMID:25717300

  9. Catch It If You Can: How Contagious Motivation Improves Group Projects and Course Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishen, Anjala S.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a theory-based contagious motivation model focusing on enhancing student perceptions of group projects and ultimately course satisfaction. Moreover, drawing from both pedagogical and organizational behavior literatures, a model is presented that ties together intrinsic motivation theory with social contagion and…

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.

  11. Modeling the Effect of Herd Immunity and Contagiousness in Mitigating a Smallpox Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Graeden, Ellie; Fielding, Russel; Steinhouse, Kyle E; Rubin, Ilan N

    2015-07-01

    The smallpox antiviral tecovirimat has recently been purchased by the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile. Given significant uncertainty regarding both the contagiousness of smallpox in a contemporary outbreak and the efficiency of a mass vaccination campaign, vaccine prophylaxis alone may be unable to control a smallpox outbreak following a bioterror attack. Here, we present the results of a compartmental epidemiological model that identifies conditions under which tecovirimat is required to curtail the epidemic by exploring how the interaction between contagiousness and prophylaxis coverage of the affected population affects the ability of the public health response to control a large-scale smallpox outbreak. Each parameter value in the model is based on published empirical data. We describe contagiousness parametrically using a novel method of distributing an assumed R-value over the disease course based on the relative rates of daily viral shedding from human and animal studies of cognate orthopoxvirus infections. Our results suggest that vaccination prophylaxis is sufficient to control the outbreak when caused either by a minimally contagious virus or when a very high percentage of the population receives prophylaxis. As vaccination coverage of the affected population decreases below 70%, vaccine prophylaxis alone is progressively less capable of controlling outbreaks, even those caused by a less contagious virus (R0 less than 4). In these scenarios, tecovirimat treatment is required to control the outbreak (total number of cases under an order of magnitude more than the number of initial infections). The first study to determine the relative importance of smallpox prophylaxis and treatment under a range of highly uncertain epidemiological parameters, this work provides public health decision-makers with an evidence-based guide for responding to a large-scale smallpox outbreak.

  12. Whole Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Rogers, Jon; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Li, Yinghui; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of 96 clinical isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important porcine respiratory pathogen, and the identification of AMR genes in whole genome sequence (wgs) data. Susceptibility of the isolates to nine antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, tilmicosin, trimethoprim, and tylosin) was determined by agar dilution susceptibility test. Except for the macrolides tested, elevated MICs were highly correlated to the presence of AMR genes identified in wgs data using ResFinder or BLASTn. Of the isolates tested, 57% were resistant to tetracycline [MIC ≥ 4 mg/L; 94.8% with either tet(B) or tet(H)]; 48% to sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥ 256 mg/L or DD = 6; 100% with sul2), 20% to ampicillin (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L; 100% with blaROB-1), 17% to trimethoprim (MIC ≥ 32 mg/L; 100% with dfrA14), and 6% to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.25 mg/L; 100% with GyrAS83F). Only 33% of the isolates did not have detectable AMR genes, and were sensitive by MICs for the antimicrobial agents tested. Although 23 isolates had MIC ≥ 32 mg/L for tylosin, all isolates had MIC ≤ 16 mg/L for both erythromycin and tilmicosin, and no macrolide resistance genes or known point mutations were detected. Other than the GyrAS83F mutation, the AMR genes detected were mapped to potential plasmids. In addition to presence on plasmid(s), the tet(B) gene was also found chromosomally either as part of a 56 kb integrative conjugative element (ICEApl1) in 21, or as part of a Tn7 insertion in 15 isolates. Our results indicate that, with the exception of macrolides, wgs data can be used to accurately predict resistance of A. pleuropneumoniae to the tested antimicrobial agents and provides added value for routine surveillance. PMID:28321207

  13. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Comments on the proposed rule were required to......

  14. Contagious equine metritis in Portugal: A retrospective report of the first outbreak in the country and recent contagious equine metritis test results

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, T.

    2016-01-01

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a highly contagious bacterial venereal infection of equids, caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, is of major international concern, causing short-term infertility in mares. Portugal has a long tradition of horse breeding and exportation and until recently was considered CEM-free. However, in 2008, T. equigenitalis was isolated at our laboratory from a recently imported stallion and 2 mares from the same stud. Following this first reported outbreak, the Portuguese Veterinary Authority (DGVA) performed mandatory testing on all remaining equines at the stud (n=30), resulting in a further 4 positive animals. All positive animals were treated and subsequently tested negative for T. equigenitalis. Since this outbreak, over 2000 genital swabs from Portuguese horses have been tested at our laboratory, with no further positive animals identified. The available data suggests that this CEM outbreak was an isolated event and we have no further evidence of CEM cases in Portugal, however, an extended and wider epidemiological study would be needed to better evaluate the incidence of the disease in Portuguese horses. PMID:28116252

  15. The Application of Contagious Disease Epidemiological Models to Known Population Structure and Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    casualties that could result from the use of the contagious biological agents plague and smallpox against Allied forces. The current AMedP-8(C...military population, a series of model runs were conducted for smallpox and plague , while varying the number of initial infections and the...Factor Matrix No. of Primary Infections Disease Structure & Movement Location of Initial Infections* 1 Plague Single Population at Risk (PAR

  16. Laboratory generation of new parthenogenetic lineages supports contagious parthenogenesis in Artemia.

    PubMed

    Maccari, Marta; Amat, Francisco; Hontoria, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2014-01-01

    Contagious parthenogenesis-a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring-is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages. Populations of the parthenogenetic diploid brine shrimp Artemia produce fully functional males in low proportions. The evolutionary role of these so-called Artemia rare males is, however, unknown. Here we investigate whether new parthenogenetic clones could be obtained in the laboratory by mating these rare males with sexual females. We assessed the survival and sex ratio of the hybrid ovoviviparous offspring from previous crosses between rare males and females from all Asiatic sexual species, carried out cross-mating experiments between F1 hybrid individuals to assess their fertility, and estimated the viability and the reproductive mode of the resulting F2 offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the parentage of hybrid parthenogenetic F2. Our study documents the first laboratory synthesis of new parthenogenetic lineages in Artemia and supports a model for the contagious spread of parthenogenesis. Our results suggest recessive inheritance but further experiments are required to confirm the likelihood of the contagious parthenogenesis model.

  17. Auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): first evidence for social modulation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karine; Bessa, Joana; de Sousa, Liliana

    2012-07-01

    Dogs' capacity to 'catch' human yawns has recently attracted the attention of researchers in the field of animal cognition. Following recent studies suggesting that contagion yawning in humans, and some other primates, is empathy-related, some authors have considered the possibility that the same mechanism may underlie contagious yawning in dogs. To date, however, no positive evidence has been found, and more parsimonious hypotheses have been put forward. The present study explored the 'contagion-only' hypothesis by testing whether the mere sound of a human yawn can be sufficient to elicit yawning in dogs, in a way that is unaffected by social-emotional factors. Unexpectedly, results showed an interesting interplay between contagion and social effects. Not only were dogs found to catch human yawns, but they were also found to yawn more at familiar than unfamiliar yawns. Although not allowing for conclusive inferences about the mechanisms underlying contagious yawning in dogs, this study provides first data that renders plausible empathy-based, emotionally connected, contagious yawning in these animals.

  18. Laboratory generation of new parthenogenetic lineages supports contagious parthenogenesis in Artemia

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Francisco; Hontoria, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2014-01-01

    Contagious parthenogenesis—a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring—is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages. Populations of the parthenogenetic diploid brine shrimp Artemia produce fully functional males in low proportions. The evolutionary role of these so-called Artemia rare males is, however, unknown. Here we investigate whether new parthenogenetic clones could be obtained in the laboratory by mating these rare males with sexual females. We assessed the survival and sex ratio of the hybrid ovoviviparous offspring from previous crosses between rare males and females from all Asiatic sexual species, carried out cross-mating experiments between F1 hybrid individuals to assess their fertility, and estimated the viability and the reproductive mode of the resulting F2 offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the parentage of hybrid parthenogenetic F2. Our study documents the first laboratory synthesis of new parthenogenetic lineages in Artemia and supports a model for the contagious spread of parthenogenesis. Our results suggest recessive inheritance but further experiments are required to confirm the likelihood of the contagious parthenogenesis model. PMID:25024909

  19. Microbiological survey for Mycoplasma spp. in a contagious agalactia endemic area.

    PubMed

    De la Fe, C; Assunção, P; Antunes, T; Rosales, R S; Poveda, J B

    2005-09-01

    In this work, we report a microbiological survey for Mycoplasma spp. undertaken between 2001 and 2002 in 28 goat herds in Gran Canaria, Spain, an area where contagious agalactia is endemic. All herds were randomly selected and represented approximately 15.5% of the total goat population of the island. A variable number of milk, articular and auricular swab samples were collected from each flock and cultured in specific mycoplasma culture media. There was a total of 38.5% positive flocks from which 37 mycoplasma isolates were obtained. In contrast with previous data obtained in Spain, our results showed that the large colony variant of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm LC) was the most commonly isolated agent associated with contagious agalactia. This species was isolated from 90% of the positive herds and accounted for 54.1% of all isolations. M. agalactiae was isolated from 40% of the positive herds (27% of all isolations) and in six herds M. arginini was isolated (18.7% of all isolations). No M. capricolum or M. putrefaciens strains were isolated. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 21 milk samples, 15 ear canals swabs and one articular sample. The association of several species was reported in several herds. These results are at variance with previous serological studies, which indicated a higher disease prevalence, and suggest that it could be necessary to use detection techniques such PCR to confirm the existence of contagious agalactia in goats.

  20. Purification and partial characterization of the capsular polymer of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5.

    PubMed Central

    Inzana, T J

    1987-01-01

    The capsular polymer (CP) of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 was purified, and its chemical composition was analyzed. Radioimmunoassay experiments showed that the maximum amount of CP could be obtained from broth cultures of bacteria in the late stationary phase, rather than from bacteria washed off agar plates. The CP was precipitated from culture supernatant with 5 mM hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (Cetavlon) and solubilized with 0.4 M NaCl. Ninety percent of the CP in the culture supernatant was precipitated with Cetavlon, although some material remained insoluble after NaCl extraction. The CP was further purified by phenol extraction, ultracentrifugation, and Sepharose CL-4B gel filtration. The Kav of the CP from Sepharose CL-4B chromatography was 0.33. The CP preparation contained 85% hexosamine, 12% hexose, 3% phosphate, 0.17% protein, 0.20% nucleic acid, and 0.01% endotoxin. Thin-layer chromatography, an amino acid analyzer, and a glucose oxidase colorimetric kit were used to identify the sugar components of the hydrolyzed CP as glucosamine and glucose. Analysis of the native CP by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that amino, N-acetyl, and carboxyl groups were present and that the CP was a disaccharide. Images PMID:3596801

  1. Adh enhances Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity by binding to OR5M11 and activating p38 which induces apoptosis of PAMs and IL-8 release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Che, Yanyi; Sun, Changjiang; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Richard, Paul Langford; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-04-05

    Members of the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin (TAA) family play a crucial role in the adhesion of Gram-negative pathogens to host cells, but the immunopathogenesis of TAAs remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that Adh from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is required for full bacterial pathogenicity. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against respiratory infections. This study compared the interactions between porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae (5b WT) or an Adh-deletion strain (5b ΔAdh) via gene microarray, immunoprecipitation and other technologies. We found that Adh was shown to interact with the PAMs membrane protein OR5M11, an olfactory receptor, resulting in the high-level secretion of IL-8 by activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequently, PAMs apoptosis via the activation of the Fax and Bax signaling pathways was observed, followed by activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3. The immunological pathogenic roles of Adh were also confirmed in both murine and piglets infectious models in vivo. These results identify a novel immunological strategy for TAAs to boost the pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. Together, these datas reveal the high versatility of the Adh protein as a virulence factor and provide novel insight into the immunological pathogenic role of TAAs.

  2. Individual variation in contagious yawning susceptibility is highly stable and largely unexplained by empathy or other known factors.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Alex J; Cirulli, Elizabeth T

    2014-01-01

    The contagious aspect of yawning is a well-known phenomenon that exhibits variation in the human population. Despite the observed variation, few studies have addressed its intra-individual reliability or the factors modulating differences in the susceptibility of healthy volunteers. Due to its obvious biological basis and impairment in diseases like autism and schizophrenia, a better understanding of this trait could lead to novel insights into these conditions and the general biological functioning of humans. We administered 328 participants a 3-minute yawning video stimulus, a cognitive battery, and a comprehensive questionnaire that included measures of empathy, emotional contagion, circadian energy rhythms, and sleepiness. Individual contagious yawning measurements were found to be highly stable across testing sessions, both in a lab setting and if administered remotely online, confirming that certain healthy individuals are less susceptible to contagious yawns than are others. Additionally, most individuals who failed to contagiously yawn in our study were not simply suppressing their reaction, as they reported not even feeling like yawning in response to the stimulus. In contrast to previous studies indicating that empathy, time of day, or intelligence may influence contagious yawning susceptibility, we found no influence of these variables once accounting for the age of the participant. Participants were less likely to show contagious yawning as their age increased, even when restricting to ages of less than 40 years. However, age was only able to explain 8% of the variability in the contagious yawn response. The vast majority of the variability in this extremely stable trait remained unexplained, suggesting that studies of its inheritance are warranted.

  3. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Possesses an Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Jacques, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon γ. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24878741

  4. Experimental Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Strains L20 and JL03 Heptosyltransferases, Evidence for a New Heptosyltransferase Signature Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally identified the activities of six predicted heptosyltransferases in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae genome serotype 5b strain L20 and serotype 3 strain JL03. The initial identification was based on a bioinformatic analysis of the amino acid similarity between these putative heptosyltrasferases with others of known function from enteric bacteria and Aeromonas. The putative functions of all the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae heptosyltrasferases were determined by using surrogate LPS acceptor molecules from well-defined A. hydrophyla AH-3 and A. salmonicida A450 mutants. Our results show that heptosyltransferases APL_0981 and APJL_1001 are responsible for the transfer of the terminal outer core D-glycero-D-manno-heptose (D,D-Hep) residue although they are not currently included in the CAZY glycosyltransferase 9 family. The WahF heptosyltransferase group signature sequence [S(T/S)(GA)XXH] differs from the heptosyltransferases consensus signature sequence [D(TS)(GA)XXH], because of the substitution of D261 for S261, being unique. PMID:23383222

  5. Hierarchical mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal in complex seed-disperser networks.

    PubMed

    Fedriani, José M; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    Intra- and interspecific spatially contagious seed dispersal has far-reaching implications for plant recruitment, distribution, and community assemblage. However, logistical and analytical limitations have curtailed our understanding concerning the mechanisms and resulting spatial patterns of contagious seed dispersal in most systems and, especially, in complex seed-disperser networks. We investigated mechanisms of seed aggregation using techniques of spatial point pattern analysis and extensive data sets on mutispecific endozoochorous seed rain generated by five frugivorous mammals in three Mediterranean shrublands over two seasons. Our novel analytical approach revealed three hierarchical and complementary mechanisms of seed aggregation acting at different levels (fecal samples, seeds, pairs of seed species) and spatial scales. First, the three local guilds of frugivores tended to deliver their feces highly aggregated at small and intermediate spatial scales, and the overall pattern of fecal delivery could be described well by a nested double-cluster Thomas process. Second, once the strong observed fecal aggregation was accounted for, the distribution of mammal feces containing seeds was clustered within the pattern of all feces (i.e., with and without seeds), and the density of fecal samples containing seeds was higher than expected around other feces containing seeds in two out of the three studied seed-disperser networks. Finally, at a finer level, mark correlation analyses revealed that for some plant species pairs, the number of dispersed seeds was positively associated either at small or large spatial scales. Despite the relatively invariant patterning of nested double-clustering, some attributes of endozoochorous seed rain (e.g., intensity, scales of aggregation) were variable among study sites due to changes in the ecological context in which seeds and their dispersers interact. Our investigation disentangles for the first time the hierarchy of synergic

  6. A guinea pig model of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Morck, D W; Costerton, J W; Bolingbroke, D O; Ceri, H; Boyd, N D; Olson, M E

    1990-01-01

    The induction of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) was examined. Specific pathogen free male guinea pigs were anesthetized and a tracheostomy performed to introduce 10(5), 10(4) or 10(3) Pasteurella haemolytica-A1 into the left principal bronchus. The surgical site was closed with tissue adhesive and staples and the animals were monitored for signs of respiratory tract infection. Within 24 hours after inoculation they became depressed, anorectic, pyretic and dyspneic. Fibrinous pleuropneumonia with prominent areas of necrosis and hemorrhage was present. Pericardial effusion was a frequent finding. There was infiltration of the pleura and alveoli with degenerate heterophils and macrophages, a hyperplastic mesothelium and fibrin exudation on the pleura and within alveoli. Hemorrhage, congestion, consolidation, edema and fibrin exudation were prominent in the hilar region of the lungs. Bacterial colonies were evident in all airways. More bacteria were recovered from infected lungs than were inoculated (p less than 0.05) indicating P. haemolytica was actively multiplying in the lungs. Hematological and clinical chemistry data were consistent with fibrinous pneumonia, however, blood cultures were positive for P. haemolytica in 61% (11/18) of animals sampled. Examination of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs may be useful in studying pathogenetic and pathological features applicable to bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever pneumonia). Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2306663

  7. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Verma, Amit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease. PMID:25097796

  8. The Use of Illegal Drugs and Infectious Contagious Diseases: Knowledge and Intervention among Dockworkers

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; de Farias, Francisca Lucélia Ribeiro; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde

    2016-01-01

    This study’s objective was to analyze the use of illegal drugs by dockworkers and provide risk communication regarding the use of illegal drugs and test for infectious contagious diseases among dockworkers. This cross-sectional study including an intervention addressed to 232 dockworkers, who were individually interviewed, as well as communication of risk with testing for infectious contagious diseases for 93 dockworkers from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Poisson regression analysis was used. Twenty-nine workers reported the use of illegal drugs. Poisson regression indicated that being a wharfage worker, smoker, having a high income, and heavier workload increases the prevalence of the use of illegal drugs. During risk communication, two workers were diagnosed with hepatitis B (2.2%), three (3.2%) with hepatitis C, two (2.2%) with syphilis. None of the workers, though, had HIV. This study provides evidence that can motivate further research on the topic and also lead to treatment of individuals to improve work safety, productivity, and the health of workers. PMID:26771625

  9. Auditory Contagious Yawning in Humans: An Investigation into Affiliation and Status Effects

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Church, Allyson M.; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    While comparative research on contagious yawning has grown substantially in the past few years, both the interpersonal factors influencing this response and the sensory modalities involved in its activation in humans remain relatively unknown. Extending upon previous studies showing various in-group and status effects in non-human great apes, we performed an initial study to investigate how the political affiliation (Democrat vs. Republican) and status (high vs. low) of target stimuli influences auditory contagious yawning, as well as the urge to yawn, in humans. Self-report responses and a subset of video recordings were analyzed from 118 undergraduate students in the US following exposure to either breathing (control) or yawning (experimental) vocalizations paired with images of former US Presidents (high status) and their respective Cabinet Secretaries of Commerce (low status). The overall results validate the use of auditory stimuli to prompt yawn contagion, with greater response in the experimental than the control condition. There was also a negative effect of political status on self-reported yawning and the self-reported urge to yawn irrespective of the condition. In contrast, we found no evidence for a political affiliation bias in this response. These preliminary findings are discussed in terms of the existing comparative evidence, though we highlight limitations in the current investigation and we provide suggestions for future research in this area. PMID:26617557

  10. Mirror neuron activity during contagious yawning--an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Herwig, Uwe; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-03-01

    Yawning is contagious. However, little research has been done to elucidate the neuronal representation of this phenomenon. Our study objective was to test the hypothesis that the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is activated by visually perceived yawning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain activity during contagious yawning (CY). Signal-dependent changes in blood oxygen levels were compared when subjects viewed videotapes of yawning faces as opposed to faces with a neutral expression. In response to yawning, subjects showed unilateral activation of their Brodmann's area 9 (BA 9) portion of the right inferior frontal gyrus, a region of the MNS. In this way, two individuals could share physiological and associated emotional states based on perceived motor patterns. This is one component of empathy (motor empathy) that underlies the development of cognitive empathy. The BA 9 is reportedly active in tasks requiring mentalizing abilities. Our results emphasize the connection between the MNS and higher cognitive empathic functions, including mentalizing. We conclude that CY is based on a functional substrate of empathy.

  11. A generic model of contagious disease and its application to human-to-human transmission of avian influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Gary B.

    2007-03-01

    Modeling contagious diseases has taken on greater importance over the past several years as diseases such as SARS and avian influenza have raised concern about worldwide pandemics. Most models developed to consider projected outbreaks have been specific to a single disease. This paper describes a generic System Dynamics contagious disease model and its application to human-to-human transmission of a mutant version of avian influenza. The model offers the option of calculating rates of new infections over time based either on a fixed ''reproductive number'' that is traditional in contagious disease models or on contact rates for different sub-populations and likelihood of transmission per contact. The paper reports on results with various types of interventions. These results suggest the potential importance of contact tracing, limited quarantine, and targeted vaccination strategies as methods for controlling outbreaks, especially when vaccine supplies may initially be limited and the efficacy of anti-viral drugs uncertain.

  12. Comparative in vitro activity of 16 antimicrobial agents against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, H; Takagi, M; Ishimura, M; Endoh, Y S

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen antimicrobial agents were tested for their activity against 68 isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Ceftiofur and the fluoroquinolones danofloxacin and enrofloxacin were the most active compounds, with a MIC for 90% of the isolates (MIC90) of (0.05 microg/ml. The MIC90 values of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin and aspoxicillin were 0.78 units/ml, 0.39 microg/ml and < or = 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. Three isolates (4.4%) were resistant to penicillins, but aspoxicillin was as active as ceftiofur against the susceptible isolates, with MICs of < or = 0.05 microg/ml for all isolates. Resistance to oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol occurred in 22 (32.4%), 14 (20.6%) and 15 (22.1%) of the isolates, respectively. Doxycycline was more active than oxytetracycline, with a MIC90 of 1.56 microg/ml as against 25 microg/ml. Florfenicol was not only as active as thiamphenicol, with a MIC for 50% of the isolates (MIC50) of 0.39 microg/ml, but also active against thiamphenicol-resistant isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to florfenicol. All the isolates were also susceptible to gentamicin, spectinomycin, tilmicosin, colistin and tiamulin. Of these, spectinomycin was the least active, with a MIC50 of 25 microg/ml, followed by tiamulin, with a MIC50 of 6.25 microg/ml. Of the 68 isolates tested, 49 (72.0%) were of serotype 2; 14 (20.5%) were of serotype 1; 2 each (3.0%) were of serotypes 5 and 6; and one was of serotype 7. Of the isolates, 23 (33.8%) were resistant to one or more of the major antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance was found only infrequently among serotype 2, with 5 (10.2%) of 49 isolates being resistant to chloramphenicol and/or oxytetracycline, while it occurred in 18 (94.7%) of the 19 isolates of other serotypes.

  13. Bovine coronavirus associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Kapil, Sanjay

    2010-03-01

    Bovine coronaviruses, like other animal coronaviruses, have a predilection for intestinal and respiratory tracts. The viruses responsible for enteric and respiratory symptoms are closely related antigenically and genetically. Only 4 bovine coronavirus isolates have been completely sequenced and thus, the information about the genetics of the virus is still limited. This article reviews the clinical syndromes associated with bovine coronavirus, including pneumonia in calves and adult cattle, calf diarrhea, and winter dysentery; diagnostic methods; prevention using vaccination; and treatment, with adjunctive immunotherapy.

  14. Contagious Fire? An Empirical Assessment of the Problem of Multi-Shooter, Multi-Shot Deadly Force Incidents in Police Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael D.; Klinger, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent police shootings in which multiple officers fired numerous rounds at suspects have led some observers to assert that such situations involve "contagious fire," where an initial officer's shots launch a cascade of gunfire from other officers present. Although there is anecdotal recognition of the contagious fire phenomenon among…

  15. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  16. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  17. A case of contagious toxicity? Isoprostanes as potential emerging contaminants of concern.

    PubMed

    Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2016-08-01

    Isoprostanes are useful biomarkers of human and animal health, being representative of oxidative stress processes, and having biological impacts associated with toxicity and disease. Isoprostanes are also chemically stable, a property facilitating population-level health assessments through wastewater sampling. However, as biologically-active entities, the presence of isoprostanes in domestic effluents could have toxic impacts on biota in receiving environments. As such it is proposed that isoprostanes are emerging organic contaminants of particular concern. Fish and aquatic invertebrates may be affected by the presence of isoprostanes in wastewaters through mechanisms such as reproductive impairment, cardiovascular disturbance and/or oxidative stress. This would represent a unique scenario of "contagious" toxicity, whereby human health has a direct toxicological consequence on aquatic animal health.

  18. Effect of "Pink Eye" Label on Parents' Intent to Use Antibiotics and Perceived Contagiousness.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Laura D; Finan, Caitlin; Simancek, Dalton; Finkelstein, Jerome I; Tarini, Beth A

    2016-06-01

    Parents of children who presented for a pediatrics appointment responded to a clinical vignette that described a child with symptoms consistent with acute viral conjunctivitis. In a 2 × 2 randomized survey design, the physician in the vignette either used the term "pink eye" or "eye infection" to describe the symptoms, and either told parents that antibiotics are likely ineffective at treating the symptoms or did not discuss effectiveness. When the symptoms were referred to as "pink eye," parents remained interested in antibiotics, despite being informed about their ineffectiveness. By contrast, when the symptoms were referred to as an "eye infection," information about antibiotic ineffectiveness significantly reduced interest, Mdiff = 1.63, P < .001. Parents who received the "pink eye" label also thought that the symptoms were more contagious and were less likely to believe that their child could go to child care, compared with parents who received the "eye infection" label, Mdiff = 0.37, P = .38.

  19. Contagious ecthyma in bighorn sheep and mountain goat in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Samuel, W M; Chalmers, G A; Stelfox, J G; Loewen, A; Thomsen, J J

    1975-01-01

    Contagious ecthyma (CE) is reported in bighorn sheep (Ovis c. canadensis) from several national parks in western Canada and in moutain goat (Oreamnos americanus) from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. (This is the first report of CE in mountain goat.) Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology, transmission experiments and the demonstration of a proxvirus with the electron microscope. The infection was transmitted from wild to domestic goat, but not to domestic sheep. Most infections, some of them severe, were found in lambs and kids. Clinical signs of disease were similar to those seen in domestic sheep and goats. General body condition was poor and animals had difficulty feeding normally. All infected herds had prolonged contact with areas where salt was provided artificially (i.e., salt blocks, highways and campgrounds). Fewer infected sheep were observed annually when salt blocks were removed from Jasper National Park.

  20. Immunological study of an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium expressing ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA and OmpA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang-Youel; Choi, Yoonyoung; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium strain expressing the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae antigens, ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA and OmpA, was previously constructed as a vaccine candidate for porcine pleuropneumonia. This strain was a live attenuated (∆lon∆cpxR∆asd)Salmonella as a delivery host and contained a vector containing asd. An immunological study of lymphocyte proliferation, T-lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in the splenocytes of a mouse model was carried out after stimulation with the candidate Salmonella Typhimurium by intranasal inoculation. The splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-12 of the inoculated mice were significantly increased, and the T- and B-cell populations were also elevated. Collectively, the candidate may efficiently induce the Th1- and Th2-type immune responses.

  1. An Observational Investigation of Behavioral Contagion in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for Contagious Scent-Marking

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance, and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioral contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing, and scent-marking. We coded these behaviors from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-min observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday, and afternoon) to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns/h) and very little stretching behavior. For all other behaviors, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status) predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, which almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviors in marmosets. PMID:27563294

  2. Simultaneous Detection of Antibodies against Apx Toxins ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII, and ApxIV in Pigs with Known and Unknown Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Exposure Using a Multiplexing Liquid Array Platform

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Lirola, Luis G.; Jiang, Yong-Hou; Sun, Dong; Hoang, Hai; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Halbur, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance for the presence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in a population plays a central role in controlling the disease. In this study, a 4-plex fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA), developed for the simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies to repeat-in-toxin (RTX) toxins (ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII, and ApxIV) of A. pleuropneumoniae, was evaluated using (i) blood serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with each of the 15 known A. pleuropneumoniae serovars or with Actinobacillus suis, (ii) blood serum samples from pigs vaccinated with a bacterin containing A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1, 3, 5, or 7, and (iii) blood serum samples from pigs with an unknown A. pleuropneumoniae exposure status. The results were compared to those obtained in a previous study where a dual-plate complement fixation test (CFT) and three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were conducted on the same sample set. On samples from experimentally infected pigs, the 4-plex Apx FMIA detected specific seroconversion to Apx toxins as early as 7 days postinfection in a total of 29 pigs inoculated with 14 of the 15 A. pleuropneumoniae serovars. Seroconversion to ApxII and ApxIII was detected by FMIA in pigs inoculated with A. suis. The vaccinated pigs showed poor humoral responses against ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII, and ApxIV. In the field samples, the humoral response to ApxIV and the A. pleuropneumoniae seroprevalence increased with age. This novel FMIA (with a sensitivity of 82.7% and a specificity of 100% for the anti-ApxIV antibody) was found to be more sensitive and accurate than current tests (sensitivities, 9.5 to 56%; specificity, 100%) and is potentially an improved tool for the surveillance of disease and for monitoring vaccination compliance. PMID:24226091

  3. Demodex gatoi -associated contagious pruritic dermatosis in cats - a report from six households in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Seppo AM; Juuti, Kirsi H; Palojärvi, Joanna H; Väisänen, Kirsi M; Rajaniemi, Riitta-Liisa; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena E

    2009-01-01

    Background Demodex gatoi is unique among demodectic mites. It possesses a distinct stubby appearance, and, instead of residing in the hair follicles, it dwells in the keratin layer of the epidermis, causing a pruritic and contagious skin disease in cats. Little is known of the occurrence of D. gatoi in Europe or control of D. gatoi infestation. Case presentation We describe D. gatoi in 10 cats, including five Cornish Rex, two Burmese, one Exotic, one Persian and one Siamese, living in six multi-cat households in different locations in Finland containing 21 cats in total. Intense pruritus was the main clinical sign. Scaling, broken hairs, alopecia and self-inflicted excoriations were also observed. Diagnosis was based on finding typical short-bodied demodectic mites in skin scrapings, skin biopsies or on tape strips. Other pruritic skin diseases, such as allergies and dermatophytoses, were ruled out. In one household, despite finding several mites on one cat, all six cats of the household remained symptomless. Amitraz used weekly at a concentration of 125-250 ppm for 2-3 months, proved successful in three households, 2% lime sulphur weekly dips applied for six weeks in one household and peroral ivermectin (1 mg every other day for 10 weeks) in one household. Previous trials in four households with imidacloprid-moxidectin, selamectin or injected ivermectin given once or twice a month appeared ineffective. Conclusion D. gatoi-associated dermatitis is an emerging contagious skin disease in cats in Finland. Although pruritus is common, some cats may harbour the mites without clinical signs. In addition, due to translucency of the mites and fastidious feline grooming habits, the diagnosis may be challenging. An effective and convenient way to treat D. gatoi infestations has yet to emerge. PMID:19843334

  4. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  5. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-09

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission.

  6. Variation in the Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Isolates in a Pig, Within a Batch of Pigs, and Among Batches of Pigs from One Farm.

    PubMed

    Dayao, Denise Ann E; Dawson, Susan; Kienzle, Marco Jean-Paul; Gibson, Justine S; Blackall, Patrick J; Turni, Conny

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial porcine respiratory pathogens has been shown to exist in many countries. However, little is known about the variability in antimicrobial susceptibility within a population of a single bacterial respiratory pathogen on a pig farm. This study examined the antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using multiple isolates within a pig and across the pigs in three different slaughter batches. Initially, the isolates from the three batches were identified, serotyped, and subsample genotyped. All the 367 isolates were identified as A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1, and only a single genetic profile was detected in the 74 examined isolates. The susceptibility of the 367 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae to ampicillin, tetracycline and tilmicosin was determined by a disc diffusion technique. For tilmicosin, the three batches were found to consist of a mix of susceptible and resistant isolates. The zone diameters of the three antimicrobials varied considerably among isolates in the second sampling. In addition, the second sampling provided statistically significant evidence of bimodal populations in terms of zone diameters for both tilmicosin and ampicillin. The results support the hypothesis that the antimicrobial susceptibility of one population of a porcine respiratory pathogen can vary within a batch of pigs on a farm.

  7. Familiarity-connected or stress-based contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris)? Some additional data.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karine; Bessa, Joana; de Sousa, Liliana

    2013-11-01

    The present short note aimed at further exploring data from a recent study showing socially modulated auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Two independent observers further extended the analysis of all video recordings made in the previous study and coded both the number of yawns performed by the dogs and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors exhibited throughout the presentation of familiar and unfamiliar yawns. By showing no significant difference between conditions in the frequencies or durations of the coded behaviors, nor any association between the number of yawns and the frequencies or durations of stress-related behaviors, results raised doubt on the stress-induced yawn hypothesis, thus supporting social modulation. The exact mechanism underlying contagious yawning, however, needs further research.

  8. Prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk in Québec

    PubMed Central

    Francoz, David; Bergeron, Luc; Nadeau, Marie; Beauchamp, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mycoplasma, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in bulk tank milk (BTM) in Québec dairy herds. BTM was sampled 3 times a month in 117 randomly selected dairy herds. Samples were submitted for S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and mycoplasma and for direct mycoplasma detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mycoplasma spp. was identified at least once in 3 herds (2.6%) by primary culture and/or PCR and in 4 herds (3.4%) by enrichment culture and/or PCR. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated at least once in 99 (84.6%) and 112 (95.7%) herds in primary culture and after enrichment, respectively. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated at least once in 9 (7.7%) and 10 (8.6%) herds in primary culture and after enrichment, respectively. Herd prevalence of mycoplasma was similar to that previously reported in Canada. Staphylococcus aureus is still by far the most important contagious mastitis pathogen. PMID:23543925

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of contagious ecthyma: comparison of different PCR protocols with virus isolation in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Kottaridi, Christine; Nomikou, Kiki; Lelli, Rossella; Markoulatos, Panayotis; Mangana, Olga

    2006-06-01

    A new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for rapid diagnosis of contagious ecthyma was designed and applied to 21 clinical samples from Greece. This assay, which detects a highly conserved gene from the parapox genome, was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity in order to be considered as a useful diagnostic tool. A comparative study with two published PCR protocols one using primers PPP1-PPP3, PPP1-PPP4 which targets putative virion envelope gene B2L and the other using VIR1-VIR2 primers which amplifies ORF virus interferon resistant (VIR) gene, as well as cell culture virus neutralization assay was carried out. All samples tested were amplified successfully with the PCR protocol established in the laboratory. The combination of primers PPP1-PPP3 and PPP1-PPP4 in a semi-nested PCR gave a positive result in 20 of 21 samples while primers VIR1-VIR2 failed to amplify successfully 7 of 21 samples. The diagnostic value of parapox viral DNA amplification was also compared with the results of virus isolation by cell culture and was positive in three samples that the virus isolation was obtained.

  10. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal.

  11. [Individual rights vs public health in the fight against contagious diseases: proposals to improve the current legal framework].

    PubMed

    Salamero Teixidó, Laura

    2016-11-01

    The public health protection constitutional mandate requires public powers to protect the population from contagious diseases. This requires a legal framework that both protects public health effectively and respects individual rights and freedoms that could be undermined by the public administrations. This article analyses, from a legal perspective, the current legal framework regulating the adoption of health measures to protect public health against contagious diseases. It argues that current regulations generate legal uncertainty on the basis of the wide range of discretionary powers they give to the public administration and the lack of provisions for limiting these powers. As a result, the guarantee mechanisms (primarily judicial consent) only weakly protect the rights and freedoms of the citizens affected by health measures. To conclude, the article proposes several amendments to improve public health regulations related to contagious diseases. The purpose is to render a legal framework that offers more legal certainty, in which it is possible to protect individual rights and freedoms when measures are adopted, without sacrificing the effective protection of public health.

  12. Histopathological study and F1L gene sequence analysis of contagious ecthyma in small ruminants of Shiraz suburb, Iran.

    PubMed

    Davari, S A; Sayyari, M; Mohammadi, A

    2015-06-01

    Contagious ecthyma, also known as Orf, is a common viral skin disease of sheep and goats caused by a Parapoxvirus. This research was conducted with the aims of histopathological study and genetic analysis of Orf virus with PCR technique based on F1L gene in 50 sheep and goats suspicious of contagious ecthyma in affected areas of Shiraz suburb. All 50 contagious ecthyma-like tissue samples were maintained in 10% buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, sectioned into 5μm slices and dyed with hematoxylin-eosine. The histopathological examination showed 100% positivity. Epidermal hyperplasia with prominent rete ridges, hydropic degeneration of the necrotic keratinocytes, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in vacuolated cells and subcorneal pustules were the main hallmarks of this disease. For molecular analysis, after DNA extraction, all samples were amplified by PCR method and the outcome demonstrated positivity in 25 specimens (50%). Of these, 10 definitely positive specimens were analyzed for nucleotide sequencing. Thus, a strain named Orf-059-Shiraz was recorded in the GeneBank and subsequently underwent phylogenetic analysis. The outcome of the molecular study approved half of the positive ecthyma specimens in histopathological method. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on 059 gene showed that this gene is highly conserved. Utilization of histopathology and clinical signs can assist with rapid and low-cost diagnosis of infectious ecthyma whereas PCR is able to dissociate from similar diseases among clinical samples of endemic regions.

  13. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen.

  14. Blood values of captive beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) prior to and during an outbreak of fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome (FPPS).

    PubMed

    Gull, Jessica M; Hebel, Christiana; Deb, Amrita; Arif, Abdi; Clauss, Marcus; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, Sven

    2014-12-01

    Currently the only captive population of beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) is held at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, Qatar. An outbreak of a severe respiratory disease--fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome, most likely caused by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--led to a marked population decline. Reactive systemic inflammatory (AA) amyloidosis was noted as a chronic manifestation of the disease. Blood samples had been collected for biochemistry and hematology baseline values prior to the outbreak. Population-level changes were analyzed before and during the course of the outbreak in selected blood parameters (white blood cells [WBC], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], and creatinine). The annual population WBC increased and decreased concurrently with the population size, with a significant correlation between the two measures (R = 0.92; P = 0.001). Both BUN and creatinine values were higher during the outbreak. These values peaked at the same time as mortality, which was 1 yr after the WBC peak. These changes were interpreted as the transition from an acute disease with a primary respiratory manifestation into a chronic condition where renal amyloidosis led to chronic renal failure and death. Also, elevated liver values in diseased animals were attributed to amyloidosis. Parallels to a literature report on a lung disease complex caused by M. ovipneumoniae in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were found. Trends in population-level blood values of the beira antelopes implicate amyloidosis as a significant, long-term consequence of the putative Mycoplasma infection.

  15. Evaluation of a single dose versus a divided dose regimen of amoxycillin in treatment of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, B; Lykkesfeldt, J; Friis, C

    2005-08-01

    The theory of a time-dependent effect of amoxycillin was examined in a model of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap)-infection using clinically relevant dosage regimens. Twenty hours after infection of fourteen pigs, when clinical signs of pneumonia were present, one group of pigs received a single dose of amoxycillin (20 mg/kg, i.m.), whereas another group received four doses of 5 mg/kg injected at 8-h intervals. A similar AUC of the plasma amoxycillin concentration versus time curve was obtained in the two groups, whereas the maximum concentration was threefold higher using the single high dose. Plasma amoxycillin was above the MIC for twice as long using the fractionated dosage scheme. The condition of the animals was evaluated by clinical and haematological observations combined with quantification of biochemical infection markers: C-reactive protein, zinc and ascorbic acid. Within 48 h of treatment, the pigs in both treatment groups recovered clinically. No significant differences in the time-course of clinical observations or plasma concentrations of the biomarkers of infection were observed between the two treatments. In conclusion, the efficacy of these two dosage regimens of amoxycillin was not significantly different in treatment of acute Ap-infection in pigs.

  16. Prevalence of exposure to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) in Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sayers, R G; Byrne, N; O'Doherty, E; Arkins, S

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) are contagious bovine viral agents. The objectives of this study were to use quarterly bulk milk and 'spot' testing of unvaccinated youngstock to establish the national prevalence of exposure to BVDV and/or BoHV-1 in Irish dairy herds. Seasonality of bulk milk ELISA results was also examined. From a geographically representative population of 305 dairy herds, 88% and 80% of herds yielded mean annual positive bulk milk readings for BVDV and BoHV-1, respectively. Of these, 61% were vaccinated against BVDV and 12% against BoHV-1. A total of 2171 serum samples from weanlings having a mean age of 291 days yielded 543 (25%) seropositive for BVDV, and 117 (5.4%) seropositive for BoHV-1. A significant seasonal trend in bulk milk antibody ELISA readings and herd status was recorded for BVDV, with more herds categorised as positive in the latter half of the year.

  17. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies that recognize common epitopes located on O antigen of lipopolysaccharide of serotypes 1, 9 and 11 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Barbosa, J I; Gutiérrez Martín, C B; Tascón, R I; González, O R; Mittal, K R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1996-12-31

    Seven murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against serotype 1 of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae (reference strain Shope 4074) were produced and characterized. All hybridomas secreting mAbs were reactive with whole-cell antigens from reference strains of serotypes 1, 9 and 11, except for mAb 5D6 that failed to recognized serotype 9. They did not react with other taxonomically related Gram-negative organisms tested. The predominant isotype was immunoglobulin (Ig) M, although IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 were also obtained. The epitopes identified by these mAbs were resistant to proteinase K treatment and boiling in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and reducing conditions; however, they were sensitive to sodium periodate treatment. Enhanced chemiluminescence-immunodetection assay showed that mAbs could be divided in two groups according to the patterns of immunoreaction observed. Group 1 (mAbs 3E10, 4B7, 9H5 and 11C3) recognized a ladder-like banding profile consistent with the O antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from smooth strains. Group II (mAbs 3B10 and 9H1) recognized a long smear of high molecular weight which ranged from 60 to 200 kDa. The mAbs were tested against 96 field isolates belonging to serotypes 1, 5, 9, 11 and 12, which had previously been classified by a combination of serological techniques based on polyclonal rabbit sera (counterimmunoelectrophoresis, immunodiffusion and coagglutination). The panel of mAbs identified all isolates of serotypes 9 and 11, but only 66% of those belonging to serotype 1. This may suggest the existence of antigenic heterogeneity among isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. These mAbs reacted with epitopes common to serotypes 1, 9 and 11 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae which were located on the O antigen of LPS.

  18. Contagious deposition of seeds in spider monkeys' sleeping trees limits effective seed dispersal in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Escobar, Federico; Rös, Matthias; Oyama, Ken; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Stoner, Kathryn E; Chapman, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rain produced by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in latrines located beneath 60 sleeping trees in two continuous forest sites (CFS) and three forest fragments (FF) in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We tested for differences among latrines, among sites, and between forest conditions in the abundance, diversity (α-, β- and, γ-components) and evenness of seed assemblages. We recorded 45,919 seeds ≥ 5 mm (in length) from 68 species. The abundance of seeds was 1.7 times higher in FF than in CFS, particularly because of the dominance of a few plant species. As a consequence, community evenness tended to be lower within FF. β-diversity of common and dominant species was two times greater among FF than between CFS. Although mean α-diversity per latrine did not differ among sites, the greater β-diversity among latrines in CFS increased γ-diversity in these sites, particularly when considering common and dominant species. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit scarcity in FF can 'force' spider monkeys to deplete the available fruit patches more intensively than in CFS. This feeding strategy can limit the effectiveness of spider monkeys as seed dispersers in FF, because (i) it can limit the number of seed dispersers visiting such fruit patches; (ii) it increases seed dispersal limitation; and (iii) it can contribute to the floristic homogenization (i.e., reduced β-diversity among latrines) in fragmented landscapes.

  19. Contagious Deposition of Seeds in Spider Monkeys' Sleeping Trees Limits Effective Seed Dispersal in Fragmented Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Escobar, Federico; Rös, Matthias; Oyama, Ken; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Stoner, Kathryn E.; Chapman, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rain produced by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in latrines located beneath 60 sleeping trees in two continuous forest sites (CFS) and three forest fragments (FF) in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We tested for differences among latrines, among sites, and between forest conditions in the abundance, diversity (α-, β- and, γ-components) and evenness of seed assemblages. We recorded 45,919 seeds ≥5 mm (in length) from 68 species. The abundance of seeds was 1.7 times higher in FF than in CFS, particularly because of the dominance of a few plant species. As a consequence, community evenness tended to be lower within FF. β-diversity of common and dominant species was two times greater among FF than between CFS. Although mean α-diversity per latrine did not differ among sites, the greater β-diversity among latrines in CFS increased γ-diversity in these sites, particularly when considering common and dominant species. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit scarcity in FF can ‘force’ spider monkeys to deplete the available fruit patches more intensively than in CFS. This feeding strategy can limit the effectiveness of spider monkeys as seed dispersers in FF, because (i) it can limit the number of seed dispersers visiting such fruit patches; (ii) it increases seed dispersal limitation; and (iii) it can contribute to the floristic homogenization (i.e., reduced β-diversity among latrines) in fragmented landscapes. PMID:24586705

  20. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  1. Chimpanzees Show a Developmental Increase in Susceptibility to Contagious Yawning: A Test of the Effect of Ontogeny and Emotional Closeness on Yawn Contagion

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others’ emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the ‘chameleon effect’, targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed. PMID:24146848

  2. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  3. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  4. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is caused by a novel contagion, known to as a prion. Prions are proteins capable of converting a normal cellular protein into a prion, thereby propagating an infection. BSE is the first known prion zoonotic. As such it has attracted broad scientific and, to a r...

  5. Protein Crystal Bovine Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Bovine Insulin space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). Facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  6. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  7. Immunoprotective Efficacy of Six In vivo-Induced Antigens against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae as Potential Vaccine Candidates in Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fei; Cao, Sanjie; Zhu, Zhuang; Yang, Yusheng; Wen, Xintian; Chang, Yung-Fu; Huang, Xiaobo; Wu, Rui; Wen, Yiping; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Ma, Xiaoping; Zhao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Six in vivo-induced (IVI) antigens—RnhB, GalU, GalT, Apl_1061, Apl_1166, and HflX were selected for a vaccine trial in a mouse model. The results showed that the IgG levels in each immune group was significantly higher than that of the negative control (P < 0.001). Except rRnhB group, proliferation of splenocytes was observed in all immunized groups and a relatively higher proliferation activity was observed in rGalU and rGalT groups (P < 0.05). In the rGalT vaccinated group, the proportion of CD4+ T cells in spleen was significant higher than that of negative control (P < 0.05). Moreover, proportions of CD4+ T cells in other vaccinated groups were all up-regulated to varying degrees. Up-regulation of both Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were detected. A survival rate of 87.5, 62.5, and 62.5% were obtained among rGalT, rAPL_1166, and rHflX group, respectively while the remaining three groups was only 25%. Histopathological analyses of lungs indicated that surviving animals from the vaccinated groups showed relatively normal pulmonary structure alveoli. These findings confirm that IVI antigens used as vaccine candidates provide partial protection against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in a mouse model, which could be used as potential vaccine candidates in piglets. PMID:27818646

  8. Comparison of four lung scoring systems for the assessment of the pathological outcomes derived from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae experimental infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, four lung lesion scoring methods (Slaughterhouse Pleurisy Evaluation System [SPES], Consolidation Lung Lesion Score [LLS], Image analyses [IA] and Ratio of lung weight/body weight [LW/BW]) were compared for the assessment of the different pathological outcomes derived from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) experimental infection model. Moreover, pathological data was coupled with clinical (fever, inappetence and clinical score), production (average daily weigh gain [ADWG]) and diagnostic (PCR, ELISA and bacterial isolation) parameters within the four infection outcomes (peracute, acute, subclinically infected and non-infected). Results From the 61 inoculated animals, 9 were classified as peracute (presence of severe App-like clinical signs and lesions and sudden death or euthanasia shortly after inoculation), 31 as acutely affected (presence of App-like clinical signs and lesions and survival until the end of the experiment), 12 as subclinically infected (very mild or no clinical signs but App infection confirmed) and 9 as non-infected animals (lack of App-like clinical signs and lack of evidence of App infection). A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was found with the exception of SPES score versus LW/BW. SPES showed a statistically significant association with all clinical, production and diagnostic (with the exception of PCR detection of App in the tonsil) variables assessed. LLS and IA showed similar statistically significant associations as SPES, with the exception of seroconversion against App at necropsy. In contrast, LW/BW was statistically associated only with App isolation in lungs, presence of App-like lesions and ELISA OD values at necropsy. Conclusions In conclusion, SPES, LLS and IA are economic, fast and easy-to-perform lung scoring methods that, in combination with different clinical and diagnostic parameters, allow the characterization of different outcomes after App infection. PMID

  9. Western blot analysis of virus-specific antibody responses for capripox and contagious pustular dermatitis viral infections in sheep.

    PubMed

    Chand, P; Kitching, R P; Black, D N

    1994-10-01

    This paper reports the development and evaluation of serological tests for the differentiation of antibodies in animals infected with capripox and parapox viruses. Agar-gel immunodiffusion tests using sera from sheep with naturally-acquired infections and from sheep experimentally inoculated with orf or capripox viruses showed cross reactions. Virus-specific antibody responses to structural proteins of the viruses were analysed by Western-blot analysis. This analysis readily differentiated the infections as either capripox or contagious pustular dermatitis. The antibody responses to the 32 kDa and 26 kDa proteins of capripoxvirus provided a firm basis for differentiation.

  10. The Creation of a Contagious H5N1 Influenza Virus: Implications for the Education of Life Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Novossiolova, Tatyana; Minehata, Masamichi; Dando, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    The paper contends that the ongoing controversy surrounding the creation of a contagious H5N1 influenza virus has already exposed the severe limitations of the possibility of preventing the hostile misuse of the life sciences by dint of oversight of proposals and publications. It further argues that in order to prevent the potential wholesale militarisation of the life sciences, it is essential that life scientists become aware of their responsibilities within the context of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) and actively contribute their expertise to strengthening the biological weapons non-proliferation regime . PMID:22984642

  11. No overall relationship between average daily weight gain and the serological response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in eight chronically infected Danish swine herds.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, M; Mousing, J; Thomsen, L K

    2001-04-13

    The association between the average daily weight gain (from approximately 4 to 20 weeks of age) and the serological responses to respiratory infections was examined in a longitudinal study including 825 pigs from eight chronically infected herds. Pigs were bled every 4th week (starting from approximately 4 weeks of age), and sera were analyzed for antibodies to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7 and 12.Mixed analysis of covariance analyzed the relationship between the average daily weight gain and a categorical variable defining seroconversion as none, early or late as compared to the median time (estimated across herds) of seroconversion for the particular pathogen. The variables "gender", "weight at an approximate age of 4 weeks" and "time" (defining the exact length of the follow-up period), were included as explanatory variables, and "litter" and "herd" were included as explanatory random variables. The individual pig was the unit of concern. The variable defining time at seroconversion was not significantly associated with the average daily weight gain, when evaluating models across all eight herds. The apparent lack of effect could be because most pigs included in the study were subclinically infected, or because a temporary negative influence of the infections is hidden due to an increased growth in the period following infection. In conclusion, at least in these eight herds, seroresponses to M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae could not be used to predict the effect of the pathogens on the daily weight gain.

  12. Mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK mediate Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxin ApxI-induced apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Ming; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Hsuan, Shih-Ling

    2011-08-05

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxins (Apx) are major virulence factors that play important roles in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia in swine. A previous study has demonstrated that native ApxI at low concentrations induces apoptosis in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) via a caspase-3-dependent pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ApxI-induced apoptosis remain largely unknown. In this study, it was shown that ApxI treatment in PAMs rapidly induced phosphorylation of both p38 and JNK, members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Application of a selective p38 or JNK inhibitor significantly reduced ApxI-induced apoptosis, indicating the involvement of p38 and JNK pathways in this event. Furthermore, activation of both caspase-8 and -9 were observed in ApxI-stimulated PAMs. Inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity significantly protected PAMs from ApxI-induced apoptosis. In addition, Bid activation was also noted in ApxI-treated PAMs, and inhibition of caspase-8 suppressed the activation of Bid and caspase-9, suggesting that ApxI was able to activate the caspases-8-Bid-caspase-9 pathway. Notably, inhibition of p38 or JNK pathway greatly attenuated the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9. This study is the first to demonstrate that ApxI-induced apoptosis of PAMs involves the activation of p38 and JNK, and engages the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  13. A bacterial engineered glycoprotein as a novel antigen for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Ciocchini, Andrés E; Serantes, Diego A Rey; Melli, Luciano J; Guidolin, Leticia S; Iwashkiw, Jeremy A; Elena, Sebastián; Franco, Cristina; Nicola, Ana M; Feldman, Mario F; Comerci, Diego J; Ugalde, Juan E

    2014-08-27

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects livestock and human beings. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis mainly relies on serological diagnosis using serum and/or milk samples. Although there are several serological tests with different diagnostic performance and capacity to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, there is still no standardized reference antigen for the disease. Here we validate the first recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. This antigen can be produced in homogeneous batches without the need of culturing pathogenic brucellae; all characteristics that make it appropriate for standardization. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies in bovine samples was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to magnetic beads or ELISA plates. As a proof of concept and to validate the antigen, we analyzed serum, whole blood and milk samples obtained from non-infected, experimentally infected and vaccinated animals included in a vaccination/infection trial performed in our laboratory as well as more than 1000 serum and milk samples obtained from naturally infected and S19-vaccinated animals from Argentina. Our results demonstrate that OAg-AcrA-based assays are highly accurate for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis, even in vaccinated herds, using different types of samples and in different platforms. We propose this novel recombinant glycoprotein as an antigen suitable for the development of new standard immunological tests for screening and confirmatory diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in regions or countries with brucellosis-control programs.

  14. High quality draft genomes of the Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides challenge strains Afadé and B237.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Anne; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Hegerman, Jan; Gourlé, Hadrien; Schieck, Elise; Lambert, Mathieu; Nadendla, Suvarna; Wesonga, Hezron; Miller, Rachel A; Vashee, Sanjay; Weber, Johann; Meens, Jochen; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster' represent important livestock pathogens worldwide. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), which is still endemic in many parts of Africa. We report the genome sequences and annotation of two frequently used challenge strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Afadé and B237. The information provided will enable downstream 'omics' applications such as proteomics, transcriptomics and reverse vaccinology approaches. Despite the absence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae like cyto-adhesion encoding genes, the two strains showed the presence of protrusions. This phenotype is likely encoded by another set of genes.

  15. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  16. Selenium in bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Niemi, S M; Kuzan, F B; Senger, P L

    1981-05-01

    This study investigated the association of selenium with ejaculated bovine spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive selenium-75 was released after 30 min of incubation in 2 X 10(-3) dithiothreitol. Of the selenium-75 released by dithiothreitol, 85% was associated with spermatozoal protein. Protein containing selenium-75 was found predominantly in a single band after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight was approximately 21,500 daltons.

  17. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  18. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R M

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose.

  19. Pneumonia in Saskatchewan Swine: Abattoir Incidence of Intrathoracic Lesions in Pigs from a Herd Infected with Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae and from Other Herds

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, J. R.; Osborne, A. D.; K-Sebunya, T.

    1981-01-01

    A 1978-79 survey of the incidence of thoracic cavity lesions at slaughter had shown that the overall incidence of pleurisy in Saskatchewan swine was low (2%). Therefore, in the summer of 1979 a comparison was made between the incidence of pleurisy in a herd of pigs chronically affected with Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae pneumonia and in animals from other herds slaughtered at the same time. The incidence of pleurisy in control pigs (3.6%) was slightly higher than in the large scale survey but in the pigs from the Haemophilus infected herd it was almost four times as great (13.3%). In the same herd the survivors of a batch of pigs which had been decimated by more severe disease showed an incidence of 32% pleurisy. The economic implications of these findings are detailed and discussed. PMID:7340926

  20. Western blot analysis of virus-specific antibody responses for capripox and contagious pustular dermatitis viral infections in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Chand, P.; Kitching, R. P.; Black, D. N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the development and evaluation of serological tests for the differentiation of antibodies in animals infected with capripox and parapox viruses. Agar-gel immunodiffusion tests using sera from sheep with naturally-acquired infections and from sheep experimentally inoculated with orf or capripox viruses showed cross reactions. Virus-specific antibody responses to structural proteins of the viruses were analysed by Western-blot analysis. This analysis readily differentiated the infections as either capripox or contagious pustular dermatitis. The antibody responses to the 32 kDa and 26 kDa proteins of capripoxvirus provided a firm basis for differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7925674

  1. Contagious yawning in domestic dog puppies (Canis lupus familiaris): the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on low-level imitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    Contagious yawning is a well-documented phenomenon in humans and has recently attracted much attention from developmental and comparative sciences. The function, development and underlying mechanisms of the phenomenon, however, remain largely unclear. Contagious yawning has been demonstrated in dogs and several non-human primate species, and theoretically and empirically associated with empathy in humans and non-human primates. Evidence of emotional closeness modulating contagious yawning in dogs has, nonetheless, been contradictory. Humans show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with typically developing children displaying a substantial increase at the age of four, when a number of cognitive abilities (e.g. accurate identification of others' emotions) begin to clearly manifest. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human animals have, however, thus far only involved adult individuals. Here, we report a study of the ontogeny of domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) susceptibility to yawn contagion, and whether emotional closeness to the yawning model affects this. Thirty-five dogs, aged 4-14 months, observed a familiar and unfamiliar human repeatedly yawn or gape. The dogs yawned contagiously, but emotional closeness with the model did not affect the strength of contagion, raising questions as to recent evidence of emotionally modulated auditory contagious yawning in dogs. The dogs showed a developmental effect, with only dogs above 7 months evidencing contagion. The results support the notion of a developmental increase in dogs' attention to others and identification of others' emotional states and suggest that yawn contagion is underpinned by developmental processes shared by humans and other animals.

  2. A recombinant chimera comprising the R1 and R2 repeat regions of M. hyopneumoniae P97 and the N-terminal region of A. pleuropneumoniae ApxIII elicits immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, either alone or together, causes serious respiratory diseases in pigs. Results To develop an efficient multi-disease subunit vaccine against these pathogens, we produced a chimeric protein called Ap97, which comprises a deletion derivative of the N-terminal region of the A. pleuropneumoniae ApxIII toxin (ApxN) and the R1 and R2 repeats of M. hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin (P97C), using an E. coli expression system. The levels of both IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes specific for ApxN and P97C in the sera of Ap97-immunized mice increased, and Ap97 induced the secretion of IL-4 and IFN-γ by mouse splenocytes. Antisera from mice and pigs immunized with Ap97 readily reacted with both native ApxIII and P97 proteins. In addition, immunization with the Ap97 vaccine effectively protected pigs against challenge with both pathogens. Conclusions These findings suggest that Ap97 confers immunogenicity, and is an effective vaccine that protects pigs against infection by M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:24533486

  3. Inhibition of rat and bovine trypsins and chymotrypsins by soybean, bovine basic pancreatic, and bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Esparza, I; Brock, J H

    1978-01-01

    1. Bovine (Bos taurus) trypsin and trypsin activity in rat (Rattus norvegicus) pancreatic extract were inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor and by bovine basic pancreatic and colostrum inhibitors. 2. Bovine alpha-chymotrypsin was inhibited by soybean and bovine basic pancreatic inhibitors but only weakly by colostrum inhibitor. 3. Chymotrypsin activity in rat pancreatic extract was due to at least three different components against all of which the inhibitors were largely ineffective. 4. It is concluded that bovine colostrum inhibitor has a more limited inhibition spectrum than the phylogenetically related basic pancreatic inhibitor which, in turn, is less active against rat than against bovine enzymes.

  4. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  5. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  6. Seroprevalence of contagious ecthyma in goats of Assam: An analysis by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Mousumi; Bora, Durlav Prasad; Barman, Nagendra Nath; Borah, Biswajyoti; Das, Sutopa

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to screen the prevalence of contagious ecthyma (CE) among the goat population of Assam owing to its high prevalence rate. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 231 serum samples were collected from 12 districts of Assam during September 2013 to July 2014. The serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against Orf virus (ORFV) by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Indirect ELISA was standardized using purified Orf reference virus produced in bulk in primary lamb testes cells. Results: Studies on seroprevalence showed 76.62% of goats were seropositive. The total number of animals were divided into different age groups starting from 0-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, and above 8 months and accordingly highest prevalence of antibodies against ORFV was recorded in the age-group above 8 months of age. Significantly, lower rates of infection were observed in goats of age group 2-4 months. This study recorded that seropositivity from naturally infected animals and in contact apparently healthy animals to be 53.67% and 46.32%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that CE is a prevalent infection in goats of Assam, and the healthy population is at increased risk of infection. PMID:27733808

  7. Contagious agalactia due to Mycoplasma spp. in small dairy ruminants: epidemiology and prospects for diagnosis and control.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Martín, Angel; Amores, Joaquín; Paterna, Ana; De la Fe, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Contagious agalactia (CA) is a serious disease of small dairy ruminants that has a substantial economic impact on the goat and sheep milk industries. The main aetiological agent of the disease is Mycoplasma agalactiae, although other species, such as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and Mycoplasma putrefaciens, are pathogenic in goats. There are two clinical-epidemiological states of CA in sheep and goats; herds and flocks may exhibit outbreaks of CA or may be chronically infected, the latter with a high incidence of subclinical mastitis and only occasional clinical cases. The complex epidemiology of CA is related to the genetic characteristics and mechanisms of molecular variation of the Mycoplasma spp. involved, along with presence of CA-mycoplasmas in wild ruminant species. In goats, the situation is particularly complex and asymptomatic carriers have been detected in chronically infected herds. The coexistence of other non-pathogenic mycoplasmas in the herd further complicates the diagnosis of CA and the design of efficient strategies to control the disease. Routes of infection, such as the venereal route, may be involved in the establishment of chronic infection in herds. Current challenges include the need for improved diagnostic methods for detection of chronic and subclinical infections and for the design of more efficient vaccines.

  8. [Epidemiology of Ebola virus disease and of other highly contagious, life-threatening diseases with low incidence in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ehlkes, L; Kreuels, B; Schwarz, N G; May, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Apart from sporadic exported cases, the occurrence of Ebola, Marburg and Lassa virus diseases is limited to the African continent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever occurs in Southeastern Europe but, so far, not in Germany. Other hemorrhagic fever disease-viruses occur in distinct regions in South America. Pulmonary plague is the bacterial infectious disease with the most contagious and lethal course and it is endemic to Madagascar and East Africa, but also occurs in other countries (e.g. India, USA). Monkey pox epidemics have occurred in remote areas of the Congo Basin. Such outbreaks could potentially become more common with the discontinuation of the cross-protective smallpox vaccination. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that emerged in 2002/2003 is another pathogen with significant epidemic potential. Typical for these diseases is a natural circulation between reservoir animals in remote areas. Sporadic transmission to humans can occur through contact with an infected animal. Subsequent human-to-human transmission can lead to epidemics, such as the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa.

  9. Effects on goat milk quality of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. in herds without symptoms of contagious agalactia.

    PubMed

    de la Fe, Christian; Sánchez, Antonio; Gutierrez, Aldo; Contreras, Antonio; Carlos Corrales, Juan; Assunçao, Patricia; Poveda, Carlos; Poveda, José B

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the possible effects of mycoplasmas on the quality of milk produced by goat herds in a contagious agalactia (CA) endemic area with absence of classical symptoms. Several factors related to milk quality (percentages of fat, total protein, lactose and total solids, standard plate counts (SPC) and presence of Staphylococcus aureus) were compared in mycoplasma-infected and non-infected herds. To define the CA status of 26 herds on the island of Lanzarote (Spain), where CA is endemic, 570 individual milk samples and 266 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were microbiologically analysed for the presence of Mycoplasma spp. A herd was considered infected by mycoplasmas when at least a sample (individual or BTM) was positive. BTM samples were also used to determine milk quality parameters. Mycoplasma infection was confirmed in 13 herds. A total of 31, 10 and 11 strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (MmmLC), Mp. agalactiae and Mp. capricolum subsp. capricolum were isolated. No significant differences were observed between the least square means of the variables fat, total protein, lactose and total solids or SPC recorded for the infected v. non-infected herds. The Staph. aureus status of a herd was also found to be independent of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. Our findings indicate that neither the presence of mycoplasmas in a goat herd with absence of classical symptoms seem to compromise the quality of the BTM.

  10. Is obesity contagious by way of body image? A study on Japanese female students in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bagrowicz, Rinako; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2013-10-01

    Although it has been suggested that obesity is 'contagious' within the social network, direct cause of this spread of obesity remains unclear. This study hypothesized that Body Image (BI), the perception of one's own body size, may play a role in this obesity spread, since a high prevalence of obesity could shift people's perception of 'what is normal'. Young Japanese females (n = 53) were interviewed within 1 month after moving to New York City, where the prevalence of obesity is substantially higher than that of their home country, Japan. Each participant was examined for her BI in terms of current body size (CBS) and ideal body size (IBS). They were interviewed again 2 months after the first examination. Between the two interviews, the participants' CBS was decreased (having thinner self-image), while the IBS increased (having fatter ideal-image), leading to less dissatisfaction (smaller CBS-IBS) with their body size. These results suggest that one's BI could change in a period as short as 2 months, possibly because of being surrounded by more obese people. The IBS change was positively associated with BMI change (increased by 0.4 ± 0.6 kg/m²), warranting further study on the role of BI in the spread of obesity.

  11. Whole-flock, metaphylactic tilmicosin failed to eliminate contagious ovine digital dermatitis and footrot in sheep: a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Angell, J. W.; Grove-White, D. H.; Williams, H. J.; Duncan, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical success of whole-flock systemic tilmicosin and enhanced biosecurity in eliminating active contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) from sheep flocks. Thirty flocks in the UK were randomly allocated to receive either treatment as usual (as per the farmer's normal routine) or whole-flock treatment with tilmicosin, together with isolation and extended treatment of clinically affected individuals and isolation and treatment of purchased sheep during the study period. All flocks were visited once at onset of the trial to examine all sheep. One year later, all sheep were re-examined to determine the presence/absence of clinical lesions. The primary outcome was the clinical elimination of CODD from flocks. Secondary outcomes were reduction in prevalence of CODD, clinical elimination of footrot and reduction in prevalence of footrot. The analysis included 11 control flocks and 13 intervention flocks, with initially 3460 and 4686 sheep, respectively. For CODD: at follow-up, in the intervention group, 6/13 (46 per cent) flocks had a prevalence of zero compared with 1/11 (9 per cent) in the control group (P=0.12). For footrot: at follow-up, no flocks had a prevalence of zero. Therefore, the intervention is not recommended for the elimination of CODD or footrot in the UK. PMID:27450091

  12. Vaccination against bovine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    De Vos, A J; Bock, R E

    2000-01-01

    Bovine babesiosis is an important disease caused by Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. Solid immunity develops after infection and this feature has been exploited with the use of live attenuated organisms as immunogens. Attributes of live vaccines include a durable immunity to heterologous challenge after one vaccination. To overcome disadvantages relating to poor quality control (risk of contamination and adverse reactions), production procedures have been modified to meet the requirements of codes of good manufacturing practice. This includes development of methods to allow production of cryopreserved vaccine and limit antigenic drift. Killed vaccines have also been used on a limited basis and consist of antigens extracted from cultured material or blood of infected calves, and given with adjuvant. The degree and duration of immunity against heterologous challenge is not well documented. Attempts are being made to develop subunit vaccines but the progress has been slow. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the expression of protective immunity against Babesia spp will aid in the identification of protective antigens.

  13. Pathology of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Domingo, M; Vidal, E; Marco, A

    2014-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic granulomatous caseous-necrotising inflammatory process that mainly affects the lungs and their draining lymph nodes (Ln.). The pathological changes associated with bTB infection reflect the interplay between the host defence mechanisms and the mycobacterial virulence factors and the balance between the immunologic protective responses and the damaging inflammatory processes. Inhalation is the most common infection route and causes lesions of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract, including its associated lymph nodes. The initial infection (primary complex) may be followed by chronic (post-primary) tuberculosis or may be generalised. Goat tuberculosis often produces liquefactive necrosis and caverns, similarly to human TB. The assessment of the severity of TB lesions is crucial for vaccine trials. Semi-quantitative gross lesion scoring systems have been developed for cattle, but imaging technology has allowed the development of more standardised, objective, and quantitative methods, such as multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), which provides quantitative measures of lesion volume.

  14. Evidence obtained with monoclonal antibodies that O antigen is the major antigen responsible for the cross-reactivities between serotypes 4 and 7 of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Barbosa, J I; Gutiérrez Martín, C B; Tascón, R I; Suárez, J; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1995-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae serotype 4 (reference strain M62 and field isolate F6) were produced and characterized. Three hybridoma clones were raised against strain M62, and 13 were raised against strain F6. The predominant antibody class was immunoglobulin M (IgM), although IgG2a and IgG2b were also obtained. Three of the MAbs produced to field isolate F6 (5C5, 1E10, and 5H7) did not recognize the reference strain of serotype 4, another (6F7) was reactive with both reference strains of serotypes 4 and 7, and the remaining 12 MAbs reacted only with the reference strain of the homologous serotype. All epitopes recognized by MAbs, except for one (6F7), were sensitive to periodic acid oxidation, and all of them were resistant to boiling in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and reducing conditions, as evidenced by immunodot. Enhanced chemioluminiscence-immunoblot assays revealed that 10 MAbs (3E12, 5B8, 7C3, 6F7, 7F5, 7E6, 5G4, 4F1, 7E10, and 4B8) recognized a ladder-like banding pattern, which is in accordance with the O side chain antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while the remaining 6 MAbs (5C5, 5H7, 1E10, 6D11, 6B4, and 5E4) blotted with high-molecular-weight regions composed of a single banding pattern. The suitability of MAbs for serotyping of 78 field isolates was also examined. A high correlation was found between the results previously established by indirect hemagglutination with polyclonal sera and those obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with MAbs. According to the different immunoreactivity of MAbs, three groups were established: group I (MAbs 3E12, 5B8, 7C3, 6F7, and 7F5), group II (MAbs 7E6, 5G4, 4F1, 7E10, and 4B8), and group III (MAbs 5C5, 5H7, and 1E10). MAbs 6D11, 6B4, and 5E4 could not be included in any of the described above. At least six different immunodominant epitopes on the O antigen of the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 4 LPS were identified. Finally, the implications

  15. Bridging a yawning chasm: EEG investigations into the debate concerning the role of the human mirror neuron system in contagious yawning.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nicholas R; Puzzo, Ignazio; Pawley, Adam D; Bowes-Mulligan, Ruby A; Kirkpatrick, Emma V; Antoniou, Pavlina A; Kennett, Steffan

    2012-06-01

    Ongoing debate in the literature concerns whether there is a link between contagious yawning and the human mirror neuron system (hMNS). One way of examining this issue is with the use of the electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure changes in mu activation during the observation of yawns. Mu oscillations are seen in the alpha bandwidth of the EEG (8-12 Hz) over sensorimotor areas. Previous work has shown that mu suppression is a useful index of hMNS activation and is sensitive to individual differences in empathy. In two experiments, we presented participants with videos of either people yawning or control stimuli. We found greater mu suppression for yawns than for controls over right motor and premotor areas, particularly for those scoring higher on traits of empathy. In a third experiment, auditory recordings of yawns were compared against electronically scrambled versions of the same yawns. We observed greater mu suppression for yawns than for the controls over right lateral premotor areas. Again, these findings were driven by those scoring highly on empathy. The results from these experiments support the notion that the hMNS is involved in contagious yawning, emphasise the link between contagious yawning and empathy, and stress the importance of good control stimuli.

  16. Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and

  17. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  18. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of marbofloxacin in the treatment of Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in nursery and fattener pigs using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Vilalta, C; Giboin, H; Schneider, M; El Garch, F; Fraile, L

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the theoretical clinical outcome of three marbofloxacin posology regimens in two groups of pigs (weaners and fatteners) for the treatment of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and Haemophilus parasuis (Hp) infection and the appearance of resistant bacteria due to the antibiotic treatment. The probability of target attainment (PTA) for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and with the appearance of antimicrobial resistance for fluoroquinolones at each minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were calculated, respectively. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was calculated for the three posology regimens against App and they ranged from 91.12% to 96.37% in weaners and from 93% to 97.43% in fatteners, respectively. In the case of Hp, they ranged from 80.52% to 85.14% in weaners and from 82.01% to 88.49% in fatteners, respectively. Regarding the PTA of the PK/PD threshold associated with the appearance of antimicrobial resistance, results showed that marbofloxacin would prevent resistances in most of the animals up to the MPC value of 1 μg/mL.

  19. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in porcine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid and effects of test conditions on in vitro activity against reference strains and field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Menge, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Wilhelm, C; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 40 mg/mL solution for injection for pigs), a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide for the treatment for swine respiratory disease (SRD), was investigated in studies collecting blood plasma and postmortem samples of lung tissue and bronchial fluid (BF) from swine. In view of factors influencing the in vitro activity of macrolides, and for the interpretation of tildipirosin pharmacokinetics in relation to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), additional experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere, buffers, and serum on tildipirosin MICs for various reference strains and Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae field isolates. After single intramuscular (i.m.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.9 μg/mL observed within 23 min (Tmax ). Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRTlast) and terminal half-life (T1/2) both were about 4 days. A dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect is observed for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUClast) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. However, linear dose proportionality could not be proven with statistical methods. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded that in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 3.1 μg/g at 2 h, peaked at 4.3 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 0.8 μg/g at day 17. In BF, tildipirosin levels were 14.3, 7.0, and 6.5 μg/g at days 5, 10, and 14. T1/2 in lung was ∼7 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination. Culture media pH and carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere (CO2 -EA) had a marked impact on in vitro activity of tildipirosin in reference strains of various rapidly growing aerobic and

  1. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... the United States, while allowing the importation of additional animals and animal products into this... continue to guard against the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) into the United States... commitment of the United States to base its BSE regulations on internationally accepted scientific...

  2. Is Cellulitis Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... isn't usually spread from person to person. Cellulitis is an infection of the deeper layers of the skin most ... chills Swollen glands or lymph nodes Left untreated, cellulitis can rapidly ... soft tissue infections. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. ...

  3. [Disease in the cloisters: requests to leave Convento da Ajuda, Rio de Janeiro, for the treatment of contagious diseases, c.1750-1780].

    PubMed

    Martins, William de Souza

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the requests submitted by nuns from Convento da Ajuda (Ajuda Convent) to leave their life of enclosure to receive treatment for contagious diseases. Disease was one of the few cases in which nuns were granted permission to leave. The female orders were strictly cloistered in order to preserve their purity as virgins consecrated to Christ. Extant documents detail the causes of the diseases, the ways they were transmitted, and the treatments used to fight them. These processes shed light on the procedures adopted outside the cloisters so that the nuns did not jeopardize their reclusion and honor when they went to distant places in search of treatment.

  4. Characterization of Bovine Brain ATPase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    tiEFILE Copi am, opRffRiN i ~CRDEC-CR- - - CHARACTERIZATION OF BOVINE N BRAIN ATPASE by James J. Valdes, Ph.D. RESEARCH DIRECTORATE James P. Chambers...the Arw position unless so designated by other authorizing documents. Distribution Statement Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. I ...IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION of epplics") CRDEC ISMCCR-RS DAAK11-84-K-0003 I . ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS berdeen

  5. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease. In addition, concomitant fourfold rises of antibody titers were frequently observed to two or more viral agents in seroconverted calves (61%) or adult animals (38%). Bovine viral diarrhea virus was found to be the most frequent viral agent associated with multiple viral infection in calves only (92%). PMID:17423116

  6. A circannual rhythm in bovine pineal serotonin.

    PubMed

    Philo, R; Reiter, R J

    1980-06-15

    Bovine pineal serotonin (5-HT) was analyzed at the time of the solstices and equinoxes from December, 1975 until June, 1978. The highest values of 5-HT were detected at the winter solstices and lowest values at the summer solstices of each year examined. The peaks in bovine pineal 5-HT correspond with a lessened fertility in cattle reported during the winter months.

  7. Efficacy of vaccination against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in two Belgian farrow-to-finish pig herds with a history of chronic pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo Sacristán, R; Michiels, A; Martens, M; Haesebrouck, F; Maes, D

    2014-03-22

    The efficacy of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae subunit vaccine based on ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA and OMP-2 (Porcilis App, MSD) was investigated in two farrow-to-finish pig herds (A and B) affected by chronic pleurisy. In total, 1161 pigs were included. At three weeks of age, the pigs were randomly allocated to non-vaccinated control (NV; n=580) and vaccinated (V; n=581) groups. At 6 and 10 weeks of age, pigs were injected with Porcilis-APP (V group) or adjuvant (NV group). At slaughter (26 weeks), pleurisy and pneumonia lesions were assessed. All pigs were weighed individually at 6 and 26 weeks of age, and average daily weight gain (ADG; g/pig/day) was calculated. Mortality and days of additional treatment (DAT) were registered during the whole experiment. Data were analysed using binary logistic regression or analysis of variance for proportions or continuous variables, respectively. The prevalence of pleurisy and pneumonia was (NV-A=19.3, V-A=7.9, (P=0.000); NV-B=17.9, V-B=0.7, (P=0.000)) and (NV-A=42.4, V-A=21.2, (P=0.000); NV-B=46.7, V-B=19.0, (P=0.000)), respectively. The ADG was NV-A=632±157, V-A=647±91, (P=0.162); NV-B=660±115, V-B=670±82, (P=0.232). The mortality during the experiment was NV-A=5.7, V-A=1.8, (P=0.015); NV-B=2.3, V-B=1.0, (P=0.170) per cent. The DAT was: NV-A=15.04±1.41, V-A=14.95±0.67, (P=0.010); NV-B=21.68±2.43, V-B=16.99±0.62, (P=0.000). The present study showed a significant reduction of the prevalence of pleurisy and pneumonia, and antimicrobial use in V pigs from both herds, and in mortality in V pigs from one herd.

  8. Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in cultures from nasal and tonsillar swabs of pigs by a PCR assay based on the nucleotide sequence of a dsbE-like gene.

    PubMed

    Chiers, K; Van Overbeke, I; Donné, E; Baele, M; Ducatelle, R; De Baere, T; Haesebrouck, F

    2001-11-08

    A PCR assay for the detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was developed based on the amplification of a dsbE-like gene. All of 157 field isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae reacted in the PCR by the amplification of a 342bp product. No reaction was observed with related bacterial species or other bacterial species isolated from pigs, except for A. lignieresii. The lower detection limit of the PCR was 10(2) CFU per PCR test tube and was not affected by the addition of 10(6) CFU Escherichia coli. The PCR was evaluated on mixed bacterial cultures from nasal and tonsillar swabs as well as suspensions of nasal conchae and tonsils obtained from specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs, experimentally infected pigs, and pigs from farrow-to-finish herds. The results of the new PCR were compared with a PCR based on the detection of the omlA gene coding for an outer membrane protein, with a commercially available PCR (Adiavet APP, Adiagène, Saint-Brieuc, France), and with conventional culturing. No positive reactions were observed with any of the PCR methods in samples of SPF animals. In samples of the other animals, no or low significant differences between nasal swabs and suspensions as well as tonsillar swabs and suspensions were observed in any method. In general, more positive results were obtained from tonsillar samples in comparison to nasal samples. Interassay sensitivity and specificity values were assessed for each test by pair wise comparisons between assays. The agreement between tests was evaluated by calculating Cohen's kappa coefficient. From these analyses the three PCR assays showed a good agreement. The dsbE-based PCR proved to be highly sensitive (95 and 93%) and specific (82 and 74%) in comparison to the omlA-based PCR and the commercially available PCR, respectively. It was concluded that the dsbE-like gene-based PCR is a reliable diagnostic assay for demonstration of A. pleuropneumoniae. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that tonsillar swabs can be used for

  9. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Le Luo Guan; Zhang Bing; Dodson, Michael V.; Okine, Erasmus; Moore, Stephen S.

    2008-02-01

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-{gamma}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-{gamma} and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro.

  10. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G

    1993-01-01

    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity.

  11. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  12. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2.

  13. The Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training for Public Safety Personnel. Report of the Committee on Training of the Criminal Justice Services Board to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Criminal Justice Services, Richmond.

    Through discussion and extensive research, the Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training attempted to address concerns regarding education and training of public safety personnel with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The committee's findings were based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration…

  14. Pastoral care of patients with Ebola Virus Disease: A medical and canonical opinion about pastoral visits to patients with contagious and highly fatal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Stephen E.; Nguyen, Benedict T.

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola Virus Disease is a contagious and highly fatal illness that up until recently had been geographically limited to remote areas of Africa. In 2014, Ebola patients have been transported to the United States for care or have been newly diagnosed in the United States. With the intensive medical care and isolation policies usually needed by these patients, we inquired whether pastoral care would be possible. Using clinical and canonical considerations, we analyzed the permissibility and logistical challenges pastoral care presents to the priests and lay ministers, as well as the healthcare system. We conclude that with the approval of local, state, and federal health officials, pastoral care, including provision of the sacraments, is possible. It would require proper training, proper equipment and policies, and a significant commitment of time. While the risk to the pastoral team is difficult to define, it seems low in an Ebola-capable medical system. These risks to priests and ministers seem reasonable given the inestimable benefits of receiving the sacraments during critical illness. Lay summary: Traditional pastoral visits to hospitalized patients might prove difficult or impossible for diseases that are contagious and highly fatal. This inquiry examines the feasibility, challenges, and logistical solutions to these visits. With input from bishops, priests, a canon lawyer, an epidemiologist, a physician, the CDC, and others, we conclude that pastoral visits are possible. Visits will require permission of health authorities, commitments of time, training, and a small but significant risk to the health of priests and others who volunteer for this ministry. PMID:25999614

  15. Blood discard rate and the prevalence of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Takemoto, Angélica Yukari; Bértoli, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Background So that an improvement in the selection of donors can be achieved and the risk to the recipient of transfused blood can be reduced, prospective donors are submitted to clinical and serological screening. Objective This study investigated the blood discard rate and the rate of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods This study was an exploratory cross-sectional descriptive investigation with a quantitative approach of donations between January and December 2011. Results In the study period the Regional Blood center in Maringá, Brazil received 8337 blood donations from people living in the city and neighboring towns. However, 278 (3.33%) donations were discarded during serological screening owing to one or more positive serological markers. A total of 46.4% of the discarded blood units were confirmed positive by serology with anti-HBc being the most common (66.7%), followed by syphilis (22.5%), HBsAg (4.7%), anti-hepatitis C virus (3.1%), human immunodeficiency virus (1.5%) and Chagas' disease (1.5%). The rate of infectious-contagious diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusions was 1.55% (129/8337) of the donor population with a frequency of 1.03% for anti-HBc and 0.35% for syphilis. Conclusion This study demonstrates a high prevalence of the anti-HBc marker in prospective blood donors from provincial towns in the state of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:24478604

  16. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is a partially purified liquid or...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  1. Saturated hydrocarbons in bovine liver

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Bartholomew; Modzeleski, Vincent E.; Scott, Ward M.

    1969-01-01

    A homologous series of n-alkanes (C14–C33) and two isoprenoid hydrocarbons, 2,6,10,14-tetramethylhexadecane (phytane) and 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (pristane) have been identified in bovine liver. Another branched but non-isoprenoid alkane and three isomers of molecular formula C20H40 were partially identified. Phytane and the C18–C22 and C29–C33 n-alkanes were found to be the major components in liver, suggesting that at least the main hydrocarbon components were derived from various plants in the diet. The hydrocarbons were separated and identified by a series of steps involving solvent extraction, saponification, elution chromatography on alumina and silica gel columns, molecular sieving and by infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, followed by combined capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. PMID:5820649

  2. Growth and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos in bovine uterine flushing-supplemented culture media.

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, M; Guay, P; Goff, A K; Cooke, G M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development and metabolic activity of cultured murine and bovine embryos in 2 standard media (HAM F-10 and RPMI) in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. Murine morulae (n = 653) and day 7 bovine embryos (n = 273) were cultured for 18 h or 36 h in either HAM F-10 or RPMI in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. After culture, the development, quality, and metabolic activity (glucose utilization or methionine uptake and incorporation) of embryos was assessed. It was found that HAM F-10 (without uterine flushings) was a more suitable medium than RPMI for optimal development and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos. Poor quality and development, as well as decreased metabolism, were evident after culture of murine embryos in RPMI; in contrast, this medium had no adverse effects on bovine embryos in culture. Supplementation of HAM F-10 with bovine uterine flushings improved the growth of murine embryos and the protein synthesis (as measured by an increased methionine incorporation) for both murine and bovine embryos. However, supplementation with bovine uterine flushings could not overcome deficiencies of an inappropriate medium (RPMI) for murine embryos. Supplementation of a well-defined culture medium with uterine flushings increased metabolism of embryos in culture, and thus might help to increase pregnancy rates after transfer of such embryos to recipient cows. PMID:8825988

  3. Existence of two groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis based on biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular profile and agr-typing.

    PubMed

    Bardiau, Marjorie; Caplin, Jonathan; Detilleux, Johann; Graber, Hans; Moroni, Paolo; Taminiau, Bernard; Mainil, Jacques G

    2016-03-15

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is recognised worldwide as an important pathogen causing contagious acute and chronic bovine mastitis. Chronic mastitis account for a significant part of all bovine cases and represent an important economic problem for dairy producers. Several properties (biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular expression and group agr) are thought to be associated with this chronic status. In a previous study, we found the existence of two groups of strains based on the association of these features. The aim of the present work was to confirm on a large international and non-related collection of strains the existence of these clusters and to associate them with case history records. In addition, the genomes of eight strains were sequenced to study the genomic differences between strains of each cluster. The results confirmed the existence of both groups based on capsular typing, intracellular survival and agr-typing: strains cap8-positive, belonging to agr group II, showing a low invasion rate and strains cap5-positive, belonging to agr group I, showing a high invasion rate. None of the two clusters were associated with the chronic status of the cow. When comparing the genomes of strains belonging to both clusters, the genes specific to the group "cap5-agrI" would suggest that these strains are better adapted to live in hostile environment. The existence of these two groups is highly important as they may represent two clusters that are adapted differently to the host and/or the surrounding environment.

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  5. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen.

  6. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans.

  7. Steroidogenesis in fetal bovine gonads.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, M M; Liptrap, R M; Basrur, P K

    1988-01-01

    Gonadal steroidogenesis in bovine fetuses of 40 to 125 days gestation was examined using histochemical procedures and radioimmunoassay on gonadal cultures to determine the physiological correlates of gonadal morphogenesis in cattle. Gonadal morphology and the in vitro secretion patterns were distinct between the sexes by 45 days when testes secreted significantly higher levels of testosterone and androstenedione and lower levels of estrone and 17 beta-estradiol that the ovaries (p less than 0.0001). It would appear that the main steroid route in the ovaries of 45 to 70 day old fetuses is the androstenedione to estrone to 17 beta-estradiol pathway. The high estrone secretion and the decreasing levels of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone in the ovaries of 70 to 125 day fetuses suggest an inhibition of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. It is postulated that this shift in steroid biosynthetic pathways may be related to the change in cellular events from mitosis to meiosis in fetal ovaries. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:3196968

  8. Vaccination against bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Phillip, J I

    1975-01-01

    Vaccination is but one element in a control programme for bovine respiratory disease. Its laboratory study can be divorced from the others but its field application cannot. The problems associated with the development of effective vaccines fall into two broad groups: multiplicity and ubiquity of pathogens and secondly the identification of the crucial elements in an immune response. Agricultural systems which experience annual outbreaks of respiratory disease attributable to the same pathogen in cattle of specific age have the choice of using passive or active immunity of minimal valency. In the majority of systems the cause and timing of an outbreak cannot be predicted and therefore multivalent vaccines are required. Both inactivated and modified live products are available for use against the well-known pathogens. Their relative advantages hinge on the significance attributed to the ability to stimulate the production of particular immunoglobulins at specific body sites and the persistence of the responses. The widely held view that success requires the stimulation of secretory antibodies by intranasal administration of living vaccines is not universally accepted. An assessment of their protective value is not easily made because of the difficulty of reproducing an adequate field challenge in the laboratory. The measurement of serological responses and virus shedding times following challenge are of limited value as alternatives.

  9. Swine adipose stromal cells loaded with recombinant bovine herpesvirus 4 virions expressing a foreign antigen induce potent humoral immune responses in pigs.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, Gaetano; Taddei, Simone; Franceschi, Valentina; Capocefalo, Antonio; Cavirani, Sandro; Martinelli, Nicola; Ottonello, Simone; Ferrari, Maura

    2011-01-29

    Increasingly effective vaccination strategies are needed to counteract the high incidence of contagious diseases associated with intensive swine breeding. Recombinant viral vaccines are a promising new avenue in this direction. Key features of viral vectors suitable for immunoprophylaxis are safety, ease of manipulation and the ability to replicate in a variety of hosts. Most of the above requirements are met by bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4), a non-pathogenic dsDNA virus capable of infecting a broad range of cell types in vitro. Here we report the results of an exploratory study using an engineered BoHV-4 virus (eBoHV-4) expressing two unrelated glycoprotein antigens from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), to assess the potential of recombinant BoHV-4 as a self-adjuvanted immunogen in pigs. Free eBoHV-4 virions and virions preloaded into homologous swine adipose-derived stromal cells (SADSC) were tested. Neither virus formulation elicited neutralizing anti-BoHV-4 antibodies, nor any disease symptom, yet both induced specific immune responses against the heterologous antigens. However, a much earlier (18 vs 28 days post-infection) and more robust neutralizing response against BVDV and BoHV-1 viruses was elicited by eBoHV-4-preinfected SADSCs compared to free virions. The data validate BoHV-4 as a safe and effective heterologous antigen carrier/producer and identify SADSCs as helpful tools for the formulation of increasingly efficacious recombinant immunogens for pig vaccination.

  10. Simulation Study on Effects of Order and Step Size of Runge-Kutta Methods that Solve Contagious Disease and Tumor Models.

    PubMed

    Z, Wang; Q, Wang; Dj, Klinke

    2016-09-01

    Biological processes such as contagious disease spread patterns and tumor growth dynamics are modelled using a set of coupled differential equations. Experimental data is usually used to calibrate models so they can be used to make future predictions. In this study, numerical methods were implemented to approximate solutions to mathematical models that were not solvable analytically, such as a SARS model. More complex models such as a tumor growth model involve high-dimensional parameter spaces; efficient numerical simulation techniques were used to search for optimal or close-to-optimal parameter values in the equations. Runge-Kutta methods are a group of explicit and implicit numerical methods that effectively solve the ordinary differential equations in these models. Effects of the order and the step size of Runge-Kutta methods were studied in order to maximize the search accuracy and efficiency in parameter spaces of the models. Numerical simulation results showed that an order of four gave the best balance between truncation errors and the simulation speed for SIR, SARS, and tumormodels studied in the project. The optimal step size for differential equation solvers was found to be model-dependent.

  11. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    PubMed

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic disease, and a disease resembling mucosal disease that is apparently caused solely by noncytopathic virus. Although a good understanding of the roles of the 2 biotypes in the production of persistent infections and the precipitation of mucosal disease has been obtained, there are still unanswered questions regarding the origin of cytopathic viruses and the mechanism by which they cause pathological changes in cells. It is apparent, however, that cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses arise by mutation of noncytopathic viruses, and it is known that p80 is the marker protein for cytopathic viruses. The previous distinction between mild bovine viral diarrhea and fatal mucosal disease has been eroded with the emergence of new virulent bovine viral diarrhea viruses. The new diseases pose a threat to the cattle industry and present a new challenge for investigators. Index Veterinarius (1984-1994) and Medline (1985-1994) databases and personal files updated since 1987 from BIOSIS Previews and Biosciences Information Services were used to search the literature. Images Figure 1. PMID:7648541

  13. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation. PMID:24738063

  14. Recent progress in cryopreservation of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Sul; Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  15. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that ...

  16. 65 FR 63227 - Declaration of Emergency Because of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-10-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Declaration of Emergency Because of Bovine Tuberculosis Bovine tuberculosis (tuberculosis) is a chronic debilitating disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The... animal health agencies to eradicate tuberculosis from domestic livestock in the United States...

  17. Bovine Eimeria species in Austria.

    PubMed

    Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W

    2012-05-01

    Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from

  18. Bovine serum albumin: survival and osmolarity effect in bovine spermatozoa stored above freezing point.

    PubMed

    Nang, C F; Osman, K; Budin, S B; Ismail, M I; Jaffar, F H F; Mohamad, S F S; Ibrahim, S F

    2012-05-01

    Liquid nitrogen preservation in remote farms is a limitation. The goal of this study was to determine optimum temperature above freezing point for bovine spermatozoa preservation using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a supplementation. Pooled semen sample from three ejaculates was subjected to various BSA concentration (1, 4, 8 and 12 mg ml(-1)), before incubation in different above freezing point temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C). Viability assessment was carried out against time from day 0 (fresh sample) until all spermatozoa become nonviable. Optimal condition for bovine spermatozoa storage was at 4 °C with 1 mg ml(-1) BSA for almost 7 days. BSA improved bovine spermatozoa viability declining rate to 44.28% at day 4 and 57.59% at day 7 compared to control, with 80.54% and 98.57% at day 4 and 7 respectively. Increase in BSA concentration did not improve sperm viability. Our results also confirmed that there was a strong negative correlation between media osmolarity and bovine spermatozoa survival rate with r = 0.885, P < 0.0001. Bovine serum albumin helps to improve survival rate of bovine spermatozoa stored above freezing point.

  19. Parthenogenetic activation of bovine oocytes using bovine and murine phospholipase C zeta

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pablo J; Beyhan, Zeki; Iager, Amy E; Yoon, Sook-Young; Malcuit, Christopher; Schellander, Karl; Fissore, Rafael A; Cibelli, Jose B

    2008-01-01

    Background During natural fertilization, sperm fusion with the oocyte induces long lasting intracellular calcium oscillations which in turn are responsible for oocyte activation. PLCZ1 has been identified as the factor that the sperm delivers into the egg to induce such a response. We tested the hypothesis that PLCZ1 cRNA injection can be used to activate bovine oocytes. Results Mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNAs were injected into matured bovine oocytes at different concentrations. Within the concentrations tested, mouse PLCZ1 injection activated bovine oocytes at a maximum rate when the pipette concentration of cRNA ranged from 0.25 to 1 μg/μL, while bovine PLCZ1 was optimal at 0.1 μg/μL. At their most effective concentrations, PLCZ1 induced parthenogenetic development at rates similar to those observed using other activation stimuli such as Ionomycin/CHX and Ionomycin/DMAP. Injection of mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNA induced dose-dependent sperm-like calcium oscillations whose frequency increased over time. Injection of bovine and mouse PLCZ1 cRNA also induced IP3R-1 degradation, although bovine PLCZ1 cRNA evoked greater receptor degradation than its mouse counterpart. Conclusion Injection of PLCZ1 cRNA efficiently activated bovine oocytes by inducing a sperm-like calcium oscillatory pattern. Importantly, the high rate of aneuploidy encountered in parthenogenetic embryos activated by certain chemical means was not observed in PLCZ1 activated embryos. PMID:18284699

  20. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  1. Epidemiologic survey of bovine diseases in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Corbett, W T; Guy, J; Lieuw-A-Joe, R; Hunter, L; Grindem, C; Levy, M; Cullen, J; Vaz, V

    1989-01-01

    A seroepidemiologic survey of cattle diseases was undertaken in Suriname in 1985 to help assess the livestock disease situation in that country. The six diseases covered by the survey were bovine coronavirus infection, bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine virus diarrhea, brucellosis, parainfluenza-3 infection, and respiratory syncytial virus infection. The results indicated relatively low prevalences of these diseases compared to the prevalences found in most developed countries. The reasons for this are uncertain, but the finding suggests that the cattle population in Suriname could lack extensive exposure to these diseases and so could be highly susceptible to them. In addition, the evident need for more thoroughgoing survey data points up the need to establish a continuous animal data health monitoring system in Suriname--as well as in other developing countries where there is a need to objectively assess the livestock disease picture.

  2. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  3. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.69 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  4. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  5. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  6. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  7. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  8. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.69 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  9. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  10. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  11. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  12. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.69 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  13. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  14. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  15. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  16. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.69 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  17. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  18. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  19. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  20. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.69 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  1. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  2. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  3. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  4. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  5. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master...

  6. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  7. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  8. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... (USDA) is currently developing proposed revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB)...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  13. Covalent coupling of bovine growth hormone to its receptor in bovine liver membranes.

    PubMed

    Badinga, L; Collier, R J; Thatcher, W W; Quintana, S J; Bazer, F W

    1987-07-01

    The structure of bovine somatotropin receptor was examined following covalent coupling of iodinated recombinant bovine growth hormone ([125I]rbGH) to bovine liver membrane receptors using ethylene glycol bis(succinimidyl succinate). Iodinated rbGH was incorporated into a complex of estimated Mr of 140,000 under reducing conditions. Excess unlabeled rbGH, but not bovine prolactin (bPRL), inhibited completely the incorporation of [125I]rbGH into the Mr = 140,000 species. In dairy bulls, the Mr = 140,000 complex was undetectable soon after birth but became predominant at 6 months of age. No evidence was found to support presence of bPRL receptors in steer liver membranes. Assuming a 1:1 stoichiometry of hormone binding to receptor, it appears that bGH binds to a major receptor subunit of Mr = 119,000 which does not recognize bPRL.

  14. Concurrent Bovine Virus Diarrhea and Bovine Papular Stomatitis Infection in a Calf

    PubMed Central

    Bohac, J. G.; Yates, W. D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A case of concurrent infection with the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea and papular stomatitis in a calf is reported. The difficulties posed by such situations are described and the criteria used for diagnosis outlined. The two diseases are reviewed briefly and the possible mechanisms whereby bovine virus diarrhea virus is suspected of facilitating infection by other agents are discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:7459795

  15. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  16. Bovine Bacillus anthracis in Cameroon ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pilo, Paola; Rossano, Alexandra; Bamamga, Hamadou; Abdoulkadiri, Souley; Perreten, Vincent; Frey, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Bovine Bacillus anthracis isolates from Cameroon were genetically characterized. They showed a strong homogeneity, and they belong, together with strains from Chad, to cluster Aβ, which appears to be predominant in western Africa. However, one strain that belongs to a newly defined clade (D) and cluster (D1) is penicillin resistant and shows certain phenotypes typical of Bacillus cereus. PMID:21705535

  17. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  18. Study of chromosomal alterations in bovine leukosis.

    PubMed

    Predescu, E; Athanasiu, P; Nastac, E; Hozoc, M

    1977-01-01

    The results of a cytogenetic study of the "CT 384" cell line obtained from bovine leukemic lymph nodes are presented. Multiple chromosomal alterations were found in the 265 metaphases examined: numeric anomalies (aneuploidy and polyploidy), morphologic aberrations (dicentric, annular, giant, filamentous chromosomes) and chromosomal lesions (arm breaks).

  19. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism in bovine Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941

  20. An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sparling, A M

    2000-01-01

    A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology. PMID:10769770

  1. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  2. A physical map of the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential geneti...

  3. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  4. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  5. 78 FR 72859 - Concurrence With OIE Risk Designations for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... ``Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products,'' Docket No. APHIS-2008... regions for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) risk. Section 92.5 of the regulations provides that all... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Concurrence With OIE Risk Designations for Bovine...

  6. Ontogeny of the Bovine Immune Response 1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R. D.; Dunne, H. W.; Heist, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the bovine immune response was studied in three embryos (<40 days) and 106 fetuses of various ages. In the absence of overt antigenic stimulation, fetuses had lymphoid development of the thymus at 42 days of gestation, the spleen was structurally present at 55 days, and certain peripheral lymph nodes were present at 60 days. Mesenteric lymph nodes were structurally present by 100 days of gestation, and lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the lower ileum, was observed in histologic sections of a 175-day fetus with a bacterial infection. Pyroninophilic cells, plasma cells, and germinal centers were present in lymph node sections of antigenically stimulated fetuses. Lymphoid tissue developed more rapidly in fetuses with bacteria, viral antigens, or apparent maternal red-blood-cell antigens than in the normal fetus. Thymic and splenic indices reached maximal values in the 205- to 220-day fetal age group. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)-containing cells were first observed, by immunofluorescence, in a single fetus at 59 days of gestation. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-containing cells were observed at 145 days of gestation in one fetus with a bacterial and viral infection. IgM-containing cells were observed in 36 fetuses and IgM and IgG cells were present in seven fetuses. Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, and liver of one fetus from a dam with lymphosarcoma had immunoglobulin-containing cells. Hemal lymph nodes, blood (buffy coat), Peyer patches, and heart and lung sections from fetuses with immunoglobulin-containing cells in spleen or lymph node did not have immunoglobulin-containing cells. Antigens of the virus of bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) were detected in one fetus, and antigens of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were detected in three fetuses; however, viruses were not isolated in primary bovine embryonic kidney cells. Two of the three fetuses with IBR virus antigens had neutralizing serum antibody

  7. Contagious Ideas from Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Financial problems plague both higher education and health care, two sectors that struggle to meet public expectations for quality services at affordable rates. Both higher education and health care also have a complex bottom line, heavy reliance on relatively autonomous professionals, and clients who share personal responsibility for achieving…

  8. How contagious is Dutch disease

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, L.O.

    1982-03-01

    Into the vernacular of economists has come the term Dutch Disease from the Netherland's experience as a net energy exporter. After outlining characterisics of the affliction and the ways in which it can be manifested, this article looks at the economies of United Kingdom, Norway, and Mexico. While the stage of economic development, the structure of the balance of payments, and the exchange-rate regime are at least somewhat different for each, all have economies that are feeling the impact of the energy sector. Common factors are a higher value for the exchange rate than would otherwise be the case and a squeeze on nonenergy sectors of the economy. 4 figures.

  9. Sheep and farm level factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study of sheep on six farms.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Grove-White, D H; Duncan, J S

    2015-11-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a cause of severe lameness in sheep in the UK currently affecting approximately 50% of farms. Six farms were studied in North Wales to investigate (1) the prevalence dynamics of CODD, (2) the association between sheep with CODD and potential risk factors and (3) the impact of CODD on lameness in sheep. The farms were visited at approximately two-month intervals between June 2012 and October 2013 and 6515 sheep were examined. The mean sheep level prevalence of CODD varied between farms (2.5-11.9%). Within farms, prevalence may increase in the late summer/early autumn and after housing. Environmental risk factors included larger flocks, lowland pasture, lush pasture and poached pasture. Co-infection of a foot with footrot was strongly associated with CODD in that foot (OR: 7.7 95% CI: 3.9-15.5 P<0.001) but negatively associated with co-infection of a foot with interdigital dermatitis (OR: 0.04 95% CI: 0.02-0.1 P<0.001). Reinfection with CODD was observed in 78 individual sheep but there was no re-infection at foot level. Lameness on all farms reduced during the study and seasonal changes in lameness followed similar patterns to those for CODD. Infection with CODD leads to a greater increase in locomotion score compared to footrot or interdigital dermatitis and CODD lesion grade was strongly associated with being lame. Sheep with CODD in more than one foot were more likely to be lame (OR: 25.0 95% CI: 12.5-49.9 P<0.001) than those with just one foot affected (OR:10.0 95% CI: 8.6-11.6 P<0.001). The biggest risk factor for CODD is co-infection with footrot and therefore control of footrot should help reduce the risk of CODD on affected farms. Furthermore environmental risk factors for CODD are similar to those for footrot adding weight for control strategies that target both diseases in tandem. The routine repeated gathering of sheep for the purposes of treating all lame sheep might be an effective control strategy for

  10. Colostrum proinflammatory cytokines as biomarkers of bovine immune response to bovine tuberculosis (bTB).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Soto, Eduardo; Ponce-Ramos, Rosa; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Álvarez, Angel H; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Absalón, Angel E; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo; Limón-Flores, Alberto; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro; Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara E

    2017-02-01

    Bovine colostrum contains compounds, which provide passive immune protection from mother to newborn calves. Little is known about cytokine levels and their role in bovine colostrum. Moreover, the capacity of bovine colostrum cells to mount specific immune responses after natural exposure to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) antigens in dairy herds has not been studied, thus far. The purpose of this study was to identify biomarkers for bTB infection measurable in bovine colostrum. The present study reveals that isolated-immune colostrum cells can mount a specific immune response against bTB antigens, by measuring the novo IFN-γ release in cell culture. We found that IFN-γ levels in the responders (Bov(+)) to bTB antigen were higher than in non-responders (Bov(-)). On the other hand, proinflammatory cytokines contained in colostrum's whey were tested in Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) reactor (TST(+)) and non-reactor (TST(-)) animals to assess their potential role as biomarker. We observed that IFN-γ levels were lower or undetectable, as opposed to IL4 levels were measurable, the TNF-α level was higher in TST(-) than TST(+), while IL-6 levels showed the opposite reaction and with no statistical significance. Moreover, IL-1α mRNA expression levels were higher in colostrum mononuclear cells (CMC) in Bov(+) cattle. Collectively, these data suggest that the differential expression of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines could have relevant value to diagnose bTB in cattle.

  11. Radiodensity and hardness of enamel and dentin of human and bovine teeth, varying bovine teeth age.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, R B; Haiter-Neto, F; Carlo, H L; Soares, C J; Sinhoreti, M A C; Puppin-Rontani, R M; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2008-11-01

    Studies have evaluated dental hard tissues characteristics from animal species in order to be used as a substitute for human teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiodensity and hardness of human and bovine enamel and dentin, varying bovine teeth age. Five specimens (1mm thick) were obtained from animals aged 20 (B20), 30 (B30), 38 (B38) and 48 (B48)months and from 20 to 30-years-old human third molars (H). The radiographic images were taken with a phosphor plaque digital system (Digora Optime). The radiodensity was obtained and Knoop hardness (KHN) was recorded (100g for 15s--5 indentations per specimen). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA following Tukey's HSD test and Dunnet's two-sided t-test. Radiodensity was similar within enamel groups, but bovine dentin presented higher radiodensity than human one regardless of age groups. Enamel-KHN showed differences between B20-B30 and B38-B48-H, and dentin-KHN was similar within all groups. Enamel was always more radiodense than dentin and also presented higher KHN (p=0.001). The use of bovine enamel or dentin should take into consideration the teeth age, but as a general rule it should be recommended to select older bovine teeth due to better chances to find greater similarity with human teeth.

  12. Dental fluorosis in bovine temporary teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Suttie, J.W.; Clay, A.B.; Shearer, T.R.

    1985-02-01

    Deciduous incisors from calves born to dams fed an average of 40 mg of fluoride/kg of forage ration (40 ppm) were compared with incisors from calves born to dams fed a normal dairy ration. Skeletal fluoride concentration in the calves born to fluoride-fed dams was increased 5 to 8 fold, but enamel mottling and hypoplasia, typical of permanent bovine incisor dental fluorosis were not seen by gross, histologic, or radiologic examination. Decreases in the amount of enamel on the tooth or hardness of the enamel were not observed. These data do not support recent reports of widespread dental fluorosis of deciduous bovine teeth as a clinical sign of fluoride toxicity.

  13. Bovine tuberculosis and the endangered Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Briones, V; de Juan, L; Sánchez, C; Vela, A I; Galka, M; Montero; Goyache, J; Aranaz, A; Domìnguez, L

    2000-01-01

    We report the first case of bovine tuberculosis in a free-living Iberian lynx (Lynx pardina), an extremely endangered feline, from Doñana National Park in Spain. The isolate (Mycobacterium bovis) correlates by molecular characterization with other isolates from wild ungulates in the park, strongly suggesting an epidemiologic link. Mycobacterium bovis infects many animal species, with wild and free-ranging domestic ungulates being the main reservoirs in nature (1).

  14. Thermal inactivation of bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, E C; Keil, D; Coats, K S

    1996-01-01

    Cell-associated bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) and cell-free BIV were subjected to increasing temperatures, including pasteurization conditions. To determine the effect of heat treatment on BIV viability, reverse transcriptase activity and infectivity of the heat-treated virus were assessed. BIV was inactivated by heating to 47 degrees C for 30 min and by low- and high-temperature pasteurization conditions. PMID:8900024

  15. [Bovine viral diarrhea control in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Guliukin, M I; Iurov, K P; Glotov, A G; Donchenko, N A

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the greatest challenges for breeding and commercial livestock. It is characterized by lesions of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, abortion, infertility, immune deficiency, and persistence of the pathogen. In this work, a set of measures for the rehabilitation and prevention of BVD in cattle is described. It includes the data of the literature, guidance documents for the diagnosis and control of BVD adopted by OIE, EU countries, USA, as well as the results of this research.

  16. Molecular detection of bovine kobuviruses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Profio, Federica; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Pistilli, Maria Gabriella; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2012-12-01

    Faecal samples obtained from either asymptomatic or diarrhoeic calves in Italy were screened for bovine kobuviruses (BKVs) using specific primers. BKV RNA was detected in 4.9 % of the samples, with higher positivity rates in diarrhoeic calves (5.3 %) than in asymptomatic animals (4.8 %), although the difference was not statistically significant. Upon sequence analysis, all of the Italian viruses formed a tight group along with BKV-like sequences previously detected in Thailand and Japan.

  17. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed Central

    McClurkin, A W; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate produced no neutralizing antibody response to bovine virus diarrhea virus. These persistently infected cattle were immunocompetent as they developed neutralizing serotiters to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 viruses and agglutinating serotiters to Pasteurella hemolytica . Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6326980

  18. Speciation and strain-typing of Staphylococcus agnetis and Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from bovine milk using a novel multiplex PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Adkins, P R F; Middleton, J R; Calcutt, M J; Stewart, G C; Fox, L K

    2017-03-22

    Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus agnetis are two coagulase variable staphylococcal species that can be isolated from bovine milk and are difficult to differentiate. The objectives of this study were to characterize isolates of bovine milk origin from a collection that had previously been characterized as coagulase positive S. hyicus based on phenotypic speciation methods and to develop a PCR-based method for differentiating S. hyicus, S. agnetis, and S. aureus. Isolates (n = 62) were selected from a previous study in which milk samples were collected from cows on 15 dairy herds. Isolates were coagulase tested and speciated using housekeeping gene sequencing. A multiplex PCR to differentiate S. hyicus, S. agnetis, and S. aureus was developed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was conducted to strain type isolates. Based on gene sequencing, 44/62 of the isolates were determined to be either S. agnetis (n = 43) or S. hyicus (n = 1). Overall, 88% (37/42) of coagulase positive S. agnetis isolates were found to be coagulase positive at 4 hours. Herd-level prevalence of coagulase positive S. agnetis ranged from 0 to 2.17%. Strain-typing identified 23 different strains. Six strains were identified more than once and from multiple cows within the herd. Three strains were isolated from cows at more than one time point, with 41-264 days between samplings. These data suggest that S. agnetis is likely more prevalent on dairy farms than S. hyicus Also, some S. agnetis isolates in this study appeared to be contagious and associated with persistent infections.

  19. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  20. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortion.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Thoma, Ruedi; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

    2009-03-16

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on a new possible abortigenic agent called Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Retrospective samples (n=235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were further examined by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. Chlamydophila abortus was detected only in three cases (1.3%) by real-time PCR and ArrayTube Microarray playing a less important role in bovine abortion compared to the situation in small ruminants in Switzerland. By real-time PCR as many as 43 of 235 (18.3%) cases turned out to be positive for Parachlamydia. The presence of Parachlamydia within placental lesions was confirmed in 35 cases (81.4%) by immunohistochemistry. The main histopathological feature in parachlamydial abortion was purulent to necrotizing placentitis (25/43). Parachlamydia should be considered as a new abortigenic agent in Swiss cattle. Since Parachlamydia may be involved in lower respiratory tract infections in humans, bovine abortion material should be handled with care given the possible zoonotic risk.

  1. Computed Tomography of the Normal Bovine Tarsus.

    PubMed

    Hagag, U; Tawfiek, M; Brehm, W; Gerlach, K

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a detailed multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) anatomic reference for the bovine tarsus. The tarsal regions from twelve healthy adult cow cadavers were scanned in both soft and bone windows via a 16-slice multidetector CT scanner. Tarsi were frozen at -20(o) C and sectioned to 10-mm-thick slices in transverse, dorsal and sagittal planes respecting the imaging protocol. The frozen sections were cleaned and then photographed. Anatomic structures were identified, labelled and compared with the corresponding CT images. The sagittal plane was indispensable for evaluation of bone contours, the dorsal plane was valuable in examination of the collateral ligaments, and both were beneficial for assessment of the tarsal joint articulations. CT images allowed excellent delineation between the cortex and medulla of bones, and the trabecular structure was clearly depicted. The tarsal soft tissues showed variable shades of grey, and the synovial fluid was the lowest attenuated structure. This study provided full assessment of the clinically relevant anatomic structures of the bovine tarsal joint. This technique may be of value when results from other diagnostic imaging techniques are indecisive. Images presented in this study should serve as a basic CT reference and assist in the interpretation of various bovine tarsal pathology.

  2. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LYOPHILIZED BOVINE BONE GRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Galia, Carlos Roberto; Lourenço, André Luis; Rosito, Ricardo; Souza Macedo, Carlos Alberto; Camargo, Lourdes Maria Araujo Quaresma

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized bovine grafts manufactured on a semi-industrial scale (Orthogen; Baumer S/A*) in accordance with a protocol previously developed by the authors. Methods: The lyophilized bovine bone grafts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential exploratory scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results: Ca was the main component (60%) found in the samples, followed by P (28%) and O (5%). The mean (sd) pore size was 316 μm (146.7), ranging from 91.2 to 497.8 μm, and 333.5 μm (304.8), ranging from 87.2 to 963.9 μm, at 50x and 150x magnification, respectively. The hydroxyapatite peaks were at 26°C and 32°C, and mass losses were observed between 250°C and 640°C, corresponding to organic material and water. Two temperature transitions (45.67°C and 91.89°C) showed denaturation of type 1 collagen and dehydration of hydroxyapatite. Conclusion: The physicochemical assessment of lyophilized bovine bone grafts in accordance with the protocol developed at semi-industrial scale confirmed that this product presents excellent biocompatibility, with characteristics similar to natural bone. PMID:27027036

  3. Bovine growth hormone: human food safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Juskevich, J C; Guyer, C G

    1990-08-24

    Scientists in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after reviewing the scientific literature and evaluating studies conducted by pharmaceutical companies, have concluded that the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) in dairy cattle presents no increased health risk to consumers. Bovine GH is not biologically active in humans, and oral toxicity studies have demonstrated that rbGH is not orally active in rats, a species responsive to parenterally administered bGH. Recombinant bGH treatment produces an increase in the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in cow's milk. However, oral toxicity studies have shown that bovine IGF-I lacks oral activity in rats. Additionally, the concentration of IGF-I in milk of rbGH-treated cows is within the normal physiological range found in human breast milk, and IGF-I is denatured under conditions used to process cow's milk for infant formula. On the basis of estimates of the amount of protein absorbed intact in humans and the concentration of IGF-I in cow's milk during rbGH treatment, biologically significant levels of intact IGF-I would not be absorbed.

  4. A retrospective study of the aetiology and temporal distribution of bovine clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2007-05-01

    A 31-year record-based retrospective study was carried out to determine the aetiology and temporal distribution of bovine clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania over the period November 1971-December 2002. Laboratory information on 1964 quarter samples from 1365 cows in 281 smallholder dairy herds were retrieved, compiled and studied. Eighty-eight percent of the quarter samples were culture-positive and the predominant mastitis pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (25.7%), Streptococcus agalactiae (15.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.3%) and Escherichia coli (14.1%). Other isolates included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.5%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (5.2%) and Streptococcus uberis (4.2%). Contagious mastitis pathogens were isolated from 45.6% of the culture-positive samples, whereas environmental and miscellaneous pathogens were isolated from 48.2% and 5.7%, respectively. Thirty percent of the miscellaneous mastitis pathogens were Candida species. The results demonstrate a steady increase in clinical Candida albicans mastitis. The prevalence of Candida albicans has increased from 1% in 1971 to 17.0% in November 2002. Conversely, despite some fluctuations, the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, E. coli and K. pneumoniae remain above 10%. The possible risk factors for these observations are discussed.

  5. Cloning and expression of bovine glucose transporter GLUT12.

    PubMed

    Miller, Peter J; Finucane, Kiera A; Hughes, Megan; Zhao, Feng-Qi

    2005-11-01

    GLUT12 is a new member of facilitative glucose transporters. It was originally cloned from a human breast cancer cell line and its expression has been detected in rat mammary gland. Glucose transport across the plasma membrane of mammary epithelial cells is a rate-limiting factor in milk production. To examine GLUT12's expression and facilitate the study of GLUT12's potential role in supporting milk synthesis in lactating bovine mammary gland, we cloned bovine GLUT12 and examined its distribution of mRNA expression in bovine tissues. The full-length mRNA of bGLUT12 is 2,423 base pairs long and is predicted to encode a protein of 621 amino acids with a molecular weight of approximately 67 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of bovine GLUT12 is 87% and 82% identical to the sequences of human and mouse GLUT12. The sequence of bGLUT12 contains several characteristically conserved sugar transporter family signatures. Analysis of current bovine genomic data indicates that bovine GLUT12 gene consists of five exons. The major in vitro transcription and translation product of bovine GLUT12 cDNA migrated at an apparent molecular weight of 41 kDa. In the presence of canine microsomal membranes, the translation product increased to 43 kDa, suggesting glycosylation. GLUT12 mRNA was found in all bovine tissues examined, but most abundant in bovine spleen and skeletal muscle, at intermediate levels in bovine kidney, testes, and mammary gland, and at lower levels in bovine liver, lung and intestine. Immunofluorescence staining showed that, in the presence of insulin, bGLUT12 is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the transiently transfected MAC-T bovine mammary epithelial cells.

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Belknap, E B; Collins, J K; Larsen, R S; Conrad, K P

    2000-11-01

    A virus known to cause multiple problems in cattle, bovine viral diarrhea virus, was isolated from 3 different cases in New World camelids. Virus isolation, immunoperoxidase staining, and fluorescent antibody staining were used to detect the virus. The herds involved were screened for antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea and virus isolation from the buffy coat. Bovine viral diarrhea virus should be considered as a cause of death in young and old New World camelids.

  7. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Njeumi, F.; Elsawalhy, A.; Wabacha, J.; Rushton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. PMID:24462194

  8. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export.

  9. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M. E.; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26713450

  10. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review.

    PubMed

    Goens, S Denise

    2002-12-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms are now being reevaluated because of these "new" virus strains. This shift in virulence has confounded both nomenclature and the significance of current bovine viral diarrhea virus categorization. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of bovine viral diarrhea virus with a chronological review of prevailing scientific tenets and practices as described in clinical and scientific North American veterinary journals and textbooks. The first part of this review describes how we have arrived at our current understanding of the viruses, the diseases, and their nomenclature. The second part of the review deals with current concepts in virology and how these concepts may both explain and predict bovine viral diarrhea virus pathogenesis. By reviewing how knowledge of bovine viral diarrhea has evolved and the theories of how the virus itself is able to evolve, the interpretation of diagnostic tests are more effectively utilized in the control and treatment of bovine viral diarrhea virus associated disease.

  11. Differences in purinergic amplification of osmotic cell lysis by the pore-forming RTX toxins Bordetella pertussis CyaA and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIA: the role of pore size.

    PubMed

    Masin, Jiri; Fiser, Radovan; Linhartova, Irena; Osicka, Radim; Bumba, Ladislav; Hewlett, Erik L; Benz, Roland; Sebo, Peter

    2013-12-01

    A large subgroup of the repeat in toxin (RTX) family of leukotoxins of Gram-negative pathogens consists of pore-forming hemolysins. These can permeabilize mammalian erythrocytes (RBCs) and provoke their colloid osmotic lysis (hemolytic activity). Recently, ATP leakage through pannexin channels and P2X receptor-mediated opening of cellular calcium and potassium channels were implicated in cell permeabilization by pore-forming toxins. In the study described here, we examined the role played by purinergic signaling in the cytolytic action of two RTX toxins that form pores of different sizes. The cytolytic potency of ApxIA hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which forms pores about 2.4 nm wide, was clearly reduced in the presence of P2X7 receptor antagonists or an ATP scavenger, such as pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS), Brilliant Blue G, ATP oxidized sodium salt, or hexokinase. In contrast, antagonists of purinergic signaling had no impact on the hemolytic potency of the adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis, which forms pores of 0.6 to 0.8 nm in diameter. Moreover, the conductance of pores formed by ApxIA increased with the toxin concentration, while the conductance of the CyaA single pore units was constant at various toxin concentrations. However, the P2X7 receptor antagonist PPADS inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the exacerbated hemolytic activity of a CyaA-ΔN489 construct (lacking 489 N-terminal residues of CyaA), which exhibited a strongly enhanced pore-forming propensity (>20-fold) and also formed severalfold larger conductance units in planar lipid bilayers than intact CyaA. These results point to a pore size threshold of purinergic amplification involvement in cell permeabilization by pore-forming RTX toxins.

  12. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation.

  13. Sequences outside that of residues 93-102 of 3A protein can contribute to the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to replicate in bovine-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Bai, Xingwen; Sun, Pu; Bao, Huifang; Lu, Zengjun; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2014-10-13

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. During 2010 and 2011, there was an epidemic of the Mya-98 lineage of the Southeast Asia (SEA) topotype in East Asia, including China. Changes in the FMDV 3A protein have been previously reported to be associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. In this paper, we report the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain O/GZSB/2011 for the first time along with two genetically modified viruses with deletion at positions 93-102 and 133-143 in 3A based on the established infectious clone. All the recombinant viruses grew well and displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, porcine kidney (PK-15) cells, and primary fetal porcine kidney (FPK) cells. While the recombinant viruses rvGZSB and rvSBΔ133-143 exhibited similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes with the parental virus in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells, the recombinant virus rvSBΔ93-102, containing deletion at positions 93-102 in 3A, grew at a slower rate and had a smaller plaque size phenotype in FBK cells than that of the parental virus. Therefore, the results suggest that the deletion at positions 93-102 of 3A protein does not affect FMDV replication efficiency in BHK-21, PK-15 and FPK cells, but affects virus replication efficiency in FBK cells, although, cannot alone account for the inability to replicate in bovine cells.

  14. Description and analysis of the Bovine Gene Atlas - An extensive compendium of bovine transcript profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bovine Gene Atlas (BGA) is a compendium of over 7.2 million unique 20-base transcript tags profiled from 81 tissues acquired from the cow “L1 Dominette 01449” (L1D), her male fetus, her 255-day-old heifer calf, and her father. The BGA tags were generated on a next-generation massively parallel ...

  15. Perspectives on the History of Bovine TB and the Role of Tuberculin in Bovine TB Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Good, Margaret; Duignan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a significant disease of animals and humans worldwide. Bovine tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacteria with an extremely wide host range and serious, although currently probably underdiagnosed, zoonotic potential. Where bovine tuberculosis controls are effective, human zoonotic TB, due to Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae, is uncommon and clinical cases are infrequent in cattle. Therefore, the control and ultimate eradication of bovine tuberculosis is desirable. Tuberculin tests are the primary screening tool used in bovine eradication. The choice of tuberculin test is dependent on the environment in which it is to be used. Tuberculin potency is critical to test performance, and the accurate determination of potency is therefore particularly important. The design of a control or eradication programme should take into consideration the fundamental scientific knowledge, the epidemiological profile of disease, the experience of other eradication programmes, and the presence, in the same ecosystem, of maintenance hosts, in which infection is self-sustaining and which are capable of transmitting infection. A control or eradication programme will necessarily require modification as it progresses and must be under constant review to identify the optimal desirable goals, the efficacy of policy, and constraints to progress. PMID:21547209

  16. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays measure central memory T cell (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses correlate with protection. In other species, Tcm’s pose low activation threshold and a...

  17. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as a correlate of T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays are a correlate of protection. Recent...

  18. Isolation of bovine herpesvirus-1 from vesicular lesions of the bovine udder.

    PubMed

    Guy, J S; Potgieter, L N; McCracken, M; Martin, W

    1984-04-01

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 was isolated from vesicular lesions on the udder and mammary papillae (teats) of a Charolais cow. Lesions on the animal consisted of papules and vesicles up to 10 mm in diameter. The virus was identified by fluorescent antibody and serum-neutralization tests.

  19. Bovine and equine peritubular and intertubular dentin.

    PubMed

    Stock, S R; Deymier-Black, A C; Veis, A; Telser, A; Lux, E; Cai, Z

    2014-09-01

    Dentin contains 1-2μm diameter tubules extending from the pulp cavity to near the junction with enamel. Peritubular dentin (PTD) borders the tubule lumens and is surrounded by intertubular dentin (ITD). Differences in PTD and ITD composition and microstructure remain poorly understood. Here, a (∼200nm)(2), 10.1keV synchrotron X-ray beam maps X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction simultaneously around tubules in 15-30μm thick bovine and equine specimens. Increased Ca fluorescence surrounding tubule lumens confirms that PTD is present, and the relative intensities in PTD and ITD correspond to carbonated apatite (cAp) volume fraction of ∼0.8 in PTD vs. 0.65 assumed for ITD. In the PTD near the lumen edges, Zn intensity is strongly peaked, corresponding to a Zn content of ∼0.9mgg(-1) for an assumed concentration of ∼0.4mgg(-1) for ITD. In the equine specimen, the Zn K-edge position indicates that Zn(2+) is present, similar to bovine dentin (Deymier-Black et al., 2013), and the above edge structure is consistent with spectra from macromolecules related to biomineralization. Transmission X-ray diffraction shows only cAp, and the 00.2 diffraction peak (Miller-Bravais indices) width is constant from ITD to the lumen edge. The cAp 00.2 average preferred orientation is axisymmetric (about the tubule axis) in both bovine and equine dentin, and the axisymmetric preferred orientation continues from ITD through the PTD to the tubule lumen. These data indicate that cAp structure does not vary from PTD to ITD.

  20. Discovery of a bovine enterovirus in alpaca.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L; Krause, Philip R; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.

  1. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  2. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  3. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  4. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  5. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  6. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood is an excellent flocculating agent, faster acting and as effective on a mass basis as polyacrylamide, the most widely utilized polymeric flocculant. To determine the molecular basis of flocculation activity, whole bovine blood (BB) and BB plasma were fractionated by size exclusion chro...

  7. 79 FR 43923 - Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-07-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations regarding official tuberculosis tests for captive cervids to remove the CervidTB Stat- Pak as an official bovine tuberculosis test for the following...

  8. 78 FR 1718 - Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in... comments. SUMMARY: We are adding the CervidTB Stat-Pak and DPP tests as official tuberculosis tests for the... of antibodies to bovine tuberculosis in certain species of captive cervids. This action is...

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulation of monocyte derived macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  10. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  11. Ultrasonography of bovine urinary tract disorders.

    PubMed

    Floeck, Martina

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool in cattle with urinary tract disorders. It can be used to diagnose pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, renal cysts, renal tumors, amyloidosis, cystitis, bladder paralysis, bladder rupture, bladder neoplasms, and, occasionally, nephrosis, glomerulonephritis, and embolic nephritis. This article describes the anatomy, scanning technique, indications, limitations, normal and pathologic sonographic appearance of the bovine urinary tract. References from horses and humans are included, especially when the sonographic findings in these species may complement the understanding of similar diseases reported in cattle.

  12. A bovine aortic arch in humans

    PubMed Central

    Arnáiz-García, María Elena; González-Santos, Jose María; López-Rodriguez, Javier; Dalmau-Sorli, María José; Bueno-Codoñer, María; Arévalo-Abascal, Adolfo; Fdez García-Hierro, Jose Ma; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Arnáiz, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We describe a curious congenital variation of human aortic arch (AA) branching pattern termed the “bovine aortic arch”. Rather than arising directly from the AA as a separate branch as occurs in the most common AA branching pattern, the left common carotid artery moves to the right and merges from the brachiocephalic trunk. It is the normal AA branching pattern presented in a number of animals (canines, felines or Macaque monkeys) but it has nothing to do with anatomy of AA in ruminant animals, including cattle and buffalo. That is why it is one of the most widely misnomers used in medical literature whose origin is nowadays unknown. PMID:24973853

  13. A bovine aortic arch in humans.

    PubMed

    Arnáiz-García, María Elena; González-Santos, Jose María; López-Rodriguez, Javier; Dalmau-Sorli, María José; Bueno-Codoñer, María; Arévalo-Abascal, Adolfo; Fdez García-Hierro, Jose Ma; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Arnáiz, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We describe a curious congenital variation of human aortic arch (AA) branching pattern termed the "bovine aortic arch". Rather than arising directly from the AA as a separate branch as occurs in the most common AA branching pattern, the left common carotid artery moves to the right and merges from the brachiocephalic trunk. It is the normal AA branching pattern presented in a number of animals (canines, felines or Macaque monkeys) but it has nothing to do with anatomy of AA in ruminant animals, including cattle and buffalo. That is why it is one of the most widely misnomers used in medical literature whose origin is nowadays unknown.

  14. Dynamic Rheooptical Behavior of Isolated Bovine Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Donald; Bettelheim, Frederick A.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic Young's modulus E′ and loss modulus E″ were obtained for isolated bovine cornea using a direct-reading dynamic viscoelastometer. Within the temperature range (0-60°C) and frequency range (3.5-110 Hz) studied, both moduli were temperature and frequency independent. The dynamic birefringence of the cornea was measured in a special apparatus designed for this purpose in conjunction with the dynamic viscoelastometer. The stress-optical and strain-optical coefficients as well as the corresponding phase angles were evaluated as a function of temperature and frequency. The strain- and stress-optical coefficients were both temperature and frequency dependent. PMID:4655663

  15. Bovine aortic arch with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Idhrees, Mohammed; Cherian, Vijay Thomas; Menon, Sabarinath; Mathew, Thomas; Dharan, Baiju S; Jayakumar, K

    2016-09-01

    A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed to have supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). On evaluation of CT angiogram, there was associated bovine aortic arch (BAA). Association of BAA with SVAS has not been previously reported in literature, and to best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SVAS with BAA. Recent studies show BAA as a marker for aortopathy. SVAS is also an arteriopathy. In light of this, SVAS can also possibly be a manifestation of aortopathy associated with BAA.

  16. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: global status.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2010-03-01

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections remain a source of economic loss for producers. The wide variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype, biotype, virulence, and types of infections. BVDV infect a range of domestic and wild ruminants. Clinical presentation varies depending on strain of virus, species of host, immune status of host, reproductive status of host, age of host, and concurrent infections. Recent advances in BVDV research and diagnostics have led to the development of regional eradication/control programs, the most efficacious of which focus on biosecurity, surveillance, and control.

  17. Bovine neosporosis: clinical and practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Almería, S; López-Gatius, F

    2013-10-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a wide host range but with a preference for cattle and dogs. Since the description of N. caninum as a new genus and species in 1988, bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. This review focuses on the epidemiology of the disease and on prospects for its control in cattle. Finally, based on the implications of clinical findings reported to date, a set of recommendations is provided for veterinarians and cattle farmers.

  18. Bovine achondrogenesis: evidence for defective chondrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Jayo, M J; Leipold, H W; Machado, M A; Campbell, D; Ahmed, S

    1987-01-01

    A survey study of growth cartilage abnormalities in bovine bone dysplasias revealed that a disorder in Holstein cattle called bulldog calf closely resembles human achondrogenesis Type II. Substantial amounts of Type I collagen and other non Type II collagens were detected in the bulldog cartilage which was comprised primarily of extensive vascular canals and cells having the characteristics of hypertrophic and degenerative chondrocytes normally found in the growth plate. It is proposed that chondrocytes throughout the bulldog growth cartilage prematurely differentiate into hypertrophic cells that degenerate and predispose the cartilage to vascular invasion and the formation of cartilage canals. The presence of these canals probably accounts for most of the observed collagen abnormalities.

  19. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Jefferson Luis Oshiro; Medici Filho, Edmundo; Salgado, José Antônio Pereira; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Moraes, Luiz Cesar de; Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli de; Castilho, Julio Cezar de Melo

    2008-01-01

    Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s) and the target-sensor distance (40 cm) were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the 'histogram' tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p < 0.05) and for bovine and human coronal dentin (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found for the bovine and human radicular dentin (p > 0.05). Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a) the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b) the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c) bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  20. Markers on bovine chromosome 20 associated with carcass quality and composition traits and incidence of contracting infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on bovine chromosome 20 to fine map a previously identified QTL associated with the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 539) derived from sires of 7 Bos Taurus breeds and h...

  1. Markers on Bovine Chromosome 20 Associated with Carcass Quality and Composition Traits and Incidence of Contracting Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on bovine chromosome 20 to fine map a previously identified QTL associated with the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 539) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds...

  2. Expression of a 50 kDa putative receptor for bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine fetal tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L; Zhang, S; Xue, W; Kapil, S; Minocha, H C

    1998-01-01

    The expression of a 50 kDa bovine viral diarrhea virus putative receptor in different bovine fetal tissues from 3-month old fetuses was studied. The receptor expression was examined by immunocytochemical staining and by immunoblotting using antiidiotypic probe (anti-D89). Intense specific staining in enterocytes of the small and large intestines, cortical tubular epithelial cells of kidneys, respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea and esophageal mucosal epithelial cells was observed, demonstrating the strong expression of bovine viral diarrhea virus receptor in the tissues. Weak staining was found in cerebellum, thymus, spleen, liver, cerebrum, and lung tissues; however, heart tissues were negative. Immunoblotting results correlated with the immunoperoxidase staining assays. Thus, the expression levels of the receptor are variable in different tissues. This pattern of expression may provide clues to the pathogenic potential of bovine viral diarrhea virus in the bovine fetus. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9553718

  3. Ultrasonographic anatomy of the bovine eye.

    PubMed

    Potter, Timothy J; Hallowell, Gayle D; Bowen, I Mark

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to describe the ultrasonographic appearance and measurements of the normal bovine eye, to compare the measurements to those reported previously for cadaveric eyes and to describe differences between ocular dimensions of Holstein Friesian and Jersey cattle. Sixty transpalpebral ocular ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 30 adult Holstein Friesian cows, and 16 examinations were performed on 8 adult Jersey cows. Transpalpebral ultrasonographic images were obtained with a 10 MHz linear transducer in both horizontal and vertical imaging planes. The ultrasonographic appearance of structures within the bovine eye is similar to that in other species, although the ciliary artery was frequently identified, appearing as a 0.33 +/- 0.04 cm diameter hypoechoic area. The axial length of the globe was significantly greater in Holstein Friesian cattle (3.46 +/- 0.09 cm) compared with Jersey cattle (3.27 +/- 0.19 cm; P = 0.001), although the vitreous depth was smaller in Holstein Friesian cattle (1.46 +/- 0.09 cm) (P = 0.0009). The anterioposterior depth of the lens was significantly greater in Jersey cattle (1.92 +/- 0.11 cm) and the cornea was thinner in Jersey cattle (0.17 +/- 0.02 cm). The appearance and ocular distances for live animals were similar to those reported previously for cadaveric specimens. The knowledge of normal ocular dimensions facilitates the use of ultrasonography in the evaluation of ocular disease in cattle.

  4. Tensile strength of bovine trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S J; Hayes, W C; Stone, J L; Beaupré, G S

    1985-01-01

    Data on the tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone are needed to define input parameters and failure criteria for modeling total joint replacements. To help resolve differences in reports comparing tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone, we have developed new methods, based on porous foam technology, for tensile testing of fresh/frozen trabecular bone specimens. Using bovine trabecular bone from an isotropic region from the proximal humerus as a model material, we measured ultimate strengths in tension and compression for two groups of 24 specimens each. The average ultimate strength in tension was 7.6 +/- 2.2 (95% C.I.) MPa and in compression was 12.4 +/- 3.2 MPa. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.013) and was not related to density differences between the test groups (p = 0.28). Strength was related by a power-law function of the local apparent density, but, even accounting for density influences, isotropic bovine trabecular bone exhibits significantly lower strengths in tension than in compression.

  5. Identification of Prototheca zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Zaini, F; Kanani, A; Falahati, M; Fateh, R; Salimi-Asl, M; Saemi, N; Farahyar, Sh; Kheirabad, A Kargar; Nazeri, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran. Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM) and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR. Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07%) were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp) was detected in four isolates. Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well. PMID:23113230

  6. Toxicology of a bovine paraplegic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Domínguez-Bello, M G; Lovera, M; Mijares, A J; Bónoli, S

    1993-12-01

    A clinical entity named 'bovine paraplegic syndrome' ('síndrome parapléjico de los bovinos') has spread alarmingly in the cattle-growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. It is estimated that four million cattle are bred in the area where the disease occurs. The mortality ranges from 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly pregnant or lactating cows. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is ventral or sternal decubitus, in animals that make vain efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established when all other possible causes (e.g. paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such as Anaplasma marginal, Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and Trypanosoma vivax) have been ruled out clinically and by laboratory tests. Death always occurs, usually after a few days, and there is no known treatment. In this work, we describe results that show the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering from, or liable to suffer from the syndrome. The toxin is produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, the toxin blocks the sodium current. We detected the toxin analytically by absorbance measurements at 340 nm after reacting with picrylsulfonic acid. We obtained a good separation of the toxin with isocratic high pressure liquid chromatography, using 40% methanol in water on phenylborasil columns.

  7. Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of bovine trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Manda, Krishnagoud; Wallace, Robert J; Xie, Shuqiao; Levrero-Florencio, Francesc; Pankaj, Pankaj

    2017-02-01

    The time-independent elastic properties of trabecular bone have been extensively investigated, and several stiffness-density relations have been proposed. Although it is recognized that trabecular bone exhibits time-dependent mechanical behaviour, a property of viscoelastic materials, the characterization of this behaviour has received limited attention. The objective of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent behaviour of bovine trabecular bone through a series of compressive creep-recovery experiments and to identify its nonlinear constitutive viscoelastic material parameters. Uniaxial compressive creep and recovery experiments at multiple loads were performed on cylindrical bovine trabecular bone samples ([Formula: see text]). Creep response was found to be significant and always comprised of recoverable and irrecoverable strains, even at low stress/strain levels. This response was also found to vary nonlinearly with applied stress. A systematic methodology was developed to separate recoverable (nonlinear viscoelastic) and irrecoverable (permanent) strains from the total experimental strain response. We found that Schapery's nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model describes the viscoelastic response of the trabecular bone, and parameters associated with this model were estimated from the multiple load creep-recovery (MLCR) experiments. Nonlinear viscoelastic recovery compliance was found to have a decreasing and then increasing trend with increasing stress level, indicating possible stiffening and softening behaviour of trabecular bone due to creep. The obtained parameters from MLCR tests, expressed as second-order polynomial functions of stress, showed a similar trend for all the samples, and also demonstrate stiffening-softening behaviour with increasing stress.

  8. 81 FR 12832 - Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis; Update of General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2016-03-11

    ...-AD65 Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis; Update of General Provisions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... tuberculosis and those governing brucellosis and revise the bovine tuberculosis- and brucellosis-related import... bovine tuberculosis and those governing brucellosis, as well as to revise the bovine tuberculosis-...

  9. Polyamine degradation in foetal and adult bovine serum.

    PubMed Central

    Gahl, W A; Pitot, H C

    1982-01-01

    1. Using protein-separative chromatographic procedures and assays specific for putrescine oxidase and spermidine oxidase, adult bovine serum was found to contain a single polyamine-degrading enzyme with substrate preferences for spermidine and spermine. Apparent Km values for these substrates were approx. 40 microM. The apparent Km for putrescine was 2 mM. With spermidine as substrate, the Ki values for aminoguanidine (AM) and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) were 70 microM and 20 microM respectively. 2. Bovine serum spermidine oxidase degraded spermine to spermidine to putrescine and N8-acetylspermidine to N-acetylputrescine. Acrolein was produced in all these reactions and recovered in quantities equivalent to H2O2 recovery. 3. Spermidine oxidase activity was present in foetal bovine serum, but increased markedly after birth to levels in adult serum that were almost 100 times the activity in foetal bovine serum. 4. Putrescine oxidase, shown to be a separate enzyme from bovine serum spermidine oxidase, was present in foetal bovine serum but absent from bovine serum after birth. This enzyme displayed an apparent Km for putrescine of 2.6 microM. The enzyme was inhibited by AM and MGBG with Ki values of 20 nM. Putrescine, cadaverine and 1,3-diaminopropane proved excellent substrates for the enzyme compared with spermidine and spermine, and N-acetylputrescine was a superior substrate to N1- or N8-acetylspermidine. PMID:7092834

  10. Developmental abnormalities in mice transgenic for bovine oncostatin M.

    PubMed Central

    Malik, N; Haugen, H S; Modrell, B; Shoyab, M; Clegg, C H

    1995-01-01

    Oncostatin M belongs to the subfamily of hematopoietin cytokines that binds a receptor complex containing gp130. To date, only the human form of oncostatin M has been identified, and its evolutionary conservation is unresolved. We have isolated a bovine gene whose open reading frame encodes a precursor protein that is 58% identical to human oncostatin M. A comparison of the bovine and human amino acid sequences predicts significant similarity, including the four-alpha-helical-bundle structure and the placement of disulfide bridges. As with the human protein, bovine oncostatin M binds specific receptors on human H2981 cells and inhibits the proliferation of human A375 tumor cells and mouse M1 leukemia cells. To identify activities regulated in vivo, we injected bovine oncostatin M fusion genes containing various tissue-specific promoters into mouse embryos. The frequencies of transgenic mice were reduced significantly, suggesting that overexpression of the bovine cytokine is detrimental to normal mouse development. In addition to deaths associated with expression in neurons and keratinized epithelia, bovine oncostatin M caused abnormalities in bone growth and spermatogenesis, stimulated fibrosis surrounding islets in the pancreas, and disrupted normal lymphoid tissue development. This work establishes the existence of a nonprimate oncostatin M gene and provides the first demonstration that this cytokine can function in a pleiotropic manner in vivo. Information regarding bovine oncostatin M may help characterize the structure and function of this cytokine in other vertebrate species. PMID:7739518

  11. Nonspecific suppressive effect of bovine herpesvirus type 1 on bovine leukocyte functions.

    PubMed Central

    Filion, L G; McGuire, R L; Babiuk, L A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of bovine herpesvirus type 1 on the specific and nonspecific immune response of calves was examined. Animals with or without prior aerosol exposure to Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 were aerosol challenged with 10(8) PFU of virus. Blood and serum samples were taken before and after virus challenge for determining cell-mediated, humoral, and neutrophil responses. A significant depression of the blastogenic responses to phytohemagglutinin, P. haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida and of neutrophil chemotactic response was observed 4 to 7 days after challenge. However, the antibacterial activity of neutrophils was not significantly affected by virus exposure. Anti-bovine herpesvirus type 1 antibody responses were detected 11 days postchallenge. A significant elevation of the anti-P. haemolytica antibody response (day 0 versus day +11) was detected in animals previously exposed to P. haemolytica. PMID:6311742

  12. Bovine somatotropin attenuates phorbol ester-induced prostaglandin F2alpha production in bovine endometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Badinga, L; Guzeloglu, A; Thatcher, W W

    2002-03-01

    The recent observation that bovine somatotropin (bST) treatment at a timed insemination improves pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows raises the possibility that growth hormone (GH) may modulate the endocrine and biochemical cross talk between the conceptus and maternal uterus at the time of pregnancy establishment in cattle. The objective of this study was to characterize the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exogenous GH affects phorbol ester-induced prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) production in cultured bovine endometrial (BEND) cells. Serum-deprived BEND cells were incubated with or without recombinant bovine GH (rbGH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, recombinant bovine interferon (rbIFN)-tau or a combination of rbGH + rbIFN-tau for 3 h and then treated with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) for an additional 6 h. Exogenous PDBu increased PGF2alpha secretion and steady-state levels of COX-2 mRNA within 3 h. Priming of BEND cells with rbGH reduced PGF2alpha response to PDBu, whereas cotreatment with IGF-I amplified PDBu induction of PGF2alpha. Preincubation of cell monolayers with rbIFN-tau suppressed PGF2alpha and COX-2 mRNA responses to PDBu. Inhibitory effects of rbGH and rbIFN-tau on PDBu-induced PGF2alpha production were additive. Results provide the first direct evidence that supplemental bST may interact with conceptus-secreted IFN-tau to modulate PGF2alpha secretion at the critical time of maternal recognition of pregnancy.

  13. Native and recombinant bovine growth hormone antagonize insulin action in cultured bovine adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Etherton, T D; Evock, C M; Kensinger, R S

    1987-08-01

    The current study was undertaken to determine if pituitary bovine GH (pbGH) and recombinant bGH (rbGH) antagonized insulin action in bovine adipose tissue after acute (2-h) and chronic (48-h) exposure and whether this was an intrinsic property of bGH. Insulin action (measured as the effect on incorporation of acetate-carbon into long-chain fatty acids) was unaffected by bGH in short term incubations regardless of whether hydrocortisone (HC) was present. After 48 h of culture, however, both pbGH and rbGH similarly antagonized the ability of insulin to maintain lipogenic capacity. This antagonism was dependent upon the presence of HC and was dose dependent, with half-maximal inhibition of insulin action occurring at about 0.5 ng/ml bGH. Bovine PRL did not mimic the effects of bGH on insulin action. These results establish that bGH antagonizes insulin action in bovine adipose tissue and that this effect is dependent upon long term exposure and the inclusion of HC in the culture medium. The fact that both rbGH and pbGH acted similarly indicates that this is an intrinsic property of bGH. The effect of bGH on insulin-dependent maintenance of lipogenic capacity may play an important role in redirecting nutrients away from adipose tissue to other tissues, such as muscle or mammary tissue. It is speculated that this metabolic effect of bGH plays an important role in the adaptive response to chronic bGH treatment, which increases milk yield of dairy cows and growth performance of beef cattle.

  14. Bovine noroviruses: A missing component of calf diarrhoea diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Di Felice, Elisabetta; Mauroy, Axel; Pozzo, Fabiana Dal; Thiry, Damien; Ceci, Chiara; Di Martino, Barbara; Marsilio, Fulvio; Thiry, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are RNA viruses that belong to the Genus Norovirus, Family Caliciviridae, and infect human beings and several animal species, including cattle. Bovine norovirus infections have been detected in cattle of a range of different ages throughout the world. Currently there is no suitable cell culture system for these viruses and information on their pathogenesis is limited. Molecular and serological tests have been developed, but are complicated by the high genetic and antigenic diversity of bovine noroviruses. Bovine noroviruses can be detected frequently in faecal samples of diarrhoeic calves, either alone or in association with other common enteric pathogens, suggesting a role for these viruses in the aetiology of calf enteritis.

  15. Seroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1 antibodies in bovines in five districts of Uttarakhand

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Vipul; Kumar, Mahesh; Rathish, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to know the status of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibodies in the bovines of the selected area of Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: A total of 489 serum samples, 392 of cattle and 97 of buffaloes were randomly collected from the unvaccinated bovine population of five districts viz., Dehradun, Haridwar, Nainital, Pithoragarh, and Udham Singh Nagar and were tested by avidin biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for BHV-1 antibodies. Results: The overall prevalence was observed to be 29.03%. At district level, the highest prevalence was recorded in Pithoragarh district (40.00%) while it was lowest in district Udham Singh Nagar (16.00%). The prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies was found to be higher in unorganized dairy units (31.02%) compared to organized farms (26.51%) in Uttarakhand. Buffaloes were found to have greater prevalence (38.14%) than cattle (26.78%) while on sex-wise basis; it was found that more females (30.08%) were harboring antibodies to the virus than males (16.21%). Conclusion: The study revealed that the population in the area under study has been exposed to BHV-1 and hence prevention and control strategies must be implemented. PMID:28344394

  16. Comparison of diagnostic tests for diagnosis of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in natural cases of bovine abortion.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, V; Banga, H S; Deka, D; Filia, G; Gupta, A

    2013-11-01

    Rapid and precise diagnosis plays a pivotal role in implementing suitable control measures in natural field cases of bovine abortion due to infection with bovine herpesvirus (BHV)-1. In the present study, serology, virus isolation, histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of the gene encoding glycoprotein B were applied for diagnosis of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in cases of abortion. The seroprevalence of IBR in the population studied was 26.3% as determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BHV-1 abortions occurred between 4 and 8 months of gestation with an average gestational age of 6 months. Affected placentae showed necrosis of chorionic villi and of the endothelium of small villous blood vessels with characteristic intranuclear (IN) acidophilic inclusion bodies. Similar inclusions were also seen in most of the tissues examined. BHV-1 antigen was identified immunohistochemically in necrotic foci in the liver, the endothelium of placental blood vessels, the bronchial epithelium and hepatocytes. Lesions in the brain also had IN inclusion bodies that labelled positively by IHC. Eighteen samples (nine of stomach content, two of placental cotyledons, five of pooled fetal tissue and two of vaginal discharge) out of 84 tested were positive by real-time PCR for BHV-1.

  17. Bovine papillomavirus DNA in milk, blood, urine, semen, and spermatozoa of bovine papillomavirus-infected animals.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, C L; Almeida, M E; Vicari, C F; Carvalho, C; Yaguiu, A; Freitas, A C; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2009-01-01

    Papillomavirus infection in bovines is associated with cutaneous papillomatosis on the hide, udders and other epithelial tissues, as well as in oral respiratory, alimentary and urinary tract mucosa. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is also considered the etiological agent of esophageal tumors and the malignant bladder tumors that characterize the clinical condition associated with chronic enzootic hematuria. After infective viral DNA was found in cattle blood and BPV1, 2 and 4 DNA in cattle reproductive and embryonic tissues, we looked for and found BPV DNA in blood, milk, urine, seminal fluid, and spermatozoa of BPV-infected animals. Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from BPV-infected animals had high rates of chromosome aberrations, including radial rearrangements that signal oncogenic potential and viral interaction with telomeric regions. The finding of BPV DNA in body fluids and tissues other than the epithelium demonstrates co-infection of other tissues or cell types by papillomavirus and shows the potential role of lymphocytes, seminal fluid and spermatozoa in BPV transmission. Our findings reinforce a peremptory need for prophylactic and therapeutic instruments to curtail this disease in bovine livestock.

  18. Effects in calves of mixed infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus and several other bovine viruses.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, G; Ferrari, M; Traldi, V; Tartaglione, E

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this study was to verify whether a mixed infection in calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and other bovine viruses, such as bovid herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4), parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, would influence the pathogenesis of the BVDV infection sufficiently to result in the typical form of mucosal disease being produced. Accordingly, two experiments were undertaken. In one experiment calves were first infected with BVDV and subsequently with BHV-4 and IBR virus, respectively. The second experiment consisted in a simultaneous infection of calves with BVDV and PI-3 virus or BVDV and IBR virus. From the first experiment it seems that BVDV infection can be reactivated in calves by BHV-4 and IBR virus. Evidence of this is that BVDV, at least the cytopathic (CP) strain, was recovered from calves following superinfection. Moreover, following such superinfection the calves showed signs which could most likely be ascribed to the pathogenetic activity of BVDV. Superinfection, especially by IBR virus, created a more severe clinical response in calves that were initially infected with CP BVDV, than in those previously given the non-cytopathic (NCP) biotype of the virus. Simultaneous infection with PI-3 virus did not seem to modify to any significant extent the pathogenesis of the experimentally induced BVDV infection whereas a severe clinical response was observed in calves when simultaneous infection was made with BVDV and IBR virus.

  19. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; van Wigcheren, Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; de Haas, Carla J. C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J. J. M.; van Kessel, Kok P. M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P. M. G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leukocidins in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus disease. We show that LukAB, in contrast to the γ-hemolysins, LukED, and LukMF′, was unable to kill bovine neutrophils, and identified CXCR2 as a bovine receptor for HlgAB and LukED. Furthermore, we assessed functional leukocidin secretion by bovine mastitis isolates and observed that, although leukocidin production was strain dependent, LukMF′ was most abundantly secreted and the major toxin killing bovine neutrophils. To determine the role of LukMF′ in bovine mastitis, cattle were challenged with high (S1444) or intermediate (S1449, S1463) LukMF′-producing isolates. Only animals infected with S1444 developed severe clinical symptoms. Importantly, LukM was produced in vivo during the course of infection and levels in milk were associated with the severity of mastitis. Altogether, these findings underline the importance of LukMF′ as a virulence factor and support the development of therapeutic approaches targeting LukMF′ to control S. aureus mastitis in cattle. PMID:27886237

  20. Bovine and human papillomaviruses: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Munday, J S

    2014-11-01

    Fifty years ago, inoculation with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) was found to cause mesenchymal tumors of the skin in cattle and horses, as well as tumors of the bladder in cattle. Subsequent to these studies of BPVs, human papillomaviruses (HPVs) were found to cause cervical cancer resulting in intense research into papillomaviruses. During the past 50 years, the ways that HPVs and BPVs cause disease have been investigated, and both HPVs and BPVs have been associated with an increasingly diverse range of diseases. Herein, the biology, oncogenic mechanisms, and diseases associated with BPVs are compared with those of HPVs. As reviewed, there are currently significant differences between BPVs and HPVs. However, research 50 years ago into BPVs formed a prologue for the recognition that papillomaviruses have a significant role in human disease, and it is possible that future research may similarly reveal that BPVs are less different from HPVs than is currently recognized.

  1. Studies on bovine demodecosis in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Slingenbergh, J; Mohammed, A N; Bida, S A

    1980-04-01

    Summary The study reported in the present paper discusses the clinical and histological picture of bovine demodecosis and the morphology of Demodex mites as seen in four cows suffering from generalized demodecosis. There were no clinical signs of other skin affections. Changes in both the number and the appearance of visible skin lesions were seen and related to the level of nutrition and the exposure to sunshine of the cattle. Histological sections of some skin nodules showed the presence of mite colonies in the hair follicles. Only adults were seen in the sebaceous glands. Microscopical study of the morphology of the mites revealed the presence of two types of demodicids in the skin lesions and three types from epilated eyelashes. Morphological criteria are presented to aid in identification of species and of life stages.

  2. The core lipocalin, bovine beta-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, L; Kontopidis, G

    2000-10-18

    The lipocalin family became established shortly after the structural similarity was noted between plasma retinol binding protein and the bovine milk protein, beta-lactoglobulin. During the past 60 years, beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by essentially every biochemical technique available and so there is a huge literature upon its properties. Despite all of these studies, no specific biological function has been ascribed definitively to the protein, although several possibilities have been suggested. During the processing of milk on an industrial scale, the unpredictable nature of the process has been put down to the presence of beta-lactoglobulin and certainly the whey protein has been implicated in the initiation of aggregation that leads to the fouling of heat exchangers. This short review of the properties of the protein will concentrate mainly on studies carried out under essentially physiological conditions and will review briefly some of the possible functions for the protein that have been described.

  3. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci.

  4. Lipidome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Rascado, Tatiana D S; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia R A; Santos, Vanessa G; Valente, Roniele S; Mesquita, Fernando S; Ferreira, Christina R; Araújo, João P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2016-07-15

    Mammalian preimplantation embryonic development is a complex, conserved, and well-orchestrated process involving dynamic molecular and structural changes. Understanding membrane lipid profile fluctuation during this crucial period is fundamental to address mechanisms governing embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a comprehensive assessment of stage-specific lipid profiles during early bovine embryonic development and associate with the mRNA abundance of lipid metabolism-related genes (ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6) and with the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Immature oocytes were recovered from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries, two-cell embryos, and eight- to 16-cell embryos, morula, and blastocysts that were in vitro produced under different environmental conditions. Lipid droplets content and mRNA transcript levels for ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6, monitored by lipid staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively, increased at morula followed by a decrease at blastocyst stage. Relative mRNA abundance changes of ACSL3 were closely related to cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation. Characteristic dynamic changes of phospholipid profiles were observed during early embryo development and related to unsaturation level, acyl chain length, and class composition. ELOVL5 and ELOVL6 mRNA levels were suggestive of overexpression of membrane phospholipids containing elongated fatty acids with 16, 18, and 20 carbons. In addition, putative biomarkers of key events of embryogenesis, embryo lipid accumulation, and elongation were identified. This study provides a comprehensive description of stage-specific lipidome signatures and proposes a mechanism to explain its potential relationship with the fluctuation of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes during early bovine embryo development.

  5. Pathogenicity of molecularly cloned bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rovnak, J; Boyd, A L; Casey, J W; Gonda, M A; Jensen, W A; Cockerell, G L

    1993-01-01

    To delineate the mechanisms of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) pathogenesis, four full-length BLV clones, 1, 8, 9, and 13, derived from the transformed cell line FLK-BLV and a clone construct, pBLV913, were introduced into bovine spleen cells by microinjection. Microinjected cells exhibited cytopathic effects and produced BLV p24 and gp51 antigens and infectious virus. The construct, pBLV913, was selected for infection of two sheep by inoculation of microinjected cells. After 15 months, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these sheep served as inocula for the transfer of infection to four additional sheep. All six infected sheep seroconverted to BLV and had detectable BLV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Four of the six sheep developed altered B/T-lymphocyte ratios between 33 and 53 months postinfection. One sheep died of unrelated causes, and one remained hematologically normal. Two of the affected sheep developed B lymphocytosis comparable to that observed in animals inoculated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BLV-infected cattle. This expanded B-lymphocyte population was characterized by elevated expression of B-cell surface markers, spontaneous blastogenesis, virus expression in vitro, and increased, polyclonally integrated provirus. One of these two sheep developed lymphocytic leukemia-lymphoma at 57 months postinfection. Leukemic cells had the same phenotype and harbored a single, monoclonally integrated provirus but produced no virus after in vitro cultivation. The range in clinical response to in vivo infection with cloned BLV suggests an important role for host immune response in the progression of virus replication and pathogenesis. Images PMID:8230433

  6. Methionine requirements for the preimplantation bovine embryo.

    PubMed

    BONILLA, Luciano; LUCHINI, Daniel; DEVILLARD, Estelle; HANSEN, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    The early embryo's nutritional environment plays an important role in establishing its developmental potential. However, little is known about the specific nutrient requirements of the embryo. The objective of the present study was to determine requirements of the in vitro produced bovine embryo for the essential amino acid methionine. In addition to serving as a precursor for polypeptides, methionine plays roles in regulation of translation, DNA methylation, and antioxidant balance. In the first experiment, embryos were cultured in potassium simplex optimized medium - bovine embryo modification 2 containing 0, 35, 50, 100, 200 or 400 µmol/l L-methionine for 8 days. There was no effect of methionine concentration on cleavage rate. The percent of oocytes that developed to blastocyst was lower for embryos without methionine at Day 7 and 8 than other groups but was similar for embryos cultured with 35-400 µmol/l. Neither total cell number, allocation of cells to trophectoderm or inner cell mass, or frequency of apoptosis was affected by methionine concentration. In the second experiment, embryos were cultured with 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 or 35 µmol/l methionine. There was no effect of methionine concentration on cleavage rate. The percent of oocytes that developed to blastocyst was lower for embryos without methionine at Day 7 and 8 but was not different between embryos cultured with 7-35 µmol/l methionine. However, the proportion of blastocysts that were expanded, hatching or hatched on Day 7 was reduced at lower concentrations of methionine (7 and 14). DNA methylation of blastocyst nuclei was unaffected by methionine concentration but intracellular glutathione content was higher for embryos cultured without methionine. In conclusion, the methionine requirement for preimplantation development is between 14 and 21 µmol/l. These concentrations are lower or similar to those found in the reproductive tract and suggest that methionine deficiency is not a common cause of

  7. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  8. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  9. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Anthony S

    2012-11-01

    Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  10. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  11. On-Farm Use of Ultrasonography for Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Ollivett, Theresa L; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) in young cattle has recently gained momentum as an accurate and practical tool for identifying the lung lesions associated with bovine respiratory disease. As cattle producers increasingly seek input from their veterinarians on respiratory health issues, bovine practitioners should consider adding TUS to their practice models. This article discusses the relevant literature regarding TUS in young cattle, current acceptable techniques, and practical on-farm applications.

  12. Is bovine dentine an appropriate substitute in abrasion studies?

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Widmer, Raffaella; Attin, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The study aimed to compare the wear behaviour of human and bovine dentine due to toothbrushing with different relative dentin abrasivity (RDA) toothpastes. Forty human and 40 bovine dentine samples were prepared from bovine lower incisors or human premolars roots, and baseline surface profiles were recorded. The samples were distributed to four groups (each group n = 10 human and 10 bovine samples) and brushed with fluoridated experimental toothpastes with different RDAs (group A: RDA 10, B: RDA 20, C: RDA 50, and D: RDA 100). Toothbrushing was performed in an automatic brushing machine with a brushing frequency of 60 strokes per minute and a brushing force of 2.5 N. After 2, 5, 10, and 25 min of toothbrushing, new surface profiles were recorded, and the dentine wear was calculated with a customized computer programme. The dentine wear of human and bovine dentine within the four groups was compared with unpaired t tests. No statistically significant difference was recorded for the dentine wear of human and bovine samples within the different groups.

  13. Homologous recombination in bovine pestiviruses. Phylogenetic and statistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leandro Roberto; Weber, E Laura

    2004-12-01

    Bovine pestiviruses (Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1 (BVDV 1) and Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 2 (BVDV 2)) belong to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae), which is composed of positive stranded RNA viruses causing significant economic losses world-wide. We used phylogenetic and bootstrap analyses to systematically scan alignments of previously sequenced genomes in order to explore further the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for variation in the virus. Previously published data suggested that homologous crossover might be one of the mechanisms responsible for the genomic rearrangements observed in cytopathic (cp) strains of bovine pestiviruses. Nevertheless, homologous recombination involves not just homologous crossovers, but also replacement of a homologous region of the acceptor RNA. Furthermore, cytopathic strains represent dead paths in evolution, since they are isolated exclusively from the fatal cases of mucosal disease. Herein, we report evidence of homologous inter-genotype recombination in the genome of a non-cytopathic (ncp) strain of Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1, the type species of the genus Pestivirus. We also show that intra-genotype homologous recombination might be a common phenomenon in both species of Pestivirus. This evidence demonstrates that homologous recombination contribute to the diversification of bovine pestiviruses in nature. Implications for virus evolution, taxonomy and phylogenetics are discussed.

  14. Exposure of Mice to Topical Bovine Thrombin Induces Systemic Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenecker, Jonathan G.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Lesher, Aaron P.; Day, Jarrod D.; Love, Stephanie D.; Hoffman, Maureane R.; Ortel, Thomas L.; Parker, William; Lawson, Jeffrey H.

    2001-01-01

    Bovine thrombin is used as an aid to hemostasis in medical and surgical procedures. At least 500,000 Americans are exposed to this therapeutic annually and reports suggest that exposure is associated with the development of autoreactive antibodies. To determine whether bovine thrombin can induce pathological autoimmunity we exposed nonautoimmune-prone galactose-α1-3-galactose-deficient mice to the two bovine thrombin preparations currently approved for use in the United States. We found that, like humans exposed to bovine thrombin, mice developed an immune response against the therapeutic and the xenogeneic carbohydrate galactose-α1-3-galactose, and some mice developed autoantibodies against clotting factors. Further, unexpectedly, a single exposure to this therapeutic also induced autoimmunity with features characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus including antibodies against nuclear antigens, native DNA, double-stranded DNA, and cardiolipin. High levels of these autoantibodies correlated with glomerulonephritis in all mice evaluated. This autoimmune syndrome was detected in mice 15 weeks after a secondary exposure to bovine thrombin and female mice were found to develop the syndrome at a significantly greater frequency than males. Thus, these studies indicate that exposure to bovine thrombin preparations can induce a pathological systemic autoimmune syndrome with lupus-like serology. PMID:11696457

  15. Potential applications for antiviral therapy and prophylaxis in bovine medicine.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Viral disease is one of the major causes of financial loss and animal suffering in today's cattle industry. Increases in global commerce and average herd size, urbanization, vertical integration within the industry and alterations in global climate patterns have allowed the spread of pathogenic viruses, or the introduction of new viral species, into regions previously free of such pathogens, creating the potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in naïve cattle populations. Despite this, no antiviral products are currently commercially licensed for use in bovine medicine, although significant progress has been made in the development of antivirals for use against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and bovine herpesvirus (BHV). BVDV is extensively studied as a model virus for human antiviral studies. Consequently, many compounds with efficacy have been identified and a few have been successfully used to prevent infection in vivo although commercial development is still lacking. FMDV is also the subject of extensive antiviral testing due to the importance of outbreak containment for maintenance of export markets. Thirdly, BHV presents an attractive target for antiviral development due to its worldwide presence. Antiviral studies for other bovine viral pathogens are largely limited to preliminary studies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of antiviral compounds against several key bovine pathogens and the potential for commercial antiviral applications in the prevention and control of several selected bovine diseases.

  16. Stability of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 nucleic acid in fetal bovine samples stored under different conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of pregnant cattle with bovine viral diarrhea viruses can result in reproductive disease that includes fetal reabsorption, mummification, abortion, still births, congenital defects affecting structural, neural, reproductive and immune systems and the birth of calves persistently infected w...

  17. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  18. Antibody response against three widespread bovine viruses is not impaired in Holstein cattle carrying bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3.2 alleles associated with bovine leukemia virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Juliarena, M A; Poli, M; Ceriani, C; Sala, L; Rodríguez, E; Gutierrez, S; Dolcini, G; Odeon, A; Esteban, E N

    2009-01-01

    Due to the wide dissemination of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection among dairy cattle, control and eradication programs based on serological detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling face a major economic task. In Argentina, genetic selection of cattle carrying alleles of the bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3.2 gene associated with BLV-infection resistance, like *0902, emerges as the best additional tool toward controlling virus spread. A potential risk in expanding or segregating BoLA selected populations of cattle is that it might increase susceptibility to other common viruses. Special concern raises the strong association found between low proviral load and low antibody titer against major BLV structural proteins. This phenomenon might depend on host genetic factors influencing other viruses requiring, unlike BLV, strong and long-lasting humoral immune response to prevent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that there is no association among neutralizing antibody titers against foot and mouth disease virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, or bovine herpesvirus type 1 and polymorphism of the BoLA DRB3.2 gene. Conversely, there is strong association between BoLA DRB3.2*0902 and low antibody titers against 2 BLV structural proteins--env gp51 and gag p24--to date, the best BLV resistance marker. There is also significant association between low antibody titers against gp51 and p24 and BoLA DRB3.2*1701 and low antibody titers against p24 and BoLA DRB3.2*1101 or 02. Our data suggest that increasing BoLA-selected BLV-resistant cattle or segregating BoLA-associated alleles to BLV susceptibility would not affect the resistance or the predisposition to bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, or foot and mouth disease virus infection.

  19. Bovine herpesvirus 4 is tropic for bovine endometrial cells and modulates endocrine function.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, Gaetano; Herath, Shan; Sartori, Chiara; Cavirani, Sandro; Flammini, Cesidio Filippo; Sheldon, Iain Martin

    2007-07-01

    Bovine postpartum uterine disease, metritis, affects about 40% of animals and is widely considered to have a bacterial aetiology. Although the gamma-herpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from several outbreaks of metritis or abortion, the role of viruses in endometrial pathology and the mechanisms of viral infection of uterine cells are often ignored. The objectives of the present study were to explore the interaction, tropism and outcomes of BoHV-4 challenge of endometrial stromal and epithelial cells. Endometrial stromal and epithelial cells were purified and infected with a recombinant BoHV-4 carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression cassette to monitor the establishment of infection. BoHV-4 efficiently infected both stromal and epithelial cells, causing a strong non-apoptotic cytopathic effect, associated with robust viral replication. The crucial step for the BoHV-4 endometriotropism appeared to be after viral entry as there was enhanced transactivation of the BoHV-4 immediate early 2 gene promoter following transient transfection into the endometrial cells. Infection with BoHV-4 increased cyclooxygenase 2 protein expression and prostaglandin estradiol secretion in endometrial stromal cells, but not epithelial cells. Bovine macrophages are persistently infected with BoHV-4, and co-culture with endometrial stromal cells reactivated BoHV-4 replication in the persistently infected macrophages, suggesting a symbiotic relationship between the cells and virus. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence of cellular and molecular mechanisms, supporting the concept that BoHV-4 is a pathogen associated with uterine disease.

  20. Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction.

  1. Sequence and structural implications of a bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Protein 37B represents bovine lumican and proteins 37A and 25 are unique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Brown, S. J.; Vergnes, J. P.; Hassell, J. R.; Mann, M. M.; Conrad, G. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Amino acid sequence from tryptic peptides of three different bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) core proteins (designated 37A, 37B, and 25) showed similarities to the sequence of a chicken KSPG core protein lumican. Bovine lumican cDNA was isolated from a bovine corneal expression library by screening with chicken lumican cDNA. The bovine cDNA codes for a 342-amino acid protein, M(r) 38,712, containing amino acid sequences identified in the 37B KSPG core protein. The bovine lumican is 68% identical to chicken lumican, with an 83% identity excluding the N-terminal 40 amino acids. Location of 6 cysteine and 4 consensus N-glycosylation sites in the bovine sequence were identical to those in chicken lumican. Bovine lumican had about 50% identity to bovine fibromodulin and 20% identity to bovine decorin and biglycan. About two-thirds of the lumican protein consists of a series of 10 amino acid leucine-rich repeats that occur in regions of calculated high beta-hydrophobic moment, suggesting that the leucine-rich repeats contribute to beta-sheet formation in these proteins. Sequences obtained from 37A and 25 core proteins were absent in bovine lumican, thus predicting a unique primary structure and separate mRNA for each of the three bovine KSPG core proteins.

  2. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-11-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy.

  3. The persistence of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Brock, Kenny V

    2003-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) has a unique capacity to cause persistent infections of foetuses exposed within the first 150 days of gestation. Preventing foetal BVDV infection will aid in improved control. This unique ability gives BVDV a selective advantage allowing continual mutation and antigenic variation within cattle populations. Therefore, BVDV has become widespread and causes economic losses due to respiratory, reproductive and enteric disease. Vaccination (modified-live or killed) can provide some protection from acute disease and the development of persistently infected foetuses. However, vaccination programmes alone cannot control or eliminate BVDV. In naturally exposed and vaccinated herds, BVDV infections are not self-limiting and may persistent over time. This underscores the ability of the BVDV genome to remain fluid and adapt under selective pressures. Factors influencing persistence of BVDV infections in cattle populations include: non-lytic infections; evasion of host immune responses; foetal infections; acute infections; management practices; contaminated biologics; secondary hosts; defective replicated intermediates; antigenic variation; and replication in privileged anatomical sites.

  4. Bovine papillomaviruses, papillomas and cancer in cattle.

    PubMed

    Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Roperto, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) are DNA oncogenic viruses inducing hyperplastic benign lesions of both cutaneous and mucosal epithelia in cattle. Ten (BPV 1-10) different viral genotypes have been characterised so far. BPV 1-10 are all strictly species-specific but BPV 1/2 may also infect equids inducing fibroblastic tumours. These benign lesions generally regress but may also occasionally persist, leading to a high risk of evolving into cancer, particularly in the presence of environmental carcinogenic co-factors. Among these, bracken fern is the most extensively studied. The synergism between immunosuppressants and carcinogenic principles from bracken fern and the virus has been experimentally demonstrated for both urinary bladder and alimentary canal cancer in cows whose diets were based on this plant. BPV associated tumours have veterinary and agricultural relevance in their own right, although they have also been studied as a relevant model of Human papillomavirus (HPV). Recent insights into BPV biology have paved the way to new fields of speculation on the role of these viruses in neoplastic transformation of cells other than epithelial ones. This review will briefly summarise BPV genome organization, will describe in greater detail the functions of viral oncoproteins, the interaction between the virus and co-carcinogens in tumour development; relevant aspects of immunity and vaccines will also be discussed.

  5. Dynamic compressive response of bovine liver tissues.

    PubMed

    Pervin, Farhana; Chen, Weinong W; Weerasooriya, Tusit

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to experimentally determine the strain rate effects on the compressive stress-strain behavior of bovine liver tissues. Fresh liver tissues were used to make specimens for mechanical loading. Experiments at quasi-static strain rates were conducted at 0.01 and 0.1 s(-1). Intermediate-rate experiments were performed at 1, 10, and 100 s(-1). High strain rate (1000, 2000, and 3000 s(-1)) experiments were conducted using a Kolsky bar modified for soft material characterization. A hollow transmission bar with semi-conductor strain gages was used to sense the weak forces from the soft specimens. Quartz-crystal force transducers were used to monitor valid testing conditions on the tissue specimens. The experiment results show that the compressive stress-strain response of the liver tissue is non-linear and highly rate-sensitive, especially when the strain rate is in the Kolsky bar range. The tissue stiffens significantly with increasing strain rate. The responses from liver tissues along and perpendicular to the liver surface were consistent, indicating isotropic behavior.

  6. Spatial epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Horacio Zendejas; Suazo, Feliciano Milián; Cuador Gil, José Quintín; Bello, Gustavo Cruz; Anaya Escalera, Ana María; Márquez, Gabriel Huitrón; Casanova, Leticia García

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use geographic information systems (GIS) and geo-statistical methods of ordinary kriging to predict the prevalence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Jalisco, Mexico. A random sample of 2 287 herds selected from a set of 48 766 was used for the analysis. Spatial location of herds was obtained by either a personal global positioning system (GPS), a database from the Instituto Nacional de Estadìstica Geografìa e Informàtica (INEGI) or Google Earth. Information on TB prevalence was provided by the Jalisco Commission for the Control and Eradication of Tuberculosis (COEETB). Prediction of TB was obtained using ordinary kriging in the geostatistical analyst module in ArcView8. A predicted high prevalence area of TB matching the distribution of dairy cattle was observed. This prediction was in agreement with the prevalence calculated on the total 48 766 herds. Validation was performed taking estimated values of TB prevalence at each municipality, extracted from the kriging surface and then compared with the real prevalence values using a correlation test, giving a value of 0.78, indicating that GIS and kriging are reliable tools for the estimation of TB distribution based on a random sample. This resulted in a significant savings of resources.

  7. Genetic variation within the Lidia bovine breed.

    PubMed

    Cañón, J; Tupac-Yupanqui, I; García-Atance, M A; Cortés, O; García, D; Fernández, J; Dunner, S

    2008-08-01

    The results of an exhaustive data collection from a bovine population with a low level of exchangeability, the Lidia breed, are presented. A total of 1683 individuals from 79 herds were sampled and genetic diversity within and among lineages was assessed using 24 microsatellite loci on 22 different chromosomes. Expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.46 and 0.68 per lineage and there was significant inbreeding in the lineages, which included several farms [mean F(IS) = 0.11, bootstrap 95% confidence interval (0.09, 0.14)], mainly because of the high genetic divergence between herds within those lineages. High genetic differentiation between lineages was also found with a mean F(ST) of 0.18 [bootstrap 95% confidence interval (0.17, 0.19)], and all pairwise values, which ranged from 0.07 to 0.35, were highly significant. The relationships among lineages showed weak statistical support. Nonetheless, lineages were highly discrete when analysed using correspondence analysis and a great proportion of the individuals were correctly assigned to their own lineage when performing standard assignment procedures.

  8. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD): a review.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Hajime

    2004-12-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Holstein cattle is an autosomal recessive congenital disease characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, delayed wound healing and stunted growth, and is also associated with persistent marked neutrophilia. The molecular basis of BLAD is a single point mutation (adenine to guanine) at position 383 of the CD18 gene, which caused an aspartic acid to glycine substitution at amino acid 128 (D128G) in the adhesion molecule CD18. Neutrophils from BLAD cattle have impaired expression of the beta2 integrin (CD11a,b,c/CD18) of the leukocyte adhesion molecule. Abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence dependent functions of leukocytes have been fully characterized. Cattle affected with BLAD have severe ulcers on oral mucous membranes, severe periodontitis, loss of teeth, chronic pneumonia and recurrent or chronic diarrhea. Affected cattle die at an early age due to the infectious complications. Holstein bulls, including carrier sires that had a mutant BLAD gene in heterozygote were controlled from dairy cattle for a decade. The control of BLAD in Holstein cattle by publishing the genotypes and avoiding the mating between BLAD carriers was found to be successful. This paper provides an overview of the genetic disease BLAD with reference to the disease in Holstein cattle.

  9. Membrane associated phospholipase C from bovine brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Ryu, S.H.; Suh, P.; Choi, W.C.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-05-01

    Cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain 2 immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II, whose MW are 150,000 and 145,000 respectively, under a denaturing condition. Monoclonal antibodies were derived against each form and specific radioimmunoassays were developed. Distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in cytosolic and particulate fractions was measured using the radioimmunoassay. More than 90% of PLC-II was found in the cytosolic fraction, while the anti-PLC-I antibody cross-reacting protein was distributed nearly equally between the soluble fraction and the 2 M KCl extract of particulate fraction. The PLC enzyme in the particulate fraction was purified to homogeneity, yielding 2 proteins of 140 KDa and 150 KDa when analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Neither of the 2 enzymes cross-reacted with anti-PLC-II antibodies, but both could be immunoblotted by all 4 different anti-PLC-I antibodies. This suggests that the 140 KDa PLC was derived from the 150 KDa form. The 150 Kda form from particulate fraction was indistinguishable from the cytosolic PLC-I when their mixture was analyzed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, the elution profile of tryptic peptides derived from the 150 KDa particulate form was identical to that of cytosolic PLC-I. This result indicates that PLC-I is reversibly associated to membranes.

  10. In vitro evaluation of potential complexation between bovine insulin and bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Al-Domi, Hayder; Alzweiri, Muhammed; Hamdan, Imad; Jaradat, Ziad

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the possible binding of bovine insulin (BI) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to form a new potential diabetogenic irreversible complex protein. Several preparations of BSA and BI were prepared. Both capillary electrophoresis and spectrophotometric analysis were undertaken to test the possibility of complexation between BI and BSA. HPLC was used to test whether the potential complex of BI and BSA is reversible or irreversible. The optimum deviation between the real and calculated absorbances was observed at a BI/BSA ratio of 2. Moreover, the migration time of BI decreased substantially with increasing ratio of BI to BSA until it became almost constant at equal molar ratio of BI/BSA. While the majority of the 2:1 BI-BSA sample detached during the HPLC analysis, which confirms the reversible character of BI-BSA binding, the HPLC chromatogram also emphasizes the formation of an irreversible complexation between the two proteins. This study provides evidence of the formation of reversible and irreversible new BI-BSA complexes under physiological conditions. This highlights the importance of examining the possible diabetogenicity of BI-BSA complex in genetically susceptible people.

  11. Co-infection of Bovine Papillomavirus and feline-associated Papillomavirus in bovine cutaneous warts.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M A R; Carvalho, C C R; Coutinho, L C A; Reis, M C; de Aragão Batista, M V; de Castro, R S; Dos Anjos, F B R; de Freitas, A C

    2012-12-01

    The diversity of papillomavirus (PV) found in bovine cutaneous warts from Brazilian cattle was evaluated using the PCR technique with the utilization of consensus primers MY09/11 and by PCR using Bovine Papillomavirus (BPV) type-specific primers followed by sequencing. Eleven cutaneous warts from 6 cattle herds were selected. Six warts were positive for the presence of PV. The presence of BPV types 1, 2, 3, 6 and feline sarcoid-associated PV (FeSarPV) in cutaneous wart lesions, as well as the presence of co-infections, was found. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that FeSarPV is described co-infecting a cutaneous wart in Brazil. The present study confirms the previous finding of FeSarPV infecting cattle. These results show the necessity of more studies to investigate the diversity of PV in cattle, its diversity and the possibility of co-infection in cattle and other animals.

  12. Free exopolysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides possesses anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Totté, Philippe; Puech, Carinne; Rodrigues, Valérie; Bertin, Clothilde; Manso-Silvan, Lucia; Thiaucourt, François

    2015-10-21

    In this study we explored the immunomodulatory properties of highly purified free galactan, the soluble exopolysaccharide secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). Galactan was shown to bind to TLR2 but not TLR4 using HEK293 reporter cells and to induce the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in bovine macrophages, whereas low IL-12p40 and no TNF-α, both pro-inflammatory cytokines, were induced in these cells. In addition, pre-treatment of macrophages with galactan substantially reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- and IL-12p40 while increasing LPS-induced secretion of immunosuppressive IL-10. Also, galactan did not activate naïve lymphocytes and induced only low production of the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ in Mmm-experienced lymphocytes. Finally, galactan triggered weak recall proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes from contagious bovine pleuropneumonia-infected animals despite having a positive effect on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on macrophages. All together, these results suggest that galactan possesses anti-inflammatory properties and potentially provides Mmm with a mechanism to evade host innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune responses.

  13. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen

    2014-04-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans.

  14. Bovine Genome Database: integrated tools for genome annotation and discovery.

    PubMed

    Childers, Christopher P; Reese, Justin T; Sundaram, Jaideep P; Vile, Donald C; Dickens, C Michael; Childs, Kevin L; Salih, Hanni; Bennett, Anna K; Hagen, Darren E; Adelson, David L; Elsik, Christine G

    2011-01-01

    The Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org) strives to improve annotation of the bovine genome and to integrate the genome sequence with other genomics data. BGD includes GBrowse genome browsers, the Apollo Annotation Editor, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) viewer, BLAST databases and gene pages. Genome browsers, available for both scaffold and chromosome coordinate systems, display the bovine Official Gene Set (OGS), RefSeq and Ensembl gene models, non-coding RNA, repeats, pseudogenes, single-nucleotide polymorphism, markers, QTL and alignments to complementary DNAs, ESTs and protein homologs. The Bovine QTL viewer is connected to the BGD Chromosome GBrowse, allowing for the identification of candidate genes underlying QTL. The Apollo Annotation Editor connects directly to the BGD Chado database to provide researchers with remote access to gene evidence in a graphical interface that allows editing and creating new gene models. Researchers may upload their annotations to the BGD server for review and integration into the subsequent release of the OGS. Gene pages display information for individual OGS gene models, including gene structure, transcript variants, functional descriptions, gene symbols, Gene Ontology terms, annotator comments and links to National Center for Biotechnology Information and Ensembl. Each gene page is linked to a wiki page to allow input from the research community.

  15. Differential expression of oxygen-regulated genes in bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A J; Navarrete Santos, A; Kirstein, M; Kind, K L; Fischer, B; Thompson, J G

    2007-03-01

    Low oxygen conditions (2%) during post-compaction culture of bovine blastocysts improve embryo quality, which is associated with a small yet significant increase in the expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), suggesting a role of oxygen in embryo development mediated through oxygen-sensitive gene expression. However, bovine embryos to at least the blastocyst stage lack a key regulator of oxygen-sensitive gene expression, hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha). A second, less well-characterized protein (HIF2alpha) is, however, detectable from the 8-cell stage of development. Here we use differential display to determine additional gene targets in bovine embryos in response to low oxygen conditions. While development to the blastocyst stage was unaffected by the oxygen concentration used during post-compaction culture, differential display identified oxygen-regulation of myotrophin and anaphase promoting complex 1 expression, with significantly lower levels observed following culture under 20% oxygen than 2% oxygen. These results further support the hypothesis that the level of gene expression of specific transcripts by bovine embryos alters in response to changes in the oxygen environment post-compaction. Specifically, we have identified two oxygen-sensitive genes that are potentially regulated by HIF2 in the bovine blastocyst.

  16. Intracellular survival of Clostridium chauvoei in bovine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; Santos, Renato Lima; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; de Oliveira Bernardes, Laura Cristina; de Macêdo, Auricélio Alves; Gonçalves, Luciana Aramuni; de Oliveira Júnior, Carlos Augusto; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2017-02-01

    Clostridium chauvoei is the etiological agent of blackleg, a severe disease of domestic ruminants, causing myonecrosis and serious toxemia with high mortality. Despite the known importance of this agent, studies evaluating its pathogenesis of blackleg are scarce, and many are based on an unproven hypothesis that states that macrophages are responsible for carrying C. chauvoei spores from the intestines to muscles in the early stages of blackleg. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the survival of C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores after phagocytosis by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages and to profile inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine transcripts of bovine macrophages infected with C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores. Both vegetative cells and spores of C. chauvoei remain viable after internalization by murine and bovine macrophages. Bovine macrophages infected with vegetative cells showed a pro-inflammatory profile, while those infected with spores displayed an anti-inflammatory profile. Together, these results corroborate the classical hypothesis that macrophages may play a role in the early pathogenesis of blackleg. Moreover, this is the first study to evaluate the infection kinetics and cytokine profile of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with a Clostridium species.

  17. A Major Gene for Bovine Ovulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Brian W.; Morris, Chris A.

    2015-01-01

    Half-sib daughters sired by a bull believed to be a carrier of a major gene for high ovulation rate were evaluated for ovulation rate and genotyped in an effort to both test the hypothesis of segregation of a major gene and to map the gene’s location. A total of 131 daughters were produced over four consecutive years at a University of Wisconsin-Madison research farm. All were evaluated for ovulation rate over an average of four estrous cycles using transrectal ultrasonography. The sire and all daughters were genotyped using a 3K SNP chip and the genotype and phenotype data were used in a linkage analysis. Subsequently, daughters recombinant within the QTL region and the sire were genotyped successively with 50K and 777K SNP chips to refine the location of the causative polymorphism. Positional candidate genes within the fine-mapped region were examined for polymorphism by Sanger sequencing of PCR amplicons encompassing coding and 5’ and 3’ flanking regions of the genes. Sire DNA was used as template in the PCR reactions. Strong evidence of a major gene for ovulation rate was observed (p<1x10-28) with the gene localized to bovine chromosome 10. Fine-mapping subsequently reduced the location to a 1.2 Mb region between 13.6 and 14.8 Mb on chromosome 10. The location identified does not correspond to that for any previously identified major gene for ovulation rate. This region contains three candidate genes, SMAD3, SMAD6 and IQCH. While candidate gene screening failed to identify the causative polymorphism, three polymorphisms were identified that can be used as a haplotype to track inheritance of the high ovulation rate allele in descendants of the carrier sire. PMID:26046917

  18. Prenatal development of the bovine oviduct.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, R A-M; Sinowatz, F

    2007-08-01

    In this study the development of the bovine Fallopian tube was investigated using light microscopic methods. Formation and differentiation of the Müllerian duct were studied in mesonephroi of 16 embryos and fetuses with a crown-rump lengths (CRL) of 0.9-8.4 cm. The funnel field, the rostral beginning of the Müllerian duct was first observed at a CRL of 0.9 cm. It appears as a thickening of the mesothelium on the craniolateral side of the mesonephros. During later development the Müllerian duct emerges by caudal outgrowth from the funnel field. Formation of a common basal lamina surrounding the caudal tips of Müllerian and Wolffian ducts could be observed at all stages up to CRL of 2.7 cm. The mesothelium and the epithelium of the Wolffian duct adjacent to the Müllerian duct showed a modification of epithelium height in all examined stages. Probably the Wolffian duct influences the growth of Müllerian duct by epithelio-mesenchymal interactions. Fetuses from a CRL of 12.0 to 94.0 cm were used for investigation of the prenatal differentiation of the oviductal mucosa. Folding of the oviductal mucosa started at a CRL of 29.0 cm and continued until birth. Individual primary, secondary and tertiary folds are formed in special proliferation zones and epithelium-folding buds. The cellular differentiation of the oviductal epithelium involves the formation of ciliated and secretory cells during different times of prenatal development. Ciliogenesis was first detected at a CRL of 33.0 cm. Active secretory cells could be observed in the oviductal epithelium from a CRL of 64.0 cm onwards.

  19. Bovine viral diarrhoea: pathogenesis and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Sasha R; Hill, Fraser I; Reichel, Michael P; Brownlie, Joe

    2014-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is the most prevalent infectious disease of cattle. It causes financial losses from a variety of clinical manifestations and is the subject of a number of mitigation and eradication schemes around the world. The pathogenesis of BVDV infection is complex, with infection pre- and post-gestation leading to different outcomes. Infection of the dam during gestation results in fetal infection, which may lead to embryonic death, teratogenic effects or the birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. PI animals shed BVDV in their excretions and secretions throughout life and are the primary route of transmission of the virus. These animals can usually be readily detected by virus or viral antigen detection assays (RT-PCR, ELISA), except in the immediate post-natal period where colostral antibodies may mask virus presence. PI calves in utero (the 'Trojan cow' scenario) currently defy detection with available diagnostic tests, although dams carrying PI calves have been shown to have higher antibody levels than seropositive cows carrying non-PI calves. Acute infection with BVDV results in transient viraemia prior to seroconversion and can lead to reproductive dysfunction and immunosuppression leading to an increased incidence of secondary disease. Antibody assays readily detect virus exposure at the individual level and can also be used in pooled samples (serum and milk) to determine herd exposure or immunity. Diagnostic tests can be used to diagnose clinical cases, establish disease prevalence in groups and detect apparently normal but persistently infected animals. This review outlines the pathogenesis and pathology of BVD viral infection and uses this knowledge to select the best diagnostic tests for clinical diagnosis, monitoring, control and eradication efforts. Test methods, types of samples and problems areas of BVDV diagnosis are discussed.

  20. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  1. Comparison of three treatments for bovine endometritis.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, I M; Noakes, D E

    1998-05-23

    Three commercial preparations for the treatment of bovine endometritis were compared: an intrauterine infusion of 1500 mg oxtytetracycline hydrochloride solution, an intramuscular injection of 500 micrograms cloprostenol (a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin F2 alpha), and an intramuscular injection of 3 mg oestradiol benzoate/500 kg estimated bodyweight. A total of 300 cases of endometritis were treated, of which 225 involved first, 67 involved second, and eight involved third or subsequent treatments. The overall success rate of treatment was 68 per cent. Oxytetracycline was successful in 73 per cent of cases, cloprostenol in 67 per cent and oestradiol in 63 per cent of cases. There was no significant difference between the success rates of the treatments, except for cows with mild endometritis in which oxytetracycline was more successful than oestradol (86 v 66 per cent, P < 0.05). Mild cases were treated more successfully than moderate cases (78 v 61 per cent, P < 0.01), and more successfully than severe cases (78 v 44 per cent, P < 0.001). Prostaglandin F2 alpha was more successful if the milk progesterone concentration was > 7 ng/ml at the time of treatment (P < 0.05). The presence of a smelly discharge at the time of treatment reduced the success rate by 17 per cent (P < 0.02). The treatment to conception interval for all successful treatments of endometritis by prostaglandin F2 alpha was 18.1 days shorter than for oestradiol (68.3 v 86.4 days, P < 0.02), and the interval for oxytetracycline was 16.2 days shorter than for oestradiol (70.2 v 86.4 days, P < 0.05).

  2. Microarray analysis of embryo-derived bovine pluripotent cells: The vulnerable state of bovine embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daehwan; Jung, Yeon-Gil

    2017-01-01

    Although there are many studies about pluripotent stem cells, little is known about pluripotent pathways and the difficulties of maintaining the pluripotency of bovine cells in vitro. Here, we investigated differently expressed genes (DEG) in bovine embryo-derived stem-like cells (eSLCs) from various origins to validate their distinct characteristics of pluripotency and differentiation. We identified core pluripotency markers and additional markers which were not determined as pluripotency markers yet in bovine eSLCs. Using the KEGG database, TGFβ, WNT, and LIF signaling were related to the maintenance of pluripotency. In contrast, some DEGs related to the LIF pathway were down-regulated, suggesting that reactivation of the pathway may be required for the establishment of true bovine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Interestingly, oncogenes were co-down-regulated, while tumor suppressor genes were co-up-regulated in eSLCs, implying that this pattern may induce abnormal teratomas. These data analyses of signaling pathways provide essential information on authentic ESCs in addition to providing evidence for pluripotency in bovine eSLCs. PMID:28257460

  3. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections.

  4. Algorithms for automatic segmentation of bovine embryos produced in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, D. H.; Nascimento, M. Z.; Oliveira, D. L.; Neves, L. A.; Annes, K.

    2014-03-01

    In vitro production has been employed in bovine embryos and quantification of lipids is fundamental to understand the metabolism of these embryos. This paper presents a unsupervised segmentation method for histological images of bovine embryos. In this method, the anisotropic filter was used in the differents RGB components. After pre-processing step, the thresholding technique based on maximum entropy was applied to separate lipid droplets in the histological slides in different stages: early cleavage, morula and blastocyst. In the postprocessing step, false positives are removed using the connected components technique that identify regions with excess of dye near pellucid zone. The proposed segmentation method was applied in 30 histological images of bovine embryos. Experiments were performed with the images and statistical measures of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated based on reference images (gold standard). The value of accuracy of the proposed method was 96% with standard deviation of 3%.

  5. Dynamic compressive properties of bovine knee layered tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Hino, Yuki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, the most common articular disease is knee osteoarthritis. Among many treatment methodologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently received a lot of attention. In this field, cells and scaffolds are important, both ex vivo and in vivo. From the viewpoint of effective treatment, in addition to histological features, the compatibility of mechanical properties is also important. In this study, the dynamic and static compressive properties of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were measured using a universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar method. The compressive behaviors of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were examined. The effects of strain rate on the maximum stress and the slope of stress-strain curves of the bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were discussed.

  6. Processed bovine cartilage: an improved biosynthetic implant for contour defects

    SciTech Connect

    Ersek, R.A.; Hart, W.G. Jr.; Greer, D.; Beisang, A.A.; Flynn, P.J.; Denton, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    Irradiated human cartilage has been found to be a superior implant material for correction of contour defects; however, availability problems have prevented this material from gaining wide acceptance. Implantation of processed irradiated bovine cartilage in primates and rabbits, as described here, provides strong evidence that this material performs like irradiated allograft cartilage antigenically and has certain cosmetic advantages over allograft cartilage. Our studies in primates have shown that there is no systemically measurable antibody-antigen reaction, either cellular or noncellular, to irradiated processed bovine cartilage. Neither primary nor second-set provocative implantations produced any measurable rejection. In rabbits, composite grafts of two pieces of irradiated bovine cartilage adjacent to each other were also well tolerated, with no measurable absorption and with capsule formation typical of a foreign body reaction to an inert object.

  7. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age.

  8. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  9. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  10. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  11. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  12. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  13. Sequence analysis of a bovine rhinovirus type 1 strain RS3x

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine rhinoviruses, known to cause clinical and subclinical upper respiratory infections in bovines worldwide, include three serotypes. Bovine rhinovirus (BRV) 1, 2 and 3 were originally classified as tentative members of the genus Rhinovirus (family Picornaviridae), however, in 2008 this genus was...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium Strain HAZ 596 from a Bovine Vagina in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Kazuya; Murakami, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, a mycoplasmal species involved in various bovine diseases, including genital disease and mastitis, is also a commensal microorganism that inhabits the bovine genital organs. We present here the complete 853,553-bp genome sequence of M. bovigenitalium strain HAZ 596, which was isolated from a bovine vagina in Japan. PMID:28183755

  15. Establishment and characterization of feeder-cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines is described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-day bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO feeder layers and wer...

  16. Molecular epidemiology of bovine noroviruses in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ik; Jeong, Cheol; Kim, Ha-Hyun; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Su-Jin; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Yang, Dong-Kun; Kim, Sang-Ki; Kang, Mun-Il; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2007-09-20

    Since the prevalence of bovine norovirus (BNoV) and their genetic diversity have only been reported in the USA, England, Germany and The Netherlands, this study examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of BNoVs in diarrheic calves in South Korea using 645 diarrheic fecal specimens from calves by RT-PCR and nested PCR assays. Overall, 9.3% of the diarrheic fecal samples tested positive for BNoVs by either RT-PCR or nested PCR, of which 5.9% samples also tested positive for other enteric pathogens including the bovine coronavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, bovine groups A, B and C rotaviruses, bovine enteric Nebraska-like calicivirus and Escherichia coli. The genetic diversity was determined by direct sequencing of the partial RdRp region of 12 BNoVs detected from the fecal samples by nested PCR. Among the BNoVs examined, one Korean BNoV strain had the highest nucleotide (86.8%) and amino acid (99.1%) identity with the genotype 1 BNoV (GIII-1) strain, while the remaining 11 Korean BNoVs shared a higher nucleotide (88.0-90.5%) and amino acid (93.5-99.1%) identity with the genotype 2 BNoV (GIII-2) strains. The phylogenetic data for the nucleotide and amino acid sequences also demonstrated that one Korean BNoV strain clustered with GIII-1 but the remaining eleven strains clustered with GIII-2. In conclusion, BNoV infections are endemic and there are two distinct genotypes with GIII-2 being the main genotype circulating in the calf population in South Korea.

  17. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic aid in bovine musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann

    2009-11-01

    In the last 15 years, ultrasonography of the bovine musculoskeletal system has become an established diagnostic method used routinely in many veterinary teaching hospitals worldwide. Ultrasonography is ideal for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders because they are often associated with extensive soft tissue swelling and inflammatory exudation. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. Not only does ultrasonography improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis, added use of the machine helps recoup expenses.

  18. Bovine TB surveillance in Great Britain in 2014.

    PubMed

    Lawes, J R; Harris, K A; Brouwer, A; Broughan, J M; Smith, N H; Upton, P A

    2016-03-26

    This report, provided by the APHA, summarises the key descriptive epidemiological parameters of bovine TB in cattle in Great Britain from January 1 to December 31, 2014. It summarises some of the temporal trends observed over a longer period and highlights some differences and similarities between Scotland, Wales and the three bovine TB risk areas of England. It updates the previous annual summaries for 2012 and 2013, also published inVeterinary Record(VR, June 14, 2014, vol 174, pp 600-604; March 28, 2015, vol 176, pp 326-330).

  19. The Effect of Catheptic Enzymes on Chilled Bovine Muscle,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    AD-A084 105 ARMY RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE NATICK -A F/S 6/1 THE EFFECT OF CATHEPTI ENZYMES ON CHILLED BOVINE MUSCLE(U) ’FEB aS S H C...CATALOG NUMBER M-6/800"I 𔃾 N ,tU S... ..... ...... -. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Effect of Catheptic Enzymes on Chilled BovineMuscl _ 6...importance. Various studies have shown that catheptic enzymes produce degradative changes to meat which are very similar to those which occur during the

  20. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  1. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Methods: In the present study, several prediction programs were used to predict B and T-cells epitopes, secondary and tertiary structures, antigenicity ability and enzymatic degradation sites. Finally, a chimeric antigen was designed using computational techniques. The chimeric VP8-S2 antigen was constructed. It was cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+) expression vector. The recombinant pET32a(+)-VP8-S2 vector was transferred into E.oli BL21CodonPlus (DE3) as expression host. The recombinant VP8-S2 protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column. Results: The results of colony PCR, enzyme digestion and sequencing showed that the VP8-S2 chimeric antigen has been successfully cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+).The results showed that E.coli was able to express VP8-S2 protein appropriately. This protein was expressed by induction of IPTG at concentration of 1mM and it was confirmed by Ni–NTA column, dot-blotting analysis and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that E.coli can be used as an appropriate host to produce the recombinant VP8-S2 protein. This recombinant protein may be suitable to investigate to produce immunoglobulin, recombinant vaccine and diagnostic kit in future studies after it passes biological activity tests in vivo in animal model and or other suitable procedure. PMID:27123423

  2. Microarray chip based identification of a mixed infection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea 2 from Indian cattle.

    PubMed

    Ratta, Barkha; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVD2) are endemic in India although no mixed infection with these viruses has been reported from India. We report first mixed infection of these viruses in cattle during routine screening with a microarray chip. 62 of the 69 probes of BHV1 and 42 of the 57 BVD2 probes in the chip gave positive signals for the virus. The virus infections were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. We also discuss the implications of these findings.

  3. The bovine lymphoid system. III. A monoclonal antibody specific for bovine cell surface and serum IgM.

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, M; Musoke, A J; Morrison, W I; Roelants, G E

    1980-01-01

    Mouse spleen cells from animals immunized with bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes were fused to X63 . Ag8 myeloma cells and the activity of one of the resulting myeloma hybrids was characterized. The product of this clone (B5/4.1.4) binds to pentameric bovine IgM isolated from serum but not to serum IgG1 or IgG2. This reagent also binds to cell surface (monomeric) IgM and can be used in immunofluorescence assays to enumerate IgM-bearing cells in lymphoid cell suspensions and to examine B lymphocytes or B lymphocyte derived cells in tissue sections. Images Figure 4 PMID:7000680

  4. Solvent Binding Analysis and Computational Alanine Scanning of the Bovine Chymosin-Bovine κ-Casein Complex Using Molecular Integral Equation Theory.

    PubMed

    Palmer, David S; Sørensen, Jesper; Schiøtt, Birgit; Fedorov, Maxim V

    2013-12-10

    We demonstrate that the relative binding thermodynamics of single-point mutants of a model protein-peptide complex (the bovine chymosin-bovine κ-casein complex) can be calculated accurately and efficiently using molecular integral equation theory. The results are shown to be in good overall agreement with those obtained using implicit continuum solvation models. Unlike the implicit continuum models, however, molecular integral equation theory provides useful information about the distribution of solvent density. We find that experimentally observed water-binding sites on the surface of bovine chymosin can be identified quickly and accurately from the density distribution functions computed by molecular integral equation theory. The bovine chymosin-bovine κ-casein complex is of industrial interest because bovine chymosin is widely used to cleave bovine κ-casein and to initiate milk clotting in the manufacturing of processed dairy products. The results are interpreted in light of the recent discovery that camel chymosin is a more efficient clotting agent than bovine chymosin for bovine milk.

  5. Bovine colostrum against gut inflammatory lesions in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine colostrum is rich in bioactive factors and may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. We hypothesized that both native and sterilized, heat-treated colostrum protect neonates against NEC following preterm birth and formula feeding. Further, we aimed to investigate if pr...

  6. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  7. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form since several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP**res) were different from classical BSE...

  8. Pathogen reduction in minimally managed composting of bovine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistence of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in bovine feces and contaminated soils is an important risk factor in perpetuating the initial infection as well as re-infection of cattle and dissemination of pathogens throughout agricultural la...

  9. Typical and atypical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle, first detected in 1986 in the United Kingdom and subsequently in other countries. It is the most likely cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, but the origin of BSE has not been eluci...

  10. Association of a bovine prion gene haplotype with atypical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a class of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that occur in humans, ruminants, cats, and mink. Three distinct TSEs afflict cattle: classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), atypical H-type BSE, and atypical ...

  11. Endocrine and exocrine function of the bovine testis. Chapter 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is devoted to the endocrine and exocrine function of the normal bovine male testes. The discussion begins with a historical review of the literature dating back to Aristotle’s (300 BC) initial description of the anatomy of the mammalian testes. The first microscopic examination of the t...

  12. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lymphatic tissue, specifically lymph nodes, is commonly incorporated into ground beef products as a component of lean trimmings. Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria have been identified in bovine lymph nodes. Although Salmonella prevalence has been examined among lymph nodes within an animal,...

  13. Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies, France, 2001-2007.

    PubMed

    Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Vulin, Johann; Calavas, Didier; Baron, Thierry G M

    2008-02-01

    In France, through exhaustive active surveillance, approximately 17.1 million adult cattle were tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy from July 2001 through July 2007; approximately 3.6 million were >8 years of age. Our retrospective Western blot study of all 645 confirmed cases found that 7 were H-type and 6 were L-type.

  14. Interferon Gamma Assay for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contact Irene Schiller Prionics AG Wagistrasse 27A CH-8952 Schlieren Switzerland irene.schiller@prionics.com Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a zoonotic disease with a major economic impact, continues to be a significant problem with a global perspective and increasing prevalence in vario...

  15. Purification and Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin Using Chromatographic Method

    PubMed Central

    Balkani, Sanaz; Shamekhi, Sara; Raoufinia, Ramin; Parvan, Reza; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Albumin is an abundant protein of blood and has many biopharmaceutical applications. The aim of this study was to purify bovine serum albumin (BSA) using produced rabbit anti-BSA antibody. Methods: The polyclonal antibody was produced against the BSA in rabbits. Then, the pure BSA was injected to three white New Zealand rabbits. ELISA test was done to evaluate antibody production. After antibody purification,the purified antibody was attached to CNBr-activated sepharose and finally it was used for purification of albumin from bovine serum. Western blotting analysis was used for functional assessment of immunoaffinity purified BSA. Results: The titer of anti-bovine albumin determined by ELISA was obtained 1: 256000. The SDS-PAGE showed up to 98% purity of isolated BSA and western blotting confirmed the BSA functionality. Purified bovine serum albumin by affinity chromatography showed a single band with molecular weight of 66 KDa. Conclusion: Affinity chromatography using produced rabbit anti-BSA antibody would be an economical and safe method for purification of BSA. PMID:28101473

  16. Bovine lactotroph cultures for the study of prolactin synthesis functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfa; Yang, Zhanqing; Fu, Shoupeng; Liu, Bingrun; Wu, Dianjun; Wang, Wei; Sun, Dongbo; Wu, Rui; Liu, Juxiong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a bovine anterior pituitary-derived lactotroph (BAPDL) line that expresses prolactin (PRL) in vitro to study the mechanisms of bovine PRL synthesis and secretion. Immunohistochemistry assay of PRL in the newborn calves' anterior pituitary glands showed that most lactotrophs were located within the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary. Tissues of the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary were dispersed and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The limiting dilution method was used to establish BAPDL from single cell clone. BAPDL cells constantly expressed mRNAs for PRL and pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (Pit-1) gene and grew steadily and rapidly in the DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. PRL immunoreactivity was present in BAPDL at passage 20. The concentration of bovine PRL in BAPDL at passage 20 culture supernatant was decreased to below 35% compared with that in BAPDL at passage 1. The effects of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and dopamine (DA) on the expression and secretion of PRL in BAPDL at passage 4 were also investigated. The results are consistent with those of previous studies. Thus, it can be used successfully for studying the mechanisms of stimuli regulating PRL synthesis and release.

  17. [Identification of NMDA receptor in normal bovine ovary and ovum].

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Naoko; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the pathogenesis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in patients without ovarian teratoma, we investigate normal human ovary, normal bovine ovary and bovine ova. On the basis of immunohistochemical studies, normal human ovary expressed NR2B epitope in primordial oocytes. The results of SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using bovine ovarian tissues and ova, we identified two bands of NR1 and NR2B. Moreover, reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry showed peptides fractions of NR1, NR2A, NR2B and NR2C. Immunocytochemical study disclosed that normal bovine oocyte has a strong affinity for a patient's disease-specific IgG. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis involves mainly young women who are in their reproductive age. Ovarian teratoma is important as simultaneous tumor, the percentage of patients with ovarian teratoma is less than 40%. It is obvious that the origin of ovarian teratoma is oocyte. So the existence of NMDAR in normal oocytes is very important to assert that ovary itself is the antigen presenting tissue. And also it is helpful to explain why young women are mainly affected from this disease. It seems to conclude that anti-NMDAR encephalitis is one form of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis and that the antigen presenting tissue is ovary itself.

  18. Bovine coronaviruses from the respiratory tract: Antigenic and genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine corona viruses (BoCV) isolated from respiratory tract, nasal swab and broncho alveolar washing fluid samples were evaluated for genetic and antigenic differences. These BoCV from the respiratory tract of healthy and clinically ill cattle with BRD signs were compared to reference and vaccine ...

  19. Adherence of Tritrichomonas foetus to bovine vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Hodgson, J L; Jones, D W; Corbeil, R R; Widders, P R; Stephens, L R

    1989-01-01

    Adherence of Tritrichomonas foetus to bovine vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) in vitro was investigated with fresh washed bovine VECs and log-phase cultures of T. foetus. Observation under phase-contrast microscopy showed that T. foetus usually adhered first by the posterior flagellum and later by the body. Significantly more keratinized squamous epithelial cells were detected with attached parasites than nonkeratinized round epithelial cells. The optimal pH range for attachment was 6.0 to 7.5, with peak attachment at pH 6.5 for squamous VECs. Surface-reactive bovine antiserum to T. foetus prevented adherence to bovine squamous VECs. Inhibition of adherence occurred at nonagglutinating, nonimmobilizing serum dilutions. Antiserum fractions enriched for immunoglobulin G1 inhibited adherence, but fractions enriched for immunoglobulin G2 did not. The inhibitory antiserum was specific for several medium- to high-molecular-weight membrane antigens as detected in Western blots (immunoblots). The ability of surface-reactive antibodies to prevent adherence and to agglutinate and immobilize T. foetus indicates that they may be protective. Images PMID:2471692

  20. Bovine plasma proteins increase virulence of Haemophilus somnus in mice.

    PubMed

    Geertsema, Roger S; Kimball, Richard A; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2007-01-01

    The role of bovine serum or plasma proteins in Haemophilus somnus virulence was investigated in a mouse model of septicemia. An increase in virulence was detected when the organism was pre-incubated for 5 min and inoculated with fetal calf serum. When purified bovine serum or plasma proteins were pre-incubated with H. somnus before inoculating into mice, transferrin was found to increase virulence. Bovine lactoferrin was also noted to increase virulence, but to a lesser extent and had a delayed time course when compared with transferrin. Using an ELISA assay, an increased amount of H. somnus whole cells and culture supernatant bound to bovine transferrin when the organism was grown in iron-restricted media. Lactoferrin also bound to H. somnus, but binding was not affected by growth in iron-restricted media and it was eliminated with 2M NaCl, which reversed charge mediated binding. Transferrin, but not lactoferrin, supported growth of H. somnus on iron-depleted agar based media using a disk assay. Therefore, lactoferrin increased virulence by an undetermined mechanism whereas transferrin increased virulence of H. somnus by binding to iron-regulated outer-membrane proteins (IROMPs) and providing iron to the pathogen.

  1. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...

  2. Porcine brain natriuretic peptide receptor in bovine adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, K.; Hashiguchi, T.; Ohashi, M.; Takayanagi, R.; Haji, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nawata, H.

    1989-01-01

    The action of porcine brain natriuretic peptide (pBNP) on the steroidogenesis was investigated in cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. Porcine BNP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of both ACTH- and A II-stimulated aldosterone secretion. 10/sup /minus/8/M and 10/sup /minus/7/M pBNP also significantly inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretions. Binding studies of (/sup 125/I)-pBNP to bovine adrenocortical membrane fractions showed that adrenal cortex had high-affinity and low-capacity pBNP binding sites, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.70 x 10/sup /minus/10/M and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 19.9 fmol/mg protein. Finally, the 135 Kd radioactive band was specially visualized in the affinity labeling of bovine adrenal cortex with disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). These results suggest that pBNP may have receptor-mediated suppressive actions on bovine adrenal steroidogenesis, similar to that in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).

  3. Effect of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids induce vasoconstriction of bovine foregut vasculature. Ergovaline induced the greatest response in ruminal artery while ergovaline and ergotamine induced the greatest response in ruminal vein. Lysergic acid did not stimulate a contractile response in either the ruminal artery or vein...

  4. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Sperm Motility In Vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids are synthesized by endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire). Our objective was to determine direct effects of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and ergonovine) on the motility of bovine spermatozoa in vit...

  5. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  6. Bovine tuberculosis in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Monika; Lipiec, Marek; Zabost, Anna; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    Poland is officially tuberculosis free and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) cases are rarely found except in bovids. We found BTB in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Bieszczady Mountains, southeastern Poland. Studies suggest possible transmission of infection between free-living European bison (Bison bonasus caucasicus) and wild boar in this area.

  7. Red Deer as Maintenance Host for Bovine Tuberculosis, Alpine Region

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Corina; Gonano, Monika; Prodinger, Wolfgang M.; Pacciarini, Maria; Glawischnig, Walter; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Walzer, Chris; Stalder, Gabrielle L.; Lombardo, Dorotea; Schobesberger, Hermann; Winter, Petra; Büttner, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the Alpine region, we studied the epidemiology of Mycobacterium caprae in wildlife during the 2009–2012 hunting seasons. Free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) were a maintenance host in a hot-spot area, mainly located in Austria. PMID:25695273

  8. Hedgehog signaling pathway in small bovine ovarian follicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hedgehog signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and turnover in a variety of mammalian embryonic and adult tissues including bovine ovarian granulosa and theca cells. Binding of hedgehog to the patch receptor derepresses smoothened resulting in t...

  9. Genetic relationships of the Portuguese Lidia bovine populations

    PubMed Central

    Correia, P; Baron, E; da Silva, J. M; Cortés, O

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the genetic relationships among the Lidia breed lineages and two main Portuguese Lidia bovine populations, Casta Portuguesa and Brava dos Açores, 24 autosomal microsatellites were analyzed in 120 samples. Brava dos Açores showed the highest observed and expected heterozygosity (0.73 and 0.70, respectively) while Casta Portuguesa showed the lowest observed and expected heterozygosity (0.51 and 0.50, respectively). The results of this study were compared with the previous microsatellites data from the main Lidia bovine lineages. Casta Portuguesa was the most genetically isolated Lidia bovine population as revealed by the average FST genetic distance value with respect to the other lineages (32%). All the populations of Portuguese Lidia had negative FIS values. The Neighbour-joining dendrogram grouped Casta Portuguesa in the same branch with Miura, which was supported by the STRUCTURE software. The results evidenced low levels of genetic diversity and high levels of genetic differentiation in Casta Portuguesa and high levels of genetic diversity in Brava dos Açores populations, probably due to the crossbreeding of different bovine lineages at origin, and genetic flow among herds. PMID:27175132

  10. Eradication of bovine leukemia virus infection in commercial dairy herds using the agar gel immunodiffusion test.

    PubMed Central

    Shettigara, P T; Samagh, B S; Lobinowich, E M

    1986-01-01

    Demands for bovine leukemia virus test negative breeding cattle and for semen from bovine leukemia virus test negative bulls by several countries have encouraged the eradication of bovine leukemia virus infection from selected herds in Canada. This project was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of the agar gel immunodiffusion test, standardized to detect anti-bovine leukemia virus glycoprotein antibodies, for eradication of bovine leukemia virus from commercial dairy herds. Of nine participating herds, the prevalence rate of bovine leukemia virus infection was low (less than 10%) in three, medium (11-30%) in four and high (greater than 30%) in two. The herds were tested by the agar gel immunodiffusion test, reactors were removed and the herds were then retested at regular intervals. The results indicate that it is possible to eliminate bovine leukemia virus infection from the herds after two to three cycles of agar gel immunodiffusion tests and prompt removal of the reactors. PMID:3019498

  11. Observations on the epidemiology of bovine cryptosporidiosis in India.

    PubMed

    Saha Roy, Seuli; Sarkar, Samar; Batabyal, Subhasis; Pramanik, Amiya Kumar; Das, Pradeep

    2006-11-05

    The significance of Cryptosporidium as a causative agent of diarrhea has been assessed in bovine for a period of 2 years. A total of 940 faecal samples (470 samples in each year) both from diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic bovine (0-12 months age) were examined during three different seasons (rainy season, summer and winter). Overall Cryptosporidium was detected in 17.46% and 18.04% cases in first and second year, respectively. Out of 50.21% diarrhoeic and 49.79% non-diarrhoeic cases Cryptosporidium was detected in 26.79% and 8.13% in first year and 27.49% and 8.59% in second year. Year did not have any significant effect on the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis in bovine during this study period. The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis, both in diarrhoeic (61.64%) and non-diarrhoeic (47.22%) cases was highest in 0-1-month age group (P<0.01). Such a high percentage of cryptosporidiosis in clinically asymptomatic animals indicated that the particular age group of animals might be reservoir for the parasite. During this study period highest prevalence was recorded in rainy season (27.55%) followed by summer (16.99%) and winter (8.71%) (P<0.01). A total of 166 positive cases were genotyped. Molecular characterization of bovine cryptosporidiosis has been carried out by PCR-RFLP analysis of SSU rRNA gene and results indicated that Cryptosporidium parvum mainly responsible for diarrhea in bovine in India.

  12. Sex determination of bovine preimplantation embryos by oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Zhong, Fagang; Yang, Yonglin; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Shouren; Zhu, Bin

    2013-06-01

    The aim has been to set up a rapid and accurate microarray assay using sandwich mode for sex determination of bovine preimplantation embryos. Twelve sequence-specific oligonucleotide capture probes used to discriminate 12 samples were spotted onto the aldehyde-modified glass slides by Arrayer. The 2 recognition probes used to identify coding regions of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome gene (SRY) and β-casein (CSN2) reference gene were coupled with biotin. The assay was optimized by using genomic DNA extracted from blood samples of known sex individuals. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the fragments in the HMG box region of SRY gene and CSN2 gene with sequence-specific primers. The sex of samples was identified by detecting both the SRY and CSN2 genes simultaneously in 2 reaction cells of microarrays, with the male having SRY and CSN2 signals and the female only CSN2. The sex of 20 bovine preimplantation embryos was determined by oligonucleotide microarray. The protocol was run with a blind test that showed a 100% (82/82) specificity and accuracy in sexing of leukocytes. The bovine embryos were transferred into 20 bovine recipients, with a pregnant rate of 40% (8/20). Three calves were born at term, and 5 fetuses were miscarried. Their sexes were fully in accordance with the embryonic sex predetermination predicted by oligonucleotide microarray. This suggests that the oligonucleotide microarray method of SRY gene analysis can be used in early sex prediction of bovine embryos in breeding programs.

  13. Histamine receptors in isolated bovine oviductal arteries.

    PubMed

    Martínez, A C; Novella, S; Raposo, R; Recio, P; Labadía, A; Costa, G; Garcia-Sacristán, A; Benedito, S

    1997-05-20

    The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effect of histamine on isolated rings of bovine oviductal artery and to characterize the histamine receptors involved in the histamine-induced response. Endothelial dependence of the response was also investigated. Cumulative addition of histamine and 2-pyridylethylamine (histamine H receptor agonist) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in intact arterial segments precontracted with noradrenaline. The histamine H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine showed non-competitive antagonism in the histamine-induced concentration-response curve. However, when the response to histamine was evaluated in the presence of mepyramine and histamine H1 and H3 receptors were blocked, Schild analysis yielded a line with a slope of 1.10 and a pA2 value of 8.91, indicating simple competitive antagonism of mepyramine at histamine H1 receptor sites. The histamine H2 receptor agonist, dimaprit, caused marked dilatation only at high doses. Cimetidine, propranolol and mepyramine failed to inhibit this relaxant effect. In precontracted oviductal arteries, cimetidine did not modify the histamine-induced concentration-response curves. Combined treatment with histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists did not induce an additional displacement with respect to the isolated effect of mepyramine thus excluding activation of histamine H2 receptors. Histamine and (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, a selective histamine H3 receptor agonist, produced a moderate contractile effect on the resting tone of preparations. Pretreatment with the selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist decreased the (R)-alpha-methylhistamine response but increased the maximal relaxant effect and abolished the contractile effect of histamine, suggesting the presence of a limited population of contractile histamine H3 receptors. Removal of the endothelium or pretreatment with methylene blue produced a significant inhibition of the relaxant response to histamine. Remaining

  14. The synergistic necrohemorrhagic action of Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin and alpha toxin in the bovine intestine and against bovine endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is a major cause of mortality in veal calves. Clostridium perfringens is considered as the causative agent, but there has been controversy on the toxins responsible for the disease. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a variety of C. perfringens type A strains can induce necrohemorrhagic lesions in a calf intestinal loop assay. These results put forward alpha toxin and perfringolysin as potential causative toxins, since both are produced by all C. perfringens type A strains. The importance of perfringolysin in the pathogenesis of bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis has not been studied before. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of perfringolysin in the development of necrohemorrhagic enteritis lesions in calves and its synergism with alpha toxin. A perfringolysin-deficient mutant, an alpha toxin-deficient mutant and a perfringolysin alpha toxin double mutant were less able to induce necrosis in a calf intestinal loop assay as compared to the wild-type strain. Only complementation with both toxins could restore the activity to that of the wild-type. In addition, perfringolysin and alpha toxin had a synergistic cytotoxic effect on bovine endothelial cells. This endothelial cell damage potentially explains why capillary hemorrhages are an initial step in the development of bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis. Taken together, our results show that perfringolysin acts synergistically with alpha toxin in the development of necrohemorrhagic enteritis in a calf intestinal loop model and we hypothesize that both toxins act by targeting the endothelial cells. PMID:23782465

  15. Global Genetic Profiles of Gene Network Disruption in Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Induced Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient nutrient assimilation into useful animal-derived products is the ultimate requirement for successful animal production. Infection in young growing animals can decrease energy and nutrient use required for growth rate by redirection of nutrients to support immune defense processes. Bovine l...

  16. Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Hart, Patricia; Piccardo, Pedro; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M

    2012-05-01

    Until recently, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (classical BSE or BSE-C). However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. These atypical BSE isolates have been previously transmitted to a range of transgenic mouse models overexpressing PrP from different species at different levels, on a variety of genetic backgrounds. To control for genetic background and expression level in the analysis of these isolates, we performed here a comprehensive comparison of the neuropathological and molecular properties of all three BSE agents (BASE, BSE-C and BSE-H) upon transmission into the same gene-targeted transgenic mouse line expressing the bovine prion protein (Bov6) and a wild-type control of the same genetic background. Significantly, upon challenge with these BSE agents, we found that BASE did not produce shorter survival times in these mice compared with BSE-C, contrary to previous studies using overexpressing bovine transgenic mice. Amyloid plaques were only present in mice challenged with atypical BSE and neuropathological features, including intensity of PrP deposition in the brain and severity of vacuolar degeneration were less pronounced in BASE compared with BSE-C-challenged mice.

  17. Transcytosis of murine-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents in an in vitro bovine M cell model.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Tanaka, Sachi; Hondo, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Rose, Michael T; Kitazawa, Haruki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Katamine, Shigeru; Nishida, Noriyuki; Aso, Hisashi

    2010-12-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. BSE appears to have spread to cattle through the consumption of feed contaminated with BSE/scrapie agents. In the case of an oral infection, the agents have to cross the gut-epithelial barrier. We recently established a bovine intestinal epithelial cell line (BIE cells) that can differentiate into the M cell type in vitro after lymphocytic stimulation (K. Miyazawa, T. Hondo, T. Kanaya, S. Tanaka, I. Takakura, W. Itani, M. T. Rose, H. Kitazawa, T. Yamaguchi, and H. Aso, Histochem. Cell Biol. 133:125-134, 2010). In this study, we evaluated the role of M cells in the intestinal invasion of the murine-adapted BSE (mBSE) agent using our in vitro bovine intestinal epithelial model. We demonstrate here that M cell-differentiated BIE cells are able to transport the mBSE agent without inactivation at least 30-fold more efficiently than undifferentiated BIE cells in our in vitro model. As M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium are known to have a high ability to transport a variety of macromolecules, viruses, and bacteria from gut lumen to mucosal immune cells, our results indicate the possibility that bovine M cells are able to deliver agents of TSE, not just the mBSE agent.

  18. Transcytosis of Murine-Adapted Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agents in an In Vitro Bovine M Cell Model▿ † #

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Tanaka, Sachi; Hondo, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Rose, Michael T.; Kitazawa, Haruki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Katamine, Shigeru; Nishida, Noriyuki; Aso, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. BSE appears to have spread to cattle through the consumption of feed contaminated with BSE/scrapie agents. In the case of an oral infection, the agents have to cross the gut-epithelial barrier. We recently established a bovine intestinal epithelial cell line (BIE cells) that can differentiate into the M cell type in vitro after lymphocytic stimulation (K. Miyazawa, T. Hondo, T. Kanaya, S. Tanaka, I. Takakura, W. Itani, M. T. Rose, H. Kitazawa, T. Yamaguchi, and H. Aso, Histochem. Cell Biol. 133:125-134, 2010). In this study, we evaluated the role of M cells in the intestinal invasion of the murine-adapted BSE (mBSE) agent using our in vitro bovine intestinal epithelial model. We demonstrate here that M cell-differentiated BIE cells are able to transport the mBSE agent without inactivation at least 30-fold more efficiently than undifferentiated BIE cells in our in vitro model. As M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium are known to have a high ability to transport a variety of macromolecules, viruses, and bacteria from gut lumen to mucosal immune cells, our results indicate the possibility that bovine M cells are able to deliver agents of TSE, not just the mBSE agent. PMID:20861256

  19. Eight-year results of site retention of anorganic bovine bone and anorganic bovine matrix.

    PubMed

    Degidi, Marco; Perrotti, Vittoria; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2013-12-01

    The long-term fate of some biomaterials is still unknown, and the reports present in the literature are not conclusive as to whether these biomaterials are resorbed over time or not. Different reports can be found with regard to the resorption behavior of anorganic bovine bone (ABB). The aim of the present study was to provide a comparative histological and histomorphometrical evaluation, in the same patient, of 2 specimens retrieved from a sinus augmented with ABB and with anorganic bovine matrix added to a cell-binding peptide (PepGen P-15), respectively, after a healing period of 6 months and after 8 years of implant loading, to evaluate the resorption of both biomaterials. A unilateral sinus augmentation procedure with ABB (50%) and with PepGen P-15 (50%) was performed in a 54-year-old male patient. Two titanium dental implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface were inserted after 6 months. During this procedure, 2 tissue cores were retrieved from the sinus with a trephine, before implant insertion. After an additional 6 months, a fixed prosthetic restoration was fabricated. One of these implants, after a loading period of 8 years, fractured in the coronal portion and was removed. Both specimens, one retrieved after a 6-month healing period and the other after an 8-year loading period, were treated to obtain thin ground sections. In the 6-month specimen, the histomorphometry showed that the percentage of newly formed bone was 27.2% ± 3.6%, marrow spaces 35.6% ± 2.3%, residual ABB particles 25.1% ± 1.2%, and residual PepGen P-15 particles 12.1% ± 2.2%. In the 8-year specimen, the histomorphometry showed that the percentage of newly formed bone was 51.4% ± 4.8%, marrow spaces 40% ± 7.1%, residual ABB particles 6.2% ± 0.7%, and residual PepGen P-15 particles 2.4% ± 0.5%. Both biomaterials underwent significant resorption over the course of this study.

  20. Effects of Preinfection With Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus on Immune Cells From the Lungs of Calves Inoculated With Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1.

    PubMed

    Risalde, M A; Molina, V; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Palomo, F; Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interstitial aggregates of immune cells observed in pulmonary parenchyma of calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and challenged later with bovine herpesvirus 1. In addition, the intent of this research was to clarify the role of bovine viral diarrhea virus in local cell-mediated immunity and potentially in predisposing animals to bovine respiratory disease complex. Twelve Friesian calves, aged 8 to 9 months, were inoculated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1. Ten were subsequently challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1 and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days postinoculation. The other 2 calves were euthanized prior to the second inoculation. Another cohort of 10 calves was inoculated only with bovine herpesvirus 1 and then were euthanized at the same time points. Two calves were not inoculated with any agent and were used as negative controls. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated in all animals, while quantitative and biosynthetic changes in immune cells were concurrently examined immunohistochemically to compare coinfected calves and calves challenged only with bovine herpesvirus 1. Calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus demonstrated moderate respiratory clinical signs and histopathologic evidence of interstitial pneumonia with aggregates of mononuclear cells, which predominated at 4 days postinoculation. Furthermore, this group of animals was noted to have a suppression of interleukin-10 and associated alterations in the Th1-driven cytokine response in the lungs, as well as inhibition of the response of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes against bovine herpesvirus 1. These findings suggest that bovine viral diarrhea virus preinfection could affect the regulation of the immune response as modulated by regulatory T cells, as well as impair local cell-mediated immunity to secondary respiratory pathogens.