Science.gov

Sample records for containment enclosures part

  1. Material containment enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David O.

    1993-01-01

    An isolation enclosure and a group of isolation enclosures useful when a relatively large containment area is required. The enclosure is in the form of a ring having a section removed so that a technician may enter the center area of the ring. In a preferred embodiment, an access zone is located in the transparent wall of the enclosure and extends around the inner perimeter of the ring so that a technician can insert his hands into the enclosure to reach any point within. The inventive enclosures provide more containment area per unit area of floor space than conventional material isolation enclosures.

  2. Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, B.X.; Ganni, V.; Stifle, K.E.

    1995-01-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system. 8 figs.

  3. Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Burt X.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Stifle, Kirk E.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system.

  4. Studies of Forced-Convection Heat Transfer Augmentation in Large Containment Enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, S.Z.; Peterson, P.F.

    2001-06-17

    Heat transfer enhancement due to jet mixing inside a cylindrical enclosure is discussed. This work addresses conservative heat transfer assumptions regarding mixing and condensation that have typically been incorporated into passive containment design analyses. This research presents the possibility for increasing decay heat removal of passive containment systems under combined natural and forced convection. Eliminating these conservative assumptions could result in a changed containment design and reduce the construction cost. It is found that the ratio of forced- and free-convection Nusselt numbers can be predicted as a function of the Archimedes number and a correlated factor accounting for jet orientation and enclosure geometry.

  5. 9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and enclosure. 112.2 Section 112.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS... carton; (10) In the case of a product which contains an antibiotic added during the production...

  6. Analysis of factors affecting containment with extracted partial enclosures using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Batt, Rachel L; Kelsey, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    The Health and Safety Executive's (HSE's) COSHH Essentials (HSE, 2002, COSHH Essentials: easy steps to control chemicals HSG193. 2nd edn. ISBN 0 71762737 3. Available at http://www.coshh-essentials.org.uk. Accessed 30 October 2013) provides guidance on identifying the approaches required to control exposure to chemicals in the workplace. The control strategies proposed in COSHH Essentials are grouped into four control approaches: general ventilation, engineering control, containment, or to seek specialist advice. We report the use of experimental measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling to examine the performance of an engineering control approach and a containment control approach. The engineering control approach simulated was an extracted partial enclosure, based on the COSHH Essentials G200, for which simulations were compared with data from experiments. The containment approach simulated was of drum filling (in an extracted partial enclosure), based on the COSHH Essentials G305. The influence of the following factors on containment was examined: face velocity, size and location of face opening, and movement and ventilation flows. CFD predictions of the engineering control approach agreed well with the majority of the experimental measurements demonstrating confidence in the modelling approach used. The results show that the velocity distribution at the face of the enclosure is not uniform and the location and size of the opening are significant factors affecting the flow field and hence the containment performance. The simulations of drum filling show the effect on containment of the movement of a drum through the face of an enclosure. Analysis of containment performance, using a tracer, showed that containment was affected by the interaction between the ventilation flow direction and drum movement and spacing. Validated CFD simulations are shown to be a useful tool for gaining insight into the flows in control strategies for exposure

  7. Transient Flows and Stratification of an Enclosure Containing Both a Localised and Distributed Source of Buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, Jamie; Linden, Paul

    2014-11-01

    We examine the transient flow and stratification in a naturally ventilated enclosure containing both a localised and distributed source of buoyancy. Both sources of buoyancy are located at the base of the enclosure to represent a building where there is a distributed heat flux from the floor, for example from a sun patch, that competes with a localised heat source within the space. The steady conditions of the space are controlled purely by the geometry of the enclosure and the ratio of the distributed and localised buoyancy fluxes Ψ and are independent of the order buoyancy fluxes are introduced into the space. However, the order sources are introduced into the space, such as delaying the introduction of a localised source, alter the transients significantly. To investigate this problem, small-scale experiments were conducted and compared to a `perfect-mixing' model of the transients. How the stratification evolves in time, in particular how long it takes to reach steady conditions, is key to understanding what can be expected in real buildings. The transient evolution of the interior stratification is reported here and compared to the theoretical model.

  8. Transition to chaos in a square enclosure containing internal heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Baytas, A.C.

    1995-09-01

    A numerical investigation is performed to study the transition from steady to chaotic flow of a fluid confined in a two-dimensional square cavity. The cavity has rigid walls of constant temperature containing uniformly distributed internal heat source. Effects of the Rayleigh number of flow and heat transfer rates are studied. In addition to, same problem is solved for sinusoidally changing internal heat source to show its effect on the flow model and heat transfer of the enclosures. Details of oscillatory solutions and flow bifurcations are presented.

  9. The Exchange Factor Method: AN Alternative Zonal Formulation for Analysis of Radiating Enclosures Containing Participating Media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood

    The exchange factor method (EFM) is introduced and compared to the zone method (ZM). In both the EFM and the ZM the region of interest is discretized into volume and surface elements, each considered to be isothermal, which are small enough to give the required resolution. A suitable set of state variables for the system is composed of the surface element radiosities and the gas element emissive powers. The EFM defines exchange factors as dimensionless total-exchange areas for radiant interchange between volume and surface elements by all possible absorption/re-emission paths, but excluding wall reflections. In the EFM, the exchange factors replace the direct-exchange areas of the ZM and are used to write energy balances for each area and volume element in the system. As in the ZM, the radiant energy balance equations result in a set of algebraic equations linear in the system state variables. The distinguishing feature of the EFM is that exchange factors may be measurable quantities. Relationships between the EFM exchange factors and the ZM direct-exchange areas are presented. EFM conservation and reciprocity laws, analogous to those of the ZM, are also included. Temperature and heat flux distributions, predicted using the EFM, for two- and three-dimensional enclosures containing absorbing/emitting, isotropically scattering, and conducting media are included. An application of the EFM is proposed which calls for the measurement of exchange factors in a scale model of the enclosure to be analyzed. The measurement of these factors in an enclosure containing an isotropically scattering medium is discussed. The effects of isotropic scattering and absorption/re-emission processes are shown to be indistinguishable in their contribution to exchange factor paths.

  10. Exchange factor method: an alternative zonal formulation for analysis of radiating enclosures containing participating media

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The exchange factor method (EFM) is introduced and compared to the zone method (ZM). In both the EFM and ZM the region of interest is discretized into volume and surface elements, each considered to be isothermal, which are small enough to give the required resolution. A suitable set of state variables for the system is composed of the surface element radiosities and the gas element emissive powers. The EFM defines exchange factors as dimensionless total-exchange areas for radiant interchange between volume and surface elements by all possible absorption/re-emission paths, but excluding wall reflections. In the EFM, the exchange factors replace the direct-exchange areas of the ZM and are used to write energy balances for each area and volume element in the system. As in the ZM, the radiant energy balance equations result in a set of algebraic equations linear in the system state variables. The distinguishing feature of the EFM is that exchange factors may be measurable quantities. Relationships between the EFM exchange factors and the ZM direct-exchange areas are presented. EFM conservation and reciprocity laws, analogous to those of the ZM, are also included. Temperature and heat flux distributions, predicted using the EFM, for two- and three-dimensional enclosures containing absorbing/emitting, isotropically scattering, and conducting media are included. An application of the EFM is proposed which calls for the measurement of exchange factors in a scale model of the enclosure to be analyzed. The measurement of these factors in an enclosure containing an isotropically scattering medium is discussed. The effects of isotropic scattering and absorption/re-emission processes are shown to be indistinguishable in their contribution to exchange factor paths.

  11. Determination of the Composition of the Atmospheres in the Enclosures Containing the Charters of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, George F.

    2002-12-01

    In the early 1950s, the United States Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Declaration of Independence, collectively known as the "Charters of Freedom," were encased in specially designed enclosures. As a protective measure the enclosures were filled with moist helium and sealed. Currently a project is underway to remove the Charters from these encasements and re-encase them in modem enclosures. Before these cases are opened, conservationists at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) wish to know if air has leaked into the cases and what the relative humidity is. In 1998 NARA contacted NASA to request assistance with this problem. By adapting the NASA Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH), an airborne sensor based on the absorption of infrared radiation at 1.4 microns by water vapor, the cases containing the second and third pages of the Constitution were non-invasively analyzed in 1999. Approximate relative humidity values were obtained. In addition, because the width of the absorption line is dependent on the other gases present it was possible to determine that the seals had not leaked. During the summer of 2001, the remaining documents were removed from public display and were made available for analysis. To increase the sensitivity of the DLH to the presence of air, for the 2001 measurements a stronger water vapor absorption line was chosen, however this required locating a laser that operated at the wavelength of this stronger line. In this work a number of diode lasers were characterized and a suitable one was identified and installed in the DLH. A series of laboratory measurements of the chosen absorption line were performed to determine spectroscopic parameters including line strength, and helium broadening, air broadening, and self-broadening coefficients. The DLH was then reconfigured from its normal aircraft configuration to one more suitable for the Charters measurements. This involved installing it in a different housing, one specifically

  12. Engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents results from an engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration test. The electrostatic enclosure is part of an overall in-depth contamination control strategy for transuranic (TRU) waste recovery operations. TRU contaminants include small particles of plutonium compounds associated with defense-related waste recovery operations. Demonstration test items consisted of an outer Perma-con enclosure, an inner tent enclosure, and a ventilation system test section for testing electrostatic curtain devices. Three interchangeable test fixtures that could remove plutonium from the contaminated dust were tested in the test section. These were an electret filter, a CRT as an electrostatic field source, and an electrically charged parallel plate separator. Enclosure materials tested included polyethylene, anti-static construction fabric, and stainless steel. The soil size distribution was determined using an eight stage cascade impactor. Photographs of particles containing plutonium were obtained with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM also provided a second method of getting the size distribution. The amount of plutonium removed from the aerosol by the electrostatic devices was determined by radiochemistry from input and output aerosol samplers. The inner and outer enclosures performed adequately for plutonium handling operations and could be used for full scale operations.

  13. Subsea wellhead protective enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, P.M.

    1980-09-02

    Method and apparatus for protecting subsea wellheads and christmas trees from damage by anchors, fishing nets, trawl boards, and other towed devices. The apparatus includes an annular, rigid protective enclosure with inner and outer walls that define a hollow annular chamber, and a plurality of bag-like containers spaced around and attached to the enclosure's outer wall. The annular chamber is in communication with the interiors of the containers by means of ports through the enclosure's outer wall, whereby when cement is pumped into the chamber it also flows into and fills the containers to form a smoothly contoured shield around the enclosure. Should an anchor or other device become fouled on this shield, the container or containers involved will break away and let the anchor continue on its way up and over the enclosure without damage to the wellhead or other well equipment.

  14. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  15. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  16. 9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS... container is exempt; (7) If the biological product contains viable or dangerous organisms or viruses,...

  17. 9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carton; (10) In the case of a product which contains an antibiotic added during the production process, the statement “Contains ___ as a preservative,” or an equivalent statement indicating the...

  18. 9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... carton; (10) In the case of a product which contains an antibiotic added during the production process, the statement “Contains ___ as a preservative,” or an equivalent statement indicating the...

  19. 9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... carton; (10) In the case of a product which contains an antibiotic added during the production process, the statement “Contains ___ as a preservative,” or an equivalent statement indicating the...

  20. Non-Flammable Containment Bag and Enclosure Development for International Space Station Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inamdar, Sunil; Cadogan, Dave; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Work conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) requires the use of a significant quantity of containment bags to hold specimens, equipment, waste, and other material. The bags are in many shapes and sizes, and are typically manufactured from polyethylene materials. The amount of bags being used on ISS has grown to the point where fire safety has become a concern because of the flammability of polyethylene. Recently, a new re-sealable bag design has been developed that is manufactured from a specialized non-flammable material called Armorflex 301 that was designed specifically for this application. Besides being non-flammable, Armorflex 301 is also FDA compliant, clear, flexible, and damage tolerant. The bags can be made with closure mechanisms that resemble ZipLoc® bags, or can be open top. Sample bags have been laboratory tested by NASA to verify materials properties, and evaluated by astronauts on the ISS in 2012. Flexloc bag manufacturing will commence in 2014 to support a transition away from polyethylene on ISS. In addition to re-sealable bags, other larger containment systems such as flexible gloveboxes, deployable clean rooms, and other devices manufactured from Armorflex 301 are being explored for use on ISS and in similar confined space locations where flammability is an issue. This paper will describe the development of the Armorflex 301 material, the Flexloc bag, and other containment systems being explored for use in confined areas

  1. NASA Animal Enclosure Module Mouse Odor Containment Study for STS-107 September 15, 1999;SJSU Odor Panel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Mele, Gary D.; Poffenroth, Mary; Young, Cliff

    2000-01-01

    Experiment #153 by Scott Brady is manifested for shuttle flight STS-107. This evaluation of space flight induced stress and its effects on neuronal plasticity will use 18 six month old C57Bl/6 male mice. A 21 day evaluation study was proposed to determine the length of time groups of 6, 9, or 12 mice could be housed in the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) without odor breakthrough. This study was performed at NASA-Ames Research Center beginning on September 15, 1999. NASA personnel, were responsible for animal care, maintenance, facilities, hardware, etc. San Jose State personnel performed the odor panel evaluations and data reduction. We used similar procedures and methods for earlier tests evaluating female mice.

  2. 40 CFR 86.1217-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determination of enclosure background emissions (hydrocarbons and methanol); initial determination of enclosure internal volume; and periodic hydrocarbon and methanol retention check and calibration. Methanol... that it does not contain materials that will themselves emit hydrocarbons or methanol. When methanol...

  3. 40 CFR 86.117-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and periodic determination of enclosure background emissions (hydrocarbons and methanol); initial determination of enclosure internal volume; and periodic hydrocarbon and methanol retention check and... checked to determine that it does not contain materials that will themselves emit hydrocarbons or...

  4. 50 CFR 14.172 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Birds § 14.172 Primary enclosures. (a) A... that droppings do not fall into food or water troughs or onto other perched birds. There shall be... enclosure containing nonraptorial birds that do not rest by perching shall be large enough for the birds...

  5. 50 CFR 14.106 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... one or more slanted or curved walls containing ventilation openings need not be fitted with spacer bars on such walls. (d) An enclosure that is not permanently affixed within the conveyance shall have... normally consumed by the mammals. An enclosure used to transport marine mammals in water, in a...

  6. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

    1993-04-27

    An enclosure is described, similar to a glove box, for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  7. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, Calvin J.; Dahlby, Joel W.; Gallimore, Bradford F.; Comer, Bob E.; Stone, Water A.; Carlson, David O.

    1993-01-01

    An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  8. Evaluation of retrieval activities and equipment for removal of containers from the transuranic storage area retrieval enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, R.; Rhoden, G.; Davies, G.B.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1970, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has accepted over 55,000 cubic meters of Transuranic contaminated hazardous waste for interim storage. The waste has been neatly stored in ``cell`` configurations on adjoining, above ground asphalt pads at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA). A number of reports have been supplied for review and comment describing the methodology and equipment proposed for retrieval of drums and boxes from a storage facility at the INEL site. The contract for this review requires two main issues to be addressed. First, the adequacy of equipment and methodology for the retrieval of containers which have been breached, lost structural integrity, or are otherwise damaged, Second, to review the strategies and equipment for retrieval of intact waste containers. These issues are presented in the following report along with additional detail in the methodology to complete the description of the operations required for retrieval under most operational scenarios. The documentation reviewed is considered to be at an interim stage and is therefore expected to be subject to the development of the methodology from the existing level of detail with input from the facility operators. This review aims to anticipate some of this development by providing suggested detailed methods of retrieval and equipment for both normal and abnormal operations.

  9. Mercury vapor air-surface exchange measured by collocated micrometeorological and enclosure methods - Part I: Data comparability and method characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Sommar, J.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable quantification of air-biosphere exchange flux of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) is crucial for understanding the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury. However, there has not been a standard analytical protocol for flux quantification, and little attention has been devoted to characterize the temporal variability and comparability of fluxes measured by different methods. In this study, we deployed a collocated set of micrometeorological (MM) and dynamic flux chamber (DFC) measurement systems to quantify Hg0 flux over bare soil and low standing crop in an agricultural field. The techniques include relaxed eddy accumulation (REA), modified Bowen ratio (MBR), aerodynamic gradient (AGM) as well as dynamic flux chambers of traditional (TDFC) and novel (NDFC) designs. The five systems and their measured fluxes were cross-examined with respect to magnitude, temporal trend and correlation with environmental variables. Fluxes measured by the MM and DFC methods showed distinct temporal trends. The former exhibited a highly dynamic temporal variability while the latter had much more gradual temporal features. The diurnal characteristics reflected the difference in the fundamental processes driving the measurements. The correlations between NDFC and TDFC fluxes and between MBR and AGM fluxes were significant (R>0.8, p<0.05), but the correlation between DFC and MM fluxes were from weak to moderate (R=0.1-0.5). Statistical analysis indicated that the median of turbulent fluxes estimated by the three independent MM techniques were not significantly different. Cumulative flux measured by TDFC is considerably lower (42% of AGM and 31% of MBR fluxes) while those measured by NDFC, AGM and MBR were similar (<10% difference). This suggests that incorporating an atmospheric turbulence property such as friction velocity for correcting the DFC-measured flux effectively bridged the gap between the Hg0 fluxes measured by enclosure and MM techniques. Cumulated flux measured by REA

  10. Sealed head access area enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder power reactor is provided with a sealed head access area enclosure disposed above the reactor vessel head consisting of a plurality of prefabricated structural panels including a center panel removably sealed into position with inflatable seals, and outer panels sealed into position with semipermanent sealant joints. The sealant joints are located in the joint between the edge of the panels and the reactor containment structure and include from bottom to top an inverted U-shaped strip, a lower layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material, a separator strip defining a test space therewithin, and an upper layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material. The test space is tapped by a normally plugged passage extending to the top of the enclosure for testing the seal or introducing a buffer gas thereinto.

  11. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  12. Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating system for unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  13. DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  14. MROI Array telescopes: the relocatable enclosure domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Payne, I.

    2016-07-01

    The MROI - Magdalena Ridge Interferometer is a project which comprises an array of up to 10 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes arranged in a "Y" configuration. Each of these telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which are relocatable onto any of 28 stations. EIE GROUP Srl, Venice - Italy, was awarded the contract for the design, the construction and the erection on site of the MROI by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The close-pack array of the MROI - including all 10 telescopes, several of which are at a relative distance of less than 8m center to center from each other - necessitated an original design for the Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE). This innovative design enclosure incorporates a unique dome/observing aperture system to be able to operate in the harsh environmental conditions encountered at an altitude of 10,460ft (3,188m). The main characteristics of this Relocatable Enclosure Dome are: a Light insulated Steel Structure with a dome made of composites materials (e.g. glass/carbon fibers, sandwich panels etc.), an aperture motorized system for observation, a series of louvers for ventilation, a series of electrical and plants installations and relevant auxiliary equipment. The first Enclosure Dome is now under construction and the completion of the mounting on site id envisaged by the end of 2016. The relocation system utilizes a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) capable of maneuvering between and around the enclosures, capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (30tons), with minimal impacts due to vibrations.

  15. 9 CFR 3.28 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the guinea pigs and hamsters... be constructed and maintained so that the guinea pigs or hamsters contained therein have...

  16. Thermomagnetic Convective Flow Characteristics of Oil-Based Magnetic Nanofluids in Rectangular Enclosure.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of thermomagnetic convective flow in a rectangular enclosure heated from below and filled with oil-based nanofluid (EFH-1, Ferrotec.), so called ferrofluid, were numerically investigated. The enclosure contained obstacles with rectangular or triangular configurations mounted on the top and bottom walls. To generate homogeneous magnetic fields, a permanent magnet with a uniform magnetic field strength of 600 kA/m was located in the lower part of the rectangular enclosure, and specified the horizontal or vertical direction. Coupling calculations between thermal-flow field and magnetic field in the analysis model were performed using the commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. Results showed that the ferrofluid flow fields were affected by the applied external magnetic field directions and that the eddy flow phenomena in the rectangular enclosure were generated in the vicinity of the section of high magnetic flux density fields such as the edge of the permanent magnet. The effect of parameters like temperature distributions and local Nusselt number (Nu) profiles on the thermomagnetic convective flow was graphically depicted with various flow conditions.

  17. 49 CFR 193.2905 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... surrounded by a protective enclosure: (1) Storage tanks; (2) Impounding systems; (3) Vapor barriers; (4...) Alternative power sources. The protective enclosure may be one or more separate enclosures surrounding...

  18. Innovative relocation system for enclosures for MROI array telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marchiori, G.; Mian, S.; Payne, I.; Pozzobon, M.

    2010-07-01

    Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) comprises an array of up to ten (10) 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes. Each of these ten telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which can be relocated, with the telescope inside, to any of 28 stations arranged in a "Y" configuration. These stations comprise fixed foundations with utility and data connections. There are four standard array configurations, the most compact of which one has less than 350 mm of space between the enclosures. This paper describes the relocation systems that were evaluated, including a rail based system, wheels or trolley fixed to the bottom of the enclosure, and various lifting mechanisms, all of which were analyzed to determine their performances related to the requirements. Eventually a relocation system utilizing a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) has been selected. The reachstacker is capable of manoeuvring between and around the enclosures, is capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (40tons), and can manoeuvre the enclosure with minimal vibrations. A rigorous testing procedure has been performed to determine the vibrations induced in a dummy load in order to guarantee the safety of optics that must remain on the nasmyth table during the relocation. Finally we describe the lifting system, constituted by hydraulic jacks and locating pins, designed to lift and lower the enclosure and telescope during the precise positioning of the telescopes in the various stations.

  19. Thermal enclosure system functional simulation user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry

    1994-01-01

    A form and function simulation of the thermal enclosure system (TES) for a microgravity protein crystal growth experiment has been developed as part of an investigation of the benefits and limitations of intravehicular telerobotics to aid in microgravity science and production. A user can specify the time, temperature, and sample rate profile for a given experiment, and menu options and status are presented on an LCD display. This report describes the features and operational procedures for the functional simulation.

  20. 9 CFR 3.53 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary enclosures. 3.53 Section 3.53... Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.53 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for rabbits shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound...

  1. 9 CFR 3.53 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary enclosures. 3.53 Section 3.53... Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.53 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for rabbits shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound...

  2. 9 CFR 3.53 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary enclosures. 3.53 Section 3.53... Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.53 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for rabbits shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound...

  3. 9 CFR 3.53 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary enclosures. 3.53 Section 3.53... Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.53 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for rabbits shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound...

  4. Air-surface exchange of Hg0 measured by collocated micrometeorological and enclosure methods - Part 1: Data comparability and method characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Sommar, J.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.

    2014-09-01

    Reliable quantification of air-biosphere exchange flux of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) is crucial for understanding global biogeochemical cycle of mercury. However, there has not been a standard analytical protocol for flux quantification, and little attention has been devoted to characterize the temporal variability and comparability of fluxes measured by different methods. In this study, we deployed a collocated set of micro-meteorological (MM) and enclosure measurement systems to quantify Hg0 flux over bare soil and low standing crop in an agricultural field. The techniques include relaxed eddy accumulation (REA), modified Bowen-ratio (MBR), aerodynamic gradient (AGM) as well as dynamic flux chambers of traditional (TDFC) and novel (NDFC) designs. The five systems and their measured fluxes were cross-examined with respect to magnitude, temporal trend and sensitivity to environmental variables. Fluxes measured by the MM and DFC methods showed distinct temporal trends. The former exhibited a highly dynamic temporal variability while the latter had much gradual temporal features. The diurnal characteristics reflected the difference in the fundamental processes driving the measurements. The correlations between NDFC and TDFC fluxes and between MBR and AGM fluxes were significant (R > 0.8, p < 0.05), but the correlation between DFC and MM instantaneous fluxes were from weak to moderate (R = 0.1-0.5). Statistical analysis indicated that the median of turbulent fluxes estimated by the three independent MM-techniques were not significantly different. Cumulative flux measured by TDFC is considerably lower (42% of AGM and 31% of MBR fluxes) while those measured by NDFC, AGM and MBR were similar (< 10% difference). This implicates that the NDFC technique, which accounts for internal friction velocity, effectively bridged the gap in measured Hg0 flux compared to MM techniques. Cumulated flux measured by REA was ~60% higher than the gradient-based fluxes. Environmental

  5. Numerical modeling of enclosure convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duh, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical study on the steady and unsteady natural convection in two-dimensional rectangular enclosures has been performed by a time-accurate ADI finite difference scheme. The study covered a range of Rayleigh numbers between 1000 and 10 to the 7th, aspect ratios between 0.2 and 10.0, and tilt angles between -90 (heating from bottom) and +90 deg (heating from top). Various Prandtl numbers have been studied, but only the results of water (Pr = 7.0) are reported here due to space limitations. The physics revealed, however, includes the convection phenomena and the Rayleigh-Benard stability, as well as the combined mechanism of these two. The onset of secondary cells is determined by using a velocity map, which is simpler and cleaner, instead of a streamline plot. The critical Ra number for the occurrence of these secondary cells is shown to be lower than can be detected by experimental studies. On the Rayleigh-Benard stability part, a second transition from stable single-cell convection to periodic multicellular convection is disclosed.

  6. 50 CFR 14.131 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears) § 14.131 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure that is... sea otter or polar bear has sufficient space to turn about freely with all four feet on the floor...

  7. 50 CFR 14.131 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears) § 14.131 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure that is... sea otter or polar bear has sufficient space to turn about freely with all four feet on the floor...

  8. 50 CFR 14.131 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears) § 14.131 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure that is... sea otter or polar bear has sufficient space to turn about freely with all four feet on the floor...

  9. 50 CFR 14.131 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears) § 14.131 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure that is... sea otter or polar bear has sufficient space to turn about freely with all four feet on the floor...

  10. 50 CFR 14.106 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affixed in the conveyance or has an open top for certain large mammals, spacer bars allowing circulation of air around the enclosure shall be fitted to the exterior of its top, sides, and base. Spacer bars... bars for the sides of the enclosure to which they are attached. A primary enclosure constructed...

  11. 50 CFR 14.161 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... upper one-half of the enclosure. (b) No more than one terrestrial mammal (other than rodents) shall be... enclosure if the shipment complies with the provisions of § 14.105(b). (c) More than one rodent may be... compatible groups. Rodents that are incompatible shall be transported in individual primary enclosures...

  12. 46 CFR 111.50-7 - Enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enclosures. 111.50-7 Section 111.50-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Overcurrent Protection § 111.50-7 Enclosures. (a) Each enclosure of an overcurrent...

  13. 50 CFR 14.121 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.121 Section 14.121... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Nonhuman Primates § 14.121 Primary enclosures. (a) No more than one primate shall be transported in a primary enclosure. However, a mother...

  14. 50 CFR 14.121 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.121 Section 14.121... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Nonhuman Primates § 14.121 Primary enclosures. (a) No more than one primate shall be transported in a primary enclosure. However, a mother...

  15. 50 CFR 14.121 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.121 Section 14.121... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Nonhuman Primates § 14.121 Primary enclosures. (a) No more than one primate shall be transported in a primary enclosure. However, a mother...

  16. 9 CFR 3.28 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.28 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the guinea pigs and...

  17. 9 CFR 3.28 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.28 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the guinea pigs and...

  18. 9 CFR 3.28 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.28 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the guinea pigs and...

  19. 50 CFR 14.161 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... upper one-half of the enclosure. (b) No more than one terrestrial mammal (other than rodents) shall be... enclosure if the shipment complies with the provisions of § 14.105(b). (c) More than one rodent may be... compatible groups. Rodents that are incompatible shall be transported in individual primary enclosures...

  20. 50 CFR 14.161 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... upper one-half of the enclosure. (b) No more than one terrestrial mammal (other than rodents) shall be... enclosure if the shipment complies with the provisions of § 14.105(b). (c) More than one rodent may be... compatible groups. Rodents that are incompatible shall be transported in individual primary enclosures...

  1. 50 CFR 14.161 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... upper one-half of the enclosure. (b) No more than one terrestrial mammal (other than rodents) shall be... enclosure if the shipment complies with the provisions of § 14.105(b). (c) More than one rodent may be... compatible groups. Rodents that are incompatible shall be transported in individual primary enclosures...

  2. 50 CFR 14.161 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... upper one-half of the enclosure. (b) No more than one terrestrial mammal (other than rodents) shall be... enclosure if the shipment complies with the provisions of § 14.105(b). (c) More than one rodent may be... compatible groups. Rodents that are incompatible shall be transported in individual primary enclosures...

  3. 50 CFR 14.151 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs... located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure. (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur... together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure. (c) A primary enclosure used to transport...

  4. 46 CFR 111.50-7 - Enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enclosures. 111.50-7 Section 111.50-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Overcurrent Protection § 111.50-7 Enclosures. (a) Each enclosure of an overcurrent...

  5. 46 CFR 111.50-7 - Enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enclosures. 111.50-7 Section 111.50-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Overcurrent Protection § 111.50-7 Enclosures. (a) Each enclosure of an overcurrent...

  6. 46 CFR 111.40-5 - Enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enclosure. 111.40-5 Section 111.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-5 Enclosure. Each panelboard must have a noncombustible enclosure that...

  7. 46 CFR 111.40-5 - Enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enclosure. 111.40-5 Section 111.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-5 Enclosure. Each panelboard must have a noncombustible enclosure that...

  8. 46 CFR 111.50-7 - Enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enclosures. 111.50-7 Section 111.50-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Overcurrent Protection § 111.50-7 Enclosures. (a) Each enclosure of an overcurrent...

  9. 46 CFR 111.40-5 - Enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enclosure. 111.40-5 Section 111.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-5 Enclosure. Each panelboard must have a noncombustible enclosure that...

  10. 46 CFR 111.40-5 - Enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enclosure. 111.40-5 Section 111.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-5 Enclosure. Each panelboard must have a noncombustible enclosure that...

  11. 46 CFR 111.40-5 - Enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enclosure. 111.40-5 Section 111.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-5 Enclosure. Each panelboard must have a noncombustible enclosure that...

  12. 9 CFR 3.28 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.28 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the guinea pigs and...

  13. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and cats must meet the following minimum requirements: (a) General requirements. (1) Primary enclosures... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  14. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and cats must meet the following minimum requirements: (a) General requirements. (1) Primary enclosures... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  15. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and cats must meet the following minimum requirements: (a) General requirements. (1) Primary enclosures... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  16. Safety-Enclosure System For MOCVD Process Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singletery, James, Jr.; Velasquez, Hugo; Warner, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Safety-enclosure system filled with nitrogen surrounds reaction chamber in which metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) performed. Designed to protect against explosions and/or escaping toxic gases and particulates. Gas-purification subsystem ensures during loading and unloading of process materials, interior of MOCVD chamber exposed to less than 1 ppm of oxygen and less than 5 ppm of water in nitrogen atmosphere. Toxic byproducts of MOCVD process collected within inert atmosphere. Enclosure strong enough to contain any fragments in unlikely event of explosion.

  17. Flammable gas cloud build up in a ventilated enclosure.

    PubMed

    Ivings, M J; Gant, S E; Saunders, C J; Pocock, D J

    2010-12-15

    Ventilation is frequently used as a means for preventing the build up of flammable or toxic gases in enclosed spaces. The effectiveness of the ventilation often has to be considered as part of a safety case or risk assessment. In this paper methods for assessing ventilation effectiveness for hazardous area classification are examined. The analysis uses data produced from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of low-pressure jet releases of flammable gas in a ventilated enclosure. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements of gas releases in a ventilation-controlled test chamber. Good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental data. Analysis of the CFD results shows that the flammable gas cloud volume resulting from a leak is largely dependent on the mass release rate of flammable gas and the ventilation rate of the enclosure. The effectiveness of the ventilation for preventing the build up of flammable gas can therefore be assessed by considering the average gas concentration at the enclosure outlet(s). It is found that the ventilation rate of the enclosure provides a more useful measure of ventilation effectiveness than considering the enclosure air change rate.

  18. Sound reduction by metamaterial-based acoustic enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Shanshan; Li, Pei; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai

    2014-12-15

    In many practical systems, acoustic radiation control on noise sources contained within a finite volume by an acoustic enclosure is of great importance, but difficult to be accomplished at low frequencies due to the enhanced acoustic-structure interaction. In this work, we propose to use acoustic metamaterials as the enclosure to efficiently reduce sound radiation at their negative-mass frequencies. Based on a circularly-shaped metamaterial model, sound radiation properties by either central or eccentric sources are analyzed by numerical simulations for structured metamaterials. The parametric analyses demonstrate that the barrier thickness, the cavity size, the source type, and the eccentricity of the source have a profound effect on the sound reduction. It is found that increasing the thickness of the metamaterial barrier is an efficient approach to achieve large sound reduction over the negative-mass frequencies. These results are helpful in designing highly efficient acoustic enclosures for blockage of sound in low frequencies.

  19. 27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AT RIGHT. PADLOCKED PANEL AT TOP CENTER CONTAINS MISSILE LAUNCH KEYS. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  20. Sound Radiation from an Enclosure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-05

    enclosure and tested hanging from a " bungee cord" to simulate free boundary conditions. Figure 9 shows views of the experimental mesh with 64...square difference between the analytical function and the experimental data) and jump to the correct value for the minimum knowing the derivatives of...the analytical function with respect to the parameters. For a linear optimization problem, this technique yields the minimum in a single jump . For a

  1. Cold Climate Building Enclosure Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, J.; Fallahi, A.; Shukla, N.

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the energy performance and cost effectiveness of several state-of-the-art retrofit strategies that could be used in triple-deckers and colonial houses, common house types in New England. Several emerging building enclosure technologies were integrated, including high R-value aerogel and vacuum insulations, in forms that would be energy efficient, flexible for different retrofit scenarios, durable, and potentially cost-competitive for deep energy retrofits.

  2. Polyimides containing oxyethylene units. Part 4: Polymerization of dianhydrides containing ether linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, F. W.; Karnavas, A. J.; Das, S.; Cucuras, C. N.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    The development of new composite resins for various aerospace applications is attempted. Although it is highly desirable that these polymers be soluble in order to facilitate processing, they must display considerable solvent-resistance in use. A recent approach has involved the synthesis of a new series of polyimides containing flexible linkages. The polymers were prepared by the polymerization of aromatic dianhydrides with diamines containing oxyethylene linkages. For example, the polymerization of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) with 1,2-bis(4-aminophenoxy)ethane (1a) and bis2-(4-aminophenoxy)ethylether (lb), afforded highly crystalline polyimides that were completely insoluble. However, a polyimide that was amorphous and soluble was obtained from the polymerization of BTDA and an isomer of lb, i.e., bis2-(3-aminophenoxy)ethyl ether (4b). In an attempt to obtain a soluble, amorphous polyimide that could be annealed into a crysalline state, block copolymers of 1b and 4b and BTDA were prepared. Copolymers containing less than 20 weight % 1b were soluble in organic solvents. However, these polymers did not crystallize when heated above their Tg's. Copolymers containing higher levels of 1b were semicrystalline and insoluble. The polymerization of the diamines containing oxyethylene linkages with 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) and a new dianhydride, i.e., 4,4'-oxyethyleneoxyethyleneoxydiphthalic anhydride (OEDA) was investigated. It was postulated that the use of these more flexible dianhydrides would result in more processable polyimides.

  3. Animal Enclosure Module (AEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that corticosteroids contribute to the adverse skeletal effects of space flight. To achieve this objective, serum corticosteroids, which are known to increase during space flight, must be maintained at normal physiologic levels in flight rats by a combination of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid supplementation via implanted hormone pellets. Bone analyses in these animals will then be compared to those of intact flight rats that, based on past experience, will undergo corticosteroid excess and bone loss during space flight. The results will reveal whether maintaining serum corticosteroids at physiologic levels in flight rats affects the skeletal abnormalities that normally develop during space flight. A positive response to this question would indicate that the bone loss and decreased bone formation associated with space flight are mediated, at least in part, by corticosteroid excess.

  4. 33 CFR 127.709 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.709 Protective enclosures. The...

  5. 10 CFR 1044.02 - Who must follow the requirements contained in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? 1044.02 Section 1044.02 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR... § 1044.02 Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? The requirements apply to you if...

  6. 10 CFR 1044.02 - Who must follow the requirements contained in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? 1044.02 Section 1044.02 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR... § 1044.02 Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? The requirements apply to you if...

  7. 10 CFR 1044.02 - Who must follow the requirements contained in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? 1044.02 Section 1044.02 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR... § 1044.02 Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? The requirements apply to you if...

  8. 10 CFR 1044.02 - Who must follow the requirements contained in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? 1044.02 Section 1044.02 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR... § 1044.02 Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? The requirements apply to you if...

  9. 10 CFR 1044.02 - Who must follow the requirements contained in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? 1044.02 Section 1044.02 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR... § 1044.02 Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? The requirements apply to you if...

  10. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  11. 50 CFR 14.142 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.142 Section 14.142 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... outside the enclosure. Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)...

  12. 50 CFR 14.142 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.142 Section 14.142 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... outside the enclosure. Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)...

  13. 50 CFR 14.142 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.142 Section 14.142 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... outside the enclosure. Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)...

  14. 50 CFR 14.142 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.142 Section 14.142 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... outside the enclosure. Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2905 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2905 Protective enclosures. (a) The following facilities must be surrounded by a protective enclosure: (1) Storage tanks; (2) Impounding systems; (3) Vapor barriers; (4... stations; (7) Control systems; (8) Fire control equipment; (9) Security communications systems; and...

  16. 50 CFR 14.106 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States § 14.106 Primary enclosures. No carrier shall accept for transport to the United States any live wild mammal or bird in a primary enclosure that does not conform to... complied with by all parties transporting wild mammals or birds to the United States. The incorporation...

  17. 50 CFR 14.142 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... enclosures. (a) Except as provided in § 14.106(j), ventilation openings must be located on at least two walls of a primary enclosure. When the required ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of... surface area of each ventilated wall. When ventilation openings are located on all four walls of...

  18. 50 CFR 14.172 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Birds § 14.172 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure for birds shall have ventilation openings on two vertical sides that comprise at least... creating a draft. (b) Perches shall be provided for birds that rest by perching. The diameter of the...

  19. 50 CFR 14.172 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Birds § 14.172 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure for birds shall have ventilation openings on two vertical sides that comprise at least... creating a draft. (b) Perches shall be provided for birds that rest by perching. The diameter of the...

  20. 50 CFR 14.106 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... quantity to absorb and cover excreta. This litter shall be safe and nontoxic and shall not resemble food normally consumed by the mammals. An enclosure used to transport marine mammals in water, in a waterproof... indicates the top of the enclosure. (h) Food and water instructions as specified in § 14.108,...

  1. Operation Crossroads. Report of the Technical Director. Volume 2. Enclosures L thru R

    SciTech Connect

    Wyckoff, C.W.; Shaftan, K.; Penney, W.G.; Von Neumann, J.; Debenham, J.K.

    1984-08-31

    These enclosures contain: L--detailed photographic plans for Shot Baker along with a preliminary interpretation of the results; M--additional information on the technical photography for Operation Crossroads; N--instrumentation plan and organization for Crossroads; and R--a set of calculated data for primary and reflected shocks. Enclosures O, P, and Q are omitted since they include plans for Test C which was not executed.

  2. A new neolithic circular enclosure in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzer, Olaf

    2015-08-01

    Today we know about 130 neolithic enclosures in Central Europe. About 20 of them are located in Germany. In the last years, there was a great discussion about the function of the openings: Are the openings aligned with points of the solstices? Or are the openings aligned with points of rising stars?Four years ago, a new neolithic circular enclosure was found in the northern part of Thuringia. With a diameter of about 50 meters it was not so large but it was the first evidence of a neolithic culture in Thuringia: the central part of Germany!7000 years ago, people with unknown identity built up three rings with three or four openings.With the help of various measurements we were able to determine in which directions the openings were aligned. We found a link between these directions and very interesting landmarks - an amazing connection between sky and landscape.

  3. Radiation Protection Aspects of the Linac Coherent Light Source Front End Enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Vollaire, J.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; Mao, X.S.; Prinz, A.; Rokni, S.H.; Leitner, M.Santana; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    The Front End Enclosure (FEE) of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a shielding housing located between the electron dump area and the first experimental hutch. The upstream part of the FEE hosts the commissioning diagnostics for the FEL beam. In the downstream part of the FEE, two sets of grazing incidence mirror and several collimators are used to direct the beam to one of the experimental stations and reduce the bremsstrahlung background and the hard component of the spontaneous radiation spectrum. This paper addresses the beam loss assumptions and radiation sources entering the FEE used for the design of the FEE shielding using the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA. The beam containment system prevents abnormal levels of radiations inside the FEE and ensures that the beam remains in its intended path is also described.

  4. Self contained, independent, in-vacuum spinner motor

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Marion J.

    2002-01-01

    An independent, self contained apparatus for operation within a vacuum chamber. A sealed enclosure is located in the chamber. The enclosure contains its own atmosphere independent of the vacuum in the chamber. A motor, power unit, and controls are located entirely within the enclosure. They do not have a direct structural connection outside of the enclosure in any way that would effect the atmosphere within the enclosure. The motor, power unit, and controls drive a spinner plate located outside the enclosure but within the vacuum chamber.

  5. Full Speed Ahead for Eso's Very Large Telescope First Enclosure on its way to PARANAL!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    During the past months, vast progress has been made in the construction of ESO's 16-metre equivalent Very Large Telescope (VLT). This major scientific and technological project aims at installing the world's largest optical telescope in the form of four interconnected telescopes with 8.2-metre mirrors on the Paranal mountain in the Chilean Atacama desert. It continues to be on schedule as it heads towards its completion, just after the year 2000. An important milestone will be reached in early October 1994 when the first large shipment containing heavy steel parts of the enclosure for VLT Unit Telescope no. 1 leaves the Italian port of Genova [1]. Meanwhile the construction work on the Paranal site is also progressing very well. It is now expected that, as planned, the first enclosure will be ready in May 1995 to receive the first 8.2-metre telescope. This Press Release is accompanied by four colour pictures that illustrate some of the most recent developments. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS IN EUROPE Considerable progress has been made by ESO's industrial partners in Europe, and the VLT Project has now entered into a new and dynamic phase of construction. The first 8.2-metre mirror is currently in the middle of a two-year polishing process at the REOSC company near Paris, and the first interferometric tests have shown that this very delicate operation is progressing well. The enormous mirror surface, with a total area of more than 50 m^2, is slowly but steadily approaching the desired shape which must be achieved within a few hundred-thousandths of one millimetre over the entire surface. Mirror blank no. 2 is now ready at the Schott factory in Mainz (Germany) and will be delivered by barge transport to REOSC in October 1994. Blank no. 3 has successfully completed the critical ceramization phase and blank no. 4 will soon receive the same treatment. The circular steel track, 18 metres in diameter, that will support Telescope no. 1 has now been successfully machined at the

  6. The Mobile Base System, part of the Canadian arm, is revealed inside the container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    With the lid removed, the wrapped Mobile Base System (MBS) is revealed inside its transport container. The MBS is part of the Canadian Space Agency's Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), which is part of the payload on mission STS-100 to the International Space Station.

  7. Oxygen ingress study of 3D printed gaseous radiation detector enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, Christopher A.; Durose, Aaron

    2015-07-01

    As part of our ongoing studies into the potential application of 3D printing techniques to gaseous radiation detectors, we have studied the ability of 3D printed enclosures to resist environmental oxygen ingress. A set of cuboid and hexagonal prism shaped enclosures with wall thicknesses of 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were designed and printed in nylon using a EOSINT P 730 Selective Laser Sintering 3D printer system These test enclosures provide a comparison of different environmental gas ingress for different 3D printing techniques. The rate of change of oxygen concentration was found to be linear, decreasing as the wall thickness increases. It was also found that the hexagonal prism geometry produced a lower rate of change of oxygen concentration compared with the cuboid shaped enclosures. Possible reasons as to why these results were obtained are discussed The implications for the this study for deployable systems are also discussed (authors)

  8. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  9. Modular, security enclosure and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Linker, Kevin L.; Moyer, John W.

    1995-01-01

    A transportable, reusable rapidly assembled and disassembled, resizable modular, security enclosure utilizes a stepped panel construction. Each panel has an inner portion and an outer portion which form joints. A plurality of channels can be affixed to selected joints of the panels. Panels can be affixed to a base member and then affixed to one another by the use of elongated pins extending through the channel joints. Alternatively, the base member can be omitted and the panels themselves can be used as the floor of the enclosure. The pins will extend generally parallel to the joint in which they are located. These elongated pins are readily inserted into and removable from the channels in a predetermined sequence to allow assembly and disassembly of the enclosure. A door constructed from panels is used to close the opening to the enclosure.

  10. 50 CFR 14.131 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of care when freedom of movement would constitute a danger to the animal or to handlers or other... same primary enclosure with an adult marine mammal other than its mother. Socially dependent animals...

  11. Design and construction of the Discovery Channel Telescope enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Heather K.; Teran, Jose U.; Bond, Kevin

    2010-07-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a project of Lowell Observatory, undertaken with support from Discovery Communications, Inc., to design and construct a 4-meter class telescope and support facility on a site approximately 40 miles southeast of Flagstaff, Arizona. The Discovery Channel Telescope Enclosure was completed in November, 2009. The DCT Enclosure is an octagonal steel structure with insulated composite panel skin. The structure rotates on sixteen compliant bogie assemblies attached to the stationary facility. The shutter is composed of two independently actuated, bi-parting structures that provide a viewing aperture. To improve seeing, the skin is covered with adhesive aluminum foil tape and the enclosed observing area is passively ventilated via rollup doors. The observing area can also be actively ventilated using a downdraft fan, and there are provisions for upgrades to active air conditioning. The enclosure also includes operational equipment such as a bridge crane, personnel lift, and access platforms. This paper discusses some of the design trades as well as the construction challenges and lessons learned by the DCT Project, its designer M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation (M3), and its general contractor, Building and Engineering Contractors, Southwest (BEC Southwest).

  12. Outside enclosure and additional enrichment for dairy goats – a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dairy goats are commonly housed at a space allowance of 0.7 – 0.8 m2/goat in commercial Norwegian goat herds, which is very low compared to regulations and recommendations in other European countries. One easy and cheap way to increase space allowance is to allow the animals’ access to outdoor area. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of access to an outside enclosure and environmental enrichment for dairy goats kept in slatted floor pens with low space allowance on their activity pattern and social behaviour. Methods A group of 82 dairy goats on a commercial Norwegian dairy farm were kept inside during the winter period from October to April. In April the goats were given access to an outside enclosure for 8 hours per day. After having access to the enclosure for another for two days, enrichment (branches) was provided, and after 19 days the enrichment were removed. The goats were observed for 5 hours per day for the two last days before they got access to the outside enclosure, the two days in the enclosure, the two first and the two last days with enrichment and for the following two days without enrichment by two trained observers. Results When allowed access to the enclosure, the goats spent nearly 50% of the time outside, and later the time spent outside was reduced to less than 40% (P < 0.0001), but there was no clear effect of enrichment. All the goats appeared to have a regular use of the enclosure. Time spent resting decreased 59.2% to only 25.2% when the goats first got access to the enclosure, but then started to increase again (P < 0.0001). Initially time spent exploring and chewing the branches was 20%, but this was reduced to around 12% in the last part of the ENRICH period (P < 0.0001). Number of aggressive interactions tended to increase when the goats were allowed access to the outdoor enclosure whereas play behaviour was only observed in the outside enclosure (P < 0.05). Conclusions In conclusion

  13. Construction of a Post-Irradiated Fuel Examination Shielded Enclosure Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Lehto, Ph.D.; Boyd D. Christensen

    2008-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to provide funding to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for new post-irradiation examination (PIE) equipment in support of advanced fuels development. This equipment will allow researchers at the INL to accurately characterize the behavior of experimental test fuels after they are removed from an experimental reactor also located at the INL. The accurate and detailed characterization of the fuel from the reactor, when used in conjunction with computer modeling, will allow DOE to more quickly understand the behavior of the fuel and to guide further development activities consistent with the missions of the INL and DOE. Due to the highly radioactive nature of the specimen samples that will be prepared and analyzed by the PIE equipment, shielded enclosures are required. The shielded cells will be located in the existing Analytical Laboratory (AL) basement (Rooms B-50 and B-51) at the INL Material and Fuels Complex (MFC). AL Rooms B-50 and B-51 will be modified to establish an area where sample containment and shielding will be provided for the analysis of radioactive fuels and materials while providing adequate protection for personnel and the environment. The area is comprised of three separate shielded cells for PIE instrumentation. Each cell contains an atmosphere interface enclosure (AIE) for contamination containment. The shielding will provide a work area consistent with the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) concept, assuming a source term of 10 samples in each of the three shielded areas. Source strength is assumed to be a maximum of 3 Ci at 0.75 MeV gamma for each sample. Each instrument listed below will be installed in an individual shielded enclosure: Shielded electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) Focused ion beam instrument (FIB) Micro-scale x-ray diffractometer (MXRD). The project is designed and expected to be built incrementally as funds are allocated. The initial phase will be to fund the

  14. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, L.; Barr, J.; Dalrymple, N.; Fraser, M.; Hubbard, R.; Wagner, J.; Warner, M.

    2006-06-01

    Telescope enclosure design is based on an increasingly standard set of criteria. Enclosures must provide failsafe protection in a harsh environment for an irreplaceable piece of equipment; must allow effective air flushing to minimize local seeing while still attenuating wind-induced vibration of the telescope; must reliably operate so that the dome is never the reason for observatory down time; must provide access to utilities, lifting devices and support facilities; and they must be affordable within the overall project budget. The enclosure for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has to satisfy all these challenging requirements plus one more. To eliminate so-called external dome seeing, the exterior surfaces of the enclosure must be maintained at or just below ambient air temperature while being subjected to the full solar loading of an observing day. Further complicating the design of the ATST enclosure and support facilities are the environmental sensitivities and high construction costs at the selected site - the summit of Haleakala on the island of Maui, Hawaii. Previous development work has determined an appropriate enclosure shape to minimize solar exposure while allowing effective interior flushing, and has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling the exterior skin temperature with an active cooling system. This paper presents the evolution of the design since site selection and how the enclosure and associated thermal systems have been tailored to the particular climatic and terrain conditions of the site. Also discussed are load-reduction strategies that have been identified through thermal modeling, CFD modeling, and other analyses to refine and economize the thermal control systems.

  15. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Robert N.; Spooner, Charles M.

    Part 2 of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance manuals consists of more detailed information on asbestos identification and control methods. Available information on sprayed asbestos-containing materials in buildings is summarized. Guidelines are presented for the detection and monitoring, removal or encapsulation, and disposal of…

  16. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked with the states to develop a program for accurate information and guidance to deal with the problem of school buildings constructed with asbestos-containing materials. This is the first of two guidance manuals that are a major part of this program and are being mailed to all public school…

  17. Critical parts are stored and shipped in environmentally controlled reusable container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerfeld, K. R.

    1966-01-01

    Environmentally controlled, hermetically sealed, reusable metal cabinet with storage drawers is used to ship and store sensitive electronic, pneumatic, or hydraulic parts or medical supplies under extreme weather or handling conditions. This container is compatible with on-site and transportation handling facilities.

  18. A technique for calculating particle systems containing rigid and soft parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Nima; Ziaei-Rad, Saeed

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a method was proposed that can simulate the systems containing both rigid and soft parts with rigid body constraints. The idea was to consider the characteristics of rigid parts in their center of mass with three rotational degrees of freedom. In order to compute the systems containing both flexible and rigid parts, standard techniques in molecular dynamics were utilized for flexible parts. However, special procedures were proposed and formulated for rigid parts. Some details on the implementation of the proposed algorithm on GPU were also presented. Next, two case studies were solved. In the first example, a ball mill with the rigid particle of different shapes was considered and the performance of the proposed algorithm was checked and compared with the results obtained from others. In the second example, different self-assembly phases of a mixed rigid and non-rigid polymer molecule with Lennard-Jones pairwise interaction were studied. It was shown that the obtained self-assembly phases were identical to those reported by other researchers.

  19. 30 CFR 57.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 57.12068 Section 57.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface Only § 57.12068 Locking transformer enclosures. Transformer enclosures shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 57.12068 Section 57.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface Only § 57.12068 Locking transformer enclosures. Transformer enclosures shall be...

  1. 30 CFR 57.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 57.12068 Section 57.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface Only § 57.12068 Locking transformer enclosures. Transformer enclosures shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 57.12068 Section 57.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface Only § 57.12068 Locking transformer enclosures. Transformer enclosures shall be...

  3. 30 CFR 57.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 57.12068 Section 57.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface Only § 57.12068 Locking transformer enclosures. Transformer enclosures shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 18.31 - Enclosures-joints and fastenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enclosures-joints and fastenings. 18.31 Section... and Design Requirements § 18.31 Enclosures—joints and fastenings. (a) Explosion-proof enclosures: (1... square inch (gage). Castings shall be free from blowholes. (2) Welded joints forming an enclosure...

  5. 30 CFR 18.31 - Enclosures-joints and fastenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enclosures-joints and fastenings. 18.31 Section... and Design Requirements § 18.31 Enclosures—joints and fastenings. (a) Explosion-proof enclosures: (1... square inch (gage). Castings shall be free from blowholes. (2) Welded joints forming an enclosure...

  6. 30 CFR 18.31 - Enclosures-joints and fastenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enclosures-joints and fastenings. 18.31 Section... and Design Requirements § 18.31 Enclosures—joints and fastenings. (a) Explosion-proof enclosures: (1... square inch (gage). Castings shall be free from blowholes. (2) Welded joints forming an enclosure...

  7. 30 CFR 18.31 - Enclosures-joints and fastenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enclosures-joints and fastenings. 18.31 Section... and Design Requirements § 18.31 Enclosures—joints and fastenings. (a) Explosion-proof enclosures: (1... square inch (gage). Castings shall be free from blowholes. (2) Welded joints forming an enclosure...

  8. 30 CFR 18.31 - Enclosures-joints and fastenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enclosures-joints and fastenings. 18.31 Section... and Design Requirements § 18.31 Enclosures—joints and fastenings. (a) Explosion-proof enclosures: (1... square inch (gage). Castings shall be free from blowholes. (2) Welded joints forming an enclosure...

  9. 50 CFR 14.151 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs... located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure. (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur..., bats, or flying lemurs shall be large enough to ensure that each animal has sufficient space to...

  10. 50 CFR 14.151 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs... located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure. (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur..., bats, or flying lemurs shall be large enough to ensure that each animal has sufficient space to...

  11. 50 CFR 14.151 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs... located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure. (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur..., bats, or flying lemurs shall be large enough to ensure that each animal has sufficient space to...

  12. 50 CFR 14.151 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs... located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure. (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur..., bats, or flying lemurs shall be large enough to ensure that each animal has sufficient space to...

  13. 46 CFR 108.455 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enclosure openings. 108.455 Section 108.455 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.455...

  14. 46 CFR 108.455 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enclosure openings. 108.455 Section 108.455 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.455...

  15. 50 CFR 14.121 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-female pair, a family group, a pair of juvenile animals that have not reached puberty, or other pairs of animals that have been habitually housed together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure. Primates... used to transport a primate shall be large enough to ensure that the animal has sufficient space...

  16. 50 CFR 14.121 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-female pair, a family group, a pair of juvenile animals that have not reached puberty, or other pairs of animals that have been habitually housed together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure. Primates... used to transport a primate shall be large enough to ensure that the animal has sufficient space...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2905 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protective enclosures. 193.2905 Section 193.2905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2905 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protective enclosures. 193.2905 Section 193.2905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  19. 9 CFR 3.53 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... used at research facilities when approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, and by... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures. 3.53 Section 3.53 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 9 CFR 3.80 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... injuring themselves; and (xi) Provide sufficient space for the nonhuman primates to make normal postural adjustments with freedom of movement. (b) Minimum space requirements. Primary enclosures must meet the minimum space requirements provided in this subpart. These minimum space requirements must be met even...

  1. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... well-being of the animal; (8) Proper ventilation is provided to the nonhuman primate in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section; (9) Ventilation openings are covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded... the enclosure, it must be designed and constructed so that the animal cannot put any part of its...

  2. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... well-being of the animal; (8) Proper ventilation is provided to the nonhuman primate in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section; (9) Ventilation openings are covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded... the enclosure, it must be designed and constructed so that the animal cannot put any part of its...

  3. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and...

  4. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and...

  5. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and...

  6. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and...

  7. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and...

  8. Electrically shielded enclosure with magnetically retained removable cover

    DOEpatents

    Rivers, Craig J.; Lee, Roanne A.; Jones, Glenn E.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is an electrically shielded enclosure having electrical components therein and a removable electrically shielded cover over an opening in the enclosure with a magnetic securement mechanism provided to removably secure the cover to the enclosure in a manner which will provide easy access, yet also provide an electrical seal between the cover and the enclosure capable of preventing the passage of electrical radiation through the joint between the cover and the enclosure. Magnets are provided on the enclosure peripherally around the opening and facing the cover, and a ferromagnetic surface is provided on the mating surface of the cover facing the magnets, with a continuous electrical seal provided between the magnets and the ferromagnetic surface on the cover to prevent the leakage of electromagnetic radiation therethrough. In one embodiment the electrical seal includes a flexible metal casing or surface, which is attached to the enclosure and positioned between the magnets and the ferromagnetic surface on the cover, and which is sufficiently flexible to be capable of conforming to the ferromagnetic surface to provide an electrical seal between the cover and the enclosure. In another embodiment, the electrical seal includes a metal mesh associated with the enclosure and positioned between the magnets on the enclosure and the ferromagnetic surface on the cover. The metal mesh is also capable of conforming to the surface of the ferromagnetic surface to thereby provide an electrical seal between the cover and the enclosure.

  9. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-Insurers § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits OFFICE...

  10. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. As... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits...

  11. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Insurers § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits OFFICE...

  12. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Insurers § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits OFFICE...

  13. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-Insurers § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits OFFICE...

  14. Aerothermodynamic properties of stretched flames in enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotman, D. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    Flames are stretched by being pulled along their frontal surface by the flow field in which they reside. Their trajectories tend to approach particle paths, acquiring eventually the role of contact boundaries, -interfaces between the burnt and unburnt medium that may broaden solely as a consequence of diffusion. Fundamental properties of flow fields governing such flames are determined here on the basis of the zero Mach number model, providng a rational method of approach to the computational analysis of combustion fields in enclosures where, besides the aerodynamic properties flow, the thermodynamic process of compression must be taken into account. To illustrate its application, the method is used to reveal the mechanism of formation of a tulip-shape flame in a rectangular enclosure under nonturbulent flow conditions.

  15. Enclosure of the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinari, Piero; Hill, John M.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the enclosure of the Large Binocular Telescope, now in a detailed design phase. The enclosure is co-rotating with the telescope, includes a service floor carrying all telescope utilities, and is characterized by two large portal shutters, which open laterally leaving the air flow at the front and at the back of the telescope essentially unobstructed. Large louvers on the side walls and wind shields with variable permeability at the front and back openings are used to control the air flow in different wind conditions. The inner and outer surfaces of the enclosure are designed to obtain short thermal time constant and close equilibrium with ambient air. Forced air circulation in the outer skin of the enclosure is used for better heat exchange and, with electrical heaters, for melting snow. The interaction of the whole building with the natural air flow in conditions representative of those encountered at the specific site on Mt. Graham was the subject of extensive water channel measurements on a model of the building and of the surrounding environment. The flow patterns obtained in the simulations show no mixing of lower air layers with those at the level of the primary mirrors or above. The handling scheme for large equipment, including the primary mirror cells and the bell-jar for aluminizing of the mirrors on board the telescope, is based on a large bridge crane that can transfer instruments and maintenance equipment to the telescope and to the service floor from the storage and maintenance area at ground level.

  16. Enclosure from DOE letter dated 7/20/07 - Table 5-2, Isotopic Compositions of Rocky Flats Plutonium and Uranium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This enclosure from a DOE letter to EPA regarding a waste container disposed at the WIPP from the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project includes Table 5-2, Isotopic Compositions of Rocky Flats Plutonium and Uranium.

  17. Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

    2000-02-07

    This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed into ergonomic

  18. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOEpatents

    Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    1987-01-13

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values. 3 figs.

  19. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOEpatents

    Modera, Mark P.; Sherman, Max H.

    1987-01-13

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values.

  20. Track plate enclosures: Box designs affecting attractiveness to riparian mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loukmas, J.J.; Mayack, D.T.; Richmond, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of four track plate enclosure designs for monitoring the abundance of small and medium-sized mammals along 10 streams in New York State. Box size and clarity of view through the box were evaluated as factors affecting visitation. We checked track plate stations weekly from September 1999 to March 2000. Eleven mammalian species or species groups visited the track plate stations. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) (P = 0.020) and feral cats (Felis catus) (P = 0.008) visited large enclosures significantly more than small enclosures. Feral cats visited clear-view enclosures significantly more than obstructed-view enclosures (P = 0.025). Enclosure size and view did not significantly affect visitation by other species; however, a large box with a clear view was the most effective design.

  1. 3. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  2. 40 CFR 270.15 - Specific part B information requirements for containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... containers holding wastes that do not contain free liquids, a demonstration of compliance with § 264.175(c... not contain free liquids; and (2) A description of how the storage area is designed or operated to..., drawings, or data demonstrating compliance with § 264.176 (location of buffer zone and containers...

  3. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time...

  4. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time...

  5. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time...

  6. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time...

  7. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time...

  8. Vacuum decay container/closure integrity testing technology. Part 2. Comparison to dye ingress tests.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Heinz; Stauffer, Tony; Chen, Shu-Chen Y; Lee, Yoojin; Forster, Ronald; Ludzinski, Miron; Kamat, Madhav; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2009-01-01

    Part 1 of this series demonstrated that a container closure integrity test performed according to ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method using a VeriPac 325/LV vacuum decay leak tester by Packaging Technologies & Inspection, LLC (PTI) is capable of detecting leaks > or = 5.0 microm (nominal diameter) in rigid, nonporous package systems, such as prefilled glass syringes. The current study compared USP, Ph.Eur. and ISO dye ingress integrity test methods to PTI's vacuum decay technology for the detection of these same 5-, 10-, and 15-microm laser-drilled hole defects in 1-mL glass prefilled syringes. The study was performed at three test sites using several inspectors and a variety of inspection conditions. No standard dye ingress method was found to reliably identify all holed syringes. Modifications to these standard dye tests' challenge conditions increased the potential for dye ingress, and adjustments to the visual inspection environment improved dye ingress detection. However, the risk of false positive test results with dye ingress tests remained. In contrast, the nondestructive vacuum decay leak test method reliably identified syringes with holes > or = 5.0 microm.

  9. The lid of the container for the Mobile Base System, part of the Canadian arm, is prepared for remov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the Space Station Processing Facility, workers prepare to remove the lid of a container holding the Mobile Base System (MBS). The MBS is part of the Canadian Space Agency's Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), which is part of the payload on mission STS-100 to the International Space Station.

  10. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors J Appendix J to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. J Appendix J to Part 50—Primary Reactor...

  11. Experimental investigation of mixed convection in large enclosure with vertical cooling plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Fenglei

    Passive containment cooling systems (PCCS) provide a new safety design for the nuclear industry that provides the safety-related ultimate heat sink for a new generation of inherently safe reactors such as Westinghouse's AP600 and AP 1000 and General Electric's SBWR and ESBWR. It uses only natural forces, such as gravity, natural circulation, and a small number of automatic valves to make the system work. This research investigates experimentally mixed convection and heat transfer augmentation by forced jets in a large enclosure, at conditions simulating those of actual passive containment cooling systems and scales approaching those of actual containment buildings or compartments. The experiment is designed to measure the key parameters governing the heat transfer augmentation by forced jets and affecting the potential for ambient stratification, and to investigate the effects of geometric factors, including the jet diameter, jet injection orientation, interior structures, and enclosure aspect ratio. The tests cover a variety of injection modes leading to flow configurations of interest (jet impinging on a containment wall, buoyant plumes, and wall jets, etc.) that contribute to reveal the nature of mixing and stratification phenomena in the containment under accident conditions of interest. By nondimensionalizing the governing equations, the heat transfer of mixed convection can be predicted to be controlled by jet Archimedes number and geometric factors. Using a combining rule for mixed convection and appropriate forced and natural convection models, the correlations of heat transfer augmentation by forced jets are developed and then tested by experimental data. The effects of jet diameter, injection orientation, interior structures, and enclosure aspect ratio on heat transfer augmentation are illustrated with analysis of experimental results. The recirculation speed is theoretically evaluated through the enclosure mechanical energy balance and correlated to the

  12. Cache Creek ocean: Closure or enclosure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Joanne; Mihalynuk, Mitch

    1993-02-01

    Exotic Tethyan faunas within the Cache Creek terrane contrast markedly with faunas and lithologic associations in the adjacent Quesnel and Stikine terranes. In northern British Columbia and southeast Yukon, all three terranes are enveloped in the north by pericontinental rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, a geometry that imposes severe constraints on terrane assembly models for the northern Canadian Cordillera. Our solution to the problem invokes a northern join between the Stikinia and Quesnellia arcs through the Yukon-Tanana terrane, forming an orocline that encloses the Cache Creek terrane. This model involves (1) collision of a linear oceanic plateau at the cusp between Quesnellia and Stikinia, (2) anticlockwise rotation of Stikinia about an axis in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, (3) simultaneous enclosure of the Cache Creek ocean, and (4) emplacement of Quesnellia onto the margin of ancestral North America and the Cache Creek terrane onto Stikinia during final closure of the orocline. Early Mesozoic Paleomagnetic declinations in Stikinia are permissive of the large anticlockwise rotations predicted by the model. Similar large-scale rotations and ocean-basin enclosure are common features in the southwest Pacific. This model accounts for Paleozoic and younger linkages between Yukon-Tanana and both northern Stikinia and Quesnellia, the striking similarity between Triassic-Jurassic arcs east and west of the Cache Creek terrane, and the profound early Mesozoic deformational event in the Yukon-Tanana terrane.

  13. Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F.; Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P.

    1995-09-01

    Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.

  14. 30 CFR 57.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  15. 30 CFR 57.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  16. 30 CFR 56.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... MINES Electricity § 56.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  17. 30 CFR 56.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... MINES Electricity § 56.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  18. 30 CFR 57.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  19. 30 CFR 56.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... MINES Electricity § 56.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  20. 30 CFR 57.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  1. 30 CFR 57.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  2. 30 CFR 56.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... MINES Electricity § 56.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  3. 30 CFR 56.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... MINES Electricity § 56.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  4. 5. Exterior view, enclosure at walkin entry level between Test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Exterior view, enclosure at walk-in entry level between Test Cell 6 (right) and Test Cell 7 (left), Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southwest. High pressure gas tank and generator test firings are conducted in the enclosure. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Numerical simulation of ground-based telescope enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Nian; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Jinlong

    2014-11-01

    In order to choose enclosure for the next generation telescopes, numerical simulation method was used. Firstly, the telescope, two general kinds of enclosures structure and the external flow field model were established, Then CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) technology was used to analyze the wind speed, static pressure, turbulence kinetic energy distribution and eddy around the telescope, when the telescope at two different pointing gestures and the external wind speed at 10m/s. The simulation results showed that when the telescope adapt the retractable enclosure, the wind speed of the main optical path between 6.1 m/s and 9.3 m/s, and the average static pressure (gauge pressure) on the primary mirror between 42.9268 Pa and 37.5579 Pa, however when telescope adapt the hemispherical enclosure, the wind speed of the main optical path between 3.4 m/s and 6.8 m/s, the average static pressure (gauge pressure) on the primary mirror between 12.1387 Pa and 11.105 Pa. Although the wind resistance of the retractable enclosure was lower than the hemispherical enclosure, no eddy generated near the main optical path, it provided the telescope a uniform flow field and ensured the quality of the image of a star. So the retractable enclosure would have better performance than the hemispherical enclosure.

  6. Constituting Common Subjects: Toward an Education against Enclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Graham B.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon socio-ecological and critical educational theory, this article examines neoliberal educational reforms through a theoretical framework of "commons" and "enclosure." Neoliberal reforms should be regarded as enclosures because they seek to privatize education for profit accumulation, foreclosing the possibility of…

  7. Enclosures Abound: Black Cultural Autonomy, Prison Regime and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnyder, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Since slavery, attempted enclosures upon Black spaces of cultural production and autonomy (i.e. music, language, art) have manifested in various forms. In the context of the post-industrial terrain of urban southern California, the formation of the prison is the dominant model of forced enclosure in the lives of Black people. Moving beyond the…

  8. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  9. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  10. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  11. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  12. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1217-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measurements may be omitted if methanol-fueled vehicles will not be tested in the evaporative enclosure... well as hydrocarbons are present in the evaporative enclosure, the HFID hydrocarbon concentration measurement includes the partial response of the HFID to methanol plus the hydrocarbons. Determination of...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12025 Grounding circuit enclosures. All metal enclosing or encasing electrical circuits shall be grounded or provided with equivalent protection. This requirement does not apply... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 57.12025...

  15. 30 CFR 57.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12025 Grounding circuit enclosures. All metal enclosing or encasing electrical circuits shall be grounded or provided with equivalent protection. This requirement does not apply... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 57.12025...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12025 Grounding circuit enclosures. All metal enclosing or encasing electrical circuits shall be grounded or provided with equivalent protection. This requirement does not apply... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 57.12025...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12025 Grounding circuit enclosures. All metal enclosing or encasing electrical circuits shall be grounded or provided with equivalent protection. This requirement does not apply... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 57.12025...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12025 Grounding circuit enclosures. All metal enclosing or encasing electrical circuits shall be grounded or provided with equivalent protection. This requirement does not apply... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 57.12025...

  19. Fire-LCA study of TV sets with V0 and HB enclosure material.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Margaret; Tullin, Claes; Stripple, Håkan

    2002-02-01

    A novel Life-Cycle Assessment model (Fire-LCA) has been defined for the determination of the environmental impact of measures taken to attain a high level of fire safety. This study, which represents the first application of this LCA model, concentrates on a comparison between a TV with an enclosure manufactured with a flame retardant (FR) plastic (V0-rated high impact polystyrene, HIPS, typical for the US market) and one manufactured with a non-flame retardant (HB-rated HIPS, typical for the European market). A fire model has been defined based on international statistics, which indicate that use of V0 rated enclosure material essentially removes the risk of TV fires while approximately 165 TV fires occur per million TVs in Europe each year where the enclosure material is breached. The application of the model indicates that emissions of some key species (such as dibenzodioxins and PAH) are actually lower for the TV with the FR enclosure than for the TV with the NFR enclosure. This has direct reprercussions for the assessment of the environmental impact of the FR TV relative to that of the NFR TV. Finally, when considering the risk associated with the use of flame retardants, it is also important to consider the risk associated with fires. Based on the in-depth analysis of available fire statistics, conducted as a part of this study, it has been estimated that as many as 160 people may die each year in Europe as a direct result of TV fires and as many as 2000 may be injured in the same period.

  20. 40 CFR 270.15 - Specific part B information requirements for containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM... provided in § 264.170, owners or operators of facilities that store containers of hazardous waste must... containers holding wastes that do not contain free liquids, a demonstration of compliance with §...

  1. A preliminary design for the E-ELT enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, James; Lyle, John; Schneermann, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a preliminary engineering design for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) enclosure. The sheer size of the E-ELT enclosure has provoked an engineering led design approach to re-assess and resolve some conventional telescope enclosure design issues. By drawing on other large scale movable structure design experience, the proposed engineering solution fulfils the design requirements both technically and economically. Throughout the study the design approach has attempted to minimise development risks and maximise reliability of the movable systems wherever possible. All the key elements of the enclosure design are discussed. Emphasis is, however, placed on describing the unusual aspects of the design, which include: a unique system of nested panels for opening the viewing slot; and a curved gantry crane giving extensive coverage of the telescope and enclosure. The paper also proposes a possible construction method, and addresses the specific requirements associated with fabricating and maintaining a large movable structure located at high altitude.

  2. Husbandry and enclosure influences on penguin behavior and conservation breeding.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Andrew R; Deere, Nicolas J; Little, Holly A; Snipp, Ross; Goulder, Jackie; Mayer-Clarke, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Multi-zoo comparisons of animal welfare are rare, and yet vital for ensuring continued improvement of zoo enclosures and husbandry. Methods are not standardized for the development of zoo enclosures based on multiple indicators, and case study species are required. This study compares behavior and breeding success to various enclosure and husbandry parameters for the Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, for the development of improved enclosure design. Behavioral sampling was completed at Flamingo Land over a period of 8 months. Further data on behavior, enclosure design, and breeding success were collected via questionnaires, visits to zoos, and literature review. Breeding success was primarily influenced by colony age and number of breeding pairs, suggesting an important social influence on reproduction. Across zoos, there was also significant variation in behavior. The proportion of time spent in water varied between zoos (2-23%) and was used as an indicator of physical activity and natural behavior. Regression models revealed that water-use was best predicted by total enclosure area per penguin, followed by land area, with some evidence for positive influence of pool surface area per penguin. Predominantly linear/curvilinear increases in our biological indicators with enclosure parameters suggest that optimal conditions for S. humboldti were not met among the selected zoos. We propose revised minimum conditions for S. humboldti enclosure design, which exceed those in the existing husbandry guidelines. We present a framework for the evaluation of zoo enclosures and suggest that a rigorous scientific protocol be established for the design of new enclosures, based on multivariate methods. Zoo Biol. 35:385-397, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Numerical study of mixed convection flows in a lid-driven enclosure filled with nanofluid using variable properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhzadeh, G. A.; Ebrahim Qomi, M.; Hajialigol, N.; Fattahi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of mixed convection heat transfer characteristics in a lid-driven enclosure filled with nanofluids using variable thermal conductivity and variable viscosity. The fluid in the enclosure is a water-based nanofluid containing Al2O3 nanoparticles. The top and bottom horizontal walls are insulated, while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures with the top surface moving at a constant speed. The study has been carried out for the Richardson numbers of 0.01-100, the solid volume fraction of 0-0.06 and the Grashof number of 104. Various results for the streamlines and isotherms as well as the local and average Nusselt numbers are presented. The variable viscosity and thermal conductivity of both the Brinkman and the Maxwell-Garnett model were compared. Significant differences are found between the magnitudes of heat transfer enhancement in the enclosure for two employed models.

  4. Fluid mechanical properties of flames in enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.A.; Pindera, M.Z.; Oppenheim, A.K.

    1988-07-01

    In an enclosure where the reacting medium is initially at rest, the flame first generates a flowfield that then gets stretched, i.e., its front is pulled along the surface by the flowfield in which it then finds itself residing. A methodology developed for numerical modeling of such fields is described. Of key significance in this respect is the zero Mach number model/endash/a reasonable idealization in view of the relatively high temperature, and hence sound speed, that exists, concomitantly with a comparatively low particle velocity, in the confinement of a combustion chamber. According to this model, the density gradient in the field is nullified, while across the flame front it approaches infinity. One has thus two regimes: one of the unburned medium and the other of the burned gas, each of spatially uniform density, separated by a flame front interface. The latter is endowed with four properties, of which the first two are purely kinematic and the others dynamic in nature, namely: 1) it is advected at the local velocity of flow; 2) it self-advances at the normal burning speed, the eigenvalue of the system; 3) it acts as the velocity source due to the exothermicity of the combustion process; and 4) it acts as the vorticity source due to the baroclinic effect generated by the pressure gradient along its surface and the density gradient across it. A solution obtained for a flame propagating in an oblong rectangular enclosure demonstrates that the latter has a significant influence upon the formation of the well known tulip shape. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  5. An assessment of some non-gray global radiation models in enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulemans, J.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of several non-gray global gas/soot radiation models, namely the Wide-Band Correlated-K (WBCK) model, the Spectral Line Weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model with one optimized gray gas (SLW-1), the (non-gray) Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (WSGG) model with different sets of coefficients (Smith et al., Soufiani and Djavdan, Taylor and Foster) was assessed on several test cases from the literature. Non-isothermal (or isothermal) participating media containing non-homogeneous (or homogeneous) mixtures of water vapor, carbon dioxide and soot in one-dimensional planar enclosures and multi-dimensional rectangular enclosures were investigated. For all the considered test cases, a benchmark solution (LBL or SNB) was used in order to compute the relative error of each model on the predicted radiative source term and the wall net radiative heat flux.

  6. Safety of stationary grinding machines - impact resistance of work zone enclosures.

    PubMed

    Mewes, Detlef; Adler, Christian

    2017-01-11

    Guards on machine tools are intended to protect persons from being injured by parts ejected with high kinetic energy from the work zone of the machine. Stationary grinding machines are a typical example. Generally such machines are provided with abrasive product guards closely enveloping the grinding wheel. However, many machining tasks do not allow the use of abrasive product guards. In such cases, the work zone enclosure has to be dimensioned so that, in case of failure, grinding wheel fragments remain inside the machine's working zone. To obtain data for the dimensioning of work zone enclosures on stationary grinding machines, which must be operated without an abrasive product guard, burst tests were conducted with vitrified grinding wheels. The studies show that, contrary to widely held opinion, narrower grinding wheels can be more critical concerning the impact resistance than wider wheels although their fragment energy is smaller.

  7. A Passive Tamper Indicating Enclosure For Use Within A Nuclear Weapons Monitoring Regime

    SciTech Connect

    White, Helen; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Allen, Keir; Benz, Jacob M.; McOmish, Sarah; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2012-10-01

    AWE and PNNL are engaged in a technical collaboration investigating techniques to enhance continuity of knowledge over Treaty Accountable Items, with emphasis on a verified nuclear weapons dismantlement process. Tamper Indicating Enclosures (TIE) will likely be deployed as part of a chain of custody regime to indicate an unauthorised attempt to access a Treaty Accountable Item, or secure authenticated monitoring equipment. In 2011, the collaboration presented a paper at the INMM annual conference held in Palm Desert, CA titled “Passive Tamper Indicating Enclosures Incorporating Embedded Optical Fibre”, which discussed the concept of integrating optical fibres into TIEs for use as a passive tamper indicating mechanism. This paper provides an update on the Fibre Optic based TIE and introduces a second passive TIE concept based on the use of Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate) (PMMA). Concepts relating to deployment, tamper indication, and unique identification will be discussed.

  8. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS...

  9. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS...

  10. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  11. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 241 - List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING... Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 241 - List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING... Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 241 - List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING... Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 241 - List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING... Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 241 - List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR DISPATCHING... Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of...

  17. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  18. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  19. 24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  20. Advanced Technology Solar Telescope lower enclosure thermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, L.; Warner, M.

    2008-07-01

    The exterior of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure requires cooling to eliminate so-called external dome seeing caused by solar loading during the observing day. This is achieved by way of coolant circulation through external plate coil panels, thereby maintaining the exterior surfaces of the enclosure at or just below ambient air temperature. As the distance from the optical path increases (e.g., on the surface of the lower enclosure), the stringency of the temperature requirement is diminished, thereby allowing a greater difference between the surface temperature and the ambient air temperature. This paper presents a comparison of the modeled performance of an active thermal control strategy on the lower enclosure to a passive strategy that employs concrete panels. A life-cycle cost analysis of each option is also presented.

  1. Experimental Thermo-Magnetic Convection Analysis in Tall Rectangular Enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrda, L.; Kraszewska, A.

    2016-09-01

    Rectangular enclosure with aspect ratio (AR=height/width) 2 was investigated in experimental thermo-magnetic convection analysis. Experimental enclosure was placed inside superconducting magnet in Rayleigh-Bénard configuration, in position, where magnetic field gradient was enhancing natural convection. Two types of paramagnetic fluid behaviour were identified at different magnetic induction values. It was possible by utilization of Fast Fourier Transform of recorded temperature signals inside experimental enclosure. Presented results shown augmented heat transfer in rectangular enclosure at high magnetic field gradient up to 300%. Transition zone of fluid behaviour for presented experimental setup was observed from RaTM·4-107 to RaTM·1.3·108.

  2. Enclosure Transform for Interest Point Detection from Speckle Imagery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongjian; Wang, Jue

    2016-12-07

    We present a fast enclosure transform (ET) to localize complex objects of interest from speckle imagery. This approach explores the spatial confinement on regional features from a sparse image feature representation. Unrelated, broken ridge features surrounding an object are organized collaboratively, giving rise to the enclosureness of the object. Three enclosure likelihood measures are constructed, consisting of the enclosure force, potential energy, and encloser count. In the transform domain, the local maxima manifest the locations of objects of interest, for which only the intrinsic dimension is known a priori. The discrete ET algorithm is computationally efficient, being on the order of O(MN) using N measuring distances across an image of M ridge pixels. It involves easy and few parameter settings. We demonstrate and assess the performance of ET on the automatic detection of the prostate locations from suprapubic ultrasound images. ET yields superior results in terms of positive detection rate, accuracy and coverage.

  3. 49 CFR 193.2907 - Protective enclosure construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... construction. (a) Each protective enclosure must have sufficient strength and configuration to obstruct... by grates, doors or covers of construction and fastening of sufficient strength such that...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2907 - Protective enclosure construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... construction. (a) Each protective enclosure must have sufficient strength and configuration to obstruct... by grates, doors or covers of construction and fastening of sufficient strength such that...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2907 - Protective enclosure construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... construction. (a) Each protective enclosure must have sufficient strength and configuration to obstruct... by grates, doors or covers of construction and fastening of sufficient strength such that...

  6. OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING THE SMALL ENCLOSURE WITH NO DOOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING THE SMALL ENCLOSURE WITH NO DOOR IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 11. Enclosure between old and new sections of Armory Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Enclosure between old and new sections of Armory Street Pump House. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  8. Safety of Hydrogen Systems Installed in Outdoor Enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2013-11-06

    The Hydrogen Safety Panel brings a broad cross-section of expertise from the industrial, government, and academic sectors to help advise the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office through its work in hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. The Panel’s initiatives in reviewing safety plans, conducting safety evaluations, identifying safety-related technical data gaps, and supporting safety knowledge tools and databases cover the gamut from research and development to demonstration and deployment. The Panel’s recent work has focused on the safe deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in support of DOE efforts to accelerate fuel cell commercialization in early market applications: vehicle refueling, material handling equipment, backup power for warehouses and telecommunication sites, and portable power devices. This paper resulted from observations and considerations stemming from the Panel’s work on early market applications. This paper focuses on hydrogen system components that are installed in outdoor enclosures. These enclosures might alternatively be called “cabinets,” but for simplicity, they are all referred to as “enclosures” in this paper. These enclosures can provide a space where a flammable mixture of hydrogen and air might accumulate, creating the potential for a fire or explosion should an ignition occur. If the enclosure is large enough for a person to enter, and ventilation is inadequate, the hydrogen concentration could be high enough to asphyxiate a person who entered the space. Manufacturers, users, and government authorities rely on requirements described in codes to guide safe design and installation of such systems. Except for small enclosures used for hydrogen gas cylinders (gas cabinets), fuel cell power systems, and the enclosures that most people would describe as buildings, there are no hydrogen safety requirements for these enclosures, leaving gaps that must be addressed. This paper proposes that

  9. Test plan for engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1993-02-01

    This test plan describes experimental details of an engineering-scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration to be performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY)-93. This demonstration will investigate, in the engineering scale, the feasibility of using electrostatic enclosures and devices to control the spread of contaminants during transuranic waste handling operations. Test objectives, detailed experimental procedures, and data quality objectives necessary to perform the FY-93 experiments are included in this plan.

  10. Large fully retractable telescope enclosures still closable in strong wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sliepen, Guus

    2008-07-01

    Two prototypes of fully retractable enclosures with diameters of 7 and 9 m have been built for the high-resolution solar telescopes DOT (Dutch Open Telescope) and GREGOR, both located at the Canary Islands. These enclosures protect the instruments for bad weather and are fully open when the telescopes are in operation. The telescopes and enclosures also operate in hard wind. The prototypes are based on tensioned membrane between movable but stiff bows, which fold together to a ring when opened. The height of the ring is small. The prototypes already survived several storms, with often snow and ice, without any damage, including hurricane Delta with wind speeds up to 68 m/s. The enclosures can still be closed and opened with wind speeds of 20 m/s without any problems or restrictions. The DOT successfully demonstrated the open, wind-flushing concept for astronomical telescopes. It is now widely recognized that also large future telescopes benefit from wind-flushing and retractable enclosures. These telescopes require enclosures with diameters of 30 m until roughly 100 m, the largest sizes for the ELTs (Extreme Large Telescopes), which will be built in the near future. We discuss developments and required technology for the realization of these large sizes.

  11. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use of various materials in laptop enclosures (excluding mounting hardware, internal components, and insulation) using screening-level life cycle assessment. The baseline material, is a fossil plastic blend of polycarbonate-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Alternative materials include polylactic acid, bamboo, aluminum, and various combinations of these materials known to be currently used or being considered for use in laptops. The flame retardants considered in this study are bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide, and borax-boric acid-phosphorous acid. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts v2.1 was used for the assessment of impacts related to climate change, human and ecological health, and resource use. The assessment demonstrates that plastics, relative to the other materials, are currently some of the better performing materials in terms of having the lowest potential environmental impact for a greater number of impact categories based on product life cycle models developed in this study. For fossil plastics, the material performance increases with increasing post-con

  12. Application of static and dynamic enclosures in determining DMS and OCS fluxes in Sphagnum peatlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    A static enclosure method was applied to determine the exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and OCS between the surface of Sphagnum peatlands and the atmosphere. Measurements were performed concurrently with dynamic enclosure measurements with S-free air used as sweep gas. DMS emission rates determined by both methods were comparable between 5 and 500 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1). The dynamic method provided positive OCS flux rates (emission) for measurements performed at sites containing Sphagnum. Conversely, data from the static method indicated that OCS was consumed from the atmosphere. Measurements using both techniques at a site devoid of vegetation showed that peat is a source of both DMS and OCS. Results suggested that OCS is produced in surface peat but it is taken up from the atmosphere by Sphagnum mosses. However, the net effect of both processes is that OCS uptake exceeds emission. The dynamic enclosure technique is adequate to measure rates of emissions of S gases which are produced in peatlands but not consumed, as long as attention is paid to the rate of sweep flow.

  13. Effects of larval density in Ambystoma opacum: An experiment in large-scale field enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E. )

    1990-02-01

    This experiment was designed to measure the effects of larval density on larval traits in the salamander Ambystoma opacum, and to ascertain whether previous studies conducted at smaller spatial scales or higher densities produced artifactual results. Density effects on larval growth, body size at metamorphosis, length of larval period, and survival to metamorphosis were studied in A. opacum in large-scale (41 m{sup 2} and 23 m{sup 2}) field enclosures in two temporary ponds. Each enclosure contained indigenous populations of prey (zooplankton and insects) and predators, as well as the range of microhabitats present in these natural ponds. Initial larval densities were chosen to represent high and low levels of naturally occurring mean densities. The results suggest that, in natural ponds, the importance of intraspecific competition is dependent upon hydroperiod, and the intensity of competition influences predation risk. Thus, both density-dependent and density-independent factors affect body size and recruitment of larval A. opacum into the adult population. The use of large-scale field enclosures has advantages and disadvantages: it allows the examination of density-dependent processes under natural conditions and provides high statistical power because of low variability in larval traits; however, experimental designs must be simple and underlying mechanisms are difficult to identify.

  14. Lack of negative effects on Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils housed in the same secondary enclosure.

    PubMed

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-05-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure.

  15. Lack of Negative Effects on Syrian Hamsters and Mongolian Gerbils Housed in the Same Secondary Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-01-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure. PMID:26045450

  16. Skin irritancy and sensitivity to laundry detergents containing proteolytic enzymes. Part II.

    PubMed

    Valér, M

    1975-06-01

    The late type contact sensitizing effect of alkaline protease enzymes (PE) on the intact human skin has been investigated in the present study. The immune process of sensitisation was induced with "Tenzym prilled" (TP, Grindstedvoerket) and with "Maxatase" (M, Gist-Brocades) protease enzymes in the epicutaneous test (ET), using concentration series and various durations of application. The ETs were made on the intact (symptom-free) skin, as well as under conditions promoting the subcorneal penetration of PE. Challenge was carried out at 21 to 30 days following induction of 2092 subjects, and at 2 to 5 months on 1624 subjects. Despite the large number of subjects tested, contact sensitisation developed in none of the cases, although the inducing exposure took place under conditions promoting the immune process of sensitisation. In 60 individuals suffereing from occupational dermatitis on regular contact with PE and having no symptoms of early type inhalative allergy (mucous membrane changes, bronchial asthma-like symptoms) were challenged also by the intradermal test. No reaction was noted in any of them at 10 and 30 minutes, as well as at 24 and 48 hours following the test. Next the influence of PE is analysed in the induction or increased severity of the irritation caused by bioactive laundry detergents. The studies involved the use of serial dilutions of "Biopon" (Bn) laundry detergent containing TP or M, or not containing PE, respectively, by means of the ET. A total of 740 series (5220 tests) of the three variants were applied in dilution series to intact skin surface, as well as to pathologically and arteficially lsioned skin areas. The Bn variants containing and not containing PE increased the number of irratative reactions in essentially the same degree. This suggests that the irritative effect is not due to the presence of PE, but to the laundry-active detergents (WAS) of Bn in the first place, and to a lesser extent to its other ingredients.

  17. Installation Restoration of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Pilot Containment Operations, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    burial, controlled detonation and incineration . Additional requirements for disposal operations were established in 1970 (PL 91-441, 91-190 (NEPA)). Since...the following: (1) In September 1972, incineration of anti-crop agent TX stored in 12 gallon drums was completed. (2) During the period 1972-1974...the mustard agent in 3,407 ton containers was destroyed by incineration . (3) During the period 1973-1976, 21,114 GB agent-filled M34 cluster bombs were

  18. Protein-mediated Selective Enclosure of Early Replicators Inside of Membranous Vesicles: First Step Towards Cell Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiterä, Tiina; Lehto, Kirsi

    2009-12-01

    Containment in cell membranes is essential for all contemporary life, and apparently even the earliest life forms had to be somehow contained. It has been postulated that random enclosure of replicating molecules inside of spontaneously assembled vesicles would have formed the initial cellular ancestors. However, completely random re-formation or division of such primitive vesicles would have abolished the heritability of their contents, nullifying any selective advantage to them. We propose that the containment of the early replicators in membranous vesicles was adopted only after the invention of genetically encoded proteins, and that selective enclosure of target molecules was mediated by specific proteins. A similar containment process is still utilised by various RNA- and retroviruses to isolate their replication complexes from the host’s intracellular environment. Such selective encapsulation would have protected the replicators against competitor and parasitic sequences, and provided a strong positive selection within the replicator communities.

  19. Initial computational fluid dynamics modeling of the Giant Magellan Telescope site and enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danks, Ryan; Smeaton, William; Bigelow, Bruce; Burgett, William

    2016-08-01

    In the era of extremely large telescopes (ELTs), with telescope apertures growing in size and tighter image quality requirements, maintaining a controlled observation environment is critical. Image quality is directly influenced by thermal gradients, the level of turbulence in the incoming air flow and the wind forces acting on the telescope. Thus any ELT enclosure must be able to modulate the speed and direction of the incoming air and limit the inflow of disturbed ground-layer air. However, gaining an a priori understanding of the wind environment's impacts on a proposed telescope is complicated by the fact that telescopes are usually located in remote, mountainous areas, which often do not have high quality historic records of the wind conditions, and can be subjected to highly complex flow patterns that may not be well represented by the traditional analytic approaches used in typical building design. As part of the design process for the Giant Magellan Telescope at Cerro Las Campanas, Chile; the authors conducted a parametric design study using computational fluid dynamics which assessed how the telescope's position on the mesa, its ventilation configuration and the design of the enclosure and windscreens could be optimized to minimize the infiltration of ground-layer air. These simulations yielded an understanding of how the enclosure and the natural wind flows at the site could best work together to provide a consistent, well controlled observation environment. Future work will seek to quantify the aerothermal environment in terms of image quality.

  20. Zr-Containing 4,4'-ODA/PMDA Polyimide Composites. Parts 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illingsworth, M. L.; Betancourt, J. A.; Chen, Y.; Terschak, J. A.; Banks, B. A.; Rutledge, S. K.; Cales, M.; He, L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve the atomic oxygen resistance of Kapton(TM), a polyimide (PI) made from pyromellitic acid dianhydride (PMDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA), while retaining or enhancing the desirable properties of the pure polymer. Toward this end, zirconium-containing complexes and polymers were used to make composites and blends. Tetra(acetylacetonato)zirconium(IV), Zr(acac)4, which is commercially available, was identified as the best zirconium-containing complex for enhancing the atomic oxygen resistance of polyimide composites of the 10 complexes screened. Films prepared from the commercially available polyamic acid (PAA) of PMDA-ODA (DuPont) have good uniformity, flexibility, and tensile strength. A 24-layer 10% (mol) Zr(acac)4/PI composite film showed significant improvement (ca. 20 fold) of atomic oxygen resistance over the pure polyimide. However, 10% (mol) Zr(acac)4 represents an upper concentration limit, above which films undergo cracking upon thermal imidization. In order to increase the Zr complex concentration in PMDA-ODA PI films, while retaining good film properties, [Zr(adsp)2-PMDA]n coordination polymer [bis(4-amino-N,N'-disalicylidene- 1,2-phenylenediamino)zirconium(IV)-pyromellitic dianhydride] and [Zr(adsp)2-PMDA-ODA-PMDA]n terpolymer were synthesized and blended with commercial PAA, respectively. Several techniques were used to characterize the films made from the polymer containing Zr(acac)4. Plasma studies of films having 2% (mol) incremental concentrations of Zr in the Kapton up to 10% (mol) show that the overall rate of erosion is reduced about 75 percent.

  1. 29 CFR Appendix I to Part 1917 - Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements (Mandatory) [see § 1917.50(c)(5)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements... Part 1917—Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements (Mandatory) Type gear Test... repair OSHA accredited agency or designated person 125% SWL 3. Intermodal container spreaders not part...

  2. 29 CFR Appendix I to Part 1917 - Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements (Mandatory) [see § 1917.50(c)(5)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements... Part 1917—Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements (Mandatory) Type gear Test... repair OSHA accredited agency or designated person 125% SWL 3. Intermodal container spreaders not part...

  3. 29 CFR Appendix IV to Part 1918 - Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements (Mandatory) [see § 1918.61 (f), (g...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements... LONGSHORING Pt. 1918, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 1918—Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test... container spreaders not part of vessel's cargo handling gear Prior to initial use OSHA accredited...

  4. 29 CFR Appendix IV to Part 1918 - Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements (Mandatory) [see § 1918.61 (f), (g...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements... LONGSHORING Pt. 1918, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 1918—Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test... container spreaders not part of vessel's cargo handling gear Prior to initial use OSHA accredited...

  5. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 2: Antimicrobial Polymer Materials Containing Nisin.

    PubMed

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Joly, Catherine; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved as a food preservative because of its antibacterial effectiveness and its negligible toxicity for humans. Typical problems encountered when nisin is directly added to foods are mainly fat adsorption leading to activity loss, heterogeneous distribution in the food matrix, inactivation by proteolytic enzymes, and emergence of resistance in normally sensitive bacteria strains. To overcome these problems, nisin can be immobilized in solid matrices that must act as diffusional barriers and allow controlling its release rate. This strategy allows maintaining a just sufficient nisin concentration at the food surface. The design of such antimicrobial materials must consider both bacterial growth kinetics but also nisin release kinetics. In this review, nisin incorporation in polymer-based materials will be discussed and special emphasis will be on the applications and properties of antimicrobial food packaging containing this bacteriocin.

  6. Skin irritancy and sensitivity to laundry detergents containing proteolytic enzymes. Part I.

    PubMed

    Valér, M

    1975-02-01

    In the present study the contact irritative--eczematogenic--effect of alkaline protease enzymes (PE) contained in syndet laundry detergents has been investigated. The method employed was the occlusive epicutaneous test (ET) involving the use of increasing serial dilutions of PE and various times of exposure. The tests were made on sympton-free skin, on skin showing premorbid or slight irritative changes, on skin previously acid- or base-treated, in the presence of increased skin permeability and following the skin stripping method. The results obtained in the 912 test series indicate that the PEs tested ("Tenzym prilled" Grindstedvoerkek, and "Maxatase" Gist-Brocases) caused no irritation or other damage to the intact or slightly lesioned skin even in response to close contact lasting several days. When as a result of increased irritation, or for other reasons, the PEs may be assumed to penetrate into the subcorneal layers, they may exert a proteolytic effect, as manifested in the increasing number of positive ETs. In such cases the PE concentrations exceeded by far those employed in the commercial detergents. It is most likely that the skin changes noted in connection with the use of bioactive laundry detergents are due not to the PE content of these detergents, but to other factors.

  7. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part i: Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    1999-08-01

    The study presented is an investigation of the non-linear dynamics and stability of simply supported, circular cylindrical shells containing inviscid incompressible fluid flow. Non-linearities due to large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using the non-linear Donnell's shallow shell theory, with account taken of the effect of viscous structural damping. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction. The system is discretiszd by Galerkin's method, and is investigated by using a model involving seven degrees of freedom, allowing for travelling wave response of the shell and shell axisymmetric contraction. Two different boundary conditions are applied to the fluid flow beyond the shell, corresponding to: (i) infinite baffles (rigid extensions of the shell), and (ii) connection with a flexible wall of infinite extent in the longitudinal direction, permitting solution by separation of variables; they give two different kinds of dynamical behaviour of the system, as a consequence of the fact that axisymmetric contraction, responsible for the softening non-linear dynamical behaviour of shells, is not allowed if the fluid flow beyond the shell is constrained by rigid baffles. Results show that the system loses stability by divergence.

  8. Transient natural and surface-tension-driven convection in a two-layer gas-and-liquid enclosure with nonuniform radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramzon, B.; Edwards, D. K.; Sirignano, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical study has been made of transient heat transfer and fluid flow in a cylindrical enclosure containing a two-layer gas-and-liquid system. The geometric configuration and the boundary conditions of the problem are relevant to the analysis of the preignition processes during the fire accident situation involving a pool of liquid fuel in the vicinity of an ignition source. It is demonstrated that the effects of the natural and thermocapillary convection, radiative transfer, thermal inertia and conduction of the walls bounding the enclosure, as well as, the magnitude of the gravity field play important roles in the development of the temperature and velocity fields in the container.

  9. The Precrystalline Cytoplasmic Granules of Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Contain Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 and CD147

    PubMed Central

    Ladanyi, Marc; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Drobnjak, Marija; Baren, Ann; Lui, Man Yee; Golde, David W.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is an unusual tumor of young adults with the characteristic presence on ultrastructural analysis of rhomboid or rectangular cytoplasmic crystals. These membrane-bound crystals are known to form within specific PAS-diastase-resistant electron-dense cytoplasmic granules. The composition of these crystals and the dense granules from which they are derived has remained elusive. After the detection of strong discrete granular cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in ASPS for monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in the course of a broad immunohistochemical characterization of an MCT1 antibody, we studied the expression of MCT1 and its interacting partner, CD147, in a panel of 10 ASPS cases using appropriate antibodies. MCT1 is one of a family of widely expressed proton-linked transporters for monocarboxylates such as lactate and pyruvate. In all normal and neoplastic tissues studied to date, MCT1 immunoreactivity is limited to the cell surface. We find that the periodic acid-Schiff-diastase-resistant cytoplasmic granules of ASPS are strongly immunoreactive for MCT1 and CD147. Specifically, intense cytoplasmic granular positivity for MCT1 and CD147 was found in 7 of 10 and 8 of 10 ASPSs, respectively. Ultrastructural immunohistochemistry with immunogold labeling confirmed that the MCT1 immunoreactivity localized to the cytoplasmic electron-dense granules in ASPS. Western blot analysis of several ASPS cases confirmed that the protein reactive with the MCT1 antibody and that reactive with the CD147 antibody both migrated at the size expected for MCT1 and CD147, respectively. Thus, ASPS cells seem to accumulate MCT1-CD147 complexes in the specific cytoplasmic granules known to undergo crystallization. The possible basis for the overproduction or impaired surface localization of these proteins in ASPS remains unclear. PMID:11943706

  10. Explosion containment device

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  11. Radiative equilibrium in a rectangular enclosure bounded by gray walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modest, M. F.

    1975-01-01

    Two-dimensional temperature and heat-flux distributions are calculated for an absorbing-emitting gray medium at radiative equilibrium in a rectangular enclosure. The bounding walls are gray and diffuse with arbitrary surface-temperature distributions, and heat generation may take place inside the medium. As a first approximation, the problem is solved for optically thick systems (differential approximation). These results are subsequently improved by the introduction of a number of geometrical parameters to yield good accuracy for all optical thicknesses. As examples, two cases are discussed in detail: (1) uniform heat generation in a black enclosure, and (2) an enclosure with one gray surface at constant temperature. Comparison with some numerical solutions generated by Hottel's /Hottel and Cohen (1958) and Einstein (1963)/ zonal method shows excellent agreement.

  12. Gemini enclosure and support facility design philosophy and design description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybould, Keith; Ford, Robert M.; Gillett, Paul E.; Hardash, Steven G.; Pentland, Gordon

    1994-06-01

    The Gemini project is an international collaboration between the USA, United Kingdom, Canada, Chile, Argentina, and Brazil, to design, fabricate and assemble two 8 M telescopes, one on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the other on Cerro Pachon in Chile. The telescopes will be national facilities designed to meet the Gemini Science Requirements, a document developed by the Gemini Science Committee. This paper describes the design considerations that influence the scientific performance of the enclosure and support facility, and the features that have been incorporated to meet the demanding science requirements, particularly the 0.026 arc sec allowance for `enclosure seeing'. A description of the Gemini enclosure, support facilities and site plans for Mauna Kea is given here together with a brief description of the analysis and testing that has been performed to establish the performance of the facility.

  13. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Ranawana, Viren; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Nicol, Phyllis; Milne, Lesley; Duthie, Garry; Raikos, Vassilios

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil. PMID:28231157

  14. Computation of mixing in large stably stratified enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haihua

    This dissertation presents a set of new numerical models for the mixing and heat transfer problems in large stably stratified enclosures. Basing on these models, a new computer code, BMIX++ (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++), was developed by Christensen (2001) and the author. Traditional lumped control volume methods and zone models cannot model the detailed information about the distributions of temperature, density, and pressure in enclosures and therefore can have significant errors. 2-D and 3-D CFD methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets, wall boundaries, yet such fine grid resolution is difficult or impossible to provide due to computational expense. Peterson's scaling (1994) showed that stratified mixing processes in large stably stratified enclosures can be described using one-dimensional differential equations, with the vertical transport by free and wall jets modeled using standard integral techniques. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in large enclosures. The BMIX++ code was developed to implement the above ideas. The code uses a Lagrangian approach to solve 1-D transient governing equations for the ambient fluid and uses analytical models or 1-D integral models to compute substructures. 1-D transient conduction model for the solid boundaries, pressure computation and opening models are also included to make the code more versatile. The BMIX++ code was implemented in C++ and the Object-Oriented-Programming (OOP) technique was intensively used. The BMIX++ code was successfully applied to different types of mixing problems such as stratification in a water tank due to a heater inside, water tank exchange flow experiment simulation, early stage building fire analysis, stratification produced by multiple plumes, and simulations for the UCB large enclosure experiments. Most of these simulations gave satisfying

  15. A pressurized cylindrical shell with a fixed end which contains an axial part-through or through crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical shell having a very stiff and plate or a flange is considered. It is assumed that near the end the cylinder contains an axial flaw which may be modeled as a part through surface crack or a through crack. The effect of the end constraining on the stress intensity factor which is the main fracture mechanics parameter is studied. The applied loads acting on the cylinder are assumed to be axisymmetric. Thus the crack problem under consideration is symmetric with respect to the plane of the crack and consequently only the Mode 1 stress intensity factors are nonzero. With this limitation, the general perturbation problem for a cylinder with a built in end containing an axial crack is considered. Reissner's shell theory is used to formulate the problem. The part through crack problem is treated by using a line spring model. In the case of a crack tip terminating at the fixed end it is shown that the integral equations of the shell problem has the same generalized Cauchy kernel as the corresponding plane stress elasticity problem.

  16. Reconsidering the effects of tannin on seed dispersal by rodents: evidence from enclosure and field experiments with artificial seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Steele, Michael A; Yi, Xianfeng

    2013-11-01

    The question of how tannin affects feeding and hoarding preferences of rodents still remains poorly understood, in part, because it is difficult to control for other seed traits when considering the sole effect of tannin. Here, we constructed a series of artificial 'seeds' with different tannin levels, made from wheat flour, peanut powder and hydrolysable tannins, to determine the direct effects of tannin on both feeding and hoarding preferences. We first presented 'seeds' to individual rodents of two species (Tamias sibiricus and Apodemus peninsulae) confined in semi-natural enclosures and then monitored patterns of seed dispersal and consumption by free-ranging animals in a temperate forest in the Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province of China. Our results showed that small rodents displayed a significant preference for low-tannin 'seeds' for both consumption and caching in both captive and field experiments. Moreover, our two-year study consistently showed that tannin concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with the number of cached 'seeds' at both the individual and population levels. Seed size, compared with tannin concentrations, appeared to have little effect on dispersal distances and the number of 'seeds' cached. Low-tannin 'seeds' tended to be dispersed greater distances by rodents in the field than those with higher levels of tannin. These results failed to support those of previous reports indicating that acorns containing higher tannins are more likely to be cached by food hoarding animals.

  17. Application of the line-spring model to a cylindrical shell containing a circumferential or axial part-through crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1981-01-01

    An approximate solution was obtained for a cylindrical shell containing a part-through surface crack. It was assumed that the shell contains a circumferential or axial semi-elliptic internal or external surface crack and was subjected to a uniform membrane loading or a uniform bending moment away from the crack region. A Reissner type theory was used to account for the effects of the transverse shear deformations. The stress intensity factor at the deepest penetration point of the crack was tabulated for bending and membrane loading by varying three dimensionless length parameters of the problem formed from the shell radius, the shell thickness, the crack length, and the crack depth. The upper bounds of the stress intensity factors are provided by the results of the elasticity solution obtained from the axisymmetric crack problem for the circumferential crack, and that found from the plane strain problem for a circular ring having a radial crack for the axial crack. The line-spring model gives the expected results in comparison with the elasticity solutions. Results also compare well with the existing finite element solution of the pressurized cylinder containing an internal semi-elliptic surface crack.

  18. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in a primary enclosure, except as follows: (i) A mother and her nursing infant may be transported... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to transport..., and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.87 Primary enclosures used...

  19. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in a primary enclosure, except as follows: (i) A mother and her nursing infant may be transported... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to transport..., and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.87 Primary enclosures used...

  20. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained...

  1. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained...

  2. Performance of masonry enclosure walls: lessons learned from recent earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, Romeu Silva; Rodrigues, Hugo; Varum, Humberto; Costa, Aníbal; Mendes da Silva, José António Raimundo

    2012-03-01

    This paper discusses the issue of performance requirements and construction criteria for masonry enclosure and infill walls. Vertical building enclosures in European countries are very often constituted by non-load-bearing masonry walls, using horizontally perforated clay bricks. These walls are generally supported and confined by a reinforced concrete frame structure of columns and beams/slabs. Since these walls are commonly considered to be nonstructural elements and their influence on the structural response is ignored, their consideration in the design of structures as well as their connection to the adjacent structural elements is frequently negligent or insufficiently detailed. As a consequence, nonstructural elements, as for wall enclosures, are relatively sensitive to drift and acceleration demands when buildings are subjected to seismic actions. Many international standards and technical documents stress the need for design acceptability criteria for nonstructural elements, however they do not specifically indicate how to prevent collapse and severe cracking, and how to enhance the overall stability in the case of moderate to high seismic loading. Furthermore, a review of appropriate measures to improve enclosure wall performance and both in-plane and out-of-plane integrity under seismic actions is addressed.

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  4. 46 CFR 95.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  5. 46 CFR 193.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces which are protected by carbon dioxide extinguishing systems provisions... to that space. (b) Where natural ventilation is provided for spaces protected by a carbon...

  6. 28. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AND CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. SHOCK ISOLATOR AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  7. 30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE WITH CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. IN CENTER. LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  8. Solar cell is housed in light-bulb enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Inexpensive, conventional solar-cell module uses focusing principle of electric lamp in reverse to produce electric power from sunlight. Standard outdoor light enclosure provides low-cost housing which concentrates sunlight in solar cell. Unit is capable of producing approximately 1 watt of electric power.

  9. 26. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBER LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AT COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE. LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  10. 46 CFR 76.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  11. 46 CFR 76.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  12. 46 CFR 95.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  13. 46 CFR 76.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  14. 46 CFR 193.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces which are protected by carbon dioxide extinguishing... carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and effectively closing off...

  15. 46 CFR 193.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces which are protected by carbon dioxide extinguishing... carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and effectively closing off...

  16. 46 CFR 76.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  17. 46 CFR 95.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  18. 46 CFR 193.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces which are protected by carbon dioxide extinguishing systems provisions... to that space. (b) Where natural ventilation is provided for spaces protected by a carbon...

  19. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  20. 30 CFR 56.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 56.12025 Section 56.12025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  1. 30 CFR 56.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 56.12025 Section 56.12025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 56.12025 Section 56.12025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 56.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 56.12025 Section 56.12025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 56.12025 Section 56.12025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. 40 CFR 86.117-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calibration. Methanol measurements may be omitted if methanol-fueled vehicles will not be tested in the.... When methanol as well as hydrocarbons are present in the evaporative enclosure, the HFID hydrocarbon concentration measurement includes the partial response of the HFID to methanol plus the...

  10. BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 13. View north within enclosure between old and new sections ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View north within enclosure between old and new sections of Armory Street Pump House. Object at is a muffler and exhaust stack for the turbine powered stand-by generator unit. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION Definitions. Pt. 100, Encl. Enclosure—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service...

  13. Thermal stability improvements to the ESPaDOnS spectrograph with the addition of a thermal enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrick, Gregory; Benedict, Tom; Moutou, Claire; Malo, Lison; White, John; Chene, André-Nicolas; Lundquist, Michael

    2016-08-01

    As part of GRACES (Gemini Remote Access to CFHT ESPaDOnS Spectrograph), a project to link the Gemini-North telescope to the ESPaDOnS (Echelle Polarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars) spectrograph at CFHT (Canada- France-Hawaii Telescope), the original thermal enclosure of the spectrograph needed to be modified. Although the modifications were slight, there was a significant possibility that the thermal stability of ESPaDOnS would be somewhat compromised. To eliminate this risk, a walk-in thermal enclosure was purchased and installed around the ESPaDOnS spectrograph as part of the GRACES project. The thermal impact of these modifications to the ESPaDOnS environment will be analyzed and the effect of the changes on the amplitude and behavior of the spectral drift for the ESPaDOnS and GRACES instruments will be examined. While the outer enclosure has reduced the extremes in thermal variation, this has not had a direct effect on the stability of the spectra.

  14. A computational environment for performance-based building enclosure design and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahattanatawe, Prechaya

    Building enclosure plays an essential role with regard to the overall performance of buildings. Specifically, energy performance, thermal comfort, and lighting conditions are significantly affected by the quality of enclosure design and its operational status. Currently, few tools exist that provide integrative and effective support for building enclosure design. Moreover, computational support for the real-time control of dynamic building enclosure components is de facto non-existent. To address these shortcomings, this thesis introduces a novel computational environment for performance-based integrated building enclosure design and operation support. The key concepts and features of this system include: (1) Virtual enclosure---Given a set of desirable conditions for an indoor climate (preferred thermal and visual settings) and outdoor conditions (temperature, humidity, solar radiation, etc.), a set of dynamic transfer functions may be derived that constitute, in toto, the virtual enclosure. This is, thus, an abstract representation of physical transfer phenomena and not a set of actual building layers. (2) Dynamic optimization---Three optimization methods are adapted and dynamically applied to derive the basic (static) values of the transfer functions of the enclosure for a given set of indoor climate requirements. Such transfer functions are arrived at for both opaque and transparent building components. (3) Construction mapping---The basic (static) components of the building enclosure are determined by the attributes of the optimal virtual enclosure being mapped to a database of actual building enclosure constructions. (4) Using a knowledge---based mapping method, the passive signature of the performance of the static enclosure is used to derive recommendations for secondary enclosure devices for shading and light redirection. (5) The actual operation of the dynamic components of the building enclosure makes use of the time-step utilization of the dynamic

  15. Space-deployed, thin-walled enclosure for a cryogenically-cooled high temperature superconducting coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Allison K.

    The interaction of magnetic fields generated by large superconducting coils has multiple applications in space, including actuation of spacecraft or spacecraft components, wireless power transfer, and shielding of spacecraft from radiation and high energy particles. These applications require coils with major diameters as large as 20 meters and a thermal management system to maintain the superconducting material of the coil below its critical temperature. Since a rigid thermal management system, such as a heat pipe, is unsuitable for compact stowage inside a 5 meter payload fairing, a thin-walled thermal enclosure is proposed. A 1.85 meter diameter test article consisting of a bladder layer for containing chilled nitrogen vapor, a restraint layer, and multilayer insulation was tested in a custom toroidal vacuum chamber. The material properties found during laboratory testing are used to predict the performance of the test article in low Earth orbit. Deployment motion of the same test article was measured using a motion capture system and the results are used to predict the deployment in space. A 20 meter major diameter and coil current of 6.7 MA is selected as a point design case. This design point represents a single coil in a high energy particle shielding system. Sizing of the thermal and structural components of the enclosure is completed. The thermal and deployment performance is predicted.

  16. InfuShield: a shielded enclosure for administering therapeutic radioisotope treatments using standard syringe pumps.

    PubMed

    Rushforth, Dominic P; Pratt, Brenda E; Chittenden, Sarah J; Murray, Iain S; Causer, Louise; Grey, Matthew J; Gear, Jonathan I; Du, Yong; Flux, Glenn D

    2017-03-01

    The administration of radionuclide therapies presents significant radiation protection challenges. The aim of this work was to develop a delivery system for intravenous radioisotope therapies to substantially moderate radiation exposures to staff and operators. A novel device (InfuShield) was designed and tested before being used clinically. The device consists of a shielded enclosure which contains the therapeutic activity and, through the hydraulic action of back-to-back syringes, allows the activity to be administered using a syringe pump external to the enclosure. This enables full access to the pump controls while simultaneously reducing dose to the operator. The system is suitable for use with all commercially available syringe pumps and does not require specific consumables, maximising both the flexibility and economy of the system. Dose rate measurements showed that at key stages in an I mIBG treatment procedure, InfuShield can reduce dose to operators by several orders of magnitude. Tests using typical syringes and infusion speeds show no significant alteration in administered flow rates (maximum of 1.2%). The InfuShield system provides a simple, safe and low cost method of radioisotope administration.

  17. InfuShield: a shielded enclosure for administering therapeutic radioisotope treatments using standard syringe pumps

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Brenda E.; Chittenden, Sarah J.; Murray, Iain S.; Causer, Louise; Grey, Matthew J.; Gear, Jonathan I.; Du, Yong; Flux, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    The administration of radionuclide therapies presents significant radiation protection challenges. The aim of this work was to develop a delivery system for intravenous radioisotope therapies to substantially moderate radiation exposures to staff and operators. A novel device (InfuShield) was designed and tested before being used clinically. The device consists of a shielded enclosure which contains the therapeutic activity and, through the hydraulic action of back-to-back syringes, allows the activity to be administered using a syringe pump external to the enclosure. This enables full access to the pump controls while simultaneously reducing dose to the operator. The system is suitable for use with all commercially available syringe pumps and does not require specific consumables, maximising both the flexibility and economy of the system. Dose rate measurements showed that at key stages in an 131I mIBG treatment procedure, InfuShield can reduce dose to operators by several orders of magnitude. Tests using typical syringes and infusion speeds show no significant alteration in administered flow rates (maximum of 1.2%). The InfuShield system provides a simple, safe and low cost method of radioisotope administration. PMID:28187040

  18. Fogging formulations for fixation of particulate contamination in ductwork and enclosures

    DOEpatents

    Maresca, Jr., Joseph W.; Kostelnik, Lori M.; Kriskivich, James R.; Demmer, Rick L.; Tripp, Julia L.

    2015-09-08

    A method and an apparatus using aqueous fixatives for fogging of ventilation ductwork, enclosures, or buildings containing dust, lint, and particulates that may be contaminated by radionuclides and other dangerous or unsafe particulate contaminants, which method and apparatus are capable of (1) obtaining full coverage within the ductwork and (2) penetrating and fixing the lint, dust and large particles present in the ductwork so that no airborne particles are released during or after the application of the fixative. New aqueous fogging solutions outperform conventional glycerin-based solutions. These aqueous solutions will fog using conventional methods of application and contain a surfactant to aid wetting and penetration of the lint and dust, a binder to stabilize loose or respirable particles, and an agent to aid in fogging and enhance adhesiveness. The solutions are safe and easy to use.

  19. Helicopter Transparent Enclosures. Volume 1. Design Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    of ice by mechanically or thermally destroying the bond between the ice and the protected surface . The ice shed by deicing may damage aft-mounted...puncture if the surface flashover voltage from any point on the outer surface is lower than the breakdown voltage to internal conducting parts, such as...erosion effects of 232 windshield wipers, cleaning, and weather. In such cases, the criterion stated above of requiring the surface flashover voltage to

  20. The Development of Lightweight Electronics Enclosures for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenske, Matthew T.; Barth, Janet L.; Didion, Jeffrey R.; Mule, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines the end to end effort to produce lightweight electronics enclosures for NASA GSFC electronics applications with the end goal of presenting an array of lightweight box options for a flight opportunity. Topics including the development of requirements, design of three different boxes, utilization of advanced materials and processes, and analysis and test will be discussed. Three different boxes were developed independently and in parallel. A lightweight machined Aluminum box, a cast Aluminum box and a composite box were designed, fabricated, and tested both mechanically and thermally. There were many challenges encountered in meeting the requirements with a non-metallic enclosure and the development of the composite box employed several innovative techniques.

  1. 29. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AND CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. AT CONSOLES. REFRIGERATOR AT RIGHT FLANKED BY RADIO EQUIPMENT (RIGHT) AND FILE CABINETS (LEFT). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  2. 25. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. AT LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AND LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AT COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE. RADIO TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER RACKS AT FAR RIGHT; ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACKS AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for container storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains Part B of the Permit Application for Container Storage Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Sections cover the following areas: Facility description; Waste characteristics; Process information; Ground water monitoring; Procedures to prevent hazards; Contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; Recordkeeping; Other federal laws; Organic air emissions; Solid waste management units; and Certification.

  4. DKIST enclosure modeling and verification during factory assembly and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrakoetxea, Ibon; McBride, William; Marshall, Heather K.; Murga, Gaizka

    2014-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST) is unique as, apart from protecting the telescope and its instrumentation from the weather, it holds the entrance aperture stop and is required to position it with millimeter-level accuracy. The compliance of the Enclosure design with the requirements, as of Final Design Review in January 2012, was supported by mathematical models and other analyses which included structural and mechanical analyses (FEA), control models, ventilation analysis (CFD), thermal models, reliability analysis, etc. During the Enclosure Factory Assembly and Testing the compliance with the requirements has been verified using the real hardware and the models created during the design phase have been revisited. The tests performed during shutter mechanism subsystem (crawler test stand) functional and endurance testing (completed summer 2013) and two comprehensive system-level factory acceptance testing campaigns (FAT#1 in December 2013 and FAT#2 in March 2014) included functional and performance tests on all mechanisms, off-normal mode tests, mechanism wobble tests, creation of the Enclosure pointing map, control system tests, and vibration tests. The comparison of the assumptions used during the design phase with the properties measured during the test campaign provides an interesting reference for future projects.

  5. The N-terminal part of Als1 protein from Candida albicans specifically binds fucose-containing glycans.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Dagmara S; Ielasi, Francesco S; Goossens, Katty V Y; Willaert, Ronnie G

    2011-06-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans expresses on its surface Als (Agglutinin like sequence) proteins, which play an important role in the adhesion to host cells and in the development of candidiasis. The binding specificity of these proteins is broad, as they can bind to various mammalian proteins, such as extracellular matrix proteins, and N- and E-cadherins. The N-terminal part of Als proteins constitutes the substrate-specific binding domain and is responsible for attachment to epithelial and endothelial cells. We have used glycan array screening to identify possible glycan receptors for the binding domain of Als1p-N. Under those conditions, Als1p-N binds specifically to fucose-containing glycans, which adds a lectin function to the functional diversity of the Als1 protein. The binding between Als1p-N and BSA-fucose glycoconjugate was quantitatively characterized using surface plasmon resonance, which demonstrated a weak millimolar affinity between Als1p-N and fucose. Furthermore, we have also quantified the affinity of Als1p-N to the extracellular matrix proteins proteins fibronectin and laminin, which is situated in the micromolar range. Surface plasmon resonance characterization of Als1p-N-Als1p-N interaction was in the micromolar affinity range.

  6. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    A method of nondestructively detecting the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solidified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  7. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    Nondestructive detection of the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste is accomplished by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solifified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  8. Enclosure for thermoelectric refrigerator and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian V. (Inventor); McGrath, Ralph D. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An enclosed structure is provided for use with a refrigerator having a door assembly. The enclosed structure preferably contains superinsulation materials and a plurality of matching drawers. The enclosed structure preferably includes corner joints which minimize thermal energy transfer between adjacent superinsulation panels. The refrigerator may include a cooling system having a thermoelectric device for maintaining the temperature within the refrigerator at selected values. If desired, a fluid cooling system and an active gasket may also be provided between the door assembly and the enclosed structure. The fluid cooling system preferably includes a second thermoelectric device to maintain the temperature of fluid flowing through the active gasket at a selected value. The drawers associated with the refrigerator may be used for gathering, processing, shipping and storing food or other perishable items.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... their normal mode, and need not be vented. Systems that are normally filled with water and operating... returning the reactor to an operating mode requiring containment integrity. For primary reactor containment... surfaces of the containment structures and components shall be performed prior to any Type A test...

  10. Design, construction and testing of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small animals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M J; Preache, M M

    1980-11-01

    This final report describes both the engineering development of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small laboratory animals, and the biological protocol for the use of such enclosures in the testing of animals to determine possible biological effects of the environment associated with HVDC transmission lines. The test enclosure which has been designed is a modular unit, which will house up to eight rat-sized animals in individual compartments. Multiple test enclosures can be used to test larger numbers of animals. A prototype test enclosure has been fabricated and tested to characterize its electrical performance characteristics. The test enclosure provides a simulation of the dominant environment associated with HVDC transmission lines; namely, a static electric field and an ion current density. A biological experimental design has been developed for assessing the effects of the dominant components of the HVDC transmission line environment.

  11. Encoding of relative enclosure size in a dynamic three-dimensional virtual environment by humans.

    PubMed

    Sturz, Bradley R; Kelly, Debbie M

    2009-10-01

    Human participants searched in a dynamic three-dimensional virtual-environment rectangular enclosure for a distinctly colored bin located in one of the four corners. During test trials, all bins were rendered identical in color, and the shape of the rectangular search space either remained the same or was modified to a relatively sized contracted rectangle, an expanded rectangle, or a square. Participants made one choice response during test trials. In the rectangular enclosures, more of participants' choice responses were allocated to the geometrically correct corners than to the geometrically incorrect corners. In the square enclosure, participants' choice responses were allocated equivalently to each of the four corners. Results replicate previous enclosure size studies demonstrating encoding of enclosure geometry with human and non-human animal subjects conducted in real environments and extend these results to include encoding of relative enclosure geometry. Results are discussed with respect to theoretical accounts of geometry learning.

  12. Assessing the benefits of design for recycling for plastics inelectronics: A case study of computer enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-12-31

    With the emergence of extended producer responsibilityregulations for electronic devices, it is becoming increasingly importantfor electronics manufacturers to apply design for recycling (DFR) methodsin the design of plastic enclosures. This paper presents an analyticalframework for quantifying the environmental and economic benefits of DFRfor plastic computer enclosures during the design process, usingstraightforward metrics that can be aligned with corporate environmentaland financial performance goals. The analytical framework is demonstratedvia a case study of a generic desktop computer enclosure design, which isrecycled using a typical US "take-back" system for plastics from wasteelectronics. The case study illustrates how the analytical framework canbe used by the enclosure designer to quantify the environmental andeconomic benefits of two important DFR strategies: choosing high-valueresins and minimizing enclosure disassembly time. Uncertainty analysis isperformed to quantify the uncertainty surrounding economic conditions inthe future when the enclosure is ultimately recycled.

  13. Questing ixodid ticks on the vegetation of sable antelope and multi-herbivore enclosures in Thabazimbi.

    PubMed

    Uys, André C; Horak, Ivan G; Harrison, Alan

    2015-07-14

    This survey of ixodid ticks was the first to compare the species composition and population dynamics of free-living ticks in intensive, sable antelope breeding enclosures, now commonplace in commercial wildlife ranching in South Africa, with those of multi-herbivore enclosures. The species composition, abundance and seasonal abundance of questing ixodid ticks on the vegetation in intensive breeding enclosures for sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), on which strategic tick control is practised, were compared with those of ticks in a multi-species herbivore enclosure surrounding the breeding enclosures in which no tick control is practised. A total of eight ixodid tick species were collected by drag-sampling the woodland and grassland habitats in each enclosure type monthly from July 2011 to July 2013. Rhipicephalus decoloratus, a potential vector of fatal tick-borne disease in sable antelopes, was the most abundant, accounting for 65.4% of the total number of ticks collected in the sable enclosures, whilst representing only 25.4% of number of ticks collected in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. Rhipicephalus decoloratus and R. evertsi evertsi were more abundant than R. appendiculatus (both p < 0.05) and Amblyomma hebraeum (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Rhipicephalus decoloratus larvae were collected throughout the year, with peak collections in November 2012 and October to December 2013 in the sable enclosures; and in April/May 2012 and February/April 2013 in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. More R. decoloratus were recovered in the second year than in the first year in the grassland habitat of the sable enclosures (V = 7.0, p < 0.05) possibly as a result of acaricide resistance. The apparent temporal over-abundance of R. decoloratus in sable antelope breeding enclosures, in the face of strategic tick control, is of concern and requires further investigation.

  14. Study of improved resins for advanced supersonic technology composites. Part 1: Heteroaromatic polymers containing ether groups. Part 2: Curing chemistry of aromatic polymers and composite studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takekoshi, T.; Hillig, W. B.; Mellinger, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen ether-containing, aromatic dianhydrides have been synthesized from N-phenyl-3 or 4-nitrophthalimide and various bisphenols. The process involves nucleophilic displacement of activated nitro groups with bisphenolate ions. Ether-containing dianhydrides were indefinitely stable in the presence of atmospheric moisture. One-step, high temperature solution polymerization of the ether-containing dianhydrides with m-phenylene diamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline and 1, 3-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene afforded 42 polyetherimides. The polyetherimides were all soluble in m-cresol except two which were found to be crystalline. The glass transition temperatures of the polyetherimides ranged from 178 to 277 C. Soluble polybenzimidazopyrrolones containing ether groups were also prepared from the same ether-containing dianhydrides and aromatic tetraamines by one-step solution polymerization. Using low molecular weight polyetherimides, various thermoset resin systems were developed and tested as matrices for fiber-reinforced composites. The curing chemistry involving reaction of the phthalonitrile group and the o-diaminophenyl group was found to be generally applicable to crosslinking various aromatic polymers other than polyimides.

  15. Managing the system validation of the DKIST enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariño, Javier; Gómez, Celia; Murga, Gaizka; Ampuero, Pedro; Campo, Ramon

    2014-08-01

    The size of the DKIST (formerly ATST) Enclosure, similar to the 8-10 meters class telescopes such as VLT or GTC, together with the strict and demanding requirement of using the azimuth and shutter movement for accurate positioning of the entrance aperture stop while tracking, makes it probably the most complex enclosure built up to date. Thus, managing the system validation becomes a challenging task, in which the singularity of this system has to be considered by applying customized tools and processes in addition to the usual procedures. This paper describes the managing process followed towards DKIST Enclosure validation, focused on ensuring final on-site assembly and performance. During the design phase, the system verification was carried out by means of modeling tools and detailed simulations and calculations. Furthermore, an overall BIM (Building Information Model) was built to integrate all the design work and detect potential problems since the design phase; it was used to check interfaces between subsystems, verify accessibility for maintenance and study the construction process. The Factory Assembly and Testing phase (FA&T) test campaign, recently finished, has been oriented towards the final system validation, by testing: 1) the overall system integration; 2) the performance; 3) the simulation of the final on-site assembly. The importance of guaranteeing a correct on-site assembly has driven also the decision towards the installation of a modular prefabricated cladding, which reduces the risk inherent to the site remoteness and the on-site installation of the outer water-cooled skin. The validation process also included early prototyping and testing of critical subsystems. That being said, all this helps reducing the risk significantly during the final on-site assembly and commissioning through the replication of already validated procedures.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water power..., pressurized with air, nitrogen, or pneumatic fluid specified in the technical specifications or associated... pressure loss of the test chamber of the containment penetration pressurized with air, nitrogen,...

  17. Enclosure method for the p-Laplace equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brander, Tommi; Kar, Manas; Salo, Mikko

    2015-04-01

    We study the enclosure method for the p-Calderón problem, which is a nonlinear generalization of the inverse conductivity problem due to Calderón that involves the p-Laplace equation. The method allows one to reconstruct the convex hull of an inclusion in the nonlinear model by using exponentially growing solutions introduced by Wolff. We justify this method for the penetrable obstacle case, where the inclusion is modelled as a jump in the conductivity. The result is based on a monotonicity inequality and the properties of the Wolff solutions.

  18. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units...), Mendocino (CA) Big-Navarro-Garcia 18010108 Mendocino (CA)—Manchester/Point Arena Rancheria; 1 Some...

  19. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  20. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  1. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  2. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  3. Optimisation of Mesh Enclosures for Nursery Rearing of Juvenile Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Steven W.; Agudo, Natacha S.

    2013-01-01

    Mariculture of tropical sea cucumbers is promising, but the nursery rearing of juveniles is a bottleneck for farming and sea ranching. We conducted four medium-scale experiments lasting 3–6 weeks, using thousands of cultured juvenile sandfish Holothuria scabra, to optimise nursery rearing in mesh enclosures in earthen seawater ponds and to test rearing in enclosures in the sea. In one experiment, survival in fine-mesh enclosures (1 m3; 660-µm mesh) related nonlinearly to juvenile size, revealing a threshold body length of 5–8 mm for initial transfer from hatchery tanks. Survival in enclosures within ponds in the other experiments ranged from 78–97%, and differences in growth rates among experiments were explained largely by seasonal differences in seawater temperatures in ponds. Stripped shadecloth units within fine-mesh enclosures increased feeding surfaces and improved growth rates by >15%. On the other hand, shading over the enclosures may lower growth rates. Following the rearing in fine-mesh enclosures, small juveniles (0.5 to 1 g) were grown to stocking size (3–10 g) in coarse-mesh enclosures of 1-mm mesh. Sand or mud added to coarse-mesh enclosures did not significantly improve growth compared to controls without sediment. Survival of sandfish juveniles in coarse-mesh enclosures set on the benthos within seagrass beds differed between two sheltered bays and growth was slow compared to groups within the same type of enclosures in an earthen pond. Our findings should lead to significant improvement in the cost-effectiveness of rearing sandfish juveniles to a stocking size compared to established methods and highlight the need for further research into nursery systems in the sea. PMID:23717542

  4. Optimisation of mesh enclosures for nursery rearing of juvenile sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Steven W; Agudo, Natacha S

    2013-01-01

    Mariculture of tropical sea cucumbers is promising, but the nursery rearing of juveniles is a bottleneck for farming and sea ranching. We conducted four medium-scale experiments lasting 3-6 weeks, using thousands of cultured juvenile sandfish Holothuria scabra, to optimise nursery rearing in mesh enclosures in earthen seawater ponds and to test rearing in enclosures in the sea. In one experiment, survival in fine-mesh enclosures (1 m(3); 660-µm mesh) related nonlinearly to juvenile size, revealing a threshold body length of 5-8 mm for initial transfer from hatchery tanks. Survival in enclosures within ponds in the other experiments ranged from 78-97%, and differences in growth rates among experiments were explained largely by seasonal differences in seawater temperatures in ponds. Stripped shadecloth units within fine-mesh enclosures increased feeding surfaces and improved growth rates by >15%. On the other hand, shading over the enclosures may lower growth rates. Following the rearing in fine-mesh enclosures, small juveniles (0.5 to 1 g) were grown to stocking size (3-10 g) in coarse-mesh enclosures of 1-mm mesh. Sand or mud added to coarse-mesh enclosures did not significantly improve growth compared to controls without sediment. Survival of sandfish juveniles in coarse-mesh enclosures set on the benthos within seagrass beds differed between two sheltered bays and growth was slow compared to groups within the same type of enclosures in an earthen pond. Our findings should lead to significant improvement in the cost-effectiveness of rearing sandfish juveniles to a stocking size compared to established methods and highlight the need for further research into nursery systems in the sea.

  5. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... boundary, as defined in § 50.2(v), and serves as an essentially leak-tight barrier against the uncontrolled... under post-accident conditions, such as the containment heat removal system, need not be vented....

  6. Special session: computational predictability of natural convection flows in enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M A; Gresho, P M; Sutton, S B

    2000-08-14

    Modern thermal design practices often rely on a ''predictive'' simulation capability--although predictability is rarely quantified and often difficult to confidently achieve in practice. The computational predictability of natural convection in enclosures is a significant issue for many industrial thermal design problems. One example of this is the design for mitigation of optical distortion due to buoyancy-driven flow in large-scale laser systems. In many instances the sensitivity of buoyancy-driven enclosure flows can be linked to the presence of multiple bifurcation points that yield laminar thermal convective processes that transition from steady to various modes of unsteady flow. This behavior is brought to light by a problem as ''simple'' as a differentially-heated tall rectangular cavity (8:1 height/width aspect ratio) filled with a Boussinesq fluid with Pr = 0.71--which defines, at least partially, the focus of this special session. For our purposes, the differentially-heated cavity provides a virtual fluid dynamics laboratory.

  7. Ditched enclosures in Southern Portugal: an Archaeoastronomical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, A J.; Valera, A. Carlos; Castaño, J. Gómez; Rodríguez-Caderot, G.; Becker, Helmut

    2015-05-01

    Since the very first ages, human beings have attempted to understand and manage their environment in order to survive. This is the case regarding wildlife, weather cycles and gathering periods. This is also reflected in the areas surrounding sites where individuals live; they changed the landscape with different aims. This type of archaeology has risen very recently - in the last few years - and is usually called Landscape Archaeology. Traditional landscape archaeology has dealt with earth and location related studies; the relationship of ancient peoples with the sky has been disregarded. The archaeoastronomical studies have mitigated this fact. Archaeoastronomy has revealed an important number of archaeological sites; many of them reveal a clear intention of astronomically designed buildings or structures. This implies a planned detailed design and obviously a deep understanding of astronomical knowledge. As examples of these sites a number of megalithic ditched enclosures sited in Portugal will be shown which were studied inside the project "Ditched enclosures plants and Neolithic cosmologies: A landscape, archaeoastronomical and geophysical perspective". The ideological and astronomical aspects inside the architecture of these types of sites will be explained. In this paper we present a new methodology applied in the archaeoastronomical calculations for southern Portugal sites. It includes GIS techniques and the development of an archaeoastronomical layer that can be used to display the computations over cartographic information from the archaeological sites. A Spatial Data Infrastructure is also created in order to expose the results.

  8. An overview of modeling methods for thermal mixing and stratification in large enclosures for reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2010-10-01

    Thermal mixing and stratification phenomena play major roles in the safety of reactor systems with large enclosures, such as containment safety in current fleet of LWRs, long-term passive containment cooling in Gen III+ plants including AP-1000 and ESBWR, the cold and hot pool mixing in pool type sodium cooled fast reactor systems (SFR), and reactor cavity cooling system behavior in high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), etc. Depending on the fidelity requirement and computational resources, 0-D steady state models (heat transfer correlations), 0-D lumped parameter based transient models, 1-D physical-based coarse grain models, and 3-D CFD models are available. Current major system analysis codes either have no models or only 0-D models for thermal stratification and mixing, which can only give highly approximate results for simple cases. While 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze simple configurations, these methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries. Due to prohibitive computational expenses for long transients in very large volumes, 3-D CFD simulations remain impractical for system analyses. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, UC Berkeley developed 1-D models basing on Zuber’s hierarchical two-tiered scaling analysis (HTTSA) method where the ambient fluid volume is represented by 1-D transient partial differential equations and substructures such as free or wall jets are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to 3-D CFD modeling. This paper will present an overview on important thermal mixing and stratification phenomena in large enclosures for different reactors, major modeling methods and their advantages and limits, potential paths to improve simulation capability and reduce analysis uncertainty in this area for advanced reactor system analysis tools.

  9. 30 CFR 77.701 - Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.701 Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment. Metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of...

  10. 30 CFR 75.701 - Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other... Grounding § 75.701 Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment. Metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment that can become “alive” through failure...

  11. 30 CFR 75.701 - Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other... Grounding § 75.701 Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment. Metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment that can become “alive” through failure...

  12. 30 CFR 77.701 - Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.701 Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment. Metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of...

  13. Blocking of Spatial Learning between Enclosure Geometry and a Local Landmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Paul N.; Alexander, Tim

    2008-01-01

    In a virtual environment, blocking of spatial learning to locate an invisible target was found reciprocally between a distinctively shaped enclosure and a local landmark within its walls. The blocking effect was significantly stronger when the shape of the enclosure rather than the landmark served as the blocking cue. However, the extent to which…

  14. Enclosure Then and Now: Rural Schools and Communities in the Wake of Market-Driven Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Rochon, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    The following is an historically-based analysis of a new phenomenon affecting rural schools and communities: animal confinement operations. A contrast is made between "enclosure" as it unfolded in England a few centuries ago and the way animal concentration units constitute a second, "modern" form of enclosure today. In both…

  15. 16 CFR 1201.40 - Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower doors and enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... doors and enclosures. 1201.40 Section 1201.40 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... Policy and Interpretation § 1201.40 Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower doors and enclosures. (a) Purpose and background. The purpose of this section is to clarify the scope of the terms “bathtub...

  16. 16 CFR 1201.40 - Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower doors and enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... doors and enclosures. 1201.40 Section 1201.40 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... Policy and Interpretation § 1201.40 Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower doors and enclosures. (a) Purpose and background. The purpose of this section is to clarify the scope of the terms “bathtub...

  17. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Dddd... - Alternative Procedure To Determine Capture Efficiency From Enclosures Around Hot Presses in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... On the recording chart, in the data acquisition system, or in a log book, make a note of periods of... enclosure. Samples should be collected from all sides of the enclosure, downstream in the prevailing...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Dddd... - Alternative Procedure To Determine Capture Efficiency From Enclosures Around Hot Presses in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... On the recording chart, in the data acquisition system, or in a log book, make a note of periods of... enclosure. Samples should be collected from all sides of the enclosure, downstream in the prevailing...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Dddd... - Alternative Procedure To Determine Capture Efficiency From Enclosures Around Hot Presses in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... On the recording chart, in the data acquisition system, or in a log book, make a note of periods of... enclosure. Samples should be collected from all sides of the enclosure, downstream in the prevailing...

  1. Electrical enclosure hydrogen intrusion study. [purging Cape Kennedy Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, P. J.; Yantsios, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    As a cost savings measure for the space shuttle program, the feasibility of substituting dry air for nitrogen as the purge gas used to minimize the probability of fire and explosions which could erupt from propellant vapor (hydrogen) diffusion into the electrical enclosures at Launch Complex 39 was investigated. It was concluded that: (1) Hydrogen concentrations of approximately 1% were obtained in an electrical enclosure under design purge conditions. (2) Hydrogen concentrations exceeding the lower explosive limit, 4%, could probably be obtained within the enclosure under worst case conditions. (3) Most of the hydrogen intrusion into the enclosure probably occurred at the point with the shortest leak path, such as the door seal. (4) More stringent electrical enclosure design requirements should be imposed before air is using as a purge gas.

  2. Transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts by cloned polyoma virus DNA fragments containing only part of the early region.

    PubMed Central

    Hassell, J A; Topp, W C; Rifkin, D B; Moreau, P E

    1980-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids containing either the entire polyoma viral genome or one or the other of the two HindIII fragments of polyoma virus DNA were constructed and cloned in Escherichia coli X1776, and their DNAs were individually tested for the capacity to transform an established line of rat cells. The recombinant plasmids containing the entire polyoma genome and those containing the HindIII-1 fragment of polyoma DNA (45-1.4 map units) efficiently transform rat cells, whereas the plasmids containing the HindIII-2 fragment (1.4-45.0 map units) do not. The properties of many independent transformed cell lines established by infection with the cloned HindIII-1 fragment were determined. In contrast to the parent cell line, rat cells transformed with the cloned HindIII-1 fragment grow to high saturation densities, form colonies with high efficiency in dilute agar suspension, produce high levels of plasminogen activator, and display a disorganized arrangement of actin cables. By all criteria examined, these cells transformed by fragments are indistinguishable from cells transformed by whole polyoma viral DNA. Cellular DNA prepared from many HindIII-1 fragment-transformed cell lines was analyzed for the presence and arrangement of polyoma viral sequences by Southern blot-hybridization. In all cases examined, only those viral sequences contained within the HindIII-1 fragment of polyoma DNA were detected. These data establish a strong correlation between polyoma DNA sequences mapping within a restricted portion of the early region and the induction and maintenance of the transformed phenotype. Images PMID:6254006

  3. Final Report: Part 1. In-Place Filter Testing Instrument for Nuclear Material Containers. Part 2. Canister Filter Test Standards for Aerosol Capture Rates.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin Douglas; Runnels, Joel T.; Moore, Murray E.; Reeves, Kirk Patrick

    2014-11-02

    A portable instrument has been developed to assess the functionality of filter sand o-rings on nuclear material storage canisters, without requiring removal of the canister lid. Additionally, a set of fifteen filter standards were procured for verifying aerosol leakage and pressure drop measurements in the Los Alamos Filter Test System. The US Department of Energy uses several thousand canisters for storing nuclear material in different chemical and physical forms. Specialized filters are installed into canister lids to allow gases to escape, and to maintain an internal ambient pressure while containing radioactive contaminants. Diagnosing the condition of container filters and canister integrity is important to ensure worker and public safety and for determining the handling requirements of legacy apparatus. This report describes the In-Place-Filter-Tester, the Instrument Development Plan and the Instrument Operating Method that were developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to determine the “as found” condition of unopened storage canisters. The Instrument Operating Method provides instructions for future evaluations of as-found canisters packaged with nuclear material. Customized stainless steel canister interfaces were developed for pressure-port access and to apply a suction clamping force for the interface. These are compatible with selected Hagan-style and SAVY-4000 storage canisters that were purchased from NFT (Nuclear Filter Technology, Golden, CO). Two instruments were developed for this effort: an initial Los Alamos POC (Proof-of-Concept) unit and the final Los Alamos IPFT system. The Los Alamos POC was used to create the Instrument Development Plan: (1) to determine the air flow and pressure characteristics associated with canister filter clogging, and (2) to test simulated configurations that mimicked canister leakage paths. The canister leakage scenarios included quantifying: (A) air leakage due to foreign material (i.e. dust and hair

  4. Design and analysis of the NFIRAOS thermal optics enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jenny; Byrnes, Peter; Herriot, Glen; Hill, Alexis; Szeto, Kei

    2016-08-01

    The Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) will be the first-light facility adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). In order to meet the optical performance and stability specifications essential to leveraging the extraordinary capabilities of the TMT, all of the optical components within NFIRAOS will be protected within a large thermally-controlled optics enclosure (ENCL). Among the many functions performed by the ENCL, the most critical functions include providing a highly stable, light-tight, cold, dry environment maintained at 243±0.5 K for the NFIRAOS opto-mechanical sub-systems and supporting TABL structure. Although the performance of the ENCL during the science operation of NFIRAOS is critical, the maximum thermal loading will be defined by the cooldown/ warm-up cycle which must be accomplished within a time-frame that will minimize the on-sky operational impact due to daytime maintenance work. This study describes the thermal/mechanical design development and supporting analyses (analytical and finite element analyses (FEA)) completed during the preliminary design phase and through the current progression of the ENCL final design phase. The walls of the ENCL consist of interlocking, multilayered, thermally insulated panels, which are supported by an externally located structural framework which attaches to the NFIRAOS Instrument Support Structure. The regulation of the interior ENCL wall surface temperature to within ±0.5 K requires that the heat flux into the interior of NFIRAOS be eliminated by cooling a thermal conduction plate embedded between multiple layers of insulation. The thermal design of the enclosure was evaluated for both steady-state (SS) performance and transient performance (cool-down and warm-up cycles). The transient analysis utilizes a hybrid of a one-dimensional thermal network approach combined with three-dimensional conjugate heat transfer analyses of explicit opto-mechanical components within

  5. Evidence of Polyandry for Aedes aegypti in Semifield Enclosures

    PubMed Central

    Helinski, Michelle E. H.; Valerio, Laura; Facchinelli, Luca; Scott, Thomas W.; Ramsey, Janine; Harrington, Laura C.

    2012-01-01

    Female Aedes aegypti are assumed to be primarily monandrous (i.e., mate only once in their lifetime), but true estimates of mating frequency have not been determined outside the laboratory. To assess polyandry in Ae. aegypti with first-generation progeny from wild mosquitoes, stable isotope semen-labeled males (15N or 13C) were allowed to mate with unlabeled females in semifield enclosures (22.5 m3) in a dengue-endemic area in southern Mexico. On average, 14% of females were positive for both labels, indicating that they received semen from more than one male. Our results provide evidence of a small but potentially significant rate of multiple mating within a 48-hour period and provide an approach for future open-field studies of polyandry in this species. Polyandry has implications for understanding mosquito ecology, evolution, and reproductive behavior as well as genetic strategies for mosquito control. PMID:22492148

  6. The ADPI of cold air jets in an enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, A.T.; Knappmiller, K.D.

    1996-11-01

    The subject of this paper is the computational determination of the air diffusion performance index (ADPI) of a cold air jet in an enclosure. The jet outlet size, temperature, momentum, and Archimedes number were varied to produce a range of attached and separated flow regimes. The cooling load was produced by heating one of the room walls. The effect of using conventional and cold supply jets was investigated for two heat source locations. The results indicate that, for the type of diffuser and room configuration studied, an optimum ADPI was obtained when the jet separation distance is approximately equal to the room characteristic length. Room airflow conditions produced by conventional and cold air supply temperature air are almost identical to each other when the same separation distance criteria, i.e., same momentum flux, are used.

  7. Moisture ingress into electronics enclosures under isothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H.

    2016-06-01

    The number of electronics used in outdoor environment is constantly growing. The humidity causes about 19 % of all electronics failures and, especially, moisture increases these problems due to the ongoing process of miniaturization and lower power consumption of electronic components. Moisture loads are still not understood well by design engineers, therefore this field has become one of the bottlenecks in the electronics system design. The objective of this paper is to model moisture ingress into an electronics enclosure under isothermal conditions. The moisture diffusion model is based on a 1D quasi-steady state (QSS) approximation for Fick's second law. This QSS approach is also described with an electrical analogy which gives a fast tool in modelling of the moisture response. The same QSS method is applied to ambient water vapour variations. The obtained results are compared to an analytical solution and very good agreement is found.

  8. Convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L. W.; Chai, A. T.; Sun, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The transport process in the fluid phase during the growth of a crystal has a profound influence on the structure and quality of the solid phase. In vertical growth techniques the fluid phase is often subjected to vertical temperature and concentration gradients. The main objective is to obtain more experimental data on convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients. Among actual crystal systems the parameters vary widely. The parametric ranges studied for mass transfer are mainly dictated by the electrochemical system employed to impose concentration gradients. Temperature or concentration difference are maintained between two horizontal end walls. The other walls are kept insulated. Experimental measurements and observations were made of the heat transfer or mass transfer, flow patterns, and the mean and fluctuating temperature distribution. The method used to visualize the flow pattern in the thermal cases is an electrochemical pH-indicator method. Laser shadowgraphs are employed to visualize flow patterns in the solutal cases.

  9. The Gemini MCAO infrastructure: laser service enclosure and support structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavedoni, Charles P.; Bombino, S.; Sheehan, M.; Karewicz, S.; Hardash, S.; Perez, G.; Collins, P.; d'Orgeville, C.; Boccas, M.; Maltes, D.; Gausachs, G.; Rogers, R.

    2008-07-01

    The Laser Service Enclosure (LSE) is an environmentally controlled ISO 7 clean room designed to house, protect and provide environmental control for the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics laser system. The LSE is 8.0 meters long, 2.5 meters wide and 2.5 meters high with a mass of approximately 5,100 kg. The LSE shall reside on a new telescope Nasmyth platform named the Support Structure (SS). The SS is a three-dimensional beam and frame structure designed to support the LSE and laser system under all loading conditions. This paper will review the system requirements and describe the system hardware including optical, environmental, structural and operational issues as well as the anticipated impact the system will have on the current telescope performance.

  10. Explicit Finite Element Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabric for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems. Part 2; Ballistic Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. M.; Revilock, D. M.

    2004-01-01

    Under the Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance Center of Excellence and the Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center collaborated with Arizona State University, Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services, and SRI International to develop improved computational models for designing fabric-based engine containment systems. In the study described in this report, ballistic impact tests were conducted on layered dry fabric rings to provide impact response data for calibrating and verifying the improved numerical models. This report provides data on projectile velocity, impact and residual energy, and fabric deformation for a number of different test conditions.

  11. Explosion hazards of LPG-air mixtures in vented enclosure with obstacles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Yaxing; Lian, Zhen

    2017-04-01

    Numerical simulations were performed to study explosion characteristics of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) explosion in enclosure with a vent. Unlike explosion overpressure and dynamic pressure, explosion temperature of the LPG-air mixture at a given concentration in a vented enclosure has very little variation with obstacle numbers for a given blockage ratio. For an enclosure without obstacle, explosion overpressures for the stoichiometric mixtures and the fuel-lean mixtures reach their maximum within the vent and that for fuel-rich mixture reaches its maximum beyond and near the vent. Dynamic pressures produced by an indoor LPG explosion reach their maximum always beyond the vent no matter obstacles are present or not in the enclosure. A LPG explosion in a vented enclosure with built-in obstacles is strong enough to make the brick and mortar wall with a thickness of 370mm damaged. If there is no obstacle in the enclosure, the lower explosion pressure of several kPa can not break the brick and mortar wall with a thickness of 370mm. For a LPG explosion produced in an enclosure with a vent, main hazards, within the vent, are overpressure and high temperature. However main hazards are dynamic pressure, blast wind, and high temperature beyond the vent.

  12. Influence of nutrient additions on cadmium bioaccumulation by aquatic invertebrates in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, R.S.; Muir, D.C.G.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Hecky, R.E.

    1998-12-01

    Cadmium distribution and bioaccumulation were examined over a 2-year period (1991--1992) in two nutrient-enriched and two control littoral enclosures and in the littoral zone in Lake 382 (L382). Lake 382, a small oligotrophic lake, is located within the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, and received experimental Cd additions from 1987 to 1992. In the second year of this study, chlorophyll a and suspended C concentrations in the nutrient-enriched enclosures increased by 6.6 and 3.4 times, respectively, compared to the controls. As a result of increased particulate produced by the nutrient additions, Cd concentrations in water from the nutrient-enriched enclosures were higher compared to the controls. Estimated Cd/C concentrations in water were lower in the nutrient-enriched enclosures relative to the controls because of higher particle concentrations. Effects on Cd bioaccumulation were limited even though mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions were reached in the nutrient-enriched enclosures had consistently higher Cd concentrations compared to the controls, but significant differences were not detected. Enhanced accumulation of Cd-rich particulate matter by these organisms may account for this trend. Mussels and crayfish accumulated significantly more Cd when exposed in the lake compared to the enclosures. This observation is due to elevated Cd water concentrations in the lake compared to the enclosures because of continued Cd additions to the lake. These results suggest that the water route of exposure is an important pathway for Cd accumulation by these organisms.

  13. A cylindrical shell with a stress-free end which contains an axial part-through or through crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Yahsi, O. S.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction problem of a through or a part through crack with a stress free boundary in a semi-infinite cylindrical shell is considered. It is assumed that the crack lies in a meridional plane which is a plane of symmetry with respect to the external loads as well as the geometry. The circular boundary of the semi-infinite cylinder is assumed to be stress free. By using a transverse shear theory the problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations. The line spring model is used to treat the part through crack problem. In the case of a through crack the interaction between the perturbed stress fields due to the crack and the free boundary is quite strong and there is a considerable increase in the stress intensity factors caused by the interaction. On the other hand in the problem of a surface crack the interaction appears to be much weaker and consequently the magnification in the stress intensity factors is much less significant.

  14. Evaluation of methods used to desorb the constituents adsorbed on the charcoal contained in automotive evaporative canisters. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dropkin, D.

    1990-02-01

    The study evaluates current extraction methods for analyzing charcoal canisters which are used to control evaporative emissions in automobiles. The initial phase of the study investigated various extraction procedures and solvents, including carbon disulfide, methanol, cyclohexane, methylene chloride, and a mixture containing carbon disulfide and 12% acetone. The solvents were used in the soxhlet extraction of evaporative hydrocarbons adsorbed on the charcoal of the canister. In another procedure the charcoal was subjected to ultrasonication with carbon disulfide as the extraction solvent. The various sample extracts were analyzed for detailed hydrocarbon by gas chromatography and results of the procedures were compared. The difference between the results of the soxhlet extractions in the study and those in the previous study was that there had been a significant increase in the quantity of aromatics measured. The differences in the procedures for sample introduction into the GC was determined to result in fewer measurable hydrocarbons in the prior study.

  15. Enclosure Requirements to Protect Personnel from Spinning Rotor Frailures at the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, John W

    2007-08-01

    Performance evaluation of electric motors is a major function of the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC). Normally these motors have a fixed wire-wound stator and a rotating rotor, which may have conductors embedded in a ferromagnetic core (induction motors), magnets mounted on the surface of the ferromagnetic core with a thin metal or composite cylinder or ring to hold them in place, or magnets embedded in the ferromagnetic core. Most of the work currently involves the last two permanent magnet (PM) configurations. Although the stator of a radial-gap motor can absorb energy from many of the fragments ejected from the rotor during operation, the stator of an axial-gap motor is not positioned to provide significant protection. The housing of each motor can also absorb some of the energy. The most conservative approach, however, is to assume that all fragments from the rotor must be contained by a protective enclosure. An ideal enclosure is transparent. Manufacturers of such plastics as Lexan, Tuffak, and Cyrolon sell different variations of transparent enclosure material. Lexan is a polycarbonate sheet. Lexgard{reg_sign} is a penetration resistant material made by layering polycarbonate material between pieces of ordinary glass. A fragment striking a sheet of enclosure material will pierce the surface layer, but the layered polycarbonate-glass material is able to absorb the fragment's energy before it completes penetration. Tuffak{reg_sign} is Lexan polycarbonate. Cyrolon{reg_sign} bullet resistant material is acrylic sheet. The ability of the enclosure to stop a fragment depends on its thickness as well as the penetration capability of the fragment; for example, a lead fragment has much less penetrating capability than a steel fragment. Enclosure thicknesses are commercially available to provide several levels of protection. These levels depend on the momentum of the fragments and have been evaluated for some common types of ammunition

  16. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Xie, Liang; Li, Xin; Li, Qi; Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  17. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations. PMID:22662158

  18. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Ranawana, Viren; Raikos, Vassilios; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Nicol, Phyllis; Milne, Lesley; Duthie, Garry

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient) with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial. PMID:28231114

  19. Characterization of oil-proof papers containing new-type of fluorochemicals Part 1: Surface properties and printability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Satoru; Chaussy, Didier; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Reverdy-Bruas, Nadège; Thielemans, Wim

    2013-07-01

    Commercial oil-proof papers containing new family of fluorochemicals were characterized in terms of surface and barrier properties and printability. XPS analyses demonstrated that the fluorochemicals added to these papers had shorter perfluoroalkyl chains, compared to those used few decades ago. Contact angle measurements were performed and the obtained data were processed according to Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble (OWRK) approach, in order to calculate the surface energy of the investigated samples. This set of experiments revealed that the values of the surface energy of the non-coated surfaces of oil-proof papers were low enough (i.e. about 5 mJ/m2) to repel both water and oil. The surface energy of the coated sides was, instead, close to that of classical organic surfaces (i.e. around 30 mJ/m2), which predicts their potentially good printability. In fact, microcontour test was performed as the basic test for evaluating printability of oil-proof papers and showed that ink pigment retention was not significantly influenced by the level of barrier to oil. However, the surface roughness was found to play a key role in such properties.

  20. FAA Development of Reliable Modeling Methodologies for Fan Blade Out Containment Analysis. Part 2; Ballistic Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the ballistic impact testing that was conducted to provide validation data for the development of numerical models of blade out events in fabric containment systems. The ballistic impact response of two different fiber materials - Kevlar 49 (E.I. DuPont Nemours and Company) and Zylon AS (Toyobo Co., Ltd.) was studied by firing metal projectiles into dry woven fabric specimens using a gas gun. The shape, mass, orientation and velocity of the projectile were varied and recorded. In most cases the tests were designed such that the projectile would perforate the specimen, allowing measurement of the energy absorbed by the fabric. The results for both Zylon and Kevlar presented here represent a useful set of data for the purposes of establishing and validating numerical models for predicting the response of fabrics under conditions simulating those of a jet engine blade release situations. In addition some useful empirical observations were made regarding the effects of projectile orientation and the relative performance of the different materials.

  1. Parts Per Billion Detection of Uranium with a Porphryinoid-containing Nanoparticle and in vivo Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ho, I-Ting; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Jokerst, Jesse V.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical tools that can report radioactive isotopes would be of interest to the defense community. Here we report ~250 nm polymeric nanoparticles containing porphyrinoid macrocycles with and without pre-complexed depleted uranium and demonstrate that the latter species may be detected easily and with high sensitivity via photoacoustic imaging. The porphyrinoid macrocycles used in the present study are non-aromatic in the absence of the uranyl cation, but aromatic after cation complexation. We solubilized both the freebase and metalated forms of the macrocycles in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and found a peak in photoacoustic signal at 910 nm excitation in the case of the uranyl complex. The signal was stable for at least 15 minutes and allowed detection of uranium concentrations down to 6.2 ppb (5.7 nM) in vitro and 0.57 ppm (19 fCi; 0.52 μM) in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nanoparticle that detects an actinide cation via photoacoustic imaging. PMID:25854506

  2. A novel tantalum-containing bioglass. Part II. Development of a bioadhesive for sternal fixation and repair.

    PubMed

    Alhalawani, Adel Mf; Mehrvar, Cina; Stone, Wendy; Waldman, Stephen D; Towler, Mark R

    2017-02-01

    With over a million median sternotomy surgeries performed worldwide every year, sternal wound complications have posed a serious risk to the affected patients. A rigid therapeutic sternal fixation device has therefore become a necessity. In this work, the incorporation of up to 0.5mol% of tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5), in exchange for zinc oxide (ZnO), into the SiO2-ZnO-CaO-SrO-P2O5 glass system is presented. The effect of Ta incorporation on the physical, chemical and biological properties of the glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) prepared from them have been presented in this manuscript. The data obtained have confirmed that Ta2O5 incorporation into the reference glass system results in increased working times, radiopacity, ion solubility, and long-term mechanical stability. The formulated glass systems have also shown clear antibacterial and antifungal activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive prokaryotes (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermidis), as well as eukaryotes (Fusarium solani). Cytotoxicity testing showed that Ta incorporation results in no toxicity effect and may simulate osseo-integration when tested in animal models. These new metallic-containing biomaterial adhesives have been developed for sternal fixation and repair. As a permanent implant, the formulated adhesives can be used in conjunction with sternal cable ties to offer optimal fixation for patients and reduce post-operative complications such as bacterial infection and pain from micro-motion.

  3. Parts per billion detection of uranium with a porphyrinoid-containing nanoparticle and in vivo photoacoustic imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Ho, I-Ting; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; ...

    2015-04-01

    Chemical tools that can report radioactive isotopes would be of interest to the defense community. Here in this paper we report –250 nm polymeric nanoparticles containing porphyrinoid macrocycles with and without pre-complexed depleted uranium and demonstrate that the latter species may be detected easily and with high sensitivity via photoacoustic imaging. The porphyrinoid macrocycles used in the present study are non-aromatic in the absence of the uranyl cation, but aromatic after cation complexation. We solubilized both the freebase and metalated forms of the macrocycles in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and found a peak in the photoacoustic spectrum at 910 nm excitation inmore » the case of the uranyl complex. The signal was stable for at least 15 minutes and allowed detection of uranium concentrations down to 6.2 ppb (5.7 nM) in vitro and 0.57 ppm (19 fCi; 0.52 μM) in vivo. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nanoparticle that detects an actinide cation via photoacoustic imaging.« less

  4. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, A. L.; Goh, Y. M.; Samsudin, A. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  5. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A L; Goh, Y M; Samsudin, A A; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q

    2014-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05).

  6. Rarefied gas flow in a rectangular enclosure induced by non-isothermal walls

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Manuel; Tatsios, Giorgos; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Stefanov, Stefan

    2014-05-15

    The flow of a rarefied gas in a rectangular enclosure due to the non-isothermal walls with no synergetic contributions from external force fields is investigated. The top and bottom walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and along the lateral walls a linear temperature profile is assumed. Modeling is based on the direct numerical solution of the Shakhov kinetic equation and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Solving the problem both deterministically and stochastically allows a systematic comparison and verification of the results as well as the exploitation of the numerical advantages of each approach in the investigation of the involved flow and heat transfer phenomena. The thermally induced flow is simulated in terms of three dimensionless parameters characterizing the problem, namely, the reference Knudsen number, the temperature ratio of the bottom over the top plates, and the enclosure aspect ratio. Their effect on the flow configuration and bulk quantities is thoroughly examined. Along the side walls, the gas flows at small Knudsen numbers from cold-to-hot, while as the Knudsen number is increased the gas flows from hot-to-cold and the thermally induced flow configuration becomes more complex. These flow patterns with the hot-to-cold flow to be extended to the whole length of the non-isothermal side walls may exist even at small temperature differences and then, they are enhanced as the temperature difference between the top and bottom plates is increased. The cavity aspect ratio also influences this flow configuration and the hot-to-cold flow is becoming more dominant as the depth compared to the width of the cavity is increased. To further analyze the flow patterns a novel solution decomposition into ballistic and collision parts is introduced. This is achieved by accordingly modifying the indexing process of the typical DSMC algorithm. The contribution of each part of the solution is separately examined and a physical

  7. Vacuum decay container/closure integrity testing technology. Part 1. ASTM F2338-09 precision and bias studies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Heinz; Stauffer, Tony; Chen, Shu-Chen Y; Lee, Yoojin; Forster, Ronald; Ludzinski, Miron; Kamat, Madhav; Godorov, Phillip; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2009-01-01

    ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method is applicable for leak-testing rigid and semi-rigid non-lidded trays; trays or cups sealed with porous barrier lidding materials; rigid, nonporous packages; and flexible, nonporous packages. Part 1 of this series describes the precision and bias studies performed in 2008 to expand this method's scope to include rigid, nonporous packages completely or partially filled with liquid. Round robin tests using three VeriPac 325/LV vacuum decay leak testers (Packaging Technologies & Inspection, LLC, Tuckahoe, NY) were performed at three test sites. Test packages were 1-mL glass syringes. Positive controls had laser-drilled holes in the barrel ranging from about 5 to 15 microm in nominal diameter. Two different leak tests methods were performed at each site: a "gas leak test" performed at 250 mbar (absolute) and a "liquid leak test" performed at about 1 mbar (absolute). The gas leak test was used to test empty, air-filled syringes. All defects with holes > or = 5.0 microm and all no-defect controls were correctly identified. The only false negative result was attributed to a single syringe with a < 5.0-microm hole. Tests performed using a calibrated air leak supported a 0.10-cm3 x min(-1) (ccm) sensitivity limit (99/99 lower tolerance limit). The liquid leak test was used to test both empty, air-filled syringes and water-filled syringes. Test results were 100% accurate for all empty and water-filled syringes, both without holes and with holes (5, 10, and 15 microm). Tests performed using calibrated air flow leaks of 0, 0.05, and 0.10 ccm were also 100% accurate; data supported a 0.10-ccm sensitivity limit (99/99 lower tolerance limit). Quantitative differential pressure results strongly correlated to hole size using either liquid or gas vacuum decay leak tests. The higher vacuum liquid leak test gave noticeably higher pressure readings when water was present in the

  8. Enclosure design for the ARIES 3.6m optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A. K.; Shukla, Vishal; Bangia, Tarun; Raskar, R. D.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Ghanti, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    A 3.6-m, f/9 optical telescope is planned to be installed at Devasthal, India (Latitude:29° 21' 40'' N, Longitude: 79° 41' 04'' E, Altitude: 2450 m above msl). The telescope has Cassegrain focus and alt-azimuth mount. The design of the telescope enclosure and the auxiliary building includes a fixed base enclosure, a telescope pier, a rotating dome structure, an auxiliary building, ventilation and component handling systems. The design is optimized for thermal, mechanical, structural, as well as for telescope installation and maintenance requirements. The design aims to provide seeing limited images within the telescope enclosure. This paper presents design of the 3.6m telescope enclosure.

  9. Heat transfer in a large triangular-roof enclosure based on the second law analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Dehnavi, Resam

    2014-11-01

    Application of entropy generation minimization method for the optimization of natural convection in triangular-roof enclosures can be helpful in enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. In this paper, the numerical solution of the entropy production was performed due to natural convection of laminar air flow in a large isosceles triangular-roof enclosure with different boundary conditions such as the greenhouses conjugate boundary conditions. The simulation results showed that the entropy generation number in an enclosure with partially heated from bottom wall center, is less than an enclosure with partially heated from bottom wall corner. Also, in a large triangular-roof greenhouse, the entropy generation number decreases with increasing of the greenhouse aspect ratio (L/H).

  10. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The...

  11. Conceptual design study to determine optimal enclosure vent configuration for the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kei; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Hangan, Horia; Jubayer, Chowdhury M.; Breckenridge, Craig; Loewen, Nathan; Bauman, Steven; Salmon, Derrick

    2014-07-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE; formerly Next Generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope) is a dedicated, 10m aperture, wide-field, fiber-fed multi-object spectroscopic facility proposed as an upgrade to the existing Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea. The enclosure vent configuration design study is the last of three studies to examine the technical feasibility of the proposed MSE baseline concept. The enclosure vent configuration study compares the aero-thermal performance of three enclosure ventilation configurations based on the predicted dome thermal seeing and air flow attenuation over the enclosure aperture opening of a Calotte design derived from computational fluid dynamics simulations. In addition, functional and operation considerations such as access and servicing of the three ventilation configurations is discussed.

  12. Ventilation for an enclosure of a gas turbine and related method

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Troy Joseph; Leach, David; O'Toole, Michael Anthony

    2002-01-01

    A ventilation scheme for a rotary machine supported on pedestals within an enclosure having a roof, end walls and side walls with the machine arranged parallel to the side walls, includes ventilation air inlets located in a first end wall of the enclosure; a barrier wall located within the enclosure, proximate the first end wall to thereby create a plenum chamber. The barrier wall is constructed to provide a substantially annular gap between the barrier wall and a casing of the turbine to thereby direct ventilation air axially along the turbine; one or more ventilation air outlets located proximate a second, opposite end wall on the roof of the enclosure. In addition, one or more fans are provided for pulling ventilating air into said plenum chamber via the ventilation air inlets.

  13. 30 CFR 18.98 - Enclosures, joints, and fastenings; pressure testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; pressure testing. (a) Cast or welded enclosures shall be designed to withstand a minimum internal pressure of 150 pounds per square inch (gage). Castings shall be free from blowholes. (b) Pneumatic...

  14. 30 CFR 18.98 - Enclosures, joints, and fastenings; pressure testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; pressure testing. (a) Cast or welded enclosures shall be designed to withstand a minimum internal pressure of 150 pounds per square inch (gage). Castings shall be free from blowholes. (b) Pneumatic...

  15. Region 9: California Imperial County Adequate Letter Enclosure (5/20/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is the enclosure to the April 16, 2008, letter from EPA provides an adequacy finding for transportation conformity purposes the motor vehicle emissions budgets in the Imperial County 8-hour Ozone Early Progress Plan.

  16. Region 9: California Los Angeles - San Bernadino Counties Adequate Letter Enclosure (5/20/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is the enclosure to the April 16, 2008, letter from EPA provides adequacy finding for transportation conformity purposes the motor vehicle emissions budgets in the Antelope Valley-Western Mojave Desert 8-hour Ozone Early Progress Plan.

  17. Electromagnetic coupling between transmitters and electro-explosive devices located within an enclosure.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2010-04-01

    This report documents calculations conducted to determine if 42 low-power transmitters located within a metallic enclosure can initiate electro-explosive devices (EED) located within the same enclosure. This analysis was performed for a generic EED no-fire power level of 250 mW. The calculations show that if the transmitters are incoherent, the power available is 32 mW - approximately one-eighth of the assumed level even with several worst-case assumptions in place.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission scientific instrument protective enclosure design requirements and contamination controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.; Hedgeland, Randy J.; Chivatero, Craig J.; Studer, Robert J.; Kostos, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    The Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosures were designed for the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Missions to provide a beginning environment to a Scientific Instrument during ground and on orbit activities. The Scientific Instruments required very stringent surface cleanliness and molecular outgassing levels to maintain ultraviolet performance. Data from the First Servicing Mission verified that both the Scientific Instruments and Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosures met surface cleanliness level requirements during ground and on-orbit activities.

  19. Laying hen movement in a commercial aviary: Enclosure to floor and back again.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many producers in the laying hen industry, including in North America, are phasing out conventional cages in response to consumer demands and sometimes subsequent legislation. Alternative housing systems such as aviaries are being implemented in an attempt to improve hen welfare. Aviaries provide additional space and resources to groups of hens, including a litter area on the floor. However, little is known about hen movement between tiered enclosures and floor litter areas in aviary systems. Diurnal rhythms and social attraction may result in peak times of movement that could lead to overcrowding of areas, or alternatively hen preferences may lead to some areas not being fully utilized. We monitored hen movement between tiered enclosures and litter areas, including movement on and off the outer perch, across the day at peak, mid and end of lay in a commercial aviary. Hens moved onto and off of the open litter area across the day, transitioning between tiered enclosures, outer perches, open litter areas, and litter areas under tiered enclosures. At certain times of day, there were periods of greater hen movement down to the open litter area and between litter areas. For example, more hens were typically observed exiting enclosures, jumping from perches to open litter, and traveling between open litter and litter under tiered enclosures in the morning (all P ≤ 0.001). In all but one instance, more hens were observed on open litter areas in the afternoon than at other times of day (all P ≤ 0.029). However, hen re-entry to tiered enclosures showed less circadian patterning. Hen movement was observed between areas of interest at all sampled time periods, indicating hens use all areas of the system. Further research should examine whether all individual hens do move between areas equally, including within levels of the tiered enclosure, or if crowding occurs on the outer perches or in the litter during times of peak movement.

  20. Environmental hardening of equipment operating in an automated test bed enclosure. Special Isotope Separation Program (SIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, M.L.

    1990-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Plutonium Systems Engineering plans to demonstrate a materials handling system in an automated test bed located in the cold test facility, in FY91. The equipment operating in the automated glove box test bed consists of a modified, bridge mounted robot that is electrically driven, robot tooling, a tilt-pour furnace, mechanisms for loading and unloading the furnace, mechanisms for loading and unloading the crucible, and mechanisms for button breakout and can opening. Each of the pieces of equipment mentioned have components such as motors (with or without brushes), bearings, resolvers, encoders, sliding surfaces, cabling, and electrical connectors that must function in the harsh environment of the test bed enclosure, and each of the components described must be hardened to the enclosure environment. The automated test bed is to provide a representation of a weapons-grade plutonium enclosure. Although the decision to operate the enclosure in a nitrogen or argon atmosphere has not been made, this report considers the dry argon atmosphere as the more difficult case. Other environmental requirements on the equipment operating in the test bed enclosure are: Low moisture and low oxygen atmosphere, and some abrasive dust resulting from the process. A surrogate material will provide flow and dusting characteristics of weapons-grade plutonium oxide. Weapons-grade plutonium will not be introduced into the test bed enclosure. However, for future reference, radiation effects on materials are addressed.

  1. Statistical fluctuations in chains of chaotic electromagnetic enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradoni, Gabriele; Antonsen, Thomas; Anlage, Steven; Ott, Edward

    2013-03-01

    Today, the statistical analysis of complex electromagnetic cavities constitutes a very active field of research in applied electromagnetics and statistical physics. The Random Coupling Model (RCM) provides a framework for predicting the statistics of scattering of radiation in complicated enclosures. RCM makes use of results from random matrix theory (RMT) to model the mode spectrum of irregular cavities. Here, we show how to use the RCM to study the scenario of two (or more) three-dimensional cavities interconnected by apertures. We imagine exciting the first cavity of the so formed chain with a small antenna, and receiving a signal in the last cavity with a similar antenna. Recently, we derived the probability distribution of the power flowing through the cavity chain. A closed form solution of the trans-impedance between the two ports is derived, and its statistics discussed. Variations of cavity losses and aperture geometry are discussed within our statistical framework, for which distribution functions are generated by the Monte Carlo method. In the high-loss limit we are able to identify self- and cavity-cavity interaction terms. The extreme case of an irregular aperture connecting to an irregular cavity is also proposed and investigated. Work supported by AFOSR and ONR

  2. Modeling Enclosure Design in Above-Grade Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Lstiburek, J.; Ueno, K.; Musunuru, S.

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the modeling of typical wall assemblies that have performed well historically in various climate zones. The WUFI (Warme und Feuchte instationar) software (Version 5.3) model was used. A library of input data and results are provided. The provided information can be generalized for application to a broad population of houses, within the limits of existing experience. The WUFI software model was calibrated or tuned using wall assemblies with historically successful performance. The primary performance criteria or failure criteria establishing historic performance was moisture content of the exterior sheathing. The primary tuning parameters (simulation inputs) were airflow and specifying appropriate material properties. Rational hygric loads were established based on experience - specifically rain wetting and interior moisture (RH levels). The tuning parameters were limited or bounded by published data or experience. The WUFI templates provided with this report supply useful information resources to new or less-experienced users. The files present various custom settings that will help avoid results that will require overly conservative enclosure assemblies. Overall, better material data, consistent initial assumptions, and consistent inputs among practitioners will improve the quality of WUFI modeling, and improve the level of sophistication in the field.

  3. Drag of Several Gunner's Enclosures at High Speeds, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, John; Moberg, Richard J.

    1941-01-01

    The drag of several types of gunner's turrets, windshields, blisters, and other protuberances, including projecting guns, was investigated at speeds from 75 to 440 miles per hour in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel. The various gunner's enclosures were represented by 1/10 and 1/7 full-size models on a midwing-fuselage combination representative of bomber types. Most of the usual types of retractable turrets are very poor aerodynamically; they caused wind drag increments, dependent upon the size of the turret relative to the fuselage and upon the speed, up to twice the drag of the fuselage alone. A large streamline blister sufficient to enclose completely one type of rotating cylindrical turret caused a drag increment of approximately one-half that of the turret and at the same time provided space adequate for two gunners rather than for one gunner. A large portion of the drag increments for some types of turret appeared to be due to adverse effects on the fuselage flow caused by the turret rather than by the direct drag of the turret.

  4. Effect of enclosure shape on natural convection velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, S. J.; Nicholson, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical analysis was performed to compare natural convection velocities in two dimensional enclosures of various shape. The following shapes were investigated: circle, square, horizontal and upright 2 x 1 aspect ratio rectangles, horizontal and upright half circles, diamond. In all cases, the length scale in the various dimensionless parameters, such as Rayleigh number, is defined as the diameter of the equal area circle. Natural convection velocities were calculated for Rayleigh numbers of 1000 and 5000 with the temperature difference taken to be across (1) the maximum horizontal dimension, (2) the median horizontal line (line through centroid) and (3) the horizontal distance such that the temperature gradient is the same for shapes of equal area. For the class of shapes including the square, upright half circle and upright rectangle, the computed velocities were found to agree very closely with that of the equal area circle when the temperature difference is taken to be across the maximum horizontal dimension (condition (a)). The velocities for the horizontal rectangle and half circle were found to be approximately one half that of the equal area circle for the same condition. Better overall agreement among all shapes was obtained by setting the temperature difference across a distance such that the temperature gradients were equal for shapes of equal area.

  5. Disorder in Milk Proteins: α-Lactalbumin. Part B. A Multifunctional Whey Protein Acting as an Oligomeric Molten Globular "Oil Container" in the Anti-Tumorigenic Drugs, Liprotides.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N; Permyakov, Serge E; Breydo, Leonid; Redwan, Elrashdy M; Almehdar, Hussein A; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2016-07-15

    This is a second part of the three-part article from a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. We continue to describe α-lactalbumin, a small globular Ca2+-binding protein, which besides being one of the two components of lactose synthase that catalyzes the final step of the lactose biosynthesis in the lactating mammary gland, possesses a multitude of other functions. In fact, recent studies indicated that some partially folded forms of this protein possess noticeable bactericidal activity and other forms might be related to induction of the apoptosis of tumor cells. In its anti-tumorigenic function, oligomeric α-lactalbumin serves as a founding member of a new family of anticancer drugs termed liprotides (for lipids and partially denatured proteins), where an oligomeric molten globular protein acts as an "oil container" or cargo for the delivery of oleic acid to the cell membranes.

  6. Response to Question Regarding the Use of the Growth Allowance Contained in Part D SIPs Under the CAA for Areas Included in the Post 1987 SIP Call

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Natural convection in a differentially heated square enclosure with a solid polygon.

    PubMed

    Roslan, R; Saleh, H; Hashim, I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present numerical study is to analyze the conjugate natural convection heat transfer in a differentially heated square enclosure containing a conductive polygon object. The left wall is heated and the right wall is cooled, while the horizontal walls are kept adiabatic. The COMSOL Multiphysics software is applied to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The governing parameters considered are the polygon type, 3 ≤ N ≤ ∞, the horizontal position, 0.25 ≤ X 0 ≤ 0.75, the polygon size, 0 ≤ A ≤ π/16, the thermal conductivity ratio, 0.1 ≤ K r ≤ 10.0, and the Rayleigh number, 10(3) ≤ Ra ≤ 10(6). The critical size of the solid polygon was found exists at low conductivities. The heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the size of the solid polygon, until it reaches its maximum value. Here, the size of the solid polygon is reaches its critical value. Further, beyond this critical size of the solid polygon, will decrease the heat transfer rate.

  8. Exchange factor method: An alternative basis for zonal analysis of radiating enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, M.E.; Howell, J.R.

    1985-11-01

    In zonal analysis of an enclosure containing a radiatively participating medium, the volume and bounding surface are divided into volume and area elements which are assumed to be isothermal. For a system of M elements consisting of N surfaces and GAMMA volume elements (M = N+GAMMA), M/sup 2/ relationships (direct- or total-exchange areas of conventional zonal analysis) define all possible radiant interchange between element pairs. Due to reciprocity there are at most M(M+1)/2 unique direct-exchange areas. The use of symmetry may greatly reduce the number of unique exchange areas. In the alternative form presented, exchange factors are defined such that a gray medium's gas-to-gas exchange factors describe only the redistribution of radiative source terms. Only surface-to-surface and surface-to-gas (gas-to-surface) relationships are required to wholly define the system in radiative equilibrium. That is, a system in radiative equilibrium may be characterized by as many as GAMMA(GAMMA+1)/2 fewer factors. These same exchange factors may be augmented by gas-to-gas exchange factors to analyze media not in radiative equilibrium. In an isotropically scattering, gray medium, exchange factors are functions of system geometry and total extinction only. The degree of extinction due to scattering does not affect exchange factor. Transformations between direct-exchange areas and exchange factors are developed.

  9. Natural convection heat transfer for a staggered array of heated, horizontal cylinders within a rectangular enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Triplett, C.E.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in a staggered array of heated cylinders, oriented horizontally within a rectangular enclosure. The main purpose of this research was to extend the knowledge of heat transfer within enclosed bundles of spent nuclear fuel rods sealed within a shipping or storage container. This research extends Canaan`s investigation of an aligned array of heated cylinders that thermally simulated a boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assembly sealed within a shipping or storage cask. The results are presented in terms of piecewise Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations of the form Nu = C(Ra){sup n}, where C and n are constants. Correlations are presented both for individual rods within the array and for the array as a whole. The correlations are based only on the convective component of the heat transfer. The radiative component was calculated with a finite-element code that used measured surface temperatures, rod array geometry, and measured surface emissivities as inputs. The correlation results are compared to Canaan`s aligned array results and to other studies of natural convection in horizontal tube arrays.

  10. Size does not matter, but features do: Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) weigh features more heavily than geometry in large and small enclosures.

    PubMed

    Lambinet, Veronika; Wilzeck, Christiane; Kelly, Debbie M

    2014-02-01

    Two groups of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) were trained to locate a hidden goal which was consistently located at one corner of a fully enclosed rectangular environment with distinctive cues available at each corner. One group was trained in a small enclosure, whereas the second group was trained in a large enclosure. Once the birds were showing accurate search behavior, they were presented with non-reinforced tests in either the same sized environment as training or the novel sized environment, as well as in a square-shaped environment. The birds were able to accurately search at the two geometrically correct corners when the four distinctive features were removed showing that they had encoded geometry. Although accuracy was greater when tested in the same sized environment as during training, accuracy was above chance in both environments. Regardless of the size of training enclosure both groups showed primary control by features along with secondary control by geometry. Furthermore, when the features and geometric cues provided conflicting information as to the goal location, both groups weighed featural cues over geometry, and this was independent of whether the size of the testing environment was maintained or manipulated. These results show that for Clark's nutcrackers the size of the environment had little effect on the weighing of featural and geometric cues. Furthermore, although nutcrackers encoded both features and geometry, when spatial cues provided discrepant information as to the goal location, nutcrackers relied primarily on features. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013.

  11. LOFT. Containment and service building (TAN650). Section through east/west axis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT. Containment and service building (TAN-650). Section through east/west axis of building as viewed from the north. Shows steel ladder to top of dome, gable roof of borated water tank enclosure, pumice block siding of pre-amp tower, metal siding of duct enclosure. Kaiser engineers 6413-11-STEP/LOFT-650-A-6. Date: October 1964. INEEL index code no. 036-650-00-486-122218 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Radiative Heat Transfer in Finite Cylindrical Enclosures with Nonhomogeneous Participating Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Pei-Feng; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a numerical solution for radiative heat transfer in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous participating media are presented. The geometry of interest is a finite axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure. The integral formulation for radiative transport is solved by the YIX method. A three-dimensional solution scheme is applied to two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry to simplify kernel calculations and to avoid difficulties associated with treating boundary conditions. As part of the effort to improve modeling capabilities for turbulent jet diffusion flames, predicted distributions for flame temperature and soot volume fraction are used to calculate radiative heat transfer from soot particles in such flames. It is shown that the nonhomogeneity of radiative property has very significant effects. The peak value of the divergence of radiative heat flux could be underestimated by 2 factor of 7 if a mean homogeneous radiative property is used. Since recent studies have shown that scattering by soot agglomerates is significant in flames, the effect of magnitude of scattering is also investigated and found to be nonnegligible.

  13. The use of an active controlled enclosure to attenuate sound radiation from a heavy radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Yang, Tiejun; Zhu, Minggang; Pan, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Active structural acoustical control usually experiences difficulty in the control of heavy sources or sources where direct applications of control forces are not practical. To overcome this difficulty, an active controlled enclosure, which forms a cavity with both flexible and open boundary, is employed. This configuration permits indirect implementation of active control in which the control inputs can be applied to subsidiary structures other than the sources. To determine the control effectiveness of the configuration, the vibro-acoustic behavior of the system, which consists of a top plate with an open, a sound cavity and a source panel, is investigated in this paper. A complete mathematical model of the system is formulated involving modified Fourier series formulations and the governing equations are solved using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The coupling mechanisms of a partly opened cavity and a plate are analysed in terms of modal responses and directivity patterns. Furthermore, to attenuate sound power radiated from both the top panel and the open, two strategies are studied: minimizing the total radiated power and the cancellation of volume velocity. Moreover, three control configurations are compared, using a point force on the control panel (structural control), using a sound source in the cavity (acoustical control) and applying hybrid structural-acoustical control. In addition, the effects of boundary condition of the control panel on the sound radiation and control performance are discussed.

  14. Fate and effects of 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) in marine plankton communities in experimental enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, J.; Hanstveit, A.O.

    1984-02-01

    The fate and effects of single doses of 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) on North Sea coastal plankton communities enclosed by large plastic bags (contents 1.5 m3) were studied in two experiments lasting 5 and 6 weeks, respectively. The biodegradation of DCA was also studied in laboratory experiments, which were carried out simultaneously, using water from the enclosed model ecosystems. DCA was not degraded in the laboratory tests and probably also not degraded in the enclosed plankton communities, although concentrations in the water decreased during the experiments. This decrease appeared to be partly caused by diffusion of DCA through the walls of the enclosures. After the addition of single doses of 2, 10, and 25 microgram liter-1 DCA no effects on the enclosed plankton community could be detected. The addition of 0.1 mg liter-1 DCA had a clear influence on the species composition and the biomass development of the phytoplankton, changed the relative species composition of the zooplankton, and resulted in lower numbers of bacteria. In addition to these effects 1 mg liter-1 DCA limited the phytoplankton growth and resulted in mortality and inhibition of growth of the copepods.

  15. A Cask Processing Enclosure for the TRU Waste Processing Center - 13408

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, John T.; Mendez, Nicholas

    2013-07-01

    This paper will discuss the key elements considered in the design, construction, and use of an enclosure system built for the TRU Waste Processing Center (TWPC). The TWPC system is used for the repackaging and volume reduction of items contaminated with radioactive material, hazardous waste and mixed waste. The modular structural steel frame and stainless steel skin was designed for rapid field erection by the use of interchangeable self-framing panel sections to allow assembly of a sectioned containment building and for ease of field mobility. The structure was installed on a concrete floor inside of an outer containment building. The major sections included an Outer Cask Airlock, Inner Cask Airlock, Cask Process Area, and Personnel Airlocks. Casks in overpacks containing transuranic waste are brought in via an inter-site transporter. The overpack lid is removed and the cask/overpack is transferred into the Outer Cask Airlock. A contamination cover is installed on the overpack body and the Outer Cask Airlock is closed. The cask/overpack is transferred into the Inner Cask Airlock on a cask bogie and the Inner Cask Airlock is closed. The cask lid is removed and the cask is transferred into the Cask Process Area where it is placed on a cask tilting station. Once the Cask Processing Area is closed, the cask tilt station is activated and wastes are removed, size reduced, then sorted and re-packaged into drums and standard waste boxes through bag ports. The modular system was designed and built as a 'Fast Track' project at IP Systems in Broomfield Colorado and then installed and is currently in use at the DOE TWPC located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (authors)

  16. The influence of enclosure design on diurnal activity and stereotypic behaviour in captive Malayan Sun bears (Helarctos malayanus).

    PubMed

    Tan, H M; Ong, S M; Langat, G; Bahaman, A R; Sharma, R S K; Sumita, S

    2013-04-01

    The effect of enclosure design on diurnal activity and stereotypic behaviour was assessed in 17 adult Malayan Sun bears (Helarctos malayanus), kept either in barren indoor enclosures or relatively enriched outdoor enclosures. Locomotion was the most frequent activity observed in the indoor bears, followed by resting. In contrast, conspecifics housed outdoors spent most of the time resting. Eleven forms of stereotypic behaviours were recorded in the bears, with pacing being the most common. The frequency and repertoire of stereotypies were significantly higher in the indoor bears irrespective of enclosure size. Novel forms of locomotor (forward-reverse pacing) and oral (allo-sucking) stereotypies were recorded. Oral stereotypies were predominant in the bears housed indoors, while patrolling was confined to the outdoor bears. Enclosure complexity significantly influences activity budget and occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, highlighting the importance of appropriate enclosure design and enrichment for the welfare of captive bears.

  17. Ultra low wind resistance enclosure for a 100-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    We discuss a transmission primary objective grating (POG) telescope that is nearly flat to the ground with its secondary components buried below ground in a protected environment that enjoys a controlled atmosphere. Temperature gradients can be held steady by sealing this enclosure. End-to-end ray paths need not be interrupted by spiders or other structural support elements. Unlike mirror and lens telescopes, this layout is intrinsically off-axis. Light diffracted from a POG at a grazing angle can be collected a few meters below the POG, and the substructures do not require a deep excavation, as would be required for buried on-axis mirrors such as a zenith tube. The POG principle can take advantage of the rotation of the earth to acquire spectra sequentially, so active tilt and rotate axes are not necessary during observations. The POG aperture is extensible as a ribbon optic to kilometer scale at a linear increase in cost, as compared to other choices where infrastructure grows as the cube of the telescope size. The principle of operation was proven in miniature during bench tests that show high resolution spectra can be obtained at angular resolutions equal to seeing. Mathematical models of the underlying relationships show that flux collection increases with increased angles of grazing exodus even as efficiency decreases. Zemax models show a 30° field-of-view and the capacity to take spectra of all sources within that very wide field-of-view. The method lends itself to large apertures, because it is tolerant of POG surface unevenness.

  18. Thermal management of batteries using a Variable-Conductance Insulation (VCI) enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, S.D.; Parish, R.C.; Keyser, M.A.

    1995-05-01

    Proper thermal management is important for optimum performance and durability of most electric-vehicle batteries. For high-temperature cells such as sodium/sulphur, a very efficient and responsive thermal control system is essential. Heat must be removed during exothermic periods and retained when the batteries are not in use. Current thermal management approaches rely on passive insulation enclosures with active cooling loops that penetrate the enclosure. This paper presents the design, analysis, and testing of an enclosure with variable conductance insulation (VCI). VCI uses a hydride with an integral electric resistance heater to expel and retrieve a small amount of hydrogen gas into a vacuum space. By controlling the amount of hydrogen gas, the thermal conductance can be varied by more than 100:1, enabling the cooling loop (cold plate) to be mounted on the enclosure exterior. By not penetrating the battery enclosure, the cooling system is simpler and more reliable. Also, heat can be retained more effectively when desired. For high temperatures, radiation shields within the vacuum space are required. Ceramic spacers are used to maintain separation of the steel enclosure materials against atmospheric loading. Ceramic-to-ceramic thermal contact resistance within the spacer assembly minimizes thermal conductance. Two full-scale (0.8-m {times} 0.9-m {times} 0.3-m) prototypes were designed, built, and tested under high-temperature 200{degrees}-350{degrees}C battery conditions. With an internal temperature of 330{degrees}C (and 20{degrees}C ambient), the measured total-enclosure minimum heat loss was 80 watts (excluding wire pass-through losses). The maximum heat rejection was 4100 watts. The insulation can be switched from minimum to maximum conductance (hydrogen pressure from 2.0 {times} 10{sup -3} to 8 torr) in 3 minutes. Switching from maximum to minimum conductance was longer (16 minutes), but still satisfactory because of the large thermal mass of the battery.

  19. 46 CFR 111.01-11 - Corrosion-resistant parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Corrosion-resistant parts. 111.01-11 Section 111.01-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-11 Corrosion-resistant parts. Each enclosure and part of...

  20. 46 CFR 111.01-11 - Corrosion-resistant parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Corrosion-resistant parts. 111.01-11 Section 111.01-11...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-11 Corrosion-resistant parts. Each enclosure and part of electric equipment that can be damaged by corrosion must be made of corrosion-resistant materials or of...

  1. 46 CFR 111.01-11 - Corrosion-resistant parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Corrosion-resistant parts. 111.01-11 Section 111.01-11...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-11 Corrosion-resistant parts. Each enclosure and part of electric equipment that can be damaged by corrosion must be made of corrosion-resistant materials or of...

  2. 46 CFR 111.01-11 - Corrosion-resistant parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion-resistant parts. 111.01-11 Section 111.01-11...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-11 Corrosion-resistant parts. Each enclosure and part of electric equipment that can be damaged by corrosion must be made of corrosion-resistant materials or of...

  3. 46 CFR 111.01-11 - Corrosion-resistant parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corrosion-resistant parts. 111.01-11 Section 111.01-11...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-11 Corrosion-resistant parts. Each enclosure and part of electric equipment that can be damaged by corrosion must be made of corrosion-resistant materials or of...

  4. Increased soil nutrition and decreased light intensity drive species loss after eight years grassland enclosures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingpeng; Zheng, Zhirong; Xie, Hongtao; Zhao, Nianxi; Gao, Yubao

    2017-01-01

    Enclosures (fenced, grazing or clipping) within a certain period of years are the most common tools for restoration of degraded grasslands in temperate regions. Short-term enclosures can improve biodiversity and productivity by effectively relieving grazing pressure, while long-term enclosures can reduce species diversity. We therefore carried out a field experiment to investigate the specific causes of the reduced species diversity in Hulunbeier grassland of northern China. After eight years of enclosure, the significantly increased soil available nitrogen (AN) and available phosphorus (AvP) in enclosure community reduced nitrogen (N) limitation but most vegetation was still N limited. Many environmental factors led to decreased species richness, but increased soil AN and decreased light intensity at the community bottom were the most significant ones. Community density decreased independently of soil nutrition but significantly related to decreased species richness. Density of dominant canopy species increased, while dominant understory species decreased during assemblage-level thinning; therefore, the random-loss hypothesis was not supported. The dominant understory species responded to lower light availability by increasing their height, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. Moreover, our results were expected to provide some specific guidance for the restoration mode selection of degraded grasslands in northern China. PMID:28344355

  5. Numerical studies of convective heat transfer in an inclined semi-annular enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L.-W.; Chai, A.-T.; Yung, C.-N.; Rashidnia, N.

    1989-01-01

    Natural convection heat transfer in a two-dimensional differentially heated semiannular enclosure is studied. The enclosure is isothermally heated and cooled at the inner and outer walls, respectively. A commercial software based on the SIMPLER algorithm was used to simulate the velocity and temperature profiles. Various parameters that affect the momentum and heat transfer processes were examined. These parameters include the Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, radius ratio, and the angle of inclination. A flow regime extending from conduction-dominated to convection-dominated flow was examined. The computed results of heat transfer are presented as a function of flow parameter and geometric factors. It is found that the heat transfer rate attains a minimum when the enclosure is tilted about +50 deg with respect to the gravitational direction.

  6. Numerical studies of convective heat transfer in an inclined semiannular enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lin-Wen; Yung, Chain-Nan; Chai, An-Ti; Rashidnia, Nasser

    1989-01-01

    Natural convection heat transfer in a two-dimensional differentially heated semiannular enclosure is studied. The enclosure is isothermally heated and cooled at the inner and outer walls, respectively. A commercial software based on the SIMPLER algorithm was used to simulate the velocity and temperature profiles. Various parameters that affect the momentum and heat transfer processes were examined. These parameters include the Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, radius ratio, and the angle of inclination. A flow regime extending from conduction-dominated to convection-dominated flow was examined. The computed results of heat transfer are presented as a function of flow parameter and geometric factors. It is found that the heat transfer rate attains a minimum when the enclosure is tilted about +50 deg with respect to the gravitational direction.

  7. Effect of internal resistance of a Helmholtz resonator on acoustic energy reduction in enclosures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ganghua; Li, Deyu; Cheng, Li

    2008-12-01

    The effect of internal resistance of a Helmholtz resonator on acoustic energy reduction in an enclosure and the multimodal coupling-based Helmholtz resonator design are investigated. Using the analytical solution of a resonator-enclosure interaction model, an energy reduction index is defined in a frequency band to optimize the resonator resistance. The dual process of energy dissipation and radiation of the resonator is quantified. Optimal resistance of the resonator and its physical effect on the resonator-enclosure interaction are numerically evaluated and categorized in terms of frequency bandwidths. Predictions on the resonator performance are confirmed by experiments. Comparisons with existing models based on different optimization criteria are also performed. It is shown that the proposed model serves as an effective design tool to determine the internal resistance of the resonator in order to achieve sound reduction in the frequency band enclosing acoustic resonances.

  8. 32 CFR Enclosure to Part 100 - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... individuals who mailed orders), being duly sworn, deposes and says: I am the _____ (Job Title, e.g., Personnel... Form 3800) attesting to such action is attached. _____ (Signature and Rank of Affiant) Sworn...

  9. 32 CFR Enclosure to Part 100 - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... individuals who mailed orders), being duly sworn, deposes and says: I am the _____ (Job Title, e.g., Personnel... Form 3800) attesting to such action is attached. _____ (Signature and Rank of Affiant) Sworn...

  10. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 107 - Table of Authorized Compensation Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., including nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives, but excluding paraprofessionals 0-5 Over 20 but less than 22. III. All registered nurses, except those who are included in Group II...

  11. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 107 - Table of Authorized Compensation Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives, but excluding paraprofessionals 0-5 Over 20 but less than 22. III. All registered nurses, except those who are included in Group II...

  12. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 107 - Table of Authorized Compensation Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives, but excluding paraprofessionals 0-5 Over 20 but less than 22. III. All registered nurses, except those who are included in Group II...

  13. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 107 - Table of Authorized Compensation Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., including nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives, but excluding paraprofessionals 0-5 Over 20 but less than 22. III. All registered nurses, except those who are included in Group II...

  14. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 107 - Table of Authorized Compensation Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., including nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives, but excluding paraprofessionals 0-5 Over 20 but less than 22. III. All registered nurses, except those who are included in Group II...

  15. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 187 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Global Commons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environment of the global commons, an environmental impact statement, as described below, will be prepared to... duplication. If an environmental impact statement for a particular action already exists, regardless of what... implementation, or subject matter. 6. Tiering. Consideration should be given to tiering of environmental...

  16. Fate of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin in ditch enclosures differing in vegetation density.

    PubMed

    Leistra, Minze; Zweers, Anton J; Warinton, Jacqui S; Crum, Steven J H; Hand, Laurence H; Beltman, Wim H J; Maund, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    Use of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin in agriculture may result in the contamination of water bodies, for example by spray drift. Therefore, the possible exposure of aquatic organisms to this insecticide needs to be evaluated. The exposure of the organisms may be reduced by the strong sorption of the insecticide to organic materials and its susceptibility to hydrolysis at the high pH values in the natural range. In experiments done in May and August, formulated lambda-cyhalothrin was mixed with the water body of enclosures in experimental ditches containing a bottom layer and macrophytes (at different densities) or phytoplankton. Concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water body and in the sediment layer, and contents in the plant compartment, were measured by gas-liquid chromatography at various times up to 1 week after application. Various water quality parameters were also measured. Concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin decreased rapidly in the water column: 1 day after application, 24-40% of the dose remained in the water, and by 3 days it had declined to 1.8-6.5%. At the highest plant density, lambda-cyhalothrin residue in the plant compartment reached a maximum of 50% of the dose after 1 day; at intermediate and low plant densities, this maximum was only 3-11% of the dose (after 1-2 days). The percentage of the insecticide in the ditch sediment was 12% or less of the dose and tended to be lower at higher plant densities. Alkaline hydrolysis in the water near the surface of macrophytes and phytoplankton is considered to be the main dissipation process for lambda-cyhalothrin.

  17. Performance of particulate containment at nanotechnology workplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Li-Ming; Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These control assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37 % reduction on the particle concentration in the worker's breathing zone, and produce a 42 % lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15-20 % higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker's breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored.

  18. Performance of Particulate Containment at Nanotechnology Workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Li-Ming; Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These controls assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37% reduction on the particle concentration in the worker’s breathing zone, and produce a 42% lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15%–20% higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker’s breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored. PMID:26705393

  19. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt circuit. 75.701-2 Section 75... grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt circuit. In instances where single-phase 110-220-volt circuits are used to feed electrical equipment,...

  20. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt circuit. 75.701-2 Section 75... grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt circuit. In instances where single-phase 110-220-volt circuits are used to feed electrical equipment,...

  1. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt circuit. 75.701-2 Section 75... grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt circuit. In instances where single-phase 110-220-volt circuits are used to feed electrical equipment,...

  2. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt circuit. 75.701-2 Section 75... grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt circuit. In instances where single-phase 110-220-volt circuits are used to feed electrical equipment,...

  3. 30 CFR 75.703 - Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components. The frames of all offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures...

  4. 30 CFR 75.703 - Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components. The frames of all offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures...

  5. 30 CFR 75.703 - Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components. The frames of all offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures...

  6. 30 CFR 75.703 - Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components. The frames of all offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures...

  7. 30 CFR 75.703 - Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components. The frames of all offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures...

  8. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  9. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  10. 30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. 77... enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. (a) The following... electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system other than a system with one...

  11. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  12. 30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. 77... enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. (a) The following... electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system other than a system with one...

  13. 30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. 77... enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. (a) The following... electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system other than a system with one...

  14. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  15. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  16. 30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. 77... enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. (a) The following... electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system other than a system with one...

  17. Cooling a solar telescope enclosure: plate coil thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, Michael; Galapon, Chriselle; Montijo, Guillermo; Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka

    2016-08-01

    The climate of Haleakalā requires the observatories to actively adapt to changing conditions in order to produce the best possible images. Observatories need to be maintained at a temperature closely matching ambient or the images become blurred and unusable. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope is a unique telescope as it will be active during the day as opposed to the other night-time stellar observatories. This means that it will not only need to constantly match the ever-changing temperature during the day, but also during the night so as not to sub-cool and affect the view field of other telescopes while they are in use. To accomplish this task, plate coil heat exchanger panels will be installed on the DKIST enclosure that are designed to keep the temperature at ambient temperature +0°C/-4°C. To verify the feasibility of this and to validate the design models, a test rig has been installed at the summit of Haleakalā. The project's purpose is to confirm that the plate coil panels are capable of maintaining this temperature throughout all seasons and involved collecting data sets of various variables including pressures, temperatures, coolant flows, solar radiations and wind velocities during typical operating hours. Using MATLAB, a script was written to observe the plate coil's thermal performance. The plate coil did not perform as expected, achieving a surface temperature that was generally 2ºC above ambient temperature. This isn't to say that the plate coil does not work, but the small chiller used for the experiment was undersized resulting in coolant pumped through the plate coil that was not supplied at a low enough temperature. Calculated heat depositions were about 23% lower than that used as the basis of the design for the hillers to be used on the full system, a reasonable agreement given the fact that many simplifying assumptions were used in the models. These were not carried over into the testing. The test rig performance showing a 23% margin

  18. Design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, S.; Yoshii, Y.; Doi, M.; Kohno, K.; Miyata, T.; Motohara, K.; Kawara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, H.; Konishi, M.; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Koshida, S.; Kato, Natsuko; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Handa, T.; Bronfman, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Hamuy, M.; Mendez, R.

    2014-07-01

    A basic design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama observatory (TAO) 6.5-m telescope is described in this paper. The enclosure facility has a carousel shape with an open-space near the ground surface. The upper carousel rotates independently of the telescope. Horizontally opened slit doors, a dozen ventilation windows, wind and moon shields, and an overhead bridge-crane are equipped. For safety reasons, most of maintenance walkways are placed inside of the enclosure facility. An observation floor of the enclosure facility is connected to the support facility via a bridge for maintenance of observation instruments and a primary mirror of the telescope. Air inside of the enclosure and support facilities is exhausted to an underground tunnel.

  19. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part Iii: Truncation Effect Without Flow and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    2000-11-01

    The response of simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies is investigated by using improved mode expansions with respect to those assumed in Parts I and II of the present study. Two cases are studied: (1) shells in vacuo; and (2) shells filled with stagnant water. The improved expansions allow checking the accuracy of the solutions previously obtained and giving definitive results within the limits of Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory. The improved mode expansions include: (1) harmonics of the circumferential mode number n under consideration, and (2) only the principal n, but with harmonics of the longitudinal mode included. The effect of additional longitudinal modes is absolutely insignificant in both the driven and companion mode responses. The effect of modes with 2 n circumferential waves is very limited on the trend of non-linearity, but is significant in the response with companion mode participation in the case of lightly damped shells (empty shells). In particular, the travelling wave response appears for much lower vibration amplitudes and presents a frequency range without stable responses, corresponding to a beating phenomenon. A liquid (water) contained in the shell generates a much stronger softening behaviour of the system. Experiments with a water-filled circular cylindrical shell made of steel are in very good agreement with the present theory.

  20. [Advances in the development of new antitubercular agents from orthocondensed heterocyclic compounds. Part 3. Substances containing several types of heteroatoms in the six-membered ring].

    PubMed

    Waisser, K; Bures, O; Holý, P

    2001-11-01

    Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases are considered to be one of the most important problems of contemporary health service. Since 1985 and particularly in the 1990s and at present the search for new structures of antimycobacterial agents have ranked among the foremost areas of chemotherapeutic research. The present review paper is already the 18th communication in a group of review papers about substances with antituberculotic effects, and the third, final, communication devoted in this series about the development of new antimycobacterial agents to ortho-condensed heterocyclic compounds in recent 15 years. The classification of ortho-condensed compounds is based on six-membered heterocyclic substructural fragments and the present study deals with the substructural fragments containing a greater number of different heteroatoms. The literature search is based on the journal Chemical Abstracts, Current Awareness in Biomedicine, part Mycobacteria, and original papers. Current Awareness in Biomedicine is, however, a very imperfect literature search source, recording only a fraction of communications. Review papers about five-membered heterocyclic antituberculotic ortho-condensed compounds was published in the present journal in 1999.

  1. 40 CFR 63.5875 - How do I determine the capture efficiency of the enclosure on my wet-out area and the capture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... efficiency of the enclosure on my wet-out area and the capture efficiency of my oven(s) for continuous... efficiency of the enclosure on my wet-out area and the capture efficiency of my oven(s) for continuous lamination/casting operations? (a) The capture efficiency of a wet-out area enclosure is assumed to be...

  2. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  3. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  4. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  5. ZFS on RBODs - Leveraging RAID Controllers for Metrics and Enclosure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Stearman, D. M.

    2015-03-30

    Traditionally, the Lustre file system has relied on the ldiskfs file system with reliable RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) storage underneath. As of Lustre 2.4, ZFS was added as a backend file system, with built-in software RAID, thereby removing the need of expensive RAID controllers. ZFS was designed to work with JBOD (Just a Bunch Of Disks) storage enclosures under the Solaris Operating System, which provided a rich device management system. Long time users of the Lustre file system have relied on the RAID controllers to provide metrics and enclosure monitoring and management services, with rich APIs and command line interfaces. This paper will study a hybrid approach using an advanced full featured RAID enclosure which is presented to the host as a JBOD, This RBOD (RAIDed Bunch Of Disks) allows ZFS to do the RAID protection and error correction, while the RAID controller handles management of the disks and monitors the enclosure. It was hoped that the value of the RAID controller features would offset the additional cost, and that performance would not suffer in this mode. The test results revealed that the hybrid RBOD approach did suffer reduced performance.

  6. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation or transport in commerce any live rabbit in a primary enclosure that does not conform to the...

  7. Interspecific interactions between brown trout and slimy sculpin in stream enclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruetz, C. R.; Hurford, A.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a 30-d manipulative experiment in Valley Creek, Minnesota, to examine interspecific interactions between juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta and adult slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. We measured the instantaneous growth of each species in the presence and absence of the other in 1-m2 enclosures. We tested single-species (three slimy sculpins/m2 or three brown trout/m2) and combined-species (three sculpins/m2 and three trout/m2) combinations in each of six riffles. We placed a clay tile in each enclosure to evaluate the effects of fish combinations on benthic macroinvertebrates. Growth of brown trout was unaffected by the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.647, power [to detect 50% increase in growth] = 0.92), whereas slimy sculpin growth was less in the presence of brown trout (P = 0.038). Densities of total benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Trichoptera, and Physa did not differ among fish combinations (P > 0.3). However, densities of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus were significantly less in the presence of brown trout irrespective of the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.024), which could be a causal factor underlying the interaction between brown trout and slimy sculpins. We found asymmetrical competition between brown trout and slimy sculpins in stream enclosures, with brown trout being the superior competitor. Nevertheless, the size of enclosures may have biased our results, making it more likely to detect an effect of brown trout on slimy sculpins than vice versa.

  8. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Global Commons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Environmental Considerations... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF MAJOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACTIONS Information requirements. Pt. 187, Encl. 1 Enclosure 1—Requirements for Environmental Considerations—Global Commons A. General....

  9. 30 CFR 18.14 - Identification of tested noncertified explosion-proof enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of tested noncertified explosion-proof enclosures. 18.14 Section 18.14 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... AND ACCESSORIES General Provisions § 18.14 Identification of tested noncertified...

  10. Natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal wavy surface in a porous enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, P.V.S.N.; Kumar, B.V.R.; Singh, P.

    1997-02-07

    The effect of surface undulations on the natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal surface in a Darcian fluid-saturated porous enclosure has been numerically analyzed using the finite element method on a graded nonuniform mesh system. The flow-driving Rayleigh number Ra together with the geometrical parameters of wave amplitude a, wave phase {phi}, and the number of waves N considered in the horizontal dimension of the cavity are found to influence the flow and heat transfer process in the enclosure. For Ra around 50 and above, the phenomenon of flow separation and reattachment is noticed on the walls of the enclosure. A periodic shift in the reattachment point from the bottom wall to the adjacent walls in the clockwise direction, leading to the manifestation of cycles of unicellular and bicellular clockwise and counterclockwise flows, is observed, with the phase varying between 0{degree} and 350{degree}. The counterflow in the secondary circulation zone is intensified with the increase in the value of Ra. The counterflow on the wavy wall hinders the heat transfer into the system. An increase in either wave amplitude or the number of waves considered per unit length decreases the global heat flux into the system. Only marginal changes in global heat flux are noticed with increasing Ra. On the whole, the comparison of global heat flux results in the wavy wall case with those of the horizontal flat wall case shows that, in a porous enclosure, the wavy wall reduces the heat transfer into the system.

  11. An Educational Laboratory Experiment to Demonstrate the Development of Fires in a Long Enclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moinuddin, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at describing an experiment involving flame-front movement across the fuel package located within long enclosures and associated heat transfer mechanism. There is a growing interest in incorporating safety education in the chemical engineering curriculum, especially in relation to "facility siting." This experiment is…

  12. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to transport live animals. 3.137 Section 3.137 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling,...

  13. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... the animals, their handlers, or other persons. (d) Marine mammals transported in the same primary... used. Within the primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals, the animals will be maintained...

  14. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to transport live animals. 3.137 Section 3.137 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling,...

  15. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to transport live animals. 3.137 Section 3.137 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling,...

  16. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to transport live animals. 3.137 Section 3.137 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling,...

  17. GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the GAM{underscore}HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guilliotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.

  18. GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the GAM[underscore]HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guilliotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.

  19. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to transport live animals. 3.137 Section 3.137 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling,...

  20. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling,...

  1. 75 FR 11937 - Elite Enclosure Co., LLC, Fort Laramie, OH; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Elite Enclosure Co., LLC, Fort Laramie, OH; Notice of Termination of... response to a petition filed on November 12, 2009 by a Company Official on behalf of workers of...

  2. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  3. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  4. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  5. PERSISTENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF AZINPHOS-METHYL FOLLOWING APPLICATION TO LITTORAL ENCLOSURE MESOCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organophosphorus insecticide azinphos-methyl was applied once to the surface of 12 of 18 littoral enclosure mesocosms (5 x 10m) constructed in a 2-ha pond near Duluth, Minnesota. Water, sediment, macrophytes, and adult fathead minnows were analyzed for residue to determine th...

  6. Numerical study of natural convection within a wavy enclosure using meshfree approach: effect of corner heating.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sonam; Bhargava, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of natural convection within a wavy enclosure heated via corner heating. The considered enclosure is a square enclosure with left wavy side wall. The vertical wavy wall of the enclosure and both of the corner heaters are maintained at constant temperature, T c and T h , respectively, with T h > T c while the remaining horizontal, bottom, top and side walls are insulated. A penalty element-free Galerkin approach with reduced gauss integration scheme for penalty terms is used to solve momentum and energy equations over the complex domain with wide range of parameters, namely, Rayleigh number (Ra), Prandtl number (Pr), and range of heaters in the x- and y-direction. Numerical results are represented in terms of isotherms, streamlines, and Nusselt number. It is observed that the rate of heat transfer depends to a great extent on the Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, length of the corner heaters and the shape of the heat transfer surface. The consistent performance of the adopted numerical procedure is verified by comparison of the results obtained through the present meshless technique with those existing in the literature.

  7. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale...

  8. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale...

  9. 9 CFR 3.113 - Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marine mammals. 3.113 Section 3.113 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale...

  10. Enclosure fire hazard analysis using relative energy release criteria. [burning rate and combustion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbert, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    A method for predicting the probable course of fire development in an enclosure is presented. This fire modeling approach uses a graphic plot of five fire development constraints, the relative energy release criteria (RERC), to bound the heat release rates in an enclosure as a function of time. The five RERC are flame spread rate, fuel surface area, ventilation, enclosure volume, and total fuel load. They may be calculated versus time based on the specified or empirical conditions describing the specific enclosure, the fuel type and load, and the ventilation. The calculation of these five criteria, using the common basis of energy release rates versus time, provides a unifying framework for the utilization of available experimental data from all phases of fire development. The plot of these criteria reveals the probable fire development envelope and indicates which fire constraint will be controlling during a criteria time period. Examples of RERC application to fire characterization and control and to hazard analysis are presented along with recommendations for the further development of the concept.

  11. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  12. Numerical Study of Natural Convection within a Wavy Enclosure Using Meshfree Approach: Effect of Corner Heating

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonam; Bhargava, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of natural convection within a wavy enclosure heated via corner heating. The considered enclosure is a square enclosure with left wavy side wall. The vertical wavy wall of the enclosure and both of the corner heaters are maintained at constant temperature, Tc and Th, respectively, with Th > Tc while the remaining horizontal, bottom, top and side walls are insulated. A penalty element-free Galerkin approach with reduced gauss integration scheme for penalty terms is used to solve momentum and energy equations over the complex domain with wide range of parameters, namely, Rayleigh number (Ra), Prandtl number (Pr), and range of heaters in the x- and y-direction. Numerical results are represented in terms of isotherms, streamlines, and Nusselt number. It is observed that the rate of heat transfer depends to a great extent on the Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, length of the corner heaters and the shape of the heat transfer surface. The consistent performance of the adopted numerical procedure is verified by comparison of the results obtained through the present meshless technique with those existing in the literature. PMID:24672383

  13. Design and upgrades for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey telescope's roll-off enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, R. French; Long, Dan; Klaene, Mark A.

    2003-02-01

    The SDSS telescope is housed, when not in use, in a roll-off enclosure. This enclosure rolls away from the telescope a distance of 60 feet, leaving the telescope fully exposed for operations. Design considerations for wind and solar loading, thermal venting, conditioning and stability are reviewed. Originally, the enclosure had been constructed to minimize its surface area obstruction to the telescopes field of view. This design feature, however, offered little room to perform engineering tasks during non-operational time. An upgrade to the structure, in the form of raising the roof, was instituted. This improvement greatly enhanced the engineering and testing functions performed on the telescope, thereby increasing operational efficiency and the time allotted to engineering tasks. Problems maintaining and associated with weather sealing, lightning protection, truck wheel alignment, altitude effects on truck controllers and thermal conditioning are examined. Communication and electrical connections between stationary and moving elements of the enclosure are described. Two types of systems, to date, have been used one a reel and the other a slider system. Advantages and disadvantages of both are examined from the perspective of four years experience.

  14. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment... accepted standards of care, when greater freedom of movement would be dangerous to the animal, its handler... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to...

  15. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care,...

  16. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  17. Effects of repeated exposure to 4-nonylphenol on the zooplankton community in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    O`Halloran, S.L.; Liber, K.; Gangl, J.A.; Knuth, M.L.

    1999-03-01

    The effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP) on freshwater zooplankton were evaluated in 18 littoral enclosure mesocosms in northeastern Minnesota. The 18 enclosures were allocated to three blocks of six units with each block including two untreated control enclosures and one enclosure for each of four NP treatments. Treated enclosures received 11 applications of NP over a 20-d period between July 8 and 28, 1993. Maximum NP concentrations measured in the water column 2 h after each application averaged ({+-} SD) 5 {+-} 4, 23 {+-} 11, 76 {+-} 21, and 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L over the 11 applications. Nonylphenol dissipated rapidly from the water column but was more persistent in sediments and in/on macrophytes. All cladoceran and copepod taxa were significantly reduced in abundance at 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L; some sensitive taxa were also affected by 76 {+-} 21 and 23 {+-} 11 {micro}g/L. While many rotifer taxa were unaffected at any of the test concentrations, several were affected at {ge} 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L. Ostracods were only affected at 2,243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L. No zooplankton taxon was affected at 5 {+-} 4 {micro}g/L. The period of maximum impact usually occurred within 1 to 7 d of the last NP application, and recovery to control abundance levels generally occurred within 7 to 28 d of the last NP application. Two sensitive taxa, Acroperus and Calanoida, did not recover at {ge} 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L by the end of the study. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration for protection of all zooplankton taxa was estimated at {approximately} 10 {micro}g/L, although overall community diversity was unaffected at 23 {+-} 11. The water was the most probable route of NP exposure, but the greater persistence of NP residues in/on macrophytes may have contributed to the lack of recovery of some macrophyte-associated taxa.

  18. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures.

    PubMed

    Gress, J; da Silva, E B; de Oliveira, L M; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G; Heard, D; Stuchal, L D; Ma, L Q

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0-110mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6-111μg/100cm(2), typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22-7.8μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals.

  19. 46 CFR 169.677 - Equipment protection and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on... cabinet, panel, or box containing more than one source of potential in excess of 50 volts must be fitted... remove all the potentials in excess of 50 volts. (d) Each distribution panelboard must be enclosed....

  20. 46 CFR 169.677 - Equipment protection and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on... cabinet, panel, or box containing more than one source of potential in excess of 50 volts must be fitted... remove all the potentials in excess of 50 volts. (d) Each distribution panelboard must be enclosed....

  1. 46 CFR 169.677 - Equipment protection and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on... cabinet, panel, or box containing more than one source of potential in excess of 50 volts must be fitted... remove all the potentials in excess of 50 volts. (d) Each distribution panelboard must be enclosed....

  2. 46 CFR 169.677 - Equipment protection and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on... cabinet, panel, or box containing more than one source of potential in excess of 50 volts must be fitted... remove all the potentials in excess of 50 volts. (d) Each distribution panelboard must be enclosed....

  3. 46 CFR 169.677 - Equipment protection and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of 50 Volts Or More on... cabinet, panel, or box containing more than one source of potential in excess of 50 volts must be fitted... remove all the potentials in excess of 50 volts. (d) Each distribution panelboard must be enclosed....

  4. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  5. A Bayesian Approach to the Orientations of Central Alentejo Megalithic Enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenta, Fernando; Tirapicos, Luís; Smith, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    In this work we have conducted a study on the orientations in the landscape of twelve megalithic enclosures in the Alentejo region of southern Portugal. Some of these sites date back to the sixth or fifth millennium B.C. and are among the oldest stone enclosures in Europe. The results of the survey show a pattern toward eastern rising orientations. We used dedicated GIS software from one of the authors to produce horizon profiles and applied a statistical Bayesian approach in an attempt to check how the data would fit to different models. In particular, we tested our results for a possible ritual interest in the Autumn or Harvest Full Moon and discuss previous studies by Michael Hoskin and colleges on the orientations of seven stone dolmens of this area that have shown the existence of a possible custom for an orientation toward the sunrise.

  6. Canonical Statistical Model for Maximum Expected Immission of Wire Conductor in an Aperture Enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremner, Paul G.; Vazquez, Gabriel; Christiano, Daniel J.; Trout, Dawn H.

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of the maximum expected electromagnetic pick-up of conductors inside a realistic shielding enclosure is an important canonical problem for system-level EMC design of space craft, launch vehicles, aircraft and automobiles. This paper introduces a simple statistical power balance model for prediction of the maximum expected current in a wire conductor inside an aperture enclosure. It calculates both the statistical mean and variance of the immission from the physical design parameters of the problem. Familiar probability density functions can then be used to predict the maximum expected immission for deign purposes. The statistical power balance model requires minimal EMC design information and solves orders of magnitude faster than existing numerical models, making it ultimately viable for scaled-up, full system-level modeling. Both experimental test results and full wave simulation results are used to validate the foundational model.

  7. Radiative and free-convective heat transfer from a finite horizontal plate inside an enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrycak, Peter; Sandman, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation of heat transfer from a horizontal, thin, square plate inside of an enclosure was carried out. Experimental results were obtained from both the upward-facing and the downward-facing sides of the heated plate. Starting with the integrated momentum and energy equations, approximate solutions were obtained for heat transfer in the laminar and the turbulent regime that correlate well with experimental data. Radiative heat transfer correction was given special attention. Effects of the enclosure-related recirculation of the test fluid, as well as effects of simultaneous heat transfer on both sides of the plate, caused an early transition, and indicated a high level of internal turbulence.

  8. Influence of a strong magnetic field on paramagnetic fluid's flow in cubical enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraszewska, A.; Pyrda, L.; Donizak, J.

    2016-10-01

    The fluid behaviour in thermo-magnetic convection of paramagnetic fluid in a strong magnetic field was studied. The fluid was 50% volume aqueous solution of glycerol with an addition of gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate (Gd(NO3)3-6H2O). Experimental enclosure - a vessel with aspect ratio (AR=height/width) equal to 1.0 - was heated from the bottom, and cooled from the top. Temperature difference between top and bottom walls was kept constant at ΔT = 5 and 11 [°C]. The magnetic induction was increased stepwise from 1 to 10 [T] and thermocouples placed inside the enclosures measured temperature changes of the fluid. On the basis of temperature measurements, analysis of the fluid flow was performed.

  9. Numerical investigation of transient flow-mode transition of laminar natural convection in an inclined enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, P.Y.; Soong, C.Y.; Sheu, T.S.

    1997-02-07

    The present work is concerned with a numerical investigation of transient laminar natural convection and the associated flow-mode transition in a two-dimensional rectangular enclosure. Navier-Stokes/Boussinesq equations for fluid flow and energy balance are solved by using the SIMPLE-C algorithm. Air of Pr = 0.71 in a differentially heated enclose of length-to-height aspect ratio As = 4 and at Ra = 5,000 is chosen as the flow model to examine the influences of the inclination. Calculations of time accuracy are performed to investigate the transient procedure of the flow-mode transition with increasing or decreasing inclination. The present results reveal that, at some critical situations, natural convection in inclined enclosures is very sensitive to the change in tilt angle, and the associated heat transfer rates are closely related to the correspondent cellular flow patterns.

  10. GMT site, enclosure, and facilities design and development overview and update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran, Jose; Burgett, William S.; Grigel, Eric; Bigelow, Bruce C.; Donoso, Eduardo; Figueroa, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will have a 25.4-meter diameter effective aperture, and is one the three currently planned next generation extremely large telescopes (ELTs). The GMT will be located at the summit of Cerro Campanas at the Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) in Chile, one the world's best observing sites. This paper provides an overview of the site master plan comprising site infrastructure, enclosure, and facilities, and outlines the analysis of alternative trade studies that will lead to the final design. Also presented is an update of the site infrastructure development and preconstruction activities currently underway that will be completed prior to the beginning of enclosure construction near the end of 2016.

  11. Gas bremsstrahlung shielding calculation for first optic enclosure of ILSF medical beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigzadeh Jalali, H.; Salimi, E.; Rahighi, J.

    2016-10-01

    Gas bremsstrahlung is generated in high energy electron storage ring accompanies the synchrotron radiation into the beamlines and strike the various components of the beamline. In this paper, radiation shielding calculation for secondary gas bremsstrahlung is performed for the first optics enclosure (FOE) of medical beamline of the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF). Dose equivalent rate (DER) calculation is accomplished using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. A comprehensive study of DER distribution at the back wall, sides and roof is given.

  12. GAM-HEAT -- a computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.; Kielpinski, A.L.; Steimke, J.L.

    1991-02-01

    The GAM-HEAT code was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guillotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re- radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium. The GAM-HEAT code has been exercised extensively for computing transient temperatures in SRS reactors with specific charges and control components. Results from these computations have been used to establish the need for and to evaluate hardware modifications designed to mitigate results of postulated accident scenarios, and to assist in the specification of safe reactor operating power limits. The code utilizes temperature dependence on material properties. The efficiency of the code has been enhanced by the use of an iterative equation solver. Verification of the code to date consists of comparisons with parallel efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory and with similar efforts at Westinghouse Science and Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA, and benchmarked using problems with known analytical or iterated solutions. All comparisons and tests yield results that indicate the GAM-HEAT code performs as intended.

  13. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits has the potential to adversely affect the durability of the wall; this document includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  14. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-30

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits might adversely affect the durability of the wall. This guideline includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  15. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-29

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  16. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-01

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat, wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls, using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat, wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  17. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. CONTROL ROOM ENCLOSURE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. CONTROL ROOM ENCLOSURE AT CENTER OF VIEW. SIGN ABOVE DOOR SAYS "HYDRAULIC TEST FACILITY CONTROL ROOM." SIGN IN WINDOW SAYS "EATING AREA." "EVACUATION AND EMERGENCY INFORMATION" IS POSTED ON CABINET AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD30-2-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 6/2001 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. WEST END. CAMERA FACING EAST. ENCLOSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. WEST END. CAMERA FACING EAST. ENCLOSURE TO CHARGING PORT INTO HOT CELL NO. 3 IS ON LEFT SIDE, BUILT IN 1965. ON ITS RIGHT IS TEST TRAIN ASSEMBLY FACILITY, BUILT IN 1968. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-33-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Construction of 3.6m ARIES telescope enclosure with eccentric pier at Devasthal, Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangia, Tarun

    Space optimized enclosure with eccentric pier for 3.6m ARIES telescope presents construction challenges at the unique observing site of Devasthal, Nainital, India. Enclosure comprises of about 16.5m diameter and 14m high insulated steel framed cylindrical dome rotating on a 14m high stationery dome supporting structure and a 24m × 12m extension structure building for accommodating aluminizing plant and ventilation system etc. Great deal of manual and mechanical excavation was carried out at the rocky site using rock breaking and JCB machines. Foundation bolts for columns of dome supporting structure and extension structure building were grouted after alignment with total station. A 7m diameter hollow cylindrical pier isolated from other structures and 1.85m eccentric with dome center designed due to space limitation at site is being casted for mounting 150 MT mass of the largest 3.6m telescope in the country. A 7m diameter template was fabricated for 3.6m pier top. Most of enclosure components are manufactured and tested in works before assembly/erection at site. Dome drive was tested with dummy loads using VVVF drive with 6 drive and 12 idler wheel assemblies at works to simulate dome weight and smooth operation before erection at site. A 4.2m wide motorized windscreen is being manufactured with a special grade synthetic fabric to withstand wind speed up to 15m/s.

  20. Mixed convection flow of nanofluid in a square enclosure with an intruded rectangular fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Ran; Zhou, Xuanyu; De Souza Machado, Bruno; Das, Prodip K.

    2016-07-01

    Mixed convection flow in enclosures has been a subject of interest for many years due to their ever increasing applications in solar collectors, electronic cooling, lubrication technologies, food processing, and nuclear reactors. In comparison, little effort has been given to the problem of mixed convection in enclosures filled with nanofluids, while the addition of nanoparticles in a fluid base to alter specific material properties is considered a feasible solution for many heat transfer problems. Mixed convection of nanofluids is a challenging problem as the addition of nanoparticles changes the fluid's thermo-physical properties as well as due to the complex interactions among inertia, viscous, and buoyancy forces. In this study, a two-dimensional steady-state numerical model has been developed to investigate mixed convection flow of nanofluids in a square enclosure with an intruded rectangular fin and to optimize the fin geometry for maximizing the heat transfer using the Constructal design. The model has been developed using ANSYS-FLUENT for various fin geometries. Flow fields, temperature fields, and heat transfer rates are examined for different values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers for several geometries of the fin with the aim of maximizing the heat transfer from the fin to the surrounding flow. Outcome of this study provides important insight into the heat transfer behavior of nanofluids, which will help in developing novel geometries with enhanced and controlled heat transfer for solar collectors and electronic devices.