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Sample records for containment enclosures part

  1. Material containment enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David O.

    1993-01-01

    An isolation enclosure and a group of isolation enclosures useful when a relatively large containment area is required. The enclosure is in the form of a ring having a section removed so that a technician may enter the center area of the ring. In a preferred embodiment, an access zone is located in the transparent wall of the enclosure and extends around the inner perimeter of the ring so that a technician can insert his hands into the enclosure to reach any point within. The inventive enclosures provide more containment area per unit area of floor space than conventional material isolation enclosures.

  2. Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, B.X.; Ganni, V.; Stifle, K.E.

    1995-01-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system. 8 figs.

  3. Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Burt X.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Stifle, Kirk E.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system.

  4. Studies of Forced-Convection Heat Transfer Augmentation in Large Containment Enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, S.Z.; Peterson, P.F.

    2001-06-17

    Heat transfer enhancement due to jet mixing inside a cylindrical enclosure is discussed. This work addresses conservative heat transfer assumptions regarding mixing and condensation that have typically been incorporated into passive containment design analyses. This research presents the possibility for increasing decay heat removal of passive containment systems under combined natural and forced convection. Eliminating these conservative assumptions could result in a changed containment design and reduce the construction cost. It is found that the ratio of forced- and free-convection Nusselt numbers can be predicted as a function of the Archimedes number and a correlated factor accounting for jet orientation and enclosure geometry.

  5. Transient Flows and Stratification of an Enclosure Containing Both a Localised and Distributed Source of Buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, Jamie; Linden, Paul

    2014-11-01

    We examine the transient flow and stratification in a naturally ventilated enclosure containing both a localised and distributed source of buoyancy. Both sources of buoyancy are located at the base of the enclosure to represent a building where there is a distributed heat flux from the floor, for example from a sun patch, that competes with a localised heat source within the space. The steady conditions of the space are controlled purely by the geometry of the enclosure and the ratio of the distributed and localised buoyancy fluxes Ψ and are independent of the order buoyancy fluxes are introduced into the space. However, the order sources are introduced into the space, such as delaying the introduction of a localised source, alter the transients significantly. To investigate this problem, small-scale experiments were conducted and compared to a `perfect-mixing' model of the transients. How the stratification evolves in time, in particular how long it takes to reach steady conditions, is key to understanding what can be expected in real buildings. The transient evolution of the interior stratification is reported here and compared to the theoretical model.

  6. Transition to chaos in a square enclosure containing internal heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Baytas, A.C.

    1995-09-01

    A numerical investigation is performed to study the transition from steady to chaotic flow of a fluid confined in a two-dimensional square cavity. The cavity has rigid walls of constant temperature containing uniformly distributed internal heat source. Effects of the Rayleigh number of flow and heat transfer rates are studied. In addition to, same problem is solved for sinusoidally changing internal heat source to show its effect on the flow model and heat transfer of the enclosures. Details of oscillatory solutions and flow bifurcations are presented.

  7. Determination of the Composition of the Atmospheres in the Enclosures Containing the Charters of Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, George F.

    2002-12-01

    In the early 1950s, the United States Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Declaration of Independence, collectively known as the "Charters of Freedom," were encased in specially designed enclosures. As a protective measure the enclosures were filled with moist helium and sealed. Currently a project is underway to remove the Charters from these encasements and re-encase them in modem enclosures. Before these cases are opened, conservationists at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) wish to know if air has leaked into the cases and what the relative humidity is. In 1998 NARA contacted NASA to request assistance with this problem. By adapting the NASA Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH), an airborne sensor based on the absorption of infrared radiation at 1.4 microns by water vapor, the cases containing the second and third pages of the Constitution were non-invasively analyzed in 1999. Approximate relative humidity values were obtained. In addition, because the width of the absorption line is dependent on the other gases present it was possible to determine that the seals had not leaked. During the summer of 2001, the remaining documents were removed from public display and were made available for analysis. To increase the sensitivity of the DLH to the presence of air, for the 2001 measurements a stronger water vapor absorption line was chosen, however this required locating a laser that operated at the wavelength of this stronger line. In this work a number of diode lasers were characterized and a suitable one was identified and installed in the DLH. A series of laboratory measurements of the chosen absorption line were performed to determine spectroscopic parameters including line strength, and helium broadening, air broadening, and self-broadening coefficients. The DLH was then reconfigured from its normal aircraft configuration to one more suitable for the Charters measurements. This involved installing it in a different housing, one specifically

  8. Engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents results from an engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration test. The electrostatic enclosure is part of an overall in-depth contamination control strategy for transuranic (TRU) waste recovery operations. TRU contaminants include small particles of plutonium compounds associated with defense-related waste recovery operations. Demonstration test items consisted of an outer Perma-con enclosure, an inner tent enclosure, and a ventilation system test section for testing electrostatic curtain devices. Three interchangeable test fixtures that could remove plutonium from the contaminated dust were tested in the test section. These were an electret filter, a CRT as an electrostatic field source, and an electrically charged parallel plate separator. Enclosure materials tested included polyethylene, anti-static construction fabric, and stainless steel. The soil size distribution was determined using an eight stage cascade impactor. Photographs of particles containing plutonium were obtained with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM also provided a second method of getting the size distribution. The amount of plutonium removed from the aerosol by the electrostatic devices was determined by radiochemistry from input and output aerosol samplers. The inner and outer enclosures performed adequately for plutonium handling operations and could be used for full scale operations.

  9. Subsea wellhead protective enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, P.M.

    1980-09-02

    Method and apparatus for protecting subsea wellheads and christmas trees from damage by anchors, fishing nets, trawl boards, and other towed devices. The apparatus includes an annular, rigid protective enclosure with inner and outer walls that define a hollow annular chamber, and a plurality of bag-like containers spaced around and attached to the enclosure's outer wall. The annular chamber is in communication with the interiors of the containers by means of ports through the enclosure's outer wall, whereby when cement is pumped into the chamber it also flows into and fills the containers to form a smoothly contoured shield around the enclosure. Should an anchor or other device become fouled on this shield, the container or containers involved will break away and let the anchor continue on its way up and over the enclosure without damage to the wellhead or other well equipment.

  10. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  11. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  12. Coupling a branch enclosure with differential mobility spectrometry to isolate and measure plant volatiles in contained greenhouse settings.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Mitchell M; Spitulski, Sierra L; Pasamontes, Alberto; Peirano, Daniel J; Schirle, Michael J; Cumeras, Raquel; Simmons, Jason D; Ware, Jeffrey L; Brown, Joshua F; Poh, Alexandria J Y; Dike, Seth C; Foster, Elizabeth K; Godfrey, Kristine E; Davis, Cristina E

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are off-gassed from all living organisms and represent end products of metabolic pathways within the system. In agricultural systems, these VOCs can provide important information on plant health and can ordinarily be measured non-invasively without harvesting tissue from the plants. Previously we reported a portable gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometry (GC/DMS) system that could distinguish VOC profiles of pathogen-infected citrus from healthy trees before visual symptoms of disease were present. These measurements were taken directly from canopies in the field, but the sampling and analysis protocol did not readily transfer to a controlled greenhouse study where the ambient background air was saturated with volatiles contained in the facility. In this study, we describe for the first time a branch enclosure uniquely coupled with GC/DMS to isolate and measure plant volatiles. To test our system, we sought to replicate our field experiment within a contained greenhouse and distinguish the VOC profiles of healthy versus citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We indeed confirm the ability to track infection-related trace biogenic VOCs using our sampling system and method and we now show this difference in Lisbon lemons (Citrus×limon L. Burm. f.), a varietal not previously reported. Furthermore, the system differentiates the volatile profiles of Lisbon lemons from Washington navels [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and also from Tango mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Based on this evidence, we believe this enclosure-GC/DMS system is adaptable to other volatile-based investigations of plant diseases in greenhouses or other contained settings, and this system may be helpful for basic science research studies of infection mechanisms. PMID:26695246

  13. Non-Flammable Containment Bag and Enclosure Development for International Space Station Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inamdar, Sunil; Cadogan, Dave; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Work conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) requires the use of a significant quantity of containment bags to hold specimens, equipment, waste, and other material. The bags are in many shapes and sizes, and are typically manufactured from polyethylene materials. The amount of bags being used on ISS has grown to the point where fire safety has become a concern because of the flammability of polyethylene. Recently, a new re-sealable bag design has been developed that is manufactured from a specialized non-flammable material called Armorflex 301 that was designed specifically for this application. Besides being non-flammable, Armorflex 301 is also FDA compliant, clear, flexible, and damage tolerant. The bags can be made with closure mechanisms that resemble ZipLoc® bags, or can be open top. Sample bags have been laboratory tested by NASA to verify materials properties, and evaluated by astronauts on the ISS in 2012. Flexloc bag manufacturing will commence in 2014 to support a transition away from polyethylene on ISS. In addition to re-sealable bags, other larger containment systems such as flexible gloveboxes, deployable clean rooms, and other devices manufactured from Armorflex 301 are being explored for use on ISS and in similar confined space locations where flammability is an issue. This paper will describe the development of the Armorflex 301 material, the Flexloc bag, and other containment systems being explored for use in confined areas

  14. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 187 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Global Commons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... circumstances, relevant to environmental concerns, bears on the proposed action or its environmental effects on... hearings would be an infringement or create the appearance of infringement on the sovereign... dissemination in accordance with Department of Defense procedures (32 CFR part 159) established for...

  15. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 187 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Global Commons

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... circumstances, relevant to environmental concerns, bears on the proposed action or its environmental effects on... hearings would be an infringement or create the appearance of infringement on the sovereign... dissemination in accordance with Department of Defense procedures (32 CFR part 159) established for...

  16. NASA Animal Enclosure Module Mouse Odor Containment Study for STS-107 September 15, 1999;SJSU Odor Panel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Mele, Gary D.; Poffenroth, Mary; Young, Cliff

    2000-01-01

    Experiment #153 by Scott Brady is manifested for shuttle flight STS-107. This evaluation of space flight induced stress and its effects on neuronal plasticity will use 18 six month old C57Bl/6 male mice. A 21 day evaluation study was proposed to determine the length of time groups of 6, 9, or 12 mice could be housed in the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) without odor breakthrough. This study was performed at NASA-Ames Research Center beginning on September 15, 1999. NASA personnel, were responsible for animal care, maintenance, facilities, hardware, etc. San Jose State personnel performed the odor panel evaluations and data reduction. We used similar procedures and methods for earlier tests evaluating female mice.

  17. 40 CFR 86.117-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and periodic determination of enclosure background emissions (hydrocarbons and methanol); initial determination of enclosure internal volume; and periodic hydrocarbon and methanol retention check and... checked to determine that it does not contain materials that will themselves emit hydrocarbons or...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1217-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determination of enclosure background emissions (hydrocarbons and methanol); initial determination of enclosure internal volume; and periodic hydrocarbon and methanol retention check and calibration. Methanol... that it does not contain materials that will themselves emit hydrocarbons or methanol. When methanol...

  19. 40 CFR 86.117-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and periodic determination of enclosure background emissions (hydrocarbons and methanol); initial determination of enclosure internal volume; and periodic hydrocarbon and methanol retention check and... checked to determine that it does not contain materials that will themselves emit hydrocarbons or...

  20. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs and cats from injury; (iii) Contain the dogs and cats securely; (iv) Keep other animals from entering...

  1. 9 CFR 3.53 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.53 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for rabbits shall... maintained in good repair to protect the rabbits from injury, to contain them, and to keep predators out....

  2. 9 CFR 3.53 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.53 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for rabbits shall... maintained in good repair to protect the rabbits from injury, to contain them, and to keep predators out....

  3. 9 CFR 3.53 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.53 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for rabbits shall... maintained in good repair to protect the rabbits from injury, to contain them, and to keep predators out....

  4. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, Calvin J.; Dahlby, Joel W.; Gallimore, Bradford F.; Comer, Bob E.; Stone, Water A.; Carlson, David O.

    1993-01-01

    An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  5. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

    1993-04-27

    An enclosure is described, similar to a glove box, for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  6. GMT enclosure wind and thermal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Arash; Kolesnikov, Alexy; Cochran, Leighton; Hull, Charles; Johns, Matt

    2012-09-01

    The GMT (Giant Magellan Telescope) is a large ground-based telescope for astronomical research at optical and infrared wavelengths. The telescope is enclosed inside an Enclosure that rotates to follow the tracking of the telescope. The Enclosure is equipped with adjustable shutters and vents to provide maximum ventilation for thermal control while protecting the telescope from high wind loads, stray light, and severe weather conditions. The project will be built at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile on Cerro Las Campanas. The first part of this paper presents the wind tunnel test data as well as CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) study results for the GMT Enclosure. The wind tunnel tests include simulations for: a) Topography, b) Open Enclosure (all the shutters and vents open), and c) Closed Enclosure (all the vents and shutters closed). The CFD modeling was carried out for a wide range of conditions such as low and high wind speeds at various wind directions, and for the fully open and partially open Enclosure. The second part of this paper concerns the thermal effects of the Enclosure steel members. The wind speed and member sizes have been studied in relation to the required time to reach a defined temperature inside the Enclosure. This is one of the key performance characteristics of the Enclosure that can affect "Dome Seeing" significantly. The experimental data and theoretical predications have been used to identify the areas inside the Enclosure that need to be ventilated. The Enclosure thermal control strategy has been determined and an optimized system has been designed based on the final results.

  7. Evaluation of retrieval activities and equipment for removal of containers from the transuranic storage area retrieval enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, R.; Rhoden, G.; Davies, G.B.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1970, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has accepted over 55,000 cubic meters of Transuranic contaminated hazardous waste for interim storage. The waste has been neatly stored in ``cell`` configurations on adjoining, above ground asphalt pads at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA). A number of reports have been supplied for review and comment describing the methodology and equipment proposed for retrieval of drums and boxes from a storage facility at the INEL site. The contract for this review requires two main issues to be addressed. First, the adequacy of equipment and methodology for the retrieval of containers which have been breached, lost structural integrity, or are otherwise damaged, Second, to review the strategies and equipment for retrieval of intact waste containers. These issues are presented in the following report along with additional detail in the methodology to complete the description of the operations required for retrieval under most operational scenarios. The documentation reviewed is considered to be at an interim stage and is therefore expected to be subject to the development of the methodology from the existing level of detail with input from the facility operators. This review aims to anticipate some of this development by providing suggested detailed methods of retrieval and equipment for both normal and abnormal operations.

  8. Mercury vapor air-surface exchange measured by collocated micrometeorological and enclosure methods - Part I: Data comparability and method characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Sommar, J.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable quantification of air-biosphere exchange flux of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) is crucial for understanding the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury. However, there has not been a standard analytical protocol for flux quantification, and little attention has been devoted to characterize the temporal variability and comparability of fluxes measured by different methods. In this study, we deployed a collocated set of micrometeorological (MM) and dynamic flux chamber (DFC) measurement systems to quantify Hg0 flux over bare soil and low standing crop in an agricultural field. The techniques include relaxed eddy accumulation (REA), modified Bowen ratio (MBR), aerodynamic gradient (AGM) as well as dynamic flux chambers of traditional (TDFC) and novel (NDFC) designs. The five systems and their measured fluxes were cross-examined with respect to magnitude, temporal trend and correlation with environmental variables. Fluxes measured by the MM and DFC methods showed distinct temporal trends. The former exhibited a highly dynamic temporal variability while the latter had much more gradual temporal features. The diurnal characteristics reflected the difference in the fundamental processes driving the measurements. The correlations between NDFC and TDFC fluxes and between MBR and AGM fluxes were significant (R>0.8, p<0.05), but the correlation between DFC and MM fluxes were from weak to moderate (R=0.1-0.5). Statistical analysis indicated that the median of turbulent fluxes estimated by the three independent MM techniques were not significantly different. Cumulative flux measured by TDFC is considerably lower (42% of AGM and 31% of MBR fluxes) while those measured by NDFC, AGM and MBR were similar (<10% difference). This suggests that incorporating an atmospheric turbulence property such as friction velocity for correcting the DFC-measured flux effectively bridged the gap between the Hg0 fluxes measured by enclosure and MM techniques. Cumulated flux measured by REA

  9. 50 CFR 14.172 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that droppings do not fall into food or water troughs or onto other perched birds. There shall be... the fullest extent. Only one raptorial bird shall be contained in a primary enclosure. (e) A...

  10. Container Security - part of the CORE system

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-02

    A data integration system to support the US Customs and Border Protection Officers to supervise and make decisions for container inspections. CORE is designed to act as a framework to bridge the gaps between disparate data integration and delivery of disparate information visualization.

  11. Preconceptual design for the electrostatic enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a preconceptual design (design criteria and assumptions) for electrostatic enclosures to be used during buried transuranic waste recovery operations. These electrostatic enclosures (along with the application of dust control products) will provide an in-depth contamination control strategy. As part of this preconceptual design, options for electrostatic curtain design are given including both hardwall and fabric enclosures. Ventilation systems, doors, air locks, electrostatic curtains, and supporting systems also are discussed. In addition to the conceptual design, engineering scale tests are proposed to be run at the Test Reactor Area. The planned engineering scale tests will give final material specifications for full-scale retrieval demonstrations.

  12. Enclosure fire dynamics model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.

    1979-01-01

    A practical situation of an enclosure fire is presented and why the need for a fire dynamic model is addressed. The difficulties in establishing a model are discussed, along with a brief review of enclosure fire models available. The approximation of the practical situation and the model developed are presented.

  13. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... physical contact with the animal contained inside; (7) Any material, treatment, paint, preservative, or other chemical used in or on the enclosure is nontoxic to the animal and not harmful to the health...

  14. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... physical contact with the animal contained inside; (7) Any material, treatment, paint, preservative, or other chemical used in or on the enclosure is nontoxic to the animal and not harmful to the health...

  15. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... physical contact with the animal contained inside; (7) Any material, treatment, paint, preservative, or other chemical used in or on the enclosure is nontoxic to the animal and not harmful to the health...

  16. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... physical contact with the animal contained inside; (7) Any material, treatment, paint, preservative, or other chemical used in or on the enclosure is nontoxic to the animal and not harmful to the health...

  17. Sealed head access area enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder power reactor is provided with a sealed head access area enclosure disposed above the reactor vessel head consisting of a plurality of prefabricated structural panels including a center panel removably sealed into position with inflatable seals, and outer panels sealed into position with semipermanent sealant joints. The sealant joints are located in the joint between the edge of the panels and the reactor containment structure and include from bottom to top an inverted U-shaped strip, a lower layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material, a separator strip defining a test space therewithin, and an upper layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material. The test space is tapped by a normally plugged passage extending to the top of the enclosure for testing the seal or introducing a buffer gas thereinto.

  18. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  19. Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating system for unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  20. DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  1. Magnetophoresis Effects on the Flow Characteristics of Oil-Based Ferrofluids in Rectangular Enclosures.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2015-10-01

    This study numerically investigated the flow characteristics in a rectangular enclosure filled with oil-based ferrofluid (EFH-1, Ferrotec.) under the influence of external magnetic fields. The rectangular enclosure contained obstacles with different shapes, such as a rectangle and a triangle mounted on the top and bottom wall surfaces. In order to generate external magnetic fields, a permanent magnet was located in the lower part of the rectangular enclosure, and its direction was selected to be either horizontal or vertical. Our results showed that the ferrofluid flow fields were affected by the applied external magnetic field direction and eddy flow phenomena in the working fluid were generated in the vicinity of high magnetic flux density distributions, such as at the edge of the permanent magnet. It was also confirmed that the magnetophoretic force distributions in the analysis model played a significant role in the development of the ferrofluid flow fields. PMID:26726349

  2. 30 CFR 77.701 - Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enclosures of electric equipment. 77.701 Section 77.701 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., and other enclosures of electric equipment. Metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment that can become “alive” through failure of insulation or by contact with energized parts shall...

  3. Do naturalistic enclosures provide suitable environments for zoo animals?

    PubMed

    Fàbregas, María C; Guillén-Salazar, Federico; Garcés-Narro, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Zoo visitors perceive naturalistic enclosures (i.e. those attempting to replicate identifiable parts of the landscape of the species' habitat) as those that best satisfy the biological needs of the animals, and ensure therefore their welfare. However, the provision of a suitable environment with the resources that will allow the animals to satisfy their main biological needs in naturalistic enclosures has never been systematically explored; instead, it has been assumed. In this study we provide evidence that supports the general idea that naturalistic designs provide suitable environments for the animals. For that purpose, we analyzed 1,381 naturalistic and non-naturalistic enclosures in 63 Spanish zoological parks. In order to assess the suitability of the environment provided within each enclosure, a number of aspects related to the animals' main biological requirements were analyzed. We found a relationship between naturalistic designs and the suitability of the environment for the species housed. Most naturalistic enclosures (77.8%) provided suitable environments for their inhabitants. Non-naturalistic ones also had suitable environments, but in a lower percentage (39.7%). These results should be taken into account during zoo inspection and accreditation appointments, where enclosure suitability must be assessed in an accurate and fast manner. In this regard, a naturalistic design can be used as an adjunct indicator of enclosure suitability, but not exclusively, as not every naturalistic enclosure was suitable for the animals, neither as an indispensable one, given that near 40% of non-naturalistic ones were appropriate for the species housed.

  4. Resistor capacitor, primitive variable solution of buoyant fluid flow within an enclosure with highly temperature dependent viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, S.P.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1995-07-01

    A numerical solution for buoyant natural convection within a square enclosure containing a fluid with highly temperature dependent viscosity is presented. Although the fluid properties employed do not represent any real fluid, the large variation in the fluid viscosity with temperature is characteristic of turbulent flow modeling with eddy-viscosity concepts. Results are obtained using a primitive variable formulation and the resistor method. The results presented include velocity, temperature and pressure distributions within the enclosure as well as shear stress and heat flux distributions along the enclosure walls. Three mesh refinements were employed and uncertainty values are suggested for the final mesh refinement. These solutions are part of a contributed benchmark solution set for the subject problem.

  5. Virtual sensors for active noise control in acoustic-structural coupled enclosures using structural sensing: part II--Optimization of structural sensor placement.

    PubMed

    Halim, Dunant; Cheng, Li; Su, Zhongqing

    2011-04-01

    The work proposed an optimization approach for structural sensor placement to improve the performance of vibro-acoustic virtual sensor for active noise control applications. The vibro-acoustic virtual sensor was designed to estimate the interior sound pressure of an acoustic-structural coupled enclosure using structural sensors. A spectral-spatial performance metric was proposed, which was used to quantify the averaged structural sensor output energy of a vibro-acoustic system excited by a spatially varying point source. It was shown that (i) the overall virtual sensing error energy was contributed additively by the modal virtual sensing error and the measurement noise energy; (ii) each of the modal virtual sensing error system was contributed by both the modal observability levels for the structural sensing and the target acoustic virtual sensing; and further (iii) the strength of each modal observability level was influenced by the modal coupling and resonance frequencies of the associated uncoupled structural/cavity modes. An optimal design of structural sensor placement was proposed to achieve sufficiently high modal observability levels for certain important panel- and cavity-controlled modes. Numerical analysis on a panel-cavity system demonstrated the importance of structural sensor placement on virtual sensing and active noise control performance, particularly for cavity-controlled modes.

  6. Thermomagnetic Convective Flow Characteristics of Oil-Based Magnetic Nanofluids in Rectangular Enclosure.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of thermomagnetic convective flow in a rectangular enclosure heated from below and filled with oil-based nanofluid (EFH-1, Ferrotec.), so called ferrofluid, were numerically investigated. The enclosure contained obstacles with rectangular or triangular configurations mounted on the top and bottom walls. To generate homogeneous magnetic fields, a permanent magnet with a uniform magnetic field strength of 600 kA/m was located in the lower part of the rectangular enclosure, and specified the horizontal or vertical direction. Coupling calculations between thermal-flow field and magnetic field in the analysis model were performed using the commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. Results showed that the ferrofluid flow fields were affected by the applied external magnetic field directions and that the eddy flow phenomena in the rectangular enclosure were generated in the vicinity of the section of high magnetic flux density fields such as the edge of the permanent magnet. The effect of parameters like temperature distributions and local Nusselt number (Nu) profiles on the thermomagnetic convective flow was graphically depicted with various flow conditions. PMID:26726559

  7. Thermomagnetic Convective Flow Characteristics of Oil-Based Magnetic Nanofluids in Rectangular Enclosure.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of thermomagnetic convective flow in a rectangular enclosure heated from below and filled with oil-based nanofluid (EFH-1, Ferrotec.), so called ferrofluid, were numerically investigated. The enclosure contained obstacles with rectangular or triangular configurations mounted on the top and bottom walls. To generate homogeneous magnetic fields, a permanent magnet with a uniform magnetic field strength of 600 kA/m was located in the lower part of the rectangular enclosure, and specified the horizontal or vertical direction. Coupling calculations between thermal-flow field and magnetic field in the analysis model were performed using the commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. Results showed that the ferrofluid flow fields were affected by the applied external magnetic field directions and that the eddy flow phenomena in the rectangular enclosure were generated in the vicinity of the section of high magnetic flux density fields such as the edge of the permanent magnet. The effect of parameters like temperature distributions and local Nusselt number (Nu) profiles on the thermomagnetic convective flow was graphically depicted with various flow conditions.

  8. Innovative relocation system for enclosures for MROI array telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marchiori, G.; Mian, S.; Payne, I.; Pozzobon, M.

    2010-07-01

    Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) comprises an array of up to ten (10) 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes. Each of these ten telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which can be relocated, with the telescope inside, to any of 28 stations arranged in a "Y" configuration. These stations comprise fixed foundations with utility and data connections. There are four standard array configurations, the most compact of which one has less than 350 mm of space between the enclosures. This paper describes the relocation systems that were evaluated, including a rail based system, wheels or trolley fixed to the bottom of the enclosure, and various lifting mechanisms, all of which were analyzed to determine their performances related to the requirements. Eventually a relocation system utilizing a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) has been selected. The reachstacker is capable of manoeuvring between and around the enclosures, is capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (40tons), and can manoeuvre the enclosure with minimal vibrations. A rigorous testing procedure has been performed to determine the vibrations induced in a dummy load in order to guarantee the safety of optics that must remain on the nasmyth table during the relocation. Finally we describe the lifting system, constituted by hydraulic jacks and locating pins, designed to lift and lower the enclosure and telescope during the precise positioning of the telescopes in the various stations.

  9. Thermal enclosure system functional simulation user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry

    1994-01-01

    A form and function simulation of the thermal enclosure system (TES) for a microgravity protein crystal growth experiment has been developed as part of an investigation of the benefits and limitations of intravehicular telerobotics to aid in microgravity science and production. A user can specify the time, temperature, and sample rate profile for a given experiment, and menu options and status are presented on an LCD display. This report describes the features and operational procedures for the functional simulation.

  10. Air-surface exchange of Hg0 measured by collocated micrometeorological and enclosure methods - Part 1: Data comparability and method characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Sommar, J.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.

    2014-09-01

    Reliable quantification of air-biosphere exchange flux of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) is crucial for understanding global biogeochemical cycle of mercury. However, there has not been a standard analytical protocol for flux quantification, and little attention has been devoted to characterize the temporal variability and comparability of fluxes measured by different methods. In this study, we deployed a collocated set of micro-meteorological (MM) and enclosure measurement systems to quantify Hg0 flux over bare soil and low standing crop in an agricultural field. The techniques include relaxed eddy accumulation (REA), modified Bowen-ratio (MBR), aerodynamic gradient (AGM) as well as dynamic flux chambers of traditional (TDFC) and novel (NDFC) designs. The five systems and their measured fluxes were cross-examined with respect to magnitude, temporal trend and sensitivity to environmental variables. Fluxes measured by the MM and DFC methods showed distinct temporal trends. The former exhibited a highly dynamic temporal variability while the latter had much gradual temporal features. The diurnal characteristics reflected the difference in the fundamental processes driving the measurements. The correlations between NDFC and TDFC fluxes and between MBR and AGM fluxes were significant (R > 0.8, p < 0.05), but the correlation between DFC and MM instantaneous fluxes were from weak to moderate (R = 0.1-0.5). Statistical analysis indicated that the median of turbulent fluxes estimated by the three independent MM-techniques were not significantly different. Cumulative flux measured by TDFC is considerably lower (42% of AGM and 31% of MBR fluxes) while those measured by NDFC, AGM and MBR were similar (< 10% difference). This implicates that the NDFC technique, which accounts for internal friction velocity, effectively bridged the gap in measured Hg0 flux compared to MM techniques. Cumulated flux measured by REA was ~60% higher than the gradient-based fluxes. Environmental

  11. Tissue stimulator enclosure welding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the thickness of the stimulator titanium enclosure is directly related to the battery recharge time cycle. Reduction of the titanium enclosure thickness from approximately 0.37 mm (0.015 inch) to 0.05 mm (0.002 inch) significantly reduced the recharge time cycle and thereby patient inconvenience. However, fabrication of titanium enclosures from the thinner material introduced problems in forming, holding, and welding that required improvement in state of the art shop practices. The procedures that were utilized to resolve these fabrication problems are described.

  12. Sound absorption of microperforated panels inside compact acoustic enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng; Cheng, Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the sound absorption effect of microperforated panels (MPPs) in small-scale enclosures, an effort stemming from the recent interests in using MPPs for noise control in compact mechanical systems. Two typical MPP backing cavity configurations (an empty backing cavity and a honeycomb backing structure) are studied. Although both configurations provide basically the same sound absorption curves from standard impedance tube measurements, their in situ sound absorption properties, when placed inside a small enclosure, are drastically different. This phenomenon is explained using a simple system model based on modal analyses. It is shown that the accurate prediction of the in situ sound absorption of the MPPs inside compact acoustic enclosures requires meticulous consideration of the configuration of the backing cavity and its coupling with the enclosure in front. The MPP structure should be treated as part of the entire system, rather than an absorption boundary characterized by the surface impedance, calculated or measured in simple acoustic environment. Considering the spatial matching between the acoustic fields across the MPP, the possibility of attenuating particular enclosure resonances by partially covering the enclosure wall with a properly designed MPP structure is also demonstrated.

  13. Development of a General Method for Determining Leak Rates from Limiting Enclosures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zografos, A. I.; Blackwell, C. C.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a general method for the determination of very low leak rates from limiting enclosures. There are many methods that can be used to detect and repair leaks from enclosures. Many methods have also been proposed that allow the estimation of actual leak rates, usually expressed as enclosure volume turnover. The proposed method combines measurements of the state variables (pressure, temperature, and volume) as well as the change in the concentration of a tracer gas to estimate the leak rate. The method was applied to the containment enclosure of the Engineering Development Unit of the CELSS Test Facility, currently undergoing testing at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  14. 50 CFR 14.121 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... enclosure, these ventilation openings shall comprise at least 30 percent of the total surface area of the... total surface area of the wall and be situated above the midline of the primary enclosure....

  15. 50 CFR 14.131 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears) § 14.131 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure that is... sea otter or polar bear has sufficient space to turn about freely with all four feet on the floor...

  16. 50 CFR 14.131 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears) § 14.131 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure that is... sea otter or polar bear has sufficient space to turn about freely with all four feet on the floor...

  17. 50 CFR 14.131 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears) § 14.131 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure that is... sea otter or polar bear has sufficient space to turn about freely with all four feet on the floor...

  18. 50 CFR 14.131 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears) § 14.131 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure that is... sea otter or polar bear has sufficient space to turn about freely with all four feet on the floor...

  19. 50 CFR 14.131 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears) § 14.131 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure that is... sea otter or polar bear has sufficient space to turn about freely with all four feet on the floor...

  20. CHARA Array Enclosure Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Braden E.; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.

    2002-12-01

    The CHARA Array at Mt. Wilson consists of six telescopes spread over hundreds of meters of rugged territory. Making efficient use of such a large physical instrument requires automation and tele-operation of the distributed resources. One system which is key to making daily operations routine is the enclosure control system, which is used to open and close the walls of the enclosure in order to enable quick equilibration of the telescope with its environment in order to minimize ground seeing effects on observations. This paper describes this enclosure control system, which is a distributed hardware/software system consisting of software running on a central control station in the operations room, together with software and hardware installed on six remote computers. The system must be robust in the presence of absent or intermittent nodes or network connections, must provide for both manual or remote control of the enclosures, and must provide for hardware and personnel safety. Remote operation of the system from Atlanta, Georgia has been demonstrated, and the system has proven extremely robust in regular use to date.

  1. Does the real part contain all the physical information?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raziman, T. V.; Martin, O. J. F.

    2016-09-01

    Polarisation charge formed on nanostructure surfaces upon optical excitation provides a useful tool to understand the underlying physics of plasmonic systems. Plasmonic simulations in the frequency domain typically calculate the polarisation charge as a complex quantity. In this paper, we provide a pedagogical treatment of the complex nature of the polarisation charge and its relevance in plasmonics, and discuss how naively extracting the real part of the complex quantities to obtain physical information can lead to pitfalls. We analyse the charge distributions on various plasmonic systems and explain how to understand and visualise them clearly using techniques such as phase-correction and polarisation ellipse representation, to extract the underlying physical information.

  2. 9 CFR 3.28 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.28 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the guinea pigs and...

  3. 9 CFR 3.28 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.28 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the guinea pigs and...

  4. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and cats must meet the following minimum requirements: (a) General requirements. (1) Primary enclosures... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  5. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and cats must meet the following minimum requirements: (a) General requirements. (1) Primary enclosures... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  6. 50 CFR 14.121 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Nonhuman Primates § 14.121 Primary enclosures. (a) No more than one primate shall be transported in a primary enclosure. However, a mother and... animals that have been habitually housed together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure....

  7. 50 CFR 14.121 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Nonhuman Primates § 14.121 Primary enclosures. (a) No more than one primate shall be transported in a primary enclosure. However, a mother and... animals that have been habitually housed together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure....

  8. 50 CFR 14.121 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Nonhuman Primates § 14.121 Primary enclosures. (a) No more than one primate shall be transported in a primary enclosure. However, a mother and... animals that have been habitually housed together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure....

  9. 9 CFR 3.28 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.28 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the guinea pigs and...

  10. 9 CFR 3.28 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.28 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the guinea pigs and...

  11. 9 CFR 3.28 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.28 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the guinea pigs and...

  12. 50 CFR 14.151 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs... located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure. (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur... together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure. (c) A primary enclosure used to transport...

  13. 50 CFR 14.151 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs... located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure. (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur... together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure. (c) A primary enclosure used to transport...

  14. 50 CFR 14.151 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs... located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure. (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur... together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure. (c) A primary enclosure used to transport...

  15. 50 CFR 14.151 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs... located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure. (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur... together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure. (c) A primary enclosure used to transport...

  16. 50 CFR 14.151 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs... located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure. (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur... together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure. (c) A primary enclosure used to transport...

  17. 50 CFR 14.161 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... upper one-half of the enclosure. (b) No more than one terrestrial mammal (other than rodents) shall be... enclosure if the shipment complies with the provisions of § 14.105(b). (c) More than one rodent may be... compatible groups. Rodents that are incompatible shall be transported in individual primary enclosures...

  18. 50 CFR 14.161 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... upper one-half of the enclosure. (b) No more than one terrestrial mammal (other than rodents) shall be... enclosure if the shipment complies with the provisions of § 14.105(b). (c) More than one rodent may be... compatible groups. Rodents that are incompatible shall be transported in individual primary enclosures...

  19. 50 CFR 14.161 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... upper one-half of the enclosure. (b) No more than one terrestrial mammal (other than rodents) shall be... enclosure if the shipment complies with the provisions of § 14.105(b). (c) More than one rodent may be... compatible groups. Rodents that are incompatible shall be transported in individual primary enclosures...

  20. 50 CFR 14.172 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.172 Section 14.172... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Birds § 14.172 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure for birds shall have ventilation openings on two vertical sides that comprise at...

  1. 50 CFR 14.161 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.161 Section 14.161... Primary enclosures. (a) Except as provided in § 14.106(j), ventilation openings must be located on at least two walls of a primary enclosure. When the required ventilation openings are located on...

  2. 46 CFR 111.40-5 - Enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enclosure. 111.40-5 Section 111.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-5 Enclosure. Each panelboard must have a noncombustible enclosure that...

  3. 46 CFR 111.40-5 - Enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enclosure. 111.40-5 Section 111.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-5 Enclosure. Each panelboard must have a noncombustible enclosure that...

  4. 46 CFR 111.40-5 - Enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enclosure. 111.40-5 Section 111.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-5 Enclosure. Each panelboard must have a noncombustible enclosure that...

  5. 40 CFR 1066.920 - Enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Evaporative and Refueling Emissions § 1066.920 Enclosure calibrations. Enclosures for evaporative and refueling emissions must meet the calibration specifications described in 40 CFR 86.116-94 and 86... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enclosure calibrations....

  6. 46 CFR 111.40-5 - Enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enclosure. 111.40-5 Section 111.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-5 Enclosure. Each panelboard must have a noncombustible enclosure that...

  7. 46 CFR 111.40-5 - Enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enclosure. 111.40-5 Section 111.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-5 Enclosure. Each panelboard must have a noncombustible enclosure that...

  8. Sound reduction by metamaterial-based acoustic enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Shanshan; Li, Pei; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai

    2014-12-15

    In many practical systems, acoustic radiation control on noise sources contained within a finite volume by an acoustic enclosure is of great importance, but difficult to be accomplished at low frequencies due to the enhanced acoustic-structure interaction. In this work, we propose to use acoustic metamaterials as the enclosure to efficiently reduce sound radiation at their negative-mass frequencies. Based on a circularly-shaped metamaterial model, sound radiation properties by either central or eccentric sources are analyzed by numerical simulations for structured metamaterials. The parametric analyses demonstrate that the barrier thickness, the cavity size, the source type, and the eccentricity of the source have a profound effect on the sound reduction. It is found that increasing the thickness of the metamaterial barrier is an efficient approach to achieve large sound reduction over the negative-mass frequencies. These results are helpful in designing highly efficient acoustic enclosures for blockage of sound in low frequencies.

  9. Flammable gas cloud build up in a ventilated enclosure.

    PubMed

    Ivings, M J; Gant, S E; Saunders, C J; Pocock, D J

    2010-12-15

    Ventilation is frequently used as a means for preventing the build up of flammable or toxic gases in enclosed spaces. The effectiveness of the ventilation often has to be considered as part of a safety case or risk assessment. In this paper methods for assessing ventilation effectiveness for hazardous area classification are examined. The analysis uses data produced from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of low-pressure jet releases of flammable gas in a ventilated enclosure. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements of gas releases in a ventilation-controlled test chamber. Good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental data. Analysis of the CFD results shows that the flammable gas cloud volume resulting from a leak is largely dependent on the mass release rate of flammable gas and the ventilation rate of the enclosure. The effectiveness of the ventilation for preventing the build up of flammable gas can therefore be assessed by considering the average gas concentration at the enclosure outlet(s). It is found that the ventilation rate of the enclosure provides a more useful measure of ventilation effectiveness than considering the enclosure air change rate.

  10. Flammable gas cloud build up in a ventilated enclosure.

    PubMed

    Ivings, M J; Gant, S E; Saunders, C J; Pocock, D J

    2010-12-15

    Ventilation is frequently used as a means for preventing the build up of flammable or toxic gases in enclosed spaces. The effectiveness of the ventilation often has to be considered as part of a safety case or risk assessment. In this paper methods for assessing ventilation effectiveness for hazardous area classification are examined. The analysis uses data produced from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of low-pressure jet releases of flammable gas in a ventilated enclosure. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements of gas releases in a ventilation-controlled test chamber. Good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental data. Analysis of the CFD results shows that the flammable gas cloud volume resulting from a leak is largely dependent on the mass release rate of flammable gas and the ventilation rate of the enclosure. The effectiveness of the ventilation for preventing the build up of flammable gas can therefore be assessed by considering the average gas concentration at the enclosure outlet(s). It is found that the ventilation rate of the enclosure provides a more useful measure of ventilation effectiveness than considering the enclosure air change rate. PMID:20855156

  11. 27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AT RIGHT. PADLOCKED PANEL AT TOP CENTER CONTAINS MISSILE LAUNCH KEYS. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  12. Electromagnetic imaging through thick metallic enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrer, Brendan J.; Watson, Joseph C.; Bartlett, Paul A.; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-08-01

    The ability to image through metallic enclosures is an important goal of any scanning technology for security applications. Previous work demonstrated the penetrating power of electromagnetic imaging through thin metallic enclosures, thus validating the technique for security applications such as cargo screening. In this work we study the limits of electromagnetic imaging through metallic enclosures, considering the performance of the imaging for different thicknesses of the enclosure. Our results show, that our system can image a Copper disk, even when enclosed within a 20 mm thick Aluminum box. The potential for imaging through enclosures of other materials, such as Lead, Copper, and Iron, is discussed.

  13. Enclosure of mitochondria by chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Brown, R H; Rigsby, L L; Akin, D E

    1983-02-01

    In Panicum species of the Laxa group, some of which have characteristics intermediate to C(3) and C(4) photosynthesis species, some mitochondria in leaf bundle sheath cells are surrounded by chloroplasts when viewed in profile. Serial sectioning of leaves of one Laxa species, Panicum schenckii Hack, shows that these mitochondria are enclosed by chloroplasts. Complete enclosure rather than invagination also is indicated by absence of two concentric chloroplast membranes surrounding the mitochondrial profiles.

  14. Cold Climate Building Enclosure Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, J.; Fallahi, A.; Shukla, N.

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the energy performance and cost effectiveness of several state-of-the-art retrofit strategies that could be used in triple-deckers and colonial houses, common house types in New England. Several emerging building enclosure technologies were integrated, including high R-value aerogel and vacuum insulations, in forms that would be energy efficient, flexible for different retrofit scenarios, durable, and potentially cost-competitive for deep energy retrofits.

  15. Animal Enclosure Module (AEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that corticosteroids contribute to the adverse skeletal effects of space flight. To achieve this objective, serum corticosteroids, which are known to increase during space flight, must be maintained at normal physiologic levels in flight rats by a combination of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid supplementation via implanted hormone pellets. Bone analyses in these animals will then be compared to those of intact flight rats that, based on past experience, will undergo corticosteroid excess and bone loss during space flight. The results will reveal whether maintaining serum corticosteroids at physiologic levels in flight rats affects the skeletal abnormalities that normally develop during space flight. A positive response to this question would indicate that the bone loss and decreased bone formation associated with space flight are mediated, at least in part, by corticosteroid excess.

  16. 40 CFR 86.117-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: (1) Prepare the enclosure. (i) Variable-volume enclosures may be operated in either latched or... hours before the 4-hour background sampling period begins. (3) Zero and span (calibrate if required) the.... For variable-volume enclosures, latch the enclosure to a fixed volume when the enclosure is held at...

  17. 33 CFR 127.709 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.709 Protective enclosures. The...

  18. 33 CFR 127.709 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.709 Protective enclosures. The...

  19. 33 CFR 127.709 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.709 Protective enclosures. The...

  20. 33 CFR 127.709 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.709 Protective enclosures. The...

  1. 33 CFR 127.709 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.709 Protective enclosures. The...

  2. A novel approach for design of acoustical enclosure of projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahkhahi, Sara

    To create a quiet environment inside buildings, it is necessary to decrease the noise level, which partly originates from electromechanical devices. This study explored a method for designing an acoustic enclosure for projectors that generate noises in a wide band frequency range. The source of noise in projectors is their fans, which cause the structure borne and airborne noise. Fans are required in projectors that use lamps as an illumination source to dissipate the heat emitted from their lamps. Sound measurements were performed to determine the frequency range that is generated by the projector. Based on the data obtained from the measurements, the sound level of the projector and the design of the enclosure were studied. Another aspect of this project was to find a way to cool down the projector while it was operating in a completely sealed enclosure. Based on the information about the power consumption of the projector and the temperature range that the projector can safely operates under, the cooling system was proposed. Finally the sound and temperature measurements were performed on the fabricated prototype of the enclosure to evaluate its functionality.

  3. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  4. 50 CFR 14.142 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.142 Section 14.142 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... outside the enclosure. Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)...

  5. 50 CFR 14.142 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.142 Section 14.142 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... outside the enclosure. Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)...

  6. 50 CFR 14.142 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.142 Section 14.142 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... outside the enclosure. Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)...

  7. 50 CFR 14.142 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.142 Section 14.142 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... outside the enclosure. Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)...

  8. 50 CFR 14.142 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.142 Section 14.142 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... outside the enclosure. Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)...

  9. 50 CFR 14.161 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... limitations. Max. No. refers to maximum number per primary enclosure; Space/animal refers to minimum area of floor space per animals. Rodents weighing more than 5,000 grams shall be transported in individual enclosures. Density Guidelines for Rodents Max. No. Space/Animal cm /2/ in /2/ Ht. of Box cm in wt. in...

  10. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  11. 50 CFR 14.172 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Birds § 14.172 Primary enclosures. (a) A primary enclosure for birds shall have ventilation openings on two vertical sides that comprise at least... creating a draft. (b) Perches shall be provided for birds that rest by perching. The diameter of the...

  12. Operation Crossroads. Report of the Technical Director. Volume 2. Enclosures L thru R

    SciTech Connect

    Wyckoff, C.W.; Shaftan, K.; Penney, W.G.; Von Neumann, J.; Debenham, J.K.

    1984-08-31

    These enclosures contain: L--detailed photographic plans for Shot Baker along with a preliminary interpretation of the results; M--additional information on the technical photography for Operation Crossroads; N--instrumentation plan and organization for Crossroads; and R--a set of calculated data for primary and reflected shocks. Enclosures O, P, and Q are omitted since they include plans for Test C which was not executed.

  13. Passive Tamper Indicating Enclosures Incorporating Embedded Optical Fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, Paul; White, Helen; Allen, Keir; Simmons, Kevin L.; Sliva, Paul; Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.

    2011-08-14

    AWE and PNNL are engaged in a technical collaboration investigating techniques to enhance continuity of knowledge over Accountable Items within a verified nuclear weapons dismantlement process. Tamper Indicating Enclosures (TIE) will likely be deployed as part of a chain of custody regime to indicate an unauthorised attempt to access an Accountable Item. This paper looks at the use of passive TIEs incorporating embedded optical fibre; concepts relating to deployment, tamper indication and unique identification will be discussed.

  14. Radiation Protection Aspects of the Linac Coherent Light Source Front End Enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Vollaire, J.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; Mao, X.S.; Prinz, A.; Rokni, S.H.; Leitner, M.Santana; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    The Front End Enclosure (FEE) of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a shielding housing located between the electron dump area and the first experimental hutch. The upstream part of the FEE hosts the commissioning diagnostics for the FEL beam. In the downstream part of the FEE, two sets of grazing incidence mirror and several collimators are used to direct the beam to one of the experimental stations and reduce the bremsstrahlung background and the hard component of the spontaneous radiation spectrum. This paper addresses the beam loss assumptions and radiation sources entering the FEE used for the design of the FEE shielding using the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA. The beam containment system prevents abnormal levels of radiations inside the FEE and ensures that the beam remains in its intended path is also described.

  15. Self contained, independent, in-vacuum spinner motor

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Marion J.

    2002-01-01

    An independent, self contained apparatus for operation within a vacuum chamber. A sealed enclosure is located in the chamber. The enclosure contains its own atmosphere independent of the vacuum in the chamber. A motor, power unit, and controls are located entirely within the enclosure. They do not have a direct structural connection outside of the enclosure in any way that would effect the atmosphere within the enclosure. The motor, power unit, and controls drive a spinner plate located outside the enclosure but within the vacuum chamber.

  16. Full Speed Ahead for Eso's Very Large Telescope First Enclosure on its way to PARANAL!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    During the past months, vast progress has been made in the construction of ESO's 16-metre equivalent Very Large Telescope (VLT). This major scientific and technological project aims at installing the world's largest optical telescope in the form of four interconnected telescopes with 8.2-metre mirrors on the Paranal mountain in the Chilean Atacama desert. It continues to be on schedule as it heads towards its completion, just after the year 2000. An important milestone will be reached in early October 1994 when the first large shipment containing heavy steel parts of the enclosure for VLT Unit Telescope no. 1 leaves the Italian port of Genova [1]. Meanwhile the construction work on the Paranal site is also progressing very well. It is now expected that, as planned, the first enclosure will be ready in May 1995 to receive the first 8.2-metre telescope. This Press Release is accompanied by four colour pictures that illustrate some of the most recent developments. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS IN EUROPE Considerable progress has been made by ESO's industrial partners in Europe, and the VLT Project has now entered into a new and dynamic phase of construction. The first 8.2-metre mirror is currently in the middle of a two-year polishing process at the REOSC company near Paris, and the first interferometric tests have shown that this very delicate operation is progressing well. The enormous mirror surface, with a total area of more than 50 m^2, is slowly but steadily approaching the desired shape which must be achieved within a few hundred-thousandths of one millimetre over the entire surface. Mirror blank no. 2 is now ready at the Schott factory in Mainz (Germany) and will be delivered by barge transport to REOSC in October 1994. Blank no. 3 has successfully completed the critical ceramization phase and blank no. 4 will soon receive the same treatment. The circular steel track, 18 metres in diameter, that will support Telescope no. 1 has now been successfully machined at the

  17. Transparent electromagnetic shielding enclosure with CVD graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Tong; Wu, Bian; Zhang, Yu; Hao, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Cavity resonant modes of shielding enclosure for housing electronic circuits may cause electromagnetic interference (EMI). Here, we present an effective approach by using graphene to suppress unwanted resonant modes while maintaining good transparency to visible light. The structure consists of graphene sheet on quartz substrate attached to the shielding enclosure made from indium tin oxide. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed approach can lead to good absorption of microwave waves at a wide frequency range from 5 to 12 GHz and high attenuation of cavity modes up to 20-30 dB. Its effectiveness of EMI shielding averaged 20 dB is proven to be comparable with conventional metallic enclosures.

  18. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  19. Laminar natural convection in right triangular enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuad Kent, E.; Asmaz, E.; Ozerbay, S.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, natural convection in non-rectangular enclosures is analyzed numerically. Streamlines and isotherms are presented for different triangular enclosures with different boundary conditions and Rayleigh numbers. Mean Nusselt numbers on hot walls are also calculated in order to make comparisons between different cases. The solutions are obtained for different aspect ratios where boundary conditions represent the wintertime heating of an attic space. This made possible to investigate the effect of aspect ratio on natural convection. In this study, quarter circular enclosure, which is very similar to right triangles, is also examined. Consequently, we had the opportunity to analyze how shape changes affect the flow pattern. The results of the calculations are compared with the similar enclosures and boundary conditions.

  20. 46 CFR 108.455 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.455 Enclosure...) Doors, shutters, or dampers for closing each opening in the lower portion of the space. (2)...

  1. 46 CFR 108.455 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.455 Enclosure...) Doors, shutters, or dampers for closing each opening in the lower portion of the space. (2)...

  2. Modular, security enclosure and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Linker, Kevin L.; Moyer, John W.

    1995-01-01

    A transportable, reusable rapidly assembled and disassembled, resizable modular, security enclosure utilizes a stepped panel construction. Each panel has an inner portion and an outer portion which form joints. A plurality of channels can be affixed to selected joints of the panels. Panels can be affixed to a base member and then affixed to one another by the use of elongated pins extending through the channel joints. Alternatively, the base member can be omitted and the panels themselves can be used as the floor of the enclosure. The pins will extend generally parallel to the joint in which they are located. These elongated pins are readily inserted into and removable from the channels in a predetermined sequence to allow assembly and disassembly of the enclosure. A door constructed from panels is used to close the opening to the enclosure.

  3. 10 CFR 1044.02 - Who must follow the requirements contained in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? 1044.02 Section 1044.02 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTED DISCLOSURES UNDER SECTION 3164 OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR...

  4. 10 CFR 1044.02 - Who must follow the requirements contained in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? 1044.02 Section 1044.02 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTED DISCLOSURES UNDER SECTION 3164 OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR...

  5. 10 CFR 1044.02 - Who must follow the requirements contained in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? 1044.02 Section 1044.02 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTED DISCLOSURES UNDER SECTION 3164 OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR...

  6. 10 CFR 1044.02 - Who must follow the requirements contained in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? 1044.02 Section 1044.02 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTED DISCLOSURES UNDER SECTION 3164 OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR...

  7. 10 CFR 1044.02 - Who must follow the requirements contained in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who must follow the requirements contained in this part? 1044.02 Section 1044.02 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTED DISCLOSURES UNDER SECTION 3164 OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR...

  8. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Robert N.; Spooner, Charles M.

    Part 2 of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance manuals consists of more detailed information on asbestos identification and control methods. Available information on sprayed asbestos-containing materials in buildings is summarized. Guidelines are presented for the detection and monitoring, removal or encapsulation, and disposal of…

  9. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked with the states to develop a program for accurate information and guidance to deal with the problem of school buildings constructed with asbestos-containing materials. This is the first of two guidance manuals that are a major part of this program and are being mailed to all public school…

  10. Thermal Convection in a cylindrical enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, K.

    The microgravity experiment in the Apollo space mission during 1973 has established the importance of the surface tension as a propulsive force on the onset of convection because surface tension varies with temperature. Any temperature gradient established across the surface of the fluid is accompanied by a gradient in surface tension. However, the surface tension driven convection experiment flown in the shuttle flight has not shown any evidence of oscillatory flow even for Marangoni number as high as 105. The paper discusses thermal convection in a cylindrical enclosure with free boundary in a microgravity environment. The surface deformation caused by g-jitter and its relation to the oscillatory flow is studied. The system to be investigated in cylindrical layers of fluid heated from beneath with upper boundary free, initially in mechanical equilibrium, but subjected to the gradient of heat. At any instant of time, in a microgravity environment, the oscillatory part of g-jitter can be as high as 10 -3 g, where g is the gravitational acceleration on the surface of the earth [1]. The instability of a Boussinesq fluid [2] is analyzed in terms of the dimensionless parameters Raleigh number, Ra, Prandtl number, Pr, Marangoni number, M and the aspect ratio, A and relative importance of these parameters is established. References [1] Bannister, T C., etal, NASA, TMX-64772, 1973 [2] Shukla, K N, Applied Mechanics Review, Vol. 54, (5), PP 391-404, 2001

  11. Design and construction of the Discovery Channel Telescope enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Heather K.; Teran, Jose U.; Bond, Kevin

    2010-07-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a project of Lowell Observatory, undertaken with support from Discovery Communications, Inc., to design and construct a 4-meter class telescope and support facility on a site approximately 40 miles southeast of Flagstaff, Arizona. The Discovery Channel Telescope Enclosure was completed in November, 2009. The DCT Enclosure is an octagonal steel structure with insulated composite panel skin. The structure rotates on sixteen compliant bogie assemblies attached to the stationary facility. The shutter is composed of two independently actuated, bi-parting structures that provide a viewing aperture. To improve seeing, the skin is covered with adhesive aluminum foil tape and the enclosed observing area is passively ventilated via rollup doors. The observing area can also be actively ventilated using a downdraft fan, and there are provisions for upgrades to active air conditioning. The enclosure also includes operational equipment such as a bridge crane, personnel lift, and access platforms. This paper discusses some of the design trades as well as the construction challenges and lessons learned by the DCT Project, its designer M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation (M3), and its general contractor, Building and Engineering Contractors, Southwest (BEC Southwest).

  12. Construction of a Post-Irradiated Fuel Examination Shielded Enclosure Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Lehto, Ph.D.; Boyd D. Christensen

    2008-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to provide funding to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for new post-irradiation examination (PIE) equipment in support of advanced fuels development. This equipment will allow researchers at the INL to accurately characterize the behavior of experimental test fuels after they are removed from an experimental reactor also located at the INL. The accurate and detailed characterization of the fuel from the reactor, when used in conjunction with computer modeling, will allow DOE to more quickly understand the behavior of the fuel and to guide further development activities consistent with the missions of the INL and DOE. Due to the highly radioactive nature of the specimen samples that will be prepared and analyzed by the PIE equipment, shielded enclosures are required. The shielded cells will be located in the existing Analytical Laboratory (AL) basement (Rooms B-50 and B-51) at the INL Material and Fuels Complex (MFC). AL Rooms B-50 and B-51 will be modified to establish an area where sample containment and shielding will be provided for the analysis of radioactive fuels and materials while providing adequate protection for personnel and the environment. The area is comprised of three separate shielded cells for PIE instrumentation. Each cell contains an atmosphere interface enclosure (AIE) for contamination containment. The shielding will provide a work area consistent with the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) concept, assuming a source term of 10 samples in each of the three shielded areas. Source strength is assumed to be a maximum of 3 Ci at 0.75 MeV gamma for each sample. Each instrument listed below will be installed in an individual shielded enclosure: Shielded electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) Focused ion beam instrument (FIB) Micro-scale x-ray diffractometer (MXRD). The project is designed and expected to be built incrementally as funds are allocated. The initial phase will be to fund the

  13. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, L.; Barr, J.; Dalrymple, N.; Fraser, M.; Hubbard, R.; Wagner, J.; Warner, M.

    2006-06-01

    Telescope enclosure design is based on an increasingly standard set of criteria. Enclosures must provide failsafe protection in a harsh environment for an irreplaceable piece of equipment; must allow effective air flushing to minimize local seeing while still attenuating wind-induced vibration of the telescope; must reliably operate so that the dome is never the reason for observatory down time; must provide access to utilities, lifting devices and support facilities; and they must be affordable within the overall project budget. The enclosure for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has to satisfy all these challenging requirements plus one more. To eliminate so-called external dome seeing, the exterior surfaces of the enclosure must be maintained at or just below ambient air temperature while being subjected to the full solar loading of an observing day. Further complicating the design of the ATST enclosure and support facilities are the environmental sensitivities and high construction costs at the selected site - the summit of Haleakala on the island of Maui, Hawaii. Previous development work has determined an appropriate enclosure shape to minimize solar exposure while allowing effective interior flushing, and has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling the exterior skin temperature with an active cooling system. This paper presents the evolution of the design since site selection and how the enclosure and associated thermal systems have been tailored to the particular climatic and terrain conditions of the site. Also discussed are load-reduction strategies that have been identified through thermal modeling, CFD modeling, and other analyses to refine and economize the thermal control systems.

  14. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF...-Insurers § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part... be included in and a part of the application, as fully as though written therein....

  15. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. As... included in and a part of the application, as fully as though written therein....

  16. Optical fibre techniques for use within tamper indicating enclosures designed for arms control verification purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Thomas C.; Thompson, Alexander W. J.; Wynn, Paul; White, Helen

    2014-10-01

    Ensuring that a future nuclear arms control agreement can be verified is a complex technical challenge. Tamper Indicating Enclosures (TIEs) are likely to be deployed as part of a chain of custody regime, providing an indication of an unauthorised attempt to access an item within the agreement. This paper focuses on the assessment of optical fibre techniques for ensuring boundary control as part of a TIE design. The results of optical fibre damage, subsequent repair attempts, enclosure construction considerations and unique identification features have been evaluated for a selection of fused-silica optical fibres. This paper focuses on detecting a fibre repair attempt, presents a method for increasing repair resistance and a method for uniquely identifying an enclosure using the optical signature from the embedded optical fibre.

  17. 9 CFR 3.80 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must be provided with a minimum floor space equal to an area at least three times the area occupied by... housed in the primary enclosure at one time; (viii) Provide the nonhuman primates with easy and... injuring themselves; and (xi) Provide sufficient space for the nonhuman primates to make normal...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2905 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... surrounded by a protective enclosure: (1) Storage tanks; (2) Impounding systems; (3) Vapor barriers; (4) Cargo transfer systems; (5) Process, liquefaction, and vaporization equipment; (6) Control rooms and stations; (7) Control systems; (8) Fire control equipment; (9) Security communications systems; and...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2905 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... surrounded by a protective enclosure: (1) Storage tanks; (2) Impounding systems; (3) Vapor barriers; (4) Cargo transfer systems; (5) Process, liquefaction, and vaporization equipment; (6) Control rooms and stations; (7) Control systems; (8) Fire control equipment; (9) Security communications systems; and...

  20. Concrete enclosure for shielding a neutron source.

    PubMed

    Vega-Carrillo, H R; Villagrana-Muñoz, L E; Rivera-Perez, E; de Leon-Martinez, H A; Soto-Bernal, T G; Hernández-Davila, V M

    2013-09-01

    In the aim to design a shielding for a 0.185 TBq (239)PuBe isotopic neutron source several Monte Carlo calculations were carried out using MCNP5 code. First, a point-like source was modeled in vacuum and the neutron spectrum and ambient dose equivalent were calculated at several distances ranging from 5 cm up to 150 cm, these calculations were repeated modeling a real source, including air, and a 1×1×1 m(3) enclosure with 5, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 80 cm-thick Portland type concrete walls. At all the points located inside the enclosure neutron spectra from 10(-8) up to 0.5 MeV were the same regardless the distance from the source showing the room-return effect in the enclosure, for energies larger than 0.5 MeV neutron spectra are diminished as the distance increases. Outside the enclosure it was noticed that neutron spectra becomes "softer" as the concrete thickness increases due to reduction of mean neutron energy. With the ambient dose values the attenuation curve in terms of concrete thickness was calculated.

  1. 46 CFR 108.455 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enclosure openings. 108.455 Section 108.455 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.455...

  2. 46 CFR 108.455 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enclosure openings. 108.455 Section 108.455 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.455...

  3. 46 CFR 111.50-7 - Enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enclosures. 111.50-7 Section 111.50-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... device must meet Sections 240-30 and 240-33 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  4. 46 CFR 111.50-7 - Enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enclosures. 111.50-7 Section 111.50-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... device must meet Sections 240-30 and 240-33 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  5. 46 CFR 111.50-7 - Enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enclosures. 111.50-7 Section 111.50-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... device must meet Sections 240-30 and 240-33 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  6. 46 CFR 111.50-7 - Enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enclosures. 111.50-7 Section 111.50-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... device must meet Sections 240-30 and 240-33 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2905 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protective enclosures. 193.2905 Section 193.2905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2905 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protective enclosures. 193.2905 Section 193.2905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2905 - Protective enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protective enclosures. 193.2905 Section 193.2905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 57.12068 Section 57.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface Only § 57.12068 Locking transformer enclosures. Transformer enclosures shall be...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1217-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determination of hydrocarbons. Proceed as follows: (1) Prepare the enclosure. (i) Variable-volume enclosures may... fan operated for a period of up to 12 hours before the 4-hour background sampling period begins. (3... irregularities (such as braces) and calculate the internal volume. For variable-volume enclosures, latch...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 241 - List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of October 1, 2002 A... Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 241 - List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of October 1, 2002 A... Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 241 - List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of October 1, 2002 A... Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 241 - List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of October 1, 2002 A... Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 241 - List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false List of Lines Being Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of October 1, 2002 A... Extraterritorially Dispatched in Accordance With the Regulations Contained in 49 CFR Part 241, Revised as of...

  17. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  18. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  19. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  20. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  1. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... normal rigors of transportation; (2) The interior of the enclosure has no sharp points or edges and no... manner and to sit in an upright, hands down position without its head touching the top of the...

  2. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  3. Electrically shielded enclosure with magnetically retained removable cover

    DOEpatents

    Rivers, Craig J.; Lee, Roanne A.; Jones, Glenn E.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is an electrically shielded enclosure having electrical components therein and a removable electrically shielded cover over an opening in the enclosure with a magnetic securement mechanism provided to removably secure the cover to the enclosure in a manner which will provide easy access, yet also provide an electrical seal between the cover and the enclosure capable of preventing the passage of electrical radiation through the joint between the cover and the enclosure. Magnets are provided on the enclosure peripherally around the opening and facing the cover, and a ferromagnetic surface is provided on the mating surface of the cover facing the magnets, with a continuous electrical seal provided between the magnets and the ferromagnetic surface on the cover to prevent the leakage of electromagnetic radiation therethrough. In one embodiment the electrical seal includes a flexible metal casing or surface, which is attached to the enclosure and positioned between the magnets and the ferromagnetic surface on the cover, and which is sufficiently flexible to be capable of conforming to the ferromagnetic surface to provide an electrical seal between the cover and the enclosure. In another embodiment, the electrical seal includes a metal mesh associated with the enclosure and positioned between the magnets on the enclosure and the ferromagnetic surface on the cover. The metal mesh is also capable of conforming to the surface of the ferromagnetic surface to thereby provide an electrical seal between the cover and the enclosure.

  4. Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

    2000-02-07

    This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed into ergonomic

  5. Aerothermodynamic properties of stretched flames in enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotman, D. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    Flames are stretched by being pulled along their frontal surface by the flow field in which they reside. Their trajectories tend to approach particle paths, acquiring eventually the role of contact boundaries, -interfaces between the burnt and unburnt medium that may broaden solely as a consequence of diffusion. Fundamental properties of flow fields governing such flames are determined here on the basis of the zero Mach number model, providng a rational method of approach to the computational analysis of combustion fields in enclosures where, besides the aerodynamic properties flow, the thermodynamic process of compression must be taken into account. To illustrate its application, the method is used to reveal the mechanism of formation of a tulip-shape flame in a rectangular enclosure under nonturbulent flow conditions.

  6. GMT site: facilities and enclosure design overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran, Jose; Sheehan, Michael; Neff, Daniel H.; Grigel, Eric; Adriaanse, David; Farahani, Arash

    2014-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), one of several next generation Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs), is a 25.4 meter diameter altitude over azimuth design set to be built at the summit of Cerro Campanas at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. This paper provides an update and overview of the ongoing efforts for the GMT site, infrastructure, facilities and enclosure design. The paper provides insight of the proposed systems, trade studies and approach resulting in the current design solution.

  7. Enclosure rotation on the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, James; Meeks, Robert; Ashby, David; Davison, Warren; Wiese, James; Urban, Jeff; Hansen, Rick; Schuh, Jared

    2012-09-01

    After several years of operation the enclosure rotation system of the LBT is exhibiting wear and other performance issues that may impact operations. This paper reviews the system design and assumptions used, describes the current performance and observed symptoms, and discusses recent improvements made to improve performance and reliability. The rotating enclosure of the LBT is a 2200 ton structure riding on four bogies with a total of 20 wheels. Identified deficiencies include wheel bearing capacities, bogie misalignment, and rail loading. These are partially due to excess enclosure weight, which was supposed to be 1600 tons, but also due to design errors. The most serious problem was the failure of several wheel bearings. The bearings were not designed for field serviceability, so a crash program began to determine how to replace them. This got us back on sky quickly, but a review of the engineering calculations identified an error which led to the use of undersized bearings. A method of installing a larger bearing was found, and these have been installed. One set of bogie wheels are misaligned so severely the structure makes loud popping and banging noises when the direction of building rotation changes. The bogie needs to be rotated about its vertical axis, but there was no provision in the design for this. The circular rail the bogies roll on is wearing faster than expected. The rails are extremely difficult to replace, so the short term plan is to study the problem.

  8. 40 CFR 270.15 - Specific part B information requirements for containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provide the following additional information: (a) A description of the containment system to demonstrate... standing liquids in the containment system. (3) Capacity of the containment system relative to the number..., drawings, or data demonstrating compliance with § 264.176 (location of buffer zone and containers...

  9. Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Final Rule and Notice. Part III: Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 763.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a final rule under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) to require all local education agencies (LEAs) to identify asbestos-containing materials in their school buildings and take appropriate action to control release of asbestos fibers. The LEAs are required to describe their activities in…

  10. Vacuum decay container/closure integrity testing technology. Part 2. Comparison to dye ingress tests.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Heinz; Stauffer, Tony; Chen, Shu-Chen Y; Lee, Yoojin; Forster, Ronald; Ludzinski, Miron; Kamat, Madhav; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2009-01-01

    Part 1 of this series demonstrated that a container closure integrity test performed according to ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method using a VeriPac 325/LV vacuum decay leak tester by Packaging Technologies & Inspection, LLC (PTI) is capable of detecting leaks > or = 5.0 microm (nominal diameter) in rigid, nonporous package systems, such as prefilled glass syringes. The current study compared USP, Ph.Eur. and ISO dye ingress integrity test methods to PTI's vacuum decay technology for the detection of these same 5-, 10-, and 15-microm laser-drilled hole defects in 1-mL glass prefilled syringes. The study was performed at three test sites using several inspectors and a variety of inspection conditions. No standard dye ingress method was found to reliably identify all holed syringes. Modifications to these standard dye tests' challenge conditions increased the potential for dye ingress, and adjustments to the visual inspection environment improved dye ingress detection. However, the risk of false positive test results with dye ingress tests remained. In contrast, the nondestructive vacuum decay leak test method reliably identified syringes with holes > or = 5.0 microm.

  11. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time...

  12. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time...

  13. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time...

  14. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time...

  15. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time...

  16. Track plate enclosures: Box designs affecting attractiveness to riparian mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loukmas, J.J.; Mayack, D.T.; Richmond, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of four track plate enclosure designs for monitoring the abundance of small and medium-sized mammals along 10 streams in New York State. Box size and clarity of view through the box were evaluated as factors affecting visitation. We checked track plate stations weekly from September 1999 to March 2000. Eleven mammalian species or species groups visited the track plate stations. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) (P = 0.020) and feral cats (Felis catus) (P = 0.008) visited large enclosures significantly more than small enclosures. Feral cats visited clear-view enclosures significantly more than obstructed-view enclosures (P = 0.025). Enclosure size and view did not significantly affect visitation by other species; however, a large box with a clear view was the most effective design.

  17. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOEpatents

    Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    1987-01-13

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values. 3 figs.

  18. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOEpatents

    Modera, Mark P.; Sherman, Max H.

    1987-01-13

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values.

  19. 3. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  20. Effects of stream enclosures on drifting invertebrates and fish growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.

    2006-01-01

    Stream ecologists often use enclosure experiments to investigate predator-prey interactions and competition within and among fish species. The design of enclosures, manipulation of species densities, and method of replication may influence experimental results. We designed an experiment with enclosure cages (1 m2, 6-mm mesh) to examine the relative influence of fish size, density, and prey availability on growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) within enclosures in Valley Creek, Minnesota. In addition, we examined water flow and invertebrate drift entering enclosures and in open riffles to investigate whether enclosures reduced the supply of invertebrate prey. Growth of small (age-0) brook and brown trout was not influenced by fish density, but growth of larger (age-1) trout generally decreased as density increased. Sculpin growth was not related to fish size or density, but increased with mean size of invertebrates in the drift. Enclosures reduced water flow and tended to reduce invertebrate drift rate, although total drift rate (ind./min), total drift density (ind./m3), and mean size of invertebrates were not significantly different inside enclosures compared to adjacent stream riffles. Enclosures had no effect on drift rate or size of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, the main prey item for trout and sculpin in Valley Creek. Overall, our analyses indicated that reductions of prey availability by enclosures did not influence fish growth. Trout growth may have been limited at larger sizes and densities because of increased activity costs of establishing and defending territories, whereas sculpin growth was related to availability of large prey, a factor not influenced by enclosures. ?? 2006 by The North American Benthological Society.

  1. Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F.; Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P.

    1995-09-01

    Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.

  2. Experimental investigation of mixed convection in large enclosure with vertical cooling plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Fenglei

    Passive containment cooling systems (PCCS) provide a new safety design for the nuclear industry that provides the safety-related ultimate heat sink for a new generation of inherently safe reactors such as Westinghouse's AP600 and AP 1000 and General Electric's SBWR and ESBWR. It uses only natural forces, such as gravity, natural circulation, and a small number of automatic valves to make the system work. This research investigates experimentally mixed convection and heat transfer augmentation by forced jets in a large enclosure, at conditions simulating those of actual passive containment cooling systems and scales approaching those of actual containment buildings or compartments. The experiment is designed to measure the key parameters governing the heat transfer augmentation by forced jets and affecting the potential for ambient stratification, and to investigate the effects of geometric factors, including the jet diameter, jet injection orientation, interior structures, and enclosure aspect ratio. The tests cover a variety of injection modes leading to flow configurations of interest (jet impinging on a containment wall, buoyant plumes, and wall jets, etc.) that contribute to reveal the nature of mixing and stratification phenomena in the containment under accident conditions of interest. By nondimensionalizing the governing equations, the heat transfer of mixed convection can be predicted to be controlled by jet Archimedes number and geometric factors. Using a combining rule for mixed convection and appropriate forced and natural convection models, the correlations of heat transfer augmentation by forced jets are developed and then tested by experimental data. The effects of jet diameter, injection orientation, interior structures, and enclosure aspect ratio on heat transfer augmentation are illustrated with analysis of experimental results. The recirculation speed is theoretically evaluated through the enclosure mechanical energy balance and correlated to the

  3. 30 CFR 56.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... MINES Electricity § 56.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  4. 30 CFR 57.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  5. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of...

  6. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of...

  7. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of...

  8. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of...

  9. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of...

  10. 46 CFR 95.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enclosure openings. 95.15-35 Section 95.15-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for...

  11. 46 CFR 95.16-30 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enclosure openings. 95.16-30 Section 95.16-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-30 Enclosure openings. (a) If mechanical ventilation is provided for in...

  12. Enclosures Abound: Black Cultural Autonomy, Prison Regime and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnyder, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Since slavery, attempted enclosures upon Black spaces of cultural production and autonomy (i.e. music, language, art) have manifested in various forms. In the context of the post-industrial terrain of urban southern California, the formation of the prison is the dominant model of forced enclosure in the lives of Black people. Moving beyond the…

  13. 5. Exterior view, enclosure at walkin entry level between Test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Exterior view, enclosure at walk-in entry level between Test Cell 6 (right) and Test Cell 7 (left), Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking southwest. High pressure gas tank and generator test firings are conducted in the enclosure. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 40 CFR 86.1217-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., background methanol, temperature, and barometric pressure. These are the initial readings CHCi, CCH 3 OHi..., and barometric pressure. These are the initial readings CHCi, CCH 3 OHi, Ti, and PBi for the enclosure... testing with fixed-volume enclosures); record temperature and barometric pressure. These are the...

  15. 40 CFR 86.117-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., background methanol, temperature, and barometric pressure. These are the initial readings CHCi, CCH 3 OHi..., and barometric pressure. These are the initial readings CHCi, CCH 3 OHi, Ti, and PBi for the enclosure... volume enclosures); record temperature and barometric pressure. These are the final readings for...

  16. 40 CFR 86.117-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., background methanol, temperature, and barometric pressure. These are the initial readings CHCi, CCH 3 OHi..., and barometric pressure. These are the initial readings CHCi, CCH 3 OHi, Ti, and PBi for the enclosure... volume enclosures); record temperature and barometric pressure. These are the final readings for...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1217-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., background methanol, temperature, and barometric pressure. These are the initial readings CHCi, CCH 3 OHi..., and barometric pressure. These are the initial readings CHCi, CCH 3 OHi, Ti, and PBi for the enclosure... testing with fixed-volume enclosures); record temperature and barometric pressure. These are the...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 57.12025 Section... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12025 Grounding circuit enclosures. All metal enclosing or encasing electrical circuits shall be grounded or provided with equivalent protection. This requirement does not...

  19. 30 CFR 57.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 57.12025 Section... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12025 Grounding circuit enclosures. All metal enclosing or encasing electrical circuits shall be grounded or provided with equivalent protection. This requirement does not...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 57.12025 Section... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12025 Grounding circuit enclosures. All metal enclosing or encasing electrical circuits shall be grounded or provided with equivalent protection. This requirement does not...

  1. 30 CFR 57.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 57.12025 Section 57.12025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12025 Grounding circuit enclosures. All metal enclosing or...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 57.12025 Section... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12025 Grounding circuit enclosures. All metal enclosing or encasing electrical circuits shall be grounded or provided with equivalent protection. This requirement does not...

  3. Fire-LCA study of TV sets with V0 and HB enclosure material.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Margaret; Tullin, Claes; Stripple, Håkan

    2002-02-01

    A novel Life-Cycle Assessment model (Fire-LCA) has been defined for the determination of the environmental impact of measures taken to attain a high level of fire safety. This study, which represents the first application of this LCA model, concentrates on a comparison between a TV with an enclosure manufactured with a flame retardant (FR) plastic (V0-rated high impact polystyrene, HIPS, typical for the US market) and one manufactured with a non-flame retardant (HB-rated HIPS, typical for the European market). A fire model has been defined based on international statistics, which indicate that use of V0 rated enclosure material essentially removes the risk of TV fires while approximately 165 TV fires occur per million TVs in Europe each year where the enclosure material is breached. The application of the model indicates that emissions of some key species (such as dibenzodioxins and PAH) are actually lower for the TV with the FR enclosure than for the TV with the NFR enclosure. This has direct reprercussions for the assessment of the environmental impact of the FR TV relative to that of the NFR TV. Finally, when considering the risk associated with the use of flame retardants, it is also important to consider the risk associated with fires. Based on the in-depth analysis of available fire statistics, conducted as a part of this study, it has been estimated that as many as 160 people may die each year in Europe as a direct result of TV fires and as many as 2000 may be injured in the same period.

  4. Fluid mechanical properties of flames in enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.A.; Pindera, M.Z.; Oppenheim, A.K.

    1988-07-01

    In an enclosure where the reacting medium is initially at rest, the flame first generates a flowfield that then gets stretched, i.e., its front is pulled along the surface by the flowfield in which it then finds itself residing. A methodology developed for numerical modeling of such fields is described. Of key significance in this respect is the zero Mach number model/endash/a reasonable idealization in view of the relatively high temperature, and hence sound speed, that exists, concomitantly with a comparatively low particle velocity, in the confinement of a combustion chamber. According to this model, the density gradient in the field is nullified, while across the flame front it approaches infinity. One has thus two regimes: one of the unburned medium and the other of the burned gas, each of spatially uniform density, separated by a flame front interface. The latter is endowed with four properties, of which the first two are purely kinematic and the others dynamic in nature, namely: 1) it is advected at the local velocity of flow; 2) it self-advances at the normal burning speed, the eigenvalue of the system; 3) it acts as the velocity source due to the exothermicity of the combustion process; and 4) it acts as the vorticity source due to the baroclinic effect generated by the pressure gradient along its surface and the density gradient across it. A solution obtained for a flame propagating in an oblong rectangular enclosure demonstrates that the latter has a significant influence upon the formation of the well known tulip shape. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  5. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  6. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  7. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  8. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  9. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake...

  10. LOFT. Containment and service building (TAN650). South elevation, details, section. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT. Containment and service building (TAN-650). South elevation, details, section. Shows part of duct enclosure, railroad door opening, roof ventilators, shielded personnel entrance, and change room. Section F shows view from west looking toward shielding around airlock door on main floor. Kaiser engineers 6413-11-STEP/LOFT-650-A-9. Date: October 1964. INEEL index code no. 036-650-00-486-122221 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Skin irritancy and sensitivity to laundry detergents containing proteolytic enzymes. Part II.

    PubMed

    Valér, M

    1975-06-01

    The late type contact sensitizing effect of alkaline protease enzymes (PE) on the intact human skin has been investigated in the present study. The immune process of sensitisation was induced with "Tenzym prilled" (TP, Grindstedvoerket) and with "Maxatase" (M, Gist-Brocades) protease enzymes in the epicutaneous test (ET), using concentration series and various durations of application. The ETs were made on the intact (symptom-free) skin, as well as under conditions promoting the subcorneal penetration of PE. Challenge was carried out at 21 to 30 days following induction of 2092 subjects, and at 2 to 5 months on 1624 subjects. Despite the large number of subjects tested, contact sensitisation developed in none of the cases, although the inducing exposure took place under conditions promoting the immune process of sensitisation. In 60 individuals suffereing from occupational dermatitis on regular contact with PE and having no symptoms of early type inhalative allergy (mucous membrane changes, bronchial asthma-like symptoms) were challenged also by the intradermal test. No reaction was noted in any of them at 10 and 30 minutes, as well as at 24 and 48 hours following the test. Next the influence of PE is analysed in the induction or increased severity of the irritation caused by bioactive laundry detergents. The studies involved the use of serial dilutions of "Biopon" (Bn) laundry detergent containing TP or M, or not containing PE, respectively, by means of the ET. A total of 740 series (5220 tests) of the three variants were applied in dilution series to intact skin surface, as well as to pathologically and arteficially lsioned skin areas. The Bn variants containing and not containing PE increased the number of irratative reactions in essentially the same degree. This suggests that the irritative effect is not due to the presence of PE, but to the laundry-active detergents (WAS) of Bn in the first place, and to a lesser extent to its other ingredients.

  12. [Polishing of titanium prosthetics (Part 6). The chemical polishing baths containing hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid].

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Y; Miyazaki, T; Suzuki, E; Miyaji, T

    1989-01-01

    Titanium was polished using several chemical polishing baths containing different ratios of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. The meltage, surface roughness, and surface texture of titanium samples after chemical polishing were affected by the ratio of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. Generally the meltage increased and surface roughness decreased when the mole concentration of hydrofluoric acid was high and that of nitric acid was low. For example the chemical polishing bath containing 5 mole hydrofluoric acid and 5 mole nitric acid improved the surface texture in one minute, but SEM observation revealed a partially rough surface caused by the excessive solution. The chemical polishing bath containing 1 mole hydrofluoric acid and 5 mole nitric acid did not improve the surface texture in a short time because of low solubility, but improved the surface texture gradually with the extension of the immersion time and a good surface texture was observed by SEM. The chemical polishing using the chemical polishing bath with low solubility and immersion of the prosthetics for a rather long time were considered useful procedures to obtain a smooth surface of titanium prosthetics while maintaining their accuracy.

  13. An assessment of some non-gray global radiation models in enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulemans, J.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of several non-gray global gas/soot radiation models, namely the Wide-Band Correlated-K (WBCK) model, the Spectral Line Weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model with one optimized gray gas (SLW-1), the (non-gray) Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (WSGG) model with different sets of coefficients (Smith et al., Soufiani and Djavdan, Taylor and Foster) was assessed on several test cases from the literature. Non-isothermal (or isothermal) participating media containing non-homogeneous (or homogeneous) mixtures of water vapor, carbon dioxide and soot in one-dimensional planar enclosures and multi-dimensional rectangular enclosures were investigated. For all the considered test cases, a benchmark solution (LBL or SNB) was used in order to compute the relative error of each model on the predicted radiative source term and the wall net radiative heat flux.

  14. Zr-Containing 4,4'-ODA/PMDA Polyimide Composites. Parts 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illingsworth, M. L.; Betancourt, J. A.; Chen, Y.; Terschak, J. A.; Banks, B. A.; Rutledge, S. K.; Cales, M.; He, L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve the atomic oxygen resistance of Kapton(TM), a polyimide (PI) made from pyromellitic acid dianhydride (PMDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA), while retaining or enhancing the desirable properties of the pure polymer. Toward this end, zirconium-containing complexes and polymers were used to make composites and blends. Tetra(acetylacetonato)zirconium(IV), Zr(acac)4, which is commercially available, was identified as the best zirconium-containing complex for enhancing the atomic oxygen resistance of polyimide composites of the 10 complexes screened. Films prepared from the commercially available polyamic acid (PAA) of PMDA-ODA (DuPont) have good uniformity, flexibility, and tensile strength. A 24-layer 10% (mol) Zr(acac)4/PI composite film showed significant improvement (ca. 20 fold) of atomic oxygen resistance over the pure polyimide. However, 10% (mol) Zr(acac)4 represents an upper concentration limit, above which films undergo cracking upon thermal imidization. In order to increase the Zr complex concentration in PMDA-ODA PI films, while retaining good film properties, [Zr(adsp)2-PMDA]n coordination polymer [bis(4-amino-N,N'-disalicylidene- 1,2-phenylenediamino)zirconium(IV)-pyromellitic dianhydride] and [Zr(adsp)2-PMDA-ODA-PMDA]n terpolymer were synthesized and blended with commercial PAA, respectively. Several techniques were used to characterize the films made from the polymer containing Zr(acac)4. Plasma studies of films having 2% (mol) incremental concentrations of Zr in the Kapton up to 10% (mol) show that the overall rate of erosion is reduced about 75 percent.

  15. A Passive Tamper Indicating Enclosure For Use Within A Nuclear Weapons Monitoring Regime

    SciTech Connect

    White, Helen; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Allen, Keir; Benz, Jacob M.; McOmish, Sarah; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2012-10-01

    AWE and PNNL are engaged in a technical collaboration investigating techniques to enhance continuity of knowledge over Treaty Accountable Items, with emphasis on a verified nuclear weapons dismantlement process. Tamper Indicating Enclosures (TIE) will likely be deployed as part of a chain of custody regime to indicate an unauthorised attempt to access a Treaty Accountable Item, or secure authenticated monitoring equipment. In 2011, the collaboration presented a paper at the INMM annual conference held in Palm Desert, CA titled “Passive Tamper Indicating Enclosures Incorporating Embedded Optical Fibre”, which discussed the concept of integrating optical fibres into TIEs for use as a passive tamper indicating mechanism. This paper provides an update on the Fibre Optic based TIE and introduces a second passive TIE concept based on the use of Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate) (PMMA). Concepts relating to deployment, tamper indication, and unique identification will be discussed.

  16. Ternary PVA nanocomposites containing cellulose nanocrystals from different sources and silver particles: part II.

    PubMed

    Fortunati, E; Luzi, F; Puglia, D; Terenzi, A; Vercellino, M; Visai, L; Santulli, C; Torre, L; Kenny, J M

    2013-09-12

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted from three different sources, namely flax, phormium, and commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) have been used in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to produce anti-bacterial films using two different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.1 wt% and 0.5 wt%). In general, CNC confer an effect of reinforcement to PVA film, the best values of stiffness being offered by composites produced using phormium fibres, whilst for strength those produced using flax are slightly superior. This was obtained without inducing any particular modification in transition temperatures and in the thermal degradation patterns. As regards antibacterial properties, systems with CNC from flax proved slightly better than those with CNC from phormium and substantially better than those including commercial MCC. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) has only been performed on the ternary composite containing 0.1 wt% Ag, which yielded higher values of Young's modulus, and as a whole confirmed the above results.

  17. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 2: Antimicrobial Polymer Materials Containing Nisin.

    PubMed

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Joly, Catherine; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved as a food preservative because of its antibacterial effectiveness and its negligible toxicity for humans. Typical problems encountered when nisin is directly added to foods are mainly fat adsorption leading to activity loss, heterogeneous distribution in the food matrix, inactivation by proteolytic enzymes, and emergence of resistance in normally sensitive bacteria strains. To overcome these problems, nisin can be immobilized in solid matrices that must act as diffusional barriers and allow controlling its release rate. This strategy allows maintaining a just sufficient nisin concentration at the food surface. The design of such antimicrobial materials must consider both bacterial growth kinetics but also nisin release kinetics. In this review, nisin incorporation in polymer-based materials will be discussed and special emphasis will be on the applications and properties of antimicrobial food packaging containing this bacteriocin.

  18. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 2: Antimicrobial Polymer Materials Containing Nisin.

    PubMed

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Joly, Catherine; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved as a food preservative because of its antibacterial effectiveness and its negligible toxicity for humans. Typical problems encountered when nisin is directly added to foods are mainly fat adsorption leading to activity loss, heterogeneous distribution in the food matrix, inactivation by proteolytic enzymes, and emergence of resistance in normally sensitive bacteria strains. To overcome these problems, nisin can be immobilized in solid matrices that must act as diffusional barriers and allow controlling its release rate. This strategy allows maintaining a just sufficient nisin concentration at the food surface. The design of such antimicrobial materials must consider both bacterial growth kinetics but also nisin release kinetics. In this review, nisin incorporation in polymer-based materials will be discussed and special emphasis will be on the applications and properties of antimicrobial food packaging containing this bacteriocin. PMID:25674671

  19. Ternary PVA nanocomposites containing cellulose nanocrystals from different sources and silver particles: part II.

    PubMed

    Fortunati, E; Luzi, F; Puglia, D; Terenzi, A; Vercellino, M; Visai, L; Santulli, C; Torre, L; Kenny, J M

    2013-09-12

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted from three different sources, namely flax, phormium, and commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) have been used in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to produce anti-bacterial films using two different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.1 wt% and 0.5 wt%). In general, CNC confer an effect of reinforcement to PVA film, the best values of stiffness being offered by composites produced using phormium fibres, whilst for strength those produced using flax are slightly superior. This was obtained without inducing any particular modification in transition temperatures and in the thermal degradation patterns. As regards antibacterial properties, systems with CNC from flax proved slightly better than those with CNC from phormium and substantially better than those including commercial MCC. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) has only been performed on the ternary composite containing 0.1 wt% Ag, which yielded higher values of Young's modulus, and as a whole confirmed the above results. PMID:23911522

  20. 44. AUXILIARY CHAMBER BETWEEN CHAMBER AND CONCRETE ENCLOSURE (LOCATION CCC), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. AUXILIARY CHAMBER BETWEEN CHAMBER AND CONCRETE ENCLOSURE (LOCATION CCC), LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING DRAIN PIPE FROM SUMP - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  1. 41. AUXILIARY CHAMBER, CONCRETE ENCLOSURE CHAMBER AIR LOCK (EXTERIOR), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. AUXILIARY CHAMBER, CONCRETE ENCLOSURE CHAMBER AIR LOCK (EXTERIOR), LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER (LOCATION AAA) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  2. 45. AUXILIARY CHAMBER BETWEEN CHAMBER AND CONCRETE ENCLOSURE (LOCATION DDD), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. AUXILIARY CHAMBER BETWEEN CHAMBER AND CONCRETE ENCLOSURE (LOCATION DDD), VIEW LOOKING EAST. LEAD ENCLOSED PIPING IS DRAIN FROM BOILER CHAMBER No. 1 - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  3. Recovering and Mining Asteroids with a Gas-Sealed Enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Damer, B.; Norkus, R.; Pilotz, S.; Grigsby, B.; Adams, C.; Blair, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    The internal structure of weakly consolidated rubble piles and primitive asteroids can be studied closer to home, and such asteroids can be mined, if it is possible to create a gas-sealed enclosure around the asteroid.

  4. 40 CFR 1066.915 - Enclosures; auxiliary systems and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment. Enclosures for evaporative and refueling emissions must be equipped with fans, blowers, and measurement and data recording equipment as described in 40 CFR 86.107-98(b) through (h) and (j)....

  5. 49 CFR 193.2907 - Protective enclosure construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... by grates, doors or covers of construction and fastening of sufficient strength such that the... construction. (a) Each protective enclosure must have sufficient strength and configuration to...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2907 - Protective enclosure construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... by grates, doors or covers of construction and fastening of sufficient strength such that the... construction. (a) Each protective enclosure must have sufficient strength and configuration to...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2907 - Protective enclosure construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... by grates, doors or covers of construction and fastening of sufficient strength such that the... construction. (a) Each protective enclosure must have sufficient strength and configuration to...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2907 - Protective enclosure construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... by grates, doors or covers of construction and fastening of sufficient strength such that the... construction. (a) Each protective enclosure must have sufficient strength and configuration to...

  9. 24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  10. OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING THE SMALL ENCLOSURE WITH NO DOOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING THE SMALL ENCLOSURE WITH NO DOOR IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Safety of Hydrogen Systems Installed in Outdoor Enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2013-11-06

    The Hydrogen Safety Panel brings a broad cross-section of expertise from the industrial, government, and academic sectors to help advise the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office through its work in hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. The Panel’s initiatives in reviewing safety plans, conducting safety evaluations, identifying safety-related technical data gaps, and supporting safety knowledge tools and databases cover the gamut from research and development to demonstration and deployment. The Panel’s recent work has focused on the safe deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in support of DOE efforts to accelerate fuel cell commercialization in early market applications: vehicle refueling, material handling equipment, backup power for warehouses and telecommunication sites, and portable power devices. This paper resulted from observations and considerations stemming from the Panel’s work on early market applications. This paper focuses on hydrogen system components that are installed in outdoor enclosures. These enclosures might alternatively be called “cabinets,” but for simplicity, they are all referred to as “enclosures” in this paper. These enclosures can provide a space where a flammable mixture of hydrogen and air might accumulate, creating the potential for a fire or explosion should an ignition occur. If the enclosure is large enough for a person to enter, and ventilation is inadequate, the hydrogen concentration could be high enough to asphyxiate a person who entered the space. Manufacturers, users, and government authorities rely on requirements described in codes to guide safe design and installation of such systems. Except for small enclosures used for hydrogen gas cylinders (gas cabinets), fuel cell power systems, and the enclosures that most people would describe as buildings, there are no hydrogen safety requirements for these enclosures, leaving gaps that must be addressed. This paper proposes that

  12. Test plan for engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1993-02-01

    This test plan describes experimental details of an engineering-scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration to be performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY)-93. This demonstration will investigate, in the engineering scale, the feasibility of using electrostatic enclosures and devices to control the spread of contaminants during transuranic waste handling operations. Test objectives, detailed experimental procedures, and data quality objectives necessary to perform the FY-93 experiments are included in this plan.

  13. Wall pressure fluctuations in rectangular partial enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliaroli, T.; Camussi, R.

    2015-04-01

    Wall pressure fluctuations generated within rectangular partial enclosures (RPEs) have been studied experimentally for a broad range of geometrical parameters. The geometry represents a simplified version of a new generation trapped vortex combustor and consisted of a rectangular cavity connected to a neck of smaller size. Wall pressure fluctuations have been measured through wall mounted microphones providing single and multi-variate pressure statistics both in the physical space and in the Fourier domain. In order to interpret the pressure signals, aerodynamic and acoustic investigations have been carried out as well for several cavity-neck ratios. The analysis of the acoustic response of the cavity has been conducted both numerically and experimentally and a simple theoretical model has been proposed to predict the frequency of the acoustic resonances. The aerodynamic study has been carried out through PIV measurements that provided characterization in terms of the geometrical parameters of both the large-scale vortex generated within the cavity and the recirculation zone formed upstream of the neck. The use of the POD decomposition permitted us to correlate the dynamics of the recirculation with the observed pressure statistics. The aerodynamic and acoustic investigations allowed us to interpret exhaustively the wall pressure cross-statistics and to separate contributions induced by hydrodynamic and purely acoustic pressure fluctuations.

  14. O2 Inhibition of Ni-Containing CO Dehydrogenase Is Partly Reversible.

    PubMed

    Merrouch, Meriem; Hadj-Saïd, Jessica; Domnik, Lilith; Dobbek, Holger; Léger, Christophe; Dementin, Sébastien; Fourmond, Vincent

    2015-12-21

    Ni-containing CO dehydrogenases (CODHs) are very efficient metalloenzymes that catalyze the conversion between CO2 and CO. They are a source of inspiration for designing CO2-reduction catalysts and can also find direct use in biotechnology. They are deemed extremely sensitive to O2, but very little is known about this aspect of their reactivity. We investigated the reaction with O2 of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans (Ch) CODH II and the homologous, recently characterized CODH from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Dv) through protein film voltammetry and solution assays (in the oxidative direction). We found that O2 reacts very quickly with the active site of CODHs, generating species that reactivate upon reduction--this was unexpected. We observed that distinct CODHs exhibit different behaviors: Dv CODH reacts half as fast with O2 than Ch CODH, and only the former fully recovers the activity upon reduction. The results raise hope that fast CO/CO2 biological conversion may be feasible under aerobic conditions. PMID:26568460

  15. Active minimization of energy density in three-dimensional enclosures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerfeldt, Scott D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate and develop a novel approach for actively controlling the sound field in enclosures that is based on the acoustic energy density. Typically the acoustic field in an enclosure has been controlled by minimizing the sum of the squared pressures from several microphones distributed throughout the enclosure. The approach investigated in this study involved minimizing the acoustic energy density at the sensor locations, rather than the squared pressure. Research previous to this study in a simple one-dimensional enclosure showed that improved global attenuation of the acoustic field is often obtained by minimizing the energy density, rather than the pressure. The current study built on the previous research by extending the method of controlling the acoustic energy density to three-dimensional enclosures. The study was intended to help establish if improved control can still be expected in a more general enclosure. The study was designed to be both analytical/numerical and experimental in nature.

  16. Calculating the reflected paths of radiation in high reflectivity enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, B.M.; Newborough, M.

    1999-07-01

    A novel method of calculating the reflected paths of radiation in Monte Carlo simulations is described. This method is well suited to high reflectivity (e.g., p > 0.5) systems, which tend to have strong directional and bidirectional characteristics. The prime advantage of the described approach is that it retains the inherent flexibility of the traditional Monte Carlo approach, but allows the paths of reflected radiation to be evaluated without the need for ray-surface intersection calculations. The paths of reflected radiation can therefore be evaluated much more rapidly, and Monte Carlo simulation times can be substantially reduced. Simulations of an enclosure containing an obstruction, exhibiting directional emission and reflection, and bi-directional reflection, are described and compared with solutions obtained by traditional Monte Carlo. For the studied cases, predictions from the new and traditional methods are in close agreement. Application of the new method resulted in computational speeds being improved by up to a factor of eight, depending upon the chosen reflection function (directional, specular, or bi-directional) and the desired accuracy of radiative exchange-factor calculation. For example, to achieve an average exchange-factor uncertainty of {+-} 10% (95% confidence), computational performance improvements of approximately twofold for the bi-directional case and threefold for the specular case were attained. For an uncertainty of {+-} 5% (99% confidence), the performance improvements increased to six and eightfold for bi-directional and specular reflection respectively.

  17. Lack of Negative Effects on Syrian Hamsters and Mongolian Gerbils Housed in the Same Secondary Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-01-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure. PMID:26045450

  18. Lack of negative effects on Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils housed in the same secondary enclosure.

    PubMed

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-05-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure.

  19. Effects of larval density in Ambystoma opacum: An experiment in large-scale field enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E. )

    1990-02-01

    This experiment was designed to measure the effects of larval density on larval traits in the salamander Ambystoma opacum, and to ascertain whether previous studies conducted at smaller spatial scales or higher densities produced artifactual results. Density effects on larval growth, body size at metamorphosis, length of larval period, and survival to metamorphosis were studied in A. opacum in large-scale (41 m{sup 2} and 23 m{sup 2}) field enclosures in two temporary ponds. Each enclosure contained indigenous populations of prey (zooplankton and insects) and predators, as well as the range of microhabitats present in these natural ponds. Initial larval densities were chosen to represent high and low levels of naturally occurring mean densities. The results suggest that, in natural ponds, the importance of intraspecific competition is dependent upon hydroperiod, and the intensity of competition influences predation risk. Thus, both density-dependent and density-independent factors affect body size and recruitment of larval A. opacum into the adult population. The use of large-scale field enclosures has advantages and disadvantages: it allows the examination of density-dependent processes under natural conditions and provides high statistical power because of low variability in larval traits; however, experimental designs must be simple and underlying mechanisms are difficult to identify.

  20. Application of static and dynamic enclosures in determining DMS and OCS fluxes in Sphagnum peatlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    A static enclosure method was applied to determine the exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and OCS between the surface of Sphagnum peatlands and the atmosphere. Measurements were performed concurrently with dynamic enclosure measurements with S-free air used as sweep gas. DMS emission rates determined by both methods were comparable between 5 and 500 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1). The dynamic method provided positive OCS flux rates (emission) for measurements performed at sites containing Sphagnum. Conversely, data from the static method indicated that OCS was consumed from the atmosphere. Measurements using both techniques at a site devoid of vegetation showed that peat is a source of both DMS and OCS. Results suggested that OCS is produced in surface peat but it is taken up from the atmosphere by Sphagnum mosses. However, the net effect of both processes is that OCS uptake exceeds emission. The dynamic enclosure technique is adequate to measure rates of emissions of S gases which are produced in peatlands but not consumed, as long as attention is paid to the rate of sweep flow.

  1. Lack of negative effects on Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils housed in the same secondary enclosure.

    PubMed

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-05-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure. PMID:26045450

  2. Noise transmission from a curved panel into a cylindrical enclosure: analysis of structural acoustic coupling.

    PubMed

    Henry, J K; Clark, R L

    2001-04-01

    Much of the research on sound transmission through the aircraft fuselage into the interior of aircraft has considered coupling of the entire cylinder to the acoustic modes of the enclosure. Yet, much of the work on structural acoustic control of sound radiation has focused on reducing sound radiation from individual panels into an acoustic space. Research by the authors seeks to bridge this gap by considering the transmission of sound from individual panels on the fuselage to the interior of the aircraft. As part of this research, an analytical model of a curved panel, with attached piezoelectric actuators, subjected to a static pressure load was previously developed. In the present work, the analytical model is extended to consider the coupling of a curved panel to the interior acoustics of a rigid-walled cylinder. Insight gained from an accurate analytical model of the dynamics of the noise transmission from the curved panels of the fuselage into the cylindrical enclosure of an aircraft is essential to the development of feedback control systems for the control of stochastic inputs, such as turbulent boundary layer excitation. The criteria for maximal structural acoustic coupling between the modes of the curved panel and the modes of the cylindrical enclosure are studied. For panels with aspect ratios typical of those found in aircraft, results indicate that predominately axial structural modes couple most efficiently to the acoustic modes of the enclosure. The effects of the position of the curved panel on the cylinder are also studied. Structural acoustic coupling is found to not be significantly affected by varying panel position. The impact of the findings of this study on structural acoustic control design is discussed. PMID:11325117

  3. Natural convection in asymmetric triangular enclosures heated from below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiyo, O. M.; Angeli, D.; Barozzi, G. S.; Collins, M. W.

    2014-11-01

    Triangular enclosures are typical configurations of attic spaces found in residential as well as industrial pitched-roof buildings. Natural convection in triangular rooftops has received considerable attention over the years, mainly on right-angled and isosceles enclosures. In this paper, a finite volume CFD package is employed to study the laminar air flow and temperature distribution in asymmetric rooftop-shaped triangular enclosures when heated isothermally from the base wall, for aspect ratios (AR) 0.2 <= AR <= 1.0, and Rayleigh number (Ra) values 8 × 105 <= Ra <= 5 × 107. The effects of Rayleigh number and pitch angle on the flow structure and temperature distributions within the enclosure are analysed. Results indicate that, at low pitch angle, the heat transfer between the cold inclined and the hot base walls is very high, resulting in a multi-cellular flow structure. As the pitch angle increases, however, the number of cells reduces, and the total heat transfer rate progressively reduces, even if the Rayleigh number, being based on the enclosure height, rapidly increases. Physical reasons for the above effect are inspected.

  4. Transient natural and surface-tension-driven convection in a two-layer gas-and-liquid enclosure with nonuniform radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramzon, B.; Edwards, D. K.; Sirignano, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical study has been made of transient heat transfer and fluid flow in a cylindrical enclosure containing a two-layer gas-and-liquid system. The geometric configuration and the boundary conditions of the problem are relevant to the analysis of the preignition processes during the fire accident situation involving a pool of liquid fuel in the vicinity of an ignition source. It is demonstrated that the effects of the natural and thermocapillary convection, radiative transfer, thermal inertia and conduction of the walls bounding the enclosure, as well as, the magnitude of the gravity field play important roles in the development of the temperature and velocity fields in the container.

  5. A pressurized cylindrical shell with a fixed end which contains an axial part-through or through crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical shell having a very stiff and plate or a flange is considered. It is assumed that near the end the cylinder contains an axial flaw which may be modeled as a part through surface crack or a through crack. The effect of the end constraining on the stress intensity factor which is the main fracture mechanics parameter is studied. The applied loads acting on the cylinder are assumed to be axisymmetric. Thus the crack problem under consideration is symmetric with respect to the plane of the crack and consequently only the Mode 1 stress intensity factors are nonzero. With this limitation, the general perturbation problem for a cylinder with a built in end containing an axial crack is considered. Reissner's shell theory is used to formulate the problem. The part through crack problem is treated by using a line spring model. In the case of a crack tip terminating at the fixed end it is shown that the integral equations of the shell problem has the same generalized Cauchy kernel as the corresponding plane stress elasticity problem.

  6. Explosion containment device

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  7. 40 CFR 63.5875 - How do I determine the capture efficiency of the enclosure on my wet-out area and the capture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in EPA Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. If a PTE does not exist, then a temporary total... determined using EPA Methods 204B through E of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. (b) The capture efficiency of an... efficiency of the enclosure on my wet-out area and the capture efficiency of my oven(s) for...

  8. Numerical modeling of mixing in large stably stratified enclosures using TRACMIX++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Jakob

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the numerical modeling of stably stratified large enclosures. In stably stratified volumes, the distribution of temperature, species concentration etc become essentially 1-D throughout most of the enclosure. When the fluid in an enclosure is stratified, wall boundary buoyant jets, forced buoyant jets (injection of fluid) and natural convection plumes become the primary sources of mixing. The time constants for the buoyant jets may be considered as much smaller than the time constant for the mixing of the stratified ambient fluid, provided the combined volume occupied by the buoyant jets is small compared to the volume of the enclosure. Therefore, fluid transport by the buoyant jets may be considered as occurring instantaneously. For this reason this work focuses on deriving a numerical method which is able to solve the 1-D vertical fluid conservation equations, as given in Peterson (1994). Starting with the Eulerian fluid conservation equations given in Peterson (1994), a set of Lagrangian fluid conservation equations were derived. Combining the Lagrangian approach with operator splitting such that the convective step and the diffusive step is separated renders a very efficient, accurate, and stable numerical method as it is shown in this text. Since the stratified flow field frequently exhibits very strong gradients or so-called fronts, the generation of these fronts has to be accurately detected and tracked by the numerical method. Flow in stably stratified large enclosure has typically been modeled in the past using 1- or 2-zone models. The present model is new in that it belongs to the K-zone models where the number of zones is arbitrarily large and depends on the complexity of the solution and the accuracy requirement set by the user. Because fronts are present in the flow field, a Lagrangian type numerical method is used. A Lagrangian method facilitates front tracking and prevents numerical diffusion from altering the shape of

  9. Numerical simulation of transient moisture transfer into an electronic enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasirabadi, P. Shojaee; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H.

    2016-06-01

    Electronic systems are sometimes exposed to harsh environmental conditions of temperature and humidity. Moisture transfer into electronic enclosures and condensation can cause several problems such as corrosion and alteration in thermal stresses. It is therefore essential to study the local climate inside the enclosures to be able to protect the electronic systems. In this work, moisture transfer into a typical electronic enclosure is numerically studied using CFD. In order to reduce the CPU-time and make a way for subsequent factorial design analysis, a simplifying modification is applied in which the real 3D geometry is approximated by a 2D axial symmetry one. The results for 2D and 3D models were compared in order to calibrate the 2D representation. Furthermore, simulation results were compared with experimental data and good agreement was found.

  10. Radiative equilibrium in a rectangular enclosure bounded by gray walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modest, M. F.

    1975-01-01

    Two-dimensional temperature and heat-flux distributions are calculated for an absorbing-emitting gray medium at radiative equilibrium in a rectangular enclosure. The bounding walls are gray and diffuse with arbitrary surface-temperature distributions, and heat generation may take place inside the medium. As a first approximation, the problem is solved for optically thick systems (differential approximation). These results are subsequently improved by the introduction of a number of geometrical parameters to yield good accuracy for all optical thicknesses. As examples, two cases are discussed in detail: (1) uniform heat generation in a black enclosure, and (2) an enclosure with one gray surface at constant temperature. Comparison with some numerical solutions generated by Hottel's /Hottel and Cohen (1958) and Einstein (1963)/ zonal method shows excellent agreement.

  11. Computation of mixing in large stably stratified enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haihua

    This dissertation presents a set of new numerical models for the mixing and heat transfer problems in large stably stratified enclosures. Basing on these models, a new computer code, BMIX++ (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++), was developed by Christensen (2001) and the author. Traditional lumped control volume methods and zone models cannot model the detailed information about the distributions of temperature, density, and pressure in enclosures and therefore can have significant errors. 2-D and 3-D CFD methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets, wall boundaries, yet such fine grid resolution is difficult or impossible to provide due to computational expense. Peterson's scaling (1994) showed that stratified mixing processes in large stably stratified enclosures can be described using one-dimensional differential equations, with the vertical transport by free and wall jets modeled using standard integral techniques. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in large enclosures. The BMIX++ code was developed to implement the above ideas. The code uses a Lagrangian approach to solve 1-D transient governing equations for the ambient fluid and uses analytical models or 1-D integral models to compute substructures. 1-D transient conduction model for the solid boundaries, pressure computation and opening models are also included to make the code more versatile. The BMIX++ code was implemented in C++ and the Object-Oriented-Programming (OOP) technique was intensively used. The BMIX++ code was successfully applied to different types of mixing problems such as stratification in a water tank due to a heater inside, water tank exchange flow experiment simulation, early stage building fire analysis, stratification produced by multiple plumes, and simulations for the UCB large enclosure experiments. Most of these simulations gave satisfying

  12. Some problems of selection and evaluation of the Martian suit enclosure concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, Isaak; Moiseyev, Nikolay; Stoklitsky, Anatoly

    2005-12-01

    One of the most important tasks for preparation of a future manned mission to Mars is to create a space suit, which ensures efficient and safe operation of the man on the planet surface. The concept of space suit (SS) utilisation on the Mars surface will be determined mainly by the Mars mission scenario. Currently the preference is given to utilisation of robotics with the crew driving a Mars rover vehicle, whereby the suit will be used solely as an additional safety means. However, one cannot exclude the necessity of a durable self-contained stay of the man outside a pressurised compartment, to pick up, for instance, soil samples or do certain repair work in case of an emergency. The requirements to the Mars suit and especially to the personal self-contained life support system (LSS) will depend in many respects on the Mars environmental conditions, the space vehicle system concept and performance characteristics, the airlock and its interface design, the availability of expendable elements for the LSS, etc. The paper reviews principal problems, which have to be solved during development of the Martian suit. A special attention is paid to the issue of suited man mobility during traversing on the planet surface. The paper also reviews the arguments for application of a suit semi-rigid design concept and evaluates potentialities of using certain elements of the existing "Orlan" type suit. The paper presents results of a number of studies on selection of the planetary SS enclosure concept and on experimental evaluation of mobility of the lower torso and leg enclosures in conjunction with a specially designed prototype model (tentative model) of the SS enclosure.

  13. 40 CFR 63.924 - Standards-Container Level 3 controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that is vented inside an enclosure which is exhausted through a closed-vent system to a control device... container, enclosure, closed-vent system, or control device used to comply with this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards-Container Level 3...

  14. 40 CFR 63.924 - Standards-Container Level 3 controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that is vented inside an enclosure which is exhausted through a closed-vent system to a control device... container, enclosure, closed-vent system, or control device used to comply with this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards-Container Level 3...

  15. 40 CFR 63.924 - Standards-Container Level 3 controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that is vented inside an enclosure which is exhausted through a closed-vent system to a control device... container, enclosure, closed-vent system, or control device used to comply with this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards-Container Level 3...

  16. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... lifting shall be provided on the exterior of the primary enclosure to enable the primary enclosure to be... guinea pig Weight (grams) Square centimeters Square inches Up to 350 193.6 30 350 to 600 290.3 45...

  17. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lifting shall be provided on the exterior of the primary enclosure to enable the primary enclosure to be... guinea pig Weight (grams) Square centimeters Square inches Up to 350 193.6 30 350 to 600 290.3 45...

  18. Solar cell is housed in light-bulb enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Inexpensive, conventional solar-cell module uses focusing principle of electric lamp in reverse to produce electric power from sunlight. Standard outdoor light enclosure provides low-cost housing which concentrates sunlight in solar cell. Unit is capable of producing approximately 1 watt of electric power.

  19. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  20. 30 CFR 56.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 56.12025 Section 56.12025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  1. 30 CFR 56.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 56.12025 Section 56.12025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 56.12025 Section 56.12025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 56.12068 - Locking transformer enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Locking transformer enclosures. 56.12068 Section 56.12068 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 56.12025 Section 56.12025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12025 - Grounding circuit enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding circuit enclosures. 56.12025 Section 56.12025 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 46 CFR 95.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made so that the ventilation system is automatically shut down...

  11. Performance of masonry enclosure walls: lessons learned from recent earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, Romeu Silva; Rodrigues, Hugo; Varum, Humberto; Costa, Aníbal; Mendes da Silva, José António Raimundo

    2012-03-01

    This paper discusses the issue of performance requirements and construction criteria for masonry enclosure and infill walls. Vertical building enclosures in European countries are very often constituted by non-load-bearing masonry walls, using horizontally perforated clay bricks. These walls are generally supported and confined by a reinforced concrete frame structure of columns and beams/slabs. Since these walls are commonly considered to be nonstructural elements and their influence on the structural response is ignored, their consideration in the design of structures as well as their connection to the adjacent structural elements is frequently negligent or insufficiently detailed. As a consequence, nonstructural elements, as for wall enclosures, are relatively sensitive to drift and acceleration demands when buildings are subjected to seismic actions. Many international standards and technical documents stress the need for design acceptability criteria for nonstructural elements, however they do not specifically indicate how to prevent collapse and severe cracking, and how to enhance the overall stability in the case of moderate to high seismic loading. Furthermore, a review of appropriate measures to improve enclosure wall performance and both in-plane and out-of-plane integrity under seismic actions is addressed.

  12. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION Definitions. Pt. 100, Encl. Enclosure—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service...

  13. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION Definitions. Pt. 100, Encl. Enclosure—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service...

  14. 46 CFR 76.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  15. 46 CFR 193.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces which are protected by carbon dioxide extinguishing... carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and effectively closing off...

  16. 46 CFR 76.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  17. 46 CFR 193.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces which are protected by carbon dioxide extinguishing systems provisions... to that space. (b) Where natural ventilation is provided for spaces protected by a carbon...

  18. 46 CFR 193.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces which are protected by carbon dioxide extinguishing... carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and effectively closing off...

  19. 46 CFR 76.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  20. 46 CFR 95.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  1. 46 CFR 95.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  2. 46 CFR 76.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  3. 46 CFR 95.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  4. 46 CFR 193.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces which are protected by carbon dioxide extinguishing systems provisions... to that space. (b) Where natural ventilation is provided for spaces protected by a carbon...

  5. 46 CFR 76.15-35 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-35 Enclosure openings. (a) Where mechanical ventilation is provided for spaces other than cargo and similar spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system, provisions shall be made for easily and...

  6. 46 CFR 95.16-30 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enclosure openings. 95.16-30 Section 95.16-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION... closed. Doors, shutters, or dampers must be installed for openings in the lower portion of the...

  7. 30 CFR 18.31 - Enclosures-joints and fastenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Minimum thickness of material for walls 1 1/8″ 3/16″ 1/4″ Minimum thickness of material for flanges and... bolt spacing will be judged on the basis of size and configuration of the enclosure, strength of... be rugged and constructed with materials having 75 percent, or greater, of the thickness and...

  8. 30 CFR 18.31 - Enclosures-joints and fastenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Minimum thickness of material for walls 1 1/8″ 3/16″ 1/4″ Minimum thickness of material for flanges and... bolt spacing will be judged on the basis of size and configuration of the enclosure, strength of... be rugged and constructed with materials having 75 percent, or greater, of the thickness and...

  9. 30 CFR 18.31 - Enclosures-joints and fastenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Minimum thickness of material for walls 1 1/8″ 3/16″ 1/4″ Minimum thickness of material for flanges and... bolt spacing will be judged on the basis of size and configuration of the enclosure, strength of... be rugged and constructed with materials having 75 percent, or greater, of the thickness and...

  10. 30 CFR 18.31 - Enclosures-joints and fastenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Minimum thickness of material for walls 1 1/8″ 3/16″ 1/4″ Minimum thickness of material for flanges and... bolt spacing will be judged on the basis of size and configuration of the enclosure, strength of... be rugged and constructed with materials having 75 percent, or greater, of the thickness and...

  11. 30 CFR 18.31 - Enclosures-joints and fastenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Minimum thickness of material for walls 1 1/8″ 3/16″ 1/4″ Minimum thickness of material for flanges and... bolt spacing will be judged on the basis of size and configuration of the enclosure, strength of... be rugged and constructed with materials having 75 percent, or greater, of the thickness and...

  12. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION Definitions. Pt. 100, Encl. Enclosure—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service...

  13. Effects of Multiple Boundaries on Perceived Spaciousness and Enclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, Arthur E., III

    2013-01-01

    This article reports seven new, original findings, based on 4 experiments, 56 environmental scenes, and 71 participants, on how the factors of area over which one could walk (boundary height, boundary porosity, and boundary proximity) influence perceived spaciousness or enclosure. Perceived spaciousness was most strongly related by the area over…

  14. 30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE WITH CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. IN CENTER. LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  15. 28. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AND CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. SHOCK ISOLATOR AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  16. 26. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBER LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AT COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE. LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  17. Wind fence enclosures for infrasonic wind noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Abbott, JohnPaul; Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    A large porous wind fence enclosure has been built and tested to optimize wind noise reduction at infrasonic frequencies between 0.01 and 10 Hz to develop a technology that is simple and cost effective and improves upon the limitations of spatial filter arrays for detecting nuclear explosions, wind turbine infrasound, and other sources of infrasound. Wind noise is reduced by minimizing the sum of the wind noise generated by the turbulence and velocity gradients inside the fence and by the area-averaging the decorrelated pressure fluctuations generated at the surface of the fence. The effects of varying the enclosure porosity, top condition, bottom gap, height, and diameter and adding a secondary windscreen were investigated. The wind fence enclosure achieved best reductions when the surface porosity was between 40% and 55% and was supplemented by a secondary windscreen. The most effective wind fence enclosure tested in this study achieved wind noise reductions of 20-27 dB over the 2-4 Hz frequency band, a minimum of 5 dB noise reduction for frequencies from 0.1 to 20 Hz, constant 3-6 dB noise reduction for frequencies with turbulence wavelengths larger than the fence, and sufficient wind noise reduction at high wind speeds (3-6 m/s) to detect microbaroms. PMID:25786940

  18. Pressure Rise Due to a Fire in an Enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atallah, Sami; deRis, John N.

    1969-01-01

    Can temperature and pressure rise resulting from a fast developing fire in an enclosure be predicted? Toward that end, the authors developed equations, the results of which were compared with the few available experimental data and with the Apollo accident pressure record.

  19. 30 CFR 75.701 - Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enclosures of electric equipment. 75.701 Section 75.701 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.701 Grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment. Metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment that can become “alive” through failure...

  20. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained...

  1. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained...

  2. 50 CFR 14.106 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from IATA, 2000 Peel St., Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2R4... a foam or sponge insert, a perforated wooden block, or other suitable device to prevent spillage...

  3. 50 CFR 14.106 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from IATA, 2000 Peel St., Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2R4... a foam or sponge insert, a perforated wooden block, or other suitable device to prevent spillage...

  4. 50 CFR 14.106 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from IATA, 2000 Peel St., Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2R4... a foam or sponge insert, a perforated wooden block, or other suitable device to prevent spillage...

  5. 50 CFR 14.106 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from IATA, 2000 Peel St., Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2R4... a foam or sponge insert, a perforated wooden block, or other suitable device to prevent spillage...

  6. The N-terminal part of Als1 protein from Candida albicans specifically binds fucose-containing glycans.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Dagmara S; Ielasi, Francesco S; Goossens, Katty V Y; Willaert, Ronnie G

    2011-06-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans expresses on its surface Als (Agglutinin like sequence) proteins, which play an important role in the adhesion to host cells and in the development of candidiasis. The binding specificity of these proteins is broad, as they can bind to various mammalian proteins, such as extracellular matrix proteins, and N- and E-cadherins. The N-terminal part of Als proteins constitutes the substrate-specific binding domain and is responsible for attachment to epithelial and endothelial cells. We have used glycan array screening to identify possible glycan receptors for the binding domain of Als1p-N. Under those conditions, Als1p-N binds specifically to fucose-containing glycans, which adds a lectin function to the functional diversity of the Als1 protein. The binding between Als1p-N and BSA-fucose glycoconjugate was quantitatively characterized using surface plasmon resonance, which demonstrated a weak millimolar affinity between Als1p-N and fucose. Furthermore, we have also quantified the affinity of Als1p-N to the extracellular matrix proteins proteins fibronectin and laminin, which is situated in the micromolar range. Surface plasmon resonance characterization of Als1p-N-Als1p-N interaction was in the micromolar affinity range.

  7. 50 CFR 14.106 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from IATA, 2000 Peel St., Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2R4. Copies may be inspected at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Headquarters (see 50 CFR 2.1(b) for address... a foam or sponge insert, a perforated wooden block, or other suitable device to prevent spillage...

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for container storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains Part B of the Permit Application for Container Storage Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Sections cover the following areas: Facility description; Waste characteristics; Process information; Ground water monitoring; Procedures to prevent hazards; Contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; Recordkeeping; Other federal laws; Organic air emissions; Solid waste management units; and Certification.

  9. Fogging formulations for fixation of particulate contamination in ductwork and enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Maresca, Jr., Joseph W.; Kostelnik, Lori M.; Kriskivich, James R.; Demmer, Rick L.; Tripp, Julia L.

    2015-09-08

    A method and an apparatus using aqueous fixatives for fogging of ventilation ductwork, enclosures, or buildings containing dust, lint, and particulates that may be contaminated by radionuclides and other dangerous or unsafe particulate contaminants, which method and apparatus are capable of (1) obtaining full coverage within the ductwork and (2) penetrating and fixing the lint, dust and large particles present in the ductwork so that no airborne particles are released during or after the application of the fixative. New aqueous fogging solutions outperform conventional glycerin-based solutions. These aqueous solutions will fog using conventional methods of application and contain a surfactant to aid wetting and penetration of the lint and dust, a binder to stabilize loose or respirable particles, and an agent to aid in fogging and enhance adhesiveness. The solutions are safe and easy to use.

  10. Space-deployed, thin-walled enclosure for a cryogenically-cooled high temperature superconducting coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Allison K.

    The interaction of magnetic fields generated by large superconducting coils has multiple applications in space, including actuation of spacecraft or spacecraft components, wireless power transfer, and shielding of spacecraft from radiation and high energy particles. These applications require coils with major diameters as large as 20 meters and a thermal management system to maintain the superconducting material of the coil below its critical temperature. Since a rigid thermal management system, such as a heat pipe, is unsuitable for compact stowage inside a 5 meter payload fairing, a thin-walled thermal enclosure is proposed. A 1.85 meter diameter test article consisting of a bladder layer for containing chilled nitrogen vapor, a restraint layer, and multilayer insulation was tested in a custom toroidal vacuum chamber. The material properties found during laboratory testing are used to predict the performance of the test article in low Earth orbit. Deployment motion of the same test article was measured using a motion capture system and the results are used to predict the deployment in space. A 20 meter major diameter and coil current of 6.7 MA is selected as a point design case. This design point represents a single coil in a high energy particle shielding system. Sizing of the thermal and structural components of the enclosure is completed. The thermal and deployment performance is predicted.

  11. The Development of Lightweight Electronics Enclosures for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenske, Matthew T.; Barth, Janet L.; Didion, Jeffrey R.; Mule, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines the end to end effort to produce lightweight electronics enclosures for NASA GSFC electronics applications with the end goal of presenting an array of lightweight box options for a flight opportunity. Topics including the development of requirements, design of three different boxes, utilization of advanced materials and processes, and analysis and test will be discussed. Three different boxes were developed independently and in parallel. A lightweight machined Aluminum box, a cast Aluminum box and a composite box were designed, fabricated, and tested both mechanically and thermally. There were many challenges encountered in meeting the requirements with a non-metallic enclosure and the development of the composite box employed several innovative techniques.

  12. Baseline design and requirements for the LSST rotating enclosure (dome)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, D. R.; DeVries, J.; Hileman, E.; Sebag, J.; Gressler, W.; Wiecha, O.; Andrew, J.; Schoening, W.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a large (8.4 meter) wide-field (3.5 degree) survey telescope, which will be located on the Cerro Pachón summit in Chile. As a result of the wide field of view, its optical system is unusually susceptible to stray light; consequently besides protecting the telescope from the environment the rotating enclosure (Dome) also provides indispensible light baffling. All dome vents are covered with light baffles which simultaneously provide both essential dome flushing and stray light attenuation. The wind screen also (and primarily) functions as a light screen providing only a minimum clear aperture. Since the dome must operate continuously, and the drives produce significant heat, they are located on the fixed lower enclosure to facilitate glycol water cooling. To accommodate day time thermal control, a duct system channels cooling air provided by the facility when the dome is in its parked position.

  13. In plant partial noise enclosures for the mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kinevy, P.T.

    1993-10-01

    The Physical and Toxic Agents Division of the Mine Safety and Health Administration`s Pittsburgh Safety and Health Technology Center has conducted three joint noise control demonstrations at dry milling operations. These demonstrations were conducted on a rod mill, a roller mill, and a ball mill, in order to survey a representative sample of the more commonly utilized types of milling equipment. The noise control concept that was demonstrated involved the construction of partial enclosures surrounding the mills and then adding acoustical materials within the enclosures to absorb the build up of acoustical energy. The results of this work illustrate the feasibility of this concept, the physical principle of creating an acoustical shadow, and the ability to closely predict the amount of absorptive material required to reduce the noise levels so as to comply with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 30.

  14. 25. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. AT LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AND LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AT COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE. RADIO TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER RACKS AT FAR RIGHT; ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACKS AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  15. 29. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AND CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. AT CONSOLES. REFRIGERATOR AT RIGHT FLANKED BY RADIO EQUIPMENT (RIGHT) AND FILE CABINETS (LEFT). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  16. Enclosure for thermoelectric refrigerator and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian V. (Inventor); McGrath, Ralph D. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An enclosed structure is provided for use with a refrigerator having a door assembly. The enclosed structure preferably contains superinsulation materials and a plurality of matching drawers. The enclosed structure preferably includes corner joints which minimize thermal energy transfer between adjacent superinsulation panels. The refrigerator may include a cooling system having a thermoelectric device for maintaining the temperature within the refrigerator at selected values. If desired, a fluid cooling system and an active gasket may also be provided between the door assembly and the enclosed structure. The fluid cooling system preferably includes a second thermoelectric device to maintain the temperature of fluid flowing through the active gasket at a selected value. The drawers associated with the refrigerator may be used for gathering, processing, shipping and storing food or other perishable items.

  17. DKIST enclosure modeling and verification during factory assembly and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrakoetxea, Ibon; McBride, William; Marshall, Heather K.; Murga, Gaizka

    2014-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST) is unique as, apart from protecting the telescope and its instrumentation from the weather, it holds the entrance aperture stop and is required to position it with millimeter-level accuracy. The compliance of the Enclosure design with the requirements, as of Final Design Review in January 2012, was supported by mathematical models and other analyses which included structural and mechanical analyses (FEA), control models, ventilation analysis (CFD), thermal models, reliability analysis, etc. During the Enclosure Factory Assembly and Testing the compliance with the requirements has been verified using the real hardware and the models created during the design phase have been revisited. The tests performed during shutter mechanism subsystem (crawler test stand) functional and endurance testing (completed summer 2013) and two comprehensive system-level factory acceptance testing campaigns (FAT#1 in December 2013 and FAT#2 in March 2014) included functional and performance tests on all mechanisms, off-normal mode tests, mechanism wobble tests, creation of the Enclosure pointing map, control system tests, and vibration tests. The comparison of the assumptions used during the design phase with the properties measured during the test campaign provides an interesting reference for future projects.

  18. Radiant heat exchange calculations in radiantly heated and cooled enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.S.; Zhang, P.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents the development of a three-dimensional mathematical model to compute the radiant heat exchange between surfaces separated by a transparent and/or opaque medium. The model formulation accommodates arbitrary arrangements of the interior surfaces, as well as arbitrary placement of obstacles within the enclosure. The discrete ordinates radiation model is applied and has the capability to analyze the effect of irregular geometries and diverse surface temperatures and radiative properties. The model is verified by comparing calculated heat transfer rates to heat transfer rates determined from the exact radiosity method for four different enclosures. The four enclosures were selected to provide a wide range of verification. This three-dimensional model based on the discrete ordinates method can be applied to a building to assist the design engineer in sizing a radiant heating system. By coupling this model with a convective and conductive heat transfer model and a thermal comfort model, the comfort levels throughout the room can be easily and efficiently mapped for a given radiant heater location. In addition, objects such as airplanes, trucks, furniture, and partitions can be easily incorporated to determine their effect on the performance of the radiant heating system.

  19. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is important to read the definitions for these key words because the definition explains the word's...

  20. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the...

  1. Study of improved resins for advanced supersonic technology composites. Part 1: Heteroaromatic polymers containing ether groups. Part 2: Curing chemistry of aromatic polymers and composite studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takekoshi, T.; Hillig, W. B.; Mellinger, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen ether-containing, aromatic dianhydrides have been synthesized from N-phenyl-3 or 4-nitrophthalimide and various bisphenols. The process involves nucleophilic displacement of activated nitro groups with bisphenolate ions. Ether-containing dianhydrides were indefinitely stable in the presence of atmospheric moisture. One-step, high temperature solution polymerization of the ether-containing dianhydrides with m-phenylene diamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline and 1, 3-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene afforded 42 polyetherimides. The polyetherimides were all soluble in m-cresol except two which were found to be crystalline. The glass transition temperatures of the polyetherimides ranged from 178 to 277 C. Soluble polybenzimidazopyrrolones containing ether groups were also prepared from the same ether-containing dianhydrides and aromatic tetraamines by one-step solution polymerization. Using low molecular weight polyetherimides, various thermoset resin systems were developed and tested as matrices for fiber-reinforced composites. The curing chemistry involving reaction of the phthalonitrile group and the o-diaminophenyl group was found to be generally applicable to crosslinking various aromatic polymers other than polyimides.

  2. 40 CFR 61.345 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the container is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, the owner or operator may... that the pressure in the container remains below atmospheric pressure. (b) Each cover and all openings... Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure” in 40 CFR 52.741, appendix B. The enclosure may have permanent...

  3. 40 CFR 61.345 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the container is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, the owner or operator may... that the pressure in the container remains below atmospheric pressure. (b) Each cover and all openings... Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure” in 40 CFR 52.741, appendix B. The enclosure may have permanent...

  4. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    Nondestructive detection of the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste is accomplished by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solifified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  5. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    A method of nondestructively detecting the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solidified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix includes two options, A and B, either of..., and systems and components which penetrate containment of water-cooled power reactors, and establish... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix includes two options, A and B, either of..., and systems and components which penetrate containment of water-cooled power reactors, and establish... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix includes two options, A and B, either of..., and systems and components which penetrate containment of water-cooled power reactors, and establish... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix includes two options, A and B, either of..., and systems and components which penetrate containment of water-cooled power reactors, and establish... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix includes two options, A and B, either of..., and systems and components which penetrate containment of water-cooled power reactors, and establish... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water...

  11. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  12. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  13. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  14. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  15. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  16. Design, construction and testing of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small animals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M J; Preache, M M

    1980-11-01

    This final report describes both the engineering development of a DC bioeffects test enclosure for small laboratory animals, and the biological protocol for the use of such enclosures in the testing of animals to determine possible biological effects of the environment associated with HVDC transmission lines. The test enclosure which has been designed is a modular unit, which will house up to eight rat-sized animals in individual compartments. Multiple test enclosures can be used to test larger numbers of animals. A prototype test enclosure has been fabricated and tested to characterize its electrical performance characteristics. The test enclosure provides a simulation of the dominant environment associated with HVDC transmission lines; namely, a static electric field and an ion current density. A biological experimental design has been developed for assessing the effects of the dominant components of the HVDC transmission line environment.

  17. Assessing the benefits of design for recycling for plastics inelectronics: A case study of computer enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-12-31

    With the emergence of extended producer responsibilityregulations for electronic devices, it is becoming increasingly importantfor electronics manufacturers to apply design for recycling (DFR) methodsin the design of plastic enclosures. This paper presents an analyticalframework for quantifying the environmental and economic benefits of DFRfor plastic computer enclosures during the design process, usingstraightforward metrics that can be aligned with corporate environmentaland financial performance goals. The analytical framework is demonstratedvia a case study of a generic desktop computer enclosure design, which isrecycled using a typical US "take-back" system for plastics from wasteelectronics. The case study illustrates how the analytical framework canbe used by the enclosure designer to quantify the environmental andeconomic benefits of two important DFR strategies: choosing high-valueresins and minimizing enclosure disassembly time. Uncertainty analysis isperformed to quantify the uncertainty surrounding economic conditions inthe future when the enclosure is ultimately recycled.

  18. ALS (acidic lithium sulphate) decomposition method (part iv) Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen in heterocyclic ring compounds containing nitrogennitrogen bond.

    PubMed

    Yoshikuni, N

    1994-01-01

    Heterocyclic ring compounds containing nitrogennitrogen bonds such as 1H-1,2,4 triazole, 2,4,6 trimethylbenzenesulfonyltriazolide and pyridazine can be completely decomposed in the molten state with mixtures of various ratios of concentrated sulphuric acid and lithium sulphate (molten ALS) flux containing a catalyst such as silver sulphate. The quantitative recovery of nitrogen in the above three compounds with the molten ALS flux decomposition system can be obtained by the Kjeldahl method.

  19. Identification of ancient paths within the Late Bronze Age enclosure Corneşti-Iarcuri, western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykamp, Moritz; Heeb, Bernhard S.; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Knitter, Daniel; Krause, Jan; Krause, Rüdiger; Szentmiklosi, Alexandru; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    This study applies a landscape archaeological approach, combining geoscientific and archaeological data, to shed light into the Holocene landscape development in the environs of the Late Bronze Age enclosure of Corneşti-Iarcuri, Romania. Corneşti-Iarcuri is located at the eastern edge of the Great Hungarian Plain and represents with its four earth-filled wooden ramparts the largest known prehistoric enclosure in Europe. Late Bronze Age settlements are documented for the two innermost enclosures. However, the settlement history in its environs started already in the Copper Age. The aims of this study are i) to link hydro-morphological relief anomalies to evidences of settlement occurrence and ii) to document the variations of Holocene geomorphic activity and stability in a selected sub-catchment. The spatio-temporal relation between unnaturally bending tributaries and settled areas is uncovered and the involved formation processes are discussed. The morphometric analyses of the tributaries in the built-up area of Iarcuri show a clear tendency: unnaturally bending tributaries most often occur in the central valley and tend to cluster in the central part between the two innermost enclosures. By comparison of the locations of the strongly bending tributaries and the locations of the most densely settled areas it appears that both are related. It is well known that such linear features form in relation to settlements as a consequence of repeated passage of humans. Due to soil compaction along regular footpaths and the resulting reduced infiltration capacity gully erosion tends to occur forming hollow ways. Usually these hollow ways form contemporaneously with or subsequent to the occupation period of the site. As a consequence alluvial fans form at the outlet of the tributaries documenting former settlement and geomorphic activities. A sediment core obtained from the alluvial fan dumped by the tributary sourcing in the densely settled southern part of enclosure II

  20. Questing ixodid ticks on the vegetation of sable antelope and multi-herbivore enclosures in Thabazimbi.

    PubMed

    Uys, André C; Horak, Ivan G; Harrison, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This survey of ixodid ticks was the first to compare the species composition and population dynamics of free-living ticks in intensive, sable antelope breeding enclosures, now commonplace in commercial wildlife ranching in South Africa, with those of multi-herbivore enclosures. The species composition, abundance and seasonal abundance of questing ixodid ticks on the vegetation in intensive breeding enclosures for sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), on which strategic tick control is practised, were compared with those of ticks in a multi-species herbivore enclosure surrounding the breeding enclosures in which no tick control is practised. A total of eight ixodid tick species were collected by drag-sampling the woodland and grassland habitats in each enclosure type monthly from July 2011 to July 2013. Rhipicephalus decoloratus, a potential vector of fatal tick-borne disease in sable antelopes, was the most abundant, accounting for 65.4% of the total number of ticks collected in the sable enclosures, whilst representing only 25.4% of number of ticks collected in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. Rhipicephalus decoloratus and R. evertsi evertsi were more abundant than R. appendiculatus (both p < 0.05) and Amblyomma hebraeum (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Rhipicephalus decoloratus larvae were collected throughout the year, with peak collections in November 2012 and October to December 2013 in the sable enclosures; and in April/May 2012 and February/April 2013 in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. More R. decoloratus were recovered in the second year than in the first year in the grassland habitat of the sable enclosures (V = 7.0, p < 0.05) possibly as a result of acaricide resistance. The apparent temporal over-abundance of R. decoloratus in sable antelope breeding enclosures, in the face of strategic tick control, is of concern and requires further investigation. PMID:26244584

  1. Questing ixodid ticks on the vegetation of sable antelope and multi-herbivore enclosures in Thabazimbi.

    PubMed

    Uys, André C; Horak, Ivan G; Harrison, Alan

    2015-07-14

    This survey of ixodid ticks was the first to compare the species composition and population dynamics of free-living ticks in intensive, sable antelope breeding enclosures, now commonplace in commercial wildlife ranching in South Africa, with those of multi-herbivore enclosures. The species composition, abundance and seasonal abundance of questing ixodid ticks on the vegetation in intensive breeding enclosures for sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), on which strategic tick control is practised, were compared with those of ticks in a multi-species herbivore enclosure surrounding the breeding enclosures in which no tick control is practised. A total of eight ixodid tick species were collected by drag-sampling the woodland and grassland habitats in each enclosure type monthly from July 2011 to July 2013. Rhipicephalus decoloratus, a potential vector of fatal tick-borne disease in sable antelopes, was the most abundant, accounting for 65.4% of the total number of ticks collected in the sable enclosures, whilst representing only 25.4% of number of ticks collected in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. Rhipicephalus decoloratus and R. evertsi evertsi were more abundant than R. appendiculatus (both p < 0.05) and Amblyomma hebraeum (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Rhipicephalus decoloratus larvae were collected throughout the year, with peak collections in November 2012 and October to December 2013 in the sable enclosures; and in April/May 2012 and February/April 2013 in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. More R. decoloratus were recovered in the second year than in the first year in the grassland habitat of the sable enclosures (V = 7.0, p < 0.05) possibly as a result of acaricide resistance. The apparent temporal over-abundance of R. decoloratus in sable antelope breeding enclosures, in the face of strategic tick control, is of concern and requires further investigation.

  2. Managing the system validation of the DKIST enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariño, Javier; Gómez, Celia; Murga, Gaizka; Ampuero, Pedro; Campo, Ramon

    2014-08-01

    The size of the DKIST (formerly ATST) Enclosure, similar to the 8-10 meters class telescopes such as VLT or GTC, together with the strict and demanding requirement of using the azimuth and shutter movement for accurate positioning of the entrance aperture stop while tracking, makes it probably the most complex enclosure built up to date. Thus, managing the system validation becomes a challenging task, in which the singularity of this system has to be considered by applying customized tools and processes in addition to the usual procedures. This paper describes the managing process followed towards DKIST Enclosure validation, focused on ensuring final on-site assembly and performance. During the design phase, the system verification was carried out by means of modeling tools and detailed simulations and calculations. Furthermore, an overall BIM (Building Information Model) was built to integrate all the design work and detect potential problems since the design phase; it was used to check interfaces between subsystems, verify accessibility for maintenance and study the construction process. The Factory Assembly and Testing phase (FA&T) test campaign, recently finished, has been oriented towards the final system validation, by testing: 1) the overall system integration; 2) the performance; 3) the simulation of the final on-site assembly. The importance of guaranteeing a correct on-site assembly has driven also the decision towards the installation of a modular prefabricated cladding, which reduces the risk inherent to the site remoteness and the on-site installation of the outer water-cooled skin. The validation process also included early prototyping and testing of critical subsystems. That being said, all this helps reducing the risk significantly during the final on-site assembly and commissioning through the replication of already validated procedures.

  3. Assessing the RELAPS-3D Heat Conduction Enclosure Model

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, Larry D.

    2008-09-30

    Three heat conduction problems that have exact solutions are modeled with RELAP5-3D using the conduction enclosure model. These comparisons are designed to be used in the RELAP5-3D development assessment scheduled to be completed in 2009. It is shown that with proper input choices and adequate model detail the exact solutions can be matched. In addition, this analysis identified an error and the required correction in the cylindrical and spherical heat conductor models in RELAP5-3D which will be corrected in a future version of RELAP5-3D.

  4. Final Report: Part 1. In-Place Filter Testing Instrument for Nuclear Material Containers. Part 2. Canister Filter Test Standards for Aerosol Capture Rates.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin Douglas; Runnels, Joel T.; Moore, Murray E.; Reeves, Kirk Patrick

    2014-11-02

    A portable instrument has been developed to assess the functionality of filter sand o-rings on nuclear material storage canisters, without requiring removal of the canister lid. Additionally, a set of fifteen filter standards were procured for verifying aerosol leakage and pressure drop measurements in the Los Alamos Filter Test System. The US Department of Energy uses several thousand canisters for storing nuclear material in different chemical and physical forms. Specialized filters are installed into canister lids to allow gases to escape, and to maintain an internal ambient pressure while containing radioactive contaminants. Diagnosing the condition of container filters and canister integrity is important to ensure worker and public safety and for determining the handling requirements of legacy apparatus. This report describes the In-Place-Filter-Tester, the Instrument Development Plan and the Instrument Operating Method that were developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to determine the “as found” condition of unopened storage canisters. The Instrument Operating Method provides instructions for future evaluations of as-found canisters packaged with nuclear material. Customized stainless steel canister interfaces were developed for pressure-port access and to apply a suction clamping force for the interface. These are compatible with selected Hagan-style and SAVY-4000 storage canisters that were purchased from NFT (Nuclear Filter Technology, Golden, CO). Two instruments were developed for this effort: an initial Los Alamos POC (Proof-of-Concept) unit and the final Los Alamos IPFT system. The Los Alamos POC was used to create the Instrument Development Plan: (1) to determine the air flow and pressure characteristics associated with canister filter clogging, and (2) to test simulated configurations that mimicked canister leakage paths. The canister leakage scenarios included quantifying: (A) air leakage due to foreign material (i.e. dust and hair

  5. Ditched enclosures in Southern Portugal: an Archaeoastronomical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, A J.; Valera, A. Carlos; Castaño, J. Gómez; Rodríguez-Caderot, G.; Becker, Helmut

    2015-05-01

    Since the very first ages, human beings have attempted to understand and manage their environment in order to survive. This is the case regarding wildlife, weather cycles and gathering periods. This is also reflected in the areas surrounding sites where individuals live; they changed the landscape with different aims. This type of archaeology has risen very recently - in the last few years - and is usually called Landscape Archaeology. Traditional landscape archaeology has dealt with earth and location related studies; the relationship of ancient peoples with the sky has been disregarded. The archaeoastronomical studies have mitigated this fact. Archaeoastronomy has revealed an important number of archaeological sites; many of them reveal a clear intention of astronomically designed buildings or structures. This implies a planned detailed design and obviously a deep understanding of astronomical knowledge. As examples of these sites a number of megalithic ditched enclosures sited in Portugal will be shown which were studied inside the project "Ditched enclosures plants and Neolithic cosmologies: A landscape, archaeoastronomical and geophysical perspective". The ideological and astronomical aspects inside the architecture of these types of sites will be explained. In this paper we present a new methodology applied in the archaeoastronomical calculations for southern Portugal sites. It includes GIS techniques and the development of an archaeoastronomical layer that can be used to display the computations over cartographic information from the archaeological sites. A Spatial Data Infrastructure is also created in order to expose the results.

  6. A displaced-solvent functional analysis of model hydrophobic enclosures

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Robert; Wang, Lingle; Friesner, Richard A.; Berne, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Calculation of protein-ligand binding affinities continues to be a hotbed of research. Although many techniques for computing protein-ligand binding affinities have been introduced--ranging from computationally very expensive approaches, such as free energy perturbation (FEP) theory; to more approximate techniques, such as empirically derived scoring functions, which, although computationally efficient, lack a clear theoretical basis--there remains pressing need for more robust approaches. A recently introduced technique, the displaced-solvent functional (DSF) method, was developed to bridge the gap between the high accuracy of FEP and the computational efficiency of empirically derived scoring functions. In order to develop a set of reference data to test the DSF theory for calculating absolute protein-ligand binding affinities, we have pursued FEP theory calculations of the binding free energies of a methane ligand with 13 different model hydrophobic enclosures of varying hydrophobicity. The binding free energies of the methane ligand with the various hydrophobic enclosures were then recomputed by DSF theory and compared with the FEP reference data. We find that the DSF theory, which relies on no empirically tuned parameters, shows excellent quantitative agreement with the FEP. We also explored the ability of buried solvent accessible surface area and buried molecular surface area models to describe the relevant physics, and find the buried molecular surface area model to offer superior performance over this dataset. PMID:21135914

  7. A slanted porous enclosure filled with Cu-water nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureshkumar, S.; Muthtamilselvan, M.

    2016-04-01

    A numerical investigation to study the laminar mixed convection flow of Cu-nanofluid in a 2D inclined porous enclosure with moving top lid is carried out. The two vertical walls of the enclosure are insulated while the horizontal walls are kept at uniform temperatures with the bottom wall being hotter than the top wall. The governing equations are solved by the finite-volume method. The effects of the Richardson number, the porosity, the Darcy number, the inclination angle, and the solid volume fraction on the fluid flow and temperature field are analyzed. An increase in the inclination angle in the lower medium permeability does not affect the fluid flow and temperature fields considerably. As a result, there is no significant change in the overall heat transfer rate with respect to the inclination angle at lower medium permeability. It is found that the average Nusselt number increases with the increase of solid volume fraction in porous cavity. The overall heat transfer rate decreases with the increase of inclination angle at the natural and mixed convection regimes.

  8. Explicit Finite Element Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabric for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems. Part 2; Ballistic Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. M.; Revilock, D. M.

    2004-01-01

    Under the Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance Center of Excellence and the Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center collaborated with Arizona State University, Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services, and SRI International to develop improved computational models for designing fabric-based engine containment systems. In the study described in this report, ballistic impact tests were conducted on layered dry fabric rings to provide impact response data for calibrating and verifying the improved numerical models. This report provides data on projectile velocity, impact and residual energy, and fabric deformation for a number of different test conditions.

  9. An overview of modeling methods for thermal mixing and stratification in large enclosures for reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2010-10-01

    Thermal mixing and stratification phenomena play major roles in the safety of reactor systems with large enclosures, such as containment safety in current fleet of LWRs, long-term passive containment cooling in Gen III+ plants including AP-1000 and ESBWR, the cold and hot pool mixing in pool type sodium cooled fast reactor systems (SFR), and reactor cavity cooling system behavior in high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), etc. Depending on the fidelity requirement and computational resources, 0-D steady state models (heat transfer correlations), 0-D lumped parameter based transient models, 1-D physical-based coarse grain models, and 3-D CFD models are available. Current major system analysis codes either have no models or only 0-D models for thermal stratification and mixing, which can only give highly approximate results for simple cases. While 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze simple configurations, these methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries. Due to prohibitive computational expenses for long transients in very large volumes, 3-D CFD simulations remain impractical for system analyses. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, UC Berkeley developed 1-D models basing on Zuber’s hierarchical two-tiered scaling analysis (HTTSA) method where the ambient fluid volume is represented by 1-D transient partial differential equations and substructures such as free or wall jets are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to 3-D CFD modeling. This paper will present an overview on important thermal mixing and stratification phenomena in large enclosures for different reactors, major modeling methods and their advantages and limits, potential paths to improve simulation capability and reduce analysis uncertainty in this area for advanced reactor system analysis tools.

  10. Enclosure Then and Now: Rural Schools and Communities in the Wake of Market-Driven Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Rochon, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    The following is an historically-based analysis of a new phenomenon affecting rural schools and communities: animal confinement operations. A contrast is made between "enclosure" as it unfolded in England a few centuries ago and the way animal concentration units constitute a second, "modern" form of enclosure today. In both instances, as this…

  11. 30 CFR 18.98 - Enclosures, joints, and fastenings; pressure testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; pressure testing. (a) Cast or welded enclosures shall be designed to withstand a minimum internal pressure of 150 pounds per square inch (gage). Castings shall be free from blowholes. (b) Pneumatic field.... (c) Welded joints forming an enclosure shall have continuous gastight welds....

  12. Blocking of Spatial Learning between Enclosure Geometry and a Local Landmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Paul N.; Alexander, Tim

    2008-01-01

    In a virtual environment, blocking of spatial learning to locate an invisible target was found reciprocally between a distinctively shaped enclosure and a local landmark within its walls. The blocking effect was significantly stronger when the shape of the enclosure rather than the landmark served as the blocking cue. However, the extent to which…

  13. 40 CFR 61.345 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure” in 40 CFR 52.741, appendix B. The enclosure may have permanent or... Container Level 3 control requirements in 40 CFR 264.1086(e)(2)(i) or 40 CFR 265.1086(e)(2)(i) is not...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene...

  14. 40 CFR 61.345 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure” in 40 CFR 52.741, appendix B. The enclosure may have permanent or... Container Level 3 control requirements in 40 CFR 264.1086(e)(2)(i) or 40 CFR 265.1086(e)(2)(i) is not...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene...

  15. 40 CFR 61.345 - Standards: Containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Permanent or Temporary Total Enclosure” in 40 CFR 52.741, appendix B. The enclosure may have permanent or... Container Level 3 control requirements in 40 CFR 264.1086(e)(2)(i) or 40 CFR 265.1086(e)(2)(i) is not...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene...

  16. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  17. Operations and maintenance manual for the light duty utility arm (LDUA) at-tank instrument enclosure (ATIE) (LDUA system 4300)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-23

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) At-Tank Instrument Enclosure has completed testing and is ready for operation. This document defines the requirements applicable to the operation and maintenance of the At-Tank Instrument Enclosure.

  18. Electrical enclosure hydrogen intrusion study. [purging Cape Kennedy Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, P. J.; Yantsios, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    As a cost savings measure for the space shuttle program, the feasibility of substituting dry air for nitrogen as the purge gas used to minimize the probability of fire and explosions which could erupt from propellant vapor (hydrogen) diffusion into the electrical enclosures at Launch Complex 39 was investigated. It was concluded that: (1) Hydrogen concentrations of approximately 1% were obtained in an electrical enclosure under design purge conditions. (2) Hydrogen concentrations exceeding the lower explosive limit, 4%, could probably be obtained within the enclosure under worst case conditions. (3) Most of the hydrogen intrusion into the enclosure probably occurred at the point with the shortest leak path, such as the door seal. (4) More stringent electrical enclosure design requirements should be imposed before air is using as a purge gas.

  19. A cylindrical shell with a stress-free end which contains an axial part-through or through crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Yahsi, O. S.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction problem of a through or a part through crack with a stress free boundary in a semi-infinite cylindrical shell is considered. It is assumed that the crack lies in a meridional plane which is a plane of symmetry with respect to the external loads as well as the geometry. The circular boundary of the semi-infinite cylinder is assumed to be stress free. By using a transverse shear theory the problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations. The line spring model is used to treat the part through crack problem. In the case of a through crack the interaction between the perturbed stress fields due to the crack and the free boundary is quite strong and there is a considerable increase in the stress intensity factors caused by the interaction. On the other hand in the problem of a surface crack the interaction appears to be much weaker and consequently the magnification in the stress intensity factors is much less significant.

  20. Non-empirical calculations of NMR indirect carbon-carbon coupling constants. Part 9--Bicyclobutane-containing polycycloalkanes.

    PubMed

    Krivdin, Leonid B

    2004-10-01

    13C--(13)C spin-spin coupling constants characterizing the bicyclobutane moiety of seven well-known bicyclobutane-containing polycycloalkanes were calculated at the SOPPA level. Benchmark calculations on tricyclopentane and octabisvalene revealed an appropriate level of theory and sufficient quality of basis sets used to perform geometry searches and to calculate spin-spin coupling constants. Several experimental uncertainties were resolved and a number of interesting couplings were predicted. The most interesting trend observed in this series of polycycloalkanes is the marked increase (decrease in absolute value) of J(C,C) between bridgehead carbons with increase in the puckering angle of the bicyclobutane moiety. This predicts almost zero coupling between bridgehead carbons of tricyclopentane and explains the positive J(C,C) in tetrahedrane in contrast to the negative bridgehead-bridgehead J(C,C) in bicyclobutane.

  1. Characterization of oil-proof papers containing new-type of fluorochemicals Part 1: Surface properties and printability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Satoru; Chaussy, Didier; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Reverdy-Bruas, Nadège; Thielemans, Wim

    2013-07-01

    Commercial oil-proof papers containing new family of fluorochemicals were characterized in terms of surface and barrier properties and printability. XPS analyses demonstrated that the fluorochemicals added to these papers had shorter perfluoroalkyl chains, compared to those used few decades ago. Contact angle measurements were performed and the obtained data were processed according to Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble (OWRK) approach, in order to calculate the surface energy of the investigated samples. This set of experiments revealed that the values of the surface energy of the non-coated surfaces of oil-proof papers were low enough (i.e. about 5 mJ/m2) to repel both water and oil. The surface energy of the coated sides was, instead, close to that of classical organic surfaces (i.e. around 30 mJ/m2), which predicts their potentially good printability. In fact, microcontour test was performed as the basic test for evaluating printability of oil-proof papers and showed that ink pigment retention was not significantly influenced by the level of barrier to oil. However, the surface roughness was found to play a key role in such properties.

  2. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, A. L.; Goh, Y. M.; Samsudin, A. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  3. FAA Development of Reliable Modeling Methodologies for Fan Blade Out Containment Analysis. Part 2; Ballistic Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the ballistic impact testing that was conducted to provide validation data for the development of numerical models of blade out events in fabric containment systems. The ballistic impact response of two different fiber materials - Kevlar 49 (E.I. DuPont Nemours and Company) and Zylon AS (Toyobo Co., Ltd.) was studied by firing metal projectiles into dry woven fabric specimens using a gas gun. The shape, mass, orientation and velocity of the projectile were varied and recorded. In most cases the tests were designed such that the projectile would perforate the specimen, allowing measurement of the energy absorbed by the fabric. The results for both Zylon and Kevlar presented here represent a useful set of data for the purposes of establishing and validating numerical models for predicting the response of fabrics under conditions simulating those of a jet engine blade release situations. In addition some useful empirical observations were made regarding the effects of projectile orientation and the relative performance of the different materials.

  4. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides Part I. Relative performance and detonation of mixtures with triacetone triperoxide.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Svatopluk; Trzciński, Waldemar A; Matyás, Robert

    2008-06-15

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E0, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E0 values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m(-3). Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of "tertiary explosives" as well as samples that approach "high explosives" in their performances and detonation velocities.

  5. Parts Per Billion Detection of Uranium with a Porphryinoid-containing Nanoparticle and in vivo Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ho, I-Ting; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Jokerst, Jesse V.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical tools that can report radioactive isotopes would be of interest to the defense community. Here we report ~250 nm polymeric nanoparticles containing porphyrinoid macrocycles with and without pre-complexed depleted uranium and demonstrate that the latter species may be detected easily and with high sensitivity via photoacoustic imaging. The porphyrinoid macrocycles used in the present study are non-aromatic in the absence of the uranyl cation, but aromatic after cation complexation. We solubilized both the freebase and metalated forms of the macrocycles in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and found a peak in photoacoustic signal at 910 nm excitation in the case of the uranyl complex. The signal was stable for at least 15 minutes and allowed detection of uranium concentrations down to 6.2 ppb (5.7 nM) in vitro and 0.57 ppm (19 fCi; 0.52 μM) in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nanoparticle that detects an actinide cation via photoacoustic imaging. PMID:25854506

  6. Synthesis, complex formation, spectral and crystallographic investigations of new crown ethers containing recognition site for sodium. Part V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayvalı, Z.; Hayvalı, M.; Kılıç, Z.; Hökelek, T.

    2001-10-01

    The monotopic crown ether ligands (5 and 6) and their sodium perchlorate complexes (5a and 6a) have been synthesized. The crystal structure of (5) has been determined, which contains 1 mol of water molecule. Compound (5) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/ c with a=39.324(8), b=8.011(1), c=16.877(4) Å, β=107.61(2)°, V=5067.5(2) Å 3, Z=8 and Dcalc=1.289 g m -3. The relative macrocyclic inner hole size, estimated as twice the mean distance of the donor atoms from their centroid is approximately 1.68 Å. The phenazone and benzo crown ether precursors about CN imine bond are in anti ( E) configuration. The CN imine bond length and CN-C bond angle are 1.270(3) Å and 120.4(2)°, respectively. Compounds (6) and (6a) are in phenol-imine forms as supported by 1H-NMR and UV-visible data.

  7. Convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L. W.; Chai, A. T.; Sun, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The transport process in the fluid phase during the growth of a crystal has a profound influence on the structure and quality of the solid phase. In vertical growth techniques the fluid phase is often subjected to vertical temperature and concentration gradients. The main objective is to obtain more experimental data on convective flows in enclosures with vertical temperature or concentration gradients. Among actual crystal systems the parameters vary widely. The parametric ranges studied for mass transfer are mainly dictated by the electrochemical system employed to impose concentration gradients. Temperature or concentration difference are maintained between two horizontal end walls. The other walls are kept insulated. Experimental measurements and observations were made of the heat transfer or mass transfer, flow patterns, and the mean and fluctuating temperature distribution. The method used to visualize the flow pattern in the thermal cases is an electrochemical pH-indicator method. Laser shadowgraphs are employed to visualize flow patterns in the solutal cases.

  8. Combined natural convection and radiation in a triangular enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, Syed Muhammad Fakhir

    The problem of combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer of a gray absorbing-emitting and isotropically scattering medium in a triangular enclosure is solved numerically in this dissertation. Interactions of natural convection and radiation occur in many engineering applications such as electronic cooling, solar heating, crystal growth, fire propagation etc. The radiation effect was neglected from many of the previous studies due to the complexities associated with radiation modeling. The triangular enclosure considered in the present study has been used by researchers in the past to model flows inside attic spaces, solar stills and near shore water circulation in lakes and rivers. Previous pure natural convection studies in this geometry had produced conflicting results and the effect of radiation was not considered prior to this study. The objectives of this study are: (i) to obtain a numerical solution for the combined natural convection and radiation problem in a triangular enclosure, (ii) to study the influence of radiation on thermal instabilities present in pure natural convection flow in this geometry, (iii) to perform parametric study and (iv) to verify the results of pure natural convection flow using more accurate QUICK scheme. The problem is mathematically formulated and a Fortran computer program is developed to meet the desired objectives. The two dimensional stream function equation, the time-dependent vorticity transport and energy equations, and the radiative transport equation are solved simultaneously for uniform temperature boundary conditions. Two different sets of boundary conditions are employed with inclined surfaces considered hot for one and cold for the other. The stream function equation is solved using successive overrelaxation whereas the vorticity transport and energy equations are solved using third-order upwinding QUICK scheme while the radiative transport solution is sought by means of Discrete Ordinates Method. Two

  9. The ADPI of cold air jets in an enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, A.T.; Knappmiller, K.D.

    1996-11-01

    The subject of this paper is the computational determination of the air diffusion performance index (ADPI) of a cold air jet in an enclosure. The jet outlet size, temperature, momentum, and Archimedes number were varied to produce a range of attached and separated flow regimes. The cooling load was produced by heating one of the room walls. The effect of using conventional and cold supply jets was investigated for two heat source locations. The results indicate that, for the type of diffuser and room configuration studied, an optimum ADPI was obtained when the jet separation distance is approximately equal to the room characteristic length. Room airflow conditions produced by conventional and cold air supply temperature air are almost identical to each other when the same separation distance criteria, i.e., same momentum flux, are used.

  10. Moisture ingress into electronics enclosures under isothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H.

    2016-06-01

    The number of electronics used in outdoor environment is constantly growing. The humidity causes about 19 % of all electronics failures and, especially, moisture increases these problems due to the ongoing process of miniaturization and lower power consumption of electronic components. Moisture loads are still not understood well by design engineers, therefore this field has become one of the bottlenecks in the electronics system design. The objective of this paper is to model moisture ingress into an electronics enclosure under isothermal conditions. The moisture diffusion model is based on a 1D quasi-steady state (QSS) approximation for Fick's second law. This QSS approach is also described with an electrical analogy which gives a fast tool in modelling of the moisture response. The same QSS method is applied to ambient water vapour variations. The obtained results are compared to an analytical solution and very good agreement is found.

  11. Vacuum decay container/closure integrity testing technology. Part 1. ASTM F2338-09 precision and bias studies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Heinz; Stauffer, Tony; Chen, Shu-Chen Y; Lee, Yoojin; Forster, Ronald; Ludzinski, Miron; Kamat, Madhav; Godorov, Phillip; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2009-01-01

    ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method is applicable for leak-testing rigid and semi-rigid non-lidded trays; trays or cups sealed with porous barrier lidding materials; rigid, nonporous packages; and flexible, nonporous packages. Part 1 of this series describes the precision and bias studies performed in 2008 to expand this method's scope to include rigid, nonporous packages completely or partially filled with liquid. Round robin tests using three VeriPac 325/LV vacuum decay leak testers (Packaging Technologies & Inspection, LLC, Tuckahoe, NY) were performed at three test sites. Test packages were 1-mL glass syringes. Positive controls had laser-drilled holes in the barrel ranging from about 5 to 15 microm in nominal diameter. Two different leak tests methods were performed at each site: a "gas leak test" performed at 250 mbar (absolute) and a "liquid leak test" performed at about 1 mbar (absolute). The gas leak test was used to test empty, air-filled syringes. All defects with holes > or = 5.0 microm and all no-defect controls were correctly identified. The only false negative result was attributed to a single syringe with a < 5.0-microm hole. Tests performed using a calibrated air leak supported a 0.10-cm3 x min(-1) (ccm) sensitivity limit (99/99 lower tolerance limit). The liquid leak test was used to test both empty, air-filled syringes and water-filled syringes. Test results were 100% accurate for all empty and water-filled syringes, both without holes and with holes (5, 10, and 15 microm). Tests performed using calibrated air flow leaks of 0, 0.05, and 0.10 ccm were also 100% accurate; data supported a 0.10-ccm sensitivity limit (99/99 lower tolerance limit). Quantitative differential pressure results strongly correlated to hole size using either liquid or gas vacuum decay leak tests. The higher vacuum liquid leak test gave noticeably higher pressure readings when water was present in the

  12. Influence of nutrient additions on cadmium bioaccumulation by aquatic invertebrates in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, R.S.; Muir, D.C.G.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Hecky, R.E.

    1998-12-01

    Cadmium distribution and bioaccumulation were examined over a 2-year period (1991--1992) in two nutrient-enriched and two control littoral enclosures and in the littoral zone in Lake 382 (L382). Lake 382, a small oligotrophic lake, is located within the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, and received experimental Cd additions from 1987 to 1992. In the second year of this study, chlorophyll a and suspended C concentrations in the nutrient-enriched enclosures increased by 6.6 and 3.4 times, respectively, compared to the controls. As a result of increased particulate produced by the nutrient additions, Cd concentrations in water from the nutrient-enriched enclosures were higher compared to the controls. Estimated Cd/C concentrations in water were lower in the nutrient-enriched enclosures relative to the controls because of higher particle concentrations. Effects on Cd bioaccumulation were limited even though mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions were reached in the nutrient-enriched enclosures had consistently higher Cd concentrations compared to the controls, but significant differences were not detected. Enhanced accumulation of Cd-rich particulate matter by these organisms may account for this trend. Mussels and crayfish accumulated significantly more Cd when exposed in the lake compared to the enclosures. This observation is due to elevated Cd water concentrations in the lake compared to the enclosures because of continued Cd additions to the lake. These results suggest that the water route of exposure is an important pathway for Cd accumulation by these organisms.

  13. Enclosure design and space utilization by Indian leopards (Panthera pardus) in four zoos in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Qureshi, Qamar; Chellam, Ravi

    2002-01-01

    Enclosure design and the use of enclosure space influence the activity budget of cap-tive leopards. The study laid out in grids all enclosures on the base map and segregated these grids into 4 zones. Every 5 min, the study recorded the proportion of time spent in these zones with the leopards' behavior. Captive leopards most frequently used the "edge" zone. Almost all leopards used the edge zone for stereotypic pacing, the "back" zone for resting, and the "other" zone for activity. The study positively corre-lated the proportion of time spent in the "enriched" zone with activity levels exhibited by leopards housed in some enclosures and with resting in others. Thus, the study seg-regated structural objects in the enriched zone into activity-related features (e.g., logs) and rest-related features (e.g., trees and sleeping platforms). Compared with individu-als housed in barren enclosures, leopards housed in structurally enriched on-exhibit enclosures exhibited higher levels of activity. Enclosure design was found to be an important factor influencing the welfare of leopards in captivity.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of diffuse-gray radiation enclosure problems: A hypersensitive case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Robert P.; Luck, Rogelio; Hodge, B. K.; Steele, W. Glenn

    1993-01-01

    An uncertainty analysis of diffuse-gray enclosure problems is presented. The genesis was a diffuse-gray enclosure problem which proved to be hypersensitive to the specification of view factors. This genesis is discussed in some detail. The uncertainty analysis is presented for the general diffuse-gray enclosure problem and applied to the hypersensitive case study. It was found that the hypersensitivity could be greatly reduced by enforcing both closure and reciprocity for the view factors. The effects of uncertainties in the surface emissivities and temperatures are also investigated.

  15. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations. PMID:22662158

  16. Enclosure Requirements to Protect Personnel from Spinning Rotor Frailures at the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, John W

    2007-08-01

    Performance evaluation of electric motors is a major function of the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC). Normally these motors have a fixed wire-wound stator and a rotating rotor, which may have conductors embedded in a ferromagnetic core (induction motors), magnets mounted on the surface of the ferromagnetic core with a thin metal or composite cylinder or ring to hold them in place, or magnets embedded in the ferromagnetic core. Most of the work currently involves the last two permanent magnet (PM) configurations. Although the stator of a radial-gap motor can absorb energy from many of the fragments ejected from the rotor during operation, the stator of an axial-gap motor is not positioned to provide significant protection. The housing of each motor can also absorb some of the energy. The most conservative approach, however, is to assume that all fragments from the rotor must be contained by a protective enclosure. An ideal enclosure is transparent. Manufacturers of such plastics as Lexan, Tuffak, and Cyrolon sell different variations of transparent enclosure material. Lexan is a polycarbonate sheet. Lexgard{reg_sign} is a penetration resistant material made by layering polycarbonate material between pieces of ordinary glass. A fragment striking a sheet of enclosure material will pierce the surface layer, but the layered polycarbonate-glass material is able to absorb the fragment's energy before it completes penetration. Tuffak{reg_sign} is Lexan polycarbonate. Cyrolon{reg_sign} bullet resistant material is acrylic sheet. The ability of the enclosure to stop a fragment depends on its thickness as well as the penetration capability of the fragment; for example, a lead fragment has much less penetrating capability than a steel fragment. Enclosure thicknesses are commercially available to provide several levels of protection. These levels depend on the momentum of the fragments and have been evaluated for some common types of ammunition

  17. A facility for conducting high-temperature oxidation experiments of alloys in helium environments containing part per million levels of impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Torbet, Christopher J.; Was, Gary S.

    2009-09-01

    An experimental facility was constructed to study the corrosion of alloys in helium containing part per million (ppm) levels of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 as impurities, relevant to the environment in the heat exchanger of the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor. The system provides the capability of exposing multiple specimens in up to seven separate helium environments, simultaneously, for durations of >1000 h and temperatures up to 1200 °C. Impurity concentrations are controlled down to 1 ppm accuracy and analyzed using a discharge ionization detector gas chromatograph. The utility and reliability of the facility in quantitatively accounting for the masses of reactants and products involved in the oxidation of alloy 617 at 900 °C and 1000 °C in the helium gas containing 15 ppm CO and 1.5 ppm CO2 is confirmed by the weight-gain measurements, gas-phase analysis and post-test microstructural analysis.

  18. Disorder in Milk Proteins: α-Lactalbumin. Part B. A Multifunctional Whey Protein Acting as an Oligomeric Molten Globular "Oil Container" in the Anti-Tumorigenic Drugs, Liprotides.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N; Permyakov, Serge E; Breydo, Leonid; Redwan, Elrashdy M; Almehdar, Hussein A; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2016-07-15

    This is a second part of the three-part article from a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. We continue to describe α-lactalbumin, a small globular Ca2+-binding protein, which besides being one of the two components of lactose synthase that catalyzes the final step of the lactose biosynthesis in the lactating mammary gland, possesses a multitude of other functions. In fact, recent studies indicated that some partially folded forms of this protein possess noticeable bactericidal activity and other forms might be related to induction of the apoptosis of tumor cells. In its anti-tumorigenic function, oligomeric α-lactalbumin serves as a founding member of a new family of anticancer drugs termed liprotides (for lipids and partially denatured proteins), where an oligomeric molten globular protein acts as an "oil container" or cargo for the delivery of oleic acid to the cell membranes.

  19. 9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... giving equal emphasis to each word composing it. Descriptive terms used in the true name on the product... shown only in one of the following forms respectively: “U.S. Veterinary License No. ___,” or “U.S. Vet. License No. ___,” or “U.S. Vet Lic. No. ___,” or “U.S. Veterinary Permit No. ___,” or “U.S. Permit...

  20. 9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... giving equal emphasis to each word composing it. Descriptive terms used in the true name on the product... shown only in one of the following forms respectively: “U.S. Veterinary License No. ___,” or “U.S. Vet. License No. ___,” or “U.S. Vet Lic. No. ___,” or “U.S. Veterinary Permit No. ___,” or “U.S. Permit...

  1. 9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... giving equal emphasis to each word composing it. Descriptive terms used in the true name on the product... shown only in one of the following forms respectively: “U.S. Veterinary License No. ___,” or “U.S. Vet. License No. ___,” or “U.S. Vet Lic. No. ___,” or “U.S. Veterinary Permit No. ___,” or “U.S. Permit...

  2. 9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... giving equal emphasis to each word composing it. Descriptive terms used in the true name on the product... shown only in one of the following forms respectively: “U.S. Veterinary License No. ___,” or “U.S. Vet. License No. ___,” or “U.S. Vet Lic. No. ___,” or “U.S. Veterinary Permit No. ___,” or “U.S. Permit...

  3. 9 CFR 112.2 - Final container label, carton label, and enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... giving equal emphasis to each word composing it. Descriptive terms used in the true name on the product... shown only in one of the following forms respectively: “U.S. Veterinary License No. ___,” or “U.S. Vet. License No. ___,” or “U.S. Vet Lic. No. ___,” or “U.S. Veterinary Permit No. ___,” or “U.S. Permit...

  4. Rarefied gas flow in a rectangular enclosure induced by non-isothermal walls

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Manuel; Tatsios, Giorgos; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Stefanov, Stefan

    2014-05-15

    The flow of a rarefied gas in a rectangular enclosure due to the non-isothermal walls with no synergetic contributions from external force fields is investigated. The top and bottom walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and along the lateral walls a linear temperature profile is assumed. Modeling is based on the direct numerical solution of the Shakhov kinetic equation and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Solving the problem both deterministically and stochastically allows a systematic comparison and verification of the results as well as the exploitation of the numerical advantages of each approach in the investigation of the involved flow and heat transfer phenomena. The thermally induced flow is simulated in terms of three dimensionless parameters characterizing the problem, namely, the reference Knudsen number, the temperature ratio of the bottom over the top plates, and the enclosure aspect ratio. Their effect on the flow configuration and bulk quantities is thoroughly examined. Along the side walls, the gas flows at small Knudsen numbers from cold-to-hot, while as the Knudsen number is increased the gas flows from hot-to-cold and the thermally induced flow configuration becomes more complex. These flow patterns with the hot-to-cold flow to be extended to the whole length of the non-isothermal side walls may exist even at small temperature differences and then, they are enhanced as the temperature difference between the top and bottom plates is increased. The cavity aspect ratio also influences this flow configuration and the hot-to-cold flow is becoming more dominant as the depth compared to the width of the cavity is increased. To further analyze the flow patterns a novel solution decomposition into ballistic and collision parts is introduced. This is achieved by accordingly modifying the indexing process of the typical DSMC algorithm. The contribution of each part of the solution is separately examined and a physical

  5. Rarefied gas flow in a rectangular enclosure induced by non-isothermal walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Manuel; Tatsios, Giorgos; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Stefanov, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The flow of a rarefied gas in a rectangular enclosure due to the non-isothermal walls with no synergetic contributions from external force fields is investigated. The top and bottom walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and along the lateral walls a linear temperature profile is assumed. Modeling is based on the direct numerical solution of the Shakhov kinetic equation and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Solving the problem both deterministically and stochastically allows a systematic comparison and verification of the results as well as the exploitation of the numerical advantages of each approach in the investigation of the involved flow and heat transfer phenomena. The thermally induced flow is simulated in terms of three dimensionless parameters characterizing the problem, namely, the reference Knudsen number, the temperature ratio of the bottom over the top plates, and the enclosure aspect ratio. Their effect on the flow configuration and bulk quantities is thoroughly examined. Along the side walls, the gas flows at small Knudsen numbers from cold-to-hot, while as the Knudsen number is increased the gas flows from hot-to-cold and the thermally induced flow configuration becomes more complex. These flow patterns with the hot-to-cold flow to be extended to the whole length of the non-isothermal side walls may exist even at small temperature differences and then, they are enhanced as the temperature difference between the top and bottom plates is increased. The cavity aspect ratio also influences this flow configuration and the hot-to-cold flow is becoming more dominant as the depth compared to the width of the cavity is increased. To further analyze the flow patterns a novel solution decomposition into ballistic and collision parts is introduced. This is achieved by accordingly modifying the indexing process of the typical DSMC algorithm. The contribution of each part of the solution is separately examined and a physical

  6. Mixed convection heat transfer inside a differentially heated square enclosure in presence of a rotating heat conducting cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Muntasir; Kamruzzaman, Ahsan, Faraz; Hasan, Mohammad Nasim

    2016-07-01

    A numerical study of mixed convection heat transfer phenomena in a square cavity containing a heat conducting rotating cylinder has been investigated. A discrete isoflux heater is placed at the bottom wall of the enclosure while the top wall is kept adiabatic. Left and right sidewalls of the enclosure are assumed to be maintained at constant low temperature. A two-dimensional solution for steady laminar mixed convection flow is obtained by using the finite element scheme based on the Galerkin method of weighted residuals for different rotating speeds of the cylinder varying over the range of 0-1000 keeping the Rayleigh number fixed at 5×104 and the Prandtl number at 0.7. The effects of rotating speeds of the cylinder, its radius and conductivity ratio of the rotating cylinder and working fluid on the streamlines, isotherms, local Nusselt number, average Nusselt number and other heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are investigated. The results indicate that the flow field, temperature distribution and heat transfer rate are dependent on rotating speeds and cylinder size. However, it has been observed that the effect of conductivity ratio is not so prominent.

  7. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The...

  8. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The...

  9. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The...

  10. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The...

  11. Enclosure design for the ARIES 3.6m optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A. K.; Shukla, Vishal; Bangia, Tarun; Raskar, R. D.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Ghanti, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    A 3.6-m, f/9 optical telescope is planned to be installed at Devasthal, India (Latitude:29° 21' 40'' N, Longitude: 79° 41' 04'' E, Altitude: 2450 m above msl). The telescope has Cassegrain focus and alt-azimuth mount. The design of the telescope enclosure and the auxiliary building includes a fixed base enclosure, a telescope pier, a rotating dome structure, an auxiliary building, ventilation and component handling systems. The design is optimized for thermal, mechanical, structural, as well as for telescope installation and maintenance requirements. The design aims to provide seeing limited images within the telescope enclosure. This paper presents design of the 3.6m telescope enclosure.

  12. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...

  13. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...

  14. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...

  15. Conceptual design study to determine optimal enclosure vent configuration for the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kei; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Hangan, Horia; Jubayer, Chowdhury M.; Breckenridge, Craig; Loewen, Nathan; Bauman, Steven; Salmon, Derrick

    2014-07-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE; formerly Next Generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope) is a dedicated, 10m aperture, wide-field, fiber-fed multi-object spectroscopic facility proposed as an upgrade to the existing Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea. The enclosure vent configuration design study is the last of three studies to examine the technical feasibility of the proposed MSE baseline concept. The enclosure vent configuration study compares the aero-thermal performance of three enclosure ventilation configurations based on the predicted dome thermal seeing and air flow attenuation over the enclosure aperture opening of a Calotte design derived from computational fluid dynamics simulations. In addition, functional and operation considerations such as access and servicing of the three ventilation configurations is discussed.

  16. Electromagnetic coupling between transmitters and electro-explosive devices located within an enclosure.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2010-04-01

    This report documents calculations conducted to determine if 42 low-power transmitters located within a metallic enclosure can initiate electro-explosive devices (EED) located within the same enclosure. This analysis was performed for a generic EED no-fire power level of 250 mW. The calculations show that if the transmitters are incoherent, the power available is 32 mW - approximately one-eighth of the assumed level even with several worst-case assumptions in place.

  17. Materials Opportunity to Electronic Composite Enclosures for Aerospace and Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Roland; Kistner, Mark; Colleary, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Transition in spacecraft development from aluminum to light weight/high performance avionic composite enclosures will be reviewed that influences the new initiative in aerospace thrust, including missile application. Discussion will focus on the type of processed hybrid cooled and passive composite enclosures and internal lightweight, high conductivity composite and graphitic thermal plane heat sinks. Applications are for electronic circuit boards for spacecraft up to 40W/card (VME, PCI architectures) to 120W/card for aircraft application.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission scientific instrument protective enclosure design requirements and contamination controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.; Hedgeland, Randy J.; Chivatero, Craig J.; Studer, Robert J.; Kostos, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    The Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosures were designed for the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Missions to provide a beginning environment to a Scientific Instrument during ground and on orbit activities. The Scientific Instruments required very stringent surface cleanliness and molecular outgassing levels to maintain ultraviolet performance. Data from the First Servicing Mission verified that both the Scientific Instruments and Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosures met surface cleanliness level requirements during ground and on-orbit activities.

  19. Enclosure environment affects the activity budgets of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Jaman, M Firoj; Huffman, Michael A

    2008-12-01

    Individuals adapt to changes in their environment, such as food availability and temperature, by adjusting the amount of time spent in different behavioral activities. These adjustments in behavior should vary across age-sex class according to specific physiological and social needs. We studied the activity budgets of three social Japanese macaque groups inhabiting either vegetated or nonvegetated enclosures in order to compare the effects of access with vegetation, as both food and substrate on resting, feeding, grooming and moving activities over a 12-month period. Daily access to natural foods for monkeys in the vegetated enclosure seems to be largely responsible for the differences in daily time budgets of these three groups. Resting time in all three groups was longer than the time devoted to other activities. Resting and moving time in the two nonvegetated enclosures was significantly longer than in the vegetated enclosure. In contrast, feeding and grooming time was significantly longer in the vegetated enclosure. Seasonal variation in time spent feeding, resting and grooming was significantly effected by enclosure type. In all three enclosures, immatures, particularly females, spent more time feeding and moving, whereas adults spent more time resting. Significant monthly variation in time spent by age-sex class was noted only for feeding and resting. Interestingly, in the vegetated enclosure, time spent feeding on natural vegetation was equal to the amount of time spent feeding on provisioned food. This suggests that factors other than energetic and nutritional needs may be important determinants of the activity budget of the species. These results have important implications for the enrichment of captive primates and our understanding of the maintenance of activity patterns by primates in the wild.

  20. Effect of enclosure shape on natural convection velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, S. J.; Nicholson, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical analysis was performed to compare natural convection velocities in two dimensional enclosures of various shape. The following shapes were investigated: circle, square, horizontal and upright 2 x 1 aspect ratio rectangles, horizontal and upright half circles, diamond. In all cases, the length scale in the various dimensionless parameters, such as Rayleigh number, is defined as the diameter of the equal area circle. Natural convection velocities were calculated for Rayleigh numbers of 1000 and 5000 with the temperature difference taken to be across (1) the maximum horizontal dimension, (2) the median horizontal line (line through centroid) and (3) the horizontal distance such that the temperature gradient is the same for shapes of equal area. For the class of shapes including the square, upright half circle and upright rectangle, the computed velocities were found to agree very closely with that of the equal area circle when the temperature difference is taken to be across the maximum horizontal dimension (condition (a)). The velocities for the horizontal rectangle and half circle were found to be approximately one half that of the equal area circle for the same condition. Better overall agreement among all shapes was obtained by setting the temperature difference across a distance such that the temperature gradients were equal for shapes of equal area.

  1. [Enclosure experiments about the hydrodynamics effects on the plankton].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Li, Fei-Peng; Chen, Ling

    2010-01-01

    To explore the effects of hydrodynamics on plankton, four kinds of surface flow enclosure experiments were done from August, 2007 to July, 2008. The flow velocity were 0.002, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.30 m x s(-1) respectively. Under 0.15 and 0.30 m x s(-1) surface velocity conditions, it was revealed that Spirogyra biomasses were 2.3 times and 31.3 times of the ones under static state respectively. Under 0.10, 0.15 and 0.30 m x s(-1) conditions, Chl-a concentrations were 45%, 54% and 26% of the ones under statistic state while zooplankton biomasses were 38%, 27% and 6% respectively. The mechanism is that a certain flow velocity stimulates Spirogyra growth may be for the shear stress generated by the surface flow can help the vegetative reproduction. Shear stress and turbulence may also bring the phytoplankton to the light limited area by force. Besides, as Spirogyra grows well, it can inhibit the phytoplankton growth by excretion or some symbiotic microorganism. When shear stress or water turbulence exceeds a certain value, crustacean zooplankton successful grazing rate may also be depressed.

  2. Natural convection of ferrofluids in partially heated square enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selimefendigil, Fatih; Öztop, Hakan F.; Al-Salem, Khaled

    2014-12-01

    In this study, natural convection of ferrofluid in a partially heated square cavity is numerically investigated. The heater is located to the left vertical wall and the right vertical wall is kept at constant temperature lower than that of the heater. Other walls of the square enclosure are assumed to be adiabatic. Finite element method is utilized to solve the governing equations. The influence of the Rayleigh number (104≤Ra≤5×105), heater location (0.25H≤yh≤0.75H), strength of the magnetic dipole (0≤γ≤2), horizontal and vertical location of the magnetic dipole (-2H≤a≤-0.5H, 0.2H≤b≤0.8H) on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are investigated. It is observed that different velocity components within the square cavity are sensitive to the magnetic dipole source strength and its position. The length and size of the recirculation zones adjacent to the heater can be controlled with magnetic dipole strength. Averaged heat transfer increases with decreasing values of horizontal position of the magnetic dipole source. Averaged heat transfer value increases from middle towards both ends of the vertical wall when the vertical location of the dipole source is varied. When the heater location is changed, a symmetrical behavior in the averaged heat transfer plot is observed and the minimum value of the averaged heat transfer is attained when the heater is located at the mid of vertical wall.

  3. Natural convection in a differentially heated square enclosure with a solid polygon.

    PubMed

    Roslan, R; Saleh, H; Hashim, I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present numerical study is to analyze the conjugate natural convection heat transfer in a differentially heated square enclosure containing a conductive polygon object. The left wall is heated and the right wall is cooled, while the horizontal walls are kept adiabatic. The COMSOL Multiphysics software is applied to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The governing parameters considered are the polygon type, 3 ≤ N ≤ ∞, the horizontal position, 0.25 ≤ X 0 ≤ 0.75, the polygon size, 0 ≤ A ≤ π/16, the thermal conductivity ratio, 0.1 ≤ K r ≤ 10.0, and the Rayleigh number, 10(3) ≤ Ra ≤ 10(6). The critical size of the solid polygon was found exists at low conductivities. The heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the size of the solid polygon, until it reaches its maximum value. Here, the size of the solid polygon is reaches its critical value. Further, beyond this critical size of the solid polygon, will decrease the heat transfer rate.

  4. Natural convection heat transfer for a staggered array of heated, horizontal cylinders within a rectangular enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Triplett, C.E.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in a staggered array of heated cylinders, oriented horizontally within a rectangular enclosure. The main purpose of this research was to extend the knowledge of heat transfer within enclosed bundles of spent nuclear fuel rods sealed within a shipping or storage container. This research extends Canaan`s investigation of an aligned array of heated cylinders that thermally simulated a boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assembly sealed within a shipping or storage cask. The results are presented in terms of piecewise Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations of the form Nu = C(Ra){sup n}, where C and n are constants. Correlations are presented both for individual rods within the array and for the array as a whole. The correlations are based only on the convective component of the heat transfer. The radiative component was calculated with a finite-element code that used measured surface temperatures, rod array geometry, and measured surface emissivities as inputs. The correlation results are compared to Canaan`s aligned array results and to other studies of natural convection in horizontal tube arrays.

  5. Natural Convection in a Differentially Heated Square Enclosure with a Solid Polygon

    PubMed Central

    Roslan, R.; Saleh, H.; Hashim, I.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present numerical study is to analyze the conjugate natural convection heat transfer in a differentially heated square enclosure containing a conductive polygon object. The left wall is heated and the right wall is cooled, while the horizontal walls are kept adiabatic. The COMSOL Multiphysics software is applied to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The governing parameters considered are the polygon type, 3 ≤ N ≤ ∞, the horizontal position, 0.25 ≤ X 0 ≤ 0.75, the polygon size, 0 ≤ A ≤ π/16, the thermal conductivity ratio, 0.1 ≤ K r ≤ 10.0, and the Rayleigh number, 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106. The critical size of the solid polygon was found exists at low conductivities. The heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the size of the solid polygon, until it reaches its maximum value. Here, the size of the solid polygon is reaches its critical value. Further, beyond this critical size of the solid polygon, will decrease the heat transfer rate. PMID:24991643

  6. A Cask Processing Enclosure for the TRU Waste Processing Center - 13408

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, John T.; Mendez, Nicholas

    2013-07-01

    This paper will discuss the key elements considered in the design, construction, and use of an enclosure system built for the TRU Waste Processing Center (TWPC). The TWPC system is used for the repackaging and volume reduction of items contaminated with radioactive material, hazardous waste and mixed waste. The modular structural steel frame and stainless steel skin was designed for rapid field erection by the use of interchangeable self-framing panel sections to allow assembly of a sectioned containment building and for ease of field mobility. The structure was installed on a concrete floor inside of an outer containment building. The major sections included an Outer Cask Airlock, Inner Cask Airlock, Cask Process Area, and Personnel Airlocks. Casks in overpacks containing transuranic waste are brought in via an inter-site transporter. The overpack lid is removed and the cask/overpack is transferred into the Outer Cask Airlock. A contamination cover is installed on the overpack body and the Outer Cask Airlock is closed. The cask/overpack is transferred into the Inner Cask Airlock on a cask bogie and the Inner Cask Airlock is closed. The cask lid is removed and the cask is transferred into the Cask Process Area where it is placed on a cask tilting station. Once the Cask Processing Area is closed, the cask tilt station is activated and wastes are removed, size reduced, then sorted and re-packaged into drums and standard waste boxes through bag ports. The modular system was designed and built as a 'Fast Track' project at IP Systems in Broomfield Colorado and then installed and is currently in use at the DOE TWPC located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (authors)

  7. Radiative heat transfer in two-dimensional complex enclosures using the modified discrete ordinates method

    SciTech Connect

    Sakami, M.; Charette, A.

    1999-07-01

    Radiative transfer is the dominant mode of heat transfer in many applications. Examples of such applications include combustion chambers, space, greenhouses, rocket plume sensing, to name only a few. However, due to the difficulty in finding an exact analytical solution to the integro-differential radiative transfer equation (RTE) in general absorbing-emitting-scattering media, a diversity of numerical methods have been worked out over the last forty years. In this work, an extension of a modified discrete ordinates method recently proposed by other researchers is presented. It is intended to counter the ray effect inherent in this method. The media analyzed are absorbing, emitting and isotropically or anisotropically scattering and the enclosure geometry is arbitrary. Cases where obstructions are present are also treated. The radiative intensity is broken into two parts: the wall-related intensity and the medium-related intensity. The former is treated separately by rigorous integration over the entire solid boundary. The new differencing scheme recently developed by the authors and based on triangular grids is used for the treatment of the medium-related intensity. Results confirm that the proposed method is a good general remedy for anomalies caused by the ray effect due to the geometry.

  8. Radiative Heat Transfer in Finite Cylindrical Enclosures with Nonhomogeneous Participating Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Pei-Feng; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a numerical solution for radiative heat transfer in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous participating media are presented. The geometry of interest is a finite axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure. The integral formulation for radiative transport is solved by the YIX method. A three-dimensional solution scheme is applied to two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry to simplify kernel calculations and to avoid difficulties associated with treating boundary conditions. As part of the effort to improve modeling capabilities for turbulent jet diffusion flames, predicted distributions for flame temperature and soot volume fraction are used to calculate radiative heat transfer from soot particles in such flames. It is shown that the nonhomogeneity of radiative property has very significant effects. The peak value of the divergence of radiative heat flux could be underestimated by 2 factor of 7 if a mean homogeneous radiative property is used. Since recent studies have shown that scattering by soot agglomerates is significant in flames, the effect of magnitude of scattering is also investigated and found to be nonnegligible.

  9. LOFT. Containment and service building (TAN650). Section through east/west axis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT. Containment and service building (TAN-650). Section through east/west axis of building as viewed from the north. Shows steel ladder to top of dome, gable roof of borated water tank enclosure, pumice block siding of pre-amp tower, metal siding of duct enclosure. Kaiser engineers 6413-11-STEP/LOFT-650-A-6. Date: October 1964. INEEL index code no. 036-650-00-486-122218 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Study of flow patterns in fume hood enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Pathanjali, C.; Rahman, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    A three-dimensional model for flow inside a fume hood enclosure was developed and numerical computations were carried out to explore the flow pattern and possible path of contaminant transport under different operating conditions of the hood. Equations for the conservation of mass and momentum were solved for different flow rate and opening conditions in the hood. The face velocity was maintained constant at its rated value of 0.4 m/s. The flow was assumed to enter through the front window opening (positive x-direction) and leave the cupboard through an opening on the top of the hood (positive z-direction). The flow was assumed to be fully turbulent. The {kappa}-{var_epsilon} model was used for the prediction of turbulence. The flow pattern for different sash openings were studied. The flow patterns around an object located at the bottom of the hood was studied for different locations of the object. In addition, the effect of a person standing in front of the hood on the flow pattern was investigated. It was found that air entering the hood proceeds directly to the back wall, impinges it and turns upward toward the top wall and exits through the outlet. The flow finds its way around any object forming a recirculating region at its trailing surface. With an increase in the sash opening, the velocity becomes higher and the fluid traces the path to the outlet more quickly. The volume occupied by recirculating flow decreases with increase in sash opening. The computed flow patterns will be very useful to design experiments with optimum sash opening providing adequate disposal of contaminants with minimum use of conditioned air from inside the room.

  11. Ultra low wind resistance enclosure for a 100-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    We discuss a transmission primary objective grating (POG) telescope that is nearly flat to the ground with its secondary components buried below ground in a protected environment that enjoys a controlled atmosphere. Temperature gradients can be held steady by sealing this enclosure. End-to-end ray paths need not be interrupted by spiders or other structural support elements. Unlike mirror and lens telescopes, this layout is intrinsically off-axis. Light diffracted from a POG at a grazing angle can be collected a few meters below the POG, and the substructures do not require a deep excavation, as would be required for buried on-axis mirrors such as a zenith tube. The POG principle can take advantage of the rotation of the earth to acquire spectra sequentially, so active tilt and rotate axes are not necessary during observations. The POG aperture is extensible as a ribbon optic to kilometer scale at a linear increase in cost, as compared to other choices where infrastructure grows as the cube of the telescope size. The principle of operation was proven in miniature during bench tests that show high resolution spectra can be obtained at angular resolutions equal to seeing. Mathematical models of the underlying relationships show that flux collection increases with increased angles of grazing exodus even as efficiency decreases. Zemax models show a 30° field-of-view and the capacity to take spectra of all sources within that very wide field-of-view. The method lends itself to large apertures, because it is tolerant of POG surface unevenness.

  12. The influence of enclosure design on diurnal activity and stereotypic behaviour in captive Malayan Sun bears (Helarctos malayanus).

    PubMed

    Tan, H M; Ong, S M; Langat, G; Bahaman, A R; Sharma, R S K; Sumita, S

    2013-04-01

    The effect of enclosure design on diurnal activity and stereotypic behaviour was assessed in 17 adult Malayan Sun bears (Helarctos malayanus), kept either in barren indoor enclosures or relatively enriched outdoor enclosures. Locomotion was the most frequent activity observed in the indoor bears, followed by resting. In contrast, conspecifics housed outdoors spent most of the time resting. Eleven forms of stereotypic behaviours were recorded in the bears, with pacing being the most common. The frequency and repertoire of stereotypies were significantly higher in the indoor bears irrespective of enclosure size. Novel forms of locomotor (forward-reverse pacing) and oral (allo-sucking) stereotypies were recorded. Oral stereotypies were predominant in the bears housed indoors, while patrolling was confined to the outdoor bears. Enclosure complexity significantly influences activity budget and occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, highlighting the importance of appropriate enclosure design and enrichment for the welfare of captive bears.

  13. Aquaculture enclosures relate to the establishment of feral populations of introduced species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Li, Yiming

    2009-01-01

    Many species introduced by humans for social and economic benefits have invaded new ranges by escaping from captivity. Such invasive species can negatively affect biodiversity and economies. Understanding the factors that relate to the establishment of feral populations of introduced species is therefore of great importance for managing introduced species. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is one species that has escaped from farms, and it is now found in the wild in China. In this study, we examined influences of two types of bullfrog farm (termed simple and elaborate farm enclosures) on the establishment of feral populations of this species in 137 water bodies in 66 plots in four provinces of China. The likelihood of establishment of bullfrog populations in water bodies in plots with simple enclosures (49/89 = 55.1%) was higher than those with elaborate enclosures (3/48 = 6.3%). Based on the Akaike Information Criterion, the minimum adequate model of generalized linear mixed models with a binomial error structure and a logit link function showed that the establishment or failure of bullfrog populations in water bodies was positively correlated with the presence of a simple enclosure, the number of bullfrogs raised and the presence of permanent water in a plot, but negatively correlated with distance from a bullfrog farm and the occurrence of frequent hunting. Results therefore suggest that a simple farm enclosure can increase the establishment of feral bullfrog populations compared with an elaborate enclosure. Our findings are the first to quantify the importance of improving farming enclosures to control and minimize the risk from introduced species. PMID:19593446

  14. Aquaculture enclosures relate to the establishment of feral populations of introduced species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Li, Yiming

    2009-07-13

    Many species introduced by humans for social and economic benefits have invaded new ranges by escaping from captivity. Such invasive species can negatively affect biodiversity and economies. Understanding the factors that relate to the establishment of feral populations of introduced species is therefore of great importance for managing introduced species. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is one species that has escaped from farms, and it is now found in the wild in China. In this study, we examined influences of two types of bullfrog farm (termed simple and elaborate farm enclosures) on the establishment of feral populations of this species in 137 water bodies in 66 plots in four provinces of China. The likelihood of establishment of bullfrog populations in water bodies in plots with simple enclosures (49/89 = 55.1%) was higher than those with elaborate enclosures (3/48 = 6.3%). Based on the Akaike Information Criterion, the minimum adequate model of generalized linear mixed models with a binomial error structure and a logit link function showed that the establishment or failure of bullfrog populations in water bodies was positively correlated with the presence of a simple enclosure, the number of bullfrogs raised and the presence of permanent water in a plot, but negatively correlated with distance from a bullfrog farm and the occurrence of frequent hunting. Results therefore suggest that a simple farm enclosure can increase the establishment of feral bullfrog populations compared with an elaborate enclosure. Our findings are the first to quantify the importance of improving farming enclosures to control and minimize the risk from introduced species.

  15. 46 CFR 111.01-11 - Corrosion-resistant parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion-resistant parts. 111.01-11 Section 111.01-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-11 Corrosion-resistant parts. Each enclosure and part of electric equipment that can be damaged...

  16. 46 CFR 111.01-11 - Corrosion-resistant parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Corrosion-resistant parts. 111.01-11 Section 111.01-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-11 Corrosion-resistant parts. Each enclosure and part of...

  17. 46 CFR 111.01-11 - Corrosion-resistant parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corrosion-resistant parts. 111.01-11 Section 111.01-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-11 Corrosion-resistant parts. Each enclosure and part of...

  18. 46 CFR 111.01-11 - Corrosion-resistant parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Corrosion-resistant parts. 111.01-11 Section 111.01-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-11 Corrosion-resistant parts. Each enclosure and part of...

  19. 46 CFR 111.01-11 - Corrosion-resistant parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Corrosion-resistant parts. 111.01-11 Section 111.01-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-11 Corrosion-resistant parts. Each enclosure and part of...

  20. Evidence of a relational spatial strategy in learning the centre of enclosures in human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Luca; Giuliano, Alda

    2014-07-01

    Three- to five-year-old children were trained to localize a sensor hidden underneath the floor, in the centre of a square-shaped enclosure (1.5m×1.5m). Walking over the sensor caused a pleasant music to be played in the environment, thus engaging children in a playful spatial search. Children easily learned to find the centre of the training environment starting from random positions. After training, children were tested in enclosures of different size and/or shape: a larger square-shaped enclosure (3m×3m), a rectangle-shaped enclosure (1.5m×3m), an equilateral triangle-shaped enclosure (side 3m) and an isosceles triangle-shaped enclosure (base 1.5m; sides 3m). Children searched in the central region of the enclosures, their precision varying as a function of the similarity of the testing enclosure's shape to the shape of the training enclosure. This suggests that a relational spatial strategy was used, and that it depended on the encoding of geometrical shape. This result highlights a distinctive role of the geometric centre of enclosed spaces in place learning in children, as already observed in nonhuman species.

  1. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 107 - Table of Authorized Compensation Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives, but excluding paraprofessionals 0-5 Over 20 but less than 22. III. All registered nurses, except those who are included in Group II...

  2. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 107 - Table of Authorized Compensation Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., including nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives, but excluding paraprofessionals 0-5 Over 20 but less than 22. III. All registered nurses, except those who are included in Group II...

  3. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 107 - Table of Authorized Compensation Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., including nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives, but excluding paraprofessionals 0-5 Over 20 but less than 22. III. All registered nurses, except those who are included in Group II...

  4. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 107 - Table of Authorized Compensation Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives, but excluding paraprofessionals 0-5 Over 20 but less than 22. III. All registered nurses, except those who are included in Group II...

  5. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 to Part 107 - Table of Authorized Compensation Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., including nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives, but excluding paraprofessionals 0-5 Over 20 but less than 22. III. All registered nurses, except those who are included in Group II...

  6. Thermal convection with large viscosity variation in an enclosure with localized heating

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Hickox, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The present study is undertaken in order to gain an understanding of convective transport in a magma chamber. We have chosen to represent the chamber by an enclosure with localized heating from below. Results of both laboratory experiments and computer modeling are reported. The experimental apparatus consists of a transparent enclosure with a square planform. An electrically heated strip, with a width equal to one-fourth of the length of a side of the enclosure, is centered on the lower inside surface of the enclosure. For the experiments reported here, the top of the fluid layer is maintained at a constant temperature and the depth of the layer is equal to the width of the heated strip. The large viscosity variation characteristic of magma convection is simulated by using corn syrup as the working fluid. Measured velocity and temperature distribution as well as overall heat transfer rates are presented. The experiment is numerically simulated through use of a finite element computer program. Numerically predicted streamlines, isotherms, and velocity distributions are presented for the transverse vertical midplane of the enclosure. Good agreement is demonstrated between predictions and measurements. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Method for sealing remote leaks in an enclosure using an aerosol

    DOEpatents

    Modera, Mark P.; Carrie, Francois R.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a method and device for sealing leaks remotely by means of injecting a previously prepared aerosol into the enclosure being sealed according to a particular sealing efficiency defined by the product of a penetration efficiency and a particle deposition efficiency. By using different limits in the relationship between penetration efficiency and flowrate, the same method according the invention can be used for coating the inside of an enclosure. Specifically the invention is a method and device for preparing, transporting, and depositing a solid phase aerosol to the interior surface of the enclosure relating particle size, particle carrier flow rate, and pressure differential, so that particles deposited there can bridge and substantially seal each leak, with out providing a substantial coating at inside surfaces of the enclosure other than the leak. The particle size and flow parameters can be adjusted to coat the interior of the enclosure (duct) without substantial plugging of the leaks depending on how the particle size and flowrate relationships are chosen.

  8. Convection patterns in end-heated inclined enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R.

    2001-07-01

    analytical relationship for its frequency in terms of α, Ra, and Pr is derived. Throughout the paper, numerical calculations in two- and three-dimensional enclosures illustrate each type of multicellular flow and examples of instability interactions near the codimension-2 lines predicted by the theory.

  9. Thermal control of the Magellan Project 6.5-meter telescope and enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Frank S.

    1994-06-01

    The Magellan Project 6.5-meter telescope is a collaboration of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and the University of Arizona. The telescope will be located on Cerro Manqui, at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. A design goal for the Magellan Project is to develop a telescope and enclosure system with a 1 degree(s) centigrade per hour time constant. The primary mirror is a University of Arizona borosilicate spin-cast honeycomb design. The enclosure is an octagonal shaped spaceframe structure with an insulated panel covering. The telescope fabrication is by L & F Industries. This paper will concentrate on thermal control of the telescope environment and the telescope thermal control interface to the enclosure.

  10. Numerical studies of convective heat transfer in an inclined semiannular enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lin-Wen; Yung, Chain-Nan; Chai, An-Ti; Rashidnia, Nasser

    1989-01-01

    Natural convection heat transfer in a two-dimensional differentially heated semiannular enclosure is studied. The enclosure is isothermally heated and cooled at the inner and outer walls, respectively. A commercial software based on the SIMPLER algorithm was used to simulate the velocity and temperature profiles. Various parameters that affect the momentum and heat transfer processes were examined. These parameters include the Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, radius ratio, and the angle of inclination. A flow regime extending from conduction-dominated to convection-dominated flow was examined. The computed results of heat transfer are presented as a function of flow parameter and geometric factors. It is found that the heat transfer rate attains a minimum when the enclosure is tilted about +50 deg with respect to the gravitational direction.

  11. LSST summit enclosure-facility design optimization using aero-thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebag, J.; Vogiatzis, K.; Barr, J.; Neill, D.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analyses combined with thermal analyses for modeling the effects of passive ventilation, enclosure-building configuration and topography on the optical performance of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). The primary purpose of the analyses was to evaluate the seeing contribution of the major enclosure-facility elements and to select the features to be adopted in the baseline design from among various configurations being explored by the LSST project and the contracted architectural design team. In addition, one of several simulations for different telescope orientations is presented including various wind-telescope relative azimuth angles. Using a post-processing analysis, the effects of turbulence and thermal variations within the airflow around the buildings and inside the telescope-enclosure configuration were determined, and the optical performance due to the thermal seeing along the optical path was calculated.

  12. Effect of internal resistance of a Helmholtz resonator on acoustic energy reduction in enclosures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ganghua; Li, Deyu; Cheng, Li

    2008-12-01

    The effect of internal resistance of a Helmholtz resonator on acoustic energy reduction in an enclosure and the multimodal coupling-based Helmholtz resonator design are investigated. Using the analytical solution of a resonator-enclosure interaction model, an energy reduction index is defined in a frequency band to optimize the resonator resistance. The dual process of energy dissipation and radiation of the resonator is quantified. Optimal resistance of the resonator and its physical effect on the resonator-enclosure interaction are numerically evaluated and categorized in terms of frequency bandwidths. Predictions on the resonator performance are confirmed by experiments. Comparisons with existing models based on different optimization criteria are also performed. It is shown that the proposed model serves as an effective design tool to determine the internal resistance of the resonator in order to achieve sound reduction in the frequency band enclosing acoustic resonances.

  13. Status of cleanliness maintaining in target beam enclosures in SG III facilities and contamination sources analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meicong; Wang, Baoxu; Miao, Xinxiang; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Wu, Wenkai

    2014-09-01

    In SGIII lasers there are large number of transport mirrors in target beam enclosures. Surface contaminations could easily introduce optical damage, and increase laser energy loss under high laser influence conditions. It is significant for lasers to control contamination and maintain cleanliness. In SGIII prototype, the target beam enclosures are test to be seriously contaminated after about two years of routine operations. Volume cleanliness in mirror boxes are monitored through 24 hours before, during and after a shot. Ingredients of particle and organics are tested. Reconstructions are performed on the mirror boxes to remove debris and keep cleanliness for upward facing surface of mirrors effectively. In SGIII facility some contaminations are found in beam enclosures and on the mirrors after several months of test running. Contaminations sources are analyzed to further know about the contamination mechanisms. Some engineering countermeasures are introduced for controlling contamination and keeping cleanliness for optics.

  14. Space use as an indicator of enclosure appropriateness in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sally C; Gusset, Markus; Miller, Lance J; Somers, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of space use is required to more fully understand biological requirements of nonhuman animals in zoos, aid the design of exhibits, and maximize the animals' welfare. This study used electivity indexes to assess space use of two packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and the appropriateness of two naturalistic, outdoor enclosures at the San Diego Zoo and Bronx Zoo. The results identified enclosure features that were both underutilized and overutilized. They suggest that replacing underutilized areas with features similar to areas that were overutilized may provide more preferred opportunities for the animals. Assessing space use of animals in human care may serve as an indicator of enclosure appropriateness and could have welfare implications. By looking at the possible reasons for area preferences, animal managers can get an idea of where improvements could be made. Designing future exhibits accordingly thus can provide possible welfare benefits for the animals concerned. PMID:24665950

  15. Space use as an indicator of enclosure appropriateness in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sally C; Gusset, Markus; Miller, Lance J; Somers, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of space use is required to more fully understand biological requirements of nonhuman animals in zoos, aid the design of exhibits, and maximize the animals' welfare. This study used electivity indexes to assess space use of two packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and the appropriateness of two naturalistic, outdoor enclosures at the San Diego Zoo and Bronx Zoo. The results identified enclosure features that were both underutilized and overutilized. They suggest that replacing underutilized areas with features similar to areas that were overutilized may provide more preferred opportunities for the animals. Assessing space use of animals in human care may serve as an indicator of enclosure appropriateness and could have welfare implications. By looking at the possible reasons for area preferences, animal managers can get an idea of where improvements could be made. Designing future exhibits accordingly thus can provide possible welfare benefits for the animals concerned.

  16. Performance of Particulate Containment at Nanotechnology Workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Li-Ming; Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These controls assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37% reduction on the particle concentration in the worker’s breathing zone, and produce a 42% lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15%–20% higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker’s breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored. PMID:26705393

  17. 30 CFR 75.703 - Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components. The frames of all offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures...

  18. 30 CFR 75.703 - Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components. The frames of all offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures...

  19. 30 CFR 75.703 - Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components. The frames of all offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures...

  20. 30 CFR 75.703 - Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components. The frames of all offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures...

  1. 30 CFR 75.703 - Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures of related detached components. The frames of all offtrack direct-current machines and the enclosures...

  2. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  3. 30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. 77... enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. (a) The following... electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system other than a system with one...

  4. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  5. 30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. 77... enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. (a) The following... electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system other than a system with one...

  6. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  7. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  8. 30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. 77... enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. (a) The following... electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system other than a system with one...

  9. 30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. 77... enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. (a) The following... electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system other than a system with one...

  10. 30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. 77... enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system. (a) The following... electric equipment receiving power from a direct-current power system other than a system with one...

  11. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving power from direct current power systems with one polarity grounded. For the purpose...

  12. Design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, S.; Yoshii, Y.; Doi, M.; Kohno, K.; Miyata, T.; Motohara, K.; Kawara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, H.; Konishi, M.; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Koshida, S.; Kato, Natsuko; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Handa, T.; Bronfman, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Hamuy, M.; Mendez, R.

    2014-07-01

    A basic design of enclosure and support facilities for the University of Tokyo Atacama observatory (TAO) 6.5-m telescope is described in this paper. The enclosure facility has a carousel shape with an open-space near the ground surface. The upper carousel rotates independently of the telescope. Horizontally opened slit doors, a dozen ventilation windows, wind and moon shields, and an overhead bridge-crane are equipped. For safety reasons, most of maintenance walkways are placed inside of the enclosure facility. An observation floor of the enclosure facility is connected to the support facility via a bridge for maintenance of observation instruments and a primary mirror of the telescope. Air inside of the enclosure and support facilities is exhausted to an underground tunnel.

  13. GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the GAM{underscore}HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guilliotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.

  14. GAM-HEAT: A computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the GAM[underscore]HEAT code which was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guilliotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re-radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices as discussed below, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is structured such that it is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium.

  15. Effect of enclosure and nutrient enrichment on Microcystis blooms in Donghu Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Huijuan; Xie, Ping; Xie, Liqiang; Chen, Feizhou

    2006-09-01

    A nutrient enrichment experiment was conducted in situ in Donghu Lake (30°33'N, 114°23'E), a shallow hypereutrophic lake in Hubei, China through an enclosure(each 2.5×2.5m by 2 m depth) method from July 15 to September 21, 2000. Three duplicated groups, including two treatments and one control, were designed as unfertilized control (C), nitrogen enrichment (N) and phosphorus enrichment (P), and were also compared with neighboring lake water. Dense Microcystis bloom exclusively dominated in all the enclosures, while no bloom was observed in the lake. All the enclosures had much higher phytoplankton biomass, higher pH values, and higher transparency than the surrounding lake water. Neither nitrogen nor phosphorus addition had significant effect on phytoplankton composition and biomass due to very high nutrient concentration in the lake water. Suitable biological (absence of filter-feeding silver carp and bighead carp) and physical environment (high transparency, high stability and high pH) associate with saturated nutrient concentration contribute to the nuisance Microcystis bloom in the enclosures.

  16. 16 CFR 1201.40 - Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower doors and enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower doors and enclosures. 1201.40 Section 1201.40 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS Statements of Policy and Interpretation §...

  17. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The box must provide protection to the shore connection when the connection is in use....

  18. Construction and emplacement of a large enclosure for rearing fish off-station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novotny, J.F.; Macy, T.L

    1989-01-01

    A 1.5-acre barrier net, used to enclose large numbers of juvenile Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for rearing in backwaters along the Columbia River, USA, is described. This type of enclosure may provide additional rearing options to fishery managers.

  19. An Educational Laboratory Experiment to Demonstrate the Development of Fires in a Long Enclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moinuddin, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at describing an experiment involving flame-front movement across the fuel package located within long enclosures and associated heat transfer mechanism. There is a growing interest in incorporating safety education in the chemical engineering curriculum, especially in relation to "facility siting." This experiment is…

  20. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  1. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  2. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  3. System identification of an enclosure with leakages using a probabilistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, H. F.; Ng, C. T.; Lee, Y. Y.; Sun, H. Y.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a model-based method for the system identification of a rectangular enclosure with an unknown number of air leakages subjected to uniform external noise, according to the probabilistic approach. The method aims to identify the number and corresponding locations and sizes of air leakages utilizing a set of measured, interior, sound pressure data in the frequency domain. System identification of an enclosure with an unknown number of air leakages is not trivial. Different classes of acoustic models are required to simulate an enclosure with different numbers of leakages. By following the traditional system of identification techniques, the "optimal" class of models is selected by minimizing the discrepancy between the measured and modeled interior sound pressure. By doing this, the most complicated model class (that is, the one with the highest number of uncertain parameters) will always be selected. Therefore, the traditional system identification techniques found in the literature to date cannot be employed to solve this problem. Our proposed system identification methodology relies on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) to identify accurately the number of leakages in an enclosure. Unlike all deterministic system identification approaches, the proposed methodology aims to calculate the posterior (updated) probability density function (PDF) of leakage locations and sizes. Therefore, the uncertainties introduced by measurement noise and modeling error can be explicitly addressed. The coefficient of variable (COV) of uncertain parameters, which can be easily calculated from the PDF, provides valuable information about the reliability of the identification results.

  4. Enclosure fire hazard analysis using relative energy release criteria. [burning rate and combustion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbert, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    A method for predicting the probable course of fire development in an enclosure is presented. This fire modeling approach uses a graphic plot of five fire development constraints, the relative energy release criteria (RERC), to bound the heat release rates in an enclosure as a function of time. The five RERC are flame spread rate, fuel surface area, ventilation, enclosure volume, and total fuel load. They may be calculated versus time based on the specified or empirical conditions describing the specific enclosure, the fuel type and load, and the ventilation. The calculation of these five criteria, using the common basis of energy release rates versus time, provides a unifying framework for the utilization of available experimental data from all phases of fire development. The plot of these criteria reveals the probable fire development envelope and indicates which fire constraint will be controlling during a criteria time period. Examples of RERC application to fire characterization and control and to hazard analysis are presented along with recommendations for the further development of the concept.

  5. Numerical analyses of radiative heat transfer in any arbitrarily-shaped axisymmetric enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, M. Ben; Askri, F.; Jemni, A.; Nasrallah, S. Ben

    2006-02-01

    A numerical approach for the treatment of radiative heat transfer in any irregularly-shaped axisymmetric enclosure filled with absorbing, emitting and scattering gray media is developed. Radiative transfer equation (RTE) is formulated for a general axisymmetric geometrical configurations, and the discretized equation is conducted using an unstructured meshes, generated by an appropriate computer algorithm, and the control volume finite element method which frequently adopted in CFD problems. A computer procedure has been done to solve the discretized RTE and to examine the accuracy and the computational efficiency of the proposed numerical approach. By using this computer algorithm, five test cases, a cylindrical enclosure with absorbing and emitting medium, a diffuser shaped axisymmetric enclosure, a finite axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure with a curved wall, a furnace with axially varying medium temperature and a rocket nozzle, are treated and the obtained results agree very well with other published works. Furthermore, the developed computer procedure has an accurate CPU time and it can be coupled easily with CFD codes.

  6. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at all times for emergency removal of the live animals; (4) except as provided in paragraph (g) of... not be transported in the same primary enclosure with adult animals other than their dams. Socially dependent animals (e.g., sibling, dam, and other members of a family group) must be allowed visual...

  7. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... at all times for emergency removal of the live animals; (4) except as provided in paragraph (g) of... not be transported in the same primary enclosure with adult animals other than their dams. Socially dependent animals (e.g., sibling, dam, and other members of a family group) must be allowed visual...

  8. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... at all times for emergency removal of the live animals; (4) except as provided in paragraph (g) of... not be transported in the same primary enclosure with adult animals other than their dams. Socially dependent animals (e.g., sibling, dam, and other members of a family group) must be allowed visual...

  9. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... at all times for emergency removal of the live animals; (4) except as provided in paragraph (g) of... not be transported in the same primary enclosure with adult animals other than their dams. Socially dependent animals (e.g., sibling, dam, and other members of a family group) must be allowed visual...

  10. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... at all times for emergency removal of the live animals; (4) except as provided in paragraph (g) of... not be transported in the same primary enclosure with adult animals other than their dams. Socially dependent animals (e.g., sibling, dam, and other members of a family group) must be allowed visual...

  11. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  12. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  13. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  14. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  15. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  16. ZFS on RBODs - Leveraging RAID Controllers for Metrics and Enclosure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Stearman, D. M.

    2015-03-30

    Traditionally, the Lustre file system has relied on the ldiskfs file system with reliable RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) storage underneath. As of Lustre 2.4, ZFS was added as a backend file system, with built-in software RAID, thereby removing the need of expensive RAID controllers. ZFS was designed to work with JBOD (Just a Bunch Of Disks) storage enclosures under the Solaris Operating System, which provided a rich device management system. Long time users of the Lustre file system have relied on the RAID controllers to provide metrics and enclosure monitoring and management services, with rich APIs and command line interfaces. This paper will study a hybrid approach using an advanced full featured RAID enclosure which is presented to the host as a JBOD, This RBOD (RAIDed Bunch Of Disks) allows ZFS to do the RAID protection and error correction, while the RAID controller handles management of the disks and monitors the enclosure. It was hoped that the value of the RAID controller features would offset the additional cost, and that performance would not suffer in this mode. The test results revealed that the hybrid RBOD approach did suffer reduced performance.

  17. Interspecific interactions between brown trout and slimy sculpin in stream enclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruetz, C. R.; Hurford, A.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a 30-d manipulative experiment in Valley Creek, Minnesota, to examine interspecific interactions between juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta and adult slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. We measured the instantaneous growth of each species in the presence and absence of the other in 1-m2 enclosures. We tested single-species (three slimy sculpins/m2 or three brown trout/m2) and combined-species (three sculpins/m2 and three trout/m2) combinations in each of six riffles. We placed a clay tile in each enclosure to evaluate the effects of fish combinations on benthic macroinvertebrates. Growth of brown trout was unaffected by the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.647, power [to detect 50% increase in growth] = 0.92), whereas slimy sculpin growth was less in the presence of brown trout (P = 0.038). Densities of total benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Trichoptera, and Physa did not differ among fish combinations (P > 0.3). However, densities of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus were significantly less in the presence of brown trout irrespective of the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.024), which could be a causal factor underlying the interaction between brown trout and slimy sculpins. We found asymmetrical competition between brown trout and slimy sculpins in stream enclosures, with brown trout being the superior competitor. Nevertheless, the size of enclosures may have biased our results, making it more likely to detect an effect of brown trout on slimy sculpins than vice versa.

  18. 40 CFR 63.450 - Standards for enclosures and closed-vent systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for enclosures and closed-vent systems. 63.450 Section 63.450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  19. 40 CFR 63.450 - Standards for enclosures and closed-vent systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for enclosures and closed-vent systems. 63.450 Section 63.450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  20. 40 CFR 63.450 - Standards for enclosures and closed-vent systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for enclosures and closed-vent systems. 63.450 Section 63.450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  1. Imaging live cell in micro-liquid enclosure by X-ray laser diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa; Shibuya, Akemi; Song, Changyong; Kim, Sangsoo; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Tamakoshi, Masatada; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Tairo; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Nishino, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Emerging X-ray free-electron lasers with femtosecond pulse duration enable single-shot snapshot imaging almost free from sample damage by outrunning major radiation damage processes. In bioimaging, it is essential to keep the sample close to its natural state. Conventional high-resolution imaging, however, suffers from severe radiation damage that hinders live cell imaging. Here we present a method for capturing snapshots of live cells kept in a micro-liquid enclosure array by X-ray laser diffraction. We place living Microbacterium lacticum cells in an enclosure array and successively expose each enclosure to a single X-ray laser pulse from the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser. The enclosure itself works as a guard slit and allows us to record a coherent diffraction pattern from a weakly-scattering submicrometre-sized cell with a clear fringe extending up to a 28-nm full-period resolution. The reconstructed image reveals living whole-cell structures without any staining, which helps advance understanding of intracellular phenomena.

  2. Natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal wavy surface in a porous enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, P.V.S.N.; Kumar, B.V.R.; Singh, P.

    1997-02-07

    The effect of surface undulations on the natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal surface in a Darcian fluid-saturated porous enclosure has been numerically analyzed using the finite element method on a graded nonuniform mesh system. The flow-driving Rayleigh number Ra together with the geometrical parameters of wave amplitude a, wave phase {phi}, and the number of waves N considered in the horizontal dimension of the cavity are found to influence the flow and heat transfer process in the enclosure. For Ra around 50 and above, the phenomenon of flow separation and reattachment is noticed on the walls of the enclosure. A periodic shift in the reattachment point from the bottom wall to the adjacent walls in the clockwise direction, leading to the manifestation of cycles of unicellular and bicellular clockwise and counterclockwise flows, is observed, with the phase varying between 0{degree} and 350{degree}. The counterflow in the secondary circulation zone is intensified with the increase in the value of Ra. The counterflow on the wavy wall hinders the heat transfer into the system. An increase in either wave amplitude or the number of waves considered per unit length decreases the global heat flux into the system. Only marginal changes in global heat flux are noticed with increasing Ra. On the whole, the comparison of global heat flux results in the wavy wall case with those of the horizontal flat wall case shows that, in a porous enclosure, the wavy wall reduces the heat transfer into the system.

  3. 30 CFR 18.98 - Enclosures, joints, and fastenings; pressure testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Field Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.98 Enclosures, joints, and fastenings... of 150 pounds per square inch (gage). Castings shall be free from blowholes. (b) Pneumatic...

  4. Application of the relative energy release criteria to enclosure fire testing. [aircraft compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschke, E. J.; Coulbert, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    The five relative energy release criteria (RERC) which are a first step towards formulating a unified concept that can be applied to the development of fires in enclosures, place upper bounds on the rate and amount of energy released during a fire. They are independent, calculated readily, and may be applied generally to any enclosure regardless of size. They are useful in pretest planning and for interpreting experimental data. Data from several specific fire test programs were examined to evaluate the potential use of RERC to provide test planning guidelines. The RERC were compared with experimental data obtained in full-scale enclosures. These results confirm that in general the RERC do identify the proper limiting constraints on enclosure fire development and determine the bounds of the fire development envelope. Plotting actual fire data against the RERC reveals new valid insights into fire behavior and reveals the controlling constraints in fire development. The RERC were calculated and plotted for several descrpitions of full-scale fires in various aircraft compartments.

  5. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures.

    PubMed

    Gress, J; da Silva, E B; de Oliveira, L M; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G; Heard, D; Stuchal, L D; Ma, L Q

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0-110mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6-111μg/100cm(2), typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22-7.8μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals. PMID:26897404

  6. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures.

    PubMed

    Gress, J; da Silva, E B; de Oliveira, L M; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G; Heard, D; Stuchal, L D; Ma, L Q

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0-110mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6-111μg/100cm(2), typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22-7.8μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals.

  7. Natural convection in enclosures. Proceedings of the nineteenth national heat transfer conference, Orlando, FL, July 27-30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Torrance, K.E.; Catton, I.

    1980-01-01

    Natural convection in low aspect ratio rectangular enclosures is considered along with three-dimensional convection within rectangular boxes, natural convection flow visualization in irradiated water cooled by air flow over the surface, free convection in vertical slots, the stratification in natural convection in vertical enclosures, the flow structure with natural convection in inclined air-filled enclosures, and natural convection across tilted, rectangular enclosures of small aspect ratio. Attention is given to the effect of wall conduction and radiation on natural convection in a vertical slot with uniform heat generation of the heated wall, a numerical study of thermal insulation enclosure, free convection in a piston-cylinder enclosure with sinusoidal piston motion, natural convection heat transfer between bodies and their spherical enclosure, an experimental study of the steady natural convection in a horizontal annulus with irregular boundaries, three-dimensional natural convection in a porous medium between concentric inclined cylinders, a numerical solution for natural convection in concentric spherical annuli, and heat transfer by natural convection in porous media between two concentric spheres.

  8. Age class differences in the feeding behavior of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscataia) in the forested and nonvegetated enclosure groups.

    PubMed

    Jaman, M Firoj; Huffman, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Age class differences in feeding behavior of primates are affected by many factors, including feeding competition, foraging skills, habitat type, food abundance and distribution, body mass, and food types. Two captive groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), one housed in a forested enclosure and the other in a nonvegetated enclosure, were studied to examine the effect of environmental enrichment on age class differences in feeding behavior. Although there was no significant age class difference in time spent feeding on provisioned foods in either enclosure, the feeding rate (intake of unit food/minute) of adults consuming provisioned monkey chow was significantly higher than that of immatures in both enclosures, and was faster for both age groups in the nonvegetated than in the forested enclosure. Overall, feeding time was greatly extended for individuals of both age classes in the forested enclosure compared with their counterparts in the nonvegetated enclosure. Immatures in the forested enclosure utilized a significantly greater number of plant species and food items, exploiting many food items available among the terminal branches, and spent significantly more time feeding than adults. Perhaps constrained by larger body size, adults fed more often on the ground or middle height of the trees, likely reducing competition over plant food resources between adults and immatures. The natural vegetation played an important role in extending feeding time and segregating substrate use during feeding by adults and immatures. This study revealed the benefits concerning environmental enrichment of a naturally forested enclosure, which provides captive primates the opportunity to exhibit age class and species-typical feeding behaviors of importance for their dietary maintenance and general health.

  9. Container Verification Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Jennifer E.; Miller, Steven D.; Conrady, Matthew M.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Tinker, Michael R.

    2008-10-01

    Containment verification is a high priority for safeguards containment and surveillance. Nuclear material containers, safeguards equipment cabinets, camera housings, and detector cable conduit are all vulnerable to tampering. Even with a high security seal on a lid or door, custom-built hinges and interfaces, and special colors and types of finishes, the surfaces of enclosures can be tampered with and any penetrations repaired and covered over. With today’s technology, these repairs would not be detected during a simple visual inspection. Several suggested solutions have been to develop complicated networks of wires, fiber-optic cables, lasers or other sensors that line the inside of a container and alarm when the network is disturbed. This results in an active system with real time evidence of tampering but is probably not practical for most safeguards applications. A more practical solution would be to use a passive approach where an additional security feature was added to surfaces which would consist of a special coating or paint applied to the container or enclosure. One type of coating would incorporate optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) material. OSL materials are phosphors that luminesce in proportion to the ionizing radiation dose when stimulated with the appropriate optical wavelengths. The OSL fluoresces at a very specific wavelength when illuminated at another, very specific wavelength. The presence of the pre-irradiated OSL material in the coating is confirmed using a device that interrogates the surface of the enclosure using the appropriate optical wavelength and then reads the resulting luminescence. The presence of the OSL indicates that the integrity of the surface is intact. The coating itself could be transparent which would allow the appearance of the container to remain unchanged or the OSL material could be incorporated into certain paints or epoxies used on various types of containers. The coating could be applied during manufacturing

  10. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  11. Seston and dissolved organic carbon dynamics during Microcystis bloom with special reference to the effects of three Chinese domestic fishes in experimental enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Jun; Xie, Ping

    1997-09-01

    The Microcystis bloom that once disappeared from Donghu Lake, a shallow, eutrophic Chinese lake, was successfully resumed with the use of the enclosure method. Seston and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics during the Microcystis bloom were investigated with particular emphasis on the effect of three Chinese domestic fishes (silver carp, bighead carp and grass carp). The results showed that the change of chlorophyll a obviously related to the fish species and its stocking density. Due to the release of extracellular ogranic carbon and increased bacterial activity, DOC increased apparently after silver and bighead carps were introduced. POC/DOC dropped considerably in the enclosures containing silver and bighead carps and in the surrounding lake water, which implied that the bacterial activity was more pronounced in such ecosystems. Statistical analysis indicated that the linear relationship between POC and chlorophyll a could reflect the state of algal growth and nutrient metabolism. It was expected that this study would provide some information on biomanipulation in the shallow, eutrophic lakes.

  12. Radiative and free-convective heat transfer from a finite horizontal plate inside an enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrycak, Peter; Sandman, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation of heat transfer from a horizontal, thin, square plate inside of an enclosure was carried out. Experimental results were obtained from both the upward-facing and the downward-facing sides of the heated plate. Starting with the integrated momentum and energy equations, approximate solutions were obtained for heat transfer in the laminar and the turbulent regime that correlate well with experimental data. Radiative heat transfer correction was given special attention. Effects of the enclosure-related recirculation of the test fluid, as well as effects of simultaneous heat transfer on both sides of the plate, caused an early transition, and indicated a high level of internal turbulence.

  13. Canonical Statistical Model for Maximum Expected Immission of Wire Conductor in an Aperture Enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremner, Paul G.; Vazquez, Gabriel; Christiano, Daniel J.; Trout, Dawn H.

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of the maximum expected electromagnetic pick-up of conductors inside a realistic shielding enclosure is an important canonical problem for system-level EMC design of space craft, launch vehicles, aircraft and automobiles. This paper introduces a simple statistical power balance model for prediction of the maximum expected current in a wire conductor inside an aperture enclosure. It calculates both the statistical mean and variance of the immission from the physical design parameters of the problem. Familiar probability density functions can then be used to predict the maximum expected immission for deign purposes. The statistical power balance model requires minimal EMC design information and solves orders of magnitude faster than existing numerical models, making it ultimately viable for scaled-up, full system-level modeling. Both experimental test results and full wave simulation results are used to validate the foundational model.

  14. A Bayesian Approach to the Orientations of Central Alentejo Megalithic Enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenta, Fernando; Tirapicos, Luís; Smith, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    In this work we have conducted a study on the orientations in the landscape of twelve megalithic enclosures in the Alentejo region of southern Portugal. Some of these sites date back to the sixth or fifth millennium B.C. and are among the oldest stone enclosures in Europe. The results of the survey show a pattern toward eastern rising orientations. We used dedicated GIS software from one of the authors to produce horizon profiles and applied a statistical Bayesian approach in an attempt to check how the data would fit to different models. In particular, we tested our results for a possible ritual interest in the Autumn or Harvest Full Moon and discuss previous studies by Michael Hoskin and colleges on the orientations of seven stone dolmens of this area that have shown the existence of a possible custom for an orientation toward the sunrise.

  15. CHAPARRAL: A library for solving large enclosure radiation heat transfer problems

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, M.W.

    1995-08-01

    Large, three-dimensional enclosure radiation beat transfer problems place a heavy demand on computing resources such as computational cycles, memory requirements, disk I/O, and disk space usage. This is primarily due to the computational and memory requirements associated with the view factor calculation and subsequent access of the view factor matrix during solution of the radiosity matrix equation. This is a fundamental problem that constrains Sandia`s current modeling capabilities. Reducing the computational and memory requirements for calculating and manipulating view factors would enable an analyst to increase the level of detail at which a body could be modeled and would have a major impact on many programs at Sandia such as weapon and transportation safety programs, component survivability programs, energy programs, and material processing programs. CHAPARRAL is a library package written to address these problems and is specifically tailored towards the efficient solution of extremely large three-dimensional enclosure radiation heat transfer problems.

  16. Microbial response to crude oil and Corexit 9527: SEAFLUXES enclosure study.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Wong, C S; Cretney, W J; Whitney, F A; Parsons, T R; Lalli, C M; Wu, J

    1985-12-01

    The response of marine bacteria to Corexit 9527, with and without Prudhoe Bay crude oil labeled withn-(1-(14)C)hexadecane, in a temperate pelagic environment was monitored over 22 days using controlled ecosystem enclosures. The results indicated that Corexit and Corexit-dispersed crude oil stimulated bacterial production by serving as substrates and/or by inducing the release of organic compounds from the indigenous phytoplankton population. Highest bacterial standing stock was observed in the enclosure treated with a mixture of Corexit and crude oil, in which a large fraction of the predominant bacterivores were eliminated. Biodegradation appeared to be more significant than abiotic processes in contributing to the loss of low volatility n-alkanes in Corexit-dispersed oil. Twenty-two days following its addition, 50% of the radiotracer was recovered: 3% in the suspended particulate fraction, 10% in sedimentary material, 36% as CO2, and less than 1% in the dissolved organic pool.

  17. An efficient analytical method for particle counting in evaluating airborne infectious isolation containment using fluorescent microspheres.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David L; Lynch, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    The containment performance of patient isolation enclosures, particularly expedient surge capacity enclosures, must be verified to protect health care providers and staff, other patients, and hospital visitors. Tracer gas methods are often used, but requirements for special equipment and training limit the technique's utility. A technologically simple yet accurate and precise particle-based technique is needed to measure the low count concentrations of escaping airborne particles that might be present outside an isolation enclosure. Reported here is the performance of such a technique employing micrometer-sized fluorescent polystyrene latex microspheres as a surrogate for pathogenic bioaerosols. Particles are released into the isolation enclosure, air is sampled inside and outside the room to capture airborne particles on 25 mm diameter filters, and the number of particles deposited on a filter is quantified using an optimized random field counting approach. The technique accurately estimates the number of surrogate bioaerosol particles on the filter, allowing calculation of the airborne particle concentrations inside and outside the enclosure, and the containment efficiency. This technique can be employed using generally available equipment and inexpensive supplies and also can minimize the number of particle counts that must be performed. The method is shown to be specific, sensitive, and accurate.

  18. An efficient analytical method for particle counting in evaluating airborne infectious isolation containment using fluorescent microspheres.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David L; Lynch, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    The containment performance of patient isolation enclosures, particularly expedient surge capacity enclosures, must be verified to protect health care providers and staff, other patients, and hospital visitors. Tracer gas methods are often used, but requirements for special equipment and training limit the technique's utility. A technologically simple yet accurate and precise particle-based technique is needed to measure the low count concentrations of escaping airborne particles that might be present outside an isolation enclosure. Reported here is the performance of such a technique employing micrometer-sized fluorescent polystyrene latex microspheres as a surrogate for pathogenic bioaerosols. Particles are released into the isolation enclosure, air is sampled inside and outside the room to capture airborne particles on 25 mm diameter filters, and the number of particles deposited on a filter is quantified using an optimized random field counting approach. The technique accurately estimates the number of surrogate bioaerosol particles on the filter, allowing calculation of the airborne particle concentrations inside and outside the enclosure, and the containment efficiency. This technique can be employed using generally available equipment and inexpensive supplies and also can minimize the number of particle counts that must be performed. The method is shown to be specific, sensitive, and accurate. PMID:18286424

  19. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. CONTROL ROOM ENCLOSURE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. CONTROL ROOM ENCLOSURE AT CENTER OF VIEW. SIGN ABOVE DOOR SAYS "HYDRAULIC TEST FACILITY CONTROL ROOM." SIGN IN WINDOW SAYS "EATING AREA." "EVACUATION AND EMERGENCY INFORMATION" IS POSTED ON CABINET AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD30-2-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 6/2001 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Gas bremsstrahlung shielding calculation for first optic enclosure of ILSF medical beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigzadeh Jalali, H.; Salimi, E.; Rahighi, J.

    2016-10-01

    Gas bremsstrahlung is generated in high energy electron storage ring accompanies the synchrotron radiation into the beamlines and strike the various components of the beamline. In this paper, radiation shielding calculation for secondary gas bremsstrahlung is performed for the first optics enclosure (FOE) of medical beamline of the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF). Dose equivalent rate (DER) calculation is accomplished using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. A comprehensive study of DER distribution at the back wall, sides and roof is given.